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Sample records for anthropogenic pollutants combine

  1. Screening of anthropogenic compounds in polluted sediments and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Leer, E.W.B. de; Schuyl, P.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of flash evaporation and pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry as a fast screening procedure for anthropogenic substances In environmental samples is demonstrated by the analysis of polluted soil and sediment samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, haloorganics, aliphatlc hydroc

  2. Quantification of continual anthropogenic pollutants released in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuten, M G A; Peters, M C F M; Daanen, H A M; de Kreuk, M K; Rietveld, L C; van Dijk, J C

    2014-04-15

    Disinfection in swimming pools is often performed by chlorination, However, anthropogenic pollutants from swimmers will react with chlorine and form disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs are unwanted from a health point of view, because some are irritating, while others might be carcinogenic. The reduction of anthropogenic pollutants will lead to a reduction in DBPs. This paper investigates the continual release of anthropogenic pollutants by means of controlled sweat experiments in a pool tank during laboratory time-series experiments (LTS experiments) and also during on-site experiments (OS experiments) in a swimming pool. The sweat released during the OS and LTS experiments was very similar. The sweat rate found was 0.1-0.2 L/m(2)/h at water temperatures below 29 °C and increased linearly with increasing water temperatures to 0.8 L/m(2)/h at 35 °C. The continual anthropogenic pollutant release (CAPR) not only consisted of sweat, particles (mainly skin fragments and hair) and micro-organisms, but also sebum (skin lipids) has to be considered. The release of most components can be explained by the composition of sweat. The average release during 30 min of exercise is 250 mg/bather non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC), 77.3 mg/bather total nitrogen (TN), 37.1 mg/bather urea and 10.1 mg/bather ammonium. The release of NPOC cannot be explained by the composition of sweat and is most probably a result of sebum release. The average release of other components was 1.31 × 10(9) # particles/bather (2-50 μm), 5.2 μg/bather intracellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) and 9.3 × 10(6) intact cell count/bather (iCC). The pool water temperature was the main parameter to restrain the CAPR. This study showed that a significant amount of the total anthropogenic pollutants release is due to unhygienic behaviour of bathers. PMID:24530546

  3. ASSESSING ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON SECONDARY POLLUTANT FORMATION IN THE SOUTH EASTERN US VIA AIRBORNE FORMALDEHYDE MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will provide a critical, publically available formaldehyde dataset during the SOAS campaign. The major expected result will be an improved understanding of the influence of anthropogenic VOC and NOx emissions on secondary pollutant concentrations and properties...

  4. Characterization of anthropogenic sediment particles after a transboundary water pollution of river Tisza using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osan, Janos E-mail: osan@sunserv.kfki.hu; Toeroek, Szabina; Alfoeldy, Balint; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2004-05-21

    At the beginning of 2000, a major mining accident occurred in the Romanian part of the Tisza catchment area due to tailings dam failure releasing huge amounts of heavy metals to the river. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to characterize the anthropogenic particles in river sediment previously selected by single-particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The trace element composition, heterogeneity and heavy metal speciation of individual particles was studied using synchrotron radiation-based microbeam X-ray emission and absorption methods. Particles were selected only from samples regarded as polluted sediment. White-beam micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) allowed the quantitative determination of heavy metals such as cadmium in individual particles. The maximum observed concentration of cadmium (>700 {mu}g/g) indicates that this highly toxic heavy metal is concentrated in individual anthropogenic particles. Using the combination of micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure and target-transformation principle component analysis, quantitative chemical speciation of copper and zinc was feasible on individual sediment particles. Heavy metals in most of the particles released from the pollution site remained in the sulfide form resulting in a limited mobility of these metals. Based on the information obtained using microanalytical methods, the estimation of the environmental mobility of heavy metals connected to microparticles becomes possible.

  5. Characterization of anthropogenic sediment particles after a transboundary water pollution of river Tisza using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osán, János; Török, Szabina; Alföldy, Bálint; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2004-05-01

    At the beginning of 2000, a major mining accident occurred in the Romanian part of the Tisza catchment area due to tailings dam failure releasing huge amounts of heavy metals to the river. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to characterize the anthropogenic particles in river sediment previously selected by single-particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The trace element composition, heterogeneity and heavy metal speciation of individual particles was studied using synchrotron radiation-based microbeam X-ray emission and absorption methods. Particles were selected only from samples regarded as polluted sediment. White-beam micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) allowed the quantitative determination of heavy metals such as cadmium in individual particles. The maximum observed concentration of cadmium (>700 μg/g) indicates that this highly toxic heavy metal is concentrated in individual anthropogenic particles. Using the combination of micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure and target-transformation principle component analysis, quantitative chemical speciation of copper and zinc was feasible on individual sediment particles. Heavy metals in most of the particles released from the pollution site remained in the sulfide form resulting in a limited mobility of these metals. Based on the information obtained using microanalytical methods, the estimation of the environmental mobility of heavy metals connected to microparticles becomes possible.

  6. Characterization of anthropogenic sediment particles after a transboundary water pollution of river Tisza using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of 2000, a major mining accident occurred in the Romanian part of the Tisza catchment area due to tailings dam failure releasing huge amounts of heavy metals to the river. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to characterize the anthropogenic particles in river sediment previously selected by single-particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The trace element composition, heterogeneity and heavy metal speciation of individual particles was studied using synchrotron radiation-based microbeam X-ray emission and absorption methods. Particles were selected only from samples regarded as polluted sediment. White-beam micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) allowed the quantitative determination of heavy metals such as cadmium in individual particles. The maximum observed concentration of cadmium (>700 μg/g) indicates that this highly toxic heavy metal is concentrated in individual anthropogenic particles. Using the combination of micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure and target-transformation principle component analysis, quantitative chemical speciation of copper and zinc was feasible on individual sediment particles. Heavy metals in most of the particles released from the pollution site remained in the sulfide form resulting in a limited mobility of these metals. Based on the information obtained using microanalytical methods, the estimation of the environmental mobility of heavy metals connected to microparticles becomes possible

  7. Definition and quantification of initial anthropogenic pollutant release in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuten, M G A; Schets, F M; Schijven, J F; Verberk, J Q J C; van Dijk, J C

    2012-07-01

    Pollutants, brought into a swimming pool by bathers, will react with chlorine to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). Some of these DBPs are found to be respiratory and ocular irritant and might be associated with asthma, or might even be carcinogenic. As DBPs in swimming pools are formed from bather-shed-pollutants, a reduction of these pollutants will lead to a reduction of DBPs. Until now, however, the release of pollutants by bathers has not been studied in detail. The study described in this paper focuses on the release of these pollutants, further called anthropogenic pollutants. The objective was to define and quantify the initial anthropogenic pollutants, by using a standardised shower cabin and a standardised showering protocol in laboratory time-series experiments and on-site experiments in swimming pools. The time-series experiments resulted in a definition of the initial anthropogenic pollutant release: the amount of pollutants released from a person in a standardised shower cabin during the first 60 s of showering. The data from the time-series experiments were used to create a model of pollutant release. The model can be used to predict the initial anthropogenic pollutant release as well as the effects of showering. On-site experiments were performed at four different swimming pools, including one outdoor pool. Results of these on-site showering experiments correspond with the time-series and model outcomes. Anthropogenic pollutant release (both chemical and microbiological) in swimming pool water can be reduced by pre-swim showering, very likely resulting in decreased DBPs formation and chlorine demand. PMID:22560894

  8. Anthropogenic desertification by high-albedo pollution Observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Rosenberg, N. W.; Rosenberg, E.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 MSS albedo data of Western Negev, Sinai and the Gaza strip are presented. A sharp contrast in albedo exists across the Negev-Sinai and Negev-Gaza strip borders. Anthropogenic desertification has occurred on the Arab side due to overgrazing and Bedouin agriculture, whereas natural vegetation grows much more abundantly on the Israeli side.

  9. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin M Mekonnen; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related...

  10. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  11. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in soil--application to different anthropogenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Blanc, Philippe; Jacques, Diederik

    2014-11-01

    Soil systems are a common receptor of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) contamination. Soils play an important role in the containment or dispersion of pollution to surface water, groundwater or the atmosphere. A one-dimensional model for simulating Hg fate and transport for variably saturated and transient flow conditions is presented. The model is developed using the HP1 code, which couples HYDRUS-1D for the water flow and solute transport to PHREEQC for geochemical reactions. The main processes included are Hg aqueous speciation and complexation, sorption to soil organic matter, dissolution of cinnabar and liquid Hg, and Hg reduction and volatilization. Processes such as atmospheric wet and dry deposition, vegetation litter fall and uptake are neglected because they are less relevant in the case of high Hg concentrations resulting from anthropogenic activities. A test case is presented, assuming a hypothetical sandy soil profile and a simulation time frame of 50 years of daily atmospheric inputs. Mercury fate and transport are simulated for three different sources of Hg (cinnabar, residual liquid mercury or aqueous mercuric chloride), as well as for combinations of these sources. Results are presented and discussed with focus on Hg volatilization to the atmosphere, Hg leaching at the bottom of the soil profile and the remaining Hg in or below the initially contaminated soil layer. In the test case, Hg volatilization was negligible because the reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) was inhibited by the low concentration of dissolved Hg. Hg leaching was mainly caused by complexation of Hg(2+) with thiol groups of dissolved organic matter, because in the geochemical model used, this reaction only had a higher equilibrium constant than the sorption reactions. Immobilization of Hg in the initially polluted horizon was enhanced by Hg(2+) sorption onto humic and fulvic acids (which are more abundant than thiols). Potential benefits of the model for risk management and remediation of

  12. Allocating anthropogenic pollutant emissions over space: application to ozone pollution management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, J E; Comrie, A C

    2001-12-01

    An inventory of volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions is an important tool for the management of ground-level ozone pollution. This paper has two broad aims: it illustrates the potential of a geographic information system (GIS) for enhancing an existing spatially-aggregated, anthropogenic emissions inventory (EI) for Tucson, AZ, and it discusses the ozone-specific management implications of the resulting spatially-disaggregated EI. The main GIS-related methods include calculating emissions for specific features, spatially disaggregating region-wide emissions totals for area sources, and adding emissions from various point sources. In addition, temporal allocation factors enable the addition of a multi-temporal component to the inventory. The resulting inventory reveals that on-road motor vehicles account for approximately 50% of VOC and NOx emissions annually. On-road motor vehicles and residential wood combustion are the largest VOC sources in the summer and winter months, respectively. On-road motor vehicles are always the largest NOx sources. The most noticeable weekday vs. weekend VOC emissions differences are triggered by increased residential wood combustion and increased lawn and garden equipment use on weekends. Concerning the EI's uncertainties and errors, on-road mobile, construction equipment, and lawn and garden equipment are identified as sources in the most need of further investigation. Overall, the EIs spatial component increases its utility as a management tool, which might involve visualization-driven analyses and air quality modeling. PMID:11826724

  13. Biochemical changes in plant leaves as a biomarker of pollution due to anthropogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawale, P R; Satheesh Babu, S; Wakode, R R; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Sunil; Juwarkar, A A

    2011-06-01

    The air pollution due to anthropogenic activities seriously affected human life, vegetation, and heritage as well. The vegetation cover in and around the city mitigates the air pollution by acting as a sink for pollution. An attempt was made to evaluate biochemical changes occurred in four selected plant species, namely Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica, Delonix regia, and Cassia fistula of residential, commercial, and industrial areas of Nagpur city in India. It was observed that the correlated values of air pollutants and plant leaves characteristics alter foliar biochemical features (i.e., chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content, pH and relative water content) of plants due to air pollution. The changes in air pollution tolerance index of plants was also estimated which revealed that these plants can be used as a biomarker of air pollution. PMID:20721619

  14. Natural and anthropogenic pollution of the global atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of determination of natural radionuclides, fission products and heavy metals in contemporary and pre-industrial ice from 14 glaciers in Southern and Northern Hemisphere, and in aerosols collected during three decades from seven altitudes between 0 and 15 km in the troposphere and atmosphere, were used for determinations of fluxes of man-made and natural pollutants into the global atmosphere. For these determinations 137Cs from nuclear explosions and natural 210Pb were used as tracers. Concentration of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in ice deposited before industrial revolution were higher than the contemporary precipitation presented as firn in high mountain and polar glaciers. This is due probably to volcanic activity which was higher before the first part of 20th century. Man-made contribution to the total atmospheric flux is now 3.5% for 226Ra, 12% for U, 7.4% for Pb, 011% for Cd, 62% for V and 5.8 for Hg. The mass of annual global wet precipitation, determined for the first time with radioactive tracers, is 5.7·1017 kg. In Poland the lowest concentration of stable lead in human bones is now in highly industrialized southern districts. Lead level in medieval human bones from these districts reached up to 370 μg/g. Its current average level in inhabitants of southern Poland is 3.5 μg/g, i. e. similar as 1800 years ago. (author)

  15. Fluctuating asymmetry in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae as a response to anthropogenic pollution in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelev Zhivko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the integral indicator for developmental stability, the fluctuating asymmetry (FA, in the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus populations that inhabit biotopes of different types (running rivers and still, dam lakes, when exposed to different types of anthropogenic pollution (domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution in south Bulgaria. A total of 920 P. ridibundus individuals were used for FA analyses over three years (2009-2011. Fluctuating asymmetry was defined by 10 morphological traits, using the index frequency of asymmetric manifestation of an individual (FAMI. In closed water basins, regardless of the nature of toxicants, the FA values in P. ridibundus populations were statistically lower than those in river populations. The FA values were constantly the highest under conditions of sustained anthropogenic pollution, with high concentrations of toxicants in rivers with domestic sewage pollution and heavy-metal pollution. The results provide better opportunities to use FA in P. ridibundus populations for bioindication and biomonitoring, and for parallel and independent analyses of the physicochemical assessment of the environmental condition.

  16. Modeling of photochemical air pollution in the Barcelona area with highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The city of Barcelona and its surrounding area, located in the western Mediterranean basin, can reach high levels of O3 in spring and summertime. To study the origin of this photochemical pollution, a numerical modeling approach was adopted and the episode that took place between 3 and 5 August 1990 was chosen. The main meteorological mesoscale flows were reproduced with the meteorological non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO for 5 August 1990, when weak pressure synoptic conditions took place. The emissions inventory was calculated with the EIM-LEM model, giving highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in the zone studied, an 80 x 80 km2 area around the city of Barcelona. Major sources of VOC were road traffic (51%) and vegetation (34%), while NOx were mostly emitted by road traffic (88%). However, emissions from some industrial stacks can be locally important and higher than those from road traffic. Photochemical simulation with the MARS model revealed that the combination of mesoscale wind flows and the above-mentioned local emissions is crucial in the production and transport of O3 in the area. On the other hand, the geostrophic wind also played an important role in advecting the air masses away from the places O3 had been generated. The model simulations were also evaluated by comparing meteorological measurements from nine surface stations and concentration measurements from five surface stations, and the results proved to be fairly satisfactory. (author)

  17. Proteomic approaches to environmental stress in mussel Mytilus edulis due to emerging classes of anthropogenic pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Siti NurTahirah

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic pollutant chemicals pose a major threat to aquatic organisms. There is a need for more research on emerging categories of environmental chemicals such as nanomaterials, endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals. Proteomics offers options and advantages for early warning of alterations in environmental quality by detecting sub-lethal changes in sentinel species such as the mussel, Mytilus edulis. This thesis aimed to compare the potential of traditional biomarkers (such as enzyme ...

  18. Microbial responses of forest soil to moderate anthropogenic air pollution - a large scale field survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to introduce soil microbiological methods into long term ecological monitoring programs. For this purpose we studied the impact of moderate anthropogenic air pollution in polluted and less polluted area districts, forest site types Calluna (CT), Vaccinium (VT) and Myrtillus (MT) and the amount of organic matter, measured as carbon content on the soil respiration activity and the ATP content. The main sources of local air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) in the polluted area district were from the capital region and an oil refinery. Humus (F/H-layer) and the underlying 0 to 5 cm mineral soil samples were collected from 193 study plots located in the 5300 km2 study area. We found that the soil respiration rate in humus layer samples was lower in the polluted area district compared to the less polluted one (16.0 and 19.5μL CO2 h-1g-1 dw, respectively), but the difference occurred only in the dry, coarse-textured CT forest site type. The mineral soil respiration rate and the mineral soil and humus layer ATP content were not affected by the air pollution. Most of the variations of the biological variables were explained primarily by the soil carbon content, secondly by the forest site type and thirdly by the area division. 38 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  19. Sensitivity of air pollution simulations with LOTOS-EUROS to temporal distribution of anthropogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mues

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the sensitivity of the model performance of the chemistry transport model (CTM LOTOS-EUROS to the description of the temporal variability of emissions was investigated. Currently the temporal release of anthropogenic emissions is described by European average diurnal, weekly and seasonal time profiles per sector. These default time profiles largely neglect the variation of emission strength with activity patterns, region, species, emission process and meteorology. The three sources dealt with in this study are combustion in energy and transformation industries (SNAP1, non-industrial combustion (SNAP2 and road transport (SNAP7. First the impact of neglecting the temporal emission profiles for these SNAP categories on simulated concentrations was explored. In a~second step, we constructed more detailed emission time profiles for the three categories and quantified their impact on the model performance separately as well as combined. The performance in comparison to observations for Germany was quantified for the pollutants NO2, SO2 and PM10 and compared to a simulation using the default LOTOS-EUROS emission time profiles. In general the largest impact on the model performance was found when neglecting the default time profiles for the three categories. The daily average correlation coefficient for instance decreased by 0.04 (NO2, 0.11 (SO2 and 0.01 (PM10 at German urban background stations compared to the default simulation. A systematic increase of the correlation coefficient is found when using the new time profiles. The size of the increase depends on the source category, the component and station. Using national profiles for road transport showed important improvements of the explained variability over the weekdays as well as the diurnal cycle for NO2. The largest impact of the SNAP1 and 2 profiles were found for SO2. When using all new time profiles simultaneously in one simulation the daily average correlation coefficient

  20. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:27179234

  1. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  2. Global premature mortality due to anthropogenic outdoor air pollution and the contribution of past climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) since preindustrial times reflect increased emissions, but also contributions of past climate change. Here we use modeled concentrations from an ensemble of chemistry–climate models to estimate the global burden of anthropogenic outdoor air pollution on present-day premature human mortality, and the component of that burden attributable to past climate change. Using simulated concentrations for 2000 and 1850 and concentration–response functions (CRFs), we estimate that, at present, 470 000 (95% confidence interval, 140 000 to 900 000) premature respiratory deaths are associated globally and annually with anthropogenic ozone, and 2.1 (1.3 to 3.0) million deaths with anthropogenic PM2.5-related cardiopulmonary diseases (93%) and lung cancer (7%). These estimates are smaller than ones from previous studies because we use modeled 1850 air pollution rather than a counterfactual low concentration, and because of different emissions. Uncertainty in CRFs contributes more to overall uncertainty than the spread of model results. Mortality attributed to the effects of past climate change on air quality is considerably smaller than the global burden: 1500 (−20 000 to 27 000) deaths yr−1 due to ozone and 2200 (−350 000 to 140 000) due to PM2.5. The small multi-model means are coincidental, as there are larger ranges of results for individual models, reflected in the large uncertainties, with some models suggesting that past climate change has reduced air pollution mortality. (letter)

  3. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  4. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  5. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  6. Theoretical basis for expert system to forecast and assess economic impact of anthropogenic pollution on population disease level

    OpenAIRE

    Bublyk, M. I.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. Theoretical basis of mathematical apparatus of fuzzy sets to evaluate and account the man-made (anthropogenic) losses is improved in the article in order to take effective administrative decisions of their reduction and prevention. Theoretical basis for building an expert system for forecasting the economic effects of man-made (anthropogenic) pollution on population levels of disease is analyzed. Practically these investigations will give the opportunity to control mea...

  7. Towards a monitoring strategy to assess the anthropogenic signature of traffic derived pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, G.; Appel, E.; Magiera, T.; Wawer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination along roadsides is one important factor of anthropogenic linear pollution source. In our present study we focus on typical traffic pollutants like heavy metals (HM), platinum group elements (PGEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and investigate the use of magnetic parameters, in particular to discriminate the distribution of contaminants by surface runoff, splash-water and airborne transport. For monitoring we removed 10-15 cm of top soil at 1 m distance from the roadside edge and replaced it by 30 plastic boxes, and installed pillars at 1 m and 2 m distances to the roadside with samplers in different heights (ground, 0.5 m, 2 m) as well as 4 m long u-channels (surface and 2.5 cm above ground) perpendicular to the road. Clean quartz sand was used as collector material. Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) and the concentration of pollutants (HM, PAH) all show a significant increase with time in the box samples, however, there are obviously also seasonal and site-dependent effects which lead to more stable values over several months or even some decrease in the upper few cm due to vertical migration. Similar significant differences of χ, PAH and HM concentrations and an importance of splash-water were noticed in pillars and u-channels within one year of monitoring. Magnetic results revealed that magnetite-like phases are responsible for the enhancement of magnetic concentration. A good correlation between χ and semi-volatile and particle-bound PAH phases as well as HM suggests that χ can be used as a proxy for traffic derived PAH and HM pollution. SEM observations and EDX analyses identified a dominance of angular and aggregates-shaped particles with composition of Fe-Cr-Ni derived from traffic-specific activities (abrasion of tyres, exhausts and brake linings). The results from our monitoring studies will be utilized to develop new innovative roadside pollution monitoring concepts.

  8. Factors controlling the oral bioaccessibility of anthropogenic Pb in polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, N; Bakker, M; van Os, B J H; Klaver, G Th; Middelburg, J J; Davies, G R

    2015-02-15

    In human risk assessment, ingestion of soil is considered a major route of toxic Pb exposure. A large body of research has focussed on the measurement of the 'total' Pb contents in sediment, soil and dust as a measure for the exposure to lead. We report that Pb bioaccessibility (i.e. the maximum bioavailability), determined with an in vitro test, does not necessarily depend on the total Pb content. In contrast, the Pb bioaccessibility is initially controlled by the chemical form and particle size of the Pb source, which in turn determine its solubility. Furthermore, when anthropogenic Pb resides within the soil, it may form new, more stable, minerals and/or binds to organic matter, clay, reactive iron or other reactive phases, changing its bioaccessibility. The bioaccessible Pb fraction of 28 soils, polluted with various Pb sources (including residues of Pb bullets and pellets, car battery Pb, city waste and diffuse Pb), was determined with an in vitro-test and varied from 0.5% to 79.0% of total Pb. The highest Pb bioaccessibility (60.7% to 79.0%) was measured in soils polluted with residues of Pb bullets and pellets (shooting range), while the lowest Pb bioaccessibility (0.5%-8.3%) was measured in soils polluted with city waste (including remnants of Pb glazed potsherds and rooftiles, Pb based paint flakes, and Pb sheets). Bioaccessibility of Pb was correlated with pH, organic matter and reactive Fe. These results indicate that soil characteristics play an important role in the oral bioaccessibility of lead in polluted soils. Instead of basing human risk assessment solely on total Pb contents we propose to incorporate in vitro bioaccessibility tests, taking factors such as soil pH, organic matter content and reactive iron content into account. This approach will result in a better insight into the actual risks of Pb polluted soils to children. PMID:25460949

  9. Anthropogenic flank attack on polar bears: Interacting consequences of climate warming and pollutant exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Munro Jenssen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus are subjected to several anthropogenic threats, climate warming and exposure to pollutants being two of these. For polar bears, one of the main effects of climate warming is limited access to prey, due to loss of their sea ice habitat. This will result in prolonged fasting periods and emaciation and condition related negative effects on survival and reproduction success. Prolonged fasting will result in increases of the tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in polar bears, and thus increase the probability for POP levels to exceed threshold levels for effects on health, and thus on reproductive success and survival. There are clear potentials for interactions between impacts of climate warming and impacts of pollutant exposure on polar bears. It is likely that that fasting-induced increases of POPs will add to mortality rates and decrease reproductive success beyond effects caused by loss of habitat alone. However, there is a lack of studies that have addressed this. Thus, there is a need to focus on population effects of POP exposure in polar bears, and to consider such effects in relation to the effects of climate induced habitat loss.

  10. Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived climate pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.

    2015-07-01

    Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealized, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the Northern Hemisphere mid and (especially) high latitudes, and showing a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation. Changes in precipitation patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker response, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are

  11. Preliminary field study of hepatic porphyrin profiles of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) to define anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Eguren, Gabriela; de Mello, Franco Teixeira; Groves, Phillip A

    2006-03-01

    The implementation of eco-toxicological assessment in South America is presently limited due to significant scientific information gaps concerning native species and their potential use as biomarkers. Recently, a common southern hemisphere fish species, Astyanax fasciatus, has been pointed out as a potential bio-indicator to anthropogenic pollution. This is a small, abundant, Neotropical characid, which is widely distributed from Central America south, to the Rio de la Plata Basin of western Uruguay. Our study found a statistically significant increase of coproporphyrin, uroporphyrin and protoporphyrin concentrations in hepatic tissues of A. fasciatus collected from a stream segment with high anthropogenic disturbance (due mainly to agricultural derivatives and motor vehicle transportation activities). Although the area studied showed differences in up and downstream limno-chemical parameters, these differences were not related to the increase of hepatic porphyrin concentrations. Based on the results of our study, we conclude that A. fasciatus is a good bio-indicator of exposure to environmental contaminants, and we propose that this abundant fish species be considered as a sentinel organism for monitoring potential disturbances to freshwater ecosystems. PMID:16153685

  12. Natural and Anthropogenic Source of Heavy Metals Pollution in the Soil Samples of an Industrial Complex; a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammadi Roozbahani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it can bind to various chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of some metals (Cd, Cu, Fe and V in soil samples collected from different stations of Ahvaz Industrial Complex II to determine the natural and anthropogenic contribution of metal in the soil. Methods: This was an experimental study that carried out in 2013. Soil samples were obtained from 9 stations and were subjected to bulk digestion and chemical partitioning. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe and V in soil were determined by ICP-OES. Contaminant factor (CF and geo-accumulation index (I-geo were used to evaluate the soil pollution in the samples. ANOVA, Duncan Multiple Range and Pearson correlation coefficient matrix tests was used to analyze the data. Results: According to I-geo results, the soil samples of the Ahvaz Industrial Complex II could be classified as strongly to very strongly pollute for Cd and it was unpolluted to moderately pollute for Cu, Fe and V. The amount of anthropogenic pollution was more than that of natural sources and the anthropogenic order of metals pollution was Fe (88%> Cu (83%> Cd (75%> V (61%. Conclusion: Metals concentrations are the highest at a distance of 300m from the pollution source. V, Cu and Cd pollutants are probably originated from oil industries.

  13. Low levels of chemical anthropogenic pollution may threaten amphibians by impairing predator recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that direct mortality and physiological effects caused by pollutants are major contributing factors to global amphibian decline. However, even sublethal concentrations of pollutants could be harmful if they combined with other factors to cause high mortality in amphibians. Here we show that sublethal concentrations of pollutants can disrupt the ability of amphibian larvae to recognize predators, hence increasing their risk of predation. This effect is indeed much more important since very low amounts of pollutants are ubiquitous, and environmental efforts are mostly directed towards preventing lethal spills. We analyzed the effects of two common contaminants (humic acid and ammonium nitrate) on the ability of tadpoles of the western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) to recognize chemical cues from a common predator, nymphs of the dragonfly Anax imperator. We compared the swimming activity of tadpoles in the presence and absence of water-borne chemical cues from dragonflies at different concentrations of humic acid and ammonium nitrate. Tadpoles reduced swimming activity in response to predator cues in the absence of pollutants, whereas they remained unresponsive to these cues when either humic acid or ammonium nitrate was added to the water, even at low concentrations. Moreover, changes in tadpole activity associated with the pollutants themselves were non-significant, indicating no toxic effect. Alteration of the natural chemical environment of aquatic systems by pollutants may be an important contributing cause for declines in amphibian populations, even at sublethal concentrations. PMID:26765086

  14. Anthropogenic pollutants affect ecosystem services of freshwater sediments. The need for a 'triad plus x' approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbersdorf, Sabine Ulrike; Wieprecht, Silke [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Hollert, Henner; Brinkmann, Markus [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Ecosystem Analysis; Schuettrumpf, Holger [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Manz, Werner [Koblenz-Landau Univ., Koblenz (Germany). Inst. for Integrated Natural Sciences

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Freshwater sediments and their attached microbial communities (biofilms) are essential features of rivers and lakes, providing valuable ecosystem services such as nutrient recycling or self-purification which extend beyond the aquatic environment. Anthropogenic pollutants, whether from the industrial era or as a result of our contemporary lifestyles, can negatively affect these functions with hitherto unknown consequences on ecology, the economy and human health. Thus far, the singular view of the involved disciplines such as ecotoxicology, environmental microbiology, hydrology and geomorphology has prevented a deeper understanding of this emerging issue. Main features: This paper discusses briefly the progressions and the state-of-the-art methods within the disciplines of concern related to contaminated sediments, ranging from ecotoxicological test systems, microbiological/molecular approaches to unravel changes of microbial ecosystems, up to the modelling of sediment transport and sorption/desorption of associated pollutants. The first bilateral research efforts on contaminated sediments include efforts to assess ecotoxicological sediment risk including sediment mobility (i.e. ecotoxicology and engineering), enhance bioremediation potential (i.e. microbiology and ecotoxicology) or to understand biostabilisation processes of sediments by microbial assemblages (i.e. microbiology and engineering). Conclusions and perspectives: In freshwater habitats, acute, chronic and mechanism-specific toxic effects on organisms, shifts in composition, structure and functionality of benthic microbial communities, as well as the obstruction of important ecosystem services by continuously discharged and long-deposited pollutants, should be related to the in situ sediment dynamics. To achieve an improved understanding of the ecology of freshwater sediments and the impairment of their important ecosystem functions by human-derived pollutants, we suggest a 'triad plus x

  15. Anthropogenic and forest fire pollution aerosol transported to the Arctic: observations from the POLARCAT-France spring campaign

    OpenAIRE

    B. Quennehen; A. Schwarzenboeck; A. Matsuki; Burkhart, J. F.; A. Stohl; G. Ancellet; Law, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne measurement campaign in spring 2008, several pollution plumes transported from mid-latitude regions were encountered. The study presented here focuses on air masses from two different geographic origins (Europe and Asia) and from 2 different source types (anthropogenic pollution and forest fires). One case study analyses an European air mass, which was sampled during three consecutive day. Modelling of the aerosol particle ageing by coagulation suggests tha...

  16. Substantial Contribution of Anthropogenic Air Pollution to Catastrophic Floods in Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-20

    Extreme events such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, have become more frequent since the 1950s1-2. This is likely caused through changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols that perturb the radiative balance and alter cloud processes3-8. On 8-9 July, 2013 a catastrophic flood devastated several metropolitan areas at the foothills of the Sichuan Basin. Using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-chemistry model, we show that this disaster was not entirely natural. Ensemble simulations robustly show that the severe anthropogenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin significantly enhanced rainfall intensity over the mountainous area northwest of the basin. The heavy air pollution (mainly black carbon) absorbs solar radiation in the lower atmosphere at the expense of surface cooling, which stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses convection and precipitation over the basin. The enhanced moisture and moist static energy over the basin are then transported by the prevailing winds towards the mountains during daytime. As the excessive moist air that reaches the foothills at night is orographically lifted, very strong convection develops and produces extremely heavy precipitation. Reducing black carbon (BC) emissions in the basin can effectively mitigate the extreme precipitation in the mountains. Unfortunately, BC emissions have been increasing in many developing countries including China9, making them more vulnerable to enhanced disasters as reported here.

  17. Anthropogenic organic micro-pollutants and pathogens in the urban water cycle: assessment, barriers and risk communication (ASKURIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jekel, Martin; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Meinel, Felix; Zietzschmann, Frederik; Pflugmacher Lima, Stephan; Baur, Nina; Wenzel, Melanie; Gnierß, Regina; Sperlich, Alexander; Dünnbier, Uwe; Böckelmann, Uta; Hummelt, Daniel; van Baar, Patricia; Wode, Florian; Petersohn, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    First published by Springer: Jekel, Martin et al.: Anthropogenic organic micro-pollutants and pathogens in the urban water cycle: assessment, barriers and risk communication (ASKURIS). - In: Environmental Sciences Europe. - ISSN 2190-4715 (online). - 25 (2013), art. 20. - doi:10.1186/2190-4715-25-20. In urban areas, water often flows along a partially closed water cycle in which treated municipal wastewater is discharged into surface waters which are one source of raw waters used for dr...

  18. Effects of East Asian Short-lived Anthropogenic Air Pollutants on the Northern Hemispheric Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lau, N.; Fan, S.; Tao, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Levy, H.

    2012-12-01

    Short-lived anthropogenic pollutants (such as ozone and aerosols) not only degrade ambient air quality and influence human health, but also play an important role in scattering/absorbing atmospheric radiation and disturbing regional climate. Due to the rapid industrialization, anthropogenic emissions from East Asia (EA) have increased substantially during the past decades. At the same time, EA has experienced a changing climate in terms of surface temperature and precipitation. In order to understand to what extent that EA short-lived anthropogenic emissions could influence domestic and downwind air quality (e.g. surface O3 and PM2.5), and explore the potential linkage between hemispheric-scale climate perturbation and regional anthropogenic forcing, we simulate global climate and chemical compositions during 1981-2000 based on the coupled general circulation model CM3 for atmosphere (with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry), oceans, land and sea ice, recently developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL/NOAA). We also conduct a parallel sensitivity simulation which is identical to the base simulation but with all anthropogenic emissions over EA turned off. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations represents the short-term response of the Northern Hemispheric climate system and atmospheric composition to the perturbation of regional anthropogenic forcing. We find that East Asian short-lived anthropogenic emissions exert significant adverse impacts on local air quality during 1981-2000, accounting for 10-30ppbV daily-averaged O3 over Eastern China in JJA. In particular, EA anthropogenic emissions elevate the summertime daily maximum 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) by 30-40ppbV over the North China Plain, where the typical background MDA8 ozone ranges 30 to 45ppbV. In addition, the surface PM2.5 concentrations peak at the same season and over the same region, with a seasonal mean of 10-30ug/m3, mostly contributed from

  19. The analytical methods used in examining resistance of hydrogeological systems to anthropogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, Joanna; Bielewski, Jarosław; Śliwka, Ireneusz

    2013-04-01

    key words: gas chromatography (GC) measurement method, groundwater dating, He, SF6, F-11, F-12, Ar, Ne. In this work the method for evaluating resistance hydrogeological systems to anthropogenic pollution using environmental tracers is described. Resistance groundwater systems to anthropogenic pollution is correlated with the age of water, which can be determined by means of environmental tracers SF6, F-11, F-12 [1] and He. To correct measured values of He and SF6 the temperature of recharge and the excess air is needed and can be determined by measuring Ne and Ar concentrations in groundwater. This paper describes three measurement GC systems to determine the concentrations of greenhouse gases: sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and chlorofluorocarbons F-11, F-12 [2], the noble gases neon (Ne), argon (Ar) [3] and helium (He) [4] in groundwater. The first system for measurements of the concentration of SF6, F-11 and F-12 consists of a gas chromatograph, type N504 is supplied with nitrogen carrier gas with a purity of 6.0. It is equipped with two packed columns K1 and K2 running at 60°C with the use of the "back-flush" column switching and electron capture detector (ECD) operating at 300°C. Second system for measuring the concentration of the noble gases argon and neon, is composed of a dual Shimadzu gas chromatograph. It is equipped with two columns K4 and K5 operating at 30°C, thermalconductivity detector (TCD) for analysis of argon and helium detector with pulse discharge (PDHID) for analysis of neon. This chromatograph is powered by helium carrier gas 6.0. The third system measures the concentration of helium, consists of a gas chromatograph equipped with a TCD detector and three packed columns filled with molecular sieve type 5A and activated carbon. The carrier gas in this system is argon 6.0. Detection limit, LOD for each measurement systems for the tested compounds are: 0,06 fmol/L for SF6, 15 fmol/L for F-11, 10 fmol/L for F-12, 1,9•10-8 cm3STP/cm3 for Ne, 3,1

  20. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  1. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster

  2. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005-2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter) in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster decrease of alkaline base

  3. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 86% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 48% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from weakly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM forms most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A decrease of alkaline

  4. Anthropogenic pollution indicators in marine environment of the Eastern Part of the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakovskaya, Zoya; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Mamontova, Varvara; Khoroshko, Larisa; Chernova, Ekaterina; Russkikh, Iana

    2014-05-01

    processes and reproductive impairment, increasing number of cancer incidences and increasing of bacterial antibiotic resistance. Diclofenac one of anthropogenic markers, was analyzed by the method of liquid chromatography high-resolution mass-spectrometry, using LTQ Orbitrap (Thermo Finnigan) in natural water and sediment samples. Mass spectra were recorded in several modes: full scan, SIM and MRM using positive and negative ionization. Resolution was 30000. Diclofenac were detected in several water samples (in the range of 3,9-270,0 ng/L). The obtained results are using for "Biota spatial distribution/Geological diversity/Pollution" model validation. This study was supported by projects TOPCONS («Transboundary tool for spatial planning and conservation of the Gulf of Finland»), HELCOM projects BALTHAZAR Phase II and BASE.

  5. HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS COLLECTED FROM DRAINAGES RECEIVING DIFFERENT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES FROM PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Bin Huan Pang; Mohd. Fairuz Supian; Yoong Inn Hoo; Soon Guan Tan

    2007-01-01

    Surface drainage sediments were collected, between January and April in 2005, from 6 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia suspected to have received different anthropogenic sources. These drainages included sites near a petrochemical plant, an electronic factory, a metal factory and 2 townships in addition to a relatively unpolluted site ( a reference site). Based on the aqua- regia method, the metal concentrations for all the sampling sites except for the agricultural site (reference site) at Sg. Benut were between 60.92 -1 019 μg/g dry weight for copper (Cu), 65.32 -1 266.6 μg/g dry weight for plumbum (Pb), 1.46 -15.93 μg/g dry weight for cadmium (Cd), 330.10-484.14 μg/g dry weight for zinc (Zn) and 47.03 - 120.90 μg/g dry weight for nickel (Ni). All of these ranges were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those (Cu: 8.77 μg/g; Pb: 57.42 μg/g; Cd: 0.96 μg/g; Zn: 68.21 μg/g; and Ni: 17.87 μg/g) of the reference site at Sg. Benut that only received agricultural disposal. The concentrations for the 5 metals from all the sites (except for the reference site) were higher than the Sediment Quality Values for Hong Kong by Chapman et al (1999) for the 5 metals. Based on the sequential extraction technique, 3 geochemical fractions [ easily, freely leachable and exchangeable (EFLE), acid -reducible and oxidisable -organic] were also useful in identifying these polluted sites. The elevated metal concentrations found in the sediments might be related to point sources of industrial effluent and urban waste. Hence,the results emphasized the necessity for the treatment of effluents into this drainage area. As part of the effort to control illegal discharges and dumping into drainages, public awareness should be enhanced.

  6. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  7. Characterizing anthropogenic sources of pollution and their influence on regional air quality and meteorology during the VOCALS-REX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Spak, S.; Molina, L. T.; Saide, P.

    2010-12-01

    During the VOCALS REX campaign multiple anthropogenic sources of aerosol (both primary and secondary) were related to small effective radii of cloud droplets observed both in situ, and from satellite sources. Also enhanced concentrations of secondary pollutants such as ozone and sulfate were observed. Some of these sources come from copper smelters, power plants, and large urban areas. These impacts on the properties of marine stratocumulus is relevant on the region's radiative balance. For this project the contribution of urban, industrial, and power sector emissions will be compared to attribute these to observed values using WRF-Chem using a new Chilean National Emissions Inventory developed for this project. Finally regional ozone formation from Santiago and it's impact to observed enhancements off the coast of Northern Chile will be assessed. Modeled plumes will be compared to satellite observations of anthropogenic impacted clouds. Considering the projected increase of coal power plants in northern Chile, some projected impacts will also be shown.

  8. Oxidation of elemental mercury in anthropogenic pollution plumes and in Pacific marine air masses observed at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J. L.; Timonen, H. J.; Jaffe, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of mercury (Hg) is poorly understood, especially the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and production of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM). Since 2004 we have measured speciated Hg and other tracers at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in central Oregon, USA. We see frequent enhancements in GEM due to long range transport of pollution from Asia. Occasionally we also see large enhancements in GOM. Previously we have shown (Swartzendruber et al., 2006; Lyman and Jaffe, 2011) that the upper troposphere is a significant source of GOM to the troposphere. Here we describe two previously unidentified sources of GOM in the Pacific Northwest lower free troposphere: (1) oxidation of GEM in Asian pollution plumes during trans-Pacific long-range transport; (2) oxidation of GEM in marine air masses originating over the extra-tropical Eastern Pacific. In both cases, GOM was strongly anti-correlated with GEM, indicating in-situ oxidation of GEM rather than transport of GOM that was either emitted from anthropogenic sources in Asia or emitted in the Pacific marine boundary layer. During the Asian pollution episodes GOM was correlated with pollution tracers (CO, O3, and submicron particle scattering), but the GOM enhancements (i.e., the ratio GOM/GEM) reached peak values, up to ~0.20, which are significantly larger than emission ratios, typically <0.05, as measured in Asian anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, during the marine episodes GOM was anti-correlated with CO and O3. The GOM concentrations during the marine episodes reached peak values up to 700 pg/m3, with GOM/GEM ratios of up to ~1. These are among the highest GOM concentrations seen in the entire MBO data record and comparable to the highest GOM values reported anywhere in the world outside of heavily polluted Hg mining sites. Oxidation of GEM in anthropogenic plumes and in marine air may be important loss processes for GEM globally. These oxidation processes will significantly enhance

  9. Quantitative analyses of relationships between ecotoxicological effects and combined pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Qixing; CHENG; Yun; ZHANG; Qianru; LIANG; Jidong

    2004-01-01

    The responses of wheat Triticum aestivum,rice Oryza sativa,earthworms Eisenia foetida,and prawns Penaeus japonicus to combined acetochlor-Cu,Cd-Zn were studied in hydroponic and soil-culturing systems using the methods of ecotoxicology.In particular,systematically quantitative analyses were documented by field experiments.Results showed that ecotoxicological effects under the combined pollution were not only related to chemical properties of pollutants but also dependent on the concentration level of pollutants,in particular on the combination of concentrations of pollutants in ecosystems.Additionally,species of organisms,especially the type of ecosystem,determined the influences.To some extent,biological tissue targets attacked by pollutants were an important factor.

  10. A Comparison of the Physical and Optical Properties of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants and Mineral Dust over Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 浦伟; 史晋森; 闭建荣; 周天; 张雪荣; 任勇

    2015-01-01

    Emissions of mineral dust and its mixing with anthropogenic air pollutants aff ect both regional and global climates. Our fi eldwork in late spring 2007 (April 25–June 15) measured the physical and optical properties of dust storms mixed with local air pollutants at a rural site about 48 km southeast of central Lanzhou. Levels of air pollutants and aerosol optical properties were observed during the experiment, with concentrations of NOx (6.8 ± 3.3 ppb, average ± standard deviation), CO (694 ± 486 ppb), SO2 (6.2 ± 10 ppb), O3 (50.7 ± 13.1 ppb), and PM10 (172 ± 180 µg m−3), and aerosol scattering coeffi cient (164 ± 89 Mm−1; 1 Mm = 106 m) and absorption coeffi cient (11.7 ± 6.6 Mm−1), all much lower than the values observed during air pollution episodes in urban areas. During a major dust storm, the mass concentration of PM10 reached 4072 µg m−3, approximately 21-fold higher than in non-dust storm periods. The mixing ratios of trace gases declined noticeably after a cold front passed through. The observed CO/SO2 and CO/NOx ratios during air pollution episodes were 4.2–18.3 and 13.7–80.5, respectively, compared with the corresponding ratios of 38.1–255.7 and 18.0–245.9 during non-pollution periods. Our investigations suggest that dust storms have a signifi cant infl uence on air quality in areas far from their source, and this large-scale transport of dust and air pollutants produces major uncertainties in the quantifi cation of the global eff ects of emissions over Northwest China.

  11. Phosphate status and acid phosphatase activity in soil and ectomycorrhizas in two mature stands of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) exposed to different levels of anthropogenic pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Kieliszewska-Rokicka

    2014-01-01

    The relations between anthropogenic environmental pollution and the level of inorganic phosphorus in soil, enzyme activities of extracellular soil acid phosphatase and the surface acid phosphatase of excised ectomycorrhizas of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied. Soil and root samples were taken from two Scots pine stands in central Poland: a polluted site exposed to long-term pollution from a steelworks and the city of Warsaw and a reference plot (control) free from direct impact o...

  12. The impact of anthropogenic pollution on limnological characteristics of a subtropical highland reservoir “Lago de Guadalupe”, Mexico

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    Sepulveda-Jauregui A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available “Lago de Guadalupe” is an important freshwater ecosystem located in the northern part of the metropolitan area surrounding Mexico City, under high demographic pressure. It receives approximately 15 hm3·y-1 of untreated municipal wastewater from the surrounding municipalities. In order to develop a comparative assessment of the pollution effect over the limnological characteristics of Lago de Guadalupe, this lake was characterised from February 2006 to July 2009, and the results were compared with those obtained from a non-polluted lake “Lago el Llano” located in the same drainage area. Lago de Guadalupe was hypereutrophic with anoxic conditions throughout most of the water column. In contrast, Lago el Llano was mesotrophic with high dissolved oxygen concentrations throughout the entire water column with a clinograde profile. Both reservoirs had a monomictic mixing regime. The longitudinal zonation of physicochemical and biological variables were investigated in order to better understand the processes controlling the water quality across the reservoir during its residence time. This study shows the impact of anthropogenic pollution on the limnological characteristics of a subtropical reservoir and confirms that under adequate management schemes, namely avoiding pollution and wastewater discharges, subtropical reservoirs can be prevented from developing eutrophic conditions.

  13. Geogenically vs. anthropogenic pollution of river sediments by potentially toxic trace elements on model locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rtg diffraction analysis was used to evaluate the stream sediments mineralogical composition of Maly Dunaj, Nitra and Hron rivers. Identified minerals in the sediment samples, in addition with chemical analysis of selected elements (As, Sb, Hg, Cu, Pb), helped to determine the origin (geogenic vs. anthropogenic) of these potentially toxic trace elements. The results show that Maly Dunaj sediments are mostly loaded with anthropogenic contamination (agriculture, industry). Heavy minerals identified in Nitra sediments suggest natural higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Fe. On the other hand As and Hg contamination is caused by human activities. The main sources are the coal ash impoundments in Zemianske Kostolany and Chalmova (for As) and Novacke chemicke zavody a.s. (for Hg). Stream sediments of Hron river are mostly influneced by the geology of the catchment area (Sb - As deposits in Nizke Tatry, volcanics). (authors)

  14. Intercontinental transport of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide and other pollutants: An infrared remote sensing case study

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse, Lieven; Fromm, Michael; Ngadi, Yasmine; Emmons, Louisa; Clerbaux, Cathy; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2011-01-01

    International audience Using 3 years worth of IASI (the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer aboard METOP-A) measurements, we have identified 24 major events of uplift and transport of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide. These were all first observed over East Asia, and could be traced for over 60 hours. On 7 November 2010 a sulfur dioxide plume was observed over Northeast China and tracked for five days to North America. We discuss this event in detail with respect to build up; uplift an...

  15. Anthropogenic and forest fire pollution aerosol transported to the Arctic: observations from the POLARCAT-France spring campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Quennehen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT-France airborne measurement campaign in spring 2008, several pollution plumes transported from mid-latitude regions were encountered. The study presented here focuses on air masses from two different geographic origins (Europe and Asia and from 2 different source types (anthropogenic pollution and forest fires. One case study analyses an European air mass, which was sampled during three consecutive day. Modelling of the aerosol particle ageing by coagulation suggests that coagulation cannot solely explain the evolution of the size distributions, which is particularly true for the accumulation mode. Analyses of the aerosol refractory size distributions indicate that the Aitken mode was mostly composed of volatile compounds, while accumulation mode particles desorbed to a refractory mode yielding a modal mean diameter evolving from 48 to 59 nm for the three consecutive days of sampling the same air mass. The single refractory mode suggests an internally mixed aerosol population which is supported from electron microscopy and subsequent EDX analyses of the accumulation mode particles.

    Another case study focuses on European air masses polluted by fire emissions and Asian air masses with contributions from both biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions. On the one hand, the aerosol size distributions of the European biomass burning plumes are almost mono-modal with most of the particles found in the aged accumulation mode which desorbed uniformly. On the other hand, Asian air masses were more complex because of the mixing of different source contributions related to more variable and multimodal ambient and refractory aerosol size distributions. Electron microscopy illustrated soot-like inclusions in several samples. Within samples attributed to forest fire sources, the chemical signature is highly associated with the presence of potassium, which is characteristic for biomass burning plumes. The particle images suggest

  16. Community shift of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria along an anthropogenic pollution gradient from the Pearl River Delta to the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing beta-proteobacteria (beta-AOB) was analyzed along an anthropogenic pollution gradient from the coastal Pearl River Delta to the South China Sea using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Along the gradient from coastal to the open ocean, the phylogenetic diversity of the dominant genus changed from Nitrosomonas to Nitrosospira, indicating the niche specificity by these two genera as both salinity and anthropogenic influ...

  17. Theoretical basis for expert system to forecast and assess economic impact of anthropogenic pollution on population disease level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Bublyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Theoretical basis of mathematical apparatus of fuzzy sets to evaluate and account the man-made (anthropogenic losses is improved in the article in order to take effective administrative decisions of their reduction and prevention. Theoretical basis for building an expert system for forecasting the economic effects of man-made (anthropogenic pollution on population levels of disease is analyzed. Practically these investigations will give the opportunity to control measures of orientation of the national economy and its individual industries on sustainable development. The results of the analysis. The theoretical foundations and applied problems of predicting man-made damage to the national economy and methods of management at the state level allowed for the following conclusions. 1. To justify the application of theoretical principles of fuzzy sets as an effective mathematical tool in conditions of incomplete information and uncertainty in future work the advantages of fuzzy expert systems, including the possibility of approximate descriptions such complex phenomena that can not be described in conventional quantitative terms, and the ability to receive, store and adjust the knowledge possessed by experts in this subject area in the process of dialogue with them in order to get real results. 2. The model of fuzzy expert system for establishing interdependencies between the amount of pollution (emissions, effluents, waste and deterioration of health in Ukraine has been proposed. 3. The model in predicting the technogenic load (discharges (drained polluted waters without treatment and emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide due to economic activity and its effects on the number of newly registered tumors in 1000 people of the population in Ukraine has been investigated. 4. During the investigation it was established as a rising idea to use the claim that the impact of emissions and discharges of pollutants to the number

  18. The anthropogenic magnetic particles contain in indoor dust as markers of pollution emitted by different outside sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Iga; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the impact of magnetic particles originated from different external sources of pollution on the air quality inside apartments. We used the indoor dust as an indicator of air pollution inside apartments. For the study, a small town was chosen, in which dominated the local sources of pollution: (1) vehicle traffic (in the city center), (2) local heating plant, (3) individual households (in the suburbs) and (4) re-emission of soil particles from the contaminated post-industrial area. In each of four areas were selected several private apartments as a sampling points. Dust samples were collected by the owners of apartments from the floor surface using vacuum cleaners in the same time period (September 2014). The concentration-dependent magnetic parameters (magnetic susceptibility - and magnetization MS) were used to determine the level of the magnetic pollution of the indoor dust. The properties of magnetic particles (mineralogy, domain structure and grain size), and their chemical composition were used to describe and identify the source of air pollution inside the apartments. Generally, the results showed that in each of studied areas were observed flats with both: very high and low values of parameters depending on the concentration of magnetic particles. The biggest differences between the areas were visible in mineralogy of magnetic fraction of pollution. The research of apartments exposed to pollution generated by vehicle traffic (located in the city center) show a wide range of values χ (75-1021 -10-8 m3kg-1) and MS (35-656 -10-3 Am2kg-1). These differences were due to the high contribution of pure iron to magnetic fraction of pollution. Detailed analysis of the M (T) curves revealed two magnetic transitions: first at a temperature Tc = 585oC for magnetite and the second at Tc = 760oC for pure iron. For the dust samples from the city center the high values of χ and MS well correlated with high level of anthropogenic elements

  19. Modelling of anthropogenic pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere and applications to civil protection monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Tessarotto, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A basic feature of fluid mechanics concerns the frictionless phase-space dynamics of particles in an incompressible fluid. The issue, besides its theoretical interest in turbulence theory, is important in many applications, such as the pollutant dynamics in the atmosphere, a problem relevant for civil protection monitoring of air quality. Actually, both the numerical simulation of the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) portion of the atmosphere and that of pollutant dynamics may generally require the correct definition of the Lagrangian dynamics which characterizes arbitrary fluid elements of incompressible thermofluids. We claim that particularly important for applications would be to consider these trajectories as phase-space trajectories. This involves, however, the unfolding of a fundamental theoretical problem up to now substantially unsolved: {\\it namely the determination of the exact frictionless dynamics of tracer particles in an incompressible fluid, treated either as a deterministic or a turbulent (i....

  20. A model tool for assessing real-time mixing of mineral and anthropogenic pollutants in East Asia: a case study of April 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, F.; Cautenet, G.; Bouet, C.; Dong, X.; Kim, Y. J.; Sugimoto, N.; Matsui, I.; Shimizu, A.

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess the complex mixing of atmospheric anthropogenic and natural pollutants over the East Asian region, we present a modelling tool which takes into account the main aerosols which are to be found simultaneously over China, Korea and Japan during springtime. Using the mesoscale RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) tool, we present a simulation of natural (desert) dust events along with some of the most critical anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia, sulphur elements (SO2 and SO2-4) and Black Carbon (BC). As regards a one-week case study of dust events which occurred during late April 2005 over an area extending from the Gobi deserts to the Japan surroundings, we satisfactorily model the behaviours of the different aerosol plumes. We focus on possible dust mixing with the anthropogenic pollutants from megacities. For both natural and anthropogenic pollution, the model results are in fairly good agreement with the horizontal and vertical distributions of concentrations as measured by in situ LIDAR, and as observed in remote data, PM10 data and literature. In particular, we show that a simplified chemistry approach of this complex issue is sufficient to model this event, with a real-time step of 3 h. The model reproduces the main patterns and orders of magnitude for Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and species contributions (via the Angström Exponent) when compared with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data.

  1. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated. PMID:26438396

  2. Nitrate as an anthropogenic pollutant in the groundwater of Gadoon area, Swabi district (NWFP), Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of fertilizers and insecticides for crops in making progress in the field of farming, but on the other hand the chances of groundwater pollution through this application is also increasing day by day. In rural areas there are certain places where animal manure and fertilizers are contributing nitrate to the soil environment. Most of the wells that are being contaminated with nitrate are shallow and are without casing for incoming pollutants. Such contamination of nitrate in drinking water may cause a disease know as methemoglobinanemia or blue baby in infants. The Gadoon Amazai and surrounding area is one such example where the ground water of some areas has shown higher concentration of nitrate. The drinking water of a dug well at Gandaf village was found to be most affected, having maximum nitrate concentration of 946 mg/L. The next dug well at Miani village showed nitrate concentration of 286 mg/L in the groundwater. There are certain other wells in the area which are having high nitrate contents as compared to the permissible limit (10 mg/L), set by US-EPA. The source of this higher concentration in groundwater could be linked to human feces, chemical fertilizer, use of pesticides and presence of relevant minerals rather than the industrial effluents. (author)

  3. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE WATERS POLLUTED BY ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Luca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the results of a methodological research on the chemical speciation of heavy metals found in surface waters of an area polluted by mining activities (in the Western Carpathians. The surface water samples were collected in two seasons (summer and fall. Each time were performed in situ physical-chemical measurements (pH, Eh, conductivity, temperature and analytical determination of total concentrations of some metals (manganese, copper, zinc, iron, cadmium and anions (SO42-, Cl-, PO43-, NO3-. Analyze of chemical speciation of these metals was made using the PHREEQC program which allowed us to determine the distribution of studied elements. The concordance of the results obtained with this program with thermodynamic predictions arising from potential - pH equilibrium diagrams - Pourbaix type justify the compatibility between the program calculation and experimental data.

  4. Quantifying the uncertainties of a bottom-up emission inventory of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties of a national, bottom-up inventory of Chinese emissions of anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM of different size classes and carbonaceous species are comprehensively quantified, for the first time, using Monte Carlo simulation. The inventory is structured by seven dominant sectors: coal-fired electric power, cement, iron and steel, other industry (boiler combustion, other industry (non-combustion processes, transportation, and residential. For each parameter related to emission factors or activity-level calculations, the uncertainties, represented as probability distributions, are either statistically fitted using results of domestic field tests or, when these are lacking, estimated based on foreign or other domestic data. The uncertainties (i.e., 95% confidence intervals around the central estimates of Chinese emissions of SO2, NOx, total PM, PM10, PM2.5, black carbon (BC, and organic carbon (OC in 2005 are estimated to be −14%~12%, −10%~36%, −10%~36%, −12%~42% −16%~52%, −23%~130%, and −37%~117%, respectively. Variations at activity levels (e.g., energy consumption or industrial production are not the main source of emission uncertainties. Due to narrow classification of source types, large sample sizes, and relatively high data quality, the coal-fired power sector is estimated to have the smallest emission uncertainties for all species except BC and OC. Due to poorer source classifications and a wider range of estimated emission factors, considerable uncertainties of NOx and PM emissions from cement production and boiler combustion in other industries are found. The probability distributions of emission factors for biomass burning, the largest source of BC and OC, are fitted based on very limited domestic field measurements, and special caution should thus be taken interpreting these emission uncertainties. Although Monte

  5. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110. Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we considered 6 ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, and 2 measures of particulate matter treating each pollutant as a single exposure. Odds ratios (ORs for ED visits associated with a standard increase (interquartile range – IQR in the pollutants levels were calculated using the case-crossover technique. The ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were also found for lagged exposures (for lags 1–9 days. Second, we defined a Health Air Study Index (HASI to represent the combined impact of the 6 air pollutants. Results: We obtained positive and statistically significant results for individual air pollutants and among them the following estimations: OR = 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02–1.1, NO2 lag 3, IQR = 12.8 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01–1.07, SO2 lag 4, IQR = 2.3 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1–1.06, PM lag 3, IQR = 6.2 μg/m3. Among the re-calculated ORs with the HASI values as an exposure, the highest estimated value was OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12–1.68, for 1 unit of the HASI, lag 3. Conclusions: The proposed index (HASI allows to confirm the pattern of associations for lags obtained for individual air pollutants. In the presented example the used index (HASI indicates the strongest relation with the exposure lagged by 3 days.

  6. Assessment of anthropogenic nitrate pollution in groundwater in northeast Cairo using nitrogen-15 technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater contamination of elevated nitrate ions was investigated in a limited area of the north-eastern part of Cairo (EI-Gabal EI-Asfar farm and its surroundings). Stable isotope techniques of nitrogen (δ15N), oxygen (δ18O), and hydrogen (δ2H) with major ions and trace elements analyses followed by data evaluation were combined to assess the potential sources and fate of nitrate contamination. In the studied area, the unconfined aquifer system is found to be vulnerable to nitrate impacts from land uses because of the sandy, permeable soils and a relatively shallow depth to groundwater. Several potential sources of elevated nitrate exist including a rapid infiltration of sewage effluents, used for irrigation, soil organic and inorganic nitrogen, and land application of animal wastes (manure), sludge, and inorganic chemical fertilizers. Surface and ground water samples as well as surface soil samples were collected beside the principal nitrate sources that are likely to affect groundwater quality. Data revealed that surface and groundwater samples have high TDS, nitrate, phosphate, and trace elements contents especially at the north-eastern pad and at the southern part of the studied area. Soil samples show relative enrichment in trace elements and total nitrogen contents due to prolonging sewage water irrigation especially at EI-Gabal EI-Asfar farm and at the northern part of the studied area. Results of δ18O and δ2H for most of groundwater samples mainly reflect more enriched values than that of Nile River due to recycling of water used for irrigation. The δ15N values of nitrate in water samples indicate that the source yielding lower nitrate concentrations could be commercial fertilizers or nitrifying soil organic nitrogen which is more pronounced at the western part. In the north-eastern part other sources being responsible for the higher nitrate concentrations appears to be mixing with sewage or manure and ammonium phosphate fertilizer. This mixing

  7. Combined Pollution and Pollution Index of Heavy Metals in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and As coexisting in red soil on growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.), mung bean (Vigna rabiata (Linn.) Wilczek), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and aspen (Populus L.). Results showed that rice, mung bean and alfalfa were significantly influenced by combined pollution of the heavy metals. The contents of Pb, Cd and As in rice grains greatly exceeded the National Standards for Food Hygiene of China. Heavy metals at a high concentration seriously retarded growth of mung bean and alfalfa, but not so obviously with slash pine and aspen. The composite index is suggested for evaluating the relativity of combined pollution with heavy metals in soil.

  8. The study of emission inventory on anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2391.8 kt, 2292.9 kt, 6697.1 kt, 3115.7 kt, 1510.8 kt, 2767.4 kt, and 458.9 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77% to the total OFPs. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around the Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources including power plant, other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97%, 86%, 89%, 91%, and 69% of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3% and 12.4% of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, chemical industry, domestic use of paint and printing, and gasoline vehicle contribute 38.2%, 23.9%, and 11.6% to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  9. Geochemical Distribution of Trace Metals and Assessment of Anthropogenic Pollution in Sediments of Old Nakagawa River, Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Zakir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical distributions of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn were examined in sediments collected from Old Nakagawa River (NR, Tokyo, Japan. A widely used 5-step sequential extraction procedure was employed for the fractionation of the metals and the concentrations were measured in the liquid extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The association of Cd (76-98% and Zn (48-67% were found highest with AEC (adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate phase, Cu (45-60% and Pb (44-73% with amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide phase and the maximum fractionation of Cr was in both crystalline Fe oxide (12-60% and amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide phase (15-60%. For retention by amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide minerals, the observed stoichiometric gradient was: 1.52 for Cu, 1.23 for Pb, 2.25 for Cr and 3.09 for Zn. Corresponding values for association with crystalline oxides and sulphides and organics were an order of magnitude greater than those for amorphous oxyhydroxide, indicating a greater affinity of trace metals for these phases. The total concentration ranges of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in NR sediments were 2.86-16.95, 551.7-3953.1, 340.6-1565.3, 136.9-385.9 and 931.4-3650.1 µg g-1, respectively. The observed order of potential trace metal mobility in the aquatic system was: Cd>Zn>Pb>Cu>Cr. Organic carbon contents in sediment samples were comparatively high (mean 5.48% and the X-ray diffraction (XRD study detected the presence of several clay minerals, those are likely to be major host of trace metals in sediments. The sediments of NR was considered to be polluted on the basis of unpolluted sediments and geochemical background values with respect to Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. According to the enrichment factors (EFc, most of the sites have several times higher values of trace metals than the standard. The study revealed that the pollution in sediments of NR could be linked to anthropogenic activities such as industrialization

  10. Anthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y. T.; Koba, K.; Wang, X. M.; Wen, D. Z.; Li, J.; Takebayashi, Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Yoh, M.

    2011-02-01

    Nitric acid (HNO3) or nitrate (NO3-) is the dominant sink for reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the atmosphere. In many Chinese cities, HNO3 is becoming a significant contributor to acid deposition. In the present study, we measured nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotopic composition of NO3- in 113 precipitation samples collected from Guangzhou City in southern China over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). We attempted to better understand the spatial and seasonal variability of atmospheric NOx sources and the NO3- formation pathways in this N-polluted city in the Pearl River Delta region. The δ15N values of NO3- (versus air N2) ranged from -4.9 to +10.1‰, and averaged +3.9‰ in 2008 and +3.3‰ in 2009. Positive δ15N values were observed throughout the year, indicating the anthropogenic contribution of NOx emissions, particularly from coal combustion. Different seasonal patterns of δ15N-NO3- were observed between 2008 and 2009, which might reflect different human activities associated with the global financial crisis and the intensive preparations for the 16th Asian Games. Nitrate δ18O values (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) varied from +33.4 to +86.5‰ (average +65.0‰ and +67.0‰ in 2008 and 2009, respectively), a range being lower than those reported for high latitude and polar areas. Sixteen percent of δ18O values was observed lower than the expected minimum of +55‰ at our study site. This was likely caused by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals; peroxy radicals can compete with O3 to convert NO to NO2, thereby donate O atoms with much lower δ18O value than that of O3 to atmospheric NO3-. Our results highlight that the influence of human activities on atmospheric chemistry can be recorded by the N and O isotopic composition of atmospheric NO3- in a N-polluted city.

  11. Phosphate status and acid phosphatase activity in soil and ectomycorrhizas in two mature stands of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. exposed to different levels of anthropogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kieliszewska-Rokicka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The relations between anthropogenic environmental pollution and the level of inorganic phosphorus in soil, enzyme activities of extracellular soil acid phosphatase and the surface acid phosphatase of excised ectomycorrhizas of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. were studied. Soil and root samples were taken from two Scots pine stands in central Poland: a polluted site exposed to long-term pollution from a steelworks and the city of Warsaw and a reference plot (control free from direct impact of pollution. The polluted site was characterised by high concentration of trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and low level of inorganic phosphate in soil. This site had significantly lower enzyme activities of soil acid phosphatase (0.54 µmoles p-nitrophenol released g-1 dry weight h-1 and surface acid phosphatase of pine ectomycorrhizas (3.37 µmoles p-nitrophenol released g-1 fresh weight h-1 than the control site (1.36 µmoles p-nitrophenol released g-1 dry weight h-1 and 12.46 µmoles p-nitrophenol released g-1 fresh weight h-1, respectively. The levels of phosphate, carbon and nitrogen in pine fine roots were also analysed. Low concentrations of P04-P and high N: P ratio in pine fine roots from polluted site were found. The results suggest that soil pollutants may have a negative effect on the extracellular acid phosphatase of soil and Scots pine ectomycorrhizas and on the phosphorus status in fine roots of the plant.

  12. Assurance of risk assessment and protection distant transportation and fall out of pollutants under large anthropogenic on nuclear power stations due to mountainous regional peculiarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: All types of industrial activities require the norms of protection, assessment of corresponding risks to preserve the pollution and degradation of corresponding areas. To make available the sustainable development of the country the risk assessment of possible accidents on the big enterprises is foreseen that provides preparedness of the country and possibility of the prevention measures and mitigation of the accidents. While big anthropogenic accidents in mountainous countries - the main paths for transportation of the pollution are the rivers and sea basins. Due to overpopulation of these areas assessment of the pollution risks are very important. Problem of forecast and distant atmospheric transportation of the toxic products and corresponding risk assessment under anthropogenic damages is multi-component and depends on meteorological conditions and frontier layer of atmosphere. Generally, for real relief and basic fields the problem is not solved yet especially taking into consideration the big level and shortest time of the process being of the natural anthropogenic accidents in mountainous regions. Usually, geostropic drawing for determined relief is used. Integral differential equations taking into consideration a physical- chemical characteristic of the pollutants, their transformations, fall out, coagulations, washing out and self rectification in general cannot be solved. In last time essential success in formalization of above-mentioned equations i.e. carrying out some simplifications give possibility to establish necessary modeling on the basis of numerical calculations. In the most general case forecasting model is essentially limited because of bulky size of accounting schemes and necessity of powerful and high-speed computers. Main ways of achievement of further success is connected with so called 'seasonal typification' with applied a priory calculation of probabilistic picture of the pollutants concentration fields, as well as

  13. Anthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. T. Fang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric acid (HNO3 or nitrate (NO3 is the dominant sink for reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 in the atmosphere. In many Chinese cities, HNO3 is becoming a significant contributor to acid deposition. In the present study, we used the denitrifier method to measure nitrogen (N and oxygen (O isotopic composition of NO3 in 113 precipitation samples collected from Guangzhou City in southern China over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. We attempted to better understand the spatial and seasonal variability of atmospheric NOx sources and the NO3 formation pathways in this N-polluted city in the Pearl River Delta region. The δ15N values of NO3 (versus air N2 ranged from −4.9 to +10.1‰, and averaged +3.9‰ in 2008 and +3.3‰ in 2009. Positive δ15N values were observed throughout the year, indicating the anthropogenic contribution of NOx emissions, particularly from coal combustion. Different seasonal patterns of δ15N-NO3 were observed between 2008 and 2009, which might reflect different human activities associated with the global financial crisis and the intensive preparations for the 16th Asian Games. Nitrate δ18O values (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water varied from +33.4 to +86.5‰ (average +65.0‰ and +67.0‰ in 2008 and 2009, respectively, a range being lower than those reported for high altitude and polar areas. Several δ18O values were observed lower than the expected minimum of 50‰ at our study site. This was likely caused by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals; peroxy radicals can compete with O3 to convert NO to NO2, thereby donate O atoms with much lower δ18O value than that of O3 to atmospheric NO3

  14. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant

  15. Contribution of anthropogenic pollutants to the increase of tropospheric ozone levels in the Oporto Metropolitan Area, Portugal since the 19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollutants to the increase of tropospheric ozone levels in the Oporto Metropolitan Area (Portugal) since the 19th century. The study was based on pre-industrial and recent data series, the results being analyzed according to the atmospheric chemistry. The treatment of ozone and meteorological data was performed by classical statistics and by time-series analysis. It was concluded that in the 19th century the ozone present in the troposphere was not of photochemical origin, being possible to consider the respective concentrations as reference values. For recent data a cycle of 8 h for ozone concentrations could be related to traffic. Compared to the 19th century, the current concentrations were 147% higher (252% higher in May) due to the increased photochemical production associated with the increased anthropogenic emissions. - Compared to the 19th century, the current ozone concentrations are 147% higher at Oporto, Portugal

  16. STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON POLLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE AREA SC ROMPLUMB BAIA MARE FROM ANTHROPOGENICAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    COCIORHAN CAMELIA SIMONA; MICLE VALER

    2011-01-01

    The main ways of soil pollution are: on path air or atmospheric path and on terrestrial path, pollution path of direct their. Sources of air pollution are two categories: natural sources (volcanic eruptions, decomposition acts, etc.) and artificial, resulting from human activities (mining and metallurgy, energy, etc.). Solid air pollutants are those treated in the paper. They are dispersed in the air from emissions of particles which containing heavy metal ions in the atmosphere having a low ...

  17. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters are a major source of sensory pollutants in air handling systems. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the net effect that different combinations of filters had on perceived air quality after 5 months of continuous filtration of outdoor suburban air. A panel...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC....... Furthermore, its pressure drop changed very little during the 5 months of service, and it had the added benefit of removing a large fraction of ozone from the airstream. If similar results are obtained over a wider variety of soiling conditions, such filters may be a viable solution to a long recognized...

  18. Effects of experimental calcium availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on eggshell characteristics and yolk carotenoid and vitamin levels in two passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Ruiz, Sandra; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-05-01

    The maternal investment into egg quality depends on the condition of the female, the quality of the mate, and the quality of the environment. In that sense, availability of nutrients and exposure to pollutants are essential parameters to consider. The main aim of this study is to assess the effects of calcium (Ca) availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on early-stage reproduction in two passerine species, great tits (Parus major) and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. Both species were able to obtain sufficient Ca for eggshell formation, and metal pollution was below the level of having negative effects in the egg size and eggshell characteristics. However, metal polluted environment negatively affected yolk lutein and vitamin D3 levels in both species, probably because of a lower access to carotenoid-rich diet and higher metal interference with vitamin D3 metabolism. The higher levels of vitamin D3 in yolks in the unpolluted zone could also be due to upregulated D3 levels as a response to the lower natural Ca availability. Yolk carotenoids and vitamin D3 were positively associated with nestling growth and size, supporting their importance for the appropriate chick development. The interspecific differences in yolk nutrient concentrations possibly reflect the different growth rate of these species. Pied flycatchers are likely adapted to low Ca availability through an efficient vitamin D3 metabolism, but their Ca intake could be close to a deficient level. PMID:26943740

  19. STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON POLLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE AREA SC ROMPLUMB BAIA MARE FROM ANTHROPOGENICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COCIORHAN CAMELIA SIMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main ways of soil pollution are: on path air or atmospheric path and on terrestrial path, pollution path of direct their. Sources of air pollution are two categories: natural sources (volcanic eruptions, decomposition acts, etc. and artificial, resulting from human activities (mining and metallurgy, energy, etc.. Solid air pollutants are those treated in the paper. They are dispersed in the air from emissions of particles which containing heavy metal ions in the atmosphere having a low sedimentation rate. Finest particles, dispersed in the air gets a considerable stability, for which will persist for a much longer time in air, thereby of increasing pollution. Direct pollution comes from direct deposit of minerals on the soil as raw materials and hazardous waste, particle entrainment by deflation surface dumps, infiltration of sewage from emplacement, accidental discharge of sewage from the emplacement and crack pipes, etc. This paper shows how it is influenced soil pollution and crack pipes, etc. from the perimeter intrauzinal and extrauzinal of SC Romplumb SA by two of the factors leading to pollution, conveying technological waste water and atmospheric emissions, respectivelly.

  20. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED) visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110). Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we co...

  1. Microscale anthropogenic pollution modelling in a small tropical island during weak trade winds: Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations using real nested LES meteorological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécé, Raphaël; Bernard, Didier; Brioude, Jérome; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2016-08-01

    Tropical islands are characterized by thermal and orographical forcings which may generate microscale air mass circulations. The Lesser Antilles Arc includes small tropical islands (width lower than 50 km) where a total of one-and-a-half million people live. Air quality over this region is affected by anthropogenic and volcanic emissions, or saharan dust. To reduce risks for the population health, the atmospheric dispersion of emitted pollutants must be predicted. In this study, the dispersion of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) is numerically modelled over the densely populated area of the Guadeloupe archipelago under weak trade winds, during a typical case of severe pollution. The main goal is to analyze how microscale resolutions affect air pollution in a small tropical island. Three resolutions of domain grid are selected: 1 km, 333 m and 111 m. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used to produce real nested microscale meteorological fields. Then the weather outputs initialize the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (FLEXPART). The forward simulations of a power plant plume showed good ability to reproduce nocturnal peaks recorded by an urban air quality station. The increase in resolution resulted in an improvement of model sensitivity. The nesting to subkilometer grids helped to reduce an overestimation bias mainly because the LES domains better simulate the turbulent motions governing nocturnal flows. For peaks observed at two air quality stations, the backward sensitivity outputs identified realistic sources of NOx in the area. The increase in resolution produced a sharper inverse plume with a more accurate source area. This study showed the first application of the FLEXPART-WRF model to microscale resolutions. Overall, the coupling model WRF-LES-FLEXPART is useful to simulate the pollutant dispersion during a real case of calm wind regime over a complex terrain area. The forward and backward simulation results showed clearly that the

  2. A combined archeomagnetic and mycrostratographic study of Neolithic anthropogenic burnt sediments from the Can Sadurni cave (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Paccard, Miriam; Beamud, Elisabet; Bergada, Mercè; Martínez, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the variation of the Eart&hacute;s magnetic field in the past is an important topic in Earth Sciences today. New archeomagnetic data are crucial to expand the regional and global geomagnetic field models. However, very few archeomagnetic data are available in Europe before the third millenium BC. Recent archeomagnetic studies demonstrated that burnt anthropogenic cave sediments (fumiers) can provide a unique record of past geomagnetic field directions. In this study we present a combined archeomagnetic and microstratigraphic analysis of Neolithic anthropogenic sediments from the Can Sadurní cave (Begues, Baix Llobregat, northeastern Spain). Can Sadurní archaeological site is a cave located at the Garraf mountains, 450 m above sea level and about 25 km west of Barcelona (northeastern Spain). Excavations started in 1978 and are still in progress. Twenty-eight different levels have been identified, ranging from Epipalaeolithic (10 840-10 410 cal. BCE) to the Roman period. The samples studied here were sampled in a fumier corresponding to the E.XIV level and dated between 5650 and 5700 BP by archeological and radiocarbon results. Alternating field demagnetization experiments allow us to obtain a well-defined archeomagnetic direction for this period. Together with additional rock-magnetic analysis , the results indicate that the magnetisation is carried by low-coercivity ferromagnetic minerals. The new archeomagentic direction is compared with previous archeomagnetic data and models. The microstratigraphic analysis allows us to document some animal stabling practices in which two units can be distingished: a) mineralized residues (ash) with charcoal fragments and, b) charred dung.

  3. Future anthropogenic pollutant emissions in a Mediterranean port city with emphasis on the maritime sector emissions - Study of the impact on the city air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Markakis, Konstantinos; Giannaros, Theodoros; Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Melas, Dimitrios

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is the estimation of the future emissions in the area of the large urban center of Thessaloniki (Greece) with emphasis on the emissions originated from the maritime sector within the port area of the city which are presented in detail. In addition, the contribution of the future anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric pollution levels in Thessaloniki focusing on PM levels is studied. A 2km spatial resolution anthropogenic gaseous and particulate matter emission inventory has been compiled for the port city of Thessaloniki for the year 2010 with the anthropogenic emission model MOSESS, developed by Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. MOSESS was used for the estimation of emissions from several emission sources (road transport, central heating, industries, maritime sector etc) while the natural emission model NEMO was implemented for the calculation of dust, sea salt and biogenic emissions. Maritime emissions originated from the various processes inside the area of the port (harbor operations such as stockpiles, loading/unloading operations, machineries etc) as well as from the maritime transport sector including passenger ships, cargo shipping, inland waterways vessels (e.g. pleasure crafts) and fish catching ships. Ship emissions were estimated for the three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by local and national authorities (e.g.Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A.). Pollutant anthropogenic emissions were projected to the year 2020. The emissions from all the anthropogenic sources except for the maritime sector were projected using factors provided by the GAINS model. Future emissions from the maritime activities were estimated on the basis of the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and of the legislation for shipping in the future. Future maritime emissions are determined by the vessels

  4. EVALUATING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF CERTAIN FOREST SPECIES IN THE CONDITION OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION IN CRUCEA, SUCEAVA COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Viorel Oniciuc; Elena Tutu; Dumitru Cojocaru; Elena Ciornea

    2013-01-01

    Most economic activities that constitute the progress generator of an unprecedented development ofthe human society had led to a multiple and sever impact on the ecosystems. The scale in which this anthropogenicimpact manifests itself can vary greatly, being conditioned by the general and local dynamics of the pollution generatingprocesses. For this reason, there had been made some necessary investigations in order to evaluate its dimensions.Considered to be polluting for the forest ecosystem...

  5. Anthropogenic versus natural processes and pollution in Padana Valley in last years involving new communication/policy strategies and ethical issues in research evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Vaccaro, Carmela; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Smart grids-Smat cities "fashion" requires management plans of highly urbanized areas located over the Padanian floodplain, which are prone to diffuse pollution of both lands and urban sectors, mostly after the disasters caused by tremendous alluvial rains in January 2014, when shallow aquifers and agricultural matters could have increase pollution over wide territory. Moreover the urban expansion has affected areas previously used for industrial activity and in some cases such for landfills. When the loss of memory of previous activity prevails after urbanization, with health issues, ethical questions are inevitable, accompanied by social conflicts and economic impacts. The alluvial plains of active tectonic areas - as the Padania Valley - in additions to widespread "anthropogenic pollution" is suffering from widespread "natural pollution" of deep fluid sources - mainly methane - corresponding to areas prone to uprising gaseous brines, along faults. Some of them were partially activated during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. This noteworthy seismic sequence engaged discussion about the possible role of gas storages and hydrocarbons production or the simple/exploring drilling activity to trigger typical tectonic seismicity. The paper deepen this troubled communication strategy, their gaps and peculiar geopolicy case histories, to avoid the same strategy, in the future. On the other hand, gas burst or brine-gas-contamination in shallow aquifers, soils and indoor, should be studied by simple and cheap methods, by deepening stratigraphic gaps for the tectonics effects on sedimentation: natural processes should be recalled prior to recall anthropogenic causes, if any. Policy should be more responsible in state clearly the role of research in study infrastructures/processes, also when engaged by private companies, for sites selected by ministries mostly to star research: relevant gaps involves serious confusion in the public as regards responsibility and an exact

  6. Natural and Anthropogenic Source of Heavy Metals Pollution in the Soil Samples of an Industrial Complex; a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mohammadi Roozbahani; Soheil Sobhanardakani; Hoda Karimi; Rezvan Sorooshnia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it can bind to various chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of some metals (Cd, Cu, Fe and V) in soil samples collected from different stations of Ahvaz Industrial Complex II to determine the natural and anthropogenic contribution of metal in the soil. Methods: This was an experimental study that carried out in 2013. Soil samples were obtained from 9 stations and were subjected to bulk digestion and che...

  7. Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway of Hepatocytes from Natural Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail: moleksiak@rsmas.miami.edu

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Polluted fish had lower LEAK, enzyme III and enzyme IV but higher enzyme I. • Exposures to PAH and PCB only affected individuals from the reference population. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), potentially target mitochondria and cause toxicity. We compared the effects of POPs on mitochondrial respiration by measuring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from lab-depurated Fundulus heteroclitus from a Superfund site contaminated with PAHs (Elizabeth River VA, USA) relative to OxPhos metabolism in individuals from a relatively clean, reference population (King’s Creek VA, USA). In individuals from the polluted Elizabeth River population, OxPhos metabolism displayed lower LEAK and lower activities in complex III, complex IV, and E State, but higher activity in complex I compared to individuals from the reference King’s Creek population. To test the supposition that these differences were due to or related to the chronic PAH contamination history of the Elizabeth River population, we compared the OxPhos functions of undosed individuals from the polluted and reference populations to individuals from these populations dosed with a PAH {benzo [α] pyrene (BaP)} or a PCB {PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl)}, respectively. Exposure to PAH or PCB affected OxPhos in the reference King’s Creek population but had no detectable effects on the polluted Elizabeth River population. Thus, PAH exposure significantly increased LEAK, and exposure to PCB126 significantly decreased State 3, E state and complex I activity in the reference King’s Creek population. These data strongly implicate an evolved tolerance in the Elizabeth River fish where dosed

  8. Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway of Hepatocytes from Natural Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Polluted fish had lower LEAK, enzyme III and enzyme IV but higher enzyme I. • Exposures to PAH and PCB only affected individuals from the reference population. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), potentially target mitochondria and cause toxicity. We compared the effects of POPs on mitochondrial respiration by measuring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from lab-depurated Fundulus heteroclitus from a Superfund site contaminated with PAHs (Elizabeth River VA, USA) relative to OxPhos metabolism in individuals from a relatively clean, reference population (King’s Creek VA, USA). In individuals from the polluted Elizabeth River population, OxPhos metabolism displayed lower LEAK and lower activities in complex III, complex IV, and E State, but higher activity in complex I compared to individuals from the reference King’s Creek population. To test the supposition that these differences were due to or related to the chronic PAH contamination history of the Elizabeth River population, we compared the OxPhos functions of undosed individuals from the polluted and reference populations to individuals from these populations dosed with a PAH {benzo [α] pyrene (BaP)} or a PCB {PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl)}, respectively. Exposure to PAH or PCB affected OxPhos in the reference King’s Creek population but had no detectable effects on the polluted Elizabeth River population. Thus, PAH exposure significantly increased LEAK, and exposure to PCB126 significantly decreased State 3, E state and complex I activity in the reference King’s Creek population. These data strongly implicate an evolved tolerance in the Elizabeth River fish where dosed

  9. Sources and timing of anthropogenic pollution in the Ensenada de San Simon (inner Ria de Vigo), Galicia, NW Spain: an application of mixture-modelling and nonlinear optimization to recent sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, Richard J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.howarth@ucl.ac.uk; Evans, Graham [Southampton Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W. [Southampton Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Cundy, Andrew B. [Southampton Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-20

    The Ensenada de San Simon is the inner part of the Ria de Vigo, one of the major mesotidal rias of the Galician coast, NW Spain. The geochemistry of its bottom sediments can be accounted for in terms of both natural and anthropogenic sources. Mixture-modelling enables much of the Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations of the bottom and subaqueous sediments to be explained by sediment input from the river systems and faecal matter from manmade mussel rafts. The compositions and relative contributions of additional, unknown, sources of anomalous heavy-metal concentrations are quantified using constrained nonlinear optimization. The pattern of metal enrichment is attributed to: material carried in solution and suspension in marine water entering the Ensenada from the polluted industrial areas of the adjacent Ria de Vigo; wind-borne urban dusts and/or vehicular emissions from the surrounding network of roads and a motorway road-bridge over the Estrecho de Rande; industrial and agricultural pollution from the R. Redondela; and waste from a former ceramics factory near the mouth of the combined R. Oitaben and R. Verdugo. Using {sup 137}Cs dating, it is suggested that heavy metal build-up in the sediments since the late 1970s followed development of inshore fisheries and introduction of the mussel rafts (ca. 1960) and increasing industrialisation.

  10. Sources and timing of anthropogenic pollution in the Ensenada de San Simon (inner Ria de Vigo), Galicia, NW Spain: an application of mixture-modelling and nonlinear optimization to recent sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ensenada de San Simon is the inner part of the Ria de Vigo, one of the major mesotidal rias of the Galician coast, NW Spain. The geochemistry of its bottom sediments can be accounted for in terms of both natural and anthropogenic sources. Mixture-modelling enables much of the Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations of the bottom and subaqueous sediments to be explained by sediment input from the river systems and faecal matter from manmade mussel rafts. The compositions and relative contributions of additional, unknown, sources of anomalous heavy-metal concentrations are quantified using constrained nonlinear optimization. The pattern of metal enrichment is attributed to: material carried in solution and suspension in marine water entering the Ensenada from the polluted industrial areas of the adjacent Ria de Vigo; wind-borne urban dusts and/or vehicular emissions from the surrounding network of roads and a motorway road-bridge over the Estrecho de Rande; industrial and agricultural pollution from the R. Redondela; and waste from a former ceramics factory near the mouth of the combined R. Oitaben and R. Verdugo. Using 137Cs dating, it is suggested that heavy metal build-up in the sediments since the late 1970s followed development of inshore fisheries and introduction of the mussel rafts (ca. 1960) and increasing industrialisation

  11. Sources and timing of anthropogenic pollution in the Ensenada de San Simon (inner Ria de Vigo), Galicia, NW Spain: an application of mixture-modelling and nonlinear optimization to recent sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Richard J; Evans, Graham; Croudace, Ian W; Cundy, Andrew B

    2005-03-20

    The Ensenada de San Simon is the inner part of the Ria de Vigo, one of the major mesotidal rias of the Galician coast, NW Spain. The geochemistry of its bottom sediments can be accounted for in terms of both natural and anthropogenic sources. Mixture-modelling enables much of the Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations of the bottom and subaqueous sediments to be explained by sediment input from the river systems and faecal matter from manmade mussel rafts. The compositions and relative contributions of additional, unknown, sources of anomalous heavy-metal concentrations are quantified using constrained nonlinear optimization. The pattern of metal enrichment is attributed to: material carried in solution and suspension in marine water entering the Ensenada from the polluted industrial areas of the adjacent Ria de Vigo; wind-borne urban dusts and/or vehicular emissions from the surrounding network of roads and a motorway road-bridge over the Estrecho de Rande; industrial and agricultural pollution from the R. Redondela; and waste from a former ceramics factory near the mouth of the combined R. Oitaben and R. Verdugo. Using (137)Cs dating, it is suggested that heavy metal build-up in the sediments since the late 1970s followed development of inshore fisheries and introduction of the mussel rafts (ca. 1960) and increasing industrialisation. PMID:15752499

  12. EVALUATING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF CERTAIN FOREST SPECIES IN THE CONDITION OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION IN CRUCEA, SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Viorel Oniciuc

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most economic activities that constitute the progress generator of an unprecedented development ofthe human society had led to a multiple and sever impact on the ecosystems. The scale in which this anthropogenicimpact manifests itself can vary greatly, being conditioned by the general and local dynamics of the pollution generatingprocesses. For this reason, there had been made some necessary investigations in order to evaluate its dimensions.Considered to be polluting for the forest ecosystem and the surrounding area, the target of this study had been theuranium mine at Crucea, located in Suceava Country. Taking into account the fact that depending on the quantity of thepolluting material substances to which the species are exposed, different physiological and biochemical effects appearsuch as the reduction of the photosynthesis due to the degradation of the chlorophyll, an increase in the respiratoryfrequency, changes in the metabolism of the proteins and the enzymatic activity, the following physiological andbiochemical indices where measured: catalase, peroxidase and the assimilating pigments that are included in thephotoreceptors of the two photosystems integrated in the photosynthesis process, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.Moreover, the chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b ratio, the caretonoid pigments and the relation between the chlorophyll and thecarotenes where taken into account while a determination was made on the activity of the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases.Researches had been made on foliar material sampled from different species of gymnosperms and angiosperms and onsoil samples taken in the contaminated area (Crucea as well as in the control area (Putna, Suceava County.

  13. On Hydraulic and Pollution Effects of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    systems to become serviced with separate sewer systems decreases the volumes of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant and discharged as combined sewer overflow. This happens at the expense of an increase in volumes of storm water and pollutant loads diverted to local...

  14. The source of natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments of the Minjiang River Estuary (SE China): Implications for historical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonghang, E-mail: yonghang_xu@163.com [Open Laboratory of Ocean and Coast Environmental Geology, Third Institute of Oceanography State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Qinqin [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Coast and Island Management Technology Study, Fujian Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen 361013 (China); Yi, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin, Xijie; Wang, Aijun; Li, Yunhai; Chen, Jian [Open Laboratory of Ocean and Coast Environmental Geology, Third Institute of Oceanography State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Two sedimentary cores in the Minjiang River estuary (SE China) are documented for grain size, clay minerals, heavy metals, magnetic parameters and Pb isotopes to investigate the source and historical variation of heavy metals. The MJK9 core was collected outside of the Minjiang River estuary, and the core is composed of mixed sediments, of which ∼ 70% from the Yangtze River and 30% from the Minjiang River. It is thus difficult to be used for tracing the human activity along the Minjiang River. In contrast, the sediments of MJK16 core which was collected in a nearshore area are primarily from the Minjiang River. The enrichment factors of the sediments were < 1.5, indicating minor pollution. The results indicate that the sediments of the MJK16 core have Cu and Pb concentrations increasing since 1980, associated with the increase of magnetic mineral concentration and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 208}Pb of the sediments. We compared the Pb isotopic compositions between our results and those for the deposit mining in the Minjiang River basin, and aerosols and coal dust in south China, and considered that Pb in the sediments of the MJK16 core was derived primarily from weathered rocks as well as industrial emission (e.g. coal combustion). The sediments have anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranging from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010, consistent with the impact of rapid urban and industrial development in China. - Highlights: • Grain size, clay mineral and Pb isotope were used to identify sediment sources. • The contribution of Yangtze River to northern of Taiwan Strait was quantified. • Enrichment factors indicated Cu and Pb have increased over the last decades. • Coal combustion was the prevailing contamination source. • The anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranged from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010.

  15. The source of natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments of the Minjiang River Estuary (SE China): Implications for historical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sedimentary cores in the Minjiang River estuary (SE China) are documented for grain size, clay minerals, heavy metals, magnetic parameters and Pb isotopes to investigate the source and historical variation of heavy metals. The MJK9 core was collected outside of the Minjiang River estuary, and the core is composed of mixed sediments, of which ∼ 70% from the Yangtze River and 30% from the Minjiang River. It is thus difficult to be used for tracing the human activity along the Minjiang River. In contrast, the sediments of MJK16 core which was collected in a nearshore area are primarily from the Minjiang River. The enrichment factors of the sediments were < 1.5, indicating minor pollution. The results indicate that the sediments of the MJK16 core have Cu and Pb concentrations increasing since 1980, associated with the increase of magnetic mineral concentration and 206Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/208Pb of the sediments. We compared the Pb isotopic compositions between our results and those for the deposit mining in the Minjiang River basin, and aerosols and coal dust in south China, and considered that Pb in the sediments of the MJK16 core was derived primarily from weathered rocks as well as industrial emission (e.g. coal combustion). The sediments have anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranging from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010, consistent with the impact of rapid urban and industrial development in China. - Highlights: • Grain size, clay mineral and Pb isotope were used to identify sediment sources. • The contribution of Yangtze River to northern of Taiwan Strait was quantified. • Enrichment factors indicated Cu and Pb have increased over the last decades. • Coal combustion was the prevailing contamination source. • The anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranged from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010

  16. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS IN THE ASPECT OF THEIR IMPACT ON A RECEIVER

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Brzezińska

    2016-01-01

    Increased efficiency of wastewater treatment highlights the role of combined sewer overflows in deterioration the quality of water receiver because pollutant loads discharged by them have a growing share in entire load discharged into a receiver. The article contains the results of the wastewater quality analyzes emitted into the receiver from the three studied combined sewer overflows of the city of Lodz. The results demonstrated a large variations in the pollutant concentration directed to ...

  17. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  18. Determination of nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) by using a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccon, Pierpaolo; Leis, Albrecht [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, 8010 Graz (Austria); Marca, Alina; Kaiser, Jan; Campisi, Laura [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich (United Kingdom); Boettcher, Michael E.; Escher, Peter [Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Geochemistry and Isotope Geochemistry Group, D-18119 Rostock (Germany); Savarino, Joel; Erbland, Joseph [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE) UMR 5183 (France); Eisenhauer, Anton [GEOMAR, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Ozean Forschung Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1-3, 24148 Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Due to increased pollution by nitrate from intensive agricultural and other anthropogenic activities the Marano lagoon (northeast Italy) and part of its catchment area have been investigated, applying a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques. Thus, to identify and characterize the potential multiple-sources of nitrate pollution the isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O), boron (δ{sup 11}B), water (δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O), and sulphate (δ{sup 34}S and δ{sup 18}O), as well as the chemical composition of different water types have been determined. In the monitoring program water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater upwelling line, groundwater, sewage, and open sea on a quarterly interval from 2009 to 2010 have been collected and analyzed. Coupling isotopic and hydrochemical results indicate that the nitrate load in the lagoon was not only derived from agriculture activities but also from other sources such as urban wastewaters, in situ nitrification, and atmospheric deposition. However, none of the samples showed the isotopic characteristics of synthetic fertilizers. (authors)

  19. Determination of nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) by using a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased pollution by nitrate from intensive agricultural and other anthropogenic activities the Marano lagoon (northeast Italy) and part of its catchment area have been investigated, applying a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques. Thus, to identify and characterize the potential multiple-sources of nitrate pollution the isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O), boron (δ11B), water (δ2H and δ18O), and sulphate (δ34S and δ18O), as well as the chemical composition of different water types have been determined. In the monitoring program water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater upwelling line, groundwater, sewage, and open sea on a quarterly interval from 2009 to 2010 have been collected and analyzed. Coupling isotopic and hydrochemical results indicate that the nitrate load in the lagoon was not only derived from agriculture activities but also from other sources such as urban wastewaters, in situ nitrification, and atmospheric deposition. However, none of the samples showed the isotopic characteristics of synthetic fertilizers. (authors)

  20. Clay-biodegradable polymer combination for pollutant removal from water

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Mohd Amin; S. G. J. Heijman; L. C. Rietveld

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new treatment alternative is investigated to remove micropollutants from wastewater effectively and in a more cost-effective way. A potential solution is the use of clay in combination with biodegradable polymeric flocculants. Flocculation is viewed as the best method to get the optimum outcome from the combination of clay with starch. Clay is naturally abundantly available and relatively inexpensive compared to the conven...

  1. Pollution evaluation in the Shahrood River: Do physico-chemical and macroinvertebrate-based indices indicate same responses to anthropogenic activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifinia, Moslem; Mahmoudifard, Abbas; Imanpour Namin, Javid; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Shahrood River using water physico-chemical variables and macroinvertebrates data sets obtained over a period of 12 months between February 2012 and February 2013 at 8 sampling sites. Biotic indices i.e. FBI and BMWP based on macroinvertebrates and physico-chemical indices (MPI, HPI and NSF-WQI) were employed to evaluate the water quality status in connection with natural- and human-induced pressures. Based on physico-chemical indices, water quality was categorized as low polluted level and it is suitable for drinking purposes. The water quality based on biotic indices was related to the anthropic activities; a clear deterioration of the water quality was observed from upstream to downstream sites. The water quality along the river changed from very good (class I; reference sites) to good (class II; midstream sites) and turned into moderate (class III) and poor (class IV) quality (downstream sites). These findings indicate that biotic indices are more powerful indicators in assessing water quality than physico-chemical indices. Allocapnia, Glossosoma and Hesperoperla were exclusively related to least disturbed sites, and Naididae, Orthocladiinae and Ecdyonurus were found in sites showing notable degradation. Our results recommended that the use of macroinvertebrates could be employed as a cost-effective tool for biomonitoring and controlling of polluted riverine ecosystems in the Middle East. Finally, the results from this study may be useful not only for developing countries, but also for any organization struggling to use macroinvertebrate based indices with restricted financial resources and knowledge. PMID:27343865

  2. Biogenic robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Punica granatum peel and its application as a green catalyst for the reduction of an anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, T. Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    A robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the peel extract of Punica granatum is reported in this article. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by the appearance of brownish yellow color and the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) peak at 432 nm. The biogenic AgNPs were found to have the size approximately 30 nm with distorted spherical shape. The high negative zeta potential values of AgNPs revealed their high stability which could be attributed to the capping of AgNPs by the phytoconstituents of the Punica granatum peel. The biogenic AgNPs were also found to function as an effective green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant viz., 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by solid sodium borohydride, which was evident from the instantaneous color change of bright yellow (400 nm) to colorless (294 nm) solution, after the addition of AgNPs. The catalytic action of biogenic AgNPs in the reduction of 4-NP could be explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  3. Clay-biodegradable polymer combination for pollutant removal from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mohd Amin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new treatment alternative is investigated to remove micropollutants from wastewater effectively and in a more cost-effective way. A potential solution is the use of clay in combination with biodegradable polymeric flocculants. Flocculation is viewed as the best method to get the optimum outcome from the combination of clay with starch. Clay is naturally abundantly available and relatively inexpensive compared to the conventional adsorbents used. Experimental studies were carried out with four different clays to select the best clay for further optimisation. The atrazine removal achieved is in the range of 10–99 % based on the clay concentration of 10–50 g L−1. Optimisation of the best clay performer leads towards atrazine reduction of > 99 % with a dosage of 100 mg L−1. The best and underperforming clays were then tested in other experiments with the addition of cationic starch flocculants. In this experiment, the addition of a polymer increased the atrazine removal for the underperforming clay to 46 % with only 10 mg L−1 clay dosages. The clay flocculation test was also performed to test the flocculation efficiency of clays by the polymer. Approximately 80–84 % of the clay is flocculated, which shows exceptional flocculation efficiency in removing both clays and atrazine from the water matrices.

  4. Household Anthropogenic Pollutants Against Soil Respiration Erin Murphy EnvironMentors - AggieMentor -Trent Ichiuji University of California Davis / Woodland High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Ichiuji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Macroscopic organisms have been largely studied for carbon dioxide release rate and the effect that human development has had on these rates. However, the majority of biomass on Earth is microbes found on the Earth's surface, in the waterways and in soil. As for pollution, a single drop of weak acid is unlikely to kill on the skin of a large animal, yet this could be catastrophic to a colony of microbes. This experiment studied the effect of anthropogenic pollution on soil respiration using toxins that could easily infiltrate our soil and water systems. This project specifically examined common household chemicals in conjunction with Putah Creek soil. The tested toxins were Mobil 1 motor oil, Windex window cleaner, Ajax dish soap, and Dawn antibacterial dish soap. Six samples of Putah Creek soil were collected in jars. Four soil samples were exposed to toxins, while the remaining two were the control and glucose replicates. The control included soil damped by water, while the glucose replicate included both water and glucose. The glucose replicate was included because of its known ability to encourage respiration. A 20 mL NaCl base trap was added to each jar before being sealed. The jars were aerated once a week before titration. The 1.0 N NaCl from each jar of each week was titrated with 0.5 N HCl. The initial prediction for this experiment was that the glucose would raise the respiration levels, and that the control with no glucose would fall. Five weeks of recording the respiration levels confirmed our hypothesis that household toxins are detrimental to the soil microbial community over time. A similar experiment employed heavy metals instead of household toxins. The experiment showed that soil respiration and ATP content were strongly affected by the heavy metal content present in the soil. (Vanhala, Ahtiainen, 1994). This project will raise awareness of the negative effect of improper disposal of seemingly harmless materials. The next step of the project would

  5. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS IN THE ASPECT OF THEIR IMPACT ON A RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Brzezińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased efficiency of wastewater treatment highlights the role of combined sewer overflows in deterioration the quality of water receiver because pollutant loads discharged by them have a growing share in entire load discharged into a receiver. The article contains the results of the wastewater quality analyzes emitted into the receiver from the three studied combined sewer overflows of the city of Lodz. The results demonstrated a large variations in the pollutant concentration directed to the receiver during rain events. The possible impact of untreated wastewater emitted to the receiver is also presented. Apart from the pollution of the receiver, mainly by organic and nutrient substances, the microbiological contamination which is dangerous for people using the river as a recreation area and for animals that use a water receiver as a source of drinking water, should be taken into particular attention.

  6. Assessment of pollutant load emission from combined sewer overflows based on the online monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Zawilski, Marek; Sakson, Grażyna

    2016-09-01

    Cities equipped with combined sewer systems discharge during wet weather a lot of pollutants into receiving waters by combined storm overflows (CSOs). According to the Polish legislation, CSOs should be activated no more than ten times per year, but in Lodz, most of the 18 existing CSOs operate much more frequently. To assess the pollutant load emitted by one of the existing CSOs, the sensors for measuring the concentration of total suspended solids (SOLITAX sc) and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (UVAS plus) installed in the overflow chamber as well as two flowmeters placed in the outflow sewer were used. In order to check the data from sensors, laboratory tests of combined wastewater quality were conducted simultaneously. For the analysis of the total pollutant load emitted from the overflow, the raw data was denoised using the Savitzky-Golay method. Comparing the load calculated from the analytical results to online smoothed measurements, negligible differences were found, which confirms the usefulness of applying the sensors in the combined sewer system. Online monitoring of the quantity and quality of wastewater emitted by the combined sewer overflows to water receivers, provides a considerable amount of data very useful for combined sewerage upgrading based on computer modelling, and allows for a significant reduction of laboratory analysis. PMID:27488195

  7. Combined Effect of Aircraft Noise and Pollutant Emissions by using ANN Model to Determine Healthy Risk Level

    OpenAIRE

    SETIA KURNIAWAN, Jermanto; KATILI, Irwan; MOERSIDIK, Setyo Sarwanto; Khardi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft noise and pollutant emissions are an important part of the sources of pollution around airport that directly or indirectly will affect harmful to human health and ecosystems. The effects of aircraft noise and emissions on the populations around airport are deal with annoying and sometimes dangerous. In order to address this issue, the research propose an integrating model of aircraft noise and pollutant emissions by combining effects of both noise and pollutant emissions using Artifi...

  8. Geochemical tracing of As pollution in the Orbiel Valley (southern France): 87Sr/86Sr as a tracer of the anthropogenic arsenic in surface and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Lancelot, Joël; Verdoux, Patrick; Boutin, René

    2014-05-01

    The environmental impacts of arsenic mining activities and their effects on ecosystem and human health are observed in many stream waters and groundwater. The aim of this study is to identify the origin of As content in a mining environment using Sr isotopes. At the Salsigne gold mine, before the closure in 2004, high arsenic content has been observed in surface water and groundwater in the Orbiel valley. At the site, immobilization of As, in As rich leachate, is carried out by adding CaO. High contrast in 87Sr/86Sr between Arsenic rich minerals associated with Variscan metamorphic rocks (0.714888-0.718835), together with rich As waste water (0.713463-715477), and the CaO (0.707593) allows as to trace the origin of anthropogenic As. In 2012, Orbiel stream waters were sampled monthly upstream and downstream from the ancient ore processing site and once after an important rainy event (117mm). The upstream valley samples showed low and relatively constant As content with natural regional background of 3.6 and 5.6 μg/L. The rainy event induced only a slight increase in the As content up to 6.3 μg/L. High 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggested an influence of radiogenic Sr issued from the Variscan metamorphic basement. Downstream from the area, the As content was at least10 time as high. In the wet season, stream water As content clearly increased to 13.9-24 μg/L, reaching 120.5 μg/L during the rainy event. Associated 87Sr/86Sr ratio showed to be less radiogenic (0.712276-0.714002). The anti correlation observed between As and 87Sr/86Sr suggest that As issued from a natural origin is characterised by a high 87Sr/86Sr compared to As derived from the CaO treatement used on site and characterized by a low 87Sr/86Sr ratio. During the dry season, increase in As content was observed reaching 110 μg/L. These highlights the contribution of alluvial groundwater to base flow, probably associated with As reach leachate from the site. Contribution from the alluvial aquifer is confirmed by

  9. Rapid ecotoxicological assessment of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Su-hua; ZHOU Qi-xing; SUN Tie-heng; LI Pei-jun

    2003-01-01

    Quick, simple to perform, and cheap biomarkers were combined in a rapid assessment approach to measure the effects of metal pollutants, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in meadow burozem on wheat. Analysis of orthogonal design showed that the significant zinc factor indicated both the inhibition rate of shoot mass and that of root elongation were affected by zinc( P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The first toxicity canonical variable (TOXI), formed from the toxicity data set, explained 49% of the total variance in the toxicity data set; the first biological canonical variable(BIOL) explained 42% of the total variation in the biological data set. The correlation between the first canonical variables TOXI and BIOL (canonical correlation) was 0.94 ( P < 0.0001). Therefore, it is reliable and feasible to use the achievement to assess toxicity of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis. Toxicity of soil combined polluted by heavy metals to plant community was estimated by comparing the IC50 values describing the concentration needed to cause 50% decrease with grow rate compared to no metal addition. Environmental quality standard for soils prescribe that all these tested concentration of heavy metals in soil should not cause hazard and pollution ultimately, whereas it indicated that the soils in second grade cause more or less than 50% inhibition rates of wheat growth. So environmental quality standard for soils can be modified to include other features.

  10. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    The connection of climate change and air pollution is becoming more relevant in the process of policy making and implementation of emission control strategies because of resulting co-benefits and trade-offs. Some sectors, such as fossil fuel combustion, are sources of both pollutants (NOx and PM) as well as greenhouse gas (CO2). Additionally, the use of wood burning as biofuel to reduce climate impact may in fact deteriorate air quality. Furthermore, several air pollutants are important radiative forcers and regulating their emissions impacts on climate. It is evident that both problems need to be undertaken with a common strategy and the existence of cross-policy with co-benefits may encourage their implementation. The LIMITS FP7 project (http://www.feem-project.net/limits/index.html) was designed with the main goal of assessing strategies for reduction of GHG emissions so that the 2°C target can be achieved. The work developed focus on the evaluation of the implementation of strategies analysing several aspects of different scenarios, namely: the feasibility of low carbon scenarios in terms of available technologies and infrastructure, the required financial mechanisms, and also the co-benefits regarding energy security, economic development and air pollution. For the latter, five integrated assessment models (IAMs) provided greenhouse gases and pollutant emission values for several scenarios. These were based on air pollution scenarios defined according to stringency and implementation of future global legislation. They which were also combined with 2 climate policy scenarios (no climate policy and 2.8 W/m2 target). The former are mostly focused on non-climate policies and technical control measures for emissions of air pollutants, such as PM2.5, NOx and SO2, with their emission factors harmonized between the IAMs. With the global air quality source-receptor model TM5-FASST the impact of the resulting emissions was analysed and the co-benefits of combined

  11. Constraining CO2 tower measurements in an inhomogeneous area with anthropogenic emissions using a combination of car-mounted instrument campaigns, aircraft profiles, transport modeling and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Rella, C.; Conley, S. A.; Goeckede, M.; Law, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA CO2 observation network in Oregon has been enhanced by 3 new towers in 2012. The tallest tower in the network (270 m), located in Silverton in the Willamette Valley is affected by anthropogenic emissions from Oregon's busiest traffic routes and urban centers. In summer 2012, we conducted a measurement campaign using a car-mounted PICARRO CRDS CO2/CO analyzer. Over 3 days, the instrument was driven over 1000 miles throughout the northwestern portion of Oregon measuring the CO/ CO2 ratios on main highways, back roads in forests, agricultural sites, and Oregon's biggest urban centers. By geospatial analyses we obtained ratios of CO/ CO2 over distinct land cover types divided into 10 classes represented in the study area. Using the coupled WRF-STILT transport model we calculated the footprints of nearby CO/ CO2 observation towers for the corresponding days of mobile road measurements. Spatiotemporally assigned source areas in combination with the land use classification were then used to calculate specific ratios of CO (anthropogenic origins) and CO2 to separate the anthropogenic portion of CO2 from the mixing ratio time series measured at the tower in Silverton. The WRF modeled boundary layer heights used in out study showed some differences compared to the boundary layer heights derived from profile data of wind, temperature, and humidity measured with an airplane in August, September, and November 2012, repeatedly over 5 tower locations. A Bayesian Regularized Artificial Neural Network (BRANN) was used to correct the boundary layer height calculated with WRF with a temporal resolution of 20 minutes and a horizontal resolution of 4 km. For that purpose the BRANN was trained using height profile data from the flight campaigns and spatiotemporally corresponding meteorological data from WRF. Our analyses provide information needed to run inverse modeling of CO2 exchange in an area that is affected by sources that cannot easily be considered by biospheric models

  12. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    modifications were used to create specific databases and a GIS in which these data can be analyzed by typology, location and extension.

    The proposed approach highlights the high degree of correlation between drainage basin management, mainly in terms of increasing protection from natural hazards, and anthropogenic development in a broad coastal plain.

  13. Evaluation of genotoxicity of combined soil pollution by cadmium and imidacloprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Aijun; ZHU; Yongguan; TONG; Yiping

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the important pollutants of soil and the genotoxicity of Cd-contaminated soil was studied in combination with imidacloprid. The single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay was used to quantify DNA strand breaks as a measure of DNA damage induced by Cd and imidacloprid contamination in soil. The soil was artificially contaminated by Cd 2 h at 25℃ and were used in the comet assay. DNA damage was measured as the values of percentage of nuclei with tails, tail length, tail DNA, tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM). DNA damages of root tips of Vicia faba increased after Cd treatment and there were dose-related increases in DNA damage measured as these parameters. However, the addition of imidacloprid further increased the DNA damage. These data confirmed the genotoxic effect of Cd to plants, and that the combined pollution with imidacloprid can enhance the genotoxicity of Cd.

  14. The combination of natural isotopes with different environmental archives to trace pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring isotopic systems, like those for strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb ), are very useful for characterizing different sources of pollution and to define/verify the pathways of their transport from source to receptor. Measures taken to reduce the emission of pollutants can be monitored, and it is possible to produce a background information on the present and past levels of Pb in man, in the environment and in various geographical regions, and to elucidate living habits in historic and modern times. The stable isotopic systems of Pb and Sr each give much valuable information, but the combination of the two techniques is a very powerful tool in environmental, nutrition and archaeological research. Still more information may be obtained by the combination with the light stable isotope systems in problems concerning eutrophication, fertilization, mine drainage, deterioration of the cultural heritage etc

  15. In situ combined chemical and biological assessment of estrogenic pollution in a water recycling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yulang; Huang, Qiansheng; Zhang, Huanteng; Chen, Yajie; Dong, Sijun

    2016-05-01

    Estrogenic pollution and its control in aquatic systems have drawn substantial attention around the world. The chemical and biological assessment approaches currently utilized in the laboratory or field cannot give an integrated assessment of the pollution when used separately. In this study, in situ chemical and biological methods were combined to detect pollution in a water recycling system. Data for the water quality index (WQI) demonstrated that the water treatment resulted in the decline of pollution from upstream to downstream. Wild male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was sampled in June and September. The concentrations of four common endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were determined in the tilapia liver by chromatographic analysis methods. The level of 17β-estradiol (E2) declined from upstream to downstream in both months. In contrast, the levels of bisphenol A (BPA), di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate (DEHP), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) did not display this declining tendency. The highest relative expression of vitellogenin 1 (VTG1) was observed in tilapia from upstream, then the level significantly decreased along the water system. The relative expression levels of CYP1A1 in the water system were also significantly higher than that of the control. However, no declining trend could be observed along the water system. The change of VTG1 expression corresponded well with that of E2 levels in the tilapia liver. Overall, our study assessed the pollution by endocrine disruptors using chemical and biological data with good correspondence. This study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the water recycling system in eliminating estrogen pollution in municipal sewage. PMID:27155427

  16. Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granier, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Bond, T.; D'Angiola, A.; Gon, H.D. van der; Frost, G.J.; Heil, A.; Kaiser, J.W.; Kinne, S.; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, C.; Masui, T.; Meleux, F.; Mieville, A.; Ohara, T.; Raut, J.-C.; Riahi, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Smith, S.J.; Thompson, A.; Aardenne, J. van; Werf, G.R. van der; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2011-01-01

    Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical

  17. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored. PMID:26479914

  18. Evaluation of genotoxicity of combined soil pollution by cadmium and phenanthrene on earthworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiang; ZHAO Zuo-yuan; LU Yi-tong

    2006-01-01

    The DNA-damaging effects of the combined pollution of heavy metal and organic contamination on earthworms were evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. Earthworms Eisenia andrei were exposed to single or combined test compounds in different doses of cadmium (Cd) 5, 10, 50 mg/kg and phenanthrene (Phe) 0.5, 2.5, 12.5 mg/kg with a treatment of 14 d.In SCGE assay, isolated coelomcytes and electrophoresis were employed to determine DNA damage degree after a 14-d treatment by test compounds. The results showed that there was a significant statistical difference between earthworms treated with Cd combined Phe with them treated alone with Cd or Phe. The Olive tail moment (OTM) of SCGE assay using earthworm coelomcytes appears to be a sensitive biomarker for evaluating exposure to genotoxic compounds. These tests also revealed that the interaction between Cd and Phe to DNA damaging effects was negative, and was strongly dependent on the concentration of pollution. This study corresponds to exploratory phase in order to reveal interaction effects of heavy metal and organic contamination on earthworms and then to set up more in-depth analysis to increase progressively the understanding of the genotoxicity mechanisms involved.

  19. Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Nastis, S. A.; Achillas, Ch.; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.

    2010-09-01

    This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentration fields for 2002 and for specific emission reduction scenarios for the year 2010 were estimated with the Ozone Fine Structure model in the area under consideration. Total economic damage to crops turns out to be significant and estimated to be approximately 43 M€ for the reference year. Production of cotton presents the highest economic loss, which is over 16 M€, followed by table tomato (9 M€), rice (4.2 M€), wheat (4 M€) and oilseed rape (2.8 M€) cultivations. Losses are not spread uniformly among farmers and the major losses occur in areas with valuable ozone-sensitive crops. The results are very useful for highlighting the magnitude of the total economic impacts of photochemical air pollution to the area's agricultural sector and can potentially be used for comparison with studies worldwide. Furthermore, spatial analysis of the economic damage could be of importance for governmental authorities and decision makers since it provides an indicative insight, especially if the economic instruments such as financial incentives or state subsidies to farmers are considered.

  20. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic pollution on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation in PM2.5 collected from the Birmingham, Alabama, ground site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Chu, Kevin; Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Riva, Matthieu; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Edgerton, Eric S.; Baumann, Karsten; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Guo, Hongyu; King, Laura; Weber, Rodney J.; Neff, Miranda E.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Offenberg, John H.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-04-01

    In the southeastern US, substantial emissions of isoprene from deciduous trees undergo atmospheric oxidation to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that contributes to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Laboratory studies have revealed that anthropogenic pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and aerosol acidity, can enhance SOA formation from the hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of isoprene; however, the mechanisms by which specific pollutants enhance isoprene SOA in ambient PM2.5 remain unclear. As one aspect of an investigation to examine how anthropogenic pollutants influence isoprene-derived SOA formation, high-volume PM2.5 filter samples were collected at the Birmingham, Alabama (BHM), ground site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Sample extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) with prior trimethylsilylation and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS) to identify known isoprene SOA tracers. Tracers quantified using both surrogate and authentic standards were compared with collocated gas- and particle-phase data as well as meteorological data provided by the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollution on isoprene-derived SOA formation. Results of this study reveal that isoprene-derived SOA tracers contribute a substantial mass fraction of organic matter (OM) ( ˜ 7 to ˜ 20 %). Isoprene-derived SOA tracers correlated with sulfate (SO42-) (r2 = 0.34, n = 117) but not with NOx. Moderate correlations between methacrylic acid epoxide and hydroxymethyl-methyl-α-lactone (together abbreviated MAE/HMML)-derived SOA tracers with nitrate radical production (P[NO3]) (r2 = 0.57, n = 40) were observed during nighttime, suggesting a potential role of the NO3 radical in

  1. Remediation of metal polluted soils by phytorremediation combined with biochar addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gómez-Limón, Dulce; César Arranz, Julio; Saa, Antonio; Gascó, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this work is to optimize and quantify the treatment of metal polluted soils through phytoremediation techniques combined with the addition of biochar. Biochar is a carbon rich material obtained by thermal treatment of biomass in inert atmosphere. In recent years, it has been attracted considerable interest due to their positive effect after soil addition. The use of biochar also seems appropriate for the treatment of metal-contaminated soils decreasing their mobility. Biochar properties highly depend on the raw material composition and manufacturing conditions. This paper is based on the use of manure wastes, rich in nutrients and therefore interesting raw materials for biochar production, especially when combined with phytoremediation techniques since the biochar act as conditioner and slow release fertilizer. We are very grateful to Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (Spain) for financial support under Project CGL2014-58322-R.

  2. Aquifer vulnerability to pesticide pollution - Combining soil, land-use and aquifer properties with molecular descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study uses an extensive survey of herbicides in groundwater across the midwest United States to predict occurrences of a range of compounds across the region from a combination of their molecular properties and the properties of the catchment of a borehole. The study covers 100 boreholes and eight pesticides. For each of the boreholes its catchment the soil, land-use and aquifer properties were characterized. Discriminating boreholes where pollution occurred from those where no pollution occurred gave a model that was 74% correct with organic carbon content, percentage sand content and depth to the water table being significant properties of the borehole catchment. Molecular topological descriptors as well as Koc, solubility and half-life were used to characterize each compound included in the study. Inclusion of molecular properties makes it possible to discriminate between occurrence and non-occurrence of each compound in each well. The best-fit model combines: organic carbon content, percentage sand content and depth to the water table with molecular descriptors representing molecular size, molecular branching and functional group composition of the herbicides.

  3. Quantification of anthropogenic impact on groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem using geochemical and isotope tools combined with 3-D flow and transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, A. J.; Witczak, S.; Dulinski, M.; Wachniew, P.; Rozanski, K.; Kania, J.; Postawa, A.; Karczewski, J.; Moscicki, W. J.

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) have important functions in all climatic zones as they contribute to biological and landscape diversity and provide important economic and social services. Steadily growing anthropogenic pressure on groundwater resources creates a conflict situation between nature and man which are competing for clean and safe sources of water. Such conflicts are particularly noticeable in GDEs located in densely populated regions. A dedicated study was launched in 2010 with the main aim to better understand the functioning of a groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) located in southern Poland. The GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest) and associated wetland (Wielkie Błoto fen). It relies mostly on groundwater from the shallow Quaternary aquifer and possibly from the deeper Neogene (Bogucice Sands) aquifer. In July 2009 a cluster of new pumping wells abstracting water from the Neogene aquifer was set up 1 km to the northern border of the fen. A conceptual model of the Wielkie Błoto fen area for the natural, pre-exploitation state and for the envisaged future status resulting from intense abstraction of groundwater through the new well field was developed. The main aim of the reported study was to probe the validity of the conceptual model and to quantify the expected anthropogenic impact on the studied GDTE. A wide range of research tools was used. The results obtained through combined geologic, geophysical, geochemical, hydrometric and isotope investigations provide strong evidence for the existence of upward seepage of groundwater from the deeper Neogene aquifer to the shallow Quaternary aquifer supporting the studied GDTE. Simulations of the groundwater flow field in the study area with the aid of a 3-D flow and transport model developed for Bogucice Sands (Neogene) aquifer and calibrated using environmental tracer data and observations of hydraulic head in three different locations on the study area

  4. Research on Energy Consumption Evaluation Combined with Endogenous Pollutants of China Based on Entropy-Topsis%Research on Energy Consumption Evaluation Combined with Endogenous Pollutants of China Based on Entropy-Topsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ao; Wu Chunyou; Wang Enxu

    2011-01-01

    The traditional evaluation of energy consumption mostly introduces pollutants as a negative economic output into evaluating model, ignoring the configuration relationship among the energy input, pollutants as well as economic output. This paper considers the overall process of energy consumption and constructs an evaluation indication system of energy consumption level combined with endogenous pollutants based on entropytopsis method, then makes empirical research. The results show that China's energy consumption level presents a fluctuant rise in the premise of emission. Energy consumption level depends on the relationship among energy input, pollutants and economic output. The raise of energy consumption level should not increase economic output and reduce pollutant emission at the expense of environment. Finally, the whole paper puts forward the countermeasures to improve the overall level of energy consumption.

  5. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penha-Lopes, G.; Torres, P.; Cannicci, S.; Narciso, L.; Paula, J.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance on...... Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one pen-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the pen-urban location were larger......, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and pen-urban mangroves. However, a higher level of...

  6. Effect of combined pollution by heavy metals on soil enzymatic activities in areas polluted by tailings from Pb-Zn-Ag mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Cheng-li; LIAO Min; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Some enzymatic activities were determined in the areas polluted by tailings from Tiantai Pb-Zn-Ag Mine in Zhejiang Province of China. The results indicated the soil enzymatic activities decreased significantly with increase of concentrations of heavy metals or the distance away from mining tailing center, especially dehydrogenase and urease activities. Multivariate regression analysis between heavy metal contents and soil enzymatic activities indicated that single dehydrogenase activity was very significantly correlated to combined effect of soil heavy metals in mine area. Moreover, single urease, protease and acid phosphatase activities were significantly related to the combined effect of heavy metals. The results suggest it is feasible to use soil enzymatic activities to indicate the pollution situation by combined heavy metals in the soil of mine area.

  7. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    OpenAIRE

    C. P. Nielsen; J. Zhang; Zhao, Y.

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissi...

  8. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    OpenAIRE

    C. P. Nielsen; J. Zhang; Zhao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions ...

  9. Satellite-Detected Carbon Monoxide Pollution during 2000–2012: Examining Global Trends and also Regional Anthropogenic Periods over China, the EU and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Laken, Benjamin A.; Tariq Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we test if any statistically significant periodicities are detectable in carbon monoxide emissions over China, the European Union, and the United States of America. To do this, we performed a period analysis using 10 years of daily-averaged data, from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument. Besides a seasonal period, we found no clearly detectable periods at any timescale with the exception of a strong signal at 2.28 days. This period was observed ...

  10. Low concentration volatile organic pollutants removal in combined adsorber-desorber-catalytic reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from numerous emission sources is of crucial importance due to more rigorous demands on air quality. Different technologies can be used to treat the VOCs from effluent gases: absorption, physical adsorption, open flame combustion, thermal and catalytic incineration. Their appropriateness for the specific process depends on several factors such as efficiency, energy consumption, secondary pollution, capital investments etc. The distinctive features of the catalytic combustion are high efficiency and selectivity toward be­nign products, low energy consumption and absence of secondary polluti­on. The supported noble catalysts are widely used for catalytic incineration due to their low ignition temperatures and high thermal and chemical stability. In our combined system adsorption and desorption are applied in the spouted bed with draft tube (SBDT unit. The annular zone, loaded with sorbent, was divided in adsorption and desorption section. Draft tube enabled sorbent recirculation between sections. Combustion of desorbed gases to CO2 and water vapor are realized in additive catalytic reactor. This integrated device provided low concentrations VOCs removal with reduced energy consumption. Experiments were conducted on a pilot unit of 220 m3/h nominal capacity. The sorbent was activated carbon, type K81/B - Trayal Corporation, Krusevac. A sphere shaped commercial Pt/Al2O3 catalyst with "egg-shell" macro-distribution was used for the investigation of xylene deep oxidation. Within this paper the investigations of removal of xylene vapors, a typical pollutant in production of liquid pesticides, in combined adsorber/desorber/catalytic reactor system is presented.

  11. Microbial Pollution Tracking of Dairy Farm with a Combined PCR-DGGE and qPCR Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jiachao; Kwok, Laiyu; Huo, Dongxue; Feng, Shuzhen; Zhang, Heping; Sun, Tiansong

    2015-12-01

    Animal husbandry is a traditional industry with regional characteristic in the Inner Mongolia of China. Recent years, animal breeding has been one of the main pollution sources in this area, followed by domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. The pollution of livestock farm feces may accelerate the development of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes which pose health risks to humans and animals. In present research, culture-independent molecular ecological methods based on DGGE combined with qPCR were used to investigate the pollution to surrounding environment with different degrees of livestock farm. The cluster analysis of DGGE patterns showed that the livestock farm feces from point pollution source flowed with wastewater discharge has resulted in an impacted range of at least 3000 m, but it did not cause pollution to residential water delivered from upstream of sewage drain outlet. qPCR results revealed that 5 common pathogens (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, and Salmonella) presented decreased trend as the sampled distance from point pollution source increased. Also, qPCR assays of 10 common antibiotic resistance genes (tetO, tetL, rpp, rpoB, sul2, sulA, floR, yidY, mphA, and ermC) which cause resistance to tetracycline, rifampicin, fluoroquinolone, quinolone, and erythromycin have been found in the environmental samples. This study clearly indicates the livestock farm discharge pollutants contaminated to the surrounding environment. Our data have provided important information to pollution control in the future. PMID:26341923

  12. Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977

  13. Biochemical Changes of the Organism of Apodemus flavicollis (Rodentia: Muridae Under Conditions of Environmental Anthropogenic Pollution by Heavy Metals in Northern Areas of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana V. Zadyra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research dedicates the integral assessment of biochemistry indexes of nature populations of rodents under conditions of environment pollution by heavy metals. The raised content in soils of mobile forms Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Co was revealed оn distance of 500 m to the South-West from Tripillya Thermal Power Plant (Kyiv region, Ukraine. That’s considerably (3–5 times exceeds levels for territory of Kaniv Nature Reserve (Cherkassy region, Ukraine. Territory of National Nature Park “Holosiivsky” (Kyiv, Ukraine characterized by rather increased content of active form of researched heavy metals especially Pb. Increase of the concentration of diene conjugates (3–7 times and malonic dialdehyde (2–4 times in yellow-necked mouse liver (Apodemus flavicollis of under pollution by heavy metals has been discovered. Insignificant increasing of content of Schiff basis in liver cells of rodents in region of impact of Tripillya TPP (in 2 times in spring and in summer, in autumn – in 2.5 times was detected. Seasonal dynamics of the maintenance of lipid peroxidation has been revealed. The registered changes of biochemical indicators testify about presence ecological-biochemical stress in an organism of the yellow-necked mouse in the district of influence of Tripillya TPP.

  14. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one peri-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the peri-urban location were larger, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and peri-urban mangroves. However, a higher level of parasitation by a Bopyridae isopod, Pseudione elongata indicated some degree of stress on the host at the peri-urban mangrove, with potential effects on the host population dynamics. -Research highlights: → Domestic sewage discharges at low concentrations increase fauna mangrove population parameters, due to the nutrient limitations. → Shrimps in the peri-urban mangrove location were larger, had longer reproductive periods, higher ovigerous females proportions and better embryo. → Physiological indice analysis (RNA/DNA ratio) between pristine and peri-urban mangroves. → Within the peri-urban mangrove, high levels of parasitation by Pseudionee longata caused stress and potential effects on the host population dynamics. → The effects of sewage on P. concinnus population increased the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal water. - The identification of the effects of the peri-urban conditions on P. concinnus increases the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal waters.

  15. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Torres, Paulo, E-mail: biol.paulo@gmail.co [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Cannicci, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cannicci@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Narciso, Luis, E-mail: lfnarciso@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Paula, Jose, E-mail: jppaula@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2011-02-15

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one peri-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the peri-urban location were larger, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and peri-urban mangroves. However, a higher level of parasitation by a Bopyridae isopod, Pseudione elongata indicated some degree of stress on the host at the peri-urban mangrove, with potential effects on the host population dynamics. -Research highlights: Domestic sewage discharges at low concentrations increase fauna mangrove population parameters, due to the nutrient limitations. Shrimps in the peri-urban mangrove location were larger, had longer reproductive periods, higher ovigerous females proportions and better embryo. Physiological indice analysis (RNA/DNA ratio) between pristine and peri-urban mangroves. Within the peri-urban mangrove, high levels of parasitation by Pseudionee longata caused stress and potential effects on the host population dynamics. The effects of sewage on P. concinnus population increased the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal water. - The identification of the effects of the peri-urban conditions on P. concinnus increases the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal waters.

  16. Effect of Combined Heavy Metal Pollution on Nitrogen Mineralization Potential,Urease and Phosphatase Activities in a Typic Udic Ferrisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGCHUNRONG; TUCONG; 等

    1999-01-01

    Individual and combined effects of Cu,Pb,Zn and Cd on N mineralization,urease and phosphatase were examined in a Typic Udic Ferrisol in laboratory by employing and uniform design and a single factor design,Soil pollution caused by heavy metals inhibited N mineralization (N0 value)and urease and phosphatase activities.The combined pollution of metals alleviated their toxicity to N mineralization to some extent whereas aggravated the toxicity to urease and phosphatase.Phosphorous application could mitigat the toxic effect of heavy metals on phosphatase activities,while alleviating effect of N application on the toxicity of heavy metals to urease was inconsistent.However,the mitigating effect of the fertilizers was limited in heavily polluted soils.

  17. Combined use of bacterial community analysis techniques and geographic information systems (GIS) for the evaluation of anthropogenic impact in coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.; Aguilo, M. M.; Martin-Cardona, C.; Nogales, B.

    2009-07-01

    Marinas and recreational boats have an impact in coastal environments because they constitute point sources for low intensity but recurrent pollution by oil hydrocarbons. Since marinas tend to be located in areas of great natural beauty, and/or of high value economic activities, the pollution they contribute is assumed to be important and increasing, through currently-available information is very incomplete. (Author)

  18. Combined use of bacterial community analysis techniques and geographic information systems (GIS) for the evaluation of anthropogenic impact in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinas and recreational boats have an impact in coastal environments because they constitute point sources for low intensity but recurrent pollution by oil hydrocarbons. Since marinas tend to be located in areas of great natural beauty, and/or of high value economic activities, the pollution they contribute is assumed to be important and increasing, through currently-available information is very incomplete. (Author)

  19. Combination of Assessment Indicators for Policy Support on Water Scarcity and Pollution Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yang; Junnian Song; Yoshiro Higano; Jie Tang

    2016-01-01

    Given increasing concern about seeking solutions to water scarcity and pollution (WSP), this paper is intent on developing significant assessment indicators as decision variables for providing reference for policy proposals on the mitigation of WSP. An indicator package consisting of footprints of freshwater consumption (FC) and water pollutant discharge (WPD), virtual contents of freshwater and water pollutants, and inter-sectoral linkages in terms of industrial production, FC and WPD has be...

  20. Combined Effect of Aircraft Noise and Pollutant Emissions. ANN Model to Determine Healthy Risk Level

    OpenAIRE

    SETIA KURNIAWAN, Jermanto; KATILI, Irwan; MOERSIDIK, Setyo Sarwanto; Khardi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Air Transportation growth increased continuously over the years. The increase in transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide transportation services and it is assumed to increase environmental impacts (pollutant and noise emissions). Aircraft pollutant and noise emissions are an important as a source of pollution and directly or indirectly will affect harmful to human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses ...

  1. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus γ-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a γ-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC γ-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms

  2. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Diaz, C. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Urena-Nunez, F. E-mail: fun@nuclear.inin.mx; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardave, M. E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx; Romero-Romo, M

    2003-07-01

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus {gamma}-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a {gamma}-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC {gamma}-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

  3. Influence of eventual combined cycles application in Polish public power utilities on environment pollution-simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal and lignite are the basic primary energy source in Poland. Both they contain much sulphur and fly ash. The low quality of fuel as well as the low power set efficiency are the main causes of the environment pollution. On the other hand a large modification of steam power plants is required. In such circumstances combined cycles have been recommended for an application in Polish public power utilities. A simple variant of the suggested steam power plant modification has been simulated. As a result a considerable decrease of the primary energy consumption as well as of the environment pollution is attainable. (author). 7 refs, 8 figs

  4. Pollutant removal from industrial discharge water using individual and combined effects of adsorption and ion-exchange processes: Chemical abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Charles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorption-oriented processes for pollutant removal from metal polycontaminated surface-finishing discharge water were applied individually as well as in combination with ion-exchange treatment to remove the remaining metal ions and organic load. Several materials were compared using batch experiments, namely an activated carbon, three ion-exchange resins (IRA 402Cl, IR 120H and TP 207, and two non-conventional cross-linked polysaccharide-based biosorbents (starch and cyclodextrin. This article presents the abatements obtained in chemical pollution as monitored by complete chemical analysis. For the same experimental conditions (similar discharge water, pollutant concentrations, stirring rate, contact time, and initial pH, the highest levels of pollutant removal were attained with the combined use of two materials, an activated carbon and a mixture of two ion-exchange resins. This physicochemical treatment effectively lowered the main pollutants present in the discharge water such as Cu, Ni and COD, by more than 96%, 79% and 74% respectively (average values for three samples, while the treatment with carbon alone lowered them by 58%, 9% and 70%, and resins alone by 85%, 61% and 16%. Similar interesting results were obtained with the cyclodextrin-based adsorbent and its use alone was sufficient to obtain decreases in Cu, Ni and COD of more than 94%, 77% and 67% respectively. The adsorption-oriented process using cyclodextrin polymer could be an advantageous approach for removing organic and metallic pollutants from metal surface-finishing discharge water due to the non-toxic character of CD to humans and the environment.

  5. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy). PMID:22911348

  6. Climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, T. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Anthropogenic production of aerosols is mainly connected with combustion of fossil fuel. Measured by particulate mass, the anthropogenic sulphate production is the dominating source of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. Particles emitted in mechanical processes, fly ash etc. are less important because of their shorter atmospheric residence time. Possible climatological effects of anthropogenic aerosols are usually classified in two groups: direct and indirect. Direct effects are alterations of the radiative heating budget due to the aerosol particles in clear air. Indirect effects involve the interaction between particles and cloud processes. A simplified one-layer radiation model gave cooling in the most polluted mid-latitude areas and heating due to soot absorption in the Arctic. This differential trend in heating rates may have significant effects on atmospheric meridional circulations, which is important for the atmosphere as a thermodynamic system. Recently the description of sulphur chemistry in the hemispheric scale dispersion model has been improved and will be used in a model for Mie scattering and absorption

  7. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  8. Comparative biological tests in aquatic systems to determine the adverse effect of combinations of pollutants with several components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tests with luminous bacteria, algae and daphnes as representatives of different trophic stages, the combination effect of heavy metals (Cd, Cr) and organic pollutants (p-chloroaniline, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, Na3-NTA) in aquatic ecosystems is exemplarily tested with subsequent comparison of the results with models of the combination effect. The author differentiates between the principles of action ''similar joint action'' = ''concentration addition'', ''independent action'' = ''response addition'' and ''synergistic action'' and employs mathematical models juxtaposing a ''simple similar action'', and ''independent action'' to a ''complex similar action'' and ''dependent action'', respectively, as well as the ''toxic unit model'', which translates the concentration of a substance into the corresponding toxicological efficacy. Most, but not all of the investigated binary mixtures of substances exhibited additive effects, but some of the combination effects depended on the proportions in the mixture. Further combination effects found were less-than-additive, more-than-additive (Cd/Cr) and antagonistic ones. (uWA)

  9. The positive relationship between ocean acidification and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-02-15

    Ocean acidification and pollution coexist to exert combined effects on the functions and services of marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification can increase the biotoxicity of heavy metals by altering their speciation and bioavailability. Marine pollutants, such as heavy metals and oils, could decrease the photosynthesis rate and increase the respiration rate of marine organisms as a result of biotoxicity and eutrophication, facilitating ocean acidification to varying degrees. Here we review the complex interactions between ocean acidification and pollution in the context of linkage of multiple stressors to marine ecosystems. The synthesized information shows that pollution-affected respiration acidifies coastal oceans more than the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Coastal regions are more vulnerable to the negative impact of ocean acidification due to large influxes of pollutants from terrestrial ecosystems. Ocean acidification and pollution facilitate each other, and thus coastal environmental protection from pollution has a large potential for mitigating acidification risk. PMID:25534629

  10. Radon as an Anthropogenic Indoor Air Pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, including granite ornaments/artefacts, uranium glass and glazed objects as well radium dial watches. This presentation concerns an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, many of which were once viewed as everyday items, and the radon that emanates from them. Such objects were very popular in industrialised countries such as the USA, UK and European countries) particularly between and including the two World Wars but are still readily available. A watch collection examined gave rise to a hazardous radon concentration of 13.24 kBq•m-3 approximately 67 times the Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3.The results for an aircraft altimeter are comparable to those of the watches, indicating radon activity equivalent to several watches, and also indicate an equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room ca. 33 times the UK domestic Action Level. Results from a granite block indicate a radon emanation of 19.7 Bq•kg-1, but the indicated equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room is only ca. 1.7% of the UK domestic Action Level. Uranium-glazed crockery and green uranium glass were scoped for radon activity. The former yielded a radon concentration of ca. 44 Bq•m-3 in a small (7 L) sealed container. The latter yielded a lower radon concentration in a larger (125 L) sealed container of ca. 6 Bq•m-3. This is barely above the background radon concentration in the laboratory, which was typically ca. 1-2 Bq•m-3. Individual items then are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level in rooms in houses, particularly if poorly ventilated. We highlight the gap in the remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally-generated radon hazards. We conclude with a recommendation that radon as arising from artefacts and ornaments is considered appropriately in radon protocols and guidelines.

  11. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: A combined measurement and modelling case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level. - Highlights: • Parked cars and LBWs were assessed as passive controls in an urban street canyon. • The calibrated model combined CFD

  12. Combination of Assessment Indicators for Policy Support on Water Scarcity and Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing concern about seeking solutions to water scarcity and pollution (WSP, this paper is intent on developing significant assessment indicators as decision variables for providing reference for policy proposals on the mitigation of WSP. An indicator package consisting of footprints of freshwater consumption (FC and water pollutant discharge (WPD, virtual contents of freshwater and water pollutants, and inter-sectoral linkages in terms of industrial production, FC and WPD has been newly set up based on an extended input-output model. These indicators allow to provide specific and well-structured analysis on FC, WPD and the economy as well as their implicated interrelationships. The Source Region of Liao River located in northeastern China was selected as an empirical study area to apply the indicator package. The results indicate that farming and production of electricity industries are major contributors to FC; farming and breeding industries, and households are major contributors to WPD. The study area exports a large amount of net virtual total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand (29.01 × 103 t, 4.66 × 103 t, 60.38 × 103 t, respectively. Farming and breeding industries are the sectors whose production could be constrained to contribute to mitigating WSP without excessive negative impacts on the economy. Two categories of policies have been proposed to mitigate WSP based on the analysis of the indicator package. One is to introduce direct water pollutant treatment and water-saving policies to the target sectors; the other is to adjust industrial structure. The integrated indicator package developed and the methodology presented are expected to provide policy researchers and decision makers with references for more sound water management.

  13. Combined Effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Biological Variables on Vitamin D in Polar Bears

    OpenAIRE

    Grønning, Hege Mentzoni

    2013-01-01

    Because of long-range transport, the Arctic is chronically exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and brominated flame retardants, such as polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs). Because of POPs are persistent and lipofilic, they are bioaccumulated in lipids and biomagnified in the food chains. The structures of some POPs resemble endogenous hormones, and have been shown to disrupt the TH homeostasis in animals. It has also been ...

  14. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: MODIFIED 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING COMBINED WITH LURGI SURFACE RETORTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using L...

  15. Combination of powdered activated carbon and powdered zeolite for enhancing ammonium removal in micro-polluted raw water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhen-Liang; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Bai-Rong; Li, Huai-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Even zeolite is promising in ammonia pollution disposing, its removal efficiency is frequently interfered by organics. As activated carbon has good removal efficiency on organic contaminants, combination of two adsorbents may allow their respective adsorption characteristics into full play. This paper provides a performance assessment of the combination for enhancing ammonium removal in micro-polluted raw water. Gel-filtration chromatography (GFC) was carried out to quantify the molecular weight (MW) range of organic contaminants that powdered activated carbon (PAC) and powdered zeolite (PZ) can remove. The polydispersity difference which also calculated from GFC may indicate the wider organic contaminants removal range of PAC and the relatively centralized removal range of PZ. The jar tests of combination dosing confirm a synergistic effect which promotes ammonium removing. Nevertheless, it also shows an antagonism hindering the due removal performance of the two adsorbents on CODMn, while it is not much evident on UV254. Furthermore, a comparison study with simulated coagulation-sedimentation process was conducted to evaluate the optimum dosing points (spatial and temporal) of PAC and PZ among follows: suction well, pipeline mixer, early and middle phase of flocculation. We suggest to dose both two adsorbents into the early phase of flocculation to maximize the versatile removal efficiency on turbidity, ammonium and organic contaminants. PMID:25929873

  16. Measuring Anthropogenic Sky Glow Using a Natural Sky Brightness Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2013-11-01

    Anthropogenic sky glow (a result of light pollution) combines with the natural background brightness of the night sky when viewed by an observer on the earth's surface. In order to measure the anthropogenic component accurately, the natural component must be identified and subtracted. A model of the moonless natural sky brightness in the V-band was constructed from existing data on the Zodiacal Light, an airglow model based on the van Rhijn function, and a model of integrated starlight (including diffuse galactic light) constructed from images made with the same equipment used for sky brightness observations. The model also incorporates effective extinction by the atmosphere and is improved at high zenith angles (>80°) by the addition of atmospheric diffuse light. The model may be projected onto local horizon coordinates for a given observation at a resolution of 0.05° over the hemisphere of the sky, allowing it to be accurately registered with data images obtained from any site. Zodiacal Light and integrated starlight models compare favorably with observations from remote dark sky sites, matching within ± 8 nL over 95% of the sky. The natural airglow may be only approximately modeled, errors of up to ± 25 nL are seen when the airglow is rapidly changing or has considerable character (banding); ± 8 nL precision may be expected under favorable conditions. When subtracted from all-sky brightness data images, the model significantly improves estimates of sky glow from anthropogenic sources, especially at sites that experience slight to moderate light pollution.

  17. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution. PMID:27338264

  18. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. Methods: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate informatio...

  19. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This im...

  20. Mercury speciation in polluted soils by combined spectroscopic and microspectroscopic techniques employing synchrotron generated x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Soil samples collected inside and outside an industrial polluted area of national environmental interest located in 'Val Basento' (Basilicata, Italy) have been studied by a combination of different advanced analytical techniques exploiting high intensity synchrotron generated x-rays. Mercury (Hg) concentration in the soil ranged from 1 up to 250 μg/g. Bulk EXAFS (Extended x-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy) and XANES (x-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy) were performed on soil samples sieved at 2 mm and on the clay fraction (2. Simultaneous to μ-XRF spectra, microdiffraction patterns were collected in each point of the maps, in order to identify any correlation between Hg and its mineralogical forms. Once points of interest were localized, μ-XANES spectra were collected and compared with the spectra of known Hg standard compounds. The combination of bulk XAS and microbeam measurements not only provide a detailed Hg speciation at the microscale level, enables better interpretation of the higher length bulk scale XAS spectra in the light of the more easily manageable information obtained from microanalyses. From this combined synchrotron x-ray spectroscopic investigation, we find that Hg was mainly speciated as HgS (cinnabar) and Hg(0) in the samples collected inside the industrial site and as Hg2Cl2, HgCl2 and Hg bound to organic matter in the samples collected in the areas surrounding the industrial site. Quantification of the percentage of the various Hg forms in the soil samples was also obtained. This type of pollution is typical of industrial areas where chlor-alkali plants have been operating in the past. The detailed Hg speciation will allow for a better assessment of the environmental and human risk connected to Hg contamination of these soils, as well as to develop more effective remediation strategies for an environmental restoration of the area. (author)

  1. Potential of Atkinson cycle combined with EGR for pollutant control in a HD diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benajes, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Molina, S.; Novella, R. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    An experimental investigation has been performed on the potential of the Atkinson cycle and reducing intake oxygen concentration for pollutant control in a heavy-duty diesel engine. In this study the Atkinson cycle has been reproduced advancing the intake valve closing angle towards the intake stroke. In addition, the intake oxygen concentration has been reduced introducing exhaust gas recirculation. This research has been carried out at low engine load (25%), where the Atkinson cycle is known to improve the efficiency of the spark-ignition engines. The main interest of this investigation has been the comparison between the Atkinson cycle and the conventional diesel cycle at the same oxygen concentration in the intake gas. This analysis has been focused on in-cylinder gas thermodynamic conditions, combustion process, exhaust emissions and engine efficiency. In compression ignition engines, the Atkinson cycle basically promotes the premixed combustion, but in the range of these tests, a complete premixed combustion was not attained. Regarding exhaust emissions, the Atkinson cycle reduces notably the nitrous oxides but increases soot emissions. Finally, better global results have been found reducing intake oxygen concentration by the recirculation of exhaust gas than by the operation of an Atkinson cycle. (author)

  2. Potential of Atkinson cycle combined with EGR for pollutant control in a HD diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation has been performed on the potential of the Atkinson cycle and reducing intake oxygen concentration for pollutant control in a heavy-duty diesel engine. In this study the Atkinson cycle has been reproduced advancing the intake valve closing angle towards the intake stroke. In addition, the intake oxygen concentration has been reduced introducing exhaust gas recirculation. This research has been carried out at low engine load (25%), where the Atkinson cycle is known to improve the efficiency of the spark-ignition engines. The main interest of this investigation has been the comparison between the Atkinson cycle and the conventional diesel cycle at the same oxygen concentration in the intake gas. This analysis has been focused on in-cylinder gas thermodynamic conditions, combustion process, exhaust emissions and engine efficiency. In compression ignition engines, the Atkinson cycle basically promotes the premixed combustion, but in the range of these tests, a complete premixed combustion was not attained. Regarding exhaust emissions, the Atkinson cycle reduces notably the nitrous oxides but increases soot emissions. Finally, better global results have been found reducing intake oxygen concentration by the recirculation of exhaust gas than by the operation of an Atkinson cycle

  3. Numerical analysis of air pollution in a combined field of land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution in the presence of two types of local flows (i.e., land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind) was studies by advection simulation of the cluster of hypothetical fluid particles, and transport/chemistry calculation employing a three-dimensional Eulerian model for 20 advected species and about 90 chemical reactions. Three-dimensional flow fields over the River Yahagi basin in Japan were estimated for 48 h using an objective method with routine wind observations. Those obtained showed characteristics of the combined local flows such that in the daytime sea breeze and valley wind tend to form one united flow with substantial wind velocity in the whole region and, in contrast, land breeze and mountain wind during the nighttime form two separated circulating flows with a clear weak-wind area between the two local flow regimes. The results of the advection simulation of fluid particles and the transport/chemistry calculation using those flows as inputs elucidated how the features found in the diurnally varying, complex local flows contribute to produce characteristic time-variations of the concentrations of both primary and secondary pollutants. Among others, dynamics of NO2, HNO3, PAN, O3, SO2, and SO4/sup =/ concentrations are discussed

  4. Accumulation and detoxication responses of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to single and combined exposures to natural (cyanobacteria) and anthropogenic (the herbicide RoundUp(®) Flash) stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Desprat, Julia; Holbech, Bente Frost; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam; Lawton, Linda A; Edwards, Christine; Wiegand, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Freshwater gastropods are increasingly exposed to multiple stressors in the field such as the herbicide glyphosate in Roundup formulations and cyanobacterial blooms either producing or not producing microcystins (MCs), potentially leading to interacting effects. Here, the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis to a 21-day exposure to non-MC or MC-producing (33μgL(-1)) Planktothrix agardhii alone or in combination with the commercial formulation RoundUp(®) Flash at a concentration of 1μgL(-1) glyphosate, followed by 14days of depuration, were studied via i) accumulation of free and bound MCs in tissues, and ii) activities of anti-oxidant (catalase CAT) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase GST) enzymes. During the intoxication, the cyanobacterial exposure induced an early increase of CAT activity, independently of the MC content, probably related to the production of secondary cyanobacterial metabolites. The GST activity was induced by RoundUp(®) Flash alone or in combination with non MC-producing cyanobacteria, but was inhibited by MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash. Moreover, MC accumulation in L. stagnalis was 3.2 times increased when snails were concomitantly exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with RoundUp(®), suggesting interacting effects of MCs on biotransformation processes. The potent inhibition of detoxication systems by MCs and RoundUp(®) Flash was reversible during the depuration, during which CAT and GST activities were significantly higher in snails previously exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash than in other conditions, probably related to the oxidative stress caused by accumulated MCs remaining in tissues. PMID:27267390

  5. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  6. Anaerobic microbial fuel cell treating combined industrial wastewater: Correlation of electricity generation with pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Umara; Jin, Wang; Pervez, Arshid; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Tariq, Madiha; Shaheen, Shahida; Iqbal, Akhtar; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new technology that not only generates energy but treats wastewater as well. A dual chamber MFC was operated under laboratory conditions. Wastewater samples from vegetable oil industries, metal works, glass and marble industries, chemical industries and combined industrial effluents were collected and each was treated for 98h in MFC. The treatment efficiency for COD in MFC was in range of 85-90% at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 96h and had significant impact on wastewater treatment as well. The maximum voltage of 890mV was generated when vegetable oil industries discharge was treated with columbic efficiency of 5184.7C. The minimum voltage was produced by Glass House wastewater which was 520mV. There was positive significant co-relation between COD concentration and generated voltage. Further research should be focused on the organic contents of wastewater and various ionic species affecting voltage generation in MFC. PMID:26476157

  7. Barents Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus: population biology and anthropogenic threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Andersen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how anthropogenic threats, such as disturbance, pollution and climate change, are linked to polar bear (Ursus maritimus population biology in the Svalbard and Barents Sea area, with the aim to increase our understanding of how human activity may impact the population. Overharvesting drastically reduced the population of polar bears in the Barents Sea region from about 1870 to 1970. After harvesting was stopped—in 1956 in Russia and 1973 in Norway—the population grew to an estimated 2650 individuals (95% confidence interval 1900–3600 in 2004, and maternity denning in the Svalbard Archipelago became more widely distributed. During recent decades, the population has faced challenges from a variety of new anthropogenic impacts: a range of pollutants, an increasing level of human presence and activity as well as changes in ice conditions. Contaminants bioaccumulate up through the marine food web, culminating in this top predator that consumes ringed, bearded and harp seals. Females with small cubs use land-fast sea ice for hunting and are therefore vulnerable to disturbance by snowmobile drivers. Sea-ice diminution, associated with climate change, reduces polar bears’ access to denning areas and could negatively affect the survival of cubs. There are clear linkages between population biology and current anthropogenic threats, and we suggest that future research and management should focus on and take into consideration the combined effects of several stressors on polar bears.

  8. Mechnism of combination membrane and electro-winning process on treatment and remediation of Cu2+ polluted water body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Linnan; WU Yanjun; QU Xiaoyan; LI Zhenshan; NI Jinren

    2009-01-01

    Mechnism of treatment and remediation of synthetic Cu2+ polluted water body by membrane and electro-winning combination process was investigated.The influnce of electrolysis voltage,pH,and electrolysis time on the metal recovery efficiencies were studied.Relationship between trans-membrane pressure drop (ΔP),additions ratio,initial Cu2+ concentration on operating efficency,stability of membrane and the possibility of water reuse were also investigated.The morphology of membrane and electrodes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM),the composition of suface deposits was ascertained using combined energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that using low presure reverse osmosis (LPRO),the Cu2+ concentration could increase from 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L or even higher in the concentrate solutions and permeate water conductivity could be less than 20 μS/cm.The addition of SDS can improve the Cu2+ removal efficiency,while EDTA had little side influence.In electro-reduction process,using plante electrode cell,Cu2+ concentration can be further reduced to 5 mg/L,and the average current efficiency ranged from 9% to 40%.Using 3D electrolysis treatment,Cu2+ concentration could be reduced to 0.5 mg/L with a current efficiency range 60%-70%.

  9. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  10. Experience and problems with bees as bioindicators of airborne pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of anthropogenic air pollution on apiculture are far-reaching: From the loss of feeding plants to the accumulation of toxic materials in nectar and pollen (due to chronic or acute damage). A negative effect on the life functions of the bee is caused by arsenic and in particular fluorocompounds. The biological indicator function of the bee possible in this manner was and is combined with problems of trace amount analysis methods and the interpretation of the diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  12. Combined effects of pollutants and salinity on embryo-larval development of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamain, Perrine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Cachot, Jérôme; Pardon, Patrick; Tapie, Nathalie; Gourves, Pierre Yves; Budzinski, Hélène; Morin, Bénédicte

    2016-02-01

    For several years, low larval recruitment has been observed in Arcachon Bay, in southwest France. Exposure to pollutants could partly account for the reduction of early life stages of the Pacific oyster. This study evaluated the effects of copper and S-metolachlor in combination with salinity on the early life stages of Crassostrea gigas. Embryos were exposed to concentrations of copper (1, 10 and 50 μg L(-1)) or S-metolachlor (10, 100 and 1000 ng L(-1)) and six salinities (18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 u.s.i). Embryotoxicity was measured by considering both the percentage of abnormalities and arrested development in D-shaped larvae. Embryo-larval development was only affected at salinities ≤24 u.s.i, which have never been observed during C. gigas reproduction period in Arcachon Bay. Both contaminants had an effect at environmental concentrations. Our results suggest that copper and metolachlor toxicity was enhanced with decreasing salinity. PMID:26583531

  13. Combination of multielement technique (INAA and ICP-MS) for a French air pollution bio-monitoring survey using mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the use of two trace analysis techniques through the data obtained for a significant part of the 557 mosses sampled in France. Sampling were made within the framework of European survey carried out in 1995-1996 and proposed by the Nordic Council. The analyses were produced with a combination of two multielement analysis techniques: INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). Theses two techniques were suitable for trace analyses in mosses. They were clearly complementary and provided for 36 elements including the heavy metals of key interest in air pollution studies. The choice of the technique for a given element depended on the feasibility (e g. Pb is not attainable by INAA), the detection limit, the analytical variability, the preparation procedures and the concentration ranges (5-100 μg/g for Pb, 0.5-5 μg/g for As). INAA measured the total content in the sample, while ICP-MS demanded a mineralization procedure resulting in losses/contamination hazards. Thus, INAA results were preferred, although this technique was time consuming. However the ICP-MS results for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb were retained, for different reasons: detection limits (Cd, Cu), no convenient INAA conditions (Ni), and feasibility (Pb). (authors)

  14. Combination of bioremediation and electrokinetics for the in-situ treatment of diesel polluted soil: A comparison of strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Ramírez, Esperanza; Villaseñor Camacho, José; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work is to compare different strategies based on electrokinetic soil flushing and bioremediation for the remediation of diesel-polluted soil. Four options were tested at the laboratory scale: single bioremediation (Bio), performed as a control test; a direct combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and biological technologies (EKSF-Bio); EKSF-Bio with daily polarity reversal of the electric field (PR-EKSF-Bio); and a combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and a permeable reactive biological barrier (EKSF-BioPRB). Four batch experiments of 14 days duration were carried out for comparing technologies at room temperature with an electric field of 1.0 V cm(-1) (in EKSF). A diesel degrading microbial consortium was used. The experimental procedure and some specific details, such as the flushing fluids used, varied depending on the strategy. When using the EKSF-Bio option, a high buffer concentration was required to control the pH, causing soil heating, which negatively affected the biological growth and thus the diesel removal. The PR-EKSF-Bio and the EKSF-BioPRB options attained suitable operating conditions and improved the transport processes for biological growth. Polarity reversal was an efficient option for pH, moisture and temperature control. Homogeneous microbial growth was observed, and approximately 20% of the diesel was removed. The BioPRB option was not as efficient as PR-EKSF-Bio in controlling the operating conditions, but the central biobarrier protected the biological activity. Microbial growth was observed not only in the biobarrier but also in a large portion of the soil, and 29% of the diesel was removed in the short remediation test. PMID:26172598

  15. Combining a finite mixture distribution model with indicator kriging to delineate and map the spatial patterns of soil heavy metal pollution in Chunghua County, central Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies the natural background, anthropogenic background and distribution of contamination caused by heavy metal pollutants in soil in Chunghua County of central Taiwan by using a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM). The probabilities of contaminated area distribution are mapped using single-variable indicator kriging and multiple-variable indicator kriging (MVIK) with the FMDM cut-off values and regulation thresholds for heavy metals. FMDM results indicate that Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn can be individually fitted by a mixture model representing the background and contamination distributions of the four metals in soil. The FMDM cut-off values for contamination caused by the metals are close to the regulation thresholds, except for the cut-off value of Zn. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve validates that indicator kriging and MVIK with FMDM cut-off values can reliably delineate heavy metals contamination, particularly for areas lacking background information and high heavy metal concentrations in soil. - Effectively determine pollution threshold and map contaminated areas.

  16. Atmospheric delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Shi, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe) to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. Here, we interactively combined laboratory kinetic experiments with global aerosol modeling to more accurately quantify anthropogenic soluble Fe due to air pollution. We firstly examined Fe dissolution kinetics of African dust samples at acidic pH values with and without ionic species commonly found in aerosol water (i.e., sulfate and oxalate). We then constructed a new empirical scheme for Fe release from mineral dust due to inorganic and organic anions in aerosol water, by using acidity as a master variable. We implemented this new scheme and applied an updated mineralogical emission database in a global atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate the atmospheric concentration and deposition flux of soluble Fe under preindustrial and modern conditions. Our improved model successfully captured the inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading measured over the North Atlantic Ocean. However, our modeled Fe solubility was significantly lower than that deduced from observations over the South Atlantic east downwind from the Patagonian dust source regions. Our modeled Fe solubility for dry deposition over the Atlantic is in good agreement the measurement, while that for wet deposition is significantly lower than the measurement. Our model results suggest that human activities contribute to about half of the soluble Fe supply to a significant portion of the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere, while their contribution to oceans in the high latitude remains highly uncertain

  17. Natural aerosol–climate feedbacks suppressed by anthropogenic aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, DV; A. Rap

    2013-01-01

    The natural environment is an important source of atmospheric aerosol such as dust, sea spray, and wildfire smoke. Climate controls many of these natural aerosol sources, which, in turn, can alter climate through changing the properties of clouds and the Earth's radiative balance. However, the Earth's atmosphere is now heavily modified by anthropogenic pollution aerosol, but how this pollution may alter these natural aerosol–climate feedbacks has not been previously explored. Here we use a gl...

  18. Engineering paradigms and anthropogenic global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    , the paradigm of 'ecomodernism' implies to accentuate some of the current development paths of societies with the goal to 'decouple' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. Applying the paradigm 'geoengineering', engineering works shall 'modulate' natural fluxes of matter to counter the effect of anthropogenic fluxes of matter instead to alter the development paths of societies. Thus, anthropogenic global change is a composite process in which engineering intercedes the 'noosphere' and in the 'bio-geosphere'. Paradigms 'how to engineering earth systems' reflect different concepts ('shared subjective insights') how to combine knowledge with use, function and purpose. Currently, four paradigms are distinguishable how to engineer anthropogenic global change. They convene recipes human activity and bio-geosphere should intersect.

  19. Nitrogen isotopes in ice core nitrate linked to anthropogenic atmospheric acidity change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lei; Alexander, Becky; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Steig, Eric J.; Savarino, Joël; Sofen, Eric D.; Schauer, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) in Greenland snow nitrate and in North American remote lake sediments has decreased gradually beginning as early as ∼1850 Christian Era. This decrease was attributed to increasing atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic nitrate, reflecting an anthropogenic impact on the global nitrogen cycle, and the impact was thought to be amplified ∼1970. However, our subannually resolved ice core records of δ15N and major ions (e.g., , ) over the last ∼200 y show that the decrease in δ15N is not always associated with increasing concentrations, and the decreasing trend actually leveled off ∼1970. Correlation of δ15N with H+, , and HNO3 concentrations, combined with nitrogen isotope fractionation models, suggests that the δ15N decrease from ∼1850–1970 was mainly caused by an anthropogenic-driven increase in atmospheric acidity through alteration of the gas−particle partitioning of atmospheric nitrate. The concentrations of and also leveled off ∼1970, reflecting the effect of air pollution mitigation strategies in North America on anthropogenic NOx and SO2 emissions. The consequent atmospheric acidity change, as reflected in the ice core record of H+ concentrations, is likely responsible for the leveling off of δ15N ∼1970, which, together with the leveling off of concentrations, suggests a regional mitigation of anthropogenic impact on the nitrogen cycle. Our results highlight the importance of atmospheric processes in controlling δ15N of nitrate and should be considered when using δ15N as a source indicator to study atmospheric flux of nitrate to land surface/ecosystems. PMID:24711383

  20. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Miriam L; de Wit, Cynthia A; Molander, Sverker; Scheringer, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Lohmann, Rainer; Arvidsson, Rickard; Bergman, Åke; Hauschild, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Persson, Linn; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Vighi, Marco; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social

  1. Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: Combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. - Both older age of crowberry in heavily polluted sites and pollution-induced environmental disturbance contributed to slower growth, but had no effect on fructification

  2. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in δ15N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider δ15N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: → δ15N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. → δ15N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. → The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  3. Source apportionment of air pollution in China: Extending the usefulness of receptor modeling by combining multivariate and chemical mass balance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research explores the possibility of using a two step method of identifying and quantifying air pollution emissions in an urban environment. The procedures uses a mathematical model called Target Transformation Factor Analysis (TTFA) to estimate source profiles using ambient trace element air concentration data. A source profile is analogous to a fingerprint since it is unique to each source of air pollution. The profiles estimated by TTFA are then employed in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source apportionment analysis for the air shed. Other known sources are estimated using source signatures from the literature. Applying the TTFA and CMB models in this fashion is called receptor modeling. Generically, a receptor model is the combination of measured air pollution concentration data with a numerical technique which apportions the measured air pollution among distinct source types. The results show that TTFA can be used to provide quantitative estimates of air pollution source profiles for an urban center in China. The number of profiles for unique source types was limited for the data set since emissions from certain types of sources co-varied during each sampling day. Consequently, the CMB analyses that applied the TTFA source profiles needed to be supplemented with standard U.S. EPA source profiles

  4. Damping of glacial-interglacial cycles from anthropogenic forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Climate variability over the past million years shows a strong glacial-interglacial cycle of ~100,000 years as a combined result of Milankovitch orbital forcing and climatic resonance. It has been suggested that anthropogenic contributions to radiative forcing may extend the length of the present interglacial, but the effects of anthropogenic forcing on the periodicity of glacial-interglacial cycles has received little attention. Here I demonstrate that moderate anthropogenic forcing can act to damp this 100,000 year cycle and reduce climate variability from orbital forcing. Future changes in solar insolation alone will continue to drive a 100,000 year climate cycle over the next million years, but the presence of anthropogenic warming can force the climate into an ice-free state that only weakly responds to orbital forcing. Sufficiently strong anthropogenic forcing that eliminates the glacial-interglacial cycle may serve as an indication of an epoch transition from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene.

  5. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  6. Tolerance of benthic foraminifera to anthropogenic stressors from three sites of the Egyptian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Badawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Surely the coupling of natural and anthropogenic stressors combined with a lack of regulation resulted in the current threat to a large part of coastal marine biodiversity as well as coastal human societies, particularly in highly populated regions. The distribution pattern of benthic foraminifera as sensitive bio-indicator is utilized to assess human-induced impact on the coastal area, at Alexandria, Port Said and Suez cites of Egypt. Twenty-two benthic foraminiferal genera were identified and complied by principal component analysis into four factors through cluster analysis. Cross correlation of the generic composition, distribution and relative abundance of common genera in the three investigated cores revealed three different coastal environments entities. The categorized environment ranged from light human impact as Alexandria site to heavily impacted by human activities as Port Said and Suez sites. Fauna of Alexandria site reflects an increase in un-polluted water activity revealing high-energy erosive environment. The second entity involves Port Said site, which represents a highly stressed coastal environment, corresponding to high-energy transport conditions influenced by fresh water flush from local Manzala Lake via Bougaz El Gamel outlet while Suez site is influenced by marine hypersaline water coupling with intensified levels of industrial and domestic pollution, attributed to the anthropogenic impact.

  7. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. - Highlights: • Magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the heavy mental pollution in sediments. • Accurate age model was obtained using known events of environmental improvement. • Regression equation was obtained among sediment records and monitoring data. • Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed. - Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed using magnetic and chemical records of reservoir sediments combined with atmospheric monitoring data

  8. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur...

  9. A novel approach combining self-organizing map and parallel factor analysis for monitoring water quality of watersheds under non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Liang, Xinqiang; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian

    2015-11-01

    High content of organic matter in the downstream of watersheds underscored the severity of non-point source (NPS) pollution. The major objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watersheds affected by NPS pollution, and to apply self-organizing map (SOM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to assess fluorescence properties as proxy indicators for NPS pollution and labor-intensive routine water quality indicators. Water from upstreams and downstreams was sampled to measure dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Five fluorescence components were modeled with PARAFAC. The regression analysis between PARAFAC intensities (Fmax) and raw EEM measurements indicated that several raw fluorescence measurements at target excitation-emission wavelength region could provide similar DOM information to massive EEM measurements combined with PARAFAC. Regression analysis between DOC concentration and raw EEM measurements suggested that some regions in raw EEM could be used as surrogates for labor-intensive routine indicators. SOM can be used to visualize the occurrence of pollution. Relationship between DOC concentration and PARAFAC components analyzed with SOM suggested that PARAFAC component 2 might be the major part of bulk DOC and could be recognized as a proxy indicator to predict the DOC concentration.

  10. Assessing the effect of humic acid redox state on organic pollutant sorption by combined electrochemical reduction and sorption experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, Michael; Brunner, Sibyl H; Schwarzenbach, René P; Sander, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Natural Organic Matter (NOM) is a major sorbent for organic pollutants in soils and sediments. While sorption under oxic conditions has been well investigated, possible changes in the sorption capacity of a given NOM induced by reduction have not yet been studied. Reduction of quinones to hydroquinones, the major redox active moieties in NOM, increases the number of H-donor moieties and thus may affect sorption. This work compares the sorption of four nonionic organic pollutants of different polarities (naphthalene, acetophenone, quinoline, and 2-naphthol), and of the organocation paraquat to unreduced and electrochemically reduced Leonardite Humic Acid (LHA). The redox states of reduced and unreduced LHA in all sorption experiments were stable, as demonstrated by a spectrophotometric 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol reduction assay. The sorption isotherms of the nonionic pollutants were highly linear, while paraquat sorption was strongly concentration dependent. LHA reduction did not result in significant changes in the sorption of all tested compounds, not even of the cationic paraquat at pH 7, 9, and 11. This work provides the first evidence that changes in NOM redox state do not largely affect organic pollutant sorption, suggesting that current sorption models are applicable both to unreduced and to reduced soil and sediment NOM. PMID:22372874

  11. Large scale air pollution estimation method combining land use regression and chemical transport modeling in a geostatistical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akita, Yasuyuki; Baldasano, Jose M.; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; De Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Serre, Marc L.; De Nazelle, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    In recognition that intraurban exposure gradients may be as large as between-city variations, recent air pollution epidemiologic studies have become increasingly interested in capturing within-city exposure gradients. In addition, because of the rapidly accumulating health data, recent studies also

  12. Toxicity of combined chromium(VI) and phenanthrene pollution on the seed germination, stem lengths, and fresh weights of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuangqing; Gu, Hairong; Cui, Chunyan; Ji, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the interaction and toxicity of pollutant combinations such as heavy metals and PAHs are of practical importance in the remediation and monitoring of the industrial soil environment. This study investigated the single and combined toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on three important higher plants: mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), pakchoi cabbage (Brassica chinensis), and rice (Oryza sativa). In experiments using artificial soil matrix, the EC10 and EC20 of the two pollutants, alone and in combination, were analyzed with respect to seed germination, stem length, and above-ground fresh weight of these higher plants. The additive index method was used to evaluate the combined biological toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene. The results showed that the EC20 of chromium(VI) on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 289, 248, and 550 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 334, 307, and 551 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 528, 426, and 628 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 696, 585, and 768 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of a combination of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 192, 173, and 279 mg kg(-1), respectively, and 200, 205, and 271 mg kg(-1) for the fresh weights of the three plants. The single and combined exposure of soil to chromium(VI) and phenanthrene had deleterious effects on plants in the early stage of growth. Overall, pakchoi cabbage was more sensitive than mung beans and rice. The two pollutants exerted synergistic effects on the stem lengths and above-ground fresh weights of both mung beans and rice but antagonistic effects on pakchoi cabbage. The results of this study also suggested pakchoi cabbage as a sensitive indicator of soil pollution. PMID

  13. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. PMID:16442592

  14. A new method of inhibiting pollutant release from source water reservoir sediment by adding chemical stabilization agents combined with water-lifting aerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beibei Chai; Tinglin Huang; Weihuang Zhu; Fengying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Source water reservoirs easily become thermally and dynamically stratified.Internal pollution released from reservoir sediments is the main cause of water quality problems.To mitigate the internal pollution more effectively,a new method,which combined chemical stabilization with water lifting aerator (WLA) technology,was proposed and its efficiency in inhibiting pollutant release was studied by controlled sediment-water interface experiments.The results showed that this new method can inhibit pollutant release from sediment effectively.The values of mean efficiency (E) in different reactors 2#-5# (1# with no agent,2# 10 mg/L polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC) was added,3# 20 mg/L PAC was added,4# 30 mg/L PAC was added,5# 20 mg/L PAC and 0.2 mg/L palyacrylamide (PAM)were added) for PO43- were 35.0%,43.9%,50.4% and 63.6%,respectively.This showed that the higher the PAC concentration was,the better the inhibiting efficiency was,and PAM addition strengthened the inhibiting efficiency significantly.For Fe2+,the corresponding values of E for the reactors 2#-5# were 22.9%,47.2%,34.3% and 46.2%,respectively.The inhibiting effect of PAC and PAM on Mn release remained positive for a relatively short time,about 10 days,and was not so effective as for PO43- and Fe2+.The average efliciencies in inhibiting the release of UV254 were 35.3%,25.9%,35.5%,38.9% and 39.5% for reactors 2#-5#,respectively.The inhibiting mechanisms of the agents for different pollutants varied among the conditions and should be studied further.

  15. Evaluation of anthropogenic urban soils. Final report; Bewertung anthropogener Stadtboeden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, H.P.; Schleuss, U. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The research project `Evaluation of Anthropogenic Urban Soils` was subsidized by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology and adviced by the working group `Stadtboeden` of the German Society of Soil Science. It was realized as a cooperation between the universities of Berlin (TU), Halle-Wittenberg, Hohenheim, Kiel and Rostock and had three objectives: - to characterize soils developed from anthropogenic substratums (`urban soils`), - to figure out distribution patterns of such soils and - to verify whether urban soils could be evaluated according to their filtering and habitat function in the same way as soils developed from natural parent material. Evaluation methods based on easily obtainable field data had to be adapted to `urban soils` respectively developed anew. For that reason some typical soils of anthropogenic lithogenesis had to be examined between 1993 and 1996 both on their importance as habitats for plants and soil organisms and on their filtering, buffering and transforming capacities for organic and inorganic pollutants. Accordingly representative `urban soils` were gathered in the towns of Berlin, Eckernfoerde, Essen, Halle, Kiel, Rostock and Stuttgart; these soils had developed from technogenic substratums (brick and mortar debris, municipal waste, ashes, slag, sludge) and redeposited alkaline resp. acidic natural substratums (mud, coal mine and coking plant deposits). Some of the soils were influenced by ground water, and all soils developed from the same kind of parent material belonged to different stages of development. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Ziele des vom BMBF gefoerderten und vom Arbeitskreis Stadtboeden der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft beratenen Verbundprojektes `Bewertung anthropogener Stadtboeden` waren die Charakterisierung von Boeden anthropogener Substrate, die exemplarische Ermittlung des Verteilungsmusters derartiger Boeden und die Pruefung, inwieweit sie sich aehnlich den Boeden natuerlicher

  16. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle A;

    2015-01-01

    : To examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: 52,061 subjects (50-65 years) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen reported data on physical activity...... in 1993-97 and were followed until 2010. High exposure to air pollution was defined as the upper 25th percentile of modelled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels at residential addresses. We associated participation in sports, cycling, gardening, and walking with total and cause-specific mortality by Cox...... regression, and introduced NO2 as an interaction term. RESULTS: 5,534 subjects died in total: 2,864 from cancer, 1,285 from cardiovascular disease, 354 from respiratory disease, and 122 from diabetes. Significant inverse associations of participation in sports, cycling, and gardening with total...

  17. Removal of pollutants by enhanced coagulation combined PAC with variable charge soils: flocs' properties and effect of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Wu, Chun-De; Duan, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Lin

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the properties of flocs and effects of the solution pH on removal of representative pollutants by enhanced coagulation with variable charge soils of South China and polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency of turbidity was larger and the aggregated flocs had a faster growth rate, bigger size, denser structure and faster settling rate than those generated by PAC alone, when variable charge soil was used in conjunction with PAC. Additionally, initial solutions pH had meaningful effects on removal of pollutants. With the increase in the pH of the solution, the removal efficiencies of turbidity, algae and heavy metal ions significantly increased. Besides, charge neutralization together with physical entrapment of colloids was the dominant mechanism in enhanced coagulation, and variable charge soil displayed a great adsorption effect. PMID:26829123

  18. Delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust and combustion aerosols to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Shi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe) to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. In this study, for the first time, we interactively combined laboratory kinetic experiments with global aerosol modeling to more accurately quantify anthropogenic soluble Fe due to air pollution. Firstly, we determined Fe dissolution kinetics of African dust samples at acidic pH values with and without ionic species commonly found in aerosol water (i.e., sulfate and oxalate). Then, by using acidity as a master variable, we constructed a new empirical scheme for Fe release from mineral dust due to inorganic and organic anions in aerosol water. We implemented this new scheme and applied an updated mineralogical emission database in a global atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate the atmospheric concentration and deposition flux of soluble Fe under preindustrial and modern conditions. Our improved model successfully captured the inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading measured over the North Atlantic Ocean (i.e., 1-2 orders of magnitude lower Fe solubility in northern-African- than combustion-influenced aerosols). The model results show a positive relationship between Fe solubility and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC)/Fe molar ratio, which is consistent with previous field measurements. We estimated that deposition of soluble Fe to the ocean increased from 0.05-0.07 Tg Fe yr-1 in the preindustrial era to 0.11-0.12 Tg Fe yr-1 in the present day, due to air pollution. Over the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean, the modeled Fe

  19. Delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust and combustion aerosols to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. Here, we, for the first time, interactively combined laboratory kinetic experiments with global aerosol modeling to more accurately quantify anthropogenic soluble Fe due to air pollution. We firstly examined Fe dissolution kinetics of African dust samples at acidic pH values with and without ionic species commonly found in aerosol water (i.e., sulfate and oxalate. We then constructed a new empirical scheme for Fe release from mineral dust due to inorganic and organic anions in aerosol water, by using acidity as a master variable. We implemented this new scheme and applied an updated mineralogical emission database in a global atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate the atmospheric concentration and deposition flux of soluble Fe under preindustrial and modern conditions. Our improved model successfully captured the inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading measured over the North Atlantic Ocean (i.e., 1–2 orders of magnitude lower Fe solubility in North African- than combustion-influenced aerosols. The model results show a positive relationship between Fe solubility and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC/Fe molar ratio, which is consistent with previous field measurements. We estimated that deposition of soluble Fe to the ocean increased from 0.05–0.07 Tg Fe yr−1 in preindustrial era to 0.11–0.12 Tg Fe yr−1 in present days, due to air pollution. Over the High Nitrate Low Chlorophyll (HNLC regions of the ocean, the modeled Fe

  20. Delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust and combustion aerosols to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Shi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe) to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. In this study, for the first time, we interactively combined laboratory kinetic experiments with global aerosol modeling to more accurately quantify anthropogenic soluble Fe due to air pollution. Firstly, we determined Fe dissolution kinetics of African dust samples at acidic pH values with and without ionic species commonly found in aerosol water (i.e., sulfate and oxalate). Then, by using acidity as a master variable, we constructed a new empirical scheme for Fe release from mineral dust due to inorganic and organic anions in aerosol water. We implemented this new scheme and applied an updated mineralogical emission database in a global atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate the atmospheric concentration and deposition flux of soluble Fe under preindustrial and modern conditions. Our improved model successfully captured the inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading measured over the North Atlantic Ocean (i.e., 1-2 orders of magnitude lower Fe solubility in northern-African- than combustion-influenced aerosols). The model results show a positive relationship between Fe solubility and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC)/Fe molar ratio, which is consistent with previous field measurements. We estimated that deposition of soluble Fe to the ocean increased from 0.05-0.07 Tg Fe yr-1 in the preindustrial era to 0.11-0.12 Tg Fe yr-1 in the present day, due to air pollution. Over the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean, the modeled Fe

  1. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the removal of pollutant compounds by peroxidases: affinity and reactivity toward a bioremediation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Cristina; Torres, Juliana Arriel; Castro, Alexandre A; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Alves de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2016-09-01

    Water pollution is a significant and growing problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries. In order to minimize environmental problems, catalysts have increasingly been designed to remove pollutants from the water. In an attempt to innovate by the creation of new low-cost alternatives to efficiently remove pollutants, the enzymatic treatment has been intensely studied for this purpose. Reactions catalyzed by enzymes are able to perform specific treatments, commonly with high rates of the final products. With this, the enzyme, peroxidase, is a promising candidate as a bioremediation catalyst. The efficiency of oxidoreductive enzymes, such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and soybean peroxidase (SP) have been studied, given that their performance depends on the substrate. In this investigation, experimental techniques and theoretical calculations have been employed in order to investigate the oxidative process for the ferulic acid and bromophenol blue dyes, performed by HRP and SP. Both enzymes showed a comparable behavior with respect to ferulic acid substrate. On the other hand, by utilizing bromophenol blue dye as a substrate, the behavior of the employed catalysts was significantly different. Experimental data have shown that HRP was more active toward bromophenol blue when compared to ferulic acid, being more rapidly degraded by the HRP enzyme. This tendency was confirmed by our theoretical docking, PM6 semi-empirical method, and DFT calculation results, in which the interaction, binding energies, and transition states were determined. PMID:26130457

  2. Distribution and mobilization of pollutants in the sediment of a constructed floating wetland used for treatment of combined sewer overflow events

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Moortel, Annelies; Du Laing, Gijs; Niels DE PAUW; Tack, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Sediments in combined sewer overflow treatment systems may exhibit elevated pollutant concentrations. Concentrations measured in the sediment of a floating treatment wetland ranged from 0.17 to 1.6 (cadmium), 28 to 142 (copper), 10 to 33 (chromium), 50 to 141 (manganese), 5 to 20 (nickel), 50 to 203 (lead), and 185 to 804 (zinc) mg/kg dry matter and 7.4 to 17 (iron), 2 to 8 (total nitrogen), and 1.3 to 4.4 (total phosphorus) g/kg dry matter. During overflow events, the entering water volumes ...

  3. Sources, Properties, Aging, and Anthropogenic Influences on OA and SOA over the Southeast US and the Amazon duing SOAS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and GoAmazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SE US and the Amazon have large sources of biogenic VOCs, varying anthropogenic pollution impacts, and often poor organic aerosol (OA) model performance. Recent results on the sources, properties, aging, and impact of anthropogenic pollution on OA and secondary OA (SOA) over ...

  4. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  5. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  6. A method for apportionment of natural and anthropogenic contributions to heavy metal loadings in the surface soils across large-scale regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-07-01

    Quantification of the contributions from anthropogenic sources to soil heavy metal loadings on regional scales is challenging because of the heterogeneity of soil parent materials and high variability of anthropogenic inputs, especially for the species that are primarily of lithogenic origin. To this end, we developed a novel method for apportioning the contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources by combining sequential extraction and stochastic modeling, and applied it to investigate the heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China. On the average, 45-86% of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were present in the acid soluble, reducible, and oxidizable fractions of the surface soils, while only 12-24% of Ni, Cr, and As were partitioned in these fractions. The anthropogenic contributions to the heavy metals in the non-residual fractions, even the ones dominated by natural sources, could be identified and quantified by conditional inference trees. Combination of sequential extraction, Kriging interpolation, and stochastic modeling reveals that approximately 10, 39, 6.2, 28, 7.1, 15, and 46% of the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively, in the surface soils of the PRD were contributed by anthropogenic sources. These results were in general agreements with those obtained through subtraction of regional soil metal background from total loadings, and the soil metal inputs through atmospheric deposition as well. In the non-residual fractions of the surface soils, the anthropogenic contributions to As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were 48, 42, 50, 51, 49, 24, and 70%, respectively. PMID:27108044

  7. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: Combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, Maria; Domeno, Celia; Nerin, Cristina [Grupo GUIA-Instituto de Investigacion de Ingenieria en Aragon (I3A), Centro Superior de Ingenieros (CPS), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The air quality in the Aragon valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragon valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g{sup -1} and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g{sup -1}), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs. (orig.)

  8. Microbial DNA records historical delivery of anthropogenic mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Alexandre J; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Blais, Jules M; Brazeau, Michelle; Keller, Wendel Bill; Paterson, Andrew M

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an anthropogenic pollutant that is toxic to wildlife and humans, but the response of remote ecosystems to globally distributed Hg is elusive. Here, we use DNA extracted from a dated sediment core to infer the response of microbes to historical Hg delivery. We observe a significant association between the mercuric reductase gene (merA) phylogeny and the timing of Hg deposition. Using relaxed molecular clock models, we show a significant increase in the scaled effective population size of the merA gene beginning ~200 years ago, coinciding with the Industrial Revolution and a coincident strong signal for positive selection acting on residues in the terminal region of the mercuric reductase. This rapid evolutionary response of microbes to changes in the delivery of anthropogenic Hg indicates that microbial genomes record ecosystem response to pollutant deposition in remote regions. PMID:26057844

  9. Potential of the multispectral synergism for observing ozone pollution combining measurements of IASI-NG and UVNS onboard EPS-SG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Cuesta, Juan; Emili, Emanuele; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Chailleux, Yohann; Beekmann, Matthias; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Current and future satellite observations offer a great potential for monitoring air quality on daily and global basis. However, measurements from currently in orbit sensors offer a limited capacity to probe surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as tropospheric ozone. Using single-band approaches based on IASI spaceborne thermal infrared measurements, only ozone down to the lower troposphere (3-4 km of altitude at lowest) may be observed (Eremenko et al., 2008). A recent multispectral method combining IASI and GOME-2 (both onboard MetOp satellites) spectra, respectively from the IR and UV, has shown enhanced sensitivity for probing ozone at the lowermost troposphere, but with maximum sensitivity around 2 km at lowest (Cuesta et al., 2013). Future spatial missions will be launched in the upcoming years, such as EPS-SG, carrying new generation sensors like IASI-NG and UVNS that will enhance the capacity to observe ozone pollution, and particularly when combining them through a multispectral synergism. This work presents an analysis of the potential of the multispectral synergism of IASI-NG and UVNS future spaceborne measurements for observing ozone pollution, performed in the framework of SURVEYOZON project (funded by the French Space Agency, CNES). For this, we develop a simulator of synthetic multispectral retrievals or pseudo-observations (referred as OSSE, Observing System Simulation Experiment) derived from IASI-NG+UVNS that will be compared to those from IASI+GOME2. In the first step of the OSSE, we create a pseudo-reality with simulations from the chemical-transport model MOCAGE (provided by CERFACS laboratory), where real O3 data from IASI and surface network stations have been assimilated for a realistic representation of ozone variability at the surface and the free troposphere. We focus on the high pollution event occurred in Europe on 10 July 2010. We use the coupled algorithms KOPRA+VLIDORT to simulate the spectra emitted, scattered and

  10. Interactions of anthropogenic stress factors on phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat P. Häder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton are the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Their biomass production and CO2 sequestration equals that of all terrestrial plants taken together. Phytoplankton productivity is controlled by a number of environmental factors, many of which currently undergo substantial changes due to anthropogenic global climate change. Light availability is an absolute requirement for photosynthesis, but excessive visible and UV radiation impair productivity. Increasing temperatures enhance stratification, decrease the depth of the upper mixing layer exposing the cells to higher solar radiation, and reduce nutrient upward transport from deeper layers. At the same time, stratospheric ozone depletion exposes phytoplankton to higher solar UV-B radiation especially in polar and mid latitudes. Terrestrial runoff carrying sediments and dissolved organic matter into coastal waters leads to eutrophication while reducing UV penetration. All these environmental forcings are known to affect physiological and ecological processes of primary producers. Ocean acidification due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations changes the seawater chemistry; it reduces calcification in phytoplankton, macroalgae and many zoological taxa and enhances UV-induced damage. Ocean warming results in changing species composition and favors blooms of toxic prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton; it moderates UV-induced damage of the photosynthetic apparatus because of higher repair rates. Increasing pollution from crude oil spills, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metal as well as industrial and household wastewaters affect phytoplankton, which is augmented by solar UV radiation. In view of the fact that extensive analyses of the impacts of multiple stressors are scarce, here we review reported findings on the impacts of anthropogenic stressors on phytoplankton with an emphasis on their interactive effects and a prospect for future studies.

  11. Single and combined effects of air pollutants on circulatory and respiratory system-related mortality in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić, Svetlana Stanišić; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja; Šoštarić, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and soot and mortality attributed to circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade area (Serbia). The analyzed data set comprised results of regular pollutant monitoring and corresponding administrative records on frequency of daily mortality in the period 2009-2014. Nonlinear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects of temperature were examined by means of distributed lag nonlinear models. The air pollutant loadings and circulatory system-related death rates in Belgrade area are among the highest in Europe. Data demonstrated that excess risk of death with short-term exposure to elevated concentrations of PM10, SO2, and soot was not significant, whereas marked effect size estimates for exposure over 90 d preceding mortality were found. The influence of chronic exposure was shown to be greater for respiratory than circulatory system-related mortality. When stratified by age and gender, higher risk was noted for male individuals below the age of 65 years. PMID:26699658

  12. Laboratory experiments on dynamics of anthropogenic ferrimagnetics in sand formations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapička, Aleš; Fialová, Hana; Petrovský, Eduard; Kodešová, R.; Kopáč, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, Special issue (2008), s. 52-53. ISSN 1335-2806. [Paleo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism. Castle Meeting /11./. 22.06.2008-28.06.2008, Bojnice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : soil pollution * dynamics of anthropogenic particles * magnetic susceptibility Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  13. Anthropogenic versus geogenic contribution to total suspended atmospheric particulate matter and its variations during a two-year sampling period in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chai, Fahe; Chen, Yizhen; Wang, Shulan; Stüben, Doris

    2010-02-01

    Weekly samples of total suspended particles in air (TSP) were taken in south-east Beijing for a two-year period continuously from August 2005 to August 2007. Mass concentrations varied between 76 and 1028 microg m(-3) with an average concentration of 370 microg m(-3) for the whole period. The chemical composition and the mass concentration of aerosols in combination with meteorological data are reflecting specific influences of distinct aerosol sources on the pollution of Beijing's atmosphere. Lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations were chosen as indicator elements for different sources. Their amounts considerably varied over the course of the year. Element ratios, such as Pb/Ti, supported the distinction between periods of predominant geogenic or anthropogenic caused pollution. However, the interactions between aerosols from different sources are numerous and aerosol pollution still is a big and complex challenge for the sustainable development of Beijing. PMID:20145883

  14. What We Can Say About the Roles of Natural and Anthropogenic Aerosols in Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Although particles from natural sources dominate the globally averaged aerosol load, it is widely understood that human activity has added significantly to the atmospheric aerosol inventory in many regions. Anthropogenic contributions include pollution particles from industrial activity, transportation, cook-stoves, and other combustion sources, smoke from agricultural fires and those wildfires that result from land-management practices, soil and mineral dust mobilized in regions where overgrazing, severe tilling, or overuse of surface water resources have occurred, and biogenic particles from vegetation planted and maintained by the populance. The history of human influence is complex - in the 18th and 19th centuries agricultural burning tended to dominate the anthropogenic component in most places, whereas more recently, fossil fuel combustion leads the human contribution is many areas. However, identifying and quantifying the anthropogenic aerosol component on global scales is a challenging endeavor at present. Most estimates of the anthropogenic component come from aerosol transport models that are initialized with aerosol and precursor-gas source locations, emission strengths, and injection heights. The aerosol is then advected based on meteorological modeling, possibly modified chemically or physically, and removed by parameterized wet or dry deposition processes. Aerosol effects on clouds are also represented in some climate models, but with even greater uncertainty than the direct aerosol effects on Earth's radiation balance. Even for present conditions, aerosol source inventories are deduced from whatever constraints can be found, along with much creativity and many assumptions. Aerosol amount (i.e., aerosol optical depth) is routinely measured globally from space, but observational constraints on the anthropogenic component require some knowledge of the aerosol type as well, a much more difficult quantity to derive. As large-swath, multi-spectral, single

  15. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  16. Decision-tree-model identification of nitrate pollution activities in groundwater: A combination of a dual isotope approach and chemical ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dongmei; Pang, Fengmei; Meng, Fanqiao; Wang, Zhongliang; Wu, Wenliang

    2015-09-01

    To develop management practices for agricultural crops to protect against NO3- contamination in groundwater, dominant pollution activities require reliable classification. In this study, we (1) classified potential NO3- pollution activities via an unsupervised learning algorithm based on δ15N- and δ18O-NO3- and physico-chemical properties of groundwater at 55 sampling locations; and (2) determined which water quality parameters could be used to identify the sources of NO3- contamination via a decision tree model. When a combination of δ15N-, δ18O-NO3- and physico-chemical properties of groundwater was used as an input for the k-means clustering algorithm, it allowed for a reliable clustering of the 55 sampling locations into 4 corresponding agricultural activities: well irrigated agriculture (28 sampling locations), sewage irrigated agriculture (16 sampling locations), a combination of sewage irrigated agriculture, farm and industry (5 sampling locations) and a combination of well irrigated agriculture and farm (6 sampling locations). A decision tree model with 97.5% classification success was developed based on SO42 - and Cl- variables. The NO3- and the δ15N- and δ18O-NO3- variables demonstrated limitation in developing a decision tree model as multiple N sources and fractionation processes both resulted in difficulties of discriminating NO3- concentrations and isotopic values. Although only the SO42 - and Cl- were selected as important discriminating variables, concentration data alone could not identify the specific NO3- sources responsible for groundwater contamination. This is a result of comprehensive analysis. To further reduce NO3- contamination, an integrated approach should be set-up by combining N and O isotopes of NO3- with land-uses and physico-chemical properties, especially in areas with complex agricultural activities.

  17. Combining Shapley value and statistics to the analysis of gene expression data in children exposed to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinjans Jos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In gene expression analysis, statistical tests for differential gene expression provide lists of candidate genes having, individually, a sufficiently low p-value. However, the interpretation of each single p-value within complex systems involving several interacting genes is problematic. In parallel, in the last sixty years, game theory has been applied to political and social problems to assess the power of interacting agents in forcing a decision and, more recently, to represent the relevance of genes in response to certain conditions. Results In this paper we introduce a Bootstrap procedure to test the null hypothesis that each gene has the same relevance between two conditions, where the relevance is represented by the Shapley value of a particular coalitional game defined on a microarray data-set. This method, which is called Comparative Analysis of Shapley value (shortly, CASh, is applied to data concerning the gene expression in children differentially exposed to air pollution. The results provided by CASh are compared with the results from a parametric statistical test for testing differential gene expression. Both lists of genes provided by CASh and t-test are informative enough to discriminate exposed subjects on the basis of their gene expression profiles. While many genes are selected in common by CASh and the parametric test, it turns out that the biological interpretation of the differences between these two selections is more interesting, suggesting a different interpretation of the main biological pathways in gene expression regulation for exposed individuals. A simulation study suggests that CASh offers more power than t-test for the detection of differential gene expression variability. Conclusion CASh is successfully applied to gene expression analysis of a data-set where the joint expression behavior of genes may be critical to characterize the expression response to air pollution. We demonstrate a

  18. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  19. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl3F (CF4) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level

  20. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Henry W. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.

  1. The combination of rotating disk photocatalytic reactor and TiO2 nanotube arrays for environmental pollutants removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined photocatalytic system on one single TiO2-nanotube (TNT)/Ti photocatalyst, which was indeed the functional combination of photon-efficient thin-film and conventional bulk-phase photocatalysis processes, was effectively developed in rotating disk photocatalytic reactor for environmental purification applications. The TNT/Ti rotating disk, of uniform size and well-aligned, was successfully prepared by direct anodic oxidation on a dominantly large surface area of 38 cm2, compared to the typical 1 cm2 in available literature. To estimate the potentials of combined photocatalytic system for environmental applications, the degradation of rhodamine B was carried out under the optimized conditions, a substrate removal efficiency of nearly 90% and a mineralization efficiency of 56% were observed for initial 20 mg/L solution after 3 h treatment. Compared with the combined photocatalytic system on TiO2 nanoparticle disk, a significant improvement in substrate removal efficiency of about 25-40% was observed on TNT/Ti disk. It was confirmed that the main degradation of rhodamine B occurred on the upper half of TNT/Ti disk above the heavily colorized sample solution, which was attributed to the superior UV utilization efficiency and the resultant high interfacial photoactivity.

  2. Destruction of pollutants in water with ozone in combination with ultraviolet radiation. 1. General principles and oxidation of tetrachloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation of organic micropollutants in water is significantly faster with ozone in combination with ultraviolet radiation than one would predict on the basis of the individual processes involved. A formalism for the analysis of O3/UV kinetics is presented in which substrate decay is represented as a linear combination of terms representing purging, ozonation, photolysis, and photolytic ozonation (O3/UV). For the substrate tetrachloroethylene (TCE) the process is overall first order in TCE. With a continuously sparged stirred tank reactor, times for the elimination of 63% of the substrate (T1) have values of 100, 26, 20, and 7 min for purging, ozonation only, photolysis only, and photolytic ozonation, respectively. Significant retardation of O3/UV kinetics is observed in a lake-water matrix as opposed to purified water, possible due to a radical intermediate involved in the O3/UV process

  3. Combination of GIS and multicriteria analysis to delineate polluted zones in Baruwa Community of Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen hand-dug wells were sampled from five different localities within Baruwa community of Lagos namely: Baruwa (BAR), Fatade (FATJ, Gowon Estate (GOW), Abesan (ABE), and Low Cost Housing Estate (LCH). Three control hand dug wells were also sampled from Ipaja (IPA), Asipa (ASI) and Agege (AGE). Chemical and statistical analyses were carried out on the water samples to determine their quality and usage while electrical resistively soundings were conducted to determine the aquiferous units. The study area was mapped by GIS using parameters such as distance from spillage point, total dissolved solid, conductivity, depth of water table, altitude etc. The present study focused on the use of GIS, hydrochemical and geophysical techniques to delineate polluted zones in the Baruwa community aquifers and to suggest possible remedial measures. Hydrochemical results show that samples collected from Baruwa community have been contaminated while samples collected from the control wells are potable. The results of the sounding data show a system of four to five geoelectric layers with variable thicknesses. The lithounits include top soil, saturated clay, sandy clay, sand and conglomeratic sand with average resistivity of the 64, 32, 167, 278 and 1299 m respectively. The relatively high resistivity of the first aquifer (20 m) suggests hydrocarbon contamination from wells within Baruwa community while, low resistivity values were observed from the first aquifers of the control wells. However, prolific uncontaminated aquifers constitute the last layer (>30 m) and could be recommended for borehole drilling in the study area. The outcome of this investigation could be used for groundwater exploration in the area. The outcome of this investigation could be used for groundwater exploration in the area and could also be applied to the broader domain of land-use management

  4. Distribution and mobilization of pollutants in the sediment of a constructed floating wetland used for treatment of combined sewer overflow events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Moortel, Annelies M K; Du Laing, Gijs; De Pauw, Niels; Tack, Filip M G

    2011-05-01

    Sediments in combined sewer overflow treatment systems may exhibit elevated pollutant concentrations. Concentrations measured in the sediment of a floating treatment wetland ranged from 0.17 to 1.6 (cadmium), 28 to 142 (copper), 10 to 33 (chromium), 50 to 141 (manganese), 5 to 20 (nickel), 50 to 203 (lead), and 185 to 804 (zinc) mg/kg dry matter and 7.4 to 17 (iron), 2 to 8 (total nitrogen), and 1.3 to 4.4 (total phosphorus) g/kg dry matter. During overflow events, the entering water volumes can disturb the sediments. A greenhouse experiment was set up to evaluate the possible mobilization of pollutants through disturbation. The disturbation did not result in an increased mobilization of cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon towards the pore and surface water. Calcium concentrations in the surface water increased for all sediments, as a result of release from the exchangeable sediment pool and dissolution of carbonates. Geochemical speciation modeling indicated that, in the pore water, the free ion form was the most abundant for calcium, iron, manganese, cadmium, and nickel, with its fraction increasing with time. PMID:21657194

  5. Assessment of nitrate pollution in the Grand Morin aquifers (France): Combined use of geostatistics and physically based modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to combine several approaches to better understand nitrate fate in the Grand Morin aquifers (2700 km2), part of the Seine basin. CAWAQS results from the coupling of the hydrogeological model NEWSAM with the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model of river PROSE. CAWAQS is coupled with the agronomic model STICS in order to simulate nitrate migration in basins. First, kriging provides a satisfactory representation of aquifer nitrate contamination from local observations, to set initial conditions for the physically based model. Then associated confidence intervals, derived from data using geostatistics, are used to validate CAWAQS results. Results and evaluation obtained from the combination of these approaches are given (period 1977-1988). Then CAWAQS is used to simulate nitrate fate for a 20-year period (1977-1996). The mean nitrate concentrations increase in aquifers is 0.09 mgN L-1 yr-1, resulting from an average infiltration flux of 3500 kgN.km-2 yr-1. - Combined use of geostatistics and physically based modeling allows assessment of nitrate concentrations in aquifer systems

  6. Benthic Nutrient Fluxes from Mangrove Sediments of an Anthropogenically Impacted Estuary in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves serve as either sinks or sources for inorganic and organic nutrients and can mitigate anthropogenic nutrient pollution, control the production in adjacent systems, and prevent eutrophication. To better understand the nutrient dynamics in a subtropical mangrove, we employed a three-way approach in the Nanliu River Estuary, southern China: Pore water profiles and sediment incubations revealed benthic early diagenesis as well as sediment–water exchange of dissolved nutrients and oxygen, while tidal sampling of estuarine and mangrove water identified source and sink functions of the entire mangrove forest. Fluxes of oxygen during incubations were always directed into the sediment, indicating heterotrophy of the system. There was a net uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly caused by nitrate influx, while ammonium and nitrite showed variable flux direction. Despite high pore water concentrations, phosphate and silica showed net uptake. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon were generally low except for high efflux in the dark following a storm event. Due to the combination of small forest area and strong anthropogenic nutrient input, the net sink function for dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus provides no significant buffer against the eutrophication of coastal waters.

  7. Environmental and anthropogenic factors affecting the respiratory toxicity of volcanic ash in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašek, Ines; Horwell, Claire J.; Damby, David E.; Ayris, Paul M.; Barošová, Hana; Geers, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2016-04-01

    Human exposure to inhalable volcanic ash particles following an eruption is a health concern, as respirable-sized particles can potentially contribute towards adverse respiratory health effects, such as the onset or exacerbation of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Although there is substantial information on the mineralogical properties of volcanic ash that may influence its biological reactivity, knowledge as to how external factors, such as air pollution, contribute to and augment the potential reactivity is limited. To determine the respiratory effects of volcanic particle interactions with anthropogenic pollution and volcanic gases we will experimentally assess: (i) physicochemical characteristics of volcanic ash relevant to respiratory toxicity; (ii) the effects of simultaneously inhaling anthropogenic pollution (i.e. diesel exhaust particles (DEP)) and volcanic ash (of different origins); (iii) alteration of volcanic ash toxicity following interaction with volcanic gases. In order to gain a first understanding of the biological impact of the respirable fraction of volcanic ash when inhaled with DEP in vitro, we used a sophisticated 3D triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier. The multi-cellular system was exposed to DEP [0.02 mg/mL] and then exposed to either a single or repeated dose of well-characterised respirable volcanic ash (0.26 ± 0.09 or 0.89 ± 0.29 μg/cm2, respectively) from the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat for a period of 24 hours using a pseudo-air liquid interface approach. Cultures were subsequently assessed for adverse biological endpoints including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and (pro)-inflammatory responses. Results indicated that the combination of DEP and respirable volcanic ash at sub-lethal concentrations incited a significant release of pro-inflammatory markers that was greater than the response for either DEP or volcanic ash, independently. Further work is planned, to determine if

  8. Effects of business-as-usual anthropogenic emissions on air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Aardenne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC has been used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050. The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy and food consumption and consequent pollution sources with the current technologies ("business as usual". This scenario is chosen to show the effects of not implementing legislation to prevent additional climate change and growing air pollution, other than what is in place for the base year 2005, representing a pessimistic (but feasible future.

    By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecisions inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (~100 km and simplified bottom-up emission input.

    To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI, suited for global model output, has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Middle East represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations, although a general increase of MPIs is observed in all populated regions in the Northern Hemisphere. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 is projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust, ozone levels are expected to increase strongly.

    The per capita MPI (PCMPI, which combines demographic and pollutants concentrations projections, shows that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. Following the business as usual scenario

  9. Combination of beehive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity to study heavy metal pollution impact in a post-mining area (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alberto; Verdinelli, Marcello; Ruiu, Luca; Buffa, Franco; Salis, Severyn; Sassu, Antonio; Floris, Ignazio

    2012-11-01

    Mining activities represent a major source of environment contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of bees and ants as bioindicators to detect the heavy metal impact in post-mining areas. A biomonitoring programme involving a combination of honeybee hive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity survey was conducted over a 3-year period. The experimental design involved three monitoring stations where repeated sampling activities focused on chemical detection of cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr) and lead (Pb) from different matrices, both from hosted beehives (foraging bees, honey and pollen) and from the surrounding environment (stream water and soil). At the same time, ant biodiversity (number and abundance of species) was determined through a monitoring programme based on the use of pitfall traps placed in different habitats inside each mining site. The heavy metal content detected in stream water from the control station was always below the analytical limit of quantification. In the case of soil, the content of Cd and Pb from the control was lower than that of mining sites. The mean heavy metal concentrations in beehive matrices from mining sites were mainly higher than the control, and as a result of regression and discriminant analysis, forager bee sampling was an efficient environmental pollution bioindicator. Ant collection and identification highlighted a wide species variety with differences among habitats mostly associated with vegetation features. A lower variability was observed in the polluted landfill characterised by lack of vegetation. Combined biomonitoring with forager bees and ants represents a reliable tool for heavy metal environmental impact studies. PMID:22532121

  10. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marelle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using EMEP measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic, showing a good agreement, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10 during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne LIDAR measurements. Evaluating the regional impacts in the Arctic of this event in terms of aerosol vertical structure, we find that during the 4 day presence of these aerosols in the lower European Arctic (2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface. The European plumes sampled during POLARCAT-France were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in Northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top of atmosphere (TOA shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m−2, peaking at +3.3 W m−2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  11. Oil pollution in Chilika lagoon: An anthropogenic threat to biodiversity.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Baliarsingh, S.K.; Sahoo, S.; Acharya, A.; Dalabehera, H.B.; Sahu, K.C.; Lotliker, A.A.

    have an adverse effect on these birds and associated wildlife. Oil affects birds by coating their plumage, matting and mis- aligning their feathers causing problems with insulation15. Oil can also cause health issues for dolphins, which could cover..., specially fish which is one of the primary sources of livelihood for coastal communities in Odisha. Oil pol- lution has both short-term and long-term effects on the biota. Smothering, hypo- thermia and mortality are the short- term adverse effects...

  12. Anthropogenic activities including pollution and contamination of coastal marine environment.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    background, discahrges of toxic effluents and inflow of nutrients, irretrievable water consumption and damage of aquatic organisms, landing of commercial species, destruction of shorewline and construction of drilling rig. Simultaneous impact of several...

  13. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system. PMID:26706768

  14. Energy production, distribution, and pollution controls: Combining engineering and economic analysis to enhance efficiency and policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkis, David F.

    Three published articles are presented which focus on enhancing various aspects of the energy supply chain. While each paper adopts a different methodology, all three combine engineering data and/or techniques with economic analysis to improve efficiency or policy design within energy markets. The first paper combines a chemical engineering plant design model with an economic assessment of product enhancements within an ethanol production facility. While a new chemical process is shown to achieve greater ethanol yields, the animal feed by-products are denatured and decrease in value due to the degradation of a key nutritional amino acid. Overall, yield increases outweigh any costs, providing additional value to firms adopting this process. The second paper uses a mixed integer linear model to assess the optimal location of cellulosic ethanol production facilities within the state of Indiana. Desired locations with low costs are linked to regions with high yield corn growth, as these areas provide an abundance of corn stover, a by-product of corn and a cellulosic source of ethanol. The third paper implements experimental economic methods to assess the effectiveness of policies intended to control prices in emissions permit markets. When utilizing reserve permit auctions as an alternative to setting explicit maximum prices, prices are elevated beyond the theoretical predictions of the model within the conditions of the experiment. The most likely cause of higher prices is the negotiating power provided to sellers by grandfathering permits as evidenced by higher than expected welfare gains to sellers. Before presenting the articles, a discussion is introduced regarding the role of assumptions used by economists. For each article, a key assumption is highlighted and the consequences of making a different assumption are provided. Whether the consequences are large or small, the benefits of elucidating our models with assumptions based on real world behaviors are clearly

  15. ASSESMENT OF ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON THE STRMEC WELL FIELD GROUNDWATERR (ZAGREB, HRVATSKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Nakić

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The multivariate statistic methods: the cluster analysis and the Multidimensional scaling analysis showed the grouping of piezometers within sanitary protection zones in the three clusters, concerning the indexes of anthropogenic pollution. The results of the analysis provided the eveluation of the influences of the waste depository Trebež on the ground water of the Strmec well field. The principal component analysis revealed the most important macro and micro components, which are or could be the consequence of the anthropogenic pollution. The Time series analysis showed the trends of the most important components (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. Objectives We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. Methods A total of 52,061 subjects (50–65 year...

  17. Combined effect of temperature and copper pollution on soil bacterial community: climate change and regional variation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Isabel; Araújo, Susana; Pereira, Anabela; Menezes-Oliveira, Vanessa B; Correia, António; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined effects of temperature and copper (Cu) contamination in the structure of soil bacterial community. For this, contaminated or spiked and control soils from two different geographic origins (PT-Portugal and DK-Denmark) were used. The DK soil was from a historically contaminated study field, representing a long-term exposure to Cu while the PT soil was from a clean site and freshly spiked with Cu. Soil bacterial communities were exposed in mesocosms during 84 days to 3 different temperatures based on values typically found in each geographic region and temperature conditions that simulated a warming scenario. Obtained results indicate that Cu stress alters the structure of bacterial community and that this effect is, to some extent, temperature-dependent. Effects on bacterial diversity for both soils were also observed. Differences in the DK and PT communities' response were apparent, with the community from the historically contaminated soil being more resilient to temperature fluctuations. This study presents evidence to support the hypothesis that temperature alters the effect of metals on soils. Further, our results suggest that the definition of soils quality criteria must be based on studies performed under temperatures selected for the specific geographic region. Studies taking into account temperature changes are needed to model and predict risks, this is important to e.g. future adjustments of the maximum permissible levels for soil metal contamination. PMID:25450928

  18. Problems of anthropogenic tritium limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkov О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the current situation in respect to the environmental concentrations of anthropogenic and natural tritium. There are presented and analyzed domestic standards for НТО of all Radiation Safety Standards (NRB, as well as the regulations analyzed for tritium in drinking water taken in other countries today. This article deals with the experience of limitation of tritium and focuses on the main problem of rationing of tritium — rationing of organically bound tritium.

  19. Tectonic earthquakes of anthropogenic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The enhancement of seismicity induced by industrial activity in Russia in the conditions of present-day anthropization is noted. In particular, the growth in the intensity and number of strong tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 3 (seismic energy 109 J) due to human activity is revealed. These man-made tectonic earthquakes have started to occur in the regions of the East European Platform which were previously aseismic. The development of such seismicity is noted in the areas of intense long-term mineral extraction due to the increasing production depth and extended mining and production. The mechanisms and generation conditions of man-made tectonic earthquakes in the anthropogenically disturbed medium with the changed geodynamical and fluid regime is discussed. The source zones of these shallow-focus tectonic earthquakes of anthropogenic origin are formed in the setting of stress state rearrangement under anthropogenic loading both near these zones and at a significant distance from them. This distance is determined by the tectonic structure of the rock mass and the character of its energy saturation, in particular, by the level of the formation pressure or pore pressure. These earthquakes occur at any time of the day, have a triggered character, and are frequently accompanied by catastrophic phenomena in the underground mines and on the surface due to the closeness to the source zones.

  20. Fundamental studies on combined separation of dust and gaseous pollutants in biomass combustion systems; Grundlagenuntersuchungen zur kombinierten Abscheidung von Staeuben und gasfoermigen Schadstoffen aus Biomasseverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmer, G.

    2002-07-01

    The author attempted to characterise a model process for combined separation of redispersed ashes of a biomass combustion system (tree bark ash) and a waste incinerator, with acid pollutant gases (SO{sub 2} and HCl) in the carrier gas. The acid gases were reduced using the most common industrial sorbents,i.e. bicarbonate of sodium (NaHCO{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)-2). The development and construction of a combined filtration system was a basic prerequisite of the investigations. [German] Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Charakterisierung eines Modellprozesses zur kombinierten Abscheidung von redispergierten Aschen aus einer Biomasseverbrennung (Rindenasche) und einer Hausmuellverbrennung zusammen mit sauren Schadgasen (SO{sub 2} und HCl) im Traegergas. Zur Reduktion der sauren Schadgase wurden dabei die industriell am haeufigsten verwendeten Sorbentien, Natriumbicarbonat (NaHCO{sub 3}) und Calciumhydroxid (Ca(OH){sub 2}), eingesetzt. Eine grundlegende Voraussetzung fuer die Untersuchungen zur kombinierten Abscheidung von Staeuben und gasfoermigen Schadstoffen war die Errichtung einer eigens zu diesem Zweck entwickelten Filtrationsanlage (Kombi-Filteranlage). (orig.)

  1. Combination of Biochemical and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Methods for Detection of Heavy Metal Pollutions in Eucalyptus Leaves (case Study: the City of Bam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, R.; Anvari, S.; Honarmand, M.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution may be caused due to mines and mineral deposits. The accumulation of the associated heavy metals in soil and especially at the root zone of plants would result in plant contamination. This paper aims to detect the dominant heavy metals in Eucalyptus leaves using both biochemical and hyperspectral techniques for northern part of Bam in Iran. In this regards, using biochemical approach, some Eucalyptus leaf samples were collected, and their laboratory data containing the concentration of heavy metals were measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS). Using ASD FieldSpec3 Pro spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Devices) also, the spectral profile of leaf samples was measured and compared with healthy ones namely control samples. Finally, using supervised classification methods, the spatial distribution of heavy metals was determined by combination of biochemical results, spectral measurements of samples and hyperspectral images of EO-1 satellite. Results showed that Eucalyptus trees accumulates the heavy metals of As and Pb with the average concentrations equalling 9.98 and 14.31 ppb while compared with the relevant control samples equalling 2.32 and 8.98 ppb, respectively. Combination of biochemical and hyperspectral data analysis also proved by increasing heavy metals concentrations in all samples, their spectral profiles for the visible and near infrared regions will be changed in comparison with those obtained from the control sample.

  2. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiger, Anke; Thomas, Jennie L.; Schlager, Hans; Law, Kathy; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Schäfler, Andreas; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Rose, Maximilian; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Marelle, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Arctic change has opened the region to new industrial activities, most notably transit shipping and resource extraction. The impacts that Arctic industrialization will have on pollutants and Arctic climate are not well understood. In order to understand how shipping and offshore oil/gas extraction impact on Arctic tropospheric chemistry and composition, we conducted the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign. The campaign was conducted in July 2012 using the DLR Falcon research aircraft, based in Andenes, Norway. The Falcon was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species) to characterize these emissions and their atmospheric chemistry. The Falcon performed nine scientific flights to study emissions from different ships (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) off the Norwegian Coast. Distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition were found in emissions from these increasing pollution sources. We also studied the composition of biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires to put the emerging local pollution within a broader context. In addition to our measurements, we used a regional chemical transport model to study the influence of emerging pollution sources on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. We will present an overview on the measured trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources and discuss the impact of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  3. Levels, fluxes and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Thun, Switzerland: Combining trace analysis and multimedia modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels, mass fluxes, and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Thun, a peri-Alpine lake, are investigated. We present measurements of PBDEs and PCBs in air, lake water, lake sediment, and tributary water. These measurements are combined with a multimedia fate model, based on site-specific environmental parameters from the lake catchment. Measured loadings of PBDEs and PCBs in air and tributaries were used to drive the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces PBDE and PCB congener patterns in water and sediment, but it tends to yield concentrations in water below the measurements and concentrations in sediment exceeding the measurements. A sensitivity analysis reveals that partitioning of PBDEs and PCBs between the aqueous dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter in the water column strongly affects the model results, in particular the concentrations in water and sediment. For lower-brominated PBDEs, approximately 70% and 30% of input into the lake stems from atmospheric deposition and from tributaries, respectively. For heavier PBDEs and all PCBs, rivers appear to deliver the major load (64-92%). Waste water effluents are of minor importance. 50-90% of the total input is buried in the permanent sediment. Sediment burial makes PBDEs and PCBs less available for recycling in the environment, and reduces concentrations in the outflowing river. If use of deca-BDE increases in the future, levels in Lake Thun will follow the same trend. If the use and resulting environmental emissions decrease, concentrations in water will rapidly decline, according to our calculations, while sediment levels will decrease at a considerably slower rate.

  4. Levels, fluxes and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Thun, Switzerland: combining trace analysis and multimedia modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Bläuenstein, Markus; Kohler, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2010-08-01

    Levels, mass fluxes, and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Thun, a peri-Alpine lake, are investigated. We present measurements of PBDEs and PCBs in air, lake water, lake sediment, and tributary water. These measurements are combined with a multimedia fate model, based on site-specific environmental parameters from the lake catchment. Measured loadings of PBDEs and PCBs in air and tributaries were used to drive the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces PBDE and PCB congener patterns in water and sediment, but it tends to yield concentrations in water below the measurements and concentrations in sediment exceeding the measurements. A sensitivity analysis reveals that partitioning of PBDEs and PCBs between the aqueous dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter in the water column strongly affects the model results, in particular the concentrations in water and sediment. For lower-brominated PBDEs, approximately 70% and 30% of input into the lake stems from atmospheric deposition and from tributaries, respectively. For heavier PBDEs and all PCBs, rivers appear to deliver the major load (64-92%). Waste water effluents are of minor importance. 50-90% of the total input is buried in the permanent sediment. Sediment burial makes PBDEs and PCBs less available for recycling in the environment, and reduces concentrations in the outflowing river. If use of deca-BDE increases in the future, levels in Lake Thun will follow the same trend. If the use and resulting environmental emissions decrease, concentrations in water will rapidly decline, according to our calculations, while sediment levels will decrease at a considerably slower rate. PMID:20597144

  5. Levels, fluxes and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Thun, Switzerland: Combining trace analysis and multimedia modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdal, Christian [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scheringer, Martin, E-mail: scheringer@chem.ethz.ch [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmid, Peter [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Blaeuenstein, Markus [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Kohler, Martin [State Food Law Enforcement Authority, Werkhofstrasse 5, CH-4509 Solothurn (Switzerland); Hungerbuehler, Konrad [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-08-01

    Levels, mass fluxes, and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Thun, a peri-Alpine lake, are investigated. We present measurements of PBDEs and PCBs in air, lake water, lake sediment, and tributary water. These measurements are combined with a multimedia fate model, based on site-specific environmental parameters from the lake catchment. Measured loadings of PBDEs and PCBs in air and tributaries were used to drive the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces PBDE and PCB congener patterns in water and sediment, but it tends to yield concentrations in water below the measurements and concentrations in sediment exceeding the measurements. A sensitivity analysis reveals that partitioning of PBDEs and PCBs between the aqueous dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter in the water column strongly affects the model results, in particular the concentrations in water and sediment. For lower-brominated PBDEs, approximately 70% and 30% of input into the lake stems from atmospheric deposition and from tributaries, respectively. For heavier PBDEs and all PCBs, rivers appear to deliver the major load (64-92%). Waste water effluents are of minor importance. 50-90% of the total input is buried in the permanent sediment. Sediment burial makes PBDEs and PCBs less available for recycling in the environment, and reduces concentrations in the outflowing river. If use of deca-BDE increases in the future, levels in Lake Thun will follow the same trend. If the use and resulting environmental emissions decrease, concentrations in water will rapidly decline, according to our calculations, while sediment levels will decrease at a considerably slower rate.

  6. Potential emission flux to aerosol pollutants over Bengal Gangetic plain through combined trajectory clustering and aerosol source fields analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. Bharath; Verma, S.

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid source-receptor analysis was carried out to evaluate the potential emission flux to winter monsoon (WinMon) aerosols over Bengal Gangetic plain urban (Kolkata, Kol) and semi-urban atmospheres (Kharagpur, Kgp). This was done through application of fuzzy c-mean clustering to back-trajectory data combined with emission flux and residence time weighted aerosols analysis. WinMon mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom exponent (AE) at Kol (AOD: 0.77; AE: 1.17) were respectively slightly higher than and nearly equal to that at Kgp (AOD: 0.71; AE: 1.18). Out of six source region clusters over Indian subcontinent and two over Indian oceanic region, the cluster mean AOD was the highest when associated with the mean path of air mass originating from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea clusters at Kol and that from the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) cluster at Kgp. Spatial distribution of weighted AOD fields showed the highest potential source of aerosols over the IGP, primarily over upper IGP (e.g. Punjab, Haryana), lower IGP (e.g. Uttarpradesh) and eastern region (e.g. west Bengal, Bihar, northeast India) clusters. The emission flux contribution potential (EFCP) of fossil fuel (FF) emissions at surface (SL) of Kol/Kgp, elevated layer (EL) of Kol, and of biomass burning (BB) emissions at SL of Kol were primarily from upper, lower, upper/lower IGP clusters respectively. The EFCP of FF/BB emissions at Kgp-EL/SL, and that of BB at EL of Kol/Kgp were mainly from eastern region and Africa (AFR) clusters respectively. Though the AFR cluster was constituted of significantly high emission flux source potential of dust emissions, the EFCP of dust from northwest India (NWI) was comparable to that from AFR at Kol SL/EL.

  7. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  8. A three-year in-situ study on the persistence of a combined amendment (limestone+sepiolite) for remedying paddy soil polluted with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Jun; Zhou, Hang; Zou, Zi-Jin; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Wen-Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-08-01

    In order to study the persistence of a combined amendment (LS, limestone+sepiolite) for remedying paddy soil polluted with the heavy metals Pb and Cd, a three-year in-situ experiment was conducted in a paddy soil near a mining area in southern Hunan, China. LS was applied at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 8g/kg (w/w); rice was subsequently planted for the three consecutive years of 2012 (first season), 2013 (second season), and 2014 (third season). Experimental results indicated that LS significantly increased soil pH values for all three seasons, and the enhancement ranked as follows: first season>second season>third season. Under the experimental conditions, the effect of LS on decreasing exchangeable concentrations of soil Pb and Cd was as follows: first season (97.6-99.8% for Pb and 88.3-98.9% for Cd)>second season (80.7-97.7% for Pb and 28.3-88.0% for Cd)>third season (32.6-97.7% for Pb and 8.3-71.4% for Cd); the effect of LS on reducing Pb concentrations in brown rice was: first season (73.5-81.2%)>third season (29.6-68.1%)>second season (0-9.7%), and that for reducing Cd concentrations in brown rice was third season (72.7-81.0%)>first season (56.1-66.8%)>second season (20.9-32.3%). For all three seasons, the effect of LS on reducing Cd content in brown rice was better than that for Pb. The highest translocation factors for Pb and Cd were from rice straw to husk, implying that the husk of rice plants was the main organ in which heavy metals accumulated. The effect of LS for decreasing soil exchangeable Cd content was relatively persistent, but that for Pb gradually decreased with time, implying that LS was more suitable for the long-term remediation of Cd-polluted soil than Pb-polluted soil. PMID:27107177

  9. Fuel reactivity and release of pollutants and alkali vapours in pressurized combustion for combined cycle power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K.; Rantanen, J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Plasma Technology

    1996-12-01

    This project forms a part of the overall Pressurized Power Coal Combustion Project Area (PPFC) which aims at an assessment of the viability and technical merits of pressurized pulverized coal combustion, in an atmosphere of recycled flue gas and oxygen in a coordinated and harmonized programme. The objective of the research at Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is aimed at determining the consequences of solid fuel burning in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gases. Combustion conditions of a pressurized entrained flow of pulverized coal and char particles in PEFR are determined with high precision. The effects of experimental parameters on the formation of nitrogen oxides (N{sub 2}O, NO and NO{sub 2}) and gaseous alkali compounds (indicated as NaX(g) and KX(g)) are studied. An effective on-line analysis method for vaporised Na and K compounds was developed. The dependency between particle temperatures and the vaporisation of Na and K was measured with three coals. The results show that alkali removal before gas turbines is always necessary with these coals if combusted in combined cycles. Pressure decreases the formation of NO and has usually no clear effect on the formation of N{sub 2}O. The order of NO/N{sub 2}O ratios correspond to fuel-O/fuel-N ratios. Increase of PO{sub 2} (oxygen concentration) of combustion gas increases the formation of NO{sub 2}. Remarkable concentrations of NO{sub 2} were often measured at high PO{sub 2} at 800-850 deg C. Therefore, NO{sub 2} should be measured from pressurized fluidized bed reactors. Some trends of the formation of NO{sub 2} with coal differ clearly from those with its parent char: N{sub 2}O formation is not strongly temperature dependent with char, and the concentrations of N{sub 2}O formed from char are much lower than those of coal. PO{sub 2} does not effect on the formation of NO from char in the studied range

  10. Pollutants removal and simulation model of combined membrane process for wastewater treatment and reuse in submarine cabin for long voyage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhaobo; ZHOU Aijuan; REN Nanqi; TIAN Yu; HU Dongxue

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory scale test was conducted in a combined membrane process (CMP) with a capacity of 2.91 m~3/d for 240 d to treat the mixed wastewater of humidity condensate,hygiene wastewater and urine in submarine cabin during prolonged voyage.Removal performance of COD,ammonia nitrogen (NH4~+-N),turbidity and anionic surfactants (LAS) was investigated under different conditions.It was observed that the effluent COD,NH4~+-N,turbidity and LAS flocculated in respective ranges of 0.19-0.85 mg/L,0.03-0.18 mg/L,0.0-0.15 NTU and 0.0-0.05 mg/L in spite of considerable fluctuation in corresponding influent of 2120-5350 mg/L,79.5-129.3 mg/L,110-181.1NTU and 4.9-5.4 mg/L.The effluent quality of the CMP could meet the requirements of mechanical water and hygiene water according to the class I water quality standards in China (GB3838-2002).The removal rates of COD,NH4~+-N,turbidity and LAS removed in the MBR were more than 90%,which indicated that biodegradation is indispensable and plays a major role in the wastewater treatment and reuse.A model,built on the back propagation neural network (BPNN) theory,was developed for the simulation of CMP and produced high reliability.The average error of COD and NH4~+-N was 5.14% and 6.20%,respectively and the root mean squared error of turbidity and LAS was 2.76% and 1.41%,respectively.The results indicated that the model well fitted the laboratory data,and was able to simulate the removal of COD,NH4~+-N,turbidity and LAS.It is also suggested that the model proposed could reflect and manage the operation of CMP for the treatment of the mixed wastewaters in submarine.

  11. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  12. Detecting anthropogenic climate change with an optimal fingerprint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a general fingerprint strategy to detect anthropogenic climate change and present application to near surface temperature trends. An expected time-space-variable pattern of anthropogenic climate change (the 'signal') is identified through application of an appropriate optimally matched space-time filter (the 'fingerprint') to the observations. The signal and the fingerprint are represented in a space with sufficient observed and simulated data. The signal pattern is derived from a model-generated prediction of anthropogenic climate change. Application of the fingerprint filter to the data yields a scalar detection variable. The statistically optimal fingerprint is obtained by weighting the model-predicted pattern towards low-noise directions. A combination of model output and observations is used to estimate the noise characteristics of the detection variable, arising from the natural variability of climate in the absence of external forcing. We test then the null hypothesis that the observed climate change is part of natural climate variability. We conclude that a statistically significant externally induced warming has been observed, with the caveat of a possibly inadequate estimate of the internal climate variability. In order to attribute this warming uniquely to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, more information on the climate's response to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in solar radiation, volcanic or anthropogenic aerosols) and their interaction is needed. (orig./KW)

  13. Detecting anthropogenic climate change with an optimal fingerprint method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegerl, G.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Storch, H. von [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Hasselmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Santer, B.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison; Cubasch, U. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Jones, P.D. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Climatic Research Unit

    1994-09-01

    We propose a general fingerprint strategy to detect anthropogenic climate change and present application to near surface temperature trends. An expected time-space-variable pattern of anthropogenic climate change (the `signal`) is identified through application of an appropriate optimally matched space-time filter (the `fingerprint`) to the observations. The signal and the fingerprint are represented in a space with sufficient observed and simulated data. The signal pattern is derived from a model-generated prediction of anthropogenic climate change. Application of the fingerprint filter to the data yields a scalar detection variable. The statistically optimal fingerprint is obtained by weighting the model-predicted pattern towards low-noise directions. A combination of model output and observations is used to estimate the noise characteristics of the detection variable, arising from the natural variability of climate in the absence of external forcing. We test then the null hypothesis that the observed climate change is part of natural climate variability. We conclude that a statistically significant externally induced warming has been observed, with the caveat of a possibly inadequate estimate of the internal climate variability. In order to attribute this warming uniquely to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, more information on the climate`s response to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in solar radiation, volcanic or anthropogenic aerosols) and their interaction is needed. (orig./KW)

  14. Analysis of anthropogenic impacts on the hydrological state of a Pleistocene catchment area using remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Annette; Merz, Christoph; Steidl, Jörg; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The water budget of a catchment area can be depicted by the complex interaction between topography and discharge as well as anthropogenic and climatic impacts. Over the last decades, the Pleistocene lowlands of North-Eastern Germany have experienced extensive anthropogenic modifications. The hydrological system has been significantly altered by the installation of artificial drainage, such as surface ditches and subsurface tile drains. It has been shown, that artificial drainage systems provide pathways for diffuse nutrients and pollutants leaching into surface and also subsurface water bodies, which is especially pronounced in lowland areas. The detection of these transport paths is important for obtaining an understanding of the regional water and substance balance and the development of strategies to improve hydrological conditions. Unfortunately, detailed data about locations of historic artificial drainage are rare or not available at all. The aim of this study was to identify the extensive anthropogenic modifications, like artificial drainage networks and land use changes, over the last decades with the aid of photogrammetric data and multispectral imagery. The detection of anthropogenic modifications is based on the method of Tetzlaff, et al. (2009), who developed an approach by interpreting aerial photographs for drained areas. We used color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs, in order to apply different spectral techniques for obtaining information about water content and vitality status of plant cover. Although this method is sensitive to daily variations of soil moisture and plant growth as response to climate conditions, and the type of drainage pipe installation technique, we were able to identify different locations of artificial drainage. Complementary to this approach we utilized spectral classification methods for land cover in order to extract different land cover categories, and evaporation rates, depending on the land cover and surface

  15. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  16. Atmospheric black carbon in the Russian Arctic: anthropogenic inputs in comparison with average or extremal wood fires' ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Anna A.; Smirnov, Nikolay S.; Korotkov, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    Model estimates of atmospheric black carbon concentrations were made for different points of the Russian Arctic. Anthropogenic BC emissions and wood fires' ones were calculated from Russian official statistics for the 2000s. We used the data of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of RF on anthropogenic air emissions of pollution in Russian cities and regions [1], as well as the data of Federal Forestry Agency of RF (Rosleshoz) [2] on wood fires. We considered the area within (50-72)N and (20-180)E, which covers about 94% of the Russian territory, where both anthropogenic and fire BC emissions have been arranged through grid cells (1×1) deg. Anthropogenic BC emissions are estimated as annual values based on the data for 54 regions and more than 100 cities. Total emission is estimated as (220 ± 30) Gg BC in 2010 [3], including emissions from open flares associated with gas/oil extractive industry which are about (25 ± 8) Gg/yr. We analyzed the data on wood fires (detailing crown, ground and underground fires in forests and fires on non-forest lands) with their spatial and seasonal variations during 15 years (2000-2014). Different combustion factors [4] and BC emission coefficients [5] were used in calculations for different types of burning. Russian total average annual BC emission from fires, occurring mainly in summertime, was estimated as 30 Gg with large variations (4-100 Gg/yr) from year to year. Asian territory emits about 90% of this value. We estimated anthropogenic (BC_A) and fires' (BC_F) contributions to BC air concentrations at different Russian Arctic points using the approach [6] - decadal back-trajectory analysis combined with spatial distribution of sensitivity pollution emission function (SPEF). Extraordinary atmospheric circulation causing, to a great extent, abnormally intensive fires in the middle latitudes often leads to a decrease in SPEF values for these territories. As a result, fires are not so dangerous for the whole Arctic, as

  17. ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSURE ON FORESTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko\tIOAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests are one of the richest ecosystems in terms of biomass stock and this potential is augmented by a broad range of ecosystem services that contribute to human wellbeing by protecting air from pollution, soil from runoff, landscapes from flooding and landslides. This high economic and ecologic potential is well acknowledged, but in specific circumstances short terms gains resulting from the valuation of wood or from conversion of land to other uses are prevailing and create powerful incentives for overexploitation or deforestation. The anthropogenic pressure on forests was and continues to remain high at global level, although there are states where it was successfully controlled. Nevertheless, the forest cover is shrinking increasing the associated threats that result from the cancellation of the forests’ ecosystem services. Of particular importance in the current context is the reduction of forests’ carbon sequestration potential, which is of crucial importance in climate change mitigation. The patterns of unfavourable circumstances are analysed in order to outline the most important challenges of forest management in Romania, but also the impact of novel ecosystem service based economic tools that are aimed to strengthen the incentives for sustainable forest management and to avoid conversion of forests to other land use types.

  18. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khatiwala

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant, absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data-based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air–sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on forward ocean models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of the global ocean inventory of anthropogenic carbon in 2010 of 155 ± 31 PgC (±20% uncertainty. This estimate includes a

  19. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khatiwala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant, absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data-assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air-sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on ocean forward models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of

  20. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwala, S.; Tanhua, T.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S.; Gerber, M.; Doney, S. C.; Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.; McKinley, G. A.; Murata, A.; Ríos, A. F.; Sabine, C. L.

    2013-04-01

    The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant), absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data-based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air-sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on forward ocean models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of the global ocean inventory of anthropogenic carbon in 2010 of 155 ± 31 PgC (±20% uncertainty). This estimate includes a broad range of

  1. Models to predict emissions of health-damaging pollutants and global warming contributions of residential fuel/stove combinations in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.D.; Smith, K.R. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health; Zhang, J. [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.; Yuqing Ma [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2003-01-01

    Residential energy use in developing countries has traditionally been associated with combustion devices of poor energy efficiency, which have been shown to produce substantial health-damaging pollution, contributing significantly to the global burden of disease, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Precision of these estimates in China has been hampered by limited data on stove use and fuel consumption in residences. In addition limited information is available on variability of emissions of pollutants from different stove/fuel combinations in typical use, as measurement of emission factors requires measurement of multiple chemical species in complex burn cycle tests. Such measurements are too costly and time consuming for application in conjunction with national surveys. Emissions of most of the major health-damaging pollutants (HDP) and many of the gases that contribute to GHG emissions from cooking stoves are the result of the significant portion of fuel carbon that is diverted to products of incomplete combustion (PIC) as a result of poor combustion efficiencies. The approximately linear increase in emissions of PIC with decreasing combustion efficiencies allows development of linear models to predict emissions of GHG and HDP intrinsically linked to CO{sub 2} and PIC production, and ultimately allows the prediction of global warming contributions from residential stove emissions. A comprehensive emissions database of three burn cycles of 23 typical fuel/stove combinations tested in a simulated village house in China has been used to develop models to predict emissions of HDP and global warming commitment (GWC) from cooking stoves in China, that rely on simple survey information on stove and fuel use that may be incorporated into national surveys. Stepwise regression models predicted 66% of the variance in global warming commitment (CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, TNMHC) per 1 MJ delivered energy due to emissions from these stoves if survey information on

  2. A novel approach combining self-organizing map and parallel factor analysis for monitoring water quality of watersheds under non-point source pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Yixiang Zhang; Xinqiang Liang; Zhibo Wang; Lixian Xu

    2015-01-01

    High content of organic matter in the downstream of watersheds underscored the severity of non-point source (NPS) pollution. The major objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watersheds affected by NPS pollution, and to apply self-organizing map (SOM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to assess fluorescence properties as proxy indicators for NPS pollution and labor-intensive routine water quality indicators. Water from upstreams and do...

  3. Surviving in a toxic world: transcriptomics and gene expression profiling in response to environmental pollution in the critically endangered European eel

    OpenAIRE

    Pujolar Jose; Marino Ilaria AM; Milan Massimo; Coppe Alessandro; Maes Gregory E; Capoccioni Fabrizio; Ciccotti Eleonora; Bervoets Lieven; Covaci Adrian; Belpaire Claude; Cramb Gordon; Patarnello Tomaso; Bargelloni Luca; Bortoluzzi Stefania; Zane Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Genomic and transcriptomic approaches have the potential for unveiling the genome-wide response to environmental perturbations. The abundance of the catadromous European eel (Anguilla anguilla) stock has been declining since the 1980s probably due to a combination of anthropogenic and climatic factors. In this paper, we explore the transcriptomic dynamics between individuals from high (river Tiber, Italy) and low pollution (lake Bolsena, Italy) environments, which were mea...

  4. The color removal and fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale MBR-NF combined process treating textile wastewater with high water recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) was tested at pilot-scale treating textile wastewater from the wastewater treatment station of a textile mill in Wuqing District of Tianjin (China). The MBR-NF process showed a much better treatment efficiency on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and turbidity in comparison with the conventional processes. The water recovery rate was enhanced to over 90% through the recycling of NF concentrate to the MBR, while the MBR-NF showed a stable permeate water quality that met with standards and could be directly discharged or further reused. The recycled NF concentrate caused an accumulation of refractory compounds in the MBR, which significantly influenced the treatment efficiency of the MBR. However, the sludge characteristics showed that the activated sludge activity was not obviously inhibited. The results of fluorescence spectra and molecular weight distribution indicated that those recalcitrant pollutants were mostly protein-like substances and a small amount of humic acid-like substances (650-6,000 Da), which contributed to membrane fouling of NF. Although the penetrated protein-like substances caused the residual color in NF permeate, the MBR-NF process was suitable for the advanced treatment and reclamation of textile wastewater under high water yield. PMID:27003085

  5. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Lijun [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Sapozhnikova, Yelena [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J., E-mail: Steven.Lehotay@ars.usda.gov [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The first report that combines in-vial filtration and dispersive-SPE for sample cleanup. • The unique application of ammonium formate for salting-out partitioning in QuEChERS. • Evaluations of a new zirconium-based and a non-friable GCB sorbent for d-SPE cleanup. • A new analytical method for 59 pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp. Abstract: A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g⁻¹ spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix.

  6. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The first report that combines in-vial filtration and dispersive-SPE for sample cleanup. • The unique application of ammonium formate for salting-out partitioning in QuEChERS. • Evaluations of a new zirconium-based and a non-friable GCB sorbent for d-SPE cleanup. • A new analytical method for 59 pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp. - Abstract: A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g−1 spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix

  7. Spectrometric estimation of the content of chlorophyll in plants subjected to anthropogenic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quliev, R. B.; Azizov, B. M.; Abbaszadeh, A. A.

    2009-03-01

    Spectral methods for determining the content of chlorophyll in vegetation subjected to anthropogenic action are considered. The regularities in the changes in the spectral radiance coefficients of vegetation in certain intervals of the visible range are considered in relation to the degree of remoteness of the pollution source.

  8. Natural versus anthropogenic inhalable aerosol chemistry of transboundary East Asian atmospheric outflows into western Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, T.; Kojima, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Gibbons, W.

    2012-01-01

    The eastward transport of aerosols exported from mainland Asia strongly influences air quality in the Japanese archipelago. The bulk of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in these intrusions comprises either natural, desert-derived minerals (mostly supermicron silicates) or anthropogenic pollut

  9. Anthropogenic Actinides in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear energy and the testing of nuclear weapons have led to significant releases of anthropogenic isotopes, in particular a number of actinide isotopes generally not abundant in nature. Most prominent amongst these are 239Pu, 240Pu, and 236U. The study of these actinides in nature has been an active field of study ever since. Measurements of actinides are applied to nuclear safeguards, investigating the sources of contamination, and as a tracer for a number of erosion and hydrology studies. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is ideally suited for these studies and generally offers higher sensitivities than competing techniques, like ICP-MS or decay counting. Recent advances in AMS allow the study of “minor” plutonium isotopes (241Pu, 242Pu, and 244Pu). Furthermore, 236U can now be measured at the levels expected from the global stratospheric fall-out of the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests in the 1950s and 1960s. Even the pre-anthropogenic isotope ratios could be within reach. However, the distribution and abundance levels of these isotopes are not well known yet. I will present an overview of the field, and in detail two recent studies on minor plutonium isotopes and 236U, respectively.(author)

  10. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  11. Pollutant dispersal and stability in a severely polluted floodplain: A case study in the Litavka River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Tereza; Kotková, Kristýna; Elznicová, J.; Strnad, L.; Engel, Z.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 156, SEP (2015), s. 131-144. ISSN 0375-6742 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Anthropogenic alluvium * Fluvial sediments * Heavy metals * Secondary pollution from mining Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2014

  12. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA Home Air and Radiation Noise Pollution Noise Pollution This page has moved. You should be immediately ... gov/clean-air-act-overview/title-iv-noise-pollution Local Navigation Air & Radiation Home Basic Information Where ...

  13. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  15. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview » Title IV - Noise Pollution Title IV - Noise Pollution The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments added a ... abatement 7642 Authorization of appropriations What is Noise Pollution? The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or ...

  16. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC TRANSFORMATIONS SOILS URBOECOSYSTEMS OF DNEPROPETROVSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T.F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The functioning of the city, as artificially created system of the result of the anthropogenic activity, promotes degradation and, sometimes, destruction of the environment, with change it to the technogenic replacement. First of all suffers the soil, as a basic component of any ecosystem, where the circulation of materials close, because it is a powerful biogeochemical barrier to their migration, able to deposit toxicants a long time through its protective functions. The leading role of the formation of the urban soil plays an anthropogenic factor, which is able to influence directly – the destruction of the soil profile due to construction activity and indirectly – with aerogenic or hydrogenous pollution xenobiotics contained in the emissions and discharges of the industrial enterprises; and it is determined by the type of economic use and history of area developing. The variability of using the urban soil is reflected in the soil profile and contributed to the creation of the organic-mineral layer by the mixing, mound, burial and (or contamination of the different substances on the surface. Therefore, classification of the urban soils by the anthropogenic destruction degree of the soil profile is very important scientific and practical task for the urban ecology to the achievement standards of the ecological safety of the modern city, because the restoring of their protective functions is impossible without knowledge of the morphological structure. Purpose. Classify the anthropogenical soils of city Dnipropetrovsk disturbed by the construction activities by the determining of the morphological characteristics of the soil profile structure with separation of the anthropogenic and technogenic surface formations compared to the zonal soil – ordinery chernozem. Conclusion. Within urboecosystem city Dnipropetrovsk long-term human impact to the zonal soil – chernozem led to its transformation into urbanozem witch

  18. Quarrying: an anthropogenic geomorphological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study intends to give an introduction to the significance of quarrying from the point of view of anthropogenic geomorphology, indicating the level of surface forming due to the mining of mineral raw materials. The significance of this topic is supported by the existence of the so-called 'mining landscapes' that emerged since to the 19th century. Authors focus on the geomorphic impact of quarrying with special emphasis on factors influencing its spatial distribution, as well as on the characteristics and classification of surface features produced by quarrying, providing an overview of the most important excavated and accumulated forms and form components, on the macro, meso and micro scales. Finally, international and Hungarian case studies illustrate some aspects of the opening and after-use of mining sites in order to observe how abandoned quarries can be turned into 'environmental values', and used as possible sites for exhibitions or for regional and tourism development projects. (author)

  19. An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, S. V.; Graf, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles, ships and aircraft) in Antarctica, covering the 2004-2005 period. The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors. A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in Antarctica. Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC (Black Carbon, from shipping only) have been calculated using the above technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg from aircraft for 2004-2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local pollution potentially is relatively strong.

  20. CO2 Biogenic vs Anthropogenic Sectoral Contribution for INFLUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Hu, H.; Whetstone, J. R.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Turnbull, J. C.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Brewer, A.; Hardesty, M.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Shepson, P. B.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to use a top-down inversion methodology to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over an urban domain with high spatial and temporal resolution. This project is an experimental test bed which is intended to establish reliable methods for quantifying and validating GHG emissions independently of the inventory methods typically used for Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of pollution sources. Analyzing the contribution of different source types or sectors is a fundamental step in order to achieve an accuracy level desired for such MRV applications. This is especially challenging when attempting to determine anthropogenic emissions during the growing season since biological GHG fluxes reach a maximum at this time. To this end, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) version 3.5.1 was used along with a modified version of the Green House Gases chemistry module for simulating the CO2 mole fraction transport during September and October 2013. Sectoral anthropogenic CO2 emissions were obtained from Hestia 2012 and from Vulcan 2002 beyond the spatial coverage of Hestia. Biogenic CO2 emissions were simulated by using an augmented version of the "Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model" (VPRM) included in WRF-CHEM. An implementation of the unconstrained nonlinear global optimization method of Nelder and Mead was employed to find the optimum values for the VPRM parameters for each vegetation category by using data from Ameriflux eddy covariance flux towers. Here we present a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of biological vs sectoral anthropogenic CO2 fluxes on the INFLUX measurements network. The simulations are compared to tower and aircraft measurements that include trace gases with the capacity to distinguish observationally anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 sources and sinks. In addition, an evaluation of the sensitivity of the sectoral attribution to meteorological

  1. Anthropogenic impact on sediment composition and geochemistry in vertical overbank profiles of river alluvium from Belgium and Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Swennen, R.; Van der Sluys, J.

    2002-01-01

    The geochemical study of alluvial sediments allows to reconstruct pollution through time. Geochemical and sedimentological variations recorded in 40 vertical overbank sediment profiles from Belgium and Luxembourg can be classified in three dominant pattern types: . type 1 profiles with dominantly non-anthropogenically influenced geochemical distribution patterns. These profiles are devoid of anthropogenic particles such as charcoal, plastic, brick and slag fragments, with the exception, in so...

  2. Towards a multidisciplinary and integrated strategy in the assessment of adverse health effects related to air pollution: The case study of Cracow (Poland) and asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex interaction between anthropogenic activities, air quality and human health in urban areas, such as in Cracow sustains the need for the development of an interdisciplinary and integrated risk-assessment methodology. In such purpose, we propose a pilot study performed on asthmatics and based on a combined use of a biomarker, such as metallothionein 2A (MT-2A) in the characterization of human exposure to one or a mixture of pollutants and of Geographical Information Systems (G.I.S.) which integrates climatic and urban anthropogenic parameters in the assessment of spatio-temporal dispersion of air pollutants. Considering global incidence of air pollution on asthma and on peripheral blood lymphocytes MT-2A expression should provide a complementary information on biological risks linked to urban anthropogenic activities. Such study would help for the establishment of a sustainable development in urban areas that can maintain the integrity of air quality and preserve human health. - An integrative risk methodology based on both geographic and molecular biological approaches is proposed for the assessment of asthmatics exposure to urban air pollution

  3. Research and Development in the Anthropogenic Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.; Luthe, T.; Hohenwallne, D.

    2009-04-01

    fauna, modification of local hydrological cycle and modification of local climate and atmospheric pollution. Research in mountains should balance the needs of scientists and stakeholders alike, but this requires re-orientation of mountain research into multi-disciplinary projects next to basic science. Unlike the polar regions (with exceptions like Longyearbyen, Spitzbergen), seasonal population pressure in mountains is intense, causing local problems such as water scarcity. Research in these areas therefore requires close collaboration with stakeholders. Large-scale events such as Winter Olympics that have benefited from the classical mountain cryosphere in the past are now increasingly becoming internationally competitive and independent of the natural cryospheric conditions. New ski areas are developed world-wide in zones that do not offer natural climatological conditions for maintaining ski runs. Sub-zero temperatures are used as a basis for snow-making even in those regions that do not benefit from sufficient natural snow-fall. Large-scale landscape modification results in motorway like ski runs, large snow water reservoirs and extensive housing projects on vulnerable slopes. Due to steep and remote topography, transport is often dominated by cars and increases CO2 emissions intensively at local hot spots. In future, mountain slopes that have been heavily modified for winter tourism, may rapidly become neglected zones due to rapid snowline retreat. As the summer season extends, the modifications to the cryosphere will become more and more evident. Even with positive temperatures and snow-free ground, the vegetation season will not be extensive enough to enable rapid recovery, especially at altitudes above 2000 m a.s.l and north-facing aspects. Several decades of anthropogenic modification may require several centuries of recovery to provide new economical benefits.

  4. Estimation of continuous anthropogenic CO2: model-based evaluation of CO2, CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2) tracer methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardag, S. N.; Gerbig, C.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Levin, I.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate different methods for estimating anthropogenic CO2 using modeled continuous atmospheric concentrations of CO2 alone, as well as CO2 in combination with the surrogate tracers CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2). These methods are applied at three hypothetical stations representing rural, urban and polluted conditions. We find that, independent of the tracer used, an observation-based estimate of continuous anthropogenic CO2 is not yet feasible at rural measurement sites due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of anthropogenic CO2 estimates at such settings. The tracers δ13C(CO2) and CO provide an accurate possibility to determine anthropogenic CO2 continuously, only if all CO2 sources in the catchment area are well characterized or calibrated with respect to their isotopic signature and CO to anthropogenic CO2 ratio. We test different calibration strategies for the mean isotopic signature and CO to CO2 ratio using precise Δ14C(CO2) measurements on monthly integrated as well as on grab samples. For δ13C(CO2), a calibration with annually averaged 14C(CO2) grab samples is most promising, since integrated sampling introduces large biases into anthropogenic CO2 estimates. For CO, these biases are smaller. The precision of continuous anthropogenic CO2 determination using δ13C(CO2) depends on measurement precision of δ13C(CO2) and CO2, while the CO method is mainly limited by the variation in natural CO sources and sinks. At present, continuous anthropogenic CO2 could be determined using the tracers δ13C(CO2) and/or CO with a precision of about 30 %, a mean bias of about 10 % and without significant diurnal discrepancies. Hypothetical future measurements of continuous Δ14C(CO2) with a precision of 5 ‰ are promising for anthropogenic CO2 determination (precision ca. 10-20 %) but are not yet available. The investigated tracer-based approaches open the door to improving, validating and reducing biases of highly resolved emission inventories using atmospheric

  5. Use of Arius thalassinus fish in a pollution biomonitoring study, applying combined oxidative stress, hematology, biochemical and histopathological biomarkers: A baseline field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-05-15

    The present field study aimed to determine the extent of pollution in the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic using a battery of biomarkers in sea catfish, Arius thalassinus, originating from a reference site in comparison with a polluted site. We reported the concentration of heavy metals in some vital fish organs and their effects on the morphological, hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers accompanied by the examination of histopathological alterations. The obtained results showed clear signs of stress in fish from a polluted site. Linear correlation analysis exhibited that the biomarkers response could be linked to the detected metals bioaccumulation. In addition, principal component analysis showed a clear separation of sampling sites in two different assemblages. Semi-quantitative analysis for the observed histopathological lesions revealed that gills were the most affected organs with signs of severe alterations. This field investigation provides a baseline data on pollution status in this region. PMID:27039960

  6. Tackling pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from land-based sources by an integrated ecosystem approach and the use of the combined international and European legal regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Antoinette Hildering; Andrea M. Keessen; Helena F.M.W. van Rijswick

    2009-01-01

    The successful protection of marine and freshwater areas and ecosystems, including specially protected areas, is highly dependent on the effectiveness of an integrated approach to prevent and combat land-based pollution. Several legal regimes have been developed to regulate and solve this kind of pollution on the international level as well as on the European level. Therefore, this integrated approach requires coherence between European and international legal regimes and between the regulati...

  7. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with 14C and 210Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles

  8. Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Lu, H.; Fu, S.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities are resulting in an increase of the use and extraction of heavy metals. Heavy metals cannot be degraded and hence accumulate in the environment, having the potential to contaminate the food chain. This pollution threatens soil quality, plant survival and human health. The remediation of heavy metals deserves attention, but it is impaired by the cost of these processes. Phytoremediation and biochar are two sound environmental technologies which could be at the forefront to mitigate soil pollution. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the scientific research on phytoremediation and biochar application to remediate heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Research to date has attempted only in a limited number of occasions to combine both techniques, however we discuss the potential advantages of combining both, and the potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between phytoremediators and biochar. We identified specific research needs to ensure a sustainable use of phytoremediation and biochar as remediation tools.

  9. Natural versus anthropogenic inhalable aerosol chemistry of transboundary East Asian atmospheric outflows into western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Kojima, Tomoko; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Amato, Fulvio; Gibbons, Wes

    2012-05-01

    The eastward transport of aerosols exported from mainland Asia strongly influences air quality in the Japanese archipelago. The bulk of the inhalable particulate matter (PM(10)) in these intrusions comprises either natural, desert-derived minerals (mostly supermicron silicates) or anthropogenic pollutants (mostly submicron sulphates), in various states of mixing. We analyse PM(10) collected in Kumamoto, SW Japan, during three contrasting types of aerosol intrusions, the first being dominated by desert PM which became increasingly mixed with anthropogenic components as time progressed, the second being a relatively minor event mixing fine, distal desert PM with anthropogenic materials, and the third being dominated by anthropogenic pollutants. Whereas the chemistry of the natural mineral component is characterised by "crustal" elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg, K, Li, P, Sc, V, Rb, Sr, Zr, Th, lanthanoids), the anthropogenic component is rich in secondary inorganic compounds and more toxic metallic elements (NH(4)(+), SO(4)(2-), As, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Sn, Bi, Sb, and Ge). Some desert-dust (Kosa) intrusions are more calcareous than others, implicating geologically different source areas, and contain enhanced levels of NO(3)(-), probably as supermicron Ca(NO(3))(2) particles produced by chemical reaction between NOx pollutants (mostly from industry and traffic) and carbonate during atmospheric transport. The overall trace element chemistry of aerosol intrusions into Kumamoto shows low V/Rb, low NO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-), enhanced As levels, and unfractionated La/Ce values, which are all consistent with anthropogenic sources including coal emissions rather than those derived from the refining and combustion of oil fractionates. Geographically dispersed, residual sulphatic plumes of this nature mix with local traffic (revealed by OC and EC concentrations) and industrial emissions and dissipate only slowly, due to the dominance of submicron accumulation mode PM which is atmospherically

  10. Microscopic anthropogenic litter in terrestrial birds from Shanghai, China: Not only plastics but also natural fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shiye; Zhu, Lixin; Li, Daoji

    2016-04-15

    The level of contamination by microscopic anthropogenic litter (0.5-5mm) in terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood. After chemical digestion in 10% KOH, microscopic anthropogenic litter from the gastrointestinal tracts of 17 terrestrial birds was identified and categorized under a stereomicroscope based on its physical properties and melting tests. In total, 364 items from 16 birds were identified as microscopic anthropogenic litter, ranging in size from 0.5 to 8.5mm. No relationship between plastic load and body condition was found. Natural fibers, plastic fibers and fragmented plastics represented, respectively, 37.4% (136 items), 54.9% (200 items) and 7.7% (28 items) of total litter items. Small sample sizes limited our ability to draw strong conclusions about the metabolism of natural fibers, but the decline in the proportion of natural fibers from the esophagus to stomach to intestine suggested that they may be digestible. Particles smaller than 5mm represented more than 90% of the total number of pollutant items. Particles with colors in the mid-tones and fibrous shapes were overwhelmingly common particles. The results reflect pollution by microscopic anthropogenic litter in the terrestrial ecosystem of the study area. Microscopic natural fibers, which may disperse and adsorb chemical pollutants differently from microplastic and may pose an even greater risk, are in urgent need of further research. PMID:26874248

  11. Variability assessment of metals distributions due to anthropogenic and geogenic impact in the lead-zinc mine and flotation 'Zletovo' environs (moss bio monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss species ( Hypnum cupressiforme , Scleropodium purum and Campthotecium lutescens ) were used as suitable sampling media for bio monitoring the origin of heavy metal pollution in the lead-zinc mine and flotation environ near the town of Probishtip. The 21 metals contents were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Data processing was applied with combinations of multivariate statistical methods: factor analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The main anthropogenic markers in the investigated area were Pb and Zn (maximal values of 200 and 186 mg kg-1 , respectively). The factor analysis singled out (in the increasing scale) the following associations: F1/D1: Fe < Mo < Pb < Na < Cd < Mg < Zn < Ag < Cu and F2/D2: Mn < Ni < K < P < Ba < Sr < Ca < As < Cr < Al < V < Li. The anthropogenic elements contents vary independent from the moss species, but depending on the distancing from the pollution source, there are positive correlation. Long distance distribution from the emission source doesn't occur. (Author)

  12. Neutron activation analysis for study of distribution patterns of organo-halogen pollutants in apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution characteristics of organo-halogens in apple and their sources were studied by neutron activation analysis combined with statistical analysis. The results indicated that concentrations of organo-halogens in apple were in the order of organo-chlorine >> organo-bromine > organo-iodine, and concentrations of the organo-chlorine in four parts of apple were in the order of seed >> peel >> endocarp ≥ pulp. Also, the organo-chlorine, -bromine and-iodine in apple were found to have different sources. The latter two were mainly from naturally synthetic products by plant itself, while the former was mainly from anthropogenic pollutants. (authors)

  13. Pollutant fates in fluvial systems: on need of individual approach to each case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Novakova, Tereza

    2015-04-01

    deposition in a channel belt and subsequent secondary pollution via physical mobilisation, most pollution storing in the floodplain in a surprisingly heterogeneous manner - in hotspots with a size comparable to fragments of abandoned channels (from a few to few tens of metres). The hotspots are hence best revealed by well-designed field analysis using portable instruments (gamma spectrometry or XRF). The Litavka is specific because most pollution is in its floodplain in the form of anthropogenic alluvium, a very thick vertical accretion body of "artificial" material added to the river system in the amount exceeding its normal transport capacity. That situation favours secondary pollution by chemical mobilisation of pollutants under low river discharges revealed by geochemical analysis. Our case studies show that simple "rules" such as continuous decay of pollutant concentrations downstream from the pollution source, existence of a continuous blanket of polluted overbank fines in floodplain, simple change of the pollution extent with growing distance from the river channel and as a consequence of extreme floods, or simple recipes such as low-density sampling to trace point pollution sources are too simplistic to be applicable in real polluted fluvial systems. Each river system represents a nearly unique combination of individual geomorphic processes, and each pollution has been specific by the mode how it entered the fluvial system. We will not offer "magic tools" in our contribution. In literature we can find all pieces we need for the jigsaw puzzle - pollutants fates in fluvial systems. The question is why so rarely researchers put them together. We would like to encourage them to do so.

  14. MODELING OF GENERIC AIR POLLUTION DISPERSION ANALYSIS FROM CEMENT FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E EMETERE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution from cement factory is classified as one of the sources of air pollution. The control of the air pollution by addressing the wind field dynamics was the main objective of the paper. The dynamics of dispersion showed a three way flow which was calculated and explained accordingly. The 3D model showed good level of accuracy by determining field values of air deposited pollutants. Mean concentration of diffusing pollutants was shown to be directly proportional to the plume angular displacement. The 2D model explained the details of the wind field dynamics and proffers a solution which may be relevant in controlling air pollution from anthropogenic sources.

  15. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  16. Forging the anthropogenic iron cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Müller, Daniel B; Graedel, T E

    2007-07-15

    Metallurgical iron cycles are characterized for four anthropogenic life stages: production, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management and recycling. This analysis is conducted for year 2000 and at three spatial levels: 68 countries and territories, nine world regions, and the planet. Findings include the following: (1) contemporary iron cycles are basically open and substantially dependent on environmental sources and sinks; (2) Asia leads the world regions in iron production and use; Oceania, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and the Commonwealth of Independent States present a highly production-biased iron cycle; (3) purchased scrap contributes a quarter of the global iron and steel production; (4) iron exiting use is three times less than that entering use; (5) about 45% of global iron entering use is devoted to construction, 24% is devoted to transport equipment, and 20% goes to industrial machinery; (6) with respect to international trade of iron ore, iron and steel products, and scrap, 54 out of the 68 countries are net iron importers, while only 14 are net exporters; (7) global iron discharges in tailings, slag, and landfill approximate one-third of the iron mined. Overall, these results provide a foundation for studies of iron-related resource policy, industrial development, and waste and environmental management. PMID:17711233

  17. Potential Uses of Anthropogenic Noise as a Source of Information in Animal Sensory and Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Amanda; Deecke, Volker; Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Although current research on the impact of anthropogenic noise has focused on the detrimental effects, there is a range of ways by which animals could benefit from increased noise levels. Here we discuss two potential uses of anthropogenic noise. First, local variations in the ambient-noise field could be used to perceive objects and navigate within an environment. Second, introduced sound cues could be used as a signal for prey detection or orientation and navigation. Although the disadvantages of noise pollution will likely outweigh any positive effects, it is important to acknowledge that such changes may benefit some species. PMID:26611074

  18. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part IV. The impact of anthropogenous nitrogen deposition on the diversity and functionality of soil organisms; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht IV. Der Einfluss anthropogener Stickstoffeintraege auf die Diversitaet und Funktion von Bodenorganismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Wolters, Volkmar [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieroekologie

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physicochemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OeKO-DATA and Waldkundeinstitut Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at Institute of Animal Ecology (Justus Liebig University Giessen) focused on a Meta-Analysis about the impact of N-deposition on the diversity of soil organisms. Based on 1457 relevant publications soil organisms are threatened most in semi-natural ecosystems and experimental increases of nitrogen reduced soil organism diversity in forest ecosystems. Fungi communities were affected most seriously, with a strong decline of diversity in Mycorrhiza communities in response to experimental nitrogen addition. If N-deposition generally affects soil fauna and bacterial communities remains unclear, as the database is either too small or as results are not unequivocal. Those limitations are also present summarizing the impact of N-deposition on functions and services provided by soil organisms, the current literature database does not provide enough results to predict the impact of N-deposition on decomposition processes and nutrient cycling in soils. (orig.)

  19. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: a combined analysis in mine French cities; Effets a court terme de la pollution atmospherique sur la mortalite: resultats d'une analyse combinee realisee dans 9 villes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quenel, P.; Le Tertre, A.; Eilstein, D.; Zeghnoun, A.; Saviuc, P.; Prouvost, H.; Cassadou, S.; Pascal, L.; Medina, S.; Le Goaster, C. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Dept. Sante Environnement, 94415 - Saint-Maurice (France); Declercq, C. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante Nord Pas de Calais, 59 - Lille (France)

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the short term effects of air pollution on the activity of a medical practitioners network and to test if this network can contribute to epidemiological monitoring of atmospheric pollution. Twenty-two physicians counted respiratory, ocular and neurological symptoms between February 1996 and September 1997 in the Urban Area of Strasbourg. The indicators of pollution were the maximum and mean of daily concentrations for sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), air particles (PM13) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), daily maximum and mean of 8-hours for ozone (O{sub 3}). The statistical method for correlation between symptoms and pollutants was a Poisson regression based on a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) which takes into account auto-regression, seasonal variations, influenza epidemics, pollen counts and meteorological factors. Statistically significant associations are presented below (in brackets: relative increase of daily number of the symptoms associated with an inter-quartile increase of pollutant's concentration). Maximum of SO{sub 2} was associated with cough (7.9%) and number of symptomatic patients (4.6%); mean of SO{sub 2} with hoarseness (5.4%) and headache (6.5%): maximum of PM13 with pharynx symptoms (5.5%), cough (5.6%), wheezing dyspnea (7.3%) and number of symptomatic patients (5.7%); mean of PM13 with pharynx symptoms (2.9%), cough (3.1%) and number of symptomatic patients (4.8%); maximum of NO{sub 2} with cough (4.4%) and number of symptomatic patients (2.8%); mean of NO{sub 2} with rhinorrhea (7.4%), pharynx symptoms (5.7%), cough (11.2%), wheezing dyspnea (9.7%) and no wheezing dyspnea (6.6%), headache (9.6%) and number of symptomatic patients (5.8%); maximum of O{sub 3} with ocular irritation (12.6%); mean of O{sub 3} with ocular irritation (10.9%). Using of a medical practitioners network is possible under several conditions (recall, workshops, easy collection of symptoms) and may be recommended for

  20. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-11-01

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is particularly needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This study develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30-65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow

  1. Anthropogenic mercury emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, David G.; Hao, Jiming; Wu, Ye; Jiang, Jingkun; Chan, Melissa; Tian, Hezhong; Feng, Xinbin

    An inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China is compiled for the year 1999 from official statistical data. We estimate that China's emissions were 536 (±236) t of total mercury. This value includes open biomass burning, but does not include natural sources or re-emission of previously deposited mercury. Approximately 45% of the Hg comes from non-ferrous metals smelting, 38% from coal combustion, and 17% from miscellaneous activities, of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest. Emissions are heaviest in Liaoning and Guangdong Provinces, where extensive smelting occurs, and in Guizhou Province, where there is much small-scale combustion of high-Hg coal without emission control devices. Emissions are gridded at 30×30 min spatial resolution. We estimate that 56% of the Hg in China is released as Hg 0, 32% as Hg 2+, and 12% as Hg p. Particulate mercury emissions are high in China due to heavy burning of coal in residential and small industrial settings without PM controls. Emissions of Hg 2+ from coal-fired power plants are high due to the absence of flue-gas desulfurization units, which tend to dissolve the soluble divalent mercury. Metals smelting operations favor the production of elemental mercury. Much of the Hg is released from small-scale activities in rather remote areas, and therefore the activity levels are quite uncertain. Also, emissions test data for Chinese sources are lacking, causing uncertainties in Hg emission factors and removal efficiencies. Overall, we calculate an uncertainty level of ±44% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions. We recommend field testing of coal combustors and smelters in China to improve the accuracy of these estimates.

  2. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  3. Anthropogenic effects on soil micromycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different authropogenic pollutants (mineral and organic fertilizers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in Čačak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and under greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the Čapek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season, and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg x ha-1 and organic fertilizers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg x ha-1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor, inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  4. Anthropogenic metal contamination and sapropel imprints in deep Mediterranean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Metal pollution was recorded in deep Mediterranean sediments. → Atmospheric imprint was characterized with radioactive and stable Pb isotopes. → 210Pb data suggests metal pollution from atmospheric deposition. → Pollutant Pb input to the western basin is 20-25% of coastal atmospheric inventories. → Trace element redistribution is associated with sapropel and turbidite events. - Abstract: Sediment cores from the deep Balearic basin and the Cretan Sea provide evidence for the accumulation of Cd, Pd and Zn in the top few centimeters of the abyssal Mediterranean sea-bottom. In both cores, 206Pb/207Pb profiles confirm this anthropogenic impact with less radiogenic imprints toward surface sediments. The similarity between excess 210Pb accumulated in the top core and the 210Pb flux suggests that top core metal inventories reasonably reflect long-term atmospheric deposition to the open Mediterranean. Pb inventory in the western core for the past 100 years represents 20-30% of sediment coastal inventories, suggesting that long-term atmospheric deposition determined from coastal areas has to be used cautiously for mass balance calculations in the open Mediterranean. In the deeper section of both cores, Al normalized trace metal profiles suggest diagenetic remobilization of Fe, Mn, Cu and, to a lesser extent, Pb that likely corresponds to sapropel event S1.

  5. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  6. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  7. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.)

  8. THE POTENTIAL SOURCES OF POLLUTION AFFECTING THE WATER QUALITY OF LAKE IZNIK

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcın Askın OKTEM; Murat GUMUS; Gokcen BAYRAK YILMAZ

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine Lake Iznik, one of the most significant water resources of the South Marmara Region, and the anthropogenic pollution types affecting the drainage basin and their possible effects. Lake Iznik, a water resource that is quite significant because of its geographical position, is polluted not only with the point and non-point sources of pollution around it, but also with the pollutants spread via highways which are linear pollutants. The fertilization and di...

  9. Detecting anthropogenic footprints in sea level rise

    OpenAIRE

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Müller, Alfred; Zorita, Eduardo; Riva, Riccardo; Berk, Kevin; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    While there is scientific consensus that global and local mean sea level (GMSL and LMSL) has risen since the late nineteenth century, the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic forcing remains unclear. Here we provide a probabilistic upper range of long-term persistent natural GMSL/LMSL variability (P=0.99), which in turn, determines the minimum/maximum anthropogenic contribution since 1900. To account for different spectral characteristics of various contributing processes, we se...

  10. Ursus arctos : ethology and anthropogenic disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Duran Tapia, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a typically solitary mammal. Because of this and its elusiveness, its ethology is difficult to study and is not still completely understood. Brown bear’s behavior is highly influenced by some of its reproductive characteristics and, increasingly, by anthropogenic disturbance. Thus, it is important to analyse the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on brown bear’s ethology and to develop management strategies to minimize negative impacts.

  11. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana L Melcón; Amanda J Cummins; Kerosky, Sara M; Lauren K Roche; Wiggins, Sean M.; John A. Hildebrand

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to...

  12. Late Holocene climate: Natural or anthropogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddiman, W. F.; Fuller, D. Q.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kaplan, J. O.; Ellis, E. C.; Vavrus, S. J.; Roberts, C. N.; Fyfe, R.; He, F.; Lemmen, C.; Woodbridge, J.

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, scientists have argued about the warmth of the current interglaciation. Was the warmth of the preindustrial late Holocene natural in origin, the result of orbital changes that had not yet driven the system into a new glacial state? Or was it in considerable degree the result of humans intervening in the climate system through greenhouse gas emissions from early agriculture? Here we summarize new evidence that moves this debate forward by testing both hypotheses. By comparing late Holocene responses to those that occurred during previous interglaciations (in section 2), we assess whether the late Holocene responses look different (and thus anthropogenic) or similar (and thus natural). This comparison reveals anomalous (anthropogenic) signals. In section 3, we review paleoecological and archaeological syntheses that provide ground truth evidence on early anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. The available data document large early anthropogenic emissions consistent with the anthropogenic ice core anomalies, but more information is needed to constrain their size. A final section compares natural and anthropogenic interpretations of the δ13C trend in ice core CO2.

  13. Elimination of polar micropollutants and anthropogenic markers by wastewater treatment in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weixiao; Singer, Heinz; Berg, Michael; Müller, Beat; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoit; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic contamination of surface waters in Asia is on the increase. While polar organic contaminants are gradually recognized for their impacts on aquatic ecosystems in the Western World, less is known about the situation in Asia. In developing countries like China, water resources are particularly vulnerable. We investigated the occurrence, elimination, and per capita loads of a wide range of pharmaceuticals, household chemicals and pesticides in five Beijing WWTPs representative for megacities in China, and compare the efficiency of different treatment processes. Based on initial screening for 268 micropollutants using high-resolution mass spectrometry, 33 compounds were examined in detail. Pollutant concentrations in raw wastewater ranged from 20 μg L(-1) for caffeine and the contrast agent iopromide. Concentrations in the WWTP effluents were generally sucralose (2.7-3.5 μg L(-1)). Elimination efficiencies varied greatly from <1% to close to 100%, with macrolides, some sulfonamides, metronidazole, iopromide, and 4-acetamidoantipyrine being the most persistent compounds. Total per capita loads of the investigated micropollutants were lower than in communal wastewater of Europe, amounting to 7.9-12.2 and 2.0-6.5 g d(-1)1000 inhabitants(-1) in the influents and effluents, respectively, with an average release of ∼100 kg d(-1) by the 11.4 million people and 2.3 million m(3) of wastewater treated per day. Since the wastewater effluents are often used for agricultural irrigation, residual organic pollutants pose a threat to food safety, the development of antibacterial resistance, and combined effects of micropollutants in the aquatic environment. PMID:25305554

  14. Searching for anthropogenic contaminants in human breast adipose tissues using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Félix; Portolés Nicolau, Tania; Pitarch Arquimbau, María Elena; López Benet, Francisco José

    2008-01-01

    The potential of GC-TOF MS for screening anthropogenic organic contaminants in human breast adipose tissues has been investigated. Initially a target screening was performed for a list of 125 compounds which included persistent halogen pollutants (OC pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs), PAHs, alkylphenols, and a notable number of pesticides from the different fungicide, herbicide and insecticide families. Searching for target pollutants was done by evaluating the presence of up to five representative io...

  15. Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parise

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, about one quarter of the country is occupied by outcroppings of soluble rocks; thus, karst represents an important and typical natural environment. Today karst areas are seriously threatened by a number of hazards, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Many problems are related to agricultural practices: the use of heavy machinery, ever-increasing in recent years, results at many sites in destruction of the original karst landscapes. Use of pesticides and herbicides, in addition, causes the loss of karst ecosystems of great biological relevance, as has been observed in the Dumre district, where about 80 lakes of karst origin are present in the evaporites of Permian-Triassic age. Agricultural practice performed on slopes with medium to high gradient is a further factor which greatly predispose the slopes to erosion. The cave heritage of Albania (estimated so far in about 1000 caves is at risk because of the uncontrolled quarrying activities which determine the total or partial destruction of karst caves, including many of naturalistic, archaeological and speleological interest. Many caves have also become sites of illegal disposal of solid and liquid wastes, which causes pollution of the karst ecosystems and of the aquifer therein present, with heavy negative consequences on the quality of water. Even though most of the cases here mentioned are related to anthropogenic activities, the natural hazards, such as subsidence phenomena, floods, and the development of sinkholes, have not to be disregarded.

  16. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J.; Pan, D.; S. J. Davis; Q. Zhang; He, K.; Wang, C; D. G. Streets; D. J. Wuebbles; Guan, D.

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeli...

  17. Anthropogenic aerosols may have increased upper tropospheric humidity in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bister

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent simulations of deep convection with a spectral microphysics cloud model show that an increase in aerosol concentration can have a significant effect on the nature of convection with more ice precipitation and less warm rain in polluted air. The cloud lifetime and the area covered by cloud anvils of deep convection are also larger for polluted air. Therefore, it is possible that the increase of anthropogenic aerosols in most of the 20th century has increased humidity and perhaps also cloudiness in the mid- to upper troposphere. Satellite data of upper tropospheric relative humidity in 1979–1997 and observed changes in cloudiness support this hypothesis. As changes in upper tropospheric humidity strongly affect longwave radiation, it is possible that anthropogenic aerosols have had a significant warming effect in addition to their other known effects on radiation.

  18. Influence of anthropogenic emissions on the production of organic particulate matter during GoAmazon2014/5

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, S. S.; Palm, B. B.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Liu, Y.; Thalman, R. M.; Shilling, J. E.; Newburn, M. K.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Artaxo, P.; Wang, J.; Goldstein, A. H.; Alexander, L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    As part of GoAmazon2014/5, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed to characterize the composition of fine-mode particulate matter (PM) and provide insights into the production of airborne particle material in the central Amazon basin, Brazil. The focus was on the influence of biogenic-anthropogenic interactions on the measured aerosol particles, especially as related to the formation of organic PM. Through a combination of meteorology, emissions, and chemistry, the T3 research site (located 70 km downwind of Manaus) was affected by biogenic emissions from the tropical rainforest that were periodically mixed with urban outflow from the Manaus metropolitan area as well as with biomass burning plumes. Results from the T3 site are presented in the context of measurements at T0a (ATTO) and T2, representing predominantly clean and polluted conditions, respectively. At T3, in the wet season (1/Feb - 31/Mar 2014) the non-refractory PM1 mass concentration had values on order of 1 to 2 μg m-3, while in the dry season (15/Aug - 15/Oct 2014) PM1was eight times higher. In both seasons, the organic component was dominant, contributing 80-85% by mass.The analysis of the results aims at delineating the anthropogenic impact on the measurements, especially focusing on anthropogenic sulfate as a mediator. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis is applied to the time series of organic mass spectra. The factors and their loadings provide information on the relative and time-varying contributions of different sources and processes of organic PM. A factor associated with secondary organic material produced from the reactive uptake of epoxydiols (a product of isoprene photooxidation under HO2-dominant conditions) is resolved for both seasons (hereafter, IEPOX-SOA). The time trends of the factors, especially of IEPOX-SOA, are investigated against co-located measurements, toward the goal of improving the understanding of anthropogenic

  19. 有机-无机复合污染对扇贝积累石油烃的影响%Influence of the Combined Pollution of Organic and Inorganic Compounds on Petroleum Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Chlamys farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱萍; 姜雪梅; 柳瑞翠; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究有机-无机复合污染对扇贝积累石油烃的影响.[方法]在实验室模拟条件下研究石油烃与Cu、Pb复合污染对栉孔扇贝积累石油烃的影响.[结果]单一石油烃污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量随暴露时间的延长及石油烃浓度的增大都有明显增大趋势;复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量随暴露时间及污染物种类及浓度的变化发生着动态变化,且不同浓度处理组间差异很大,当石油烃浓度固定为0.6 mg/L时,不同处理浓度组的Cu、Pb及Cu与Pb组合都促进了栉孔扇贝对石油烃的积累,但低处理浓度组的Cu、高处理浓度组的Pb、低处理浓度组的Cu与Pb组合更有利于促进栉孔扇贝对石油烃的积累.[结论]石油烃与Cu、Pb复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累状况比单一石油烃污染条件下要复杂得多.%[Objective] To study the influence of the combined pollution of organic and inorganic compounds on petroleum hydrocarbon accumulation in Chlamys farreri. [ Method ] The accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri under the condition of combined pollution of petroleum hydrocarbon with copper, plumbum was experimentally studied. [ Result] Under pollution of single petroleum hydrocarbon , the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri presented an obvious trend of growth with the increase of exposure time and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon as well; Under the condition of combined pollution, the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri had a dynamic trend with the increase of exposure time and the changes in the types and concentrations of pollutants. When the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was fixed at 0.6 mg/L, Cu, Pb and the combination of Cu and Pb in different treatment groups with different concentrations all had positive contribution to the Chlamys

  20. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments

  1. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. - Highlights: • Pollution and

  2. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Enfeng, E-mail: efliu@niglas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Ting [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Birch, Gavin [School of Geosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zhu, Yuxin [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. - Highlights: • Pollution and

  3. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  4. Effects of ecological factors and human activities on nonpoint source pollution in the upper reach of the Yangtze River and its management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ecological and human activities on nonpoint source (NPS pollution are key issues for sustainable water resources management. In this study, the Improved Export Coefficient Model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation were adopted to estimate the annual loads of NPS pollutants during the period from 1960 through 2003 in the upper reach of the Yangtze River (URYR. Ecological factors and human activities affecting NPS pollution were distinguished and their respective effects were assessed. Variations of the dominant cause (between ecological factors and human activities were presented. Furthermore, the combined effect of them on NPS pollution were successfully revealed. The results showed that the annual loads raised from ecological factors of dissolved nitrogen (DN and dissolved phosphorus (DP were relatively steady from 1960 to 2003. But those of sediment, absorbed nitrogen (AN and absorbed phosphorus (AP decreased during that period. In terms of the annual loads caused by human activities, those of dissolved pollutants increased from 1960 to 2000 and then fell. Those of sediment as well as absorbed pollutants peaked in 1980 and then decreased. Simultaneously, the dominant cause of DN loads shifted from ecological factors to human activities after 1980 while DP loads were mainly contributed by human activities. However, sediment, dissolved pollutants were primarily exported by ecological factors. Finally, strategies for managing anthropogenic activities were proposed and their effects on NPS pollution reduction were also depicted quantitatively.

  5. Effects of ecological factors and human activities on nonpoint source pollution in the upper reach of the Yangtze River and its management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X. W.; Shen, Z. Y.; Liu, R. M.; Chen, L.; Lin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ecological and human activities on nonpoint source (NPS) pollution are key issues for sustainable water resources management. In this study, the Improved Export Coefficient Model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation were adopted to estimate the annual loads of NPS pollutants during the period from 1960 through 2003 in the upper reach of the Yangtze River (URYR). Ecological factors and human activities affecting NPS pollution were distinguished and their respective effects were assessed. Variations of the dominant cause (between ecological factors and human activities) were presented. Furthermore, the combined effect of them on NPS pollution were successfully revealed. The results showed that the annual loads raised from ecological factors of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) were relatively steady from 1960 to 2003. But those of sediment, absorbed nitrogen (AN) and absorbed phosphorus (AP) decreased during that period. In terms of the annual loads caused by human activities, those of dissolved pollutants increased from 1960 to 2000 and then fell. Those of sediment as well as absorbed pollutants peaked in 1980 and then decreased. Simultaneously, the dominant cause of DN loads shifted from ecological factors to human activities after 1980 while DP loads were mainly contributed by human activities. However, sediment, dissolved pollutants were primarily exported by ecological factors. Finally, strategies for managing anthropogenic activities were proposed and their effects on NPS pollution reduction were also depicted quantitatively.

  6. An automated, real time classification system for biological and anthropogenic sounds from fixed ocean observatories

    OpenAIRE

    Zaugg, Serge Alain; Schaar, Mike van der; Houegnigan, Ludwig; André, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The automated, real time classification of acoustic events in the marine environment is an important tool to study anthropogenic sound pollution, marine mammals and for mitigating human activities that are potentially harmful. We present a real time classification system targeted at many important groups of acoustic events (clicks, buzzes, calls, whistles from several cetacean species, tonal and impulsive shipping noise and explosions). The achieved classification performance ...

  7. Air quality and radiative forcing impacts of anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions from ten world regions

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Fry; M. D. Schwarzkopf; Adelman, Z.; West, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) influence air quality and global climate change through their effects on secondary air pollutants and climate forcers. Here we simulate the air quality and radiative forcing (RF) impacts of changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate from halving anthropogenic NMVOC emissions globally and from 10 regions individually, using a global chemical transport model and a standalone radiative transfer model. Halving global NMVOC emissions decreases glo...

  8. Air quality and radiative forcing impacts of anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions from ten world regions

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Fry; M. D. Schwarzkopf; Adelman, Z.; West, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) influence air quality and global climate change through their effects on secondary air pollutants and climate forcers. Here we simulate the air quality and radiative forcing (RF) impacts of changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate from halving anthropogenic NMVOC emissions globally and from 10 regions individually, using a global chemical transport model and a standalone radiative transfer model. Halving global NMVOC emissions de...

  9. Influence of Anthropogenic Activity on Vital State and Productivity of Pine Stands

    OpenAIRE

    Torlopova, Nadezhda; Ilchukov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare the data on the vital state and timber volume of primary weakly disturbed pine forests and of secondary pine forests formed under different kinds of anthropogenic impact, such as: selection cutting, clear cutting, aerotechnogenic pollution by wastes of timber, pulp and paper works. Objects were 137 permanent sample plots were launched in pine phytocenosises of different types (lichen, green-mossy) growing in taiga zone of the Komi Republ...

  10. Benthic Nutrient Fluxes from Mangrove Sediments of an Anthropogenically Impacted Estuary in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    David Kaiser; Nicole Kowalski; Böttcher, Michael E.; Bing Yan; Daniela Unger

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves serve as either sinks or sources for inorganic and organic nutrients and can mitigate anthropogenic nutrient pollution, control the production in adjacent systems, and prevent eutrophication. To better understand the nutrient dynamics in a subtropical mangrove, we employed a three-way approach in the Nanliu River Estuary, southern China: Pore water profiles and sediment incubations revealed benthic early diagenesis as well as sediment–water exchange of dissolved nutrients and oxygen...

  11. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-08-17

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  12. ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin A. Đukić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different (mineral and organic fertilisers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in Cacak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the Czapek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg?ha-1 and organic fertilisers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg?ha- 1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  13. Continental Scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-F. Graf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While Antarctica is often described as a pristine environment, the potential threats from local pollution sources including tourist ships and emissions associated with scientific activities have recently been raised. However, to date there has been no systematic attempt to model the impacts of such pollutants at the continental scale. Indeed, until very recently there was not even a sulphur emission budget available for Antarctica. Here we present the first comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Antarctica using a limited area chemistry climate model, and a monthly emissions inventory for sulphur from maintenance of research stations, ground and air traffic, shipping and the active volcano Mt. Erebus. We find that ship emissions, both sulphurous and black carbon, dominate anthropogenic pollution near the ground. These are likely to rise considerably if recent trends in tourism continue.

  14. Quantitative identification and source apportionment of anthropogenic heavy metals in marine sediment of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Guo, Huaicheng; Liu, Lei

    2007-10-01

    Based on ten heavy metals collected twice annually at 59 sites from 1998 to 2004, enrichment factors (EFs), principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate linear regression of absolute principal component scores (MLR-APCS) were used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in marine sediment. EFs with Fe as a normalizer and local background as reference values was properly tested and suitable in Hong Kong, and Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cd, Hg and Cr mainly originated from anthropogenic sources, while Al, Mn and Fe were derived from rocks weathering. Rotated PCA and GIS mapping further identified two types of anthropogenic sources and their impacted regions: (1) electronic industrial pollution, riparian runoff and vehicle exhaust impacted the entire Victoria Harbour, inner Tolo Harbour, Eastern Buffer, inner Deep Bay and Cheung Chau; and (2) discharges from textile factories and paint, influenced Tsuen Wan Bay and Kwun Tong typhoon shelter and Rambler Channel. In addition, MLR-APCS was successfully introduced to quantitatively determine the source contributions with uncertainties almost less than 8%: the first anthropogenic sources were responsible for 50.0, 45.1, 86.6, 78.9 and 87.5% of the Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg, respectively, whereas 49.9% of the Ni and 58.4% of the Cr came from the second anthropogenic sources.

  15. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances C. Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with mitigation options. The local nature of many of the impacts, combined with their short atmospheric lifetime and the existence of cost-effective abatement technologies that are already widely deployed in developed countries means reducing these emissions provides a highly climatically-effective mitigation option that is also appropriate to the development strategy of industrializing countries.

  16. Information Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Noruzi, Alireza

    2000-01-01

    The exponential growth of information resources creates new challenges for end-users. The correct information may be polluted by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda or incorrect information via the Internet and other media. This paper defines 'information pollution' as "the contamination of information by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda and incorrect information." The purpose of this paper is to present the methods of information pollution. It is concluded that it is sometim...

  17. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  18. Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric Pollution Lead in Swedish Boreal Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the fate of anthropogenic lead (Pb)pollution in boreal forest soils, and to predict future trends, it is important to know where in the soil the pollution Pb is accumulated and how large the pollution and natural Pb inventories are in different soil horizons. We combined stable Pb isotope (206Pb/207Pb ratios) and concentration analyses to study Pb in podzol profiles and mor samples from old-growth forest stands at seven sites distributed from southern to northern Sweden. Additional samples were taken from managed forests, and from an agricultural field, to give some idea of the effects of land-use. Pb concentrations are typically 60-100 μg g-1 dry mass in the mor layer in southern Sweden and about 30 μg g-1 in northern Sweden. Pb isotope analyses show that virtually all of this Pb is pollution Pb. The isotope composition also shows that pollution Pb has penetrated downwards between 20-60 cm in the forest soils. The total pollution Pb inventories vary between 0.7-3.0 g m-2 ground surface, with larger inventories in southern compared to northern Sweden. Although the highest Pb concentrations occur in the mor layer, the largest inventories of pollution Pb are found in the Bs-horizon. The limited investigation of Pb distribution and inventories in soils from managed forests did not point to any major difference compared to the old-growth forests. The agricultural field revealed, however, a completely deviating Pb profile with all pollution Pb evenly distributed in the 20 cm thick top-soil

  19. Freeliving marine nematodes as a pollution indicator of Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A hierarchical diversity index--taxonomic distinctnessindex +, which was first defined by Warwick and Clark in 1998, wasemployed to evaluate the pollution status of the Bohai Sea withfreeliving marine nematodes. The result showed that the Bohai Bayand other coastal sampling sites might be affected by oil and gasproduction and other anthropogenic influences. In other words,anthropogenic disturbance was affecting this component of thebenthos in these locations. And most offshore sampling sites in themiddle of the Bohai Sea were clear and unpolluted.

  20. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Monge; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Antonio García-Alix; Francisca Martínez-Ruiz; Nadine Mattielli; Clive Finlayson; Naohiko Ohkouchi; Miguel Cortés Sánchez; Jose María Bermúdez de Castro; Ruth Blasco; Jordi Rosell; José Carrión; Joaquín Rodríguez-Vidal; Geraldine Finlayson

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution ...

  1. Characteristics, Control and Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Combined Pollution from a Solid Waste Dismantling Area%固废拆解土壤的复合污染特性及其控制与修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于红艳; 张昕欣; 杨伟群; 陈红云; 杨雪雪; 朱梦琪

    2012-01-01

    The dismantling of solid waste has resulted in severe contamination of toxic heavy metals, persistant organic pollutant( POPs) , pol-ycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) , polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) for soil in these areas. The methods of control of soil pollutants and remediation of contaminated soil were put forward in the basis of analysis of pollutants environmental behavior in the soil and its migration and transformation laws, which to provide a reliable basis for green dismantling industry and provide reference for remediation of soil contaminated with combined pollution from a solid waste dismantling area.%固废拆解造成了包括重金属、持久性有机污染物(POPs)[多环芳烃(PAHs)、多氯联苯(PCBs)、二噁英(PCDD/Fs)及多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)]的土壤复合污染.探讨了固废拆解土壤的污染源及污染现状,分析了复合污染物在土壤中的环境行为及迁移转化规律,提出了控制土壤污染物对策及污染土壤修复方法,旨在为发展绿色拆解产业提供可靠的依据,为固废拆解导致的土壤污染控制与修复提供参考.

  2. Visual attention based detection of signs of anthropogenic activities in satellite imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skurikhin, Alexei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-13

    With increasing deployment of satellite imaging systems, only a small fraction of collected data can be subject to expert scrutiny. We present and evaluate a two-tier approach to broad area search for signs of anthropogenic activities in high-resolution commercial satellite imagery. The method filters image information using semantically oriented interest points by combining Harris corner detection and spatial pyramid matching. The idea is that anthropogenic structures, such as rooftop outlines, fence corners, road junctions, are locally arranged in specific angular relations to each other. They are often oriented at approximately right angles to each other (which is known as rectilinearity relation). Detecting the rectilinearity provides an opportunity to highlight regions most likely to contain anthropogenic activity. This is followed by supervised classification of regions surrounding the detected corner points as man-made vs. natural scenes. We consider, in particular, a search for anthropogenic activities in uncluttered areas. In this paper, we proposed and evaluated a two-tier approach to broad area search for signs of anthropogenic activities. Results from experiments on high-resolution ({approx}0.6m) commercial satellite image data showed the potential applicability of this approach and its ability of achieving both high precision and recall rates. The main advantage of combining corner-based cueing with general object recognition is that the incorporation of domain specific knowledge even in its more general form, such as presence of comers, provides a useful cue to narrow the focus of search for signs of anthropogenic activities. Combination of comer based cueing with spatial pyramid matching addressed the issue of comer categorization. An important practical issue for further research is optimizing the balance between false positive and false negative rates. While the results presented in the paper are encouraging, the problem of an automated broad area

  3. Nonlinear effects of anthropogenic aerosol and urban land surface forcing on spring climate in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming; Zhang, Leying

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols and urban land cover change induce opposite thermal effects on the atmosphere near surface as well as in the troposphere. One can think of these anthropogenic effects as composed of two parts: the individual effect due to an individual anthropogenic forcing and the nonlinear effects resulting from the coexistence of two forcing factors. In this study, we explored the role of such nonlinear effects in affecting East Asian climate, as well as individual forcing effects, using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 coupled with the Community Land Model version 4. Atmospheric responses were simulated by including anthropogenic aerosol emission only, urban cover only, or the combination of the two, over eastern China. Results showed that nonlinear responses were different from any effects by an individual forcing or the linear combination of individual responses. The nonlinear interaction could generate cold horizontal temperature advection to cool the troposphere, which induced anomalous subsidence along the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). This anomalous vertical motion, together with a weakened low-level southwesterly, favored below-normal (above-normal) rainfall over the YRV (southern China), shifting the spring rain belt southward. The resultant diabatic cooling, in turn, amplified the anomalous descent and further decreased tropospheric temperature over the YRV, forming a positive feedback loop to maintain the nonlinear effects. Consequently, the nonlinear effects acted to reduce the climate anomalies from a simple linear combination of two individual effects and played an important role in regional responses to one anthropogenic forcing when the other is prescribed.

  4. The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine, Chris [NOAA, Seattle, WA; Feely, R. A. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Gruber, N. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Key, Robert [Princeton University; Lee, K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Wong, C. S. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Climate Chemistry Laboratory, Sidney, BC Canada; Wallace, D.W.R. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Tilbrook, B. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Millero, F. J. [University of Miami; Peng, T.-H. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Ono, Tsueno [Frontier Research System for Global Change/Institute for Global Change Research, Japan; Rios, Aida F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientificas, Spain

    2004-01-01

    Using inorganic carbon measurements from an international survey effort in the 1990s and a tracer-based separation technique, we estimate a global oceanic anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) sink for the period from 1800 to 1994 of 118 19 petagrams of carbon. The oceanic sink accounts for ~48% of the total fossil-fuel and cement-manufacturing emissions, implying that the terrestrial biosphere was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere of about 39 28 petagrams of carbon for this period. The current fraction of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions stored in the ocean appears to be about one-third of the long-term potential.

  5. Assessment of surface water pollutant models of estuaries and coastal zone of Quang Ninh - Hai Phong using Spot-5 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Luong Chinh; Van Trang, Ho Thi; Liem, Vu Huu; Tuong, Tran Ngoc; Duyen, Pham Thi

    2015-06-01

    The coastal zone and estuaries of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong have great potential not only for economic development but also for protection and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem. Nowadays, due to industrial, agricultural and anthropogenic activities signs of water pollution in the region have been found. The level of surface water pollution can be determined by traditional methods through observatory stations. However, a traditional approach to determine water contamination is discontinuous, and thereby makes pollution assessment of the entire estuary very difficult. Nowadays, remote sensing technology has been developed and widely applied in many fields, for instance, in monitoring water environments. Remote sensing data combined with information from in-situ observations allow for extraction of polluted components in water and accurate measurements of pollution level in the large regions ensuring objectivity. According to results obtained from Spot-5 imagery of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong, the extracted pollution components, like BOD, COD and TSS can be determined with the root mean square error, the absolute mean error and the absolute mean percentage error (%): ±4.37 (mg/l) 3.86 (mg/l), 27%; ±55.32 (mg/l), 48.30 (mg/l), 14%; and ±32.90 (mg/l), 23.38 (mg/l), 28%; respectively. Obtained outcomes guarantee objectivity in assessing water contaminant levels in the investigated regions and show the advantages of remote sensing applications in Resource and Environmental Monitoring in relation to Water - Air - Land.

  6. Oxidation of elemental Hg in anthropogenic and marine airmasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in the food chain. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere primarily in its elemental form, which has a long lifetime allowing global transport. It is known that atmospheric oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM generates reactive gaseous mercury (RGM which plays an important role in the atmospheric mercury cycle by enhancing the rate of mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, the primary GEM oxidants, and the chemical composition of RGM are poorly known. Using speciated mercury measurements conducted at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory since 2005 we present two previously unidentified sources of RGM to the free troposphere (FT. Firstly, we observed elevated RGM concentrations, large RGM/GEM-ratios, and anti-correlation between RGM and GEM during Asian long-rang transport events, demonstrating that RGM is formed from GEM by in-situ oxidation in some anthropogenic pollution plumes in the FT. During the Asian pollution events the measured RGM/GEM-enhancement ratios reached peak values, up to ~0.20, which are significantly larger than ratios typically measured (RGM/GEM −3, high RGM/GEM-ratios (up to 1, and very low ozone levels during these events provide observational evidence indicating significant GEM oxidation in the lower FT in some conditions.

  7. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  8. Documentation and analysis of a geographic information system application for combining data layers, using nonpoint-source pollution as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesler, James L.

    2002-01-01

    A geographical information system application has been developed that allows scientists to combine multiple data layers into a single data layer. This application provides an effective tool for identifying areas where the potential effect of the combination of data layers may be greater than any single data layer. Such a tool is useful in studying an activity that cannot be measured directly. Scientists wanting to identify areas where an activity may have the greatest effect can identify factors that directly or indirectly reflect the effect of the activity being studied. When combined, these factors would identify areas where the potential for the activity to have an effect are greatest.

  9. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (all anthropogenic, biomass burning and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. On the global scale, our results show that land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols...

  10. Construction of a plant-microbe phytoremediation system: combination of vetiver grass with a functional endophytic bacterium, Achromobacter xylosoxidans F3B, for aromatic pollutants removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ying-Ning; Hsieh, Ju-Liang; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2013-10-01

    The endophytic bacterial strain Achromobacter xylosoxidans F3B, which was able to utilize aromatic compounds as a sole carbon source, was inoculated into vetiver grass in this study. A real-time PCR detection method has been developed for confirming the stability of F3B in plants and DGGE profiles were conducted for examining the diversity of endophytes during the remediation process. These results showed that the endophytic bacteria strain F3B could maintain a stable population in plant roots without largely interfering with the diversity of native endophytes. Furthermore, the strain F3B could protect plants against toluene stress and maintain chlorophyll content of leaves, and a 30% reduction of evapotranspiration through vetiver leaves was observed. Our results demonstrate the potential to improve phytoremediation of aromatic pollutants by inoculating functional endophytic bacterial strains. PMID:23591084

  11. Anthropogenic point and non-point nitrogen inputs into Huai River Basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux

    OpenAIRE

    W. S. Zhang; D. P. Swaney; Li, X.Y.; Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W.; Ding, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a new approach to estimate both anthropogenic non-point and point nitrogen (N) inputs to the landscape, and determines their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen (AN) flux, providing a foundation for further exploration of anthropogenic effects on N pollution. Our study site is Huai River Basin of China, a watershed with one of the highest levels of N input in the world. Multi-year average (2003–2010) inputs of N to the watershed are 27 2...

  12. The impact of chemical pollution on the resilience of soils under multiple stresses: A conceptual framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf; Hollert, Henner; Kaestner, Matthias; Kandeler, Ellen; Kruse, Jens; Miltner, Anja; Ottermanns, Richard; Pagel, Holger; Peth, Stephan; Poll, Christian; Rambold, Gerhard; Schloter, Michael; Schulz, Stefanie; Streck, Thilo; Roß-Nickoll, Martina

    2016-10-15

    Soils are faced with man-made chemical stress factors, such as the input of organic or metal-containing pesticides, in combination with non-chemical stressors like soil compaction and natural disturbance like drought. Although multiple stress factors are typically co-occurring in soil ecosystems, research in soil sciences on this aspect is limited and focuses mostly on single structural or functional endpoints. A mechanistic understanding of the reaction of soils to multiple stressors is currently lacking. Based on a review of resilience theory, we introduce a new concept for research on the ability of polluted soil (xenobiotics or other chemical pollutants as one stressor) to resist further natural or anthropogenic stress and to retain its functions and structure. There is strong indication that pollution as a primary stressor will change the system reaction of soil, i.e., its resilience, stability and resistance. It can be expected that pollution affects the physiological adaption of organisms and the functional redundancy of the soil to further stress. We hypothesize that the recovery of organisms and chemical-physical properties after impact of a follow-up stressor is faster in polluted soil than in non-polluted soil, i.e., polluted soil has a higher dynamical stability (dynamical stability=1/recovery time), whereas resilience of the contaminated soil is lower compared to that of not or less contaminated soil. Thus, a polluted soil might be more prone to change into another system regime after occurrence of further stress. We highlight this issue by compiling the literature exemplarily for the effects of Cu contamination and compaction on soil functions and structure. We propose to intensify research on effects of combined stresses involving a multidisciplinary team of experts and provide suggestions for corresponding experiments. Our concept offers thus a framework for system level analysis of soils paving the way to enhance ecological theory. PMID:27372890

  13. Modelling of long-term anthropogenic changes in stratospheric temperature and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A numerical two-dimensional interactive dynamical-radiative-photochemical model including aerosol physics is used to examine the expected long-term changes in stratospheric temperature and the Earth's ozone layer due to anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and by ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2050. The mechanisms of the impact of each of the pollutants on stratospheric temperature have been analysed, their relative contributions to the predicted temperature change have been estimated. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere, have been studied in details. The contributions of different pollutions to the predicted ozone changes have been estimated. The results of the calculations show that the basic mechanism by which greenhouse gases influence the ozone layer is stratospheric cooling accompanied by a weakness in the efficiency of the catalytic cycles of ozone destruction due to temperature dependencies of the photochemical gas-phase reactions. Modification of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) caused by anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases is important only for the polar ozone. An essential influence of the greenhouse gases on the ozone by a modification of the stratospheric sulphate aerosol is revealed. The aerosol changes caused by the greenhouse gases modify the distribution of the ozone-active gaseous chlorine, bromine and nitrogen components by means of heterogeneous reactions on the aerosol surface, resulting in a significant decrease in springtime polar ozone depletion of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  14. Foreign versus Domestic Contributions to China's Ozone Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Lin, Weili; Yan, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant because it damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China' ozone pollution. Here, we use the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations to quantify the contributions of ozone transport from regions with large anthropogenic emissions to China. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone air quality. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign anthropogenic emissions contribute 40% near the surface, and the foreign contribution increases with altitude and reaches up to 70% in the upper troposphere. The contributions by North America and Europe reach maximum levels in spring, in which season Chinese influence on the western United States also peaks. The springtime maxima are associated with strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities favorable to the long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhanced surface ozone concentrations by 1~4 ppbv over Western and Northern China in spring and winter. Despite much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is distinctly greater than that from Europe due to the nearly tripled VOC emissions. Ozone contributed by Foreign Asian countries peaks in summer and autumn, widely dispersed to the upper troposphere over Southern China with strong upwelling. Therefore, although China produces large amounts of ozone precursor emissions, its domestic ozone pollution is still contributed significantly by foreign anthropogenic emissions. Our study is relevant to Chinese ozone pollution control and global collaboration.

  15. Anthropogenic processing of dust affects the oxygen content of the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Ito, Taka; Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Valett, Jackie; Deutsch, Curtis

    2015-04-01

    Observations from the last several decades show a significant expansion of the tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, the underlying causes remain elusive, as the currently accepted effects of ocean warming and associated solubility decease cannot fully explain the observed oxygen trend. Here we show that anthropogenic pollution can change the pattern of biological productivity and oxygen trends consistent with observations in the tropics and extratropics. These effects are caused by the mobilization of iron in mineral dust by pollutants, where it is transported and deposited to the HNLC regions of the tropical pacific affecting primary productivity and oxygen consumption by bacterial respiration. In this study, it is shown that pollution-mobilized iron deposited to high latitude oceanic environments can profoundly impact subsurface oxygen and the extent of the OMZ through long-range oceanic transport. Together with the intensification of tropical upwelling since the 1990s associated with natural climate variability, our results can explain the expansion of the OMZ in the tropical Pacific in the late twentieth century. Unlike climate variability, however, anthropogenic pollution likely influences the long-term trends in marine biogeochemistry and further alters regional productivity and subsurface oxygen distributions with profound implications for marine habitats and nitrate inventory of the oceans.

  16. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  17. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Rosivatz, Erika [Institute of Chemical Biology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Scholze, Martin [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kortenkamp@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  18. Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book tells US that what nature is, which gives descriptions of the world of living things like the role of plant, order of the vegetable kingdom, the world of plant, destruction of the natural world, and the world of bugs, nature and human with man's survive and change of nature, environment and human, and in creasing population and environment, philosophy of conservation of nature on meaning, destroy and management, and direction, air pollution spot, water pollution, soil pollution conservation of nature and industry case of foreign country and view of environment and environmental assimilating capacity.

  19. Anthropogenic and geogenic Cd, Hg, Pb and Se sources of contamination in a brackish aquifer below agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrocicco, Micòl; Colombani, Nicolò; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Faccini, Barbara; Ferretti, Giacomo; Coltorti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality is often threatened by industrial, agricultural and land use practices (anthropogenic input). In deltaic areas is however difficult to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic inorganic contaminants pollution, since these phenomena can influence each other and often display a seasonal cycling. The effect of geogenic groundwater ionic strength (>10 g/l) on the mobility of trace elements like Cd, Hg, Pb and Se was studied in combination with the anthropogenic sources of these elements (fertilizers) in a shallow aquifer. The site is located in the Po river plain (Northern Italy) in an agricultural field belonging to a reclaimed deltaic environment, near Codigoro town. It is 6 ha wide and is drained by a subsurface drainage system made of PVC tile drains with a slope of 3‰, which provides gravity drainage towards two ditches that in turn discharge in a main channel. The whole area has been intensively cultivated with cereal rotation since 1960, mainly using synthetic urea as nitrogen fertilizer at an average rate of 180 kg-N/ha/y and pig slurry at an average rate of 60 kg-N/ha/y. The sediments were analyzed for major and trace elements via XRF, while major ions in groundwater were analyzed via IC and trace elements via ICP-MS. Three monitoring wells, with an inner diameter of 2 cm and screened down to 4 m below ground level, were set up in the field and sampled every four month from 2012 to 2014. The use of intensive depth profiles with resolution of 0.5 m in three different locations, gave insights into groundwater and sediment matrix interactions. To characterize the anthropogenic inputs synthetic urea and pig slurry were analyzed for trace elements via ICP-MS. The synthetic urea is a weak source of Cd and Hg (~1 ppb), while Se and Pb are found below detection limits. The pig slurry is a much stronger source of Se (~19 ppb) and Pb (~23 ppb) and a weak source of Cd (~3 ppb) and Hg (~2 ppb). Although, the mass loading rate pig slurry is

  20. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Rajan R.; Satish Kumar Chetlapally; M Bagvandas

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health eff...

  1. Clays and clay minerals in Bikaner: Sources, environment pollution and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Sharma; Anu, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Environmental pollution can also be caused by minerals which include natural as well as human activities. Rapid urbanization, consumerist life style, anthropogenic deeds are increasing environmental pollution day by day. Fluctuation in our ecosystem or polluted environment leads to many diseases and shows adverse effects on living organisms. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the environmental pollution from clays and clay minerals and their mitigation..

  2. Environmental pollution at Linfen and its change - magnetic monitoring of leaves and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Appel, E.; Hu, S. Y.; Yin, G.; Rösler, W.

    2012-04-01

    Linfen city (Shanxi Province, China) is one of the world's most polluted city due to coal mining, refineries and other industries. During recent years the local government took enormous efforts to improve the environmental standard. In this study, we are testing the efficiency of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements for the assessment of this pollution "hot spot" where the environmental issues dictate the questions and up turning methodical obstacles have to be mastered. In particular we are testing to which extent the combination of MS results from soil and dust-loaded tree leaves allow to discriminate in between historical and present pollution. MS signals in the large abandoned industrial area and in new industrial areas are strongly enhanced with surface soil mass-specific MS (χ) between (232-3126)×10-8m3kg-1, while in the agricultural areas they range from (88-179)×10-8m3kg-1. Temperature dependence of MS identifies magnetite as the major magnetic phase in all topsoil samples; additionally a variable content of a harder coercive phase indicated by S-ratios of 0.82-0.99. Low χfd% (<5%) and hysteresis properties show that magnetite particles occur in PSD+MD domain state. In contrast to soil samples which accumulate pollutants over a long time span, dust-loaded tree leaf samples reflect the current air spread of pollution. Leaf samples were taken from the wider Linfen city area at intervals of about 2 km. Values of χ (normalized to the mass of the dried leaf) range from (2.2-501.1)×10-8m3kg-1 with a median of 23.16×10-8m3kg-1, and gradually decrease with distance from pollution sources. Rock magnetic parameters again identify a dominance of PSD+MD low-coercivity magnetite. Strong enhancement of MS occurs in the new urban industrial area and in the southern part of city, which is also controlled by the prevailing wind direction and the typical basin topography. XRF results show an enrichment of heavy metals for topsoils and leaves, which were outlined

  3. The Effects of Organic Pollutants in Soil on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    The soil has always been depository of the organic chemicals produced naturally or anthropogenically. Soil contamination is a serious human and environmental problem. A large body of evidence has shown the risks of adverse health effects with the exposure to contaminated soil due to the large quantities of organic chemicals used in agriculture and urban areas that have a legacy of environmental pollution linked to industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration and waste dumping. In agricultural areas, because of the effort to provide adequate quantities of agricultural products, farmers have been using an increasing amount of organic chemicals, but the resulting pollution has enormous potential for environmental damage. The types of organic pollutants commonly found in soils are polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, herbicides and organic fuels, especially gasoline and diesel. Another source of soil pollution is the complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals and microorganisms in the effluent from septic systems, animal wastes and other sources of biowaste. The soils of the world are a vast mixture of chemicals and although conditions are such that an individual is rarely exposed to a single compound, the great majority of people are exposed to a vast chemical mixture of organics, their metabolites, and other compounds at low concentrations Human exposure to organic pollutants in the soil is an area of toxicology that is very difficult to study due to the low concentration of the pollutants. The toxicological studies of single organic pollutants found in soils are limited and research on the metabolites and of chemical mixtures is very limited. The majority of toxicological studies are conducted at relatively high doses and for short periods of exposure. This makes the application of this data to exposure

  4. Pollution charges, community pressure, and abatement cost of industrial pollution in China

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Hua

    2000-01-01

    The author evaluates the strength of the effect that community pressure and pollution charges have on industrial pollution control in China, and estimates the marginal cost of pollution abatement. He examines a well-documented set of plant-level data, combined with community-level data, to assess the impact of pollution charges and community pressure on industrial behavior in China. He constructs and estimates an industrial organic water pollution discharge model for plants that violate stand...

  5. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  6. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  7. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was appli...

  8. Light-mediated 15N fractionation in Caribbean gorgonian octocorals: implications for pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. M.; Kim, K.; Andras, J. P.; Sparks, J. P.

    2011-09-01

    The stable nitrogen isotope ratio ( δ 15N) of coral tissue is a useful recorder of anthropogenic pollution in tropical marine ecosystems. However, little is known of the natural environmentally induced fractionations that affect our interpretation of coral δ 15N values. In symbiotic scleractinians, light affects metabolic fractionation of N during photosynthesis, which may confound the identification of N pollution between sites of varied depth or turbidity. Given the superiority of octocorals for δ 15N studies, our goal was to quantify the effect of light on gorgonian δ 15N in the context of monitoring N pollution sources. Using field collections, we show that δ 15N declined by 1.4‰ over 20 m depth in two species of gorgonians, the common sea fan, Gorgonia ventalina, and the slimy sea plume, Pseudopterogorgia americana. An 8-week laboratory experiment with P. americana showed that light, not temperature causes this variation, whereby the lowest fractionation of the N source was observed in the highest light treatment. Finally, we used a yearlong reciprocal depth transplant experiment to quantify the time frame over which δ 15N changes in G. ventalina as a function of light regime . Over the year, δ 15N was unchanged and increased slightly in the deep control colonies and shallow colonies transplanted to the deep site, respectively. Within 6 months, colonies transplanted from deep to shallow became enriched by 0.8‰, mirroring the enrichment observed in the shallow controls, which was likely due to the combined effect of an increase in the source δ 15N and reduced fractionation. We conclude that light affects gorgonian δ 15N fractionation and should be considered in sampling designs for N pollution monitoring. However, these fractionations are small relative to differences observed between natural and anthropogenic N sources.

  9. Impact of air pollution in deterioration of carbonate building materials in Italian urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Geochemical study of black crusts developed on three monuments located in Milan, Florence and Rome. • Trace element composition of the black crusts is greatly influenced by anthropogenic pollution. • Geochemical characterization of black crusts can be used as a reliable indicator of environmental pollution. - Abstract: This work presents results from a petrographic, morphological and chemical study of the black crusts developing on monuments in three Italian cities, the Cathedral of Milan, the Cathedral of St. Maria del Fiore in Florence, and the Vittoriano Monument in Rome. Black crusts (BCs) were studied with traditional techniques such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR), in combination with laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which has shown itself to be particularly useful in determining concentrations of heavy metals in BCs. Although the BCs of the three monuments show general enrichment in heavy metals with respect to the substrate (S), interesting differences were observed among them. The BCs from Milan are the richest in heavy metals, particularly Pb and Zn, reflecting the severe air pollution of this very large city, which, in addition to its intense traffic, is located in the most highly industrialized area of Northern Italy. The BCs from the south-eastern side of the Cathedral of St. Maria del Fiore in Florence, facing a pedestrian area, show little enrichment in heavy metals, and those from the Vittoriano Monument in Rome, which is exposed to intense road traffic, display variable enrichment, attributable to mobile emission sources. Results show that the various enrichment trends in heavy metals observed in the BCs of these three monuments are due to many factors: various sources of anthropogenic pollution, sampling height, exposure, orientation, and the shape of the deposition

  10. Anthropogenic disturbances jeopardize biodiversity conservation within tropical rainforest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Iván A; Piñero, Daniel; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Sarukhán, José

    2016-05-10

    Anthropogenic disturbances affecting tropical forest reserves have been documented, but their ecological long-term cumulative effects are poorly understood. Habitat fragmentation and defaunation are two major anthropogenic threats to the integrity of tropical reserves. Based on a long-term (four decades) study, we document how these disturbances synergistically disrupt ecological processes and imperil biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning at Los Tuxtlas, the northernmost tropical rainforest reserve in the Americas. Deforestation around this reserve has reduced the reserve to a medium-sized fragment (640 ha), leading to an increased frequency of canopy-gap formation. In addition, hunting and habitat loss have caused the decline or local extinction of medium and large herbivores. Combining empirical, experimental, and modeling approaches, we support the hypothesis that such disturbances produced a demographic explosion of the long-lived (≈120 y old, maximum height of 7 m) understory palm Astrocaryum mexicanum, whose population has increased from 1,243-4,058 adult individuals per hectare in only 39 y (annual growth rate of ca 3%). Faster gap formation increased understory light availability, enhancing seed production and the growth of immature palms, whereas release from mammalian herbivory and trampling increased survival of seedlings and juveniles. In turn, the palm's demographic explosion was followed by a reduction of tree species diversity, changing forest composition, altering the relative contribution of trees to forest biomass, and disrupting litterfall dynamics. We highlight how indirect anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., palm proliferation) on otherwise protected areas threaten tropical conservation, a phenomenon that is currently eroding the planet's richest repositories of biodiversity. PMID:27071122

  11. Biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt sulfate size-segregated aerosols in the Arctic summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Norman, Ann-Lise; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Levasseur, Maurice; Thomas, Jennie L.

    2016-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Amundsen in the Arctic during July 2014. The objective of this study was to utilize the isotopic composition of sulfate to address the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions in the Arctic atmosphere. Non-sea-salt sulfate is divided into biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate using stable isotope apportionment techniques. A considerable amount of the average sulfate concentration in the fine aerosols with a diameter 63 %), which is higher than in previous Arctic studies measuring above the ocean during fall ( 30 %) (Norman et al., 1999). The anthropogenic sulfate concentration was less than that of biogenic sulfate, with potential sources being long-range transport and, more locally, the Amundsen's emissions. Despite attempts to minimize the influence of ship stack emissions, evidence from larger-sized particles demonstrates a contribution from local pollution. A comparison of δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols was used to show that gas-to-particle conversion likely occurred during most sampling periods. δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols were similar, suggesting the same source for SO2 and aerosol sulfate, except for two samples with a relatively high anthropogenic fraction in particles Ocean during the productive summer months.

  12. 复合污染条件下石油烃在扇贝体内的积累状况%Accumulation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Chlamys Farreri Exposed to Combined Pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱萍; 马兆虎; 姜雪梅; 刘伟; 柳瑞翠

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory simulating accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in Chlamys farreri is studied. Experiments of single petroleum hydrocarbon pollution and combined pollution of petroleum hydrocarbon-heavy metal Cd-Pb are conducted. The results show that the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in Chlamys farreri, compared with 0. 6 mg/L of single petroleum hydrocarbon pollution, increases in all three experiments; combining petroleum hydrocarbon with Cd, petroleum hydrocarbon with Pb, petroleum hydrocarbon with Cd and Pb. It also shows that the accumulation is significantly promoted when concentration of Cd and Pb are 0.05mg/L and 0.50mg/L respectively, or 0.03 mg/L Cd is combined with 0. 15mg/L Pb.%采用室内模拟天然海水养殖栉孔扇贝方法,通过石油烃单一污染实验与石油烃、Cd、Pb复合污染实验结果对比,探讨石油烃与重金属Cd、Pb复合污染下石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累状况.结果表明:石油烃与不同种类及浓度的重金属复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累状况有很大差异.与0.6 mg/L的石油烃单一污染相比较,石油烃-Cd、石油烃-Pb、石油烃-Cd -Pb的3种不同复合污染实验条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量都增大,说明实验设置浓度的Cd、Pb及其组合都促进了石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累,但0.05 mg/L的Cd、0.50 mg/L的Pb以及0.03 mg/L的Cd +0.15mg/L的Pb组合3种情形更有利于促进石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累.

  13. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  14. The combined effect of freeze thaw events and heavy metal pollution leads to distinct lethal synergy in Enchytraeus albidus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Sara Wincentz; Slotsbo, Stine; Holmstrup, Martin

    Europe, and recent interest in increasing mineral deposit mining activity in arctic regions further emphasizes the need for focus on the environmental impact in these areas. In the present study it was investigated how the combination of freeze-thaw events and copper contamination of soil affected the....... Bioaccumulation of copper was also quantified to expose any increase in body burden in freeze-thaw treated worms. Regardless of the physiological responses, it is evident that arctic organisms are negatively affected by the environmental impact of global warming and exploitation of mineral deposits through mining....... Icelandic, freeze tolerant annelid worm, Enchytraeus albidus. Worms were exposed to one of three temperature treatments (constant +1.5⁰C, constant -6⁰C, or daily cycles between +1.5 and -6⁰C) in combination with one of several different copper (CuCl2) concentrations in soil. The results showed a distinct...

  15. Hidden Markov models for estimating animal mortality from anthropogenic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcasses searches are a common method for studying the risk of anthropogenic hazards to wildlife, including non-target poisoning and collisions with anthropogenic structures. Typically, numbers of carcasses found must be corrected for scavenging rates and imperfect detection. ...

  16. Field Application of Modified In Situ Soil Flushing in Combination with Air Sparging at a Military Site Polluted by Diesel and Gasoline in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the full-scale operation of soil flushing with air sparging to improve the removal efficiency of petroleum at depths of less than 7 m at a military site in Korea was evaluated. The target area was polluted by multiple gasoline and diesel fuel sources. The soil was composed of heterogeneous layers of granules, sand, silt and clay. The operation factors were systemically assessed using a column test and a pilot study before running the full-scale process at the site. The discharged TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes concentrations in the water were highest at 20 min and at a rate of 350 L/min, which was selected as the volume of air for the full-scale operation in the pilot air sparging test. The surfactant-aid condition was 1.4 times more efficient than the non-surfactant condition in the serial operations of modified soil flushing followed by air sparging. The hydraulic conductivity (3.13 × 10−3 cm/s increased 4.7 times after the serial operation of both processes relative to the existing condition (6.61 × 10−4 cm/s. The removal efficiencies of TPH were 52.8%, 57.4%, and 61.8% for the soil layers at 6 to 7, 7 to 8 and 8 to 9 m, respectively. Therefore, the TPH removal was improved at depth of less than 7 m by using this modified remediation system. The removal efficiencies for the areas with TPH and BTEX concentrations of more than 500 and 80 mg/kg, were 55.5% and 92.9%, respectively, at a pore volume of 2.9. The total TPH and BTEX mass removed during the full-scale operation was 5109 and 752 kg, respectively.

  17. Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

  18. Removal of Mutagenic Organic Pollutants from Drinking Water by Combined Reverse Osmosis%反渗透组合工艺去除水中致突变有机物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍园; 姜兆春; 贾智萍; 李予江

    2001-01-01

    Using CODMn and Ames test as evaluation index,the reverse osmosisbase d process for drinking water treatment was studied on removal of mutagenic organ ic pollutants from tap water.The study results show that the activated carbon un it in the process can remove about 50% of organic pollutants,but the attenuation of tap water mutagenicity is poor.The reverse osmosis unit can remove organic p ollutants and attenuate mutagenicity simultaneously.This combined process is fea sible for providing safe potable water with good quality.%以高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)和Ames试验为评价指标,研究了以反渗透为主的组合工艺对自来水中致突变性有机物的去除效果。试验表明,组合工艺中的活性炭单元可以去除自来水中约50%的有机污染物,但对自来水的致突变性没有明显改善;反渗透膜单元能达到同时去除有机污染物和改善自来水致突变性的效果。此工艺是获得安全优质饮用水的一种可行办法。

  19. Acceleration of oxygen decline in the tropical Pacific over the past decades by aerosol pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Nenes, A.; Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Deutsch, C.

    2016-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen in the mid-depth tropical Pacific Ocean has declined in the past several decades. The resulting expansion of the oxygen minimum zone has consequences for the region's ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles, but the causes of the oxygen decline are not yet fully understood. Here we combine models of atmospheric chemistry, ocean circulation and biogeochemical cycling to test the hypothesis that atmospheric pollution over the Pacific Ocean contributed to the redistribution of oxygen in deeper waters. We simulate the pollution-induced enhancement of atmospheric soluble iron and fixed nitrogen deposition, as well as its impacts on ocean productivity and biogeochemical cycling for the late twentieth century. The model reproduces the magnitude and large-scale pattern of the observed oxygen changes from the 1970s to the 1990s, and the sensitivity experiments reveal the reinforcing effects of pollution-enhanced iron deposition and natural climate variability. Despite the aerosol deposition being the largest in mid-latitudes, its effect on oceanic oxygen is most pronounced in the tropics, where ocean circulation transports added iron to the tropics, leading to an increased regional productivity, respiration and subsurface oxygen depletion. These results suggest that anthropogenic pollution can interact and amplify climate-driven impacts on ocean biogeochemistry, even in remote ocean biomes.

  20. Insights into a historic severe haze event in Shanghai: synoptic situation, boundary layer and pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Chunpeng; Duan, Junyan; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Hefeng; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Yanyu; Li, Xiang; Kong, Lingdong; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Renjian; Cheng, Tiantao; Zha, Shuping; Yu, Xingna

    2016-07-01

    A historic haze event, characterized by lengthy, large-scale and severe pollution, occurred in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China from 1 to 10 December 2013. This haze event significantly influenced air quality throughout the region, especially in urban areas. Aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties were measured in Shanghai. Sometimes the 1 h average particle concentration (e.g., PM2.5) exceeded 600 µg m-3. Inorganic water-soluble ions in particles, trace gases and aerosol optical coefficients had a similar tendency to increase evidently from clear to hazy episodes. A combination of various factors contributed to the formation and evolution of the haze event, among which meteorological conditions, local anthropogenic emissions and pollutants are the major factors. High pressure system, calm surface wind and subsidence airflow were responsible for the decrease of planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the accumulation of pollutants. Atmospheric visibility correlated strongly with relative humidity (RH), particle number in size of 600-1400 nm other than particulate water-soluble species and particle mass (PM2.5). The particle hygroscopicity plays an important role in atmospheric visibility reduction. The results are somewhat helpful to forecast and eliminate regional atmospheric pollution in China.

  1. The quantification and distribution of pollution Pb at a woodland in rural south central Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead concentrations and Pb isotope ratios were measured in the forest floor, mineral soil and vegetation at a white pine and a sugar maple stand in a woodland in south central Ontario. Lead concentrations decreased and 206Pb/207Pb ratios increased with mineral soil depth reflecting the mixing of pollution and natural Pb sources. Lead concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb ratios at 20-30 cm depth were ∼6-7 mg/kg and 1.31-1.32, respectively. Assuming an integrated 206Pb/207Pb ratio in deposition over time of 1.18, estimated from lichen measurements and published data for the region, approximately 65% of Pb in the surface (0-1 cm) mineral soil is from anthropogenic sources. Approximately 90% of pollution Pb is found in the 0-10 cm soil layer (Ah) and less than 3% of the pollution Pb is present in the forest biomass and mull-type forest floor combined. Despite low Pb concentrations in vegetation (2, respectively. - The distribution of pollution lead was determined at a woodland through the use of stable leads isotopes

  2. Quantifying the Anthropogenic Footprint in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunlei; Dou, Youjun

    2016-04-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one of the most focuses in urban climate study. The parameterization of the anthropogenic heat (AH) is crucial important in UHI study, but universal method to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH is lacking now. This paper uses the NOAA DMSP/OLS nighttime light data to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH. Two experiments were designed and performed to quantify the influences of the AH to land surface temperature (LST) in eastern China and 24 big cities. The annual mean heating caused by AH is up to 1 K in eastern China. This paper uses the relative LST differences rather than the absolute LST differences between the control run and contrast run of common land model (CoLM) to find the drivers. The heating effect of the anthropogenic footprint has less influence on relatively warm and wet cities.

  3. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Molander, Sverker;

    2015-01-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of...... ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales...... evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step...

  4. Change in diurnal variations of meteorological variables induced by anthropogenic aerosols over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meigen; Gao, Yi; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Lili

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the impacts of all anthropogenic aerosols and anthropogenic black carbon (BC) on the diurnal variations of meteorological variables in the atmospheric boundary layer over the North China Plain (NCP) during June to August 2008, using a coupled meteorology and chemistry model (WRF-Chem). The results of the ensemble numerical experiments show that surface air temperature decreases by about 0.6 to 1.2 K with the maximum decrease over the Beijing urban area and the southern part of Hebei province, and the surface relative humidity (RH) increases by 2-4 % owing to all anthropogenic aerosols. On the contrary, anthropogenic BC induces a small change of temperature and RH at surface. Averaged for Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei province (BTH region) and High Particle Concentration (HPC) periods when PM2.5 surface concentration is more than 60 μg m‑3 and daily AOD is more than 0.9, all anthropogenic aerosols decrease air temperature under 850 hPa and increase it between 500 and 850 hPa, while anthropogenic BC increases it for whole atmosphere. The maximum changes occur at 08:00-20:00 (local time). Aerosol-induced surface energy and diabatic heating change leads to a cooling at the surface and in the lower atmosphere and a warming in the middle troposphere at 08:00-17:00, with reversed effects at 20:00-05:00. BC cools the atmosphere at the surface and warms the atmosphere above for the whole day. As a result, the equivalent potential temperature profile change shows that the lower atmosphere is more stable at 08:00 and 14:00. All anthropogenic aerosols decrease the surface wind speed by 20-60 %, while anthropogenic BC decreases the wind speed by 10-40 % over the NCP with the maximum decrease at 08:00. The aerosol-induced stabilization of the lower atmosphere favors the accumulation of air pollutants and thus contributes to deterioration of visibility and fog-haze events.

  5. The topographic signature of anthropogenic geomorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, P.; Sofia, G.

    2014-12-01

    Within an abiotic-dominated context, geomorphologic patterns and dynamics are single expressions of trade-offs between the physical resistance forces, and the mechanical and chemical forces related to climate and erosion. Recently, however, it has become essential for the geomorphological community to take into account also biota as a fundamental geomorphologic agent acting from local to regional scales. However, while there is a recent flourishing literature about the impacts of vegetation on geomorphic processes, the study of anthropogenic pressure on geomorphology is still at its early stages. Humans are indeed among the most prominent geomorphic agents, redistributing land surface, and causing drastic changes to the geomorphic organization of the landscape (e.g. intensive agriculture, urbanization), with direct consequences on land degradation and watershed response. The reconstruction or identification of artificial or anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the context of the Anthropocene epoch. High-resolution topographic data derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, SAR, SfM), offer now new opportunities to recognize better understand geomorphic processes from topographic signatures, especially in engineered landscapes where the direct anthropic alteration of processes is significant. It is possible indeed to better recognize human-induced geomorphic and anthropogenic features (e.g. road networks, agricultural terraces), and the connected erosion. The study presented here may allow improved understanding and targeted mitigation of the processes driving geomorphic changes during urban development and help guide future research directions for development-based watershed studies. Human society is deeply affecting the environment with consequences on the landscape. It is therefore fundamental to establish greater management control over the Earth

  6. Potential climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols act as part of the climate system through their influence on solar and terrestrial radiation. The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on the reduction of visibility is explored in this chapter. Elemental carbon has been identified as the most effective visibility-reducing species. Most of the visibility reduction is due to particles with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm. Studies indicate that sulfate is also a very important aerosol species that results in low visibility and high turbidity. Radiative properties such as aerosol single-scattering albedo values and absorption-to-backscatter ratios purported to produce warming or cooling effects of aerosols are discussed. It is concluded that aerosol clouds have a tendency to cool when they are over a low-albedo surface and have a tendency to warm when they are over high-albedo surfaces such as snow. Anthropogenic aerosols have a tendency to warm the earth's atmospheric system, based on calculations and assumed aerosol optical properties. However, this effect is somewhat offset by the absorption and re-emission into space of infrared terrestrial radiation. The net effect depends on the ratio of the absorption coefficients in the visible and infrared and also on the surface albedo. The effects on infrared radiation are documented for two anthropogenic aerosol sources in the United States, the Denver metropolitan area and power plant plumes in New Mexico, through calculations and measurements. Measured cooling rates within an aerosol plume are not sufficient to offset the warming rate due to absorption of short-wave radiation. Research indicates that anthropogenic aerosols can possibly cause local-scale warming of the atmosphere, but global-scale climatic effects remain an open question

  7. Modeling Fallout of Anthropogenic I-129

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Edvard; Aldahan, Als; Possnert, Göran; Haltia-Hovi, Eeva; Hou, Xiaolin; Renberg, Ingmar; Saarinen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 1291, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era at the early 1940s. We here present measurements of annual 1291 concentrations in sediment...... atmosphere is derived for pertinent sea areas (English Channel, Irish Sea, and North Sea), which is estimated at 0.04 to 0.21 y(-1)....

  8. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    OpenAIRE

    P. Paasonen; Kupiainen, K.; Z. Klimont; Visshedijk, A.; H. A. C. Denier van der Gon; M. Amann

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future, anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number ...

  9. Anthropogenic and geogenic impacts on arsenic bioaccessibility in UK topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Cave, M R; Wragg, J

    2012-10-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible arsenic (B-As) and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed in order to assess the potential for developing a national B-As dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total arsenic (As) is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating B-As in urban areas where it explains 75-92% of the variance. The broad compatibility of the London, Glasgow and Swansea regression models suggests that application of these models to estimate bioaccessible As in UK soils impacted by diffuse anthropogenic urban contamination and non-ferrous metal processing should be relatively accurate. In areas dominated by Jurassic ironstones and associated clays and limestones, total As, P and pH are significant, accounting for 53, 14 and 5%, respectively, of the B-As variance. Models based on total As as the sole predictor in the combined Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary ironstones datasets explain about 40% of the B-As variance. The median As bioaccessible fraction (%As-BAF) is 19 to 28% in the anthropogenic contamination impacted urban domains, but much lower (5-9%) in geogenic terrains dominated by ironstones. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. PMID:22842593

  10. Avoiding Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference with the Climate System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, K. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, PA (United States); Hall, M. [Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Kim, Seung-Rae [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bradford, D.F. [Department of Economics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Oppenheimer, M. [Woodrow Wilson School and Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Robertson Hall 448, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for the avoidance of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system'. Among the many plausible choices, dangerous interference with the climate system may be interpreted as anthropogenic radiative forcing causing distinct and widespread climate change impacts such as a widespread demise of coral reefs or a disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet. The geological record and numerical models suggest that limiting global warming below critical temperature thresholds significantly reduces the likelihood of these eventualities. Here we analyze economically optimal policies that may ensure this risk-reduction. Reducing the risk of a widespread coral reef demise implies drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions within decades. Virtually unchecked greenhouse gas emissions to date (combined with the inertia of the coupled natural and human systems) may have already committed future societies to a widespread demise of coral reefs. Policies to reduce the risk of a West Antarctic ice sheet disintegration allow for a smoother decarbonization of the economy within a century and may well increase consumption in the long run.

  11. Inter-annual variability of air pollutants over East Asia: an integrated analysis using satellite, lidar and numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumimoto, K.; Uno, I.; Kuribayashi, M.; Miyazaki, K.; Nishizawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in East Asia has a drastic temporal and spatial variability. The rapid economic growth in the last three decades enhanced the increase of anthropogenic emission of air pollutions, and caused deterioration of the air quality in both source and downwind regions. The unprecedented heavy PM­2.5 pollution over the central China in January 2013 records the maximum PM2.5 concentration of 996 μg/m3 and raised critical environmental issues (e.g., mortality, human health, social activity and trans-boundary transport, etc.). Recently, efforts to reduce anthropogenic emissions (e.g., emission regulations and improvements of emission factors and removal efficiencies) decelerate their growth rates. In fact, Asian SO2 emission is estimated to be reducing from 2007 [Kurokawa et al., 2013]. However, growth rates other pollutant emissions (e.g., NOx and PM10) still remain in high. To understand the life cycle of pollutants (emission, transport, reaction and deposition) and their temporal and spatial variation, an integrated analysis using observation and numerical model (chemical transport model; CTM) is useful. In this study, we installed a comprehensive observation operator system, which converts model results into observed variables, into the GEOS-Chem CTM. A long-term (2005-2013) full-chemistry simulation over East Asia was performed, and simulation results are translated to tropospheric NO2 and SO2 columns and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient equivalent to satellite measurements and in-situ lidar network observations. Combining CTM and observations, and integrating analyses of aerosols over the downwind region and their precursors over the source region will provide important insights into temporal and spatial variation of air pollutants over East Asia.

  12. Future trends of global atmospheric antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities until 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junrui; Tian, Hezhong; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Yong; Xue, Yifeng; Hua, Shenbin; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the scenario forecast of global atmospheric antimony (Sb) emissions from anthropogenic activities till 2050. The projection scenarios are built based on the comprehensive global antimony emission inventory for the period 1995-2010 which is reported in our previous study. Three scenarios are set up to investigate the future changes of global antimony emissions as well as their source and region contribution characteristics. Trends of activity levels specified as 5 primary source categories are projected by combining the historical trend extrapolation with EIA International energy outlook 2013, while the source-specific dynamic emission factors are determined by applying transformed normal distribution functions. If no major changes in the efficiency of emission control are introduced and keep current air quality legislations (Current Legislation scenario), global antimony emissions will increase by a factor of 2 between 2010 and 2050. The largest increase in Sb emissions is projected from Asia due to large volume of nonferrous metals production and waste incineration. In case of enforcing the pollutant emission standards (Strengthened Control scenario), global antimony emissions in 2050 will stabilize with that of 2010. Moreover, we can anticipate further declines in Sb emissions for all continents with the best emission control performances (Maximum Feasible Technological Reduction scenario). Future antimony emissions from the top 10 largest emitting countries have also been calculated and source category contributions of increasing emissions of these countries present significant diversity. Furthermore, global emission projections in 2050 are distributed within a 1° × 1°latitude/longitude grid. East Asia, Western Europe and North America present remarkable differences in emission intensity under the three scenarios, which implies that source-and-country specific control measures are necessary to be implemented for abating Sb emissions from

  13. Possibilities of anthropogenic variations of thunderstorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of anthropogenic modifications of thunderstorm activity are investigated. Different approaches were used to estimate the number of thunderstorms that could be modified by anthropogenic heat rejection. As a result it was found that about 50 percent of the thunderstorms occurring annually over the Swiss plateau or the area around the city of Basel offer the potential of an anthropogenic modification. On the basis of simplified physical models, the energy-flux to start a medium thunderstorm is estimated to be about 0.01 - 0.1 GW, if the energy is available as kinetic energy, and about 100 GW for thermal energy. Computer simulations with a parcel model confirm these orders of magnitude. The model calculations indicate also, that the power required to start a small thunderstorm under especially critical (unstable) weather situations can be an order of magnitude smaller than the above values. Comparing the required 100 GW thermal starting energy-flux with a single dry or wet 2 GW cooling tower suggests, that for climatic conditions typical for Switzerland, the formation of a thunderstorm due to cooling tower heat rejection is a very unlikely event. Power parks consisting of 30 - 50 dry cooling towers rejecting 2 GW each would be required to severely modify thunderstorm activity in their surroundings. About 5 to 10 cooling towers concentrated at one site would probably be a critical limit. When exceeded, modifications of thunderstorm activity seem to become climatologically significant. (Auth.)

  14. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  15. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  16. Modeling study on the transport of summer dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP is located at the juncture of several important natural and anthropogenic aerosol sources. Satellites have observed substantial dust and anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere during summer over the TP. These aerosols have distinct effects on the earth's energy balance, microphysical cloud properties, and precipitation rates. To investigate the transport of summer dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the TP, we combined the Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS with a non-hydrostatic regional model (NHM. The model simulation shows heavily loaded dust aerosols over the northern slope and anthropogenic aerosols over the southern slope and to the east of the TP. The dust aerosols are primarily mobilized around the Taklimakan Desert, where a portion of the aerosols are transported eastward due to the northwesterly current; simultaneously, a portion of the particles are transported northward when a second northwesterly current becomes northeasterly because of the topographic blocking of the northern slope of the TP. Because of the strong upward current, dust plumes can extend upward to approximately 7–8 km a.s.l. over the northern slope of the TP. When a dust event occurs, anthropogenic aerosols that entrain into the southwesterly current via the Indian summer monsoon are transported from India to the southern slope of the TP. Simultaneously, a large amount of anthropogenic aerosols is also transported from eastern China to east of the TP by easterly winds. An investigation on the transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the plateau may provide the basis for determining aerosol impacts on summer monsoons and climate systems.

  17. Modeling study on the transport of summer dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Sato, Y.; Jia, R.; Xie, Y.; Huang, J.; Nakajima, T.

    2015-11-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is located at the juncture of several important natural and anthropogenic aerosol sources. Satellites have observed substantial dust and anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere during summer over the TP. These aerosols have distinct effects on the earth's energy balance, microphysical cloud properties, and precipitation rates. To investigate the transport of summer dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the TP, we combined the Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS) with a non-hydrostatic regional model (NHM). The model simulation shows heavily loaded dust aerosols over the northern slope and anthropogenic aerosols over the southern slope and the east of the TP. The dust aerosols are primarily mobilized around the Taklimakan Desert, where a portion of the aerosols are transported eastward due to the northwesterly current; simultaneously, a portion of the particles are transported southward when a second northwesterly current becomes northeasterly because of the topographic blocking of the northern slope of the TP. Because of the strong upward current, dust plumes can extend upward to approximately 7-8 km a.s.l. over the northern slope of the TP. When a dust event occurs, anthropogenic aerosols that entrained into the southwesterly current via the Indian summer monsoon are transported from India to the southern slope of the TP. Simultaneously, a large amount of anthropogenic aerosol is also transported from eastern China to the east of the TP by easterly winds. An investigation on the transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the plateau may provide the basis for determining aerosol impacts on summer monsoons and climate systems.

  18. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice on anthropogenic organic particles collected in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, D.A.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Moffet, R.C.; Gilles, M.K.

    2010-06-20

    This study reports on heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of predominantly organic (or coated with organic material) anthropogenic particles sampled within and around the polluted environment of Mexico City. The onset of heterogeneous ice nucleation was observed as a function of particle temperature (Tp), relative humidity (RH), nucleation mode, and particle chemical composition which is influenced by photochemical atmospheric aging. Particle analyses included computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). In contrast to most laboratory studies employing proxies of organic aerosol, we show that anthropogenic organic particles collected in Mexico City can potentially induce ice nucleation at experimental conditions relevant to cirrus formation. The results suggest a new precedent for the potential impact of organic particles on ice cloud formation and climate.

  19. Anthropogenic iodine-129 in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas: Numerical modeling and prognoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model simulation has been used to predict extent and variability in the anthropogenic 129I pollution in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas region over a period of 100 years. The source function of 129I used in the model is represented by a well-known history of discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague nuclear reprocessing facilities. The simulations suggest a fast transport and large inventory of the anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. In a fictitious case of abrupt stop of the discharges, a rapid decline of inventories is observed in all compartments except the North Atlantic Ocean, the deep Nordic Seas and the deep Arctic Ocean. Within 15 years after the stop of releases, the model prediction indicates that near-equilibrium conditions are reached in all compartments

  20. Anthropogenic lead distribution in soils under arable land and permanent grassland estimated by Pb isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of land use on fate of metals in soils is poorly understood. In this work, we studied the incorporation of lead in two neighboring soils with comparable pedogenesis but under long-term different agricultural management. Distributions of anthropogenic Pb were assessed from concentrations and isotopic compositions determined on bulk horizon samples, systematical 5-10 cm increment samples, and on 24-h EDTA extracts. Minor amounts of anthropogenic lead were detected until 1-m depth under permanent grassland, linked to high earthworm activity. In arable land, exogenous Pb predominantly accumulated at depths <60 cm. Although the proximity between the two sites ensured comparable exposition regarding atmospheric Pb deposition, the isotopic compositions clearly showed the influence of an unidentified component for the cultivated soil. This work highlights the need for exhaustive information on historical human activities in such anthropized agrosystems when fate of metal pollution is considered. - Incorporation and distribution of airborne Pb in soils are related to agricultural management

  1. Characterizing the influence of anthropogenic emissions and transport variability on sulfate aerosol concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lauren E.

    Sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere has substantial impacts on human health and environmental quality. Most notably, atmospheric sulfate has the potential to modify the earth's climate system through both direct and indirect radiative forcing mechanisms (Meehl et al., 2007). Emissions of sulfur dioxide, the primary precursor of sulfate aerosol, are now globally dominated by anthropogenic sources as a result of widespread fossil fuel combustion. Economic development in Asian countries since 1990 has contributed considerably to atmospheric sulfur loading, particularly China, which currently emits approximately 1/3 of global anthropogenic SO2 (Klimont et al., 2013). Observational and modeling studies have confirmed that anthropogenic pollutants from Asian sources can be transported long distances with important implications for future air quality and global climate change. Located in the remote Pacific Ocean (19.54°N, 155.58°W) at an elevation of 3.4 kilometers above sea level, Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is an ideal measurement site for ground-based, free tropospheric observations and is well situated to experience influence from springtime Asian outflow. This study makes use of a 14-year data set of aerosol ionic composition, obtained at MLO by the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Daily filter samples of total aerosol concentrations were made during nighttime downslope (free-tropospheric) transport conditions, from 1995 to 2008, and were analyzed for aerosol-phase concentrations of the following species: nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), methanesulfonate (MSA), chloride (Cl-), oxalate, sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH 4+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg 2+), and calcium (Ca2+). An understanding of the factors controlling seasonal and interannual variations in aerosol speciation and concentrations at this site is complicated by the relatively short lifetimes of aerosols, compared with greenhouse gases which have also been sampled over long time periods at MLO. Aerosol filter

  2. Hybrid technologies for the remediation of Diesel fuel polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Alcantara, M.T.; Rosales, E.; Sanroman, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Diesel fuel may be released into soil due to anthropogenic activities, such as accidental spills or leaks in underground storage tanks or pipelines. Since diesel fuel is mainly composed of hydrophobic organic compounds, it has low water solubility. Therefore, treating contaminated areas with conventional techniques is difficult. In this study, electrokinetic treatment of soil contaminated with diesel fuel was carried out. Two different hybrid approaches to pollutant removal were tested. A surfactant was used as a processing fluid during electrokinetic treatment to increase desorption and the solubility of diesel fuel. Additionally, a hybrid technology combining a Fenton reaction and electrokinetic remediation (EK-Fenton) was tested in an attempt to generate favorable in situ degradation of pollutants. The efficiency of each treatment was determined based on diesel fuel removal. After 30 days of treatment, the highest removal of diesel fuel was found to be achieved with the EK-Fenton process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Analysis and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal in Soil, Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were studied in the soils around Perlis, to assess heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm in eighteen station around Perlis. The soil samples (2 mm) were obtained duplicates and subjected to hot block digestion and the concentration of total metal was determined via ICP-MS. Overall concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the soil samples ranged from 0.38-240.59, 0.642-3.921, 0.689-2.398, 0-0.63 and 0.39-27.47 mg/ kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil display the following decreasing trend: Cu> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. From this result, found that level of heavy metal in soil near centralized Chuping industrial areas give maximum value compared with other location in Perlis. The Pollution index revealed that only 11 % of Cu and 6 % of Cd were classes as heavily contaminated. Meanwhile, Cu and Pb showed 6 % from all samples result a moderately contaminated and the others element give low contamination. Results of combined heavy metal concentration and heavy metal assessment indicate that industrial activities and traffic emission represent most important sources for Cu, Cd and Pb whereas Cr, Ni mainly from natural sources. Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially pollution loadings, have caused negative changes in natural ecosystems and decreased biodiversity. (author)

  4. 镉和乙草胺单一及复合污染对浮萍生长的影响%Effects of Single and Combined Pollution of Cadmium and Acetochlor on the Growth of Lemna minor L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄河; 姜萍萍

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究镉和乙草胺单一及复合污染对浮萍生长的影响.[方法]采用室内培养的方法,研究了镉和乙草胺单一及复合污染对浮萍生物量(鲜重)、叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量、游离脯氨酸含量和丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响.[结果]在镉和乙草胺单一及复合污染条件下,浮萍的鲜重和叶绿素含量在处理后第5天显著下降,且随处理时间的延长,下降趋势更明显;可溶性糖含量在处理后第5天增加近29%,但在处理后第10和15天,随处理浓度的增加可溶性糖含量下降了近23%和28%;而脯氨酸和丙二醛含量随处理浓度的增加而显著增加.[结论]复合污染加剧了对浮萍的毒害作用.%[Objective ] The aim was to study the effects of cadmium ( Cd ) and acetochlor ( AC ) on Lemna minar L. Growth. [ Method ] Hydroponics culture experiments were conducted with Lemna minar L. In room, the single and joint toxic effects of cadmium and acetochlor on the biomass (fresh weight) , chlorophyll, soluble sugar, free praline, and malondialdehyde( MDA) contents in the leaves of Lemna minor L. Were studied. [ Result] The results showed that under the condition of single and combined pollution,the biomass were decreased significantly as compared to the control after 5 days treatment,and decreased more significantly with the time; the soluble sugar content increased by 29% after 5 days treatment,but then decreased by 23% and 28% .after 10 days and 15 days treatment respectively. The free proline and MDA content were increased significantly with the concentration. [ Conclusion] The results showed shown that the effects of combined pollution were heavier than those of single pollution.

  5. Anthropogenic features and hillslope processes interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Topography emerges as a result of natural driving forces, but some human activities (such as mining, agricultural practices and the construction of road networks) directly or indirectly move large quantities of soil, which leave clear topographic signatures embedded on the Earth's morphology. These signatures can cause drastic changes to the geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes (Tarolli and Sofia, 2016). To this point, the present research investigates few case studies highlighting the influences of anthropogenic topographic signatures on hillslope processes, and it shows the effectiveness of High-Resolution Topography (HRT) derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, satellite, structure from motion photogrammetry), to better understand this interaction. The first example is related to agricultural terraces. In recent times, terraced areas acquired a new relevance to modern concerns about erosion and land instability, being the agricultural land mostly threatened by abandonment or intensification and specialization of agriculture, resulting in more landslide-prone bench terraces, or heavy land levelling with increased erosion. The second case study discusses about the role of agricultural and forest roads on surface erosion and landslides. The third case study investigates geomorphic processes in an open pit mine. In all case studies, HRT served as the basis for the development of new methodologies able to recognize and analyze changes on Earth surface processes along hillslopes. The results show how anthropogenic elements have crucial effects on sediment production and sediment delivery, also influencing the landscape connectivity. The availability of HRT can improve our ability to actually model anthropogenic morphologies, quantify them, and analyse the links between anthropogenic elements and geomorphic processes. The results presented here, and the creation and dissemination of

  6. Pollution in the Summertime Canadian High Arctic observed during NETCARE 2014: Investigation of origin and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The clean and sensitive Arctic atmosphere is influenced by transport of air masses from lower latitudes that bring pollution in the form of aerosol particles and trace gases into the Arctic regions. However, the transport processes causing such pollution events are yet not sufficiently well understood. Here we report on results from the aircraft campaign NETCARE 2014 that took place in July 2014 in Resolute Bay, Nunavut (Canada) as part of the "Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environment" (NETCARE). These airborne measurements add to only a very few of such measurements conducted in the Arctic during the summertime. The instrumentation on board the research aircraft Polar 6 (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) included a large set of physico-chemical aerosol analysis instruments, several trace gas measurements and basic meteorological parameters. Here we focus on observed pollution events that caused elevated trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the summertime Canadian High Arctic between 50 and 3500 m. In order to better understand the chemical composition and the origin of those polluted air masses, we use single particle aerosol composition obtained using the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA), combined with aerosol size distributions and number concentrations from an Optical Particle Counter as well as trace gas measurements of CO and CO2. CO and CO2 are important tracers to study pollution events, which are connected to anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic combustion processes, respectively biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. The ALABAMA provides a detailed single particle aerosol composition analysis from which we identify different particle types like soot-, biomass burning-, organics-, diesel exhaust- and metallic particles. The measurements were compared to Lagrangian models like FLEXPART and LAGRANTO to find the pollution sources

  7. Monitoring and inventorying of the pollutant emissions from thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution due to emissions discharged in atmosphere as a result of human (anthropogenic) activities and the related environmental effects, such as acid depositions, land quality degradation, global warming/climate changes, building degradation, ozone layer depletion required the monitoring and inventorying of the polluting emissions at the local, regional and global levels. The paper briefly presents the international requirements concerning the development of a polluting emission inventory, the European methodologies for air polluting emission inventorying, programs and methodologies used in the Romanian electricity production sector for inventorying the polluting emissions and calculation of the dispersion of the pollutants discharged in the atmosphere. (author)

  8. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to changes in temperature extremes over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2007-10-01

    Observations averaged over the U.S. for the second half of the 20th century have shown a decrease of frost days, an increase in growing season length, an increase in the number of warm nights, and an increase in heat wave intensity. For the first three, a nine member multi-model ensemble shows similar changes over the U.S. in 20th century experiments that combine anthropogenic and natural forcings, though the relative contributions of each are unclear. Here we show results from two global coupled climate models run with anthropogenic and natural forcings separately. Averaged over the continental U.S., they show that the observed changes in the four temperature extremes are accounted for with anthropogenic forcings, but not with natural forcings (even though there are some differences in the details of the forcings). This indicates that most of the changes in temperature extremes over the U.S. are likely due to human activity.

  9. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, R.; Iqbal, J.; Gorai, A. K.; Pathak, G.; Tuluri, F.; P. B. Tchounwou

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table (D), net recharge (R), aquifer media (A), soil media (S), topography or slope (T), impact of vadose zone (I) and hydraulic Conductivity(C)] for generating ...

  10. Copper Corrosion by Atmospheric Pollutants in the Electronics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Valdez Salas; Michael Schorr Wiener; Roumen Zlatev Koytchev; Gustavo López Badilla; Rogelio Ramos Irigoyen; Monica Carrillo Beltrán; Nicola Radnev Nedev; Mario Curiel Alvarez; Navor Rosas Gonzalez; Jose María Bastidas Rull

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is considered one of the most corrosive atmospheric pollutants. It is a weak, diprotic, reducing acid, readily soluble in water and dispersed into the air by winds when emitted from natural, industrial, and anthropogenic sources. It is a pollutant with a high level of toxicity impairing human health and the environment quality. It attacks copper forming thin films of metallic sulphides or dendrite whiskers, which are cathodic to the metal substrate, enhancing corrosion...

  11. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; S. C. Obiora

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  12. Influence of air pollution to physiological charcteristics by plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Komůrková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    The atmosphere is polluted since the very beginning, firstly by action of natural processes and later by anthropogenic influences. Mainly the coming of industrial revolution in 19th century man started to exhale into atmosphere enormous amount of pollutants by combustion of fossil fuels. Soon, he began to observer the consequences of that not only on himself, but also on plants, on which he was dependent. The light is next important factor of stress. It is integral part of photosynthesis a...

  13. Direct Radiative Forcing of Anthropogenic Aerosols over Oceans from Satellite Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; SHI Guangyu; QIN Shiguang; YANG Su; ZHANG Peng

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols play an important role in the atmospheric energy balance. Anthropogenic aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its accompanying shortwave radiative forcing (RF) are usually simulated by numerical models. Recently, with the development of space-borne instruments and sophisticated retrieval algorithms, it has become possible to estimate aerosol radiative forcing based on satellite observations. In this study, we have estimated shortwave direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols over oceans in all-sky conditions by combining clouds and the Single Scanner Footprint data of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES/SSF) experiment, which provide measurements of upward shortwave fluxes at the top of atmosphere, with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol and cloud products. We found that globally averaged aerosol radiative forcing over oceans in the clear-sky conditions and all-sky conditions were -1.03±0.48 W m-2 and -0.34 ±0.16 W m-2, respectively. Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols shows large regional and seasonal variations. In some regions and in particular seasons, the magnitude of direct forcing by anthropogenic aerosols can be comparable to the forcing of greenhouse gases. However, it shows that aerosols caused the cooling effect, rather than warming effect from global scale, which is different from greenhouse gases.

  14. Geophysical surveys combined with laboratory soil column experiments to identify and explore risk areas for soil and water pollution in feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Pérez, Antonio Jesus; Sainato, Claudia Mabel; Jairo Márquez-Molina, John; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Changes of land use without a correct planning may produce its deterioration with their social, economical and environmental irreversible consequences over short to medium time range. In Argentina, the expansion of soybean fields induced a reduction of the area of pastures dedicated to stockbreeding. As cattle activity is being progressively concentrated on small pens, at feedlots farms, problems of soil and water pollution, mainly by nitrate, have been detected. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content is very important because the mostly advective transport of solutes. To avoid intensive soil samplings, very expensive, one has to recur to geophysical exploration methods. The objective of this work was to identify risk areas within a feedlot of the NW zone of Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina through geophysical methods. The surveys were carried out with an electromagnetic induction profiler EMI-400 (GSSI) and a Time domain Reflectometry (TDR) survey of depth 0-0.10 m with soil sampling and measurement of moisture content with gravimetric method (0-1.0 m). Several trenches were dug inside the pens and also at a test site, where texture, apparent density, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract and organic matter content (OM) were measured. The water retention curves for these soils were also determined. At one of the pens undisturbed soil columns were extracted at 3 locations. Laboratory analysis for 0-1.0 m indicated that soil texture was classified as sandy loam, average organic matter content (OM) was greater than 2.3% with low values of apparent density in the first 10 cm. The range of spatial dependence of data suggested that the number of soil samples could be reduced. Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil moisture were well correlated and indicated a clear spatial pattern in the corrals. TDR performance was acceptable to identify the spatial

  15. Numerical simulations examining the possible role of anthropogenic and volcanic emissions during the 1997 Indonesian fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Langmann, Bärbel; Heil, Angelika; Graf, Hans-F

    2012-09-01

    The regional atmospheric chemistry and climate model REMOTE has been used to conduct numerical simulations of the atmosphere during the catastrophic Indonesian fires of 1997. These simulations represent one possible scenario of the event, utilizing the RETRO wildland fire emission database. Emissions from the fires dominate the atmospheric concentrations of O(3), CO, NO(2), and SO(2) creating many possible exceedances of the Indonesian air quality standards. The scenario described here suggests that urban anthropogenic emissions contributed to the poor air quality due primarily to the fires. The urban air pollution may have increased the total number of people exposed to exceedances of the O(3) 1-h standard by 17%. Secondary O(3) from anthropogenic emissions enhanced the conversion of SO(2) released by the fires to [Formula: see text], demonstrating that the urban pollution actively altered the atmospheric behavior and lifetime of the fire emissions. Under the conditions present during the fires, volcanic SO(2) emissions had a negligible influence on surface pollution. PMID:22942920

  16. River under anthropogenic stress: An isotope study of carbon cycling in the Vistula, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers play an important role in global carbon cycling as they transform and transport substantial amounts of carbon derived from the terrestrial systems to the oceans. Riverine carbon cycling is affected by anthropogenic influences on hydrology, chemistry and biology of the river and its catchment. The Vistula, one of the most mineralized rivers of the world, drains industrialized and agriculturally-used areas populated by almost 23 million inhabitants. Moreover, much of the industrial and domestic wastewaters discharged into the Vistula river are untreated or insufficiently treated. High levels of pollution have serious environmental and economical consequences. For example, they limit use of Vistula waters as a source of drinking water and for industrial purposes. Pollutants transported by the Vistula river significantly influence water quality far into the open Baltic Sea. The aim of the paper is to show how stable isotope techniques can be used to assess human impact on sources, fluxes and fate of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other pollutants in rivers, taking the Vistula river as an example. Vistula waters were sampled over a one-year period at Krakow (upper reaches), where the anthropogenic influences are at the extreme, and at the river mouth. Two campaigns were undertaken to sample the Vistula river along its course in summer and in autumn. Analyses of river water included temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon and stable isotope composition of water (δ18O and δ2H)

  17. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  18. Impact of Chinese anthropogenic emissions on submicrometer aerosol concentration at Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Asian economic development might engender secondary impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles over the western Pacific after conversion of gaseous pollutants such as SO2. To elucidate changes in aerosol concentrations in leeward areas undergoing remarkable industrialization, the number-size distributions of submicrometer (0.3–1.0 μm aerosols were measured at Murododaira (36.6° N, 137.6° E, 2450 m a.s.l. on the western flank of Mount Tateyama in central Japan during January 1999–February 2009. Nighttime data obtained from 2400 to 0500 were used to analyze free-tropospheric aerosol concentration. Monthly average volume concentrations were calculated for months with >50% daily data coverage. Volume concentrations of submicrometer aerosols were high in spring to early summer and low in winter. Significant increasing trends at 95% confidence levels were found for volume concentrations in winter–spring. Simulated monthly anthropogenic aerosol concentrations at Mt. Tateyama from results of regional aerosol modeling with emission inventory up to 2005 showed seasonal variation and winter–spring increasing trends similar to those of observed aerosol concentration. According to the model analyses, the contribution of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations derived from China was high during winter–spring (60–80% of total anthropogenic aerosols at Mt. Tateyama. This accords with the increasing trend observed for winter–spring. Because SO42− is the dominant component of total anthropogenic aerosols, these results suggest that increasing anthropogenic emissions, especially for SO2, in China, engender enhancement of submicrometer-diameter aerosols over Japan during winter–spring.

  19. Artificial breakwaters as garbage bins: Structural complexity enhances anthropogenic litter accumulation in marine intertidal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Broitman, Bernardo R; Thiel, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal urban infrastructures are proliferating across the world, but knowledge about their emergent impacts is still limited. Here, we provide evidence that urban artificial reefs have a high potential to accumulate the diverse forms of litter originating from anthropogenic activities around cities. We test the hypothesis that the structural complexity of urban breakwaters, when compared with adjacent natural rocky intertidal habitats, is a driver of anthropogenic litter accumulation. We determined litter abundances at seven sites (cities) and estimated the structural complexity in both urban breakwaters and adjacent natural habitats from northern to central Chile, spanning a latitudinal gradient of ∼15° (18°S to 33°S). Anthropogenic litter density was significantly higher in coastal breakwaters when compared to natural habitats (∼15.1 items m(-2) on artificial reefs versus 7.4 items m(-2) in natural habitats) at all study sites, a pattern that was temporally persistent. Different litter categories were more abundant on the artificial reefs than in natural habitats, with local human population density and breakwater extension contributing to increase the probabilities of litter occurrence by ∼10%. In addition, structural complexity was about two-fold higher on artificial reefs, with anthropogenic litter density being highest at intermediate levels of structural complexity. Therefore, the spatial structure characteristic of artificial reefs seems to enhance anthropogenic litter accumulation, also leading to higher residence time and degradation potential. Our study highlights the interaction between coastal urban habitat modification by establishment of artificial reefs, and pollution. This emergent phenomenon is an important issue to be considered in future management plans and the engineering of coastal ecosystems. PMID:27149151

  20. Anthropogenic Carbon Nanotubes Found in the Airways of Parisian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Just, Jocelyne; Hartman, Keith B.; Laoudi, Yacine; Boudjemaa, Sabah; Alloyeau, Damien; Szwarc, Henri; Wilson, Lon J.; Moussa, Fathi

    2015-01-01

    Compelling evidence shows that fine particulate matters (PMs) from air pollution penetrate lower airways and are associated with adverse health effects even within concentrations below those recommended by the WHO. A paper reported a dose-dependent link between carbon content in alveolar macrophages (assessed only by optical microscopy) and the decline in lung function. However, to the best of our knowledge, PM had never been accurately characterized inside human lung cells and the most responsible components of the particulate mix are still unknown. On another hand carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from natural and anthropogenic sources might be an important component of PM in both indoor and outdoor air. We used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to characterize PM present in broncho-alveolar lavage-fluids (n = 64) and inside lung cells (n = 5 patients) of asthmatic children. We show that inhaled PM mostly consist of CNTs. These CNTs are present in all examined samples and they are similar to those we found in dusts and vehicle exhausts collected in Paris, as well as to those previously characterized in ambient air in the USA, in spider webs in India, and in ice core. These results strongly suggest that humans are routinely exposed to CNTs. PMID:27014740

  1. Anthropogenic phosphorus flow analysis of Hefei City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substance flow analysis (SFA) method was employed to examine phosphorus flow and its connection to water pollution in the city of Hefei, China, in 2008. As human activity is the driving force of phosphorus flux from the environment to the economy, the study provides a conceptual framework for analyzing an anthropogenic phosphorus cycle that includes four stages: extraction, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management. Estimates of phosphorus flow were based on existing data as well as field research, expert advice, local accounting systems, and literature. The total phosphorus input into Hefei in 2008 reached 7810 tons, mainly as phosphate ore, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, crops and animal products. Approximately 33% of the total phosphorus input left the area, and nearly 20% of that amount was discharged as waste to surface water. Effluent containing excessive fertilizer from farming operations plays an important role in phosphorus overloads onto surface water; the other major emission source is sewage discharge. We also provide suggestions for reducing phosphorus emissions, for example reducing fertilizer use, recycling farming residues, and changing human consumption patterns.

  2. Anthropogenic phosphorus flow analysis of Hefei City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sisi; Yuan, Zengwei; Bi, Jun; Wu, Huijun

    2010-11-01

    The substance flow analysis (SFA) method was employed to examine phosphorus flow and its connection to water pollution in the city of Hefei, China, in 2008. As human activity is the driving force of phosphorus flux from the environment to the economy, the study provides a conceptual framework for analyzing an anthropogenic phosphorus cycle that includes four stages: extraction, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management. Estimates of phosphorus flow were based on existing data as well as field research, expert advice, local accounting systems, and literature. The total phosphorus input into Hefei in 2008 reached 7810 tons, mainly as phosphate ore, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, crops and animal products. Approximately 33% of the total phosphorus input left the area, and nearly 20% of that amount was discharged as waste to surface water. Effluent containing excessive fertilizer from farming operations plays an important role in phosphorus overloads onto surface water; the other major emission source is sewage discharge. We also provide suggestions for reducing phosphorus emissions, for example reducing fertilizer use, recycling farming residues, and changing human consumption patterns. PMID:20863550

  3. Simulation of climate variability and anthropogenic climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic changes in the last century were discussed and focus was on the questions: 1) What are the causes of the rapid climate fluctuations and 2) Is the global warming, which is observed during the last century, caused by natural or anthropogenic effects. It is concluded that an understanding of climate based on the interpretation of observational data only is not feasible, unless supported by an adequate theoretical interpretation. The capabilities of climatic models were discussed and the importance of incorporating 1) calculations of the internal variability of the atmosphere when forced from an ocean with prescribed sea surface temperature as well as for a system consisting of an atmosphere and a mixed ocean of limited depth, 2) a fully coupled atmospheric and ocean model and finally, 3) a fully coupled system including transiently changing greenhouse gases and aerosols. A short summation of the results is presented. The pronounced warming during the last century is not reproduced under the assumption of constant forcing and pollution emissions have to be incorporated into the models in order to bring the simulated data in agreement with observations

  4. Asian anthropogenic dust and its climate effect (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Chen, B.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic dust originates mainly from areas of localized human disturbance, such as traffic-on-roads, agricultural fields, grazing, military installations, construction sites, and off-road vehicle areas. To understand historical and possible future changes in dust emissions, the percentage of atmospheric dust load originating from anthropogenic source and its distribution must be quantified. CALIPSO lidar, which shoots a laser into the atmosphere, provides new insight into the detection of anthropogenic dust emission. Here, we present the distribution of Asian anthropogenic dust emissions and its relation to human activity by using CALIPSO lidar measurements. We found that the local anthropogenic dust aerosols account for significant portion of the total dust burden in the atmosphere. The anthropogenic dust emissions mainly occur over the heavy human activity and poor ecosystem region, such as semi-arid region. The impact of Asian anthropogenic dust on regional climate will also be discussed in this talk.

  5. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute fresh or salt water. You can help protect your water supply: Don't pour household products such as cleansers, beauty products, medicines, auto fluids, paint, and lawn care ...

  6. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  7. Forest decline and air pollution: What we have learnt (DEFORPA Program 1984-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution of knowledge and ideas during the program, i.e. the contrast between what we thought at the beginning of the eighties and what we learnt, is reviewed. French forest inventories, pollution, pollutant effects, drought, interaction between natural and anthropogeneous factors are examined

  8. Large Gain in Air Quality Compared to an Alternative Anthropogenic Emissions Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistrytransport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the yearto- year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  9. Large gain in air quality compared to an alternative anthropogenic emissions scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-08-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistry-transport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the year-to-year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  10. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijun; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2014-05-27

    A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography - triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography - triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g(-1) spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix. PMID:24832993

  11. Nitrogen pollution: an assessment of its threat to amphibian survival.

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, J D; Bishop, C A; Struger, J

    1999-01-01

    The potential for nitrate to affect amphibian survival was evaluated by examining the areas in North America where concentrations of nitrate in water occur above amphibian toxicity thresholds. Nitrogen pollution from anthropogenic sources enters bodies of water through agricultural runoff or percolation associated with nitrogen fertilization, livestock, precipitation, and effluents from industrial and human wastes. Environmental concentrations of nitrate in watersheds throughout North America...

  12. Factors influencing reliability of magnetic pollution mapping - a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapička, Aleš; Petrovský, Eduard; Fialová, Hana; Kodešová, R.

    Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Co, 2010 - (Ip, W.; Satake, K.), s. 273-282 ISBN 978-981-283-817-9 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : anthropogenic pollution of soils * magnetic proxy mapping * reliability Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  13. Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific

  14. Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic lead sources in marine sediments from the inner Ria de Vigo (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Iglesias, P., E-mail: palvarez@uvigo.es [Department of Marine Geosciences and Land Use Management, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Vigo (Spain); Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico Instrumental, C.A.C.T.I., Universidad de Vigo (Spain); Rubio, B., E-mail: brubio@uvigo.es [Department of Marine Geosciences and Land Use Management, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Vigo (Spain); Millos, J., E-mail: jmillos@uvigo.es [Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico Instrumental, C.A.C.T.I., Universidad de Vigo (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    San Simon Bay, the inner part of the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain), an area previously identified as highly polluted by Pb, was selected for the application of Pb stable isotope ratios as a fingerprinting tool in subtidal and intertidal sediment cores. Lead isotopic ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on extracts from bulk samples after total acid digestion. Depth-wise profiles of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios showed, in general, an upward decrease for both intertidal and subtidal sediments as a consequence of the anthropogenic activities over the last century, or centuries. Waste channel samples from a nearby ceramic factory showed characteristic Pb stable isotope ratios different from those typical of coal and petrol. Natural isotope ratios from non-polluted samples were established for the study area, differentiating sediments from granitic or schist-gneiss sources. A binary mixing model employed on the polluted samples allowed estimating the anthropogenic inputs to the bay. These inputs represented between 25 and 98% of Pb inputs in intertidal samples, and 9-84% in subtidal samples, their contributions varying with time. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned according to a three-source model. Coal combustion-related emissions were the main anthropogenic source Pb to the bay (60-70%) before the establishment of the ceramic factory in the area (in the 1970s) which has since constituted the main source (95-100%), followed by petrol-related emissions. The Pb inputs history for the intertidal area was determined for the 20th century, and, for the subtidal area, the 19th and 20th centuries. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb stable isotope ratios were applied to study Pb sources in coastal sediments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb isotopic ratios were determined for pre-pollution and for industrial samples. Black

  15. On the fate of anthropogenic nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Schlesinger, William H.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of literature values to trace the fate of 150 Tg/yr anthropogenic nitrogen applied by humans to the Earth's land surface. Approximately 9 TgN/yr may be accumulating in the terrestrial biosphere in pools with residence times of ten to several hundred years. Enhanced fluvial transport of nitrogen in rivers and percolation to groundwater accounts for ≈35 and 15 TgN/yr, respectively. Greater denitrification in terrestrial soils and wetlands may account for the lo...

  16. Anthropogenic global warming threatens world cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny

    2014-05-01

    Numerous cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global warming and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034001). Projecting future sea level rise and associated regional variability, these authors investigate which sites will be at risk. Because UNESCO cultural sites represent the common heritage of human beings and reflect the Earth and humanity history, they need to be protected for future generations.

  17. Anthropogenic Elevation Change in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prush, V. B.; Lohman, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has emerged as a valuable tool for studying crustal deformation signals. Its applications to studies of tectonic and non-tectonic sources are varied, including earthquakes and fault-related processes, volcanic deformation, vegetation structure, and anthropogenic signals. In addition to studies of crustal deformation, the sensitivity of interferometric phase to topography makes InSAR a superb tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). While much of the focus of InSAR research in recent years has been on deformation, changes in the elevation of the ground surface can be of great scientific or societal interest as well. Examples include elevation and volume change due to anthropogenic processes such as landfill and open-pit mining operations, and natural processes such as glacier thinning or terrain alteration resulting from effusive volcanic eruptions. Our study describes two elevation change signals observed in the Pacific Northwest that are of anthropogenic origin. Using the baseline-dependent nature of the topographic component of interferometric phase, we have determined a proxy for canopy height using coherent interferometric phase differences between adjacent logged and forested regions, as well as a means for determining estimates of the amount and time history of material displaced during mining operations at the Centralia Coal Mine in Centralia, Washington. Quantifying the amount of surface change due to anthropogenic activities is not only critical for tracking the altering landscape of the Pacific Northwest and reducing the observed error in interferograms attributable to elevation change. Deforestation is one of the most significant contributors to global carbon emissions, and quantifying changes in vegetation structure can assist in efforts to monitor and mitigate the effects of deforestation on climate change. Similarly, mining operations can have a lasting

  18. Anthropogenic global warming threatens world cultural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    A. Cazenave

    2014-01-01

    1748-9326 Numerous cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global warming and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/034001] 034001 ). Projecti...

  19. Monthly-averaged anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing over the Mediterranean from AERONET derived aerosol properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamo, A.; A. M. Tafuro; Kinne, S.; De Tomasi, F.; Perrone, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    The all-sky direct radiative effect by anthropogenic aerosol (DREa) is calculated in the solar (0.3–4 μm) and infrared (4–200 μm) spectral ranges for six Mediterranean sites. The sites are differently affected by pollution and together reflect typical aerosol impacts that are expected over land sites of the central Mediterranean basin. Central to the simulations are aerosol optical properties from AERONET sun-/sky-photometer statistics for the year 2003. A discussion on the variability of the...

  20. Monthly-averaged anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing over the Mediterranean based on AERONET aerosol properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamo, A.; A. M. Tafuro; Kinne, S.; De Tomasi, F.; Perrone, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    The all-sky direct radiative effect by anthropogenic aerosol (DREa) is calculated in the solar (0.3–4 μm) and infrared (4–200 μm) spectral ranges for six Mediterranean sites. The sites are differently affected by pollution and together reflect typical aerosol impacts that are expected over land and coastal sites of the central Mediterranean basin. Central to the simulations are aerosol optical properties from AERONET sun-/sky-photometer statistics for the year 2003. A d...

  1. Organic Contaminants in Riverine and Groundwater Systems: Aspects of the Anthropogenic Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, Jan

    This book summarizes a selection of organic-geochemical investigations, which deal with the characterization and environmental behaviour of organic contaminations of German river and groundwater systems. The aim is to resume and present an overview of comprehensive current research activities, which have been published diversely in specialised scientific journals and, are therefore not easily available in a concise and clearly arranged way. Important topics include comprehensive non-target screening as well as isotope analysis of contaminants in water and sediments, detailed characterisation of bound residues, recording river ine pollution histories and an extensive application of the anthropogenic marker approach.

  2. Transport of anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A: a climatology and regional case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Harrigan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA conducted the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission during 2008 as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY. The purpose of ARCTAS was to study the factors responsible for changes in the Arctic's atmospheric composition and climate. A major emphasis was to investigate Arctic haze, which is most pronounced during winter and early spring. This study focuses on the spring phase of ARCTAS (ARCTAS-A that was based in Alaska during April 2008. Although anthropogenic emissions historically have been associated with Arctic haze, biomass burning dominated the ARCTAS-A period and has been the focus of many ARCTAS related studies.

    This study determines the common pathways for anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A. Trajectories (air parcels are released each day from three historically significant regions of anthropogenic emissions (Asia, North America, and Europe. These fifteen day forward trajectories are calculated using data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model at 45 km horizontal resolution. The trajectories then are examined to determine: origins of emissions that reach the Arctic (defined as north of 70° N within fifteen days, pathways of the emissions reaching the Arctic, Arctic entry locations, and altitudes at which the trajectories enter the Arctic. These results serve as regional "climatologies" for the ARCTAS-A period.

    Three cases during the ARCTAS-A period (one for each of the regions above are examined using backward trajectories and chemical fingerprinting based on in situ data sampled from the NASA DC-8. The fingerprinting utilizes volatile organic compounds that represent pure anthropogenic tracers, Asian anthropogenic pollution, incomplete combustion, and natural gas emissions. We determine flight legs containing anthropogenic emissions and the pathways travelled by these emissions

  3. Anthropogenic emissions during Arctas-A: mean transport characteristics and regional case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Harrigan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA conducted the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission during 2008 as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY. The purpose of ARCTAS was to study the factors responsible for changes in the Arctic's atmospheric composition and climate. A major emphasis was to investigate Arctic haze, which is most pronounced during winter and early spring. This study focuses on the spring phase of ARCTAS (ARCTAS-A that was based in Alaska during April 2008. Although anthropogenic emissions historically have been associated with Arctic haze, biomass burning emissions dominated the ARCTAS-A period and have been the focus of many ARCTAS related studies.

    This study determines mean transport characteristics of anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A. Trajectories are initiated each day from three significant regions of anthropogenic emissions (Asia, North America, and Europe. The fifteen day forward trajectories are calculated using data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model at 45 km horizontal resolution. The trajectory calculations indicate: origins of emissions that reach the Arctic (defined as north of 70° N within fifteen days, pathways of these emissions, Arctic entry locations, and altitudes at which the trajectories enter the Arctic.

    Three cases during the ARCTAS-A period (one for each of the regions above are examined using backward trajectories and chemical fingerprinting based on in situ data sampled from the NASA DC-8. The fingerprinting utilizes volatile organic compounds that represent pure anthropogenic tracers, Asian anthropogenic pollution, incomplete combustion, and natural gas emissions. We determine flight legs containing anthropogenic emissions and the pathways travelled by these emissions. Results show that the DC-8 sampled anthropogenic emissions from Asia, North America, and Europe during the

  4. Anthropogenic contribution to the geological and geomorphological record: A case study from Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah; Hamilton, Ken; Lawley, Russell; Price, Simon James

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of artificial or anthropogenic topographies, sediment thicknesses and volumes provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to sedimentary systems in the context of the proposed Anthropocene epoch. We present a methodology for determining the volumetric contribution of anthropogenic deposits to the geological and geomorphological record and apply it to the Great Yarmouth area of Norfolk, UK. 115 boreholes, drilled to a maximum depth of 6 m below ground level, were used to determine the thickness and distribution of seven geo-archaeological units comprising natural and anthropogenic deposits in the central Great Yarmouth area. This was supplemented by additional depth information derived from 467 existing ground investigation boreholes and published 1:50 000 scale geological maps. The top and base of each geo-archaeological unit were modelled from elevations recorded in the borehole data. Grids were produced using a natural neighbour analysis with a 25 m cell size using MapInfo 8.0 Vertical Mapper 3.1 to produce palaeotopographical surfaces. Maximum, minimum and average elevations for each geo-archaeological unit generally increase with decreasing age with the exception of the Early-Medieval palaeotopographical surface which locally occurs at higher elevations than that of the younger Late-Medieval unit. The total sediment volume for the combined Modern, Post-Medieval, Late-Medieval and Early-Medieval geo-archaeological units is 10.91 × 105 m3. The total sediment volume for the Aeolian, River Terrace and Marine geo-archaeological units combined is 65.58 × 105 m3. Anthropogenic sedimentation rates were calculated to increase from ~ 590 m3/yr during the Early-Medieval period, ~ 1500 m3/yr during the Post-Medieval period and ~ 2300 m3/yr during the Modern period. It is estimated that the combined anthropogenic geo-archaeological units contribute approximately 15% of the total volume of sediments that would have been traditionally

  5. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in sediments from Xiangjiang River (China) using sequential extraction and lead isotope analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋博峰; 孙卫玲

    2014-01-01

    The heavy metal (such as Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) concentration, speciation, and pollution source in 43 sediment samples from the Xiangjiang River were investigated using sequential extraction combined with Pb isotope analysis. Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations are higher than their background values, while Cr and Ni concentrations are close to those. Sequential extraction demonstrates that heavy metals have different fractions, showing different bioavailabilities. Thew(206Pb)/w(207Pb) ratio increases with decreasing bioavailability in the order of exchangeableanthropogenic and natural sources of Pb, respectively. The percentages of anthropogenic Pb in the exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides, and organic fractions are (91.5±16.7)%, (61.1±13.9)%, (57.4±11.1)%, and (55.5±11.2)%, respectively, suggesting a significant input of anthropogenic Pb in these four fractions.

  6. Poluição atmosférica devida à queima de biomassa florestal e atendimentos de emergência por doença respiratória em Rio Branco, Brasil - Setembro, 2005 Anthropogenic air pollution and respiratory disease-related emergency room visits in Rio Branco, Brazil - September, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A poluição atmosférica é um importante problema de saúde pública, principalmente na Amazônia e grandes cidades brasileiras. Em setembro de 2005, observou-se elevada concentração de fumaça em Rio Branco, Acre, devido às queimadas. Para avaliar a relação entre a concentração diária de particulate matter Air pollution is a major public health problem in the Amazon forest and in large Brazilian cities. During September of 2005, high concentrations of smoke from biomass burning were observed in the city of Rio Branco. An ecological study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between daily concentrations of particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5 and the number of respiratory disease (RD-related emergency room visits. Daily PM2.5 concentrations exceeded recommended air quality limits on 23 days. The incidence of RDs was higher among children < 10 years of age. There was a significant positive correlation between PM2.5 concentrations and asthma emergency room visits.

  7. Monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as anthropogenic and socio-economic indicators of urban and industrial impact on surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vystavna, Yuliya

    2014-05-01

    The research focuses on the monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as potential anthropogenic indicators of industrial and urban influences on surface water in poorly gauged transboundary Ukraine/Russia region. This study includes analysis of tracers use for the indication of water pollution events, including controlled and emerging discharges, and discussion of the detection method of these chemicals. The following criteria were proposed for the evaluation of indicators: specificity (physical chemical properties), variability (spatial and temporal) and practicality (capacity of the sampling and analytical techniques). The combination of grab and passive water sampling (i.e. DGT and POCIS) procedure was applied for the determination of dissolved and labile trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diazepam, paracetamol, caffeine, diclofenac and ketoprofen). Samples were analysed using ICP - MS (trace metals) and LC-MS/MS ESI +/- (pharmaceuticals). Our results demonstrate the distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of trace elements distribution along an urban watercourse. Accordingly, two general groups of trace metals have been discriminated: 'stable' (Cd and Cr) and 'time-varying' (Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb). The relationship Cd >> Cu > Ag > Cr ≥ Zn was proposed as an anthropogenic signature of the industrial and urban activities pressuring the environment from point sources (municipal wastewaters) and the group Pb - Ni was discussed as a relevant fingerprint of the economic activity (industry and transport) mainly from non-point sources (run-off, atmospheric depositions, etc.). Pharmaceuticals with contrasting hydro-chemical properties of molecules (water solubility, bioaccumulation, persistence during wastewater treatment processes) were discriminated on conservative, labile and with combined properties in order to provide information on wastewater treatment plant efficiency, punctual events (e.g. accidents on sewage

  8. Anthropogenic heat fluxes over Moscow agglomeration and other Russian and world cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Iya; Ginzburg, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Urbanization, particularly with respect to its sustainability, remains to be a great challenge in all regions of the world. Urbanization has an influence on soils, hydrology, and climate, these changes have effect on global climate, pollution, increase of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere and human health. Thus anthropogenic heat flux is an important factor for estimation of development of global climate. The simple formula for anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHF) was proposed in the EGU General Assembly 2008 presentation [1] AHF = k × PD × EC, were PD is urban population density and EC is total energy consumption per capita. It was estimated that two of the world megacities - Seoul and Moscow - have the highest AHF values - 83 and 56 W/m2 correspondently. In presented paper it was studied the reasons of such high anthropogenic heat fluxes within Moscow region as well as AHF over the major Russian cities. It was shown that main reason of this circumstance is the administrative divisions in Moscow region. Moscow is ringed by Moscow circle motor road. Accordingly the city has sharply defined boundaries and densely populated residential suburbs are cut off and don't included in Moscow city administrative area. It was constructed the special graph to illuminate why Moscow city has such a high anthropogenic heat factor and how much Moscow agglomeration AHF could be if consider not only Moscow city itself but also the nearest suburb towns. Using the data from World Bank [2] and Russian governmental statistic agency [3] anthropogenic heat fluxes for Russian cities with population more than 500 000 were estimated. Energy consumption data for different Russian regions were calculated by special routine using in the Web-atlas [4]. This research is supported by RAS Fundamental Research Project 'Influence of anthropogenic heat fluxes and aerosol pollution on heat balance and climate of urbanized areas'. Other results of this project is presented in paper [5

  9. Anthropogenic carbon in the East Greenland Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutterström, Sara; Jeansson, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Sections of dissolved inorganic anthropogenic carbon ( CTanthro) based on 2002 data in the East Greenland Current (EGC) are presented. The CTanthro has been estimated using a model based on optimum multiparameter analysis with predefined source water types. Values of CTanthro have been assigned to the source water types through age estimations based on the transit time distribution (TTD) technique. The validity of this approach is discussed and compared to other methods. The results indicated that the EGC had rather high levels of CTanthro in the whole water column, and the anthropogenic signal of the different source areas were detected along the southward transit. We estimated an annual transport of CTanthro with the Denmark Strait overflow ( σθ > 27.8 kg m -3) of ∼0.036 ± 0.005 Gt C y -1. The mean CTanthro concentration in this density range was ∼30 μmol kg -1. The main contribution was from Atlantic derived waters, the Polar Intermediate Water and the Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water.

  10. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    OpenAIRE

    H. Y. Zhao; Q. Zhang; D. B. Guan; S. J. Davis; Liu, Z.; H. Huo; J. T. Lin; Liu, W. D.; K. B. He

    2015-01-01

    © Author(s) 2015. Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interpr...

  11. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  12. The impact of multiple anthropogenic contaminants on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Bituh, Tomislav; Žužul, Silva; Dvoršćak, Marija; Fingler, Sanja; Jurasović, Jasna; Klinčić, Darija; Marović, Gordana; Orct, Tatjana; Rinkovec, Jasmina; Stipičević, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park (PLNP) was investigated through the analysis of three groups of major contaminants (persistent organochlorine pollutants including 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), trace elements/heavy metals (6 major and 23 trace constituents), and anthropogenic radionuclides ((90)Sr, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs)) in three terrestrial compartments (soil, air, and bioindicators of air contamination) during 2011-2013. The correlation coefficients of element mass fractions with soil properties indicated that total Fe and Al minerals, soil organic matter (OM), and organic carbon (OC) content affected the mass fractions of most trace elements in the topsoils. The annual and spatial distributions of heavy metals in total deposited matter (TDM) indicated that the metals came from natural sources and long-range transfer of particulate matter. The PCB and OCP levels found in soil and conifer needles corresponded to global environmental pollution levels by persistent organic pollutants and represented the lower end of the mass fraction ranges reported in the relevant literature. Analyses of anthropogenic radionuclides in bioindicators (conifer needles, lichens, and mosses) showed low but measurable activity concentrations of (134)Cs (for the first time after the Chernobyl accident), which indicated origin from the March 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. Our overall results indicated that human activity inside or near the PLNP had no significant impact either on contaminant spread by air or on their content in topsoils. PMID:26661963

  13. Increased antioxidant response and capability to produce ROS in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis L. exposed to anthropogenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollutants exert immunotoxical effects on aquatic organisms. The aim was to determine the antioxidant response, markers of oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis, the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea, under anthropogenic pressure. P. nobilis individuals were collected from two locations along Mallorca Island waters attending to different degree of human impact and the hemocytes were obtained. Specimens from the impacted area showed increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes – catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase –, myeloperoxidase activity and reduced glutathione levels. No differences in oxidative damage markers – malondiahdehyde and carbonyl index – were evidenced between the pristine and polluted areas. Hemocytes from the polluted area presented increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species and nitrite/nitrate when activated. In conclusion, the human activities primed hemocytes for oxidative burst and increased the antioxidant mechanism without evidence of oxidative damage. -- Highlights: •Pinna nobilis is very sensitive to the human activities. •Anthropogenic pressure induces an antioxidant adaptation to the stressful situation. •Increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species in impacted areas. -- Pinna nobilis responds to the anthropogenic activity with an antioxidant adaptation to the increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species

  14. The Internet Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁宁

    2005-01-01

    Life today has brought new problems. As we know, there are fourterrible pollutions in the world: water pollution, noise pollution, air pol-lution and rubbish pollution. Water pollution kills our fish and pollutesour drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution makes us hold our breath longer and be badto all living things in the world. Rubbish pollution often makes our livingenvironment much dirtier. But I think that the Internet pollution is anothernew pollution in the world.

  15. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  16. Tracking and verifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the Swiss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Leuenberger, Markus

    2013-04-01

    The Swiss Plateau is the densely populated and industrialized part of Switzerland producing more than 90% of the country's total greenhouse gas emissions. Verification of the efficacy of emission mitigation measures in a post Kyoto Protocol era will require several levels of scrutiny at local and regional scales. We present a measurement and modeling system, which quantifies anthropogenic CO2 emissions at a regional scale using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART driven by output from a high-resolution regional scale atmospheric model (COSMO) and observations from two tall tower sites. These rural measurement sites are situated between the largest cities of Switzerland (Zürich, Geneva, Basel and Bern). We present methods used to discretize the anthropogenic CO2 signal from atmospheric CO2 measurements. First, we perform high resolution, time-inverted simulations of air transport combined with a new high quality Swiss CO2 emissions inventory to determine a model-estimated anthropogenic portion of the measured CO2. Second, we assess the utility of CO measurements and the relationship between CO2 and CO in combustion processes as a proxy to quantify the anthropogenic CO2 fraction directly from the measurements. We then compare these two methods in their ability to determine the anthropogenic portion of CO2 measurements at a high temporal resolution (hours). Finally, we assess the quality of the simulated atmospheric transport by comparing CO concentrations obtained with the same atmospheric transport model and a high resolution CO emission inventory with the measured CO concentrations. This comparison of methods for determining anthropogenic CO2 emissions provides information on how to independently certify reported CO2 emissions. This study is a first step towards a prototype GHG monitoring and verification system for the regional scale in a complex topographic setting, which constitutes a necessary component of emissions reporting.

  17. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend to...... reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has the...

  18. Anthropogenic radionuclides in biota samples from the Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian Sea has been recently a subject of many scientific studies mainly related to sea level changes and pollution. For this purpose, two sampling expeditions were organised by IAEA in the Caspian Sea in 1995 and 1996. The aim was to investigate oceanographic conditions, water dynamics and the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in the water column. Considering the unique biodiversity of the Caspian Sea, there has also been interest to obtain information on radionuclide concentrations in biota samples, first of all in sturgeons and in caviar as their production is strongly linked to economical regional needs. The radioactive contamination of Caspian Sea biota has been investigated by analyzing natural 210Po and anthropogenic 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am in biota samples collected in April 1999 offshore of Astrakhan, in the north Caspian Sea. More biota samples from the South West Caspian Sea (Artom Island, June 1999; Devechi District and Neftechala, November 1999) were collected and analyzed for 210Po, 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am. The sampled species were different types of sturgeons (Sevruga, Russkyi Osyotr and Beluga) as well as fresh spawn and caviar. Other fish species (e.g. Cyprinidae) and one algae sample (Cladofila) have also been analysed. Flesh parts have only been analysed in the case of fish samples. The samples were freeze-dried, ground sieved and canned to be counted by gamma-spectrometry for determination of 137Cs. Analytical separation and purification procedures were carried out later. 210Po, 239,240Pu as well as 241Am were measured by alpha-spectrometry whereas 90Sr was measured by beta-spectrometry. The data are reported. In general, radionuclide activities in fish and caviar do not represent any risk for their consumption as they are very low. 239,240Pu and 241Am were close to the limit of detection. When measurable, the 238Pu/239,240Pu ratio is close to the fallout value. 90Sr activities are quite

  19. Responses of Carrot under Zn-Ni Combined Pollution in Arid Oasis Soil%干旱区绿洲土壤中胡萝卜对Zn-Ni复合污染的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧振峰; 南忠仁; 王胜利

    2011-01-01

    Growth responses of carrot and its accumulation characteristics of Zn and Ni were analyzed under Zn-Ni combined pollution through pot experiment. The results showed that when the amendments were lower than TS5 (Zn 450 mg/kg and Ni 350 mg/kg), the growth of carrot was promoted under Zn-Ni combined pollution, once over TS5, that was inhibited to different extent, especially, the biomass of carrot decreased significantly at TS8 (Zn 1 000 mg/kg and Ni 1 100 mg/kg) . The accumulation ability of tuber and stem leaf of carrot was Zn > Ni, I. E. Zn was easier to be accumulated from soil to issues of carrot than Ni. The translocation ability of Zn and Ni in carrot was Zn > Ni, which indicated that Zn was easier to transport from tuber to stem leaf. Being illustrated by the translocation factors of Zn and Ni, it can be concluded that Zn mainly accumulate in the stem leaf of carrot, but Ni mainly in the tuber of carrot, so Ni may be easier to pose health threats to humans.%通过盆栽试验,分析Zn-Ni复合污染对胡萝卜生长及其Zn、Ni吸收累积特征的影响.结果表明,Zn-Ni复合污染下,低于TS5(Zn 450 mg/kg、Ni350 mg/kg)处理水平促进胡萝卜生长,超过这个处理水平,胡萝卜生长受到不同程度抑制,其生物量在TS8 (Zn 1 000 mg/kg、Ni 1 100 mg/kg)处理水平显著下降(P<0.05).胡萝卜块茎、茎叶对Zn、Ni的富集能力为Zn>Ni,即Zn更容易由土壤进入胡萝卜体内.Zn、Ni在胡萝卜体内由地下部分向地上部分的迁移能力为Zn>Ni,表明Zn更容易由胡萝卜地下部分向地上部分迁移.由Zn、Ni的转移系数可知,Zn主要累积在胡萝卜的茎叶中,而Ni主要累积于胡萝卜的块茎中,所以Ni可能更容易对人类健康造成威胁.

  20. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjun; DENG; Yan; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,this paper analyzed content of heavy metals,including arsenic(As),mercury(Hg),lead(Pb),cadmium(Cd),and chromium(Cr) in soil.After Pb,Cd,Cr,Hg and As content in soil is determined,it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard for soil pollution.Analysis results indicate that As,Hg,Pb,Cd,Cr content is different in pollution-free agricultural product bases,but all conform to related standards and there is no standard exceeding problem.It is concluded that the quality of soil in pollution-free agricultural product bases is excellent,not polluted and completely meet requirements of evaluation standards,and suitable for developing pollution-free agricultural products.

  1. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    DENG, Minjun; Luo, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, this paper analyzed content of heavy metals, including arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in soil. After Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As content in soil is determined, it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard ...

  2. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI, Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season. Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  3. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  4. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  5. Development and application of a proteomic approach to the assessment of pollution in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Apraiz Larrucea, Itxaso

    2009-01-01

    Today, assessment of the health of coastal waters is recognized as being important for both the conservation of nature and well-being of humans. Anthropogenic pollution has been the focus of extensive research for some time and a variety of programs for the monitoring and assessment of environmental pollution have been developed. Determination of the levels of pollution in sensitive ‘sentinels’ such as mussels, allows monitoring of these levels in a given area over a prolonged period of time....

  6. Size-resolved particulate matter composition in Beijing during pollution and dust events

    OpenAIRE

    Dillner, Ann M.; Schauer, James J; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Cass, Glen R.

    2006-01-01

    Each spring, Beijing, China, experiences dust storms which cause high particulate matter concentrations. Beijing also has many anthropogenic sources of particulate matter including the large Capitol Steel Company. On the basis of measured size segregated, speciated particulate matter concentrations, and calculated back trajectories, three types of pollution events occurred in Beijing from 22 March to 1 April 2001: dust storms, urban pollution events, and an industrial pollution event. For eac...

  7. Gravitactic orientation of Euglena gracilis – a sensitive endpoint for ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz eUllah; Waheed eMurad; Muhammad eAdnan; Waheed eUllah; Häder, Donat P.

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of aquatic environments with natural and anthropogenically produced substances is one of the major environmental problems of the world. In many countries the decreasing quantity of water coupled with its increasing usage in multiple sectors has adversely affected water quality and caused problems of water pollution. Polluted water has been a main cause of adverse effects on plants, animals and humans throughout the world. Physicochemical analysis of water, which is a common method u...

  8. Gravitactic orientation of Euglena gracilis—a sensitive endpoint for ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Waheed; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of aquatic environments with natural and anthropogenically produced substances is one of the major environmental problems of the world. In many countries the decreasing quantity of water coupled with its increasing usage in multiple sectors has adversely affected water quality and caused problems of water pollution. Polluted water has been a main cause of adverse effects on plants, animals and humans throughout the world. Physicochemical analysis of water, which is a common method u...

  9. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  10. Comparing differential tolerance of native and non-indigenous marine species to metal pollution using novel assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research suggests anthropogenic disturbance may disproportionately advantage non-indigenous species (NIS), aiding their establishment within impacted environments. This study used novel laboratory- and field-based toxicity testing to determine whether non-indigenous and native bryozoans (common within marine epibenthic communities worldwide) displayed differential tolerance to the common marine pollutant copper (Cu). In laboratory assays on adult colonies, NIS showed remarkable tolerance to Cu, with strong post-exposure recovery and growth. In contrast, native species displayed negative growth and reduced feeding efficiency across most exposure levels. Field transplant experiments supported laboratory findings, with NIS growing faster under Cu conditions. In field-based larval assays, NIS showed strong recruitment and growth in the presence of Cu relative to the native species. We suggest that strong selective pressures exerted by the toxic antifouling paints used on transport vectors (vessels), combined with metal contamination in estuarine environments, may result in metal tolerant NIS advantaged by anthropogenically modified selection regimes. - Greater tolerance to pollutants in marine NIS may increase the risk of invasion in port and harbours worldwide by providing a competitive advantage over native taxa.

  11. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  12. Depth profiles of lithogenic and anthropogenic mercury in the sediments from Thane Creek, Mumbai, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SKSAHU; RCBHANGARE; M TIWARI; PYAJMAL; GGPANDIT

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is well known as one of the most toxic elements to man. The coastal environments adjacent to industrial areas are reported to often be contaminated with mercury. Mercury becomes more toxic in the form of methylmercury (Me-Hg) which is converted from inorganic mercury in aqueous systems by microbial activity and can bio-magnify through the food chain. A simple method for the determination of total mercury and methylmercury in sediments was optimized by slightly modifying an old method using the direct mercury analyzer technique. Core sediment samples from Thane Creek, Mumbai, India were collected and analysed for total mercury and methylmercury. The Hg concentration in the creek varied between 0.54 to 16.03 µg g-1 while Me-Hg concentrations ranged between 0.04 to 1.07 µg g-1. In surface sediment, mercury concentrations ranged from 4.33 µg g-1 to 12.16µg g-1. Total organic carbon content was found to be around 2 percent in different layers of the sediments. The enrichment factors, which indicate the extent of pollution in sediments, were estimated to range from 26 to 50 at different locations in the creek. Lithogenic and anthropogenic concentrations of mercury in the creek were also determined to compare the impact of anthropogenic and natural sources. Anthropogenic inventories were about 5-70 times more in concentration than the lithogenic in the different core sediments.

  13. Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Pacific Storm Track Using a Multiscale Global Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Renyi; Ghan, Steven J.; Lin, Yun; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Levy, Misti; Jiang, Jonathan; Molina, Mario J.

    2014-05-13

    Atmospheric aerosols impact weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track using a multi-scale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and pre-industrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by - 2.5 and + 1.3 W m-2, respectively, by emission changes from pre-industrial to present day, and an increased cloud-top height indicates invigorated mid-latitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides for the first time a global perspective of the impacts of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multi-scale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on the global scale.

  14. Understanding Anthropogenic Impacts on Air Quality at Rural Locations Using High Time Resolution Particle Composition Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L.; Lee, T.; Yu, X.; Sullivan, A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Malm, W.

    2006-12-01

    Many of our nation's National Parks, wilderness areas and other visually protected environments are located in regions where urban, agricultural, and other anthropogenic emissions periodically exert strong impacts on local air quality. In this presentation we will use high time resolution (15 min) measurements of particle composition to examine the frequency and magnitude of these impacts and to elucidate changes in aerosol chemistry occurring during transitions between periods of strong anthropogenic impact and periods when atmospheric composition is more strongly influenced by natural emissions and/or regional air quality. Highlights will be drawn from a series of field campaigns at locations around the U.S., including Yosemite National Park (downwind of the Central Valley of California), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area (downwind of the Los Angeles basin), Bondville, Illinois (a rural Midwestern site), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (a rural, mountain location in the polluted southeast U.S.), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey (a coastal site on the U.S. eastern seaboard), and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (located in the mountains west of the Colorado Front Range urban corridor). Particle composition measurements were made using a Particle Into Liquid Sampler (PILS) coupled to two on-line ion chromatographs. We will demonstrate how air quality at these locations is strongly influenced by local and regional transport phenomena and illustrate the influence of anthropogenic emissions on both fine and coarse particle concentrations and speciation.

  15. Impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Miyazaki, K.; Worden, J. R.; Liu, J. J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Significant progress has been made in identifying the influence of different processes and emissions on the summertime enhancements of free tropospheric ozone (O3) at northern mid-latitude regions. However, the exact contribution of regional emissions and chemical processing to these summertime enhancements is still not well quantified. Here we focus on quantifying the influence of regional emissions on the summertime O3 enhancements over the Middle East. We use updated reactive nitrogen (NOx) emissions from an ensemble Kalman Filter that assimilates satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), O3, and carbon monoxide (CO) to provide an improved estimate of O3 precursor emissions. We then use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model with these updated NOx emissions to show that the global total contribution of lightning NOx on middle free tropospheric O3 over the Middle East is about three times larger than that from global anthropogenic sources. The summertime free tropospheric O3 enhancement is primarily due to Asian NOx emissions, with approximately equivalent contributions from Asian anthropogenic activities and lightning. In the Middle Eastern lower free troposphere, emissions from European and North American anthropogenic activities and from lightning NOx are the primary sources of O3. This work highlights the critical role of lightning NOx on northern mid-latitude free tropospheric O3 and the important effect of the Asian summer monsoon on the export of Asian pollutants.

  16. Confirming anthropogenic influences on the major organic and inorganic constituents of rainwater in an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and organic compounds of rainwater were investigated from June to December 2012 at Gwangju in Korea. The volume weighted mean of pH ranged from 3.83 to 8.90 with an average of 5.78. 50 % of rainwater samples had pH values below 5.6. The volume-weighted mean concentration (VWMC of major ions followed the order: Cl− > SO42− > NH4+ > Na+ > NO3− > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. The VWMC of trace metals decreased in the order as follows Zn > Al > Fe > Mn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Cr. The VWMCs of major ions and trace metals were higher in winter than in summer. The high enrichment factors indicate that Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd originated predominantly from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis (principal component analysis indicates the influence of anthropogenic pollutants, sea salt, and crustal materials on the chemical compositions of rainwater. Benzoic acids, 1H-Isoindole-1,3(2H-dione, phthalic anhydride, benzene, acetic acids, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acids, benzonitrile, acetaldehyde, and acetamide were the most prominent pyrolysis fragments for rainwater organic compounds identified by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The results indicate that anthropogenic sources are the most important factors affecting the organic composition of rainwater in urban area.

  17. Characteristics of Anthropogenic Sulfate and Carbonaceous Aerosols over East Asia: Regional Modeling and Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HUANG; William L. CHAMEIDES; Qian TAN; Robert E. DICKINSON

    2008-01-01

    The authors present spatial and temporal characteristics of anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols over East Asia using a 3-D coupled regional climate-chemistry-aerosol model, and compare the simulation with the limited aerosol observations over the region. The aerosol module consists of SO2, SO42-, hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon (BC) and organic carbon compounds (OC), including emission, advections, dry and wet deposition, and chemical production and conversion. The simulated patterns of SO2 are closely tied to its emission rate, with sharp gradients between the highly polluted regions and more rural areas. Chemical conversion (especially in the aqueous phase) and dry deposition remove 60% and 30% of the total SO2 emission, respectively. The SO42- shows less horizontal gradient and seasonality than SO2, with wet deposition (60%) and export (27%) being two major sinks. Carbonaceous aerosols are spatially smoother than sulfur species. The aging process transforms more than 80% of hydrophobic BC and OC to hydrophilic components, which are removed by wet deposition (60%) and export (30%). The simulated spatial and seasonal SO42-, BC and OC aerosol concentrations and total aerosol optical depth are generally consistent with the observations in rural areas over East Asia, with lower bias in simulated OC aerosols, likely due to the underestimation of anthropogenic OC emissions and missing treatment of secondary organic carbon. The results suggest that our model is a useful tool for characterizing the anthropogenic aerosol cycle and for assessing its potential climatic and environmental effects in future studies.

  18. High resolution European emission grids for anthropogenic sources for the years 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Visschedijk, Antoon; Kuenen, Jeroen; van der Brugh, Hans; Dröge, Rianne; Schaap, Martijn

    2010-05-01

    To develop atmospheric services such as forecasting atmospheric composition a combination of meteorological models, atmospheric chemical transport models, satellite observational data and emission grids are needed. The latter are input for the predictive models and need to be as accurate as possible both in time and space. To support the new EU FP7 MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) we developed high resolution (1/8 degree x 1/16 degree lon-lat or ~ 7 x7 km) emission grids for UNECE-Europe for the years 2003-2007. These years are the focus of a reanalysis exercise within MACC. Reanalysis datasets are produced with data assimilation and modelling systems applied to the best available observational datasets. Such reanalysed fields of climate and atmospheric composition can be used in other studies (e.g. IPCC) to make more accurate assessments. For the MACC reanalysis years we use a combination of official reported emission data as available from EMEP, the IIASA GAINS model and expert estimates resulting in a consistent emission data set by country by source category for these years. From 2003-2007 emissions of air pollutants decreased by about 5%, although the reduction of NH3 emission was less (2.3%) and SO2 reduction was more (13%). However, more remarkable than the overall changes are the regional differences as well as source sector differences. For example, NOx emissions changed by -12% in the EU15+NOR+CHE, -8% in the EU12 and + 6 % in the non-EU countries. The emissions are distributed using our newly developed year 2005 emission database which is partly developed in EU FP7 MEGAPOLI. This database distinguishes itself from previous emission databases by a much improved spatial allocation of emissions. To this end we checked and updated our point source database by adding new point sources and removing obsolete entries for power plants, refineries and industrial installations. For diffuse sources like transport, residential combustion and

  19. Atmospheric aerosol source identification and estimates of source contributions to air pollution in Dundee, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Oduyemi, K.

    Anthropogenic aerosol (PM 10) emission sources sampled at an air quality monitoring station in Dundee have been analysed. However, the information on local natural aerosol emission sources was unavailable. A method that combines receptor model and atmospheric dispersion model was used to identify aerosol sources and estimate source contributions to air pollution. The receptor model identified five sources. These are aged marine aerosol source with some chlorine replaced by sulphate, secondary aerosol source of ammonium sulphate, secondary aerosol source of ammonium nitrate, soil and construction dust source, and incinerator and fuel oil burning emission source. For the vehicle emission source, which has been comprehensively described in the atmospheric emission inventory but cannot be identified by the receptor model, an atmospheric dispersion model was used to estimate its contributions. In Dundee, a significant percentage, 67.5%, of the aerosol mass sampled at the study station could be attributed to the six sources named above.

  20. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, S.; Unger, N.

    2015-09-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (all anthropogenic, biomass burning and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. On the global scale, our results show that land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols, even under a global decline in surface solar radiation (direct + diffuse) by ~ 9 %. At the regional scale, plant productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission show a robust but opposite sensitivity to pollution aerosols, in regions where complex canopies dominate. In eastern North America and Europe, anthropogenic pollution aerosols (mainly from non-biomass burning sources) enhance GPP by +8-12 % on an annual average, with a stronger increase during the growing season (> 12 %). In the Amazon basin and central Africa, biomass burning aerosols increase GPP by +2-5 % on an annual average, with a peak in the Amazon basin during the dry-fire season (+5-8 %). In Europe and China, anthropogenic pollution aerosols drive a decrease in isoprene emission of -2 to -12 % on the annual average. Anthropogenic aerosols affect land carbon fluxes via different mechanisms and we suggest that the dominant mechanism varies across regions: (1) light scattering dominates in the eastern US; (2) cooling in the Amazon basin; and (3) reduction in direct radiation in Europe and China.

  1. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a Pb isotope survey of ∼350 rural topsoils in The Netherlands. • Nearly all studied topsoils contain anthropogenic Pb. • Nature and agricultural soils contain coal/galena, incinerator ash and gasoline Pb. • Agricultural soils also contain fertilizer Pb with characteristic Pb isotope values. • Spatial patterns in the Pb isotope composition of the topsoils are observed. - Abstract: Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of anthropogenic Pb content and anthropogenic Pb sources in rural topsoils is remarkably limited. This study presents results of a survey of approximately 350 topsoil samples from rural locations covering the entire Netherlands, for which the bulk geochemical and Pb isotope compositions were determined. The specific aim of this study is to determine the anthropogenic Pb sources in the topsoils from rural areas in The Netherlands. The spatial distribution of anthropogenic Pb in soils in The Netherlands will be explained in terms of land use and pollution sources. Nearly all studied topsoils display Pb contents that exceed the amount expected based on the soil lithology. The range in Pb isotope ratios of the additional Pb fraction in rural Dutch topsoils is established at 1.056–1.199, 2.336–2.486 and 0.452–0.490 for 206Pb/207Pb, 207Pb/208Pb and 206Pb/208Pb, respectively. Five land use types are distinguished (forest, open nature, moor, arable land and grassland) with distinct isotopic compositions for added Pb. Additional Pb in soils of natural areas (forest, open nature and moor) has on average lower 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/208Pb ratios than the agricultural soils (arable land and grassland). Additional Pb in both natural area soils and agricultural soils

  2. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1°×1° latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg emissions and its three main chemical species: elemental gaseous Hg, divalent gaseous Hg, and particle-associated Hg are presented. The main emissions occur in southeast Asia (particularly in China), South Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Eastern United States. These are the regions where coal combustion is the main source of electricity and heat production. Waste incineration adds to these emissions in the Eastern United States. Emissions of total Hg and its three species are quite similar in terms of their (global) spatial distributions. They reflect the worldwide distribution of coal consumption in large power plants, industrial burners, and small combustion units, such as residential and commercial furnaces.

  3. Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedamke, Jason; Ferguson, Megan; Harrison, Jolie; Hatch, Leila; Henderson, Laurel; Porter, Michael B; Southall, Brandon L; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the potential effects of chronic underwater noise in US waters, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) organized two working groups in 2011, collectively called "CetSound," to develop tools to map the density and distribution of cetaceans (CetMap) and predict the contribution of human activities to underwater noise (SoundMap). The SoundMap effort utilized data on density, distribution, acoustic signatures of dominant noise sources, and environmental descriptors to map estimated temporal, spatial, and spectral contributions to background noise. These predicted soundscapes are an initial step toward assessing chronic anthropogenic noise impacts on the ocean's varied acoustic habitats and the animals utilizing them. PMID:26610977

  4. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  5. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Smith

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  6. Anthropogenic signals in Iranian extreme temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Robert C.; Kiany, Mohammad Sadegh Keikhosravi; Roy, Shouraseni Sen

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed spatial and temporal patterns in temperature extremes from 31 stations located throughout Iran for the period 1961 to 2010. As with many other parts of the globe, we found that the number of days (a) with high maximum temperatures was rising, (b) with high minimum temperatures was rising, and (c) with low minimum temperatures was declining; all of these trends were statistically significant at the 0.05 level of confidence. Population records from 1956 to 2011 at the station locations allowed us to reveal that the rate of human population growth was positively related to the increase in the number of days with high maximum temperatures and negatively related to days with low maximum temperatures. Our research shows a number of identifiable anthropogenic signals in the temperature records from Iran, but unlike most other studies, the signals are stronger with indices related to maximum, not minimum, temperatures.

  7. Anthropogenic and biophysical contributions to increasing atmospheric CO2 growth rate and airborne fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the relative roles of natural and anthropogenic influences on the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 and the CO2 airborne fraction, considering both interdecadal trends and interannual variability. A combined ENSO-Volcanic Index (EVI relates most (~75% of the interannual variability in CO2 growth rate to the El-Niño-Southern-Oscillation (ENSO climate mode and volcanic activity. Analysis of several CO2 data sets with removal of the EVI-correlated component confirms a previous finding of a detectable increasing trend in CO2 airborne fraction (defined using total anthropogenic emissions including fossil fuels and land use change over the period 1959–2006, at a proportional growth rate 0.24% y−1 with probability ~0.9 of a positive trend. This implies that the atmospheric CO2 growth rate increased slightly faster than total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. To assess the combined roles of the biophysical and anthropogenic drivers of atmospheric CO2 growth, the increase in the CO2 growth rate (1.9% y−1 over 1959–2006 is expressed as the sum of the growth rates of four global driving factors: population (contributing +1.7% y−1; per capita income (+1.8% y−1; the total carbon intensity of the global economy (−1.7% y−1; and airborne fraction (averaging +0.2% y−1 with strong interannual variability. The first three of these factors, the anthropogenic drivers, have therefore dominated the last, biophysical driver as contributors to accelerating CO2 growth. Together, the recent (post-2000 increase in growth of per capita income and decline in the negative growth (improvement in the carbon intensity of the economy will drive a significant further acceleration in the CO2 growth rate over coming decades, unless these recent trends reverse.

  8. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. PMID:26218303

  9. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  10. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release as much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  11. Monthly-averaged anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing over the Mediterranean from AERONET derived aerosol properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)