WorldWideScience

Sample records for anthropogenic pollutants combine

  1. Screening of anthropogenic compounds in polluted sediments and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Leer, E.W.B. de; Schuyl, P.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of flash evaporation and pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry as a fast screening procedure for anthropogenic substances In environmental samples is demonstrated by the analysis of polluted soil and sediment samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, haloorganics, aliphatlc hydroc

  2. Quantification of continual anthropogenic pollutants released in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuten, M G A; Peters, M C F M; Daanen, H A M; de Kreuk, M K; Rietveld, L C; van Dijk, J C

    2014-04-15

    Disinfection in swimming pools is often performed by chlorination, However, anthropogenic pollutants from swimmers will react with chlorine and form disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs are unwanted from a health point of view, because some are irritating, while others might be carcinogenic. The reduction of anthropogenic pollutants will lead to a reduction in DBPs. This paper investigates the continual release of anthropogenic pollutants by means of controlled sweat experiments in a pool tank during laboratory time-series experiments (LTS experiments) and also during on-site experiments (OS experiments) in a swimming pool. The sweat released during the OS and LTS experiments was very similar. The sweat rate found was 0.1-0.2 L/m(2)/h at water temperatures below 29 °C and increased linearly with increasing water temperatures to 0.8 L/m(2)/h at 35 °C. The continual anthropogenic pollutant release (CAPR) not only consisted of sweat, particles (mainly skin fragments and hair) and micro-organisms, but also sebum (skin lipids) has to be considered. The release of most components can be explained by the composition of sweat. The average release during 30 min of exercise is 250 mg/bather non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC), 77.3 mg/bather total nitrogen (TN), 37.1 mg/bather urea and 10.1 mg/bather ammonium. The release of NPOC cannot be explained by the composition of sweat and is most probably a result of sebum release. The average release of other components was 1.31 × 10(9) # particles/bather (2-50 μm), 5.2 μg/bather intracellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) and 9.3 × 10(6) intact cell count/bather (iCC). The pool water temperature was the main parameter to restrain the CAPR. This study showed that a significant amount of the total anthropogenic pollutants release is due to unhygienic behaviour of bathers. PMID:24530546

  3. ASSESSING ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON SECONDARY POLLUTANT FORMATION IN THE SOUTH EASTERN US VIA AIRBORNE FORMALDEHYDE MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will provide a critical, publically available formaldehyde dataset during the SOAS campaign. The major expected result will be an improved understanding of the influence of anthropogenic VOC and NOx emissions on secondary pollutant concentrations and properties...

  4. Anthropogenic activities including pollution and contamination of coastal marine environment.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    The term anthropogenic designates an effect or object resulting from human activity. the increasing economioc development and a rapidly growing population that has taken the country from 300 million people in 1947 to more than one billion people...

  5. Characterization of anthropogenic sediment particles after a transboundary water pollution of river Tisza using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osan, Janos E-mail: osan@sunserv.kfki.hu; Toeroek, Szabina; Alfoeldy, Balint; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2004-05-21

    At the beginning of 2000, a major mining accident occurred in the Romanian part of the Tisza catchment area due to tailings dam failure releasing huge amounts of heavy metals to the river. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to characterize the anthropogenic particles in river sediment previously selected by single-particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The trace element composition, heterogeneity and heavy metal speciation of individual particles was studied using synchrotron radiation-based microbeam X-ray emission and absorption methods. Particles were selected only from samples regarded as polluted sediment. White-beam micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) allowed the quantitative determination of heavy metals such as cadmium in individual particles. The maximum observed concentration of cadmium (>700 {mu}g/g) indicates that this highly toxic heavy metal is concentrated in individual anthropogenic particles. Using the combination of micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure and target-transformation principle component analysis, quantitative chemical speciation of copper and zinc was feasible on individual sediment particles. Heavy metals in most of the particles released from the pollution site remained in the sulfide form resulting in a limited mobility of these metals. Based on the information obtained using microanalytical methods, the estimation of the environmental mobility of heavy metals connected to microparticles becomes possible.

  6. Definition and quantification of initial anthropogenic pollutant release in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuten, M G A; Schets, F M; Schijven, J F; Verberk, J Q J C; van Dijk, J C

    2012-07-01

    Pollutants, brought into a swimming pool by bathers, will react with chlorine to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). Some of these DBPs are found to be respiratory and ocular irritant and might be associated with asthma, or might even be carcinogenic. As DBPs in swimming pools are formed from bather-shed-pollutants, a reduction of these pollutants will lead to a reduction of DBPs. Until now, however, the release of pollutants by bathers has not been studied in detail. The study described in this paper focuses on the release of these pollutants, further called anthropogenic pollutants. The objective was to define and quantify the initial anthropogenic pollutants, by using a standardised shower cabin and a standardised showering protocol in laboratory time-series experiments and on-site experiments in swimming pools. The time-series experiments resulted in a definition of the initial anthropogenic pollutant release: the amount of pollutants released from a person in a standardised shower cabin during the first 60 s of showering. The data from the time-series experiments were used to create a model of pollutant release. The model can be used to predict the initial anthropogenic pollutant release as well as the effects of showering. On-site experiments were performed at four different swimming pools, including one outdoor pool. Results of these on-site showering experiments correspond with the time-series and model outcomes. Anthropogenic pollutant release (both chemical and microbiological) in swimming pool water can be reduced by pre-swim showering, very likely resulting in decreased DBPs formation and chlorine demand. PMID:22560894

  7. Anthropogenic desertification by high-albedo pollution Observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Rosenberg, N. W.; Rosenberg, E.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 MSS albedo data of Western Negev, Sinai and the Gaza strip are presented. A sharp contrast in albedo exists across the Negev-Sinai and Negev-Gaza strip borders. Anthropogenic desertification has occurred on the Arab side due to overgrazing and Bedouin agriculture, whereas natural vegetation grows much more abundantly on the Israeli side.

  8. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin M Mekonnen; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related...

  9. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  10. Allocating anthropogenic pollutant emissions over space: application to ozone pollution management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, J E; Comrie, A C

    2001-12-01

    An inventory of volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions is an important tool for the management of ground-level ozone pollution. This paper has two broad aims: it illustrates the potential of a geographic information system (GIS) for enhancing an existing spatially-aggregated, anthropogenic emissions inventory (EI) for Tucson, AZ, and it discusses the ozone-specific management implications of the resulting spatially-disaggregated EI. The main GIS-related methods include calculating emissions for specific features, spatially disaggregating region-wide emissions totals for area sources, and adding emissions from various point sources. In addition, temporal allocation factors enable the addition of a multi-temporal component to the inventory. The resulting inventory reveals that on-road motor vehicles account for approximately 50% of VOC and NOx emissions annually. On-road motor vehicles and residential wood combustion are the largest VOC sources in the summer and winter months, respectively. On-road motor vehicles are always the largest NOx sources. The most noticeable weekday vs. weekend VOC emissions differences are triggered by increased residential wood combustion and increased lawn and garden equipment use on weekends. Concerning the EI's uncertainties and errors, on-road mobile, construction equipment, and lawn and garden equipment are identified as sources in the most need of further investigation. Overall, the EIs spatial component increases its utility as a management tool, which might involve visualization-driven analyses and air quality modeling. PMID:11826724

  11. Anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), particularly PAHs and LABs, in Malaysian sediments: Application of aquatic environment for identifying anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Najat; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Halimoon, Normala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Magam, Sami M; Kannan, Narayanan; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Ali, Masni Mohd; Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed

    2016-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) were used as anthropogenic markers of organic chemical pollution of sediments in the Selangor River, Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted on sediment samples from the beginning of the estuary to the upstream river during dry and rainy seasons. The concentrations of ƩPAHs and ƩLABs ranged from 203 to 964 and from 23 to 113 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. In particular, the Selangor River was found to have higher sedimentary levels of PAHs and LABs during the wet season than in the dry season, which was primarily associated with the intensity of domestic wastewater discharge and high amounts of urban runoff washing the pollutants from the surrounding area. The concentrations of the toxic contaminants were determined according to the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The PAH levels in the Selangor River did not exceed the SQGs, for example, the effects range low (ERL) value, indicating that they cannot exert adverse biological effects.

  12. Modeling of photochemical air pollution in the Barcelona area with highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The city of Barcelona and its surrounding area, located in the western Mediterranean basin, can reach high levels of O3 in spring and summertime. To study the origin of this photochemical pollution, a numerical modeling approach was adopted and the episode that took place between 3 and 5 August 1990 was chosen. The main meteorological mesoscale flows were reproduced with the meteorological non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO for 5 August 1990, when weak pressure synoptic conditions took place. The emissions inventory was calculated with the EIM-LEM model, giving highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in the zone studied, an 80 x 80 km2 area around the city of Barcelona. Major sources of VOC were road traffic (51%) and vegetation (34%), while NOx were mostly emitted by road traffic (88%). However, emissions from some industrial stacks can be locally important and higher than those from road traffic. Photochemical simulation with the MARS model revealed that the combination of mesoscale wind flows and the above-mentioned local emissions is crucial in the production and transport of O3 in the area. On the other hand, the geostrophic wind also played an important role in advecting the air masses away from the places O3 had been generated. The model simulations were also evaluated by comparing meteorological measurements from nine surface stations and concentration measurements from five surface stations, and the results proved to be fairly satisfactory. (author)

  13. Microbial responses of forest soil to moderate anthropogenic air pollution - a large scale field survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to introduce soil microbiological methods into long term ecological monitoring programs. For this purpose we studied the impact of moderate anthropogenic air pollution in polluted and less polluted area districts, forest site types Calluna (CT), Vaccinium (VT) and Myrtillus (MT) and the amount of organic matter, measured as carbon content on the soil respiration activity and the ATP content. The main sources of local air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) in the polluted area district were from the capital region and an oil refinery. Humus (F/H-layer) and the underlying 0 to 5 cm mineral soil samples were collected from 193 study plots located in the 5300 km2 study area. We found that the soil respiration rate in humus layer samples was lower in the polluted area district compared to the less polluted one (16.0 and 19.5μL CO2 h-1g-1 dw, respectively), but the difference occurred only in the dry, coarse-textured CT forest site type. The mineral soil respiration rate and the mineral soil and humus layer ATP content were not affected by the air pollution. Most of the variations of the biological variables were explained primarily by the soil carbon content, secondly by the forest site type and thirdly by the area division. 38 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  14. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  15. Sensitivity of air pollution simulations with LOTOS-EUROS to temporal distribution of anthropogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mues

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the sensitivity of the model performance of the chemistry transport model (CTM LOTOS-EUROS to the description of the temporal variability of emissions was investigated. Currently the temporal release of anthropogenic emissions is described by European average diurnal, weekly and seasonal time profiles per sector. These default time profiles largely neglect the variation of emission strength with activity patterns, region, species, emission process and meteorology. The three sources dealt with in this study are combustion in energy and transformation industries (SNAP1, non-industrial combustion (SNAP2 and road transport (SNAP7. First the impact of neglecting the temporal emission profiles for these SNAP categories on simulated concentrations was explored. In a~second step, we constructed more detailed emission time profiles for the three categories and quantified their impact on the model performance separately as well as combined. The performance in comparison to observations for Germany was quantified for the pollutants NO2, SO2 and PM10 and compared to a simulation using the default LOTOS-EUROS emission time profiles. In general the largest impact on the model performance was found when neglecting the default time profiles for the three categories. The daily average correlation coefficient for instance decreased by 0.04 (NO2, 0.11 (SO2 and 0.01 (PM10 at German urban background stations compared to the default simulation. A systematic increase of the correlation coefficient is found when using the new time profiles. The size of the increase depends on the source category, the component and station. Using national profiles for road transport showed important improvements of the explained variability over the weekdays as well as the diurnal cycle for NO2. The largest impact of the SNAP1 and 2 profiles were found for SO2. When using all new time profiles simultaneously in one simulation the daily average correlation coefficient

  16. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of anthropogenic pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Emmons, L. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Guo, Y.; Tao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies as well as a fully-tagged approach, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  17. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  18. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  20. Lead Isotopic Tracing of Coal-Based Anthropogenic Pollution in Agricultural Soils in Jianghan Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J. N.; Ying, S.; Zhao, R.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Weiss, D. J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese demand for energy is one of the greatest in the world, and the vast majority of it is generated through coal combustion - a process by which diverse pollutants are released into the atmosphere. Due to the relative proximity of croplands to power plants in much of China, these pollutants can be deposited onto agricultural soils via atmospheric transport. Relative amounts of lead (Pb) isotopes in airborne anthropogenic coal-based contaminants (fly ash) are currently understood. However, contaminants' effects on agricultural soil composition are less clear. We investigate the prevalence of anthropogenic contaminants in cropland soils using lead (Pb) isotope ratios as a tracer. Surface soil samples and deep core samples, taken from Chinese field sites in proximity to a coal combustion plant, undergo an acid extraction process and lead (Pb) isotope concentrations are measured. The results of this study illustrate the extent to which airborne contaminants have entered cropland soils and integrated themselves into the chemical processes at work. They further expand our understanding of the impacts of human coal combustion activities on the biogeochemistry of agricultural soils.

  1. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  2. Towards a monitoring strategy to assess the anthropogenic signature of traffic derived pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, G.; Appel, E.; Magiera, T.; Wawer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination along roadsides is one important factor of anthropogenic linear pollution source. In our present study we focus on typical traffic pollutants like heavy metals (HM), platinum group elements (PGEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and investigate the use of magnetic parameters, in particular to discriminate the distribution of contaminants by surface runoff, splash-water and airborne transport. For monitoring we removed 10-15 cm of top soil at 1 m distance from the roadside edge and replaced it by 30 plastic boxes, and installed pillars at 1 m and 2 m distances to the roadside with samplers in different heights (ground, 0.5 m, 2 m) as well as 4 m long u-channels (surface and 2.5 cm above ground) perpendicular to the road. Clean quartz sand was used as collector material. Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) and the concentration of pollutants (HM, PAH) all show a significant increase with time in the box samples, however, there are obviously also seasonal and site-dependent effects which lead to more stable values over several months or even some decrease in the upper few cm due to vertical migration. Similar significant differences of χ, PAH and HM concentrations and an importance of splash-water were noticed in pillars and u-channels within one year of monitoring. Magnetic results revealed that magnetite-like phases are responsible for the enhancement of magnetic concentration. A good correlation between χ and semi-volatile and particle-bound PAH phases as well as HM suggests that χ can be used as a proxy for traffic derived PAH and HM pollution. SEM observations and EDX analyses identified a dominance of angular and aggregates-shaped particles with composition of Fe-Cr-Ni derived from traffic-specific activities (abrasion of tyres, exhausts and brake linings). The results from our monitoring studies will be utilized to develop new innovative roadside pollution monitoring concepts.

  3. Factors controlling the oral bioaccessibility of anthropogenic Pb in polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, N; Bakker, M; van Os, B J H; Klaver, G Th; Middelburg, J J; Davies, G R

    2015-02-15

    In human risk assessment, ingestion of soil is considered a major route of toxic Pb exposure. A large body of research has focussed on the measurement of the 'total' Pb contents in sediment, soil and dust as a measure for the exposure to lead. We report that Pb bioaccessibility (i.e. the maximum bioavailability), determined with an in vitro test, does not necessarily depend on the total Pb content. In contrast, the Pb bioaccessibility is initially controlled by the chemical form and particle size of the Pb source, which in turn determine its solubility. Furthermore, when anthropogenic Pb resides within the soil, it may form new, more stable, minerals and/or binds to organic matter, clay, reactive iron or other reactive phases, changing its bioaccessibility. The bioaccessible Pb fraction of 28 soils, polluted with various Pb sources (including residues of Pb bullets and pellets, car battery Pb, city waste and diffuse Pb), was determined with an in vitro-test and varied from 0.5% to 79.0% of total Pb. The highest Pb bioaccessibility (60.7% to 79.0%) was measured in soils polluted with residues of Pb bullets and pellets (shooting range), while the lowest Pb bioaccessibility (0.5%-8.3%) was measured in soils polluted with city waste (including remnants of Pb glazed potsherds and rooftiles, Pb based paint flakes, and Pb sheets). Bioaccessibility of Pb was correlated with pH, organic matter and reactive Fe. These results indicate that soil characteristics play an important role in the oral bioaccessibility of lead in polluted soils. Instead of basing human risk assessment solely on total Pb contents we propose to incorporate in vitro bioaccessibility tests, taking factors such as soil pH, organic matter content and reactive iron content into account. This approach will result in a better insight into the actual risks of Pb polluted soils to children. PMID:25460949

  4. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  5. Anthropogenic flank attack on polar bears: Interacting consequences of climate warming and pollutant exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Munro Jenssen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus are subjected to several anthropogenic threats, climate warming and exposure to pollutants being two of these. For polar bears, one of the main effects of climate warming is limited access to prey, due to loss of their sea ice habitat. This will result in prolonged fasting periods and emaciation and condition related negative effects on survival and reproduction success. Prolonged fasting will result in increases of the tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in polar bears, and thus increase the probability for POP levels to exceed threshold levels for effects on health, and thus on reproductive success and survival. There are clear potentials for interactions between impacts of climate warming and impacts of pollutant exposure on polar bears. It is likely that that fasting-induced increases of POPs will add to mortality rates and decrease reproductive success beyond effects caused by loss of habitat alone. However, there is a lack of studies that have addressed this. Thus, there is a need to focus on population effects of POP exposure in polar bears, and to consider such effects in relation to the effects of climate induced habitat loss.

  6. Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived climate pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.

    2015-07-01

    Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealized, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the Northern Hemisphere mid and (especially) high latitudes, and showing a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation. Changes in precipitation patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker response, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are

  7. Low levels of chemical anthropogenic pollution may threaten amphibians by impairing predator recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that direct mortality and physiological effects caused by pollutants are major contributing factors to global amphibian decline. However, even sublethal concentrations of pollutants could be harmful if they combined with other factors to cause high mortality in amphibians. Here we show that sublethal concentrations of pollutants can disrupt the ability of amphibian larvae to recognize predators, hence increasing their risk of predation. This effect is indeed much more important since very low amounts of pollutants are ubiquitous, and environmental efforts are mostly directed towards preventing lethal spills. We analyzed the effects of two common contaminants (humic acid and ammonium nitrate) on the ability of tadpoles of the western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) to recognize chemical cues from a common predator, nymphs of the dragonfly Anax imperator. We compared the swimming activity of tadpoles in the presence and absence of water-borne chemical cues from dragonflies at different concentrations of humic acid and ammonium nitrate. Tadpoles reduced swimming activity in response to predator cues in the absence of pollutants, whereas they remained unresponsive to these cues when either humic acid or ammonium nitrate was added to the water, even at low concentrations. Moreover, changes in tadpole activity associated with the pollutants themselves were non-significant, indicating no toxic effect. Alteration of the natural chemical environment of aquatic systems by pollutants may be an important contributing cause for declines in amphibian populations, even at sublethal concentrations.

  8. Low levels of chemical anthropogenic pollution may threaten amphibians by impairing predator recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that direct mortality and physiological effects caused by pollutants are major contributing factors to global amphibian decline. However, even sublethal concentrations of pollutants could be harmful if they combined with other factors to cause high mortality in amphibians. Here we show that sublethal concentrations of pollutants can disrupt the ability of amphibian larvae to recognize predators, hence increasing their risk of predation. This effect is indeed much more important since very low amounts of pollutants are ubiquitous, and environmental efforts are mostly directed towards preventing lethal spills. We analyzed the effects of two common contaminants (humic acid and ammonium nitrate) on the ability of tadpoles of the western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) to recognize chemical cues from a common predator, nymphs of the dragonfly Anax imperator. We compared the swimming activity of tadpoles in the presence and absence of water-borne chemical cues from dragonflies at different concentrations of humic acid and ammonium nitrate. Tadpoles reduced swimming activity in response to predator cues in the absence of pollutants, whereas they remained unresponsive to these cues when either humic acid or ammonium nitrate was added to the water, even at low concentrations. Moreover, changes in tadpole activity associated with the pollutants themselves were non-significant, indicating no toxic effect. Alteration of the natural chemical environment of aquatic systems by pollutants may be an important contributing cause for declines in amphibian populations, even at sublethal concentrations. PMID:26765086

  9. Natural and Anthropogenic Source of Heavy Metals Pollution in the Soil Samples of an Industrial Complex; a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammadi Roozbahani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it can bind to various chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of some metals (Cd, Cu, Fe and V in soil samples collected from different stations of Ahvaz Industrial Complex II to determine the natural and anthropogenic contribution of metal in the soil. Methods: This was an experimental study that carried out in 2013. Soil samples were obtained from 9 stations and were subjected to bulk digestion and chemical partitioning. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe and V in soil were determined by ICP-OES. Contaminant factor (CF and geo-accumulation index (I-geo were used to evaluate the soil pollution in the samples. ANOVA, Duncan Multiple Range and Pearson correlation coefficient matrix tests was used to analyze the data. Results: According to I-geo results, the soil samples of the Ahvaz Industrial Complex II could be classified as strongly to very strongly pollute for Cd and it was unpolluted to moderately pollute for Cu, Fe and V. The amount of anthropogenic pollution was more than that of natural sources and the anthropogenic order of metals pollution was Fe (88%> Cu (83%> Cd (75%> V (61%. Conclusion: Metals concentrations are the highest at a distance of 300m from the pollution source. V, Cu and Cd pollutants are probably originated from oil industries.

  10. Anthropogenic pollutants affect ecosystem services of freshwater sediments. The need for a 'triad plus x' approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbersdorf, Sabine Ulrike; Wieprecht, Silke [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Hollert, Henner; Brinkmann, Markus [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Ecosystem Analysis; Schuettrumpf, Holger [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Manz, Werner [Koblenz-Landau Univ., Koblenz (Germany). Inst. for Integrated Natural Sciences

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Freshwater sediments and their attached microbial communities (biofilms) are essential features of rivers and lakes, providing valuable ecosystem services such as nutrient recycling or self-purification which extend beyond the aquatic environment. Anthropogenic pollutants, whether from the industrial era or as a result of our contemporary lifestyles, can negatively affect these functions with hitherto unknown consequences on ecology, the economy and human health. Thus far, the singular view of the involved disciplines such as ecotoxicology, environmental microbiology, hydrology and geomorphology has prevented a deeper understanding of this emerging issue. Main features: This paper discusses briefly the progressions and the state-of-the-art methods within the disciplines of concern related to contaminated sediments, ranging from ecotoxicological test systems, microbiological/molecular approaches to unravel changes of microbial ecosystems, up to the modelling of sediment transport and sorption/desorption of associated pollutants. The first bilateral research efforts on contaminated sediments include efforts to assess ecotoxicological sediment risk including sediment mobility (i.e. ecotoxicology and engineering), enhance bioremediation potential (i.e. microbiology and ecotoxicology) or to understand biostabilisation processes of sediments by microbial assemblages (i.e. microbiology and engineering). Conclusions and perspectives: In freshwater habitats, acute, chronic and mechanism-specific toxic effects on organisms, shifts in composition, structure and functionality of benthic microbial communities, as well as the obstruction of important ecosystem services by continuously discharged and long-deposited pollutants, should be related to the in situ sediment dynamics. To achieve an improved understanding of the ecology of freshwater sediments and the impairment of their important ecosystem functions by human-derived pollutants, we suggest a 'triad plus x

  11. Anthropogenic and forest fire pollution aerosol transported to the Arctic: observations from the POLARCAT-France spring campaign

    OpenAIRE

    B. Quennehen; A. Schwarzenboeck; A. Matsuki; Burkhart, J. F.; A. Stohl; G. Ancellet; Law, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne measurement campaign in spring 2008, several pollution plumes transported from mid-latitude regions were encountered. The study presented here focuses on air masses from two different geographic origins (Europe and Asia) and from 2 different source types (anthropogenic pollution and forest fires). One case study analyses an European air mass, which was sampled during three consecutive day. Modelling of the aerosol particle ageing by coagulation suggests tha...

  12. Substantial Contribution of Anthropogenic Air Pollution to Catastrophic Floods in Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-20

    Extreme events such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, have become more frequent since the 1950s1-2. This is likely caused through changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols that perturb the radiative balance and alter cloud processes3-8. On 8-9 July, 2013 a catastrophic flood devastated several metropolitan areas at the foothills of the Sichuan Basin. Using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-chemistry model, we show that this disaster was not entirely natural. Ensemble simulations robustly show that the severe anthropogenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin significantly enhanced rainfall intensity over the mountainous area northwest of the basin. The heavy air pollution (mainly black carbon) absorbs solar radiation in the lower atmosphere at the expense of surface cooling, which stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses convection and precipitation over the basin. The enhanced moisture and moist static energy over the basin are then transported by the prevailing winds towards the mountains during daytime. As the excessive moist air that reaches the foothills at night is orographically lifted, very strong convection develops and produces extremely heavy precipitation. Reducing black carbon (BC) emissions in the basin can effectively mitigate the extreme precipitation in the mountains. Unfortunately, BC emissions have been increasing in many developing countries including China9, making them more vulnerable to enhanced disasters as reported here.

  13. A Negative Feedback Between Anthropogenic Ozone Pollution and Enhanced Ocean Emissions of Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Prados-Roman, C.; Cuevas, C.; Fernandez, R.; Lamarque, J. F.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally emitted from the oceans, iodine compounds efficiently destroy atmospheric ozone and reduce its positive radiative forcing effects in the troposphere. Emissions of inorganic iodine have been experimentally shown to depend on the deposition to the oceans of tropospheric ozone, whose concentrations have significantly increased since 1850 as a result of human activities. A chemistry-climate model is used to quantify the current ocean emissions of inorganic iodine and assess the impact that the anthropogenic increase of tropospheric ozone has had on the natural cycle of iodine in the marine environment since pre-industrial times. Results included in this communication indicate that the human-driven enhancement of tropospheric ozone has doubled the oceanic inorganic iodine emissions following the reaction of ozone with iodide at the sea surface. The consequent build-up of atmospheric iodine, with maximum enhancements of up to 70% with respect to preindustrial times in continental pollution outflow regions, has in turn accelerated the ozone chemical loss over the oceans with strong spatial patterns. We suggest that this ocean-atmosphere interaction represents a negative geochemical feedback loop by which current ocean emissions of iodine act as a natural buffer for ozone pollution and its radiative forcing in the global marine environment.

  14. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  15. Anthropogenic organic micro-pollutants and pathogens in the urban water cycle: assessment, barriers and risk communication (ASKURIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jekel, Martin; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Meinel, Felix; Zietzschmann, Frederik; Pflugmacher Lima, Stephan; Baur, Nina; Wenzel, Melanie; Gnierß, Regina; Sperlich, Alexander; Dünnbier, Uwe; Böckelmann, Uta; Hummelt, Daniel; van Baar, Patricia; Wode, Florian; Petersohn, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    First published by Springer: Jekel, Martin et al.: Anthropogenic organic micro-pollutants and pathogens in the urban water cycle: assessment, barriers and risk communication (ASKURIS). - In: Environmental Sciences Europe. - ISSN 2190-4715 (online). - 25 (2013), art. 20. - doi:10.1186/2190-4715-25-20. In urban areas, water often flows along a partially closed water cycle in which treated municipal wastewater is discharged into surface waters which are one source of raw waters used for dr...

  16. Anthropogenic pollution stimulates oxidative stress in soft tissues of mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker1853)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcheva, Nina N.; Zakhartsev, Maxim V.; Dovzhenko, Nadezhda V.; Zhukovskaya, Avianna F.; Kavun, Victor Ya.; Chelomin, Victor P.

    2011-06-01

    The digestive gland and gills of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus extracted from three locations — (i) sampled from a clean and (ii) polluted site and (iii) transplanted from the nonpolluted to polluted site - were analysed for antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase), total oxyradical scavenging capacity and levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin). Perturbation of redox status was found in both digestive gland and gill tissues of mussels living in the polluted area. As the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were 1.2-3 times higher, the total oxyradical scavenging capacity was lower by 20-35% and the levels of lipid peroxidation products were 2-7 times higher compared to mussels from the reference site. In transplanted mussels, the lipid peroxidation process in both tissues was significantly stimulated (the level of conjugated dienes was increased 1.7-2.5-fold; malondialdehyde and lipofuscin contents were increased 3.5-5-fold) and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity fell by 50-70%. In addition, the transplantation generally resulted in transient and variable responses of antioxidant enzymes for both tissues. Complex response-behaviour of the antioxidant enzymes strongly points to the necessity of employing a combined approach that takes into account activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, as well as measurement of oxidative damage (e.g., lipid peroxidation) to evaluate the physiological health of molluscs.

  17. The analytical methods used in examining resistance of hydrogeological systems to anthropogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, Joanna; Bielewski, Jarosław; Śliwka, Ireneusz

    2013-04-01

    key words: gas chromatography (GC) measurement method, groundwater dating, He, SF6, F-11, F-12, Ar, Ne. In this work the method for evaluating resistance hydrogeological systems to anthropogenic pollution using environmental tracers is described. Resistance groundwater systems to anthropogenic pollution is correlated with the age of water, which can be determined by means of environmental tracers SF6, F-11, F-12 [1] and He. To correct measured values of He and SF6 the temperature of recharge and the excess air is needed and can be determined by measuring Ne and Ar concentrations in groundwater. This paper describes three measurement GC systems to determine the concentrations of greenhouse gases: sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and chlorofluorocarbons F-11, F-12 [2], the noble gases neon (Ne), argon (Ar) [3] and helium (He) [4] in groundwater. The first system for measurements of the concentration of SF6, F-11 and F-12 consists of a gas chromatograph, type N504 is supplied with nitrogen carrier gas with a purity of 6.0. It is equipped with two packed columns K1 and K2 running at 60°C with the use of the "back-flush" column switching and electron capture detector (ECD) operating at 300°C. Second system for measuring the concentration of the noble gases argon and neon, is composed of a dual Shimadzu gas chromatograph. It is equipped with two columns K4 and K5 operating at 30°C, thermalconductivity detector (TCD) for analysis of argon and helium detector with pulse discharge (PDHID) for analysis of neon. This chromatograph is powered by helium carrier gas 6.0. The third system measures the concentration of helium, consists of a gas chromatograph equipped with a TCD detector and three packed columns filled with molecular sieve type 5A and activated carbon. The carrier gas in this system is argon 6.0. Detection limit, LOD for each measurement systems for the tested compounds are: 0,06 fmol/L for SF6, 15 fmol/L for F-11, 10 fmol/L for F-12, 1,9•10-8 cm3STP/cm3 for Ne, 3,1

  18. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  19. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster

  20. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 86% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 48% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from weakly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM forms most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A decrease of alkaline

  1. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005-2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter) in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster decrease of alkaline base

  2. Anthropogenic pollution indicators in marine environment of the Eastern Part of the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakovskaya, Zoya; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Mamontova, Varvara; Khoroshko, Larisa; Chernova, Ekaterina; Russkikh, Iana

    2014-05-01

    processes and reproductive impairment, increasing number of cancer incidences and increasing of bacterial antibiotic resistance. Diclofenac one of anthropogenic markers, was analyzed by the method of liquid chromatography high-resolution mass-spectrometry, using LTQ Orbitrap (Thermo Finnigan) in natural water and sediment samples. Mass spectra were recorded in several modes: full scan, SIM and MRM using positive and negative ionization. Resolution was 30000. Diclofenac were detected in several water samples (in the range of 3,9-270,0 ng/L). The obtained results are using for "Biota spatial distribution/Geological diversity/Pollution" model validation. This study was supported by projects TOPCONS («Transboundary tool for spatial planning and conservation of the Gulf of Finland»), HELCOM projects BALTHAZAR Phase II and BASE.

  3. The Impact of Individual Anthropogenic Emissions Sectors on the Global Burden of Human Mortality due to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A.; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; West, J. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause adverse health effects, including premature mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Recent studies quantify global air pollution mortality but not the contribution of different emissions sectors, or they focus on a specific sector. Objectives: We estimated the global mortality burden of anthropogenic ozone and PM2.5, and the impact of five emissions sectors, using a global chemical transport model at a finer horizontal resolution (0.67° × 0.5°) than previous studies. Methods: We performed simulations for 2005 using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), zeroing out all anthropogenic emissions and emissions from specific sectors (All Transportation, Land Transportation, Energy, Industry, and Residential and Commercial). We estimated premature mortality using a log-linear concentration–response function for ozone and an integrated exposure–response model for PM2.5. Results: We estimated 2.23 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.33) million deaths/year related to anthropogenic PM2.5, with the highest mortality in East Asia (48%). The Residential and Commercial sector had the greatest impact globally—675 (95% CI: 428, 899) thousand deaths/year—and in most regions. Land Transportation dominated in North America (32% of total anthropogenic PM2.5 mortality), and it had nearly the same impact (24%) as Residential and Commercial (27%) in Europe. Anthropogenic ozone was associated with 493 (95% CI: 122, 989) thousand deaths/year, with the Land Transportation sector having the greatest impact globally (16%). Conclusions: The contributions of emissions sectors to ambient air pollution–related mortality differ among regions, suggesting region-specific air pollution control strategies. Global sector-specific actions targeting Land Transportation (ozone) and Residential and Commercial (PM2.5) sectors would particularly benefit human health. Citation: Silva RA

  4. HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS COLLECTED FROM DRAINAGES RECEIVING DIFFERENT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES FROM PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Bin Huan Pang; Mohd. Fairuz Supian; Yoong Inn Hoo; Soon Guan Tan

    2007-01-01

    Surface drainage sediments were collected, between January and April in 2005, from 6 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia suspected to have received different anthropogenic sources. These drainages included sites near a petrochemical plant, an electronic factory, a metal factory and 2 townships in addition to a relatively unpolluted site ( a reference site). Based on the aqua- regia method, the metal concentrations for all the sampling sites except for the agricultural site (reference site) at Sg. Benut were between 60.92 -1 019 μg/g dry weight for copper (Cu), 65.32 -1 266.6 μg/g dry weight for plumbum (Pb), 1.46 -15.93 μg/g dry weight for cadmium (Cd), 330.10-484.14 μg/g dry weight for zinc (Zn) and 47.03 - 120.90 μg/g dry weight for nickel (Ni). All of these ranges were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those (Cu: 8.77 μg/g; Pb: 57.42 μg/g; Cd: 0.96 μg/g; Zn: 68.21 μg/g; and Ni: 17.87 μg/g) of the reference site at Sg. Benut that only received agricultural disposal. The concentrations for the 5 metals from all the sites (except for the reference site) were higher than the Sediment Quality Values for Hong Kong by Chapman et al (1999) for the 5 metals. Based on the sequential extraction technique, 3 geochemical fractions [ easily, freely leachable and exchangeable (EFLE), acid -reducible and oxidisable -organic] were also useful in identifying these polluted sites. The elevated metal concentrations found in the sediments might be related to point sources of industrial effluent and urban waste. Hence,the results emphasized the necessity for the treatment of effluents into this drainage area. As part of the effort to control illegal discharges and dumping into drainages, public awareness should be enhanced.

  5. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  6. Characterizing anthropogenic sources of pollution and their influence on regional air quality and meteorology during the VOCALS-REX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Spak, S.; Molina, L. T.; Saide, P.

    2010-12-01

    During the VOCALS REX campaign multiple anthropogenic sources of aerosol (both primary and secondary) were related to small effective radii of cloud droplets observed both in situ, and from satellite sources. Also enhanced concentrations of secondary pollutants such as ozone and sulfate were observed. Some of these sources come from copper smelters, power plants, and large urban areas. These impacts on the properties of marine stratocumulus is relevant on the region's radiative balance. For this project the contribution of urban, industrial, and power sector emissions will be compared to attribute these to observed values using WRF-Chem using a new Chilean National Emissions Inventory developed for this project. Finally regional ozone formation from Santiago and it's impact to observed enhancements off the coast of Northern Chile will be assessed. Modeled plumes will be compared to satellite observations of anthropogenic impacted clouds. Considering the projected increase of coal power plants in northern Chile, some projected impacts will also be shown.

  7. A Comparison of the Physical and Optical Properties of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants and Mineral Dust over Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 浦伟; 史晋森; 闭建荣; 周天; 张雪荣; 任勇

    2015-01-01

    Emissions of mineral dust and its mixing with anthropogenic air pollutants aff ect both regional and global climates. Our fi eldwork in late spring 2007 (April 25–June 15) measured the physical and optical properties of dust storms mixed with local air pollutants at a rural site about 48 km southeast of central Lanzhou. Levels of air pollutants and aerosol optical properties were observed during the experiment, with concentrations of NOx (6.8 ± 3.3 ppb, average ± standard deviation), CO (694 ± 486 ppb), SO2 (6.2 ± 10 ppb), O3 (50.7 ± 13.1 ppb), and PM10 (172 ± 180 µg m−3), and aerosol scattering coeffi cient (164 ± 89 Mm−1; 1 Mm = 106 m) and absorption coeffi cient (11.7 ± 6.6 Mm−1), all much lower than the values observed during air pollution episodes in urban areas. During a major dust storm, the mass concentration of PM10 reached 4072 µg m−3, approximately 21-fold higher than in non-dust storm periods. The mixing ratios of trace gases declined noticeably after a cold front passed through. The observed CO/SO2 and CO/NOx ratios during air pollution episodes were 4.2–18.3 and 13.7–80.5, respectively, compared with the corresponding ratios of 38.1–255.7 and 18.0–245.9 during non-pollution periods. Our investigations suggest that dust storms have a signifi cant infl uence on air quality in areas far from their source, and this large-scale transport of dust and air pollutants produces major uncertainties in the quantifi cation of the global eff ects of emissions over Northwest China.

  8. Quantitative analyses of relationships between ecotoxicological effects and combined pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Qixing; CHENG; Yun; ZHANG; Qianru; LIANG; Jidong

    2004-01-01

    The responses of wheat Triticum aestivum,rice Oryza sativa,earthworms Eisenia foetida,and prawns Penaeus japonicus to combined acetochlor-Cu,Cd-Zn were studied in hydroponic and soil-culturing systems using the methods of ecotoxicology.In particular,systematically quantitative analyses were documented by field experiments.Results showed that ecotoxicological effects under the combined pollution were not only related to chemical properties of pollutants but also dependent on the concentration level of pollutants,in particular on the combination of concentrations of pollutants in ecosystems.Additionally,species of organisms,especially the type of ecosystem,determined the influences.To some extent,biological tissue targets attacked by pollutants were an important factor.

  9. The impact of anthropogenic pollution on limnological characteristics of a subtropical highland reservoir “Lago de Guadalupe”, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available “Lago de Guadalupe” is an important freshwater ecosystem located in the northern part of the metropolitan area surrounding Mexico City, under high demographic pressure. It receives approximately 15 hm3·y-1 of untreated municipal wastewater from the surrounding municipalities. In order to develop a comparative assessment of the pollution effect over the limnological characteristics of Lago de Guadalupe, this lake was characterised from February 2006 to July 2009, and the results were compared with those obtained from a non-polluted lake “Lago el Llano” located in the same drainage area. Lago de Guadalupe was hypereutrophic with anoxic conditions throughout most of the water column. In contrast, Lago el Llano was mesotrophic with high dissolved oxygen concentrations throughout the entire water column with a clinograde profile. Both reservoirs had a monomictic mixing regime. The longitudinal zonation of physicochemical and biological variables were investigated in order to better understand the processes controlling the water quality across the reservoir during its residence time. This study shows the impact of anthropogenic pollution on the limnological characteristics of a subtropical reservoir and confirms that under adequate management schemes, namely avoiding pollution and wastewater discharges, subtropical reservoirs can be prevented from developing eutrophic conditions.

  10. Intercontinental transport of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide and other pollutants: An infrared remote sensing case study

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse, Lieven; Fromm, Michael; Ngadi, Yasmine; Emmons, Louisa; Clerbaux, Cathy; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2011-01-01

    International audience Using 3 years worth of IASI (the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer aboard METOP-A) measurements, we have identified 24 major events of uplift and transport of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide. These were all first observed over East Asia, and could be traced for over 60 hours. On 7 November 2010 a sulfur dioxide plume was observed over Northeast China and tracked for five days to North America. We discuss this event in detail with respect to build up; uplift an...

  11. Anthropogenic and forest fire pollution aerosol transported to the Arctic: observations from the POLARCAT-France spring campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Quennehen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT-France airborne measurement campaign in spring 2008, several pollution plumes transported from mid-latitude regions were encountered. The study presented here focuses on air masses from two different geographic origins (Europe and Asia and from 2 different source types (anthropogenic pollution and forest fires. One case study analyses an European air mass, which was sampled during three consecutive day. Modelling of the aerosol particle ageing by coagulation suggests that coagulation cannot solely explain the evolution of the size distributions, which is particularly true for the accumulation mode. Analyses of the aerosol refractory size distributions indicate that the Aitken mode was mostly composed of volatile compounds, while accumulation mode particles desorbed to a refractory mode yielding a modal mean diameter evolving from 48 to 59 nm for the three consecutive days of sampling the same air mass. The single refractory mode suggests an internally mixed aerosol population which is supported from electron microscopy and subsequent EDX analyses of the accumulation mode particles.

    Another case study focuses on European air masses polluted by fire emissions and Asian air masses with contributions from both biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions. On the one hand, the aerosol size distributions of the European biomass burning plumes are almost mono-modal with most of the particles found in the aged accumulation mode which desorbed uniformly. On the other hand, Asian air masses were more complex because of the mixing of different source contributions related to more variable and multimodal ambient and refractory aerosol size distributions. Electron microscopy illustrated soot-like inclusions in several samples. Within samples attributed to forest fire sources, the chemical signature is highly associated with the presence of potassium, which is characteristic for biomass burning plumes. The particle images suggest

  12. Theoretical basis for expert system to forecast and assess economic impact of anthropogenic pollution on population disease level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Bublyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Theoretical basis of mathematical apparatus of fuzzy sets to evaluate and account the man-made (anthropogenic losses is improved in the article in order to take effective administrative decisions of their reduction and prevention. Theoretical basis for building an expert system for forecasting the economic effects of man-made (anthropogenic pollution on population levels of disease is analyzed. Practically these investigations will give the opportunity to control measures of orientation of the national economy and its individual industries on sustainable development. The results of the analysis. The theoretical foundations and applied problems of predicting man-made damage to the national economy and methods of management at the state level allowed for the following conclusions. 1. To justify the application of theoretical principles of fuzzy sets as an effective mathematical tool in conditions of incomplete information and uncertainty in future work the advantages of fuzzy expert systems, including the possibility of approximate descriptions such complex phenomena that can not be described in conventional quantitative terms, and the ability to receive, store and adjust the knowledge possessed by experts in this subject area in the process of dialogue with them in order to get real results. 2. The model of fuzzy expert system for establishing interdependencies between the amount of pollution (emissions, effluents, waste and deterioration of health in Ukraine has been proposed. 3. The model in predicting the technogenic load (discharges (drained polluted waters without treatment and emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide due to economic activity and its effects on the number of newly registered tumors in 1000 people of the population in Ukraine has been investigated. 4. During the investigation it was established as a rising idea to use the claim that the impact of emissions and discharges of pollutants to the number

  13. The anthropogenic magnetic particles contain in indoor dust as markers of pollution emitted by different outside sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Iga; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the impact of magnetic particles originated from different external sources of pollution on the air quality inside apartments. We used the indoor dust as an indicator of air pollution inside apartments. For the study, a small town was chosen, in which dominated the local sources of pollution: (1) vehicle traffic (in the city center), (2) local heating plant, (3) individual households (in the suburbs) and (4) re-emission of soil particles from the contaminated post-industrial area. In each of four areas were selected several private apartments as a sampling points. Dust samples were collected by the owners of apartments from the floor surface using vacuum cleaners in the same time period (September 2014). The concentration-dependent magnetic parameters (magnetic susceptibility - and magnetization MS) were used to determine the level of the magnetic pollution of the indoor dust. The properties of magnetic particles (mineralogy, domain structure and grain size), and their chemical composition were used to describe and identify the source of air pollution inside the apartments. Generally, the results showed that in each of studied areas were observed flats with both: very high and low values of parameters depending on the concentration of magnetic particles. The biggest differences between the areas were visible in mineralogy of magnetic fraction of pollution. The research of apartments exposed to pollution generated by vehicle traffic (located in the city center) show a wide range of values χ (75-1021 -10-8 m3kg-1) and MS (35-656 -10-3 Am2kg-1). These differences were due to the high contribution of pure iron to magnetic fraction of pollution. Detailed analysis of the M (T) curves revealed two magnetic transitions: first at a temperature Tc = 585oC for magnetite and the second at Tc = 760oC for pure iron. For the dust samples from the city center the high values of χ and MS well correlated with high level of anthropogenic elements

  14. Modelling of anthropogenic pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere and applications to civil protection monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Tessarotto, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A basic feature of fluid mechanics concerns the frictionless phase-space dynamics of particles in an incompressible fluid. The issue, besides its theoretical interest in turbulence theory, is important in many applications, such as the pollutant dynamics in the atmosphere, a problem relevant for civil protection monitoring of air quality. Actually, both the numerical simulation of the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) portion of the atmosphere and that of pollutant dynamics may generally require the correct definition of the Lagrangian dynamics which characterizes arbitrary fluid elements of incompressible thermofluids. We claim that particularly important for applications would be to consider these trajectories as phase-space trajectories. This involves, however, the unfolding of a fundamental theoretical problem up to now substantially unsolved: {\\it namely the determination of the exact frictionless dynamics of tracer particles in an incompressible fluid, treated either as a deterministic or a turbulent (i....

  15. A model tool for assessing real-time mixing of mineral and anthropogenic pollutants in East Asia: a case study of April 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, F.; Cautenet, G.; Bouet, C.; Dong, X.; Kim, Y. J.; Sugimoto, N.; Matsui, I.; Shimizu, A.

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess the complex mixing of atmospheric anthropogenic and natural pollutants over the East Asian region, we present a modelling tool which takes into account the main aerosols which are to be found simultaneously over China, Korea and Japan during springtime. Using the mesoscale RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) tool, we present a simulation of natural (desert) dust events along with some of the most critical anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia, sulphur elements (SO2 and SO2-4) and Black Carbon (BC). As regards a one-week case study of dust events which occurred during late April 2005 over an area extending from the Gobi deserts to the Japan surroundings, we satisfactorily model the behaviours of the different aerosol plumes. We focus on possible dust mixing with the anthropogenic pollutants from megacities. For both natural and anthropogenic pollution, the model results are in fairly good agreement with the horizontal and vertical distributions of concentrations as measured by in situ LIDAR, and as observed in remote data, PM10 data and literature. In particular, we show that a simplified chemistry approach of this complex issue is sufficient to model this event, with a real-time step of 3 h. The model reproduces the main patterns and orders of magnitude for Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and species contributions (via the Angström Exponent) when compared with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data.

  16. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated. PMID:26438396

  17. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated.

  18. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE WATERS POLLUTED BY ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Luca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the results of a methodological research on the chemical speciation of heavy metals found in surface waters of an area polluted by mining activities (in the Western Carpathians. The surface water samples were collected in two seasons (summer and fall. Each time were performed in situ physical-chemical measurements (pH, Eh, conductivity, temperature and analytical determination of total concentrations of some metals (manganese, copper, zinc, iron, cadmium and anions (SO42-, Cl-, PO43-, NO3-. Analyze of chemical speciation of these metals was made using the PHREEQC program which allowed us to determine the distribution of studied elements. The concordance of the results obtained with this program with thermodynamic predictions arising from potential - pH equilibrium diagrams - Pourbaix type justify the compatibility between the program calculation and experimental data.

  19. Quantifying the uncertainties of a bottom-up emission inventory of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties of a national, bottom-up inventory of Chinese emissions of anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM of different size classes and carbonaceous species are comprehensively quantified, for the first time, using Monte Carlo simulation. The inventory is structured by seven dominant sectors: coal-fired electric power, cement, iron and steel, other industry (boiler combustion, other industry (non-combustion processes, transportation, and residential. For each parameter related to emission factors or activity-level calculations, the uncertainties, represented as probability distributions, are either statistically fitted using results of domestic field tests or, when these are lacking, estimated based on foreign or other domestic data. The uncertainties (i.e., 95% confidence intervals around the central estimates of Chinese emissions of SO2, NOx, total PM, PM10, PM2.5, black carbon (BC, and organic carbon (OC in 2005 are estimated to be −14%~12%, −10%~36%, −10%~36%, −12%~42% −16%~52%, −23%~130%, and −37%~117%, respectively. Variations at activity levels (e.g., energy consumption or industrial production are not the main source of emission uncertainties. Due to narrow classification of source types, large sample sizes, and relatively high data quality, the coal-fired power sector is estimated to have the smallest emission uncertainties for all species except BC and OC. Due to poorer source classifications and a wider range of estimated emission factors, considerable uncertainties of NOx and PM emissions from cement production and boiler combustion in other industries are found. The probability distributions of emission factors for biomass burning, the largest source of BC and OC, are fitted based on very limited domestic field measurements, and special caution should thus be taken interpreting these emission uncertainties. Although Monte

  20. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110. Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we considered 6 ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, and 2 measures of particulate matter treating each pollutant as a single exposure. Odds ratios (ORs for ED visits associated with a standard increase (interquartile range – IQR in the pollutants levels were calculated using the case-crossover technique. The ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were also found for lagged exposures (for lags 1–9 days. Second, we defined a Health Air Study Index (HASI to represent the combined impact of the 6 air pollutants. Results: We obtained positive and statistically significant results for individual air pollutants and among them the following estimations: OR = 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02–1.1, NO2 lag 3, IQR = 12.8 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01–1.07, SO2 lag 4, IQR = 2.3 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1–1.06, PM lag 3, IQR = 6.2 μg/m3. Among the re-calculated ORs with the HASI values as an exposure, the highest estimated value was OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12–1.68, for 1 unit of the HASI, lag 3. Conclusions: The proposed index (HASI allows to confirm the pattern of associations for lags obtained for individual air pollutants. In the presented example the used index (HASI indicates the strongest relation with the exposure lagged by 3 days.

  1. Assessment of anthropogenic nitrate pollution in groundwater in northeast Cairo using nitrogen-15 technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater contamination of elevated nitrate ions was investigated in a limited area of the north-eastern part of Cairo (EI-Gabal EI-Asfar farm and its surroundings). Stable isotope techniques of nitrogen (δ15N), oxygen (δ18O), and hydrogen (δ2H) with major ions and trace elements analyses followed by data evaluation were combined to assess the potential sources and fate of nitrate contamination. In the studied area, the unconfined aquifer system is found to be vulnerable to nitrate impacts from land uses because of the sandy, permeable soils and a relatively shallow depth to groundwater. Several potential sources of elevated nitrate exist including a rapid infiltration of sewage effluents, used for irrigation, soil organic and inorganic nitrogen, and land application of animal wastes (manure), sludge, and inorganic chemical fertilizers. Surface and ground water samples as well as surface soil samples were collected beside the principal nitrate sources that are likely to affect groundwater quality. Data revealed that surface and groundwater samples have high TDS, nitrate, phosphate, and trace elements contents especially at the north-eastern pad and at the southern part of the studied area. Soil samples show relative enrichment in trace elements and total nitrogen contents due to prolonging sewage water irrigation especially at EI-Gabal EI-Asfar farm and at the northern part of the studied area. Results of δ18O and δ2H for most of groundwater samples mainly reflect more enriched values than that of Nile River due to recycling of water used for irrigation. The δ15N values of nitrate in water samples indicate that the source yielding lower nitrate concentrations could be commercial fertilizers or nitrifying soil organic nitrogen which is more pronounced at the western part. In the north-eastern part other sources being responsible for the higher nitrate concentrations appears to be mixing with sewage or manure and ammonium phosphate fertilizer. This mixing

  2. The study of emission inventory on anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2391.8 kt, 2292.9 kt, 6697.1 kt, 3115.7 kt, 1510.8 kt, 2767.4 kt, and 458.9 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77% to the total OFPs. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around the Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources including power plant, other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97%, 86%, 89%, 91%, and 69% of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3% and 12.4% of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, chemical industry, domestic use of paint and printing, and gasoline vehicle contribute 38.2%, 23.9%, and 11.6% to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  3. Anthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y. T.; Koba, K.; Wang, X. M.; Wen, D. Z.; Li, J.; Takebayashi, Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Yoh, M.

    2011-02-01

    Nitric acid (HNO3) or nitrate (NO3-) is the dominant sink for reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the atmosphere. In many Chinese cities, HNO3 is becoming a significant contributor to acid deposition. In the present study, we measured nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotopic composition of NO3- in 113 precipitation samples collected from Guangzhou City in southern China over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). We attempted to better understand the spatial and seasonal variability of atmospheric NOx sources and the NO3- formation pathways in this N-polluted city in the Pearl River Delta region. The δ15N values of NO3- (versus air N2) ranged from -4.9 to +10.1‰, and averaged +3.9‰ in 2008 and +3.3‰ in 2009. Positive δ15N values were observed throughout the year, indicating the anthropogenic contribution of NOx emissions, particularly from coal combustion. Different seasonal patterns of δ15N-NO3- were observed between 2008 and 2009, which might reflect different human activities associated with the global financial crisis and the intensive preparations for the 16th Asian Games. Nitrate δ18O values (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) varied from +33.4 to +86.5‰ (average +65.0‰ and +67.0‰ in 2008 and 2009, respectively), a range being lower than those reported for high latitude and polar areas. Sixteen percent of δ18O values was observed lower than the expected minimum of +55‰ at our study site. This was likely caused by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals; peroxy radicals can compete with O3 to convert NO to NO2, thereby donate O atoms with much lower δ18O value than that of O3 to atmospheric NO3-. Our results highlight that the influence of human activities on atmospheric chemistry can be recorded by the N and O isotopic composition of atmospheric NO3- in a N-polluted city.

  4. Geochemical Distribution of Trace Metals and Assessment of Anthropogenic Pollution in Sediments of Old Nakagawa River, Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Zakir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical distributions of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn were examined in sediments collected from Old Nakagawa River (NR, Tokyo, Japan. A widely used 5-step sequential extraction procedure was employed for the fractionation of the metals and the concentrations were measured in the liquid extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The association of Cd (76-98% and Zn (48-67% were found highest with AEC (adsorbed/exchangeable/carbonate phase, Cu (45-60% and Pb (44-73% with amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide phase and the maximum fractionation of Cr was in both crystalline Fe oxide (12-60% and amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide phase (15-60%. For retention by amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide minerals, the observed stoichiometric gradient was: 1.52 for Cu, 1.23 for Pb, 2.25 for Cr and 3.09 for Zn. Corresponding values for association with crystalline oxides and sulphides and organics were an order of magnitude greater than those for amorphous oxyhydroxide, indicating a greater affinity of trace metals for these phases. The total concentration ranges of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in NR sediments were 2.86-16.95, 551.7-3953.1, 340.6-1565.3, 136.9-385.9 and 931.4-3650.1 µg g-1, respectively. The observed order of potential trace metal mobility in the aquatic system was: Cd>Zn>Pb>Cu>Cr. Organic carbon contents in sediment samples were comparatively high (mean 5.48% and the X-ray diffraction (XRD study detected the presence of several clay minerals, those are likely to be major host of trace metals in sediments. The sediments of NR was considered to be polluted on the basis of unpolluted sediments and geochemical background values with respect to Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. According to the enrichment factors (EFc, most of the sites have several times higher values of trace metals than the standard. The study revealed that the pollution in sediments of NR could be linked to anthropogenic activities such as industrialization

  5. Combined Pollution and Pollution Index of Heavy Metals in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and As coexisting in red soil on growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.), mung bean (Vigna rabiata (Linn.) Wilczek), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and aspen (Populus L.). Results showed that rice, mung bean and alfalfa were significantly influenced by combined pollution of the heavy metals. The contents of Pb, Cd and As in rice grains greatly exceeded the National Standards for Food Hygiene of China. Heavy metals at a high concentration seriously retarded growth of mung bean and alfalfa, but not so obviously with slash pine and aspen. The composite index is suggested for evaluating the relativity of combined pollution with heavy metals in soil.

  6. Assurance of risk assessment and protection distant transportation and fall out of pollutants under large anthropogenic on nuclear power stations due to mountainous regional peculiarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: All types of industrial activities require the norms of protection, assessment of corresponding risks to preserve the pollution and degradation of corresponding areas. To make available the sustainable development of the country the risk assessment of possible accidents on the big enterprises is foreseen that provides preparedness of the country and possibility of the prevention measures and mitigation of the accidents. While big anthropogenic accidents in mountainous countries - the main paths for transportation of the pollution are the rivers and sea basins. Due to overpopulation of these areas assessment of the pollution risks are very important. Problem of forecast and distant atmospheric transportation of the toxic products and corresponding risk assessment under anthropogenic damages is multi-component and depends on meteorological conditions and frontier layer of atmosphere. Generally, for real relief and basic fields the problem is not solved yet especially taking into consideration the big level and shortest time of the process being of the natural anthropogenic accidents in mountainous regions. Usually, geostropic drawing for determined relief is used. Integral differential equations taking into consideration a physical- chemical characteristic of the pollutants, their transformations, fall out, coagulations, washing out and self rectification in general cannot be solved. In last time essential success in formalization of above-mentioned equations i.e. carrying out some simplifications give possibility to establish necessary modeling on the basis of numerical calculations. In the most general case forecasting model is essentially limited because of bulky size of accounting schemes and necessity of powerful and high-speed computers. Main ways of achievement of further success is connected with so called 'seasonal typification' with applied a priory calculation of probabilistic picture of the pollutants concentration fields, as well as

  7. Change of the dynamics of heavy metals concentration in atmospheric precipitation in chatkal nature reservation of the republic of uzbekistan as anthropogenic index of the atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, T.; Tolkacheva, G.

    2003-04-01

    At present the investigation of the chemical composition of precipitation is a very actual task in the monitoring of environmental pollution. It is known that heavy metals can be the indices of the anthropogenic atmospheric pollution. The emissions from the mining enterprises, of non-ferrous metallurgy, of chemical industry, from heat-and-power production plants, from transport vehicles fare the sources of the heavy metals ingress into the atmosphere. Their emissions in atmosphere form fine-disperse aerosol fractions and afterwards they fall down together with precipitation onto the underlying surface. Heavy metals have the property of accumulation in environmental objects, which disturbs its ecological balance. One of the problems of the study of the influence of heavy metals pollution on the environment is their travel with the air masses of different origin on large distance. In this concern it is interesting to study the content of the heavy metals in atmospheric aerosols and precipitation in the background zones. Chatkal nature reservation on the territory of Tashkent province presents such background point. For the estimation of the level of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and evaluation of the possible impact on the background level of air pollution of Chatkal nature reservation by anthropogenic sources (industrial cities of the capital province of Uzbekistan) the data analysis was carried out by the Administration of Environment Pollution Monitoring (AEPM) of hydrometeorological service of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is necessary to mention that Chatkal biospheric nature reservation is situated in 100 km from Tashkent (the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan) and in 60 km from Almalyk (the biggest centre of mining-metallurgical and chemical industry of the republic). The station of the complex background monitoring of atmospheric pollution (SCBM) is situated on the territory of this nature reservation. This area is characterized by a typical

  8. Gerris spinolae Lethierry and Severin (Hemiptera: Gerridae and Brachydeutera longipes Hendel (Diptera: Ephydridae: Two Effective Insect Bioindicators to Monitor Pollution in Some Tropical Freshwater Ponds under Anthropogenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance patterns of two insects, Gerris spinolae and Brachydeutera longipes, were found to be affected by abiotic aquatic factors including free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, BOD, and phosphate concentrations prevailing in four tropical freshwater ponds, three of which being anthropogenically stressed. Regression analysis between each individual-independent water quality variable and insect abundance demonstrated a significant positive correlation in each case between B. longipes abundance and BOD, phosphate, free CO2, and algae dry weight, while a significant negative correlation of each of these variables was found with Gerris spinolae abundance. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of B. longipes abundance was calculated with dissolved oxygen concentration, while G. spinolae abundance exhibited a positive correlation with the same. Thus, G. spinolae appears to be a pollution sensitive, effective bioindicator for healthy unpolluted ponds, while B. longipes has potential as a pollution-resistant insect species indicative of pollution occurrence.

  9. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERMERM from 0.11 to 0.5 have a 21% probability of toxicity, those with m-ERM from 0.51 to 1.5 a 49% probability of toxicity, while sediments with m-ERM >1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng

  10. Anthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. T. Fang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric acid (HNO3 or nitrate (NO3 is the dominant sink for reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 in the atmosphere. In many Chinese cities, HNO3 is becoming a significant contributor to acid deposition. In the present study, we used the denitrifier method to measure nitrogen (N and oxygen (O isotopic composition of NO3 in 113 precipitation samples collected from Guangzhou City in southern China over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. We attempted to better understand the spatial and seasonal variability of atmospheric NOx sources and the NO3 formation pathways in this N-polluted city in the Pearl River Delta region. The δ15N values of NO3 (versus air N2 ranged from −4.9 to +10.1‰, and averaged +3.9‰ in 2008 and +3.3‰ in 2009. Positive δ15N values were observed throughout the year, indicating the anthropogenic contribution of NOx emissions, particularly from coal combustion. Different seasonal patterns of δ15N-NO3 were observed between 2008 and 2009, which might reflect different human activities associated with the global financial crisis and the intensive preparations for the 16th Asian Games. Nitrate δ18O values (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water varied from +33.4 to +86.5‰ (average +65.0‰ and +67.0‰ in 2008 and 2009, respectively, a range being lower than those reported for high altitude and polar areas. Several δ18O values were observed lower than the expected minimum of 50‰ at our study site. This was likely caused by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals; peroxy radicals can compete with O3 to convert NO to NO2, thereby donate O atoms with much lower δ18O value than that of O3 to atmospheric NO3

  11. Anthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. T. Fang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitric acid (HNO3 or nitrate (NO3 is the dominant sink for reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 in the atmosphere. In many Chinese cities, HNO3 is becoming a significant contributor to acid deposition. In the present study, we measured nitrogen (N and oxygen (O isotopic composition of NO3 in 113 precipitation samples collected from Guangzhou City in southern China over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. We attempted to better understand the spatial and seasonal variability of atmospheric NOx sources and the NO3 formation pathways in this N-polluted city in the Pearl River Delta region. The δ15N values of NO3 (versus air N2 ranged from −4.9 to +10.1‰, and averaged +3.9‰ in 2008 and +3.3‰ in 2009. Positive δ15N values were observed throughout the year, indicating the anthropogenic contribution of NOx emissions, particularly from coal combustion. Different seasonal patterns of δ15N-NO3 were observed between 2008 and 2009, which might reflect different human activities associated with the global financial crisis and the intensive preparations for the 16th Asian Games. Nitrate δ18O values (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water varied from +33.4 to +86.5‰ (average +65.0‰ and +67.0‰ in 2008 and 2009, respectively, a range being lower than those reported for high latitude and polar areas. Sixteen percent of δ18O values was observed lower than the expected minimum of +55‰ at our study site. This was likely caused by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals; peroxy radicals can compete with O3 to convert NO to NO2, thereby donate O atoms with much lower δ18O value than that of O3 to atmospheric NO3. Our

  12. Contribution of anthropogenic pollutants to the increase of tropospheric ozone levels in the Oporto Metropolitan Area, Portugal since the 19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollutants to the increase of tropospheric ozone levels in the Oporto Metropolitan Area (Portugal) since the 19th century. The study was based on pre-industrial and recent data series, the results being analyzed according to the atmospheric chemistry. The treatment of ozone and meteorological data was performed by classical statistics and by time-series analysis. It was concluded that in the 19th century the ozone present in the troposphere was not of photochemical origin, being possible to consider the respective concentrations as reference values. For recent data a cycle of 8 h for ozone concentrations could be related to traffic. Compared to the 19th century, the current concentrations were 147% higher (252% higher in May) due to the increased photochemical production associated with the increased anthropogenic emissions. - Compared to the 19th century, the current ozone concentrations are 147% higher at Oporto, Portugal

  13. STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON POLLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE AREA SC ROMPLUMB BAIA MARE FROM ANTHROPOGENICAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    COCIORHAN CAMELIA SIMONA; MICLE VALER

    2011-01-01

    The main ways of soil pollution are: on path air or atmospheric path and on terrestrial path, pollution path of direct their. Sources of air pollution are two categories: natural sources (volcanic eruptions, decomposition acts, etc.) and artificial, resulting from human activities (mining and metallurgy, energy, etc.). Solid air pollutants are those treated in the paper. They are dispersed in the air from emissions of particles which containing heavy metal ions in the atmosphere having a low ...

  14. Effects of experimental calcium availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on eggshell characteristics and yolk carotenoid and vitamin levels in two passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Ruiz, Sandra; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-05-01

    The maternal investment into egg quality depends on the condition of the female, the quality of the mate, and the quality of the environment. In that sense, availability of nutrients and exposure to pollutants are essential parameters to consider. The main aim of this study is to assess the effects of calcium (Ca) availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on early-stage reproduction in two passerine species, great tits (Parus major) and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. Both species were able to obtain sufficient Ca for eggshell formation, and metal pollution was below the level of having negative effects in the egg size and eggshell characteristics. However, metal polluted environment negatively affected yolk lutein and vitamin D3 levels in both species, probably because of a lower access to carotenoid-rich diet and higher metal interference with vitamin D3 metabolism. The higher levels of vitamin D3 in yolks in the unpolluted zone could also be due to upregulated D3 levels as a response to the lower natural Ca availability. Yolk carotenoids and vitamin D3 were positively associated with nestling growth and size, supporting their importance for the appropriate chick development. The interspecific differences in yolk nutrient concentrations possibly reflect the different growth rate of these species. Pied flycatchers are likely adapted to low Ca availability through an efficient vitamin D3 metabolism, but their Ca intake could be close to a deficient level.

  15. Response of bacterial community structure to seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollution on coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Bhavnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial community structure was analyzed from coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard (ASSBY), world's largest ship breaking yard, near Bhavnagar, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (cultured dependent and culture independent). In clone libraries, total 2324 clones were retrieved from seven samples (coastal water of ASSBY for three seasons along with one pristine coastal water) which were grouped in 525 operational taxonomic units. Proteobacteria was found to be dominant in all samples. In pristine samples, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be dominant, whereas in polluted samples dominancy of Gammaproteobacteria has shifted to Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Richness and diversity indices also indicated that bacterial community in pristine sample was the most diverse followed by summer, monsoon and winter samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study describing bacterial community structure from coastal water of ASSBY, and it suggests that seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollutions alters the bacterial community structure.

  16. STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON POLLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE AREA SC ROMPLUMB BAIA MARE FROM ANTHROPOGENICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COCIORHAN CAMELIA SIMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main ways of soil pollution are: on path air or atmospheric path and on terrestrial path, pollution path of direct their. Sources of air pollution are two categories: natural sources (volcanic eruptions, decomposition acts, etc. and artificial, resulting from human activities (mining and metallurgy, energy, etc.. Solid air pollutants are those treated in the paper. They are dispersed in the air from emissions of particles which containing heavy metal ions in the atmosphere having a low sedimentation rate. Finest particles, dispersed in the air gets a considerable stability, for which will persist for a much longer time in air, thereby of increasing pollution. Direct pollution comes from direct deposit of minerals on the soil as raw materials and hazardous waste, particle entrainment by deflation surface dumps, infiltration of sewage from emplacement, accidental discharge of sewage from the emplacement and crack pipes, etc. This paper shows how it is influenced soil pollution and crack pipes, etc. from the perimeter intrauzinal and extrauzinal of SC Romplumb SA by two of the factors leading to pollution, conveying technological waste water and atmospheric emissions, respectivelly.

  17. Microscale anthropogenic pollution modelling in a small tropical island during weak trade winds: Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations using real nested LES meteorological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécé, Raphaël; Bernard, Didier; Brioude, Jérome; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2016-08-01

    Tropical islands are characterized by thermal and orographical forcings which may generate microscale air mass circulations. The Lesser Antilles Arc includes small tropical islands (width lower than 50 km) where a total of one-and-a-half million people live. Air quality over this region is affected by anthropogenic and volcanic emissions, or saharan dust. To reduce risks for the population health, the atmospheric dispersion of emitted pollutants must be predicted. In this study, the dispersion of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) is numerically modelled over the densely populated area of the Guadeloupe archipelago under weak trade winds, during a typical case of severe pollution. The main goal is to analyze how microscale resolutions affect air pollution in a small tropical island. Three resolutions of domain grid are selected: 1 km, 333 m and 111 m. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used to produce real nested microscale meteorological fields. Then the weather outputs initialize the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (FLEXPART). The forward simulations of a power plant plume showed good ability to reproduce nocturnal peaks recorded by an urban air quality station. The increase in resolution resulted in an improvement of model sensitivity. The nesting to subkilometer grids helped to reduce an overestimation bias mainly because the LES domains better simulate the turbulent motions governing nocturnal flows. For peaks observed at two air quality stations, the backward sensitivity outputs identified realistic sources of NOx in the area. The increase in resolution produced a sharper inverse plume with a more accurate source area. This study showed the first application of the FLEXPART-WRF model to microscale resolutions. Overall, the coupling model WRF-LES-FLEXPART is useful to simulate the pollutant dispersion during a real case of calm wind regime over a complex terrain area. The forward and backward simulation results showed clearly that the

  18. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED) visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110). Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we co...

  19. EVALUATING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF CERTAIN FOREST SPECIES IN THE CONDITION OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION IN CRUCEA, SUCEAVA COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Viorel Oniciuc; Elena Tutu; Dumitru Cojocaru; Elena Ciornea

    2013-01-01

    Most economic activities that constitute the progress generator of an unprecedented development ofthe human society had led to a multiple and sever impact on the ecosystems. The scale in which this anthropogenicimpact manifests itself can vary greatly, being conditioned by the general and local dynamics of the pollution generatingprocesses. For this reason, there had been made some necessary investigations in order to evaluate its dimensions.Considered to be polluting for the forest ecosystem...

  20. A combined archeomagnetic and mycrostratographic study of Neolithic anthropogenic burnt sediments from the Can Sadurni cave (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Paccard, Miriam; Beamud, Elisabet; Bergada, Mercè; Martínez, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the variation of the Eart&hacute;s magnetic field in the past is an important topic in Earth Sciences today. New archeomagnetic data are crucial to expand the regional and global geomagnetic field models. However, very few archeomagnetic data are available in Europe before the third millenium BC. Recent archeomagnetic studies demonstrated that burnt anthropogenic cave sediments (fumiers) can provide a unique record of past geomagnetic field directions. In this study we present a combined archeomagnetic and microstratigraphic analysis of Neolithic anthropogenic sediments from the Can Sadurní cave (Begues, Baix Llobregat, northeastern Spain). Can Sadurní archaeological site is a cave located at the Garraf mountains, 450 m above sea level and about 25 km west of Barcelona (northeastern Spain). Excavations started in 1978 and are still in progress. Twenty-eight different levels have been identified, ranging from Epipalaeolithic (10 840-10 410 cal. BCE) to the Roman period. The samples studied here were sampled in a fumier corresponding to the E.XIV level and dated between 5650 and 5700 BP by archeological and radiocarbon results. Alternating field demagnetization experiments allow us to obtain a well-defined archeomagnetic direction for this period. Together with additional rock-magnetic analysis , the results indicate that the magnetisation is carried by low-coercivity ferromagnetic minerals. The new archeomagentic direction is compared with previous archeomagnetic data and models. The microstratigraphic analysis allows us to document some animal stabling practices in which two units can be distingished: a) mineralized residues (ash) with charcoal fragments and, b) charred dung.

  1. Anthropogenic versus natural processes and pollution in Padana Valley in last years involving new communication/policy strategies and ethical issues in research evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Vaccaro, Carmela; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Smart grids-Smat cities "fashion" requires management plans of highly urbanized areas located over the Padanian floodplain, which are prone to diffuse pollution of both lands and urban sectors, mostly after the disasters caused by tremendous alluvial rains in January 2014, when shallow aquifers and agricultural matters could have increase pollution over wide territory. Moreover the urban expansion has affected areas previously used for industrial activity and in some cases such for landfills. When the loss of memory of previous activity prevails after urbanization, with health issues, ethical questions are inevitable, accompanied by social conflicts and economic impacts. The alluvial plains of active tectonic areas - as the Padania Valley - in additions to widespread "anthropogenic pollution" is suffering from widespread "natural pollution" of deep fluid sources - mainly methane - corresponding to areas prone to uprising gaseous brines, along faults. Some of them were partially activated during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. This noteworthy seismic sequence engaged discussion about the possible role of gas storages and hydrocarbons production or the simple/exploring drilling activity to trigger typical tectonic seismicity. The paper deepen this troubled communication strategy, their gaps and peculiar geopolicy case histories, to avoid the same strategy, in the future. On the other hand, gas burst or brine-gas-contamination in shallow aquifers, soils and indoor, should be studied by simple and cheap methods, by deepening stratigraphic gaps for the tectonics effects on sedimentation: natural processes should be recalled prior to recall anthropogenic causes, if any. Policy should be more responsible in state clearly the role of research in study infrastructures/processes, also when engaged by private companies, for sites selected by ministries mostly to star research: relevant gaps involves serious confusion in the public as regards responsibility and an exact

  2. Natural and Anthropogenic Source of Heavy Metals Pollution in the Soil Samples of an Industrial Complex; a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mohammadi Roozbahani; Soheil Sobhanardakani; Hoda Karimi; Rezvan Sorooshnia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it can bind to various chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of some metals (Cd, Cu, Fe and V) in soil samples collected from different stations of Ahvaz Industrial Complex II to determine the natural and anthropogenic contribution of metal in the soil. Methods: This was an experimental study that carried out in 2013. Soil samples were obtained from 9 stations and were subjected to bulk digestion and che...

  3. Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway of Hepatocytes from Natural Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail: moleksiak@rsmas.miami.edu

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Polluted fish had lower LEAK, enzyme III and enzyme IV but higher enzyme I. • Exposures to PAH and PCB only affected individuals from the reference population. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), potentially target mitochondria and cause toxicity. We compared the effects of POPs on mitochondrial respiration by measuring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from lab-depurated Fundulus heteroclitus from a Superfund site contaminated with PAHs (Elizabeth River VA, USA) relative to OxPhos metabolism in individuals from a relatively clean, reference population (King’s Creek VA, USA). In individuals from the polluted Elizabeth River population, OxPhos metabolism displayed lower LEAK and lower activities in complex III, complex IV, and E State, but higher activity in complex I compared to individuals from the reference King’s Creek population. To test the supposition that these differences were due to or related to the chronic PAH contamination history of the Elizabeth River population, we compared the OxPhos functions of undosed individuals from the polluted and reference populations to individuals from these populations dosed with a PAH {benzo [α] pyrene (BaP)} or a PCB {PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl)}, respectively. Exposure to PAH or PCB affected OxPhos in the reference King’s Creek population but had no detectable effects on the polluted Elizabeth River population. Thus, PAH exposure significantly increased LEAK, and exposure to PCB126 significantly decreased State 3, E state and complex I activity in the reference King’s Creek population. These data strongly implicate an evolved tolerance in the Elizabeth River fish where dosed

  4. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects....... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...

  5. EVALUATING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF CERTAIN FOREST SPECIES IN THE CONDITION OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION IN CRUCEA, SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Viorel Oniciuc

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most economic activities that constitute the progress generator of an unprecedented development ofthe human society had led to a multiple and sever impact on the ecosystems. The scale in which this anthropogenicimpact manifests itself can vary greatly, being conditioned by the general and local dynamics of the pollution generatingprocesses. For this reason, there had been made some necessary investigations in order to evaluate its dimensions.Considered to be polluting for the forest ecosystem and the surrounding area, the target of this study had been theuranium mine at Crucea, located in Suceava Country. Taking into account the fact that depending on the quantity of thepolluting material substances to which the species are exposed, different physiological and biochemical effects appearsuch as the reduction of the photosynthesis due to the degradation of the chlorophyll, an increase in the respiratoryfrequency, changes in the metabolism of the proteins and the enzymatic activity, the following physiological andbiochemical indices where measured: catalase, peroxidase and the assimilating pigments that are included in thephotoreceptors of the two photosystems integrated in the photosynthesis process, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.Moreover, the chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b ratio, the caretonoid pigments and the relation between the chlorophyll and thecarotenes where taken into account while a determination was made on the activity of the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases.Researches had been made on foliar material sampled from different species of gymnosperms and angiosperms and onsoil samples taken in the contaminated area (Crucea as well as in the control area (Putna, Suceava County.

  6. The source of natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments of the Minjiang River Estuary (SE China): Implications for historical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sedimentary cores in the Minjiang River estuary (SE China) are documented for grain size, clay minerals, heavy metals, magnetic parameters and Pb isotopes to investigate the source and historical variation of heavy metals. The MJK9 core was collected outside of the Minjiang River estuary, and the core is composed of mixed sediments, of which ∼ 70% from the Yangtze River and 30% from the Minjiang River. It is thus difficult to be used for tracing the human activity along the Minjiang River. In contrast, the sediments of MJK16 core which was collected in a nearshore area are primarily from the Minjiang River. The enrichment factors of the sediments were < 1.5, indicating minor pollution. The results indicate that the sediments of the MJK16 core have Cu and Pb concentrations increasing since 1980, associated with the increase of magnetic mineral concentration and 206Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/208Pb of the sediments. We compared the Pb isotopic compositions between our results and those for the deposit mining in the Minjiang River basin, and aerosols and coal dust in south China, and considered that Pb in the sediments of the MJK16 core was derived primarily from weathered rocks as well as industrial emission (e.g. coal combustion). The sediments have anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranging from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010, consistent with the impact of rapid urban and industrial development in China. - Highlights: • Grain size, clay mineral and Pb isotope were used to identify sediment sources. • The contribution of Yangtze River to northern of Taiwan Strait was quantified. • Enrichment factors indicated Cu and Pb have increased over the last decades. • Coal combustion was the prevailing contamination source. • The anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranged from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010

  7. The source of natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments of the Minjiang River Estuary (SE China): Implications for historical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonghang, E-mail: yonghang_xu@163.com [Open Laboratory of Ocean and Coast Environmental Geology, Third Institute of Oceanography State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Qinqin [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Coast and Island Management Technology Study, Fujian Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen 361013 (China); Yi, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin, Xijie; Wang, Aijun; Li, Yunhai; Chen, Jian [Open Laboratory of Ocean and Coast Environmental Geology, Third Institute of Oceanography State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Two sedimentary cores in the Minjiang River estuary (SE China) are documented for grain size, clay minerals, heavy metals, magnetic parameters and Pb isotopes to investigate the source and historical variation of heavy metals. The MJK9 core was collected outside of the Minjiang River estuary, and the core is composed of mixed sediments, of which ∼ 70% from the Yangtze River and 30% from the Minjiang River. It is thus difficult to be used for tracing the human activity along the Minjiang River. In contrast, the sediments of MJK16 core which was collected in a nearshore area are primarily from the Minjiang River. The enrichment factors of the sediments were < 1.5, indicating minor pollution. The results indicate that the sediments of the MJK16 core have Cu and Pb concentrations increasing since 1980, associated with the increase of magnetic mineral concentration and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 208}Pb of the sediments. We compared the Pb isotopic compositions between our results and those for the deposit mining in the Minjiang River basin, and aerosols and coal dust in south China, and considered that Pb in the sediments of the MJK16 core was derived primarily from weathered rocks as well as industrial emission (e.g. coal combustion). The sediments have anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranging from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010, consistent with the impact of rapid urban and industrial development in China. - Highlights: • Grain size, clay mineral and Pb isotope were used to identify sediment sources. • The contribution of Yangtze River to northern of Taiwan Strait was quantified. • Enrichment factors indicated Cu and Pb have increased over the last decades. • Coal combustion was the prevailing contamination source. • The anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranged from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010.

  8. Status of anthropogenically induced metal pollution in the Kanpur-Unnao industrial region of the Ganga Plain, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, A.A.; Tobschall, H.J. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Singh, I.B. [Lucknow Univ. (India). Dept. of Geology

    1999-06-01

    The Ganga Plain is one of the most densely populated regions and one of the largest groundwater repositories of the Earth. For several decades, the drainage basin of the Ganga Plain has been used for the disposal of domestic and industrial wastes which has adversely affected the quality of water, sediments and agricultural soils of the plain. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn and organic carbon were determined in river sediments and soils of the Ganga Plain in the Kanpur-Unnao industrial region in 1994 and 1995 (pre-monsoon period of April-May). High contents (maximum values) of C-org (12.0 wt.%), Cr (3.40 wt.%), Sn (1.92 wt.%), Zn (4000 mg/kg), Pb (646 mg/kg), Cu (408 mg/kg), Ni (502 mg/kg) and Cd (9.8 mg/kg) in sediments (< 20 {mu}m fraction); and C-org (5.9 wt.%), Cr (2.16 wt.%), Sn (1.21 wt.%), Zn (975 mg/kg) and Ni (482 mg/kg) in soils (< 20 {mu}m) in the pre-monsoon period of 1994 were found. From 1994 to 1995 the contents of Fe and Sn in sediments increase whereas those of C-org, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn decrease. Considering the analytical errors, Al, Co, Cr, Mn and Pb do not show any change in their concentrations. In soils, the contents of Cd, Fe and Sn increase whereas those of Ni decrease from 1994 to 1995. Aluminium, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn do not show any change in their concentrations from 1994 to 1995. About 90% of the contents of Cd, Cr and Sn; 50-75% of C-org, Cu and Zn; and 25% of Co, Ni and Pb in sediments are derived from the anthropogenic input in relation to the natural background values, whereas in soils this is the case for about 90% of Cr and Sn; about 75% of Cd; and about 25% of C-org, Cu, Ni and Zn. The sediments of the study area show enrichment factors of 23.6 for Cr, 14.7 for Cd, 12.2 for Sn, 3.6 for C-org, 3.2 for Zn, 2.6 for Cu and 1.6 for Ni. The soils are enriched with factors of 10.7 for Cr, 9.0 for Sn, 3.6 for Cd, 1.8 for Ni and 1.5 for Cu and Zn, respectively. (orig.)

  9. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS IN THE ASPECT OF THEIR IMPACT ON A RECEIVER

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Brzezińska

    2016-01-01

    Increased efficiency of wastewater treatment highlights the role of combined sewer overflows in deterioration the quality of water receiver because pollutant loads discharged by them have a growing share in entire load discharged into a receiver. The article contains the results of the wastewater quality analyzes emitted into the receiver from the three studied combined sewer overflows of the city of Lodz. The results demonstrated a large variations in the pollutant concentration directed to ...

  10. Determination of nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) by using a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased pollution by nitrate from intensive agricultural and other anthropogenic activities the Marano lagoon (northeast Italy) and part of its catchment area have been investigated, applying a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques. Thus, to identify and characterize the potential multiple-sources of nitrate pollution the isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O), boron (δ11B), water (δ2H and δ18O), and sulphate (δ34S and δ18O), as well as the chemical composition of different water types have been determined. In the monitoring program water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater upwelling line, groundwater, sewage, and open sea on a quarterly interval from 2009 to 2010 have been collected and analyzed. Coupling isotopic and hydrochemical results indicate that the nitrate load in the lagoon was not only derived from agriculture activities but also from other sources such as urban wastewaters, in situ nitrification, and atmospheric deposition. However, none of the samples showed the isotopic characteristics of synthetic fertilizers. (authors)

  11. Determination of nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) by using a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccon, Pierpaolo; Leis, Albrecht [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, 8010 Graz (Austria); Marca, Alina; Kaiser, Jan; Campisi, Laura [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich (United Kingdom); Boettcher, Michael E.; Escher, Peter [Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Geochemistry and Isotope Geochemistry Group, D-18119 Rostock (Germany); Savarino, Joel; Erbland, Joseph [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE) UMR 5183 (France); Eisenhauer, Anton [GEOMAR, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Ozean Forschung Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1-3, 24148 Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Due to increased pollution by nitrate from intensive agricultural and other anthropogenic activities the Marano lagoon (northeast Italy) and part of its catchment area have been investigated, applying a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques. Thus, to identify and characterize the potential multiple-sources of nitrate pollution the isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O), boron (δ{sup 11}B), water (δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O), and sulphate (δ{sup 34}S and δ{sup 18}O), as well as the chemical composition of different water types have been determined. In the monitoring program water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater upwelling line, groundwater, sewage, and open sea on a quarterly interval from 2009 to 2010 have been collected and analyzed. Coupling isotopic and hydrochemical results indicate that the nitrate load in the lagoon was not only derived from agriculture activities but also from other sources such as urban wastewaters, in situ nitrification, and atmospheric deposition. However, none of the samples showed the isotopic characteristics of synthetic fertilizers. (authors)

  12. Pollution evaluation in the Shahrood River: Do physico-chemical and macroinvertebrate-based indices indicate same responses to anthropogenic activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifinia, Moslem; Mahmoudifard, Abbas; Imanpour Namin, Javid; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Shahrood River using water physico-chemical variables and macroinvertebrates data sets obtained over a period of 12 months between February 2012 and February 2013 at 8 sampling sites. Biotic indices i.e. FBI and BMWP based on macroinvertebrates and physico-chemical indices (MPI, HPI and NSF-WQI) were employed to evaluate the water quality status in connection with natural- and human-induced pressures. Based on physico-chemical indices, water quality was categorized as low polluted level and it is suitable for drinking purposes. The water quality based on biotic indices was related to the anthropic activities; a clear deterioration of the water quality was observed from upstream to downstream sites. The water quality along the river changed from very good (class I; reference sites) to good (class II; midstream sites) and turned into moderate (class III) and poor (class IV) quality (downstream sites). These findings indicate that biotic indices are more powerful indicators in assessing water quality than physico-chemical indices. Allocapnia, Glossosoma and Hesperoperla were exclusively related to least disturbed sites, and Naididae, Orthocladiinae and Ecdyonurus were found in sites showing notable degradation. Our results recommended that the use of macroinvertebrates could be employed as a cost-effective tool for biomonitoring and controlling of polluted riverine ecosystems in the Middle East. Finally, the results from this study may be useful not only for developing countries, but also for any organization struggling to use macroinvertebrate based indices with restricted financial resources and knowledge. PMID:27343865

  13. Biogenic robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Punica granatum peel and its application as a green catalyst for the reduction of an anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, T. Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    A robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the peel extract of Punica granatum is reported in this article. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by the appearance of brownish yellow color and the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) peak at 432 nm. The biogenic AgNPs were found to have the size approximately 30 nm with distorted spherical shape. The high negative zeta potential values of AgNPs revealed their high stability which could be attributed to the capping of AgNPs by the phytoconstituents of the Punica granatum peel. The biogenic AgNPs were also found to function as an effective green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant viz., 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by solid sodium borohydride, which was evident from the instantaneous color change of bright yellow (400 nm) to colorless (294 nm) solution, after the addition of AgNPs. The catalytic action of biogenic AgNPs in the reduction of 4-NP could be explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  14. Clay-biodegradable polymer combination for pollutant removal from water

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Mohd Amin; S. G. J. Heijman; L. C. Rietveld

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new treatment alternative is investigated to remove micropollutants from wastewater effectively and in a more cost-effective way. A potential solution is the use of clay in combination with biodegradable polymeric flocculants. Flocculation is viewed as the best method to get the optimum outcome from the combination of clay with starch. Clay is naturally abundantly available and relatively inexpensive compared to the conven...

  15. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...

  16. Correlation between Cr~(6+) and Mn~(2+) Adsorption in Rock-soil Medium with Combined Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the correlation between Cr6+ and Mn2+ adsorption in rock-soil medium with combined pollution. [Method] Combining single Cr6+ and Mn2+ adsorption test with combined pollution test, the adsorption laws of Cr6+ and Mn2+ were studied, and the correlation between Cr6+ and Mn2+ adsorption was analysed by using correlation analysis and regression analysis. [Result] According to the comparative analysis on adsorption tests, the adsorption time, adsorption amount and adsorption speed...

  17. On Hydraulic and Pollution Effects of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    systems to become serviced with separate sewer systems decreases the volumes of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant and discharged as combined sewer overflow. This happens at the expense of an increase in volumes of storm water and pollutant loads diverted to local...... receiving waters when detention ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. It is concluded that consequences can be fatal for receiving waters, if no retention of pollutants is integrated into the system....

  18. Clay-biodegradable polymer combination for pollutant removal from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mohd Amin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new treatment alternative is investigated to remove micropollutants from wastewater effectively and in a more cost-effective way. A potential solution is the use of clay in combination with biodegradable polymeric flocculants. Flocculation is viewed as the best method to get the optimum outcome from the combination of clay with starch. Clay is naturally abundantly available and relatively inexpensive compared to the conventional adsorbents used. Experimental studies were carried out with four different clays to select the best clay for further optimisation. The atrazine removal achieved is in the range of 10–99 % based on the clay concentration of 10–50 g L−1. Optimisation of the best clay performer leads towards atrazine reduction of > 99 % with a dosage of 100 mg L−1. The best and underperforming clays were then tested in other experiments with the addition of cationic starch flocculants. In this experiment, the addition of a polymer increased the atrazine removal for the underperforming clay to 46 % with only 10 mg L−1 clay dosages. The clay flocculation test was also performed to test the flocculation efficiency of clays by the polymer. Approximately 80–84 % of the clay is flocculated, which shows exceptional flocculation efficiency in removing both clays and atrazine from the water matrices.

  19. Household Anthropogenic Pollutants Against Soil Respiration Erin Murphy EnvironMentors - AggieMentor -Trent Ichiuji University of California Davis / Woodland High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Ichiuji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Macroscopic organisms have been largely studied for carbon dioxide release rate and the effect that human development has had on these rates. However, the majority of biomass on Earth is microbes found on the Earth's surface, in the waterways and in soil. As for pollution, a single drop of weak acid is unlikely to kill on the skin of a large animal, yet this could be catastrophic to a colony of microbes. This experiment studied the effect of anthropogenic pollution on soil respiration using toxins that could easily infiltrate our soil and water systems. This project specifically examined common household chemicals in conjunction with Putah Creek soil. The tested toxins were Mobil 1 motor oil, Windex window cleaner, Ajax dish soap, and Dawn antibacterial dish soap. Six samples of Putah Creek soil were collected in jars. Four soil samples were exposed to toxins, while the remaining two were the control and glucose replicates. The control included soil damped by water, while the glucose replicate included both water and glucose. The glucose replicate was included because of its known ability to encourage respiration. A 20 mL NaCl base trap was added to each jar before being sealed. The jars were aerated once a week before titration. The 1.0 N NaCl from each jar of each week was titrated with 0.5 N HCl. The initial prediction for this experiment was that the glucose would raise the respiration levels, and that the control with no glucose would fall. Five weeks of recording the respiration levels confirmed our hypothesis that household toxins are detrimental to the soil microbial community over time. A similar experiment employed heavy metals instead of household toxins. The experiment showed that soil respiration and ATP content were strongly affected by the heavy metal content present in the soil. (Vanhala, Ahtiainen, 1994). This project will raise awareness of the negative effect of improper disposal of seemingly harmless materials. The next step of the project would

  20. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS IN THE ASPECT OF THEIR IMPACT ON A RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Brzezińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased efficiency of wastewater treatment highlights the role of combined sewer overflows in deterioration the quality of water receiver because pollutant loads discharged by them have a growing share in entire load discharged into a receiver. The article contains the results of the wastewater quality analyzes emitted into the receiver from the three studied combined sewer overflows of the city of Lodz. The results demonstrated a large variations in the pollutant concentration directed to the receiver during rain events. The possible impact of untreated wastewater emitted to the receiver is also presented. Apart from the pollution of the receiver, mainly by organic and nutrient substances, the microbiological contamination which is dangerous for people using the river as a recreation area and for animals that use a water receiver as a source of drinking water, should be taken into particular attention.

  1. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dürr; R. Jaffe

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  2. Assessment of pollutant load emission from combined sewer overflows based on the online monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Zawilski, Marek; Sakson, Grażyna

    2016-09-01

    Cities equipped with combined sewer systems discharge during wet weather a lot of pollutants into receiving waters by combined storm overflows (CSOs). According to the Polish legislation, CSOs should be activated no more than ten times per year, but in Lodz, most of the 18 existing CSOs operate much more frequently. To assess the pollutant load emitted by one of the existing CSOs, the sensors for measuring the concentration of total suspended solids (SOLITAX sc) and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (UVAS plus) installed in the overflow chamber as well as two flowmeters placed in the outflow sewer were used. In order to check the data from sensors, laboratory tests of combined wastewater quality were conducted simultaneously. For the analysis of the total pollutant load emitted from the overflow, the raw data was denoised using the Savitzky-Golay method. Comparing the load calculated from the analytical results to online smoothed measurements, negligible differences were found, which confirms the usefulness of applying the sensors in the combined sewer system. Online monitoring of the quantity and quality of wastewater emitted by the combined sewer overflows to water receivers, provides a considerable amount of data very useful for combined sewerage upgrading based on computer modelling, and allows for a significant reduction of laboratory analysis. PMID:27488195

  3. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Zorana J; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects.

  4. Combined Effect of Aircraft Noise and Pollutant Emissions by using ANN Model to Determine Healthy Risk Level

    OpenAIRE

    SETIA KURNIAWAN, Jermanto; KATILI, Irwan; MOERSIDIK, Setyo Sarwanto; Khardi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft noise and pollutant emissions are an important part of the sources of pollution around airport that directly or indirectly will affect harmful to human health and ecosystems. The effects of aircraft noise and emissions on the populations around airport are deal with annoying and sometimes dangerous. In order to address this issue, the research propose an integrating model of aircraft noise and pollutant emissions by combining effects of both noise and pollutant emissions using Artifi...

  5. Rapid ecotoxicological assessment of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Su-hua; ZHOU Qi-xing; SUN Tie-heng; LI Pei-jun

    2003-01-01

    Quick, simple to perform, and cheap biomarkers were combined in a rapid assessment approach to measure the effects of metal pollutants, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in meadow burozem on wheat. Analysis of orthogonal design showed that the significant zinc factor indicated both the inhibition rate of shoot mass and that of root elongation were affected by zinc( P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The first toxicity canonical variable (TOXI), formed from the toxicity data set, explained 49% of the total variance in the toxicity data set; the first biological canonical variable(BIOL) explained 42% of the total variation in the biological data set. The correlation between the first canonical variables TOXI and BIOL (canonical correlation) was 0.94 ( P < 0.0001). Therefore, it is reliable and feasible to use the achievement to assess toxicity of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis. Toxicity of soil combined polluted by heavy metals to plant community was estimated by comparing the IC50 values describing the concentration needed to cause 50% decrease with grow rate compared to no metal addition. Environmental quality standard for soils prescribe that all these tested concentration of heavy metals in soil should not cause hazard and pollution ultimately, whereas it indicated that the soils in second grade cause more or less than 50% inhibition rates of wheat growth. So environmental quality standard for soils can be modified to include other features.

  6. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    The connection of climate change and air pollution is becoming more relevant in the process of policy making and implementation of emission control strategies because of resulting co-benefits and trade-offs. Some sectors, such as fossil fuel combustion, are sources of both pollutants (NOx and PM) as well as greenhouse gas (CO2). Additionally, the use of wood burning as biofuel to reduce climate impact may in fact deteriorate air quality. Furthermore, several air pollutants are important radiative forcers and regulating their emissions impacts on climate. It is evident that both problems need to be undertaken with a common strategy and the existence of cross-policy with co-benefits may encourage their implementation. The LIMITS FP7 project (http://www.feem-project.net/limits/index.html) was designed with the main goal of assessing strategies for reduction of GHG emissions so that the 2°C target can be achieved. The work developed focus on the evaluation of the implementation of strategies analysing several aspects of different scenarios, namely: the feasibility of low carbon scenarios in terms of available technologies and infrastructure, the required financial mechanisms, and also the co-benefits regarding energy security, economic development and air pollution. For the latter, five integrated assessment models (IAMs) provided greenhouse gases and pollutant emission values for several scenarios. These were based on air pollution scenarios defined according to stringency and implementation of future global legislation. They which were also combined with 2 climate policy scenarios (no climate policy and 2.8 W/m2 target). The former are mostly focused on non-climate policies and technical control measures for emissions of air pollutants, such as PM2.5, NOx and SO2, with their emission factors harmonized between the IAMs. With the global air quality source-receptor model TM5-FASST the impact of the resulting emissions was analysed and the co-benefits of combined

  7. Late Holocene dune mobilizations in the northwestern Negev dunefield, Israel: A response to combined anthropogenic activity and short-term intensified windiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Katra, Itzhak; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2013-04-01

    dune chronostratigraphy. Because they were short lived, the dune mobilization events, corresponding windiness, and probable dustiness which were examined affected the northern Negev landscape differentially. However, they cannot be proved to have affected the environment sufficiently to influence the decline of the late Byzantine and Early Islam agricultural establishment. This study demonstrates the sensitivity of dunes in arid and semi-arid regions to a combination of local and short-term fluctuations in windiness at times of widespread grazing (anthropogenic activity). The results remind us that in similar future scenarios, sand mobilization may be similarly retriggered to varying degrees.

  8. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    modifications were used to create specific databases and a GIS in which these data can be analyzed by typology, location and extension.

    The proposed approach highlights the high degree of correlation between drainage basin management, mainly in terms of increasing protection from natural hazards, and anthropogenic development in a broad coastal plain.

  9. Evaluation of genotoxicity of combined soil pollution by cadmium and imidacloprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Aijun; ZHU; Yongguan; TONG; Yiping

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the important pollutants of soil and the genotoxicity of Cd-contaminated soil was studied in combination with imidacloprid. The single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay was used to quantify DNA strand breaks as a measure of DNA damage induced by Cd and imidacloprid contamination in soil. The soil was artificially contaminated by Cd 2 h at 25℃ and were used in the comet assay. DNA damage was measured as the values of percentage of nuclei with tails, tail length, tail DNA, tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM). DNA damages of root tips of Vicia faba increased after Cd treatment and there were dose-related increases in DNA damage measured as these parameters. However, the addition of imidacloprid further increased the DNA damage. These data confirmed the genotoxic effect of Cd to plants, and that the combined pollution with imidacloprid can enhance the genotoxicity of Cd.

  10. Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granier, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Bond, T.; D'Angiola, A.; Gon, H.D. van der; Frost, G.J.; Heil, A.; Kaiser, J.W.; Kinne, S.; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, C.; Masui, T.; Meleux, F.; Mieville, A.; Ohara, T.; Raut, J.-C.; Riahi, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Smith, S.J.; Thompson, A.; Aardenne, J. van; Werf, G.R. van der; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2011-01-01

    Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical

  11. In situ combined chemical and biological assessment of estrogenic pollution in a water recycling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yulang; Huang, Qiansheng; Zhang, Huanteng; Chen, Yajie; Dong, Sijun

    2016-05-01

    Estrogenic pollution and its control in aquatic systems have drawn substantial attention around the world. The chemical and biological assessment approaches currently utilized in the laboratory or field cannot give an integrated assessment of the pollution when used separately. In this study, in situ chemical and biological methods were combined to detect pollution in a water recycling system. Data for the water quality index (WQI) demonstrated that the water treatment resulted in the decline of pollution from upstream to downstream. Wild male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was sampled in June and September. The concentrations of four common endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were determined in the tilapia liver by chromatographic analysis methods. The level of 17β-estradiol (E2) declined from upstream to downstream in both months. In contrast, the levels of bisphenol A (BPA), di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate (DEHP), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) did not display this declining tendency. The highest relative expression of vitellogenin 1 (VTG1) was observed in tilapia from upstream, then the level significantly decreased along the water system. The relative expression levels of CYP1A1 in the water system were also significantly higher than that of the control. However, no declining trend could be observed along the water system. The change of VTG1 expression corresponded well with that of E2 levels in the tilapia liver. Overall, our study assessed the pollution by endocrine disruptors using chemical and biological data with good correspondence. This study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the water recycling system in eliminating estrogen pollution in municipal sewage. PMID:27155427

  12. Food—Security Indexes Related to Combined Pollution of Chromium and Phenol in Soil—Rice Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUQIXING; ZHUYINMEI; 等

    1997-01-01

    The pot-culture method combined with chemical and staistical analyses was used to get basic data for determination of the food-seurity indexes related to combined pollution of Cr and phenol in soil-rice systems. Regression analyses accordig to the experimental result indicated that the critical concentrations of Cr and phenol in brown rice were 0.37 and 0.33 mg kg-1 ,respectively,under the condition of Cr-phenol combined pollution.

  13. Evaluation of genotoxicity of combined soil pollution by cadmium and phenanthrene on earthworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiang; ZHAO Zuo-yuan; LU Yi-tong

    2006-01-01

    The DNA-damaging effects of the combined pollution of heavy metal and organic contamination on earthworms were evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. Earthworms Eisenia andrei were exposed to single or combined test compounds in different doses of cadmium (Cd) 5, 10, 50 mg/kg and phenanthrene (Phe) 0.5, 2.5, 12.5 mg/kg with a treatment of 14 d.In SCGE assay, isolated coelomcytes and electrophoresis were employed to determine DNA damage degree after a 14-d treatment by test compounds. The results showed that there was a significant statistical difference between earthworms treated with Cd combined Phe with them treated alone with Cd or Phe. The Olive tail moment (OTM) of SCGE assay using earthworm coelomcytes appears to be a sensitive biomarker for evaluating exposure to genotoxic compounds. These tests also revealed that the interaction between Cd and Phe to DNA damaging effects was negative, and was strongly dependent on the concentration of pollution. This study corresponds to exploratory phase in order to reveal interaction effects of heavy metal and organic contamination on earthworms and then to set up more in-depth analysis to increase progressively the understanding of the genotoxicity mechanisms involved.

  14. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic pollution on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation in PM2.5 collected from the Birmingham, Alabama, ground site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Chu, Kevin; Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Riva, Matthieu; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Edgerton, Eric S.; Baumann, Karsten; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Guo, Hongyu; King, Laura; Weber, Rodney J.; Neff, Miranda E.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Offenberg, John H.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-04-01

    In the southeastern US, substantial emissions of isoprene from deciduous trees undergo atmospheric oxidation to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that contributes to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Laboratory studies have revealed that anthropogenic pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and aerosol acidity, can enhance SOA formation from the hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of isoprene; however, the mechanisms by which specific pollutants enhance isoprene SOA in ambient PM2.5 remain unclear. As one aspect of an investigation to examine how anthropogenic pollutants influence isoprene-derived SOA formation, high-volume PM2.5 filter samples were collected at the Birmingham, Alabama (BHM), ground site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Sample extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) with prior trimethylsilylation and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS) to identify known isoprene SOA tracers. Tracers quantified using both surrogate and authentic standards were compared with collocated gas- and particle-phase data as well as meteorological data provided by the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollution on isoprene-derived SOA formation. Results of this study reveal that isoprene-derived SOA tracers contribute a substantial mass fraction of organic matter (OM) ( ˜ 7 to ˜ 20 %). Isoprene-derived SOA tracers correlated with sulfate (SO42-) (r2 = 0.34, n = 117) but not with NOx. Moderate correlations between methacrylic acid epoxide and hydroxymethyl-methyl-α-lactone (together abbreviated MAE/HMML)-derived SOA tracers with nitrate radical production (P[NO3]) (r2 = 0.57, n = 40) were observed during nighttime, suggesting a potential role of the NO3 radical in

  15. Remediation of metal polluted soils by phytorremediation combined with biochar addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gómez-Limón, Dulce; César Arranz, Julio; Saa, Antonio; Gascó, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this work is to optimize and quantify the treatment of metal polluted soils through phytoremediation techniques combined with the addition of biochar. Biochar is a carbon rich material obtained by thermal treatment of biomass in inert atmosphere. In recent years, it has been attracted considerable interest due to their positive effect after soil addition. The use of biochar also seems appropriate for the treatment of metal-contaminated soils decreasing their mobility. Biochar properties highly depend on the raw material composition and manufacturing conditions. This paper is based on the use of manure wastes, rich in nutrients and therefore interesting raw materials for biochar production, especially when combined with phytoremediation techniques since the biochar act as conditioner and slow release fertilizer. We are very grateful to Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (Spain) for financial support under Project CGL2014-58322-R.

  16. Aquifer vulnerability to pesticide pollution - Combining soil, land-use and aquifer properties with molecular descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study uses an extensive survey of herbicides in groundwater across the midwest United States to predict occurrences of a range of compounds across the region from a combination of their molecular properties and the properties of the catchment of a borehole. The study covers 100 boreholes and eight pesticides. For each of the boreholes its catchment the soil, land-use and aquifer properties were characterized. Discriminating boreholes where pollution occurred from those where no pollution occurred gave a model that was 74% correct with organic carbon content, percentage sand content and depth to the water table being significant properties of the borehole catchment. Molecular topological descriptors as well as Koc, solubility and half-life were used to characterize each compound included in the study. Inclusion of molecular properties makes it possible to discriminate between occurrence and non-occurrence of each compound in each well. The best-fit model combines: organic carbon content, percentage sand content and depth to the water table with molecular descriptors representing molecular size, molecular branching and functional group composition of the herbicides.

  17. Quantification of anthropogenic impact on groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem using geochemical and isotope tools combined with 3-D flow and transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, A. J.; Witczak, S.; Dulinski, M.; Wachniew, P.; Rozanski, K.; Kania, J.; Postawa, A.; Karczewski, J.; Moscicki, W. J.

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) have important functions in all climatic zones as they contribute to biological and landscape diversity and provide important economic and social services. Steadily growing anthropogenic pressure on groundwater resources creates a conflict situation between nature and man which are competing for clean and safe sources of water. Such conflicts are particularly noticeable in GDEs located in densely populated regions. A dedicated study was launched in 2010 with the main aim to better understand the functioning of a groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) located in southern Poland. The GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest) and associated wetland (Wielkie Błoto fen). It relies mostly on groundwater from the shallow Quaternary aquifer and possibly from the deeper Neogene (Bogucice Sands) aquifer. In July 2009 a cluster of new pumping wells abstracting water from the Neogene aquifer was set up 1 km to the northern border of the fen. A conceptual model of the Wielkie Błoto fen area for the natural, pre-exploitation state and for the envisaged future status resulting from intense abstraction of groundwater through the new well field was developed. The main aim of the reported study was to probe the validity of the conceptual model and to quantify the expected anthropogenic impact on the studied GDTE. A wide range of research tools was used. The results obtained through combined geologic, geophysical, geochemical, hydrometric and isotope investigations provide strong evidence for the existence of upward seepage of groundwater from the deeper Neogene aquifer to the shallow Quaternary aquifer supporting the studied GDTE. Simulations of the groundwater flow field in the study area with the aid of a 3-D flow and transport model developed for Bogucice Sands (Neogene) aquifer and calibrated using environmental tracer data and observations of hydraulic head in three different locations on the study area

  18. Research on Energy Consumption Evaluation Combined with Endogenous Pollutants of China Based on Entropy-Topsis%Research on Energy Consumption Evaluation Combined with Endogenous Pollutants of China Based on Entropy-Topsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ao; Wu Chunyou; Wang Enxu

    2011-01-01

    The traditional evaluation of energy consumption mostly introduces pollutants as a negative economic output into evaluating model, ignoring the configuration relationship among the energy input, pollutants as well as economic output. This paper considers the overall process of energy consumption and constructs an evaluation indication system of energy consumption level combined with endogenous pollutants based on entropytopsis method, then makes empirical research. The results show that China's energy consumption level presents a fluctuant rise in the premise of emission. Energy consumption level depends on the relationship among energy input, pollutants and economic output. The raise of energy consumption level should not increase economic output and reduce pollutant emission at the expense of environment. Finally, the whole paper puts forward the countermeasures to improve the overall level of energy consumption.

  19. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penha-Lopes, G.; Torres, P.; Cannicci, S.;

    2011-01-01

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance...... on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one pen-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the pen-urban location were larger......, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and pen-urban mangroves. However, a higher level...

  20. Effect of combined pollution by heavy metals on soil enzymatic activities in areas polluted by tailings from Pb-Zn-Ag mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Cheng-li; LIAO Min; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Some enzymatic activities were determined in the areas polluted by tailings from Tiantai Pb-Zn-Ag Mine in Zhejiang Province of China. The results indicated the soil enzymatic activities decreased significantly with increase of concentrations of heavy metals or the distance away from mining tailing center, especially dehydrogenase and urease activities. Multivariate regression analysis between heavy metal contents and soil enzymatic activities indicated that single dehydrogenase activity was very significantly correlated to combined effect of soil heavy metals in mine area. Moreover, single urease, protease and acid phosphatase activities were significantly related to the combined effect of heavy metals. The results suggest it is feasible to use soil enzymatic activities to indicate the pollution situation by combined heavy metals in the soil of mine area.

  1. Low concentration volatile organic pollutants removal in combined adsorber-desorber-catalytic reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from numerous emission sources is of crucial importance due to more rigorous demands on air quality. Different technologies can be used to treat the VOCs from effluent gases: absorption, physical adsorption, open flame combustion, thermal and catalytic incineration. Their appropriateness for the specific process depends on several factors such as efficiency, energy consumption, secondary pollution, capital investments etc. The distinctive features of the catalytic combustion are high efficiency and selectivity toward be­nign products, low energy consumption and absence of secondary polluti­on. The supported noble catalysts are widely used for catalytic incineration due to their low ignition temperatures and high thermal and chemical stability. In our combined system adsorption and desorption are applied in the spouted bed with draft tube (SBDT unit. The annular zone, loaded with sorbent, was divided in adsorption and desorption section. Draft tube enabled sorbent recirculation between sections. Combustion of desorbed gases to CO2 and water vapor are realized in additive catalytic reactor. This integrated device provided low concentrations VOCs removal with reduced energy consumption. Experiments were conducted on a pilot unit of 220 m3/h nominal capacity. The sorbent was activated carbon, type K81/B - Trayal Corporation, Krusevac. A sphere shaped commercial Pt/Al2O3 catalyst with "egg-shell" macro-distribution was used for the investigation of xylene deep oxidation. Within this paper the investigations of removal of xylene vapors, a typical pollutant in production of liquid pesticides, in combined adsorber/desorber/catalytic reactor system is presented.

  2. Microbial Pollution Tracking of Dairy Farm with a Combined PCR-DGGE and qPCR Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jiachao; Kwok, Laiyu; Huo, Dongxue; Feng, Shuzhen; Zhang, Heping; Sun, Tiansong

    2015-12-01

    Animal husbandry is a traditional industry with regional characteristic in the Inner Mongolia of China. Recent years, animal breeding has been one of the main pollution sources in this area, followed by domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. The pollution of livestock farm feces may accelerate the development of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes which pose health risks to humans and animals. In present research, culture-independent molecular ecological methods based on DGGE combined with qPCR were used to investigate the pollution to surrounding environment with different degrees of livestock farm. The cluster analysis of DGGE patterns showed that the livestock farm feces from point pollution source flowed with wastewater discharge has resulted in an impacted range of at least 3000 m, but it did not cause pollution to residential water delivered from upstream of sewage drain outlet. qPCR results revealed that 5 common pathogens (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, and Salmonella) presented decreased trend as the sampled distance from point pollution source increased. Also, qPCR assays of 10 common antibiotic resistance genes (tetO, tetL, rpp, rpoB, sul2, sulA, floR, yidY, mphA, and ermC) which cause resistance to tetracycline, rifampicin, fluoroquinolone, quinolone, and erythromycin have been found in the environmental samples. This study clearly indicates the livestock farm discharge pollutants contaminated to the surrounding environment. Our data have provided important information to pollution control in the future.

  3. Microbial Pollution Tracking of Dairy Farm with a Combined PCR-DGGE and qPCR Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jiachao; Kwok, Laiyu; Huo, Dongxue; Feng, Shuzhen; Zhang, Heping; Sun, Tiansong

    2015-12-01

    Animal husbandry is a traditional industry with regional characteristic in the Inner Mongolia of China. Recent years, animal breeding has been one of the main pollution sources in this area, followed by domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. The pollution of livestock farm feces may accelerate the development of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes which pose health risks to humans and animals. In present research, culture-independent molecular ecological methods based on DGGE combined with qPCR were used to investigate the pollution to surrounding environment with different degrees of livestock farm. The cluster analysis of DGGE patterns showed that the livestock farm feces from point pollution source flowed with wastewater discharge has resulted in an impacted range of at least 3000 m, but it did not cause pollution to residential water delivered from upstream of sewage drain outlet. qPCR results revealed that 5 common pathogens (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, and Salmonella) presented decreased trend as the sampled distance from point pollution source increased. Also, qPCR assays of 10 common antibiotic resistance genes (tetO, tetL, rpp, rpoB, sul2, sulA, floR, yidY, mphA, and ermC) which cause resistance to tetracycline, rifampicin, fluoroquinolone, quinolone, and erythromycin have been found in the environmental samples. This study clearly indicates the livestock farm discharge pollutants contaminated to the surrounding environment. Our data have provided important information to pollution control in the future. PMID:26341923

  4. Biochemical Changes of the Organism of Apodemus flavicollis (Rodentia: Muridae Under Conditions of Environmental Anthropogenic Pollution by Heavy Metals in Northern Areas of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana V. Zadyra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research dedicates the integral assessment of biochemistry indexes of nature populations of rodents under conditions of environment pollution by heavy metals. The raised content in soils of mobile forms Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Co was revealed оn distance of 500 m to the South-West from Tripillya Thermal Power Plant (Kyiv region, Ukraine. That’s considerably (3–5 times exceeds levels for territory of Kaniv Nature Reserve (Cherkassy region, Ukraine. Territory of National Nature Park “Holosiivsky” (Kyiv, Ukraine characterized by rather increased content of active form of researched heavy metals especially Pb. Increase of the concentration of diene conjugates (3–7 times and malonic dialdehyde (2–4 times in yellow-necked mouse liver (Apodemus flavicollis of under pollution by heavy metals has been discovered. Insignificant increasing of content of Schiff basis in liver cells of rodents in region of impact of Tripillya TPP (in 2 times in spring and in summer, in autumn – in 2.5 times was detected. Seasonal dynamics of the maintenance of lipid peroxidation has been revealed. The registered changes of biochemical indicators testify about presence ecological-biochemical stress in an organism of the yellow-necked mouse in the district of influence of Tripillya TPP.

  5. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Torres, Paulo, E-mail: biol.paulo@gmail.co [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Cannicci, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cannicci@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Narciso, Luis, E-mail: lfnarciso@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Paula, Jose, E-mail: jppaula@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2011-02-15

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one peri-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the peri-urban location were larger, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and peri-urban mangroves. However, a higher level of parasitation by a Bopyridae isopod, Pseudione elongata indicated some degree of stress on the host at the peri-urban mangrove, with potential effects on the host population dynamics. -Research highlights: Domestic sewage discharges at low concentrations increase fauna mangrove population parameters, due to the nutrient limitations. Shrimps in the peri-urban mangrove location were larger, had longer reproductive periods, higher ovigerous females proportions and better embryo. Physiological indice analysis (RNA/DNA ratio) between pristine and peri-urban mangroves. Within the peri-urban mangrove, high levels of parasitation by Pseudionee longata caused stress and potential effects on the host population dynamics. The effects of sewage on P. concinnus population increased the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal water. - The identification of the effects of the peri-urban conditions on P. concinnus increases the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal waters.

  6. Effect of Combined Heavy Metal Pollution on Nitrogen Mineralization Potential,Urease and Phosphatase Activities in a Typic Udic Ferrisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGCHUNRONG; TUCONG; 等

    1999-01-01

    Individual and combined effects of Cu,Pb,Zn and Cd on N mineralization,urease and phosphatase were examined in a Typic Udic Ferrisol in laboratory by employing and uniform design and a single factor design,Soil pollution caused by heavy metals inhibited N mineralization (N0 value)and urease and phosphatase activities.The combined pollution of metals alleviated their toxicity to N mineralization to some extent whereas aggravated the toxicity to urease and phosphatase.Phosphorous application could mitigat the toxic effect of heavy metals on phosphatase activities,while alleviating effect of N application on the toxicity of heavy metals to urease was inconsistent.However,the mitigating effect of the fertilizers was limited in heavily polluted soils.

  7. The combined effect of freeze thaw events and heavy metal pollution leads to distinct lethal synergy in Enchytraeus albidus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Sara Wincentz; Slotsbo, Stine; Holmstrup, Martin

    Many anthropogenic activities negatively affect the environment and stress the organisms living here in various ways. Due to global warming it is likely that freeze-thaw events will replace permanent freezing of soils in arctic regions. Metals are some of the most common contaminants in soil...... in Europe, and recent interest in increasing mineral deposit mining activity in arctic regions further emphasizes the need for focus on the environmental impact in these areas. In the present study it was investigated how the combination of freeze-thaw events and copper contamination of soil affected...

  8. Combined use of bacterial community analysis techniques and geographic information systems (GIS) for the evaluation of anthropogenic impact in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinas and recreational boats have an impact in coastal environments because they constitute point sources for low intensity but recurrent pollution by oil hydrocarbons. Since marinas tend to be located in areas of great natural beauty, and/or of high value economic activities, the pollution they contribute is assumed to be important and increasing, through currently-available information is very incomplete. (Author)

  9. Combined use of bacterial community analysis techniques and geographic information systems (GIS) for the evaluation of anthropogenic impact in coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.; Aguilo, M. M.; Martin-Cardona, C.; Nogales, B.

    2009-07-01

    Marinas and recreational boats have an impact in coastal environments because they constitute point sources for low intensity but recurrent pollution by oil hydrocarbons. Since marinas tend to be located in areas of great natural beauty, and/or of high value economic activities, the pollution they contribute is assumed to be important and increasing, through currently-available information is very incomplete. (Author)

  10. Combination of Assessment Indicators for Policy Support on Water Scarcity and Pollution Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yang; Junnian Song; Yoshiro Higano; Jie Tang

    2016-01-01

    Given increasing concern about seeking solutions to water scarcity and pollution (WSP), this paper is intent on developing significant assessment indicators as decision variables for providing reference for policy proposals on the mitigation of WSP. An indicator package consisting of footprints of freshwater consumption (FC) and water pollutant discharge (WPD), virtual contents of freshwater and water pollutants, and inter-sectoral linkages in terms of industrial production, FC and WPD has be...

  11. Combined Effect of Aircraft Noise and Pollutant Emissions. ANN Model to Determine Healthy Risk Level

    OpenAIRE

    SETIA KURNIAWAN, Jermanto; KATILI, Irwan; MOERSIDIK, Setyo Sarwanto; Khardi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Air Transportation growth increased continuously over the years. The increase in transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide transportation services and it is assumed to increase environmental impacts (pollutant and noise emissions). Aircraft pollutant and noise emissions are an important as a source of pollution and directly or indirectly will affect harmful to human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses ...

  12. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in dated sediment cores: Chemical fingerprinting of the anthropogenic impacts in the Seine River basin, Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorgeoux, C; Moilleron, R; Gasperi, J; Ayrault, S; Bonté, P; Lefèvre, I; Tassin, B

    2016-01-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were extensively produced and used throughout the last century. In the early 1980s, a rising concern on the environmental impact of these chemicals has led to the establishment of regulations and changes of use including bans. Long term monitoring of the environmental impacts of these emissions and regulations is a challenge because regular monitoring was not mandatory at the beginning of the first emissions. Moreover, the analytical methods have been strongly improved over the decades. To overcome the lack of monitoring and accurate data, sediment cores are powerful tools to construct contamination records. In this study, a high resolution record was constructed for four POPs families (13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 15 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 alkylphenols (APs) and 8 polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) to establish their historical trends in a long-term urbanized and industrialized environment: the Seine River basin, France. These specific families were selected because they had different sources, uses and histories. The results showed concentrations up to 90 mg/kg for ∑PAHs, 2.3mg/kg for ∑PCB, 1.2mg/kg for ∑APs and 0.06 mg/kg for ∑PBDE. The vertical distribution profiles were different from one family to another and presented a good correlation with uses (e.g. transition from coal to natural gas for PAHs), and regulation implementation (e.g., AP ban after "OSPAR Convention" in 1992). The study of compounds distribution provided original information on sources, e.g. temporal variations in PAH uses. This study demonstrates the usefulness and accuracy of sedimentary archives in floodplain to assess the fate of POPs through time in continental hydrosystems. These first results give a comprehensive overview of the contamination in the Seine River basin downstream of Paris Megacity. They were in good agreement with previous studies dedicated to European areas and highlighted specificities of this basin

  13. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Diaz, C. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Urena-Nunez, F. E-mail: fun@nuclear.inin.mx; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardave, M. E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx; Romero-Romo, M

    2003-07-01

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus {gamma}-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a {gamma}-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC {gamma}-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

  14. The combination of photocatalysis and ozonolysis as a new approach for cleaning 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T S; Sun, Z; Kumar, G; Itoh, K; Murabayashi, M

    1998-04-01

    Treatment of 2,4-D polluted waters with photocatalysis leads to the buildup of high concentrations of the long living intermediate 2,4-DCP. A new approach using a combination of ozonolysis and photocatalysis gave better degradation results with lower intermediate concentrations. The advantages of photocatalysis giving a constant decline in TOC and of ozonolysis giving no buildup of high intermediate concentrations were combined. Degradation data of 2,4-D for photocatalysis, ozonolysis and the combination of both for different pH ranges are given. Data on the main intermediate 2,4-DCP are given for the three different approaches.

  15. Pollutant removal from industrial discharge water using individual and combined effects of adsorption and ion-exchange processes: Chemical abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Charles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorption-oriented processes for pollutant removal from metal polycontaminated surface-finishing discharge water were applied individually as well as in combination with ion-exchange treatment to remove the remaining metal ions and organic load. Several materials were compared using batch experiments, namely an activated carbon, three ion-exchange resins (IRA 402Cl, IR 120H and TP 207, and two non-conventional cross-linked polysaccharide-based biosorbents (starch and cyclodextrin. This article presents the abatements obtained in chemical pollution as monitored by complete chemical analysis. For the same experimental conditions (similar discharge water, pollutant concentrations, stirring rate, contact time, and initial pH, the highest levels of pollutant removal were attained with the combined use of two materials, an activated carbon and a mixture of two ion-exchange resins. This physicochemical treatment effectively lowered the main pollutants present in the discharge water such as Cu, Ni and COD, by more than 96%, 79% and 74% respectively (average values for three samples, while the treatment with carbon alone lowered them by 58%, 9% and 70%, and resins alone by 85%, 61% and 16%. Similar interesting results were obtained with the cyclodextrin-based adsorbent and its use alone was sufficient to obtain decreases in Cu, Ni and COD of more than 94%, 77% and 67% respectively. The adsorption-oriented process using cyclodextrin polymer could be an advantageous approach for removing organic and metallic pollutants from metal surface-finishing discharge water due to the non-toxic character of CD to humans and the environment.

  16. Anthropogenic phosphorus flows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinglmair, Manfred

    in waste and wastewater treatment due to insufficient recycling. The focus of this PhD project was on the resource aspect, as opposed to the pollution aspect, of P in Denmark. The overall goal was to quantify and evaluate the country’s anthropogenic P flows, i.e. those flows caused or significantly...... these processes hold limited informative value. Moreover, it became clear at the outset of the study that there were distinct differences between the P flows across regions of the country, especially between the east, with the largest urban agglomeration, and the northwest. Apart from population and industrial...

  17. Physiological Response of the Hard Coral Pocillopora verrucosa from Lombok, Indonesia, to Two Common Pollutants in Combination with High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Pia; Baum, Gunilla; Indriana, Lisa F; Wild, Christian; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on interactive effects of global (e.g. ocean warming) and local stressors (e.g. pollution) is needed to develop appropriate management strategies for coral reefs. Surfactants and diesel are common coastal pollutants, but knowledge of their effects on hard corals as key reef ecosystem engineers is scarce. This study thus investigated the physiological reaction of Pocillopora verrucosa from Lombok, Indonesia, to exposure with a) the water-soluble fraction of diesel (determined by total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); 0.69 ± 0.14 mg L-1), b) the surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS; 0.95 ± 0.02 mg L-1) and c) combinations of each pollutant with high temperature (+3°C). To determine effects on metabolism, respiration, photosynthetic efficiency and coral tissue health were measured. Findings revealed no significant effects of diesel, while LAS resulted in severe coral tissue losses (16-95% after 84 h). High temperature led to an increase in photosynthetic yield of corals after 48 h compared to the control treatment, but no difference was detected thereafter. In combination, diesel and high temperature significantly increased coral dark respiration, whereas LAS and high temperature caused higher tissue losses (81-100% after 84 h) and indicated a severe decline in maximum quantum yield. These results confirm the hypothesized combined effects of high temperature with either of the two investigated pollutants. Our study demonstrates the importance of reducing import of these pollutants in coastal areas in future adaptive reef management, particularly in the context of ocean warming.

  18. Physiological Response of the Hard Coral Pocillopora verrucosa from Lombok, Indonesia, to Two Common Pollutants in Combination with High Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Kegler

    Full Text Available Knowledge on interactive effects of global (e.g. ocean warming and local stressors (e.g. pollution is needed to develop appropriate management strategies for coral reefs. Surfactants and diesel are common coastal pollutants, but knowledge of their effects on hard corals as key reef ecosystem engineers is scarce. This study thus investigated the physiological reaction of Pocillopora verrucosa from Lombok, Indonesia, to exposure with a the water-soluble fraction of diesel (determined by total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH; 0.69 ± 0.14 mg L-1, b the surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS; 0.95 ± 0.02 mg L-1 and c combinations of each pollutant with high temperature (+3°C. To determine effects on metabolism, respiration, photosynthetic efficiency and coral tissue health were measured. Findings revealed no significant effects of diesel, while LAS resulted in severe coral tissue losses (16-95% after 84 h. High temperature led to an increase in photosynthetic yield of corals after 48 h compared to the control treatment, but no difference was detected thereafter. In combination, diesel and high temperature significantly increased coral dark respiration, whereas LAS and high temperature caused higher tissue losses (81-100% after 84 h and indicated a severe decline in maximum quantum yield. These results confirm the hypothesized combined effects of high temperature with either of the two investigated pollutants. Our study demonstrates the importance of reducing import of these pollutants in coastal areas in future adaptive reef management, particularly in the context of ocean warming.

  19. Nitrogen removal in micro-polluted surface water by the combined process of bio-filter and ecological gravel bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng-Bing, He; Jian-Wen, Gao; Xue-Chu, Chen; Ding-Li, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen removal in micro-polluted surface water by the combined process of a bio-filter and an ecological gravel bed was studied. Sodium acetate was added into micro-polluted surface water as carbon source and the nitrogen removal under different C/N ratio, hydraulic load and temperature were investigated. The results showed that the variations in C/N ratio, hydraulic load and temperature have significant influence on nitrogen removal in bio-filter. It was found that the denitrification rate was above 90% when C/N ratio reached 10; also, the denitrification was inhibited at low water temperature (2-10 °C); at the condition of water temperature above 20 °C, C/N ratio 10, hydraulic load 8 m(3)/(m(2) h), the combined process obtained the nitrogen removal of more than 90%, and the residual organics could be removed in ecological gravel bed.

  20. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy).

  1. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy). PMID:22911348

  2. Climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, T. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Anthropogenic production of aerosols is mainly connected with combustion of fossil fuel. Measured by particulate mass, the anthropogenic sulphate production is the dominating source of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. Particles emitted in mechanical processes, fly ash etc. are less important because of their shorter atmospheric residence time. Possible climatological effects of anthropogenic aerosols are usually classified in two groups: direct and indirect. Direct effects are alterations of the radiative heating budget due to the aerosol particles in clear air. Indirect effects involve the interaction between particles and cloud processes. A simplified one-layer radiation model gave cooling in the most polluted mid-latitude areas and heating due to soot absorption in the Arctic. This differential trend in heating rates may have significant effects on atmospheric meridional circulations, which is important for the atmosphere as a thermodynamic system. Recently the description of sulphur chemistry in the hemispheric scale dispersion model has been improved and will be used in a model for Mie scattering and absorption

  3. Radon as an Anthropogenic Indoor Air Pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, including granite ornaments/artefacts, uranium glass and glazed objects as well radium dial watches. This presentation concerns an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, many of which were once viewed as everyday items, and the radon that emanates from them. Such objects were very popular in industrialised countries such as the USA, UK and European countries) particularly between and including the two World Wars but are still readily available. A watch collection examined gave rise to a hazardous radon concentration of 13.24 kBq•m-3 approximately 67 times the Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3.The results for an aircraft altimeter are comparable to those of the watches, indicating radon activity equivalent to several watches, and also indicate an equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room ca. 33 times the UK domestic Action Level. Results from a granite block indicate a radon emanation of 19.7 Bq•kg-1, but the indicated equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room is only ca. 1.7% of the UK domestic Action Level. Uranium-glazed crockery and green uranium glass were scoped for radon activity. The former yielded a radon concentration of ca. 44 Bq•m-3 in a small (7 L) sealed container. The latter yielded a lower radon concentration in a larger (125 L) sealed container of ca. 6 Bq•m-3. This is barely above the background radon concentration in the laboratory, which was typically ca. 1-2 Bq•m-3. Individual items then are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level in rooms in houses, particularly if poorly ventilated. We highlight the gap in the remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally-generated radon hazards. We conclude with a recommendation that radon as arising from artefacts and ornaments is considered appropriately in radon protocols and guidelines.

  4. Monitoring atmospheric pollutants in the biosphere reserve Wienerwald by a combined approach of biomonitoring methods and technical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krommer, Viktoria; Zechmeister, Harald G; Roder, Ingrid; Scharf, Sigrid; Hanus-Illnar, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    In this study a combined approach of bioindication results correlated with an extensive set of data on air pollution and climate was used to assess the pollution status of the Man and Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald (Austria). Bryophytes served as impact indicators (via the Index of Atmospheric Purity-method IAP) at 30 sites as well as accumulation monitors for airborne trace elements (Al, Pb, V, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Cd, As, Sb and 16 EPA-PAHs) at 10 sites within the reserve. The results of these bioindication methods were subsequently correlated with further pollution (NO(2), SO(2) and dust) and climate data (precipitation, temperature and humidity). The findings obtained clearly indicate the following: Bryophyte distribution is solely influenced by the status of air quality, without interference by climatic or site-related factors, which is in contrast to several previous investigations. IAP-values correlated significantly with NO(2) (0.553; P=0.004), SO(2) winter values (0.511; P=0.013) and PM10 (dust) (0.561; P=0.013). The results obtained via chemical analyses revealed a strong correlation with data derived from the IAP methodology. In terms of the overall air quality within the biosphere reserve Wienerwald, the north-eastern part appears to be the most affected one with a most likely pollution contribution emitted by the capital city Vienna, agriculture and neighbouring countries.

  5. The positive relationship between ocean acidification and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-02-15

    Ocean acidification and pollution coexist to exert combined effects on the functions and services of marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification can increase the biotoxicity of heavy metals by altering their speciation and bioavailability. Marine pollutants, such as heavy metals and oils, could decrease the photosynthesis rate and increase the respiration rate of marine organisms as a result of biotoxicity and eutrophication, facilitating ocean acidification to varying degrees. Here we review the complex interactions between ocean acidification and pollution in the context of linkage of multiple stressors to marine ecosystems. The synthesized information shows that pollution-affected respiration acidifies coastal oceans more than the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Coastal regions are more vulnerable to the negative impact of ocean acidification due to large influxes of pollutants from terrestrial ecosystems. Ocean acidification and pollution facilitate each other, and thus coastal environmental protection from pollution has a large potential for mitigating acidification risk.

  6. Development of an anthropogenic air pollutant emission inventory of the West Coast of Taiwan Strait%海峡西岸地区人为源大气污染物排放特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成

    2012-01-01

    采用以"自下而上"为主的方法建立了2007年海峡西岸地区的人为源大气污染物排放清单.计算结果显示,海西地区人为源SO2、NOx、CO、PM10、PM2.5、VOCs和NH3排放总量分别为69.5×104、96.1×104、413.1×104、93.9×104、40.6×104、85.0×104和28.5×104t.电厂和工业燃烧设施分别占SO2排放的48%和39%,以及NOx排放的51%和25%.水泥、砖瓦等制造过程贡献了约51%的PM10排放和36%的PM2.5排放.秸秆燃烧、加油站和涂料等VOCs面源分别占到其排放总量的27%、15%和4%.NH3的主要排放源为畜禽养殖和氮肥施用等农业部门,占到总排放量的89%.海西地区的单位面积大气污染物排放量仅相当于长三角地区的25%左右,略高于全国平均水平.该地区人为源和天然源VOCs排放比重分别占56%和44%,人为源VOCs排放比重低于全国大部分地区.海西大气污染高排放地区主要集中在沿海一带,以泉州、潮汕、福州和温州等地区为主,建议"十二五"发展过程中,重点关注上述高排放地区,限制重点排放源的发展,开发低耗能、低污染的发展模式.%An anthropogenic air pollutant emission inventory of the West Coast of Taiwan Strait was established based on a "bottom-up" method for the year of 2007.The results showed that SO2,NOx,CO,PM10,PM2.5,VOCs and NH3 emissions of the region were 69.5×104,96.1×104,413.1×104,93.9×104,40.6×104,85.0×104 and 28.5×104 tons,respectively.Power plants and industrial combustion facilities accounted for 48% and 39% of SO2 emissions and 51% and 25% of NOx emissions,respectively.Non-metal manufacturing process such as cement and brick production contributed to 51% of the PM10 emissions and 36% of PM2.5 emissions.Biomass burning and VOCs fugitive emissions from gas station and paint use contributed to 27%,15% and 4% of the VOCs emissions,respectively.Agricultural sector,including livestock and fertilizer utilization,accounted for 89% of the total NH

  7. Combined Effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Biological Variables on Vitamin D in Polar Bears

    OpenAIRE

    Grønning, Hege Mentzoni

    2013-01-01

    Because of long-range transport, the Arctic is chronically exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and brominated flame retardants, such as polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs). Because of POPs are persistent and lipofilic, they are bioaccumulated in lipids and biomagnified in the food chains. The structures of some POPs resemble endogenous hormones, and have been shown to disrupt the TH homeostasis in animals. It has also been ...

  8. Combination of powdered activated carbon and powdered zeolite for enhancing ammonium removal in micro-polluted raw water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhen-Liang; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Bai-Rong; Li, Huai-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Even zeolite is promising in ammonia pollution disposing, its removal efficiency is frequently interfered by organics. As activated carbon has good removal efficiency on organic contaminants, combination of two adsorbents may allow their respective adsorption characteristics into full play. This paper provides a performance assessment of the combination for enhancing ammonium removal in micro-polluted raw water. Gel-filtration chromatography (GFC) was carried out to quantify the molecular weight (MW) range of organic contaminants that powdered activated carbon (PAC) and powdered zeolite (PZ) can remove. The polydispersity difference which also calculated from GFC may indicate the wider organic contaminants removal range of PAC and the relatively centralized removal range of PZ. The jar tests of combination dosing confirm a synergistic effect which promotes ammonium removing. Nevertheless, it also shows an antagonism hindering the due removal performance of the two adsorbents on CODMn, while it is not much evident on UV254. Furthermore, a comparison study with simulated coagulation-sedimentation process was conducted to evaluate the optimum dosing points (spatial and temporal) of PAC and PZ among follows: suction well, pipeline mixer, early and middle phase of flocculation. We suggest to dose both two adsorbents into the early phase of flocculation to maximize the versatile removal efficiency on turbidity, ammonium and organic contaminants. PMID:25929873

  9. Measuring Anthropogenic Sky Glow Using a Natural Sky Brightness Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2013-11-01

    Anthropogenic sky glow (a result of light pollution) combines with the natural background brightness of the night sky when viewed by an observer on the earth's surface. In order to measure the anthropogenic component accurately, the natural component must be identified and subtracted. A model of the moonless natural sky brightness in the V-band was constructed from existing data on the Zodiacal Light, an airglow model based on the van Rhijn function, and a model of integrated starlight (including diffuse galactic light) constructed from images made with the same equipment used for sky brightness observations. The model also incorporates effective extinction by the atmosphere and is improved at high zenith angles (>80°) by the addition of atmospheric diffuse light. The model may be projected onto local horizon coordinates for a given observation at a resolution of 0.05° over the hemisphere of the sky, allowing it to be accurately registered with data images obtained from any site. Zodiacal Light and integrated starlight models compare favorably with observations from remote dark sky sites, matching within ± 8 nL over 95% of the sky. The natural airglow may be only approximately modeled, errors of up to ± 25 nL are seen when the airglow is rapidly changing or has considerable character (banding); ± 8 nL precision may be expected under favorable conditions. When subtracted from all-sky brightness data images, the model significantly improves estimates of sky glow from anthropogenic sources, especially at sites that experience slight to moderate light pollution.

  10. Combined impact of ultraviolet radiation and increased nutrients supply: A test of the potential anthropogenic impacts on the benthic amphipod Amphitoe valida from Patagonian waters (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena S. Valiñas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted during the Austral Summer of 2014 to determine the effects of increased nutrient input and ultraviolet radiation (UVR on the food consumption rate (FCR and food preference in the amphipod Amphitoe valida. We collected specimens from the Patagonian coast (Argentina, from beaches close (Barrancas Blancas; BB and further away (Cangrejales; C from the Chubut River, which constitutes the potential source of eutrophication. Organisms were exposed to different radiation regimes (full radiation vs. PAR only and fed with different macroalgae diets (i.e., from different geographical location and with different quality in terms on nutrient content. Males collected from C showed food compensation, consuming more food under low-nutrient diets, while no compensation was observed in males from BB. Regardless of their origin, UVR decreased the FCR when males where fed on ambient nutrient diets, but not when males fed on high-quality diets indicating that in the former case, individuals were in worse physiological conditions to cope with UVR; food quality, however, significantly counteracted the deleterious effects of UVR on FCR. Females collected from the two beaches showed similar FCR under high-nutrient diet and had no food compensation when fed in low-nutrient diets. Females were more vulnerable to UVR, since their FCR were lower when exposed to UV radiation independent of the diet. Our results show that under anthropogenic eutrophication and high solar UVR levels an increase in the nutrient input could favor only males of A. valida, by reducing the negative effects of UVR on their FCR. Nevertheless, these nutrient inputs might cause additional problems like anoxia, as a result of an unusual macroalgal growth, thus affecting amphipod’s survival.

  11. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution. PMID:27338264

  12. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  13. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. Methods: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate informatio...

  14. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This im...

  15. Combining environment and health information systems for the assessment of atmospheric pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Andreas N; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-08-01

    The use of emerging technologies for environmental monitoring with satellite and in-situ sensors have become essential instruments for assessing the impact of environmental pollution on human health, especially in areas that require high spatial and temporal resolution. This was until recently a rather difficult problem. Regrettably, with classical approaches the spatial resolution is frequently inadequate in reporting environmental causes and health effects in the same time scale. This work examines with new tools different levels of air-quality with sensor monitoring with the aim to associate those with severe health effects. The process established here facilitates the precise representation of human exposure with the population attributed in a fine spatial grid and taking into account environmental stressors of human exposure. These stressors can be monitored with innovative sensor units with a temporal resolution that accurately describes chronic and acute environmental burdens. The current understanding of the situation in densely populated areas can be properly analyzed, before commitments are made for reductions in total emissions as well as for assessing the effects of reduced trans-boundary fluxes. In addition, the data processed here with in-situ sensors can assist in establishing more effective regulatory policies for the protection of vulnerable population groups and the satellite monitoring instruments permit abatement strategies that are close to real-time over large geographical areas.

  16. Potential of Atkinson cycle combined with EGR for pollutant control in a HD diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benajes, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Molina, S.; Novella, R. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    An experimental investigation has been performed on the potential of the Atkinson cycle and reducing intake oxygen concentration for pollutant control in a heavy-duty diesel engine. In this study the Atkinson cycle has been reproduced advancing the intake valve closing angle towards the intake stroke. In addition, the intake oxygen concentration has been reduced introducing exhaust gas recirculation. This research has been carried out at low engine load (25%), where the Atkinson cycle is known to improve the efficiency of the spark-ignition engines. The main interest of this investigation has been the comparison between the Atkinson cycle and the conventional diesel cycle at the same oxygen concentration in the intake gas. This analysis has been focused on in-cylinder gas thermodynamic conditions, combustion process, exhaust emissions and engine efficiency. In compression ignition engines, the Atkinson cycle basically promotes the premixed combustion, but in the range of these tests, a complete premixed combustion was not attained. Regarding exhaust emissions, the Atkinson cycle reduces notably the nitrous oxides but increases soot emissions. Finally, better global results have been found reducing intake oxygen concentration by the recirculation of exhaust gas than by the operation of an Atkinson cycle. (author)

  17. 长江三角洲地区人为源大气污染物排放特征研究%Anthropogenic air pollutant emission characteristics in the Yangtze River Delta region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成; 陈长虹; 李莉; 程真; 王红丽; 王杨君; 黄海英; 张钢锋; 陈宜然

    2011-01-01

    在收集整理长江三角洲地区(简称"长三角")各城市人为大气污染源资料的基础上,采用以"自下而上"为主的方法建立了2007年长三角地区人为源大气污染物排放清单.清单结果显示,2007年长三角地区的SO2、NOx、CO、PM10、PM2.5、VOCs和NH3等大气污染物排放总量分别达到2391.8、2292.9、6697.1、3115.7、1510.8、2767.4和458.9kt,单位面积污染物排放强度略高于珠三角地区.电厂和其他工业燃烧设施分别贡献了约46%和45%的SO2排放,以及59%和26%左右的NO%This study developed an anthropogenic air pollutant emission inventory in the Yangtze River Delta(YRD) region for the year of 2007.A "Bottom-up" approach was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in sixteen cities of this region.Results show that the emissions of SO2,NOx,CO,PM10,PM2.5,VOCs,and NH3 in the YRD region for the year of 2007 are 2391.8 kt,2292.9 kt,6697.1 kt,3115.7 kt,1510.8 kt,2767.4 kt,and 458.9 kt,respectively.Power plants and other industrial combustion sources contribute 46% and 45% of SO2 emission,and 59% and 26% of NOx emission.Power plants and industrial process sources of mineral products and steel manufacturing contribute 21% and 57% of PM10 emission,and also take up 28% and 52% of PM2.5 emission.The fugitive sources of oil refining,chemical products and industrial use of paint and solvent are responsible for 59% of the total VOCs emission.NH3 emission mainly comes from the sources of livestock feeding and N-fertilizer application,which occupied 48% and 40%,respectively.The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with the resolution of 4 km × 4 km.The spatial distribution of emission illustrates that high emissions mainly concentrate in the cities along the downstream of the Yangtze River and surrounding the Hangzhou Bay.The emissions of PM10,PM2.5,VOCs and NH3 in the study still have high uncertainties,which suggests that more fundamental

  18. Combined mineralogical and EXAFS characterization of polluted sediments for the definition of technological variables and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigatti, M. F.; Elmi, C.; Laurora, A.; Malferrari, D.; Medici, L.

    2009-04-01

    An extremely severe aspect, both from environmental and economic viewpoint, is the management of polluted sediments removed from drainage and irrigation canals. Canals, in order to retain their functionality over the time, need to have their beds, periodically cleaned from sediments there accumulating. The management of removed sediments is extremely demanding, also from an economical perspective, if these latter needs to be treated as dangerous waste materials, as stated in numerous international standards. Furthermore the disposal of such a large amount of material may introduce a significant environmental impact as well. An appealing alternative is the recovery or reuse of these materials, for example in brick and tile industry, after obviously the application of appropriate techniques and protocols that could render these latter no longer a threat for human health. The assessment of the effective potential danger for human health and ecosystem of sediments before and after treatment obviously requires both a careful chemical and mineralogical characterization and, even if not always considered in the international standards, the definition of the coordination shell of heavy metals dangerous for human health, as a function of their oxidation state and coordination (e.g. Cr and Pb), and introducing technological constraints or affecting the features of the end products. Fe is a good representative for this second category, as the features of the end product, such as color, strongly depend not only from Fe concentration but also from its oxidation state, speciation and coordination. This work will first of all provide mineralogical characterization of sediments from various sampling points of irrigation and drainage canals of Po river region in the north-eastern of Italy. Samples were investigated with various approaches including X-ray powder diffraction under non-ambient conditions, thermal analysis and EXAFS spectroscopy. Obtained results, and in particular

  19. Accumulation and detoxication responses of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to single and combined exposures to natural (cyanobacteria) and anthropogenic (the herbicide RoundUp(®) Flash) stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Desprat, Julia; Holbech, Bente Frost; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam; Lawton, Linda A; Edwards, Christine; Wiegand, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Freshwater gastropods are increasingly exposed to multiple stressors in the field such as the herbicide glyphosate in Roundup formulations and cyanobacterial blooms either producing or not producing microcystins (MCs), potentially leading to interacting effects. Here, the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis to a 21-day exposure to non-MC or MC-producing (33μgL(-1)) Planktothrix agardhii alone or in combination with the commercial formulation RoundUp(®) Flash at a concentration of 1μgL(-1) glyphosate, followed by 14days of depuration, were studied via i) accumulation of free and bound MCs in tissues, and ii) activities of anti-oxidant (catalase CAT) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase GST) enzymes. During the intoxication, the cyanobacterial exposure induced an early increase of CAT activity, independently of the MC content, probably related to the production of secondary cyanobacterial metabolites. The GST activity was induced by RoundUp(®) Flash alone or in combination with non MC-producing cyanobacteria, but was inhibited by MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash. Moreover, MC accumulation in L. stagnalis was 3.2 times increased when snails were concomitantly exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with RoundUp(®), suggesting interacting effects of MCs on biotransformation processes. The potent inhibition of detoxication systems by MCs and RoundUp(®) Flash was reversible during the depuration, during which CAT and GST activities were significantly higher in snails previously exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash than in other conditions, probably related to the oxidative stress caused by accumulated MCs remaining in tissues. PMID:27267390

  20. Combination of ozonation and photocatalysis for purification of aqueous effluents containing formic acid as probe pollutant and bromide ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, F; Camera-Roda, G; Loddo, V; Palmisano, G; Augugliaro, V

    2014-03-01

    The treatment by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) of waters contaminated by organic pollutants and containing also innocuous bromide ions may generate bromate ions as a co-product. In the present work heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation have individually been applied and in combination (integrated process) to degrade the organic compounds in water containing also bromide anions. The results show that: i) the sole photocatalysis does not produce bromate ions and in the case of its presence, it is able to reduce bromate to innocuous bromide ions; ii) the integration of photocatalysis and ozonation synergistically enhances the oxidation capabilities; and iii) in the integrated process bromate ions are not produced as long as some oxidizable organics are present.

  1. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  2. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  3. Anaerobic microbial fuel cell treating combined industrial wastewater: Correlation of electricity generation with pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Umara; Jin, Wang; Pervez, Arshid; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Tariq, Madiha; Shaheen, Shahida; Iqbal, Akhtar; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new technology that not only generates energy but treats wastewater as well. A dual chamber MFC was operated under laboratory conditions. Wastewater samples from vegetable oil industries, metal works, glass and marble industries, chemical industries and combined industrial effluents were collected and each was treated for 98h in MFC. The treatment efficiency for COD in MFC was in range of 85-90% at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 96h and had significant impact on wastewater treatment as well. The maximum voltage of 890mV was generated when vegetable oil industries discharge was treated with columbic efficiency of 5184.7C. The minimum voltage was produced by Glass House wastewater which was 520mV. There was positive significant co-relation between COD concentration and generated voltage. Further research should be focused on the organic contents of wastewater and various ionic species affecting voltage generation in MFC. PMID:26476157

  4. Barents Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus: population biology and anthropogenic threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Andersen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how anthropogenic threats, such as disturbance, pollution and climate change, are linked to polar bear (Ursus maritimus population biology in the Svalbard and Barents Sea area, with the aim to increase our understanding of how human activity may impact the population. Overharvesting drastically reduced the population of polar bears in the Barents Sea region from about 1870 to 1970. After harvesting was stopped—in 1956 in Russia and 1973 in Norway—the population grew to an estimated 2650 individuals (95% confidence interval 1900–3600 in 2004, and maternity denning in the Svalbard Archipelago became more widely distributed. During recent decades, the population has faced challenges from a variety of new anthropogenic impacts: a range of pollutants, an increasing level of human presence and activity as well as changes in ice conditions. Contaminants bioaccumulate up through the marine food web, culminating in this top predator that consumes ringed, bearded and harp seals. Females with small cubs use land-fast sea ice for hunting and are therefore vulnerable to disturbance by snowmobile drivers. Sea-ice diminution, associated with climate change, reduces polar bears’ access to denning areas and could negatively affect the survival of cubs. There are clear linkages between population biology and current anthropogenic threats, and we suggest that future research and management should focus on and take into consideration the combined effects of several stressors on polar bears.

  5. Mechnism of combination membrane and electro-winning process on treatment and remediation of Cu2+ polluted water body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Linnan; WU Yanjun; QU Xiaoyan; LI Zhenshan; NI Jinren

    2009-01-01

    Mechnism of treatment and remediation of synthetic Cu2+ polluted water body by membrane and electro-winning combination process was investigated.The influnce of electrolysis voltage,pH,and electrolysis time on the metal recovery efficiencies were studied.Relationship between trans-membrane pressure drop (ΔP),additions ratio,initial Cu2+ concentration on operating efficency,stability of membrane and the possibility of water reuse were also investigated.The morphology of membrane and electrodes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM),the composition of suface deposits was ascertained using combined energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that using low presure reverse osmosis (LPRO),the Cu2+ concentration could increase from 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L or even higher in the concentrate solutions and permeate water conductivity could be less than 20 μS/cm.The addition of SDS can improve the Cu2+ removal efficiency,while EDTA had little side influence.In electro-reduction process,using plante electrode cell,Cu2+ concentration can be further reduced to 5 mg/L,and the average current efficiency ranged from 9% to 40%.Using 3D electrolysis treatment,Cu2+ concentration could be reduced to 0.5 mg/L with a current efficiency range 60%-70%.

  6. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception.

  7. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  8. Urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  9. Combination of bioremediation and electrokinetics for the in-situ treatment of diesel polluted soil: A comparison of strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Ramírez, Esperanza; Villaseñor Camacho, José; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work is to compare different strategies based on electrokinetic soil flushing and bioremediation for the remediation of diesel-polluted soil. Four options were tested at the laboratory scale: single bioremediation (Bio), performed as a control test; a direct combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and biological technologies (EKSF-Bio); EKSF-Bio with daily polarity reversal of the electric field (PR-EKSF-Bio); and a combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and a permeable reactive biological barrier (EKSF-BioPRB). Four batch experiments of 14 days duration were carried out for comparing technologies at room temperature with an electric field of 1.0 V cm(-1) (in EKSF). A diesel degrading microbial consortium was used. The experimental procedure and some specific details, such as the flushing fluids used, varied depending on the strategy. When using the EKSF-Bio option, a high buffer concentration was required to control the pH, causing soil heating, which negatively affected the biological growth and thus the diesel removal. The PR-EKSF-Bio and the EKSF-BioPRB options attained suitable operating conditions and improved the transport processes for biological growth. Polarity reversal was an efficient option for pH, moisture and temperature control. Homogeneous microbial growth was observed, and approximately 20% of the diesel was removed. The BioPRB option was not as efficient as PR-EKSF-Bio in controlling the operating conditions, but the central biobarrier protected the biological activity. Microbial growth was observed not only in the biobarrier but also in a large portion of the soil, and 29% of the diesel was removed in the short remediation test.

  10. Combination of bioremediation and electrokinetics for the in-situ treatment of diesel polluted soil: A comparison of strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Ramírez, Esperanza; Villaseñor Camacho, José; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work is to compare different strategies based on electrokinetic soil flushing and bioremediation for the remediation of diesel-polluted soil. Four options were tested at the laboratory scale: single bioremediation (Bio), performed as a control test; a direct combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and biological technologies (EKSF-Bio); EKSF-Bio with daily polarity reversal of the electric field (PR-EKSF-Bio); and a combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and a permeable reactive biological barrier (EKSF-BioPRB). Four batch experiments of 14 days duration were carried out for comparing technologies at room temperature with an electric field of 1.0 V cm(-1) (in EKSF). A diesel degrading microbial consortium was used. The experimental procedure and some specific details, such as the flushing fluids used, varied depending on the strategy. When using the EKSF-Bio option, a high buffer concentration was required to control the pH, causing soil heating, which negatively affected the biological growth and thus the diesel removal. The PR-EKSF-Bio and the EKSF-BioPRB options attained suitable operating conditions and improved the transport processes for biological growth. Polarity reversal was an efficient option for pH, moisture and temperature control. Homogeneous microbial growth was observed, and approximately 20% of the diesel was removed. The BioPRB option was not as efficient as PR-EKSF-Bio in controlling the operating conditions, but the central biobarrier protected the biological activity. Microbial growth was observed not only in the biobarrier but also in a large portion of the soil, and 29% of the diesel was removed in the short remediation test. PMID:26172598

  11. Atmospheric delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Shi, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe) to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. Here, we interactively combined laboratory kinetic experiments with global aerosol modeling to more accurately quantify anthropogenic soluble Fe due to air pollution. We firstly examined Fe dissolution kinetics of African dust samples at acidic pH values with and without ionic species commonly found in aerosol water (i.e., sulfate and oxalate). We then constructed a new empirical scheme for Fe release from mineral dust due to inorganic and organic anions in aerosol water, by using acidity as a master variable. We implemented this new scheme and applied an updated mineralogical emission database in a global atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate the atmospheric concentration and deposition flux of soluble Fe under preindustrial and modern conditions. Our improved model successfully captured the inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading measured over the North Atlantic Ocean. However, our modeled Fe solubility was significantly lower than that deduced from observations over the South Atlantic east downwind from the Patagonian dust source regions. Our modeled Fe solubility for dry deposition over the Atlantic is in good agreement the measurement, while that for wet deposition is significantly lower than the measurement. Our model results suggest that human activities contribute to about half of the soluble Fe supply to a significant portion of the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere, while their contribution to oceans in the high latitude remains highly uncertain

  12. Natural aerosol–climate feedbacks suppressed by anthropogenic aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, DV; A. Rap

    2013-01-01

    The natural environment is an important source of atmospheric aerosol such as dust, sea spray, and wildfire smoke. Climate controls many of these natural aerosol sources, which, in turn, can alter climate through changing the properties of clouds and the Earth's radiative balance. However, the Earth's atmosphere is now heavily modified by anthropogenic pollution aerosol, but how this pollution may alter these natural aerosol–climate feedbacks has not been previously explored. Here we use a gl...

  13. Engineering paradigms and anthropogenic global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    , the paradigm of 'ecomodernism' implies to accentuate some of the current development paths of societies with the goal to 'decouple' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. Applying the paradigm 'geoengineering', engineering works shall 'modulate' natural fluxes of matter to counter the effect of anthropogenic fluxes of matter instead to alter the development paths of societies. Thus, anthropogenic global change is a composite process in which engineering intercedes the 'noosphere' and in the 'bio-geosphere'. Paradigms 'how to engineering earth systems' reflect different concepts ('shared subjective insights') how to combine knowledge with use, function and purpose. Currently, four paradigms are distinguishable how to engineer anthropogenic global change. They convene recipes human activity and bio-geosphere should intersect.

  14. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle A;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. OBJECTIVES......: To examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: 52,061 subjects (50-65 years) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen reported data on physical activity...... exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel...

  15. Nitrogen isotopes in ice core nitrate linked to anthropogenic atmospheric acidity change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lei; Alexander, Becky; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Steig, Eric J.; Savarino, Joël; Sofen, Eric D.; Schauer, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) in Greenland snow nitrate and in North American remote lake sediments has decreased gradually beginning as early as ∼1850 Christian Era. This decrease was attributed to increasing atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic nitrate, reflecting an anthropogenic impact on the global nitrogen cycle, and the impact was thought to be amplified ∼1970. However, our subannually resolved ice core records of δ15N and major ions (e.g., , ) over the last ∼200 y show that the decrease in δ15N is not always associated with increasing concentrations, and the decreasing trend actually leveled off ∼1970. Correlation of δ15N with H+, , and HNO3 concentrations, combined with nitrogen isotope fractionation models, suggests that the δ15N decrease from ∼1850–1970 was mainly caused by an anthropogenic-driven increase in atmospheric acidity through alteration of the gas−particle partitioning of atmospheric nitrate. The concentrations of and also leveled off ∼1970, reflecting the effect of air pollution mitigation strategies in North America on anthropogenic NOx and SO2 emissions. The consequent atmospheric acidity change, as reflected in the ice core record of H+ concentrations, is likely responsible for the leveling off of δ15N ∼1970, which, together with the leveling off of concentrations, suggests a regional mitigation of anthropogenic impact on the nitrogen cycle. Our results highlight the importance of atmospheric processes in controlling δ15N of nitrate and should be considered when using δ15N as a source indicator to study atmospheric flux of nitrate to land surface/ecosystems. PMID:24711383

  16. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Miriam L; de Wit, Cynthia A; Molander, Sverker; Scheringer, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Lohmann, Rainer; Arvidsson, Rickard; Bergman, Åke; Hauschild, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Persson, Linn; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Vighi, Marco; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social

  17. Assessment of pollution in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia) by the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Le Menach, Karyn; Clérandeau, Christelle; Ameur, Walid Ben; Budzinski, Hélène; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-07-15

    In order to assess the environmental quality of the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), biomarker and contaminant levels were measured in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from five selected sites. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were quantified in whole body and enzyme activities such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in gills. Despite the relatively low levels of organic contaminants, the selected biomarkers responded differently according to the pollution level at the different sites. GST and AChE activities were correlated with the amount of DDTs in mussel tissues. These two enzymatic activities were also correlated to temperature and pH. No significant difference was observed for CAT activity. Principal component analysis showed a clear separation of sampling sites in three different assemblages which is consistent with POP body burden in mussels. Our results confirmed the usefulness of combining biomarker and chemical analyses in mussels to assess chemical pollution in the Bizerte lagoon.

  18. Stability of the total and functional microbial communities in river sediment mesocosms exposed to anthropogenic disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaan, van der B.M.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.; Rijnaarts, H.; Gerritse, J.

    2010-01-01

    River systems are exposed to anthropogenic disturbances, including chemical pollution and eutrophication. This may affect the phylogenetic diversity as well as the abundance of various functional groups within sediment-associated microbial communities. To address such potential effects, mesocosms fi

  19. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  20. Damping of glacial-interglacial cycles from anthropogenic forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Climate variability over the past million years shows a strong glacial-interglacial cycle of ~100,000 years as a combined result of Milankovitch orbital forcing and climatic resonance. It has been suggested that anthropogenic contributions to radiative forcing may extend the length of the present interglacial, but the effects of anthropogenic forcing on the periodicity of glacial-interglacial cycles has received little attention. Here I demonstrate that moderate anthropogenic forcing can act to damp this 100,000 year cycle and reduce climate variability from orbital forcing. Future changes in solar insolation alone will continue to drive a 100,000 year climate cycle over the next million years, but the presence of anthropogenic warming can force the climate into an ice-free state that only weakly responds to orbital forcing. Sufficiently strong anthropogenic forcing that eliminates the glacial-interglacial cycle may serve as an indication of an epoch transition from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene.

  1. Tolerance of benthic foraminifera to anthropogenic stressors from three sites of the Egyptian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Badawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Surely the coupling of natural and anthropogenic stressors combined with a lack of regulation resulted in the current threat to a large part of coastal marine biodiversity as well as coastal human societies, particularly in highly populated regions. The distribution pattern of benthic foraminifera as sensitive bio-indicator is utilized to assess human-induced impact on the coastal area, at Alexandria, Port Said and Suez cites of Egypt. Twenty-two benthic foraminiferal genera were identified and complied by principal component analysis into four factors through cluster analysis. Cross correlation of the generic composition, distribution and relative abundance of common genera in the three investigated cores revealed three different coastal environments entities. The categorized environment ranged from light human impact as Alexandria site to heavily impacted by human activities as Port Said and Suez sites. Fauna of Alexandria site reflects an increase in un-polluted water activity revealing high-energy erosive environment. The second entity involves Port Said site, which represents a highly stressed coastal environment, corresponding to high-energy transport conditions influenced by fresh water flush from local Manzala Lake via Bougaz El Gamel outlet while Suez site is influenced by marine hypersaline water coupling with intensified levels of industrial and domestic pollution, attributed to the anthropogenic impact.

  2. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. - Highlights: • Magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the heavy mental pollution in sediments. • Accurate age model was obtained using known events of environmental improvement. • Regression equation was obtained among sediment records and monitoring data. • Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed. - Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed using magnetic and chemical records of reservoir sediments combined with atmospheric monitoring data

  3. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur...

  4. A novel approach combining self-organizing map and parallel factor analysis for monitoring water quality of watersheds under non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Liang, Xinqiang; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian

    2015-11-01

    High content of organic matter in the downstream of watersheds underscored the severity of non-point source (NPS) pollution. The major objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watersheds affected by NPS pollution, and to apply self-organizing map (SOM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to assess fluorescence properties as proxy indicators for NPS pollution and labor-intensive routine water quality indicators. Water from upstreams and downstreams was sampled to measure dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Five fluorescence components were modeled with PARAFAC. The regression analysis between PARAFAC intensities (Fmax) and raw EEM measurements indicated that several raw fluorescence measurements at target excitation-emission wavelength region could provide similar DOM information to massive EEM measurements combined with PARAFAC. Regression analysis between DOC concentration and raw EEM measurements suggested that some regions in raw EEM could be used as surrogates for labor-intensive routine indicators. SOM can be used to visualize the occurrence of pollution. Relationship between DOC concentration and PARAFAC components analyzed with SOM suggested that PARAFAC component 2 might be the major part of bulk DOC and could be recognized as a proxy indicator to predict the DOC concentration.

  5. Assessing the effect of humic acid redox state on organic pollutant sorption by combined electrochemical reduction and sorption experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, Michael; Brunner, Sibyl H; Schwarzenbach, René P; Sander, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Natural Organic Matter (NOM) is a major sorbent for organic pollutants in soils and sediments. While sorption under oxic conditions has been well investigated, possible changes in the sorption capacity of a given NOM induced by reduction have not yet been studied. Reduction of quinones to hydroquinones, the major redox active moieties in NOM, increases the number of H-donor moieties and thus may affect sorption. This work compares the sorption of four nonionic organic pollutants of different polarities (naphthalene, acetophenone, quinoline, and 2-naphthol), and of the organocation paraquat to unreduced and electrochemically reduced Leonardite Humic Acid (LHA). The redox states of reduced and unreduced LHA in all sorption experiments were stable, as demonstrated by a spectrophotometric 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol reduction assay. The sorption isotherms of the nonionic pollutants were highly linear, while paraquat sorption was strongly concentration dependent. LHA reduction did not result in significant changes in the sorption of all tested compounds, not even of the cationic paraquat at pH 7, 9, and 11. This work provides the first evidence that changes in NOM redox state do not largely affect organic pollutant sorption, suggesting that current sorption models are applicable both to unreduced and to reduced soil and sediment NOM. PMID:22372874

  6. Large scale air pollution estimation method combining land use regression and chemical transport modeling in a geostatistical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akita, Yasuyuki; Baldasano, Jose M.; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; De Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Serre, Marc L.; De Nazelle, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    In recognition that intraurban exposure gradients may be as large as between-city variations, recent air pollution epidemiologic studies have become increasingly interested in capturing within-city exposure gradients. In addition, because of the rapidly accumulating health data, recent studies also

  7. Environmental costs of mercury pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Goodsite, Michael E. [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Research Group, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2500 and 1.1 million US$ kg{sup -1} Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. (author)

  8. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. PMID:16442592

  9. Toxicity of combined chromium(VI) and phenanthrene pollution on the seed germination, stem lengths, and fresh weights of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuangqing; Gu, Hairong; Cui, Chunyan; Ji, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the interaction and toxicity of pollutant combinations such as heavy metals and PAHs are of practical importance in the remediation and monitoring of the industrial soil environment. This study investigated the single and combined toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on three important higher plants: mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), pakchoi cabbage (Brassica chinensis), and rice (Oryza sativa). In experiments using artificial soil matrix, the EC10 and EC20 of the two pollutants, alone and in combination, were analyzed with respect to seed germination, stem length, and above-ground fresh weight of these higher plants. The additive index method was used to evaluate the combined biological toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene. The results showed that the EC20 of chromium(VI) on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 289, 248, and 550 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 334, 307, and 551 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 528, 426, and 628 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 696, 585, and 768 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of a combination of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 192, 173, and 279 mg kg(-1), respectively, and 200, 205, and 271 mg kg(-1) for the fresh weights of the three plants. The single and combined exposure of soil to chromium(VI) and phenanthrene had deleterious effects on plants in the early stage of growth. Overall, pakchoi cabbage was more sensitive than mung beans and rice. The two pollutants exerted synergistic effects on the stem lengths and above-ground fresh weights of both mung beans and rice but antagonistic effects on pakchoi cabbage. The results of this study also suggested pakchoi cabbage as a sensitive indicator of soil pollution. PMID

  10. Evaluation of anthropogenic urban soils. Final report; Bewertung anthropogener Stadtboeden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, H.P.; Schleuss, U. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The research project `Evaluation of Anthropogenic Urban Soils` was subsidized by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology and adviced by the working group `Stadtboeden` of the German Society of Soil Science. It was realized as a cooperation between the universities of Berlin (TU), Halle-Wittenberg, Hohenheim, Kiel and Rostock and had three objectives: - to characterize soils developed from anthropogenic substratums (`urban soils`), - to figure out distribution patterns of such soils and - to verify whether urban soils could be evaluated according to their filtering and habitat function in the same way as soils developed from natural parent material. Evaluation methods based on easily obtainable field data had to be adapted to `urban soils` respectively developed anew. For that reason some typical soils of anthropogenic lithogenesis had to be examined between 1993 and 1996 both on their importance as habitats for plants and soil organisms and on their filtering, buffering and transforming capacities for organic and inorganic pollutants. Accordingly representative `urban soils` were gathered in the towns of Berlin, Eckernfoerde, Essen, Halle, Kiel, Rostock and Stuttgart; these soils had developed from technogenic substratums (brick and mortar debris, municipal waste, ashes, slag, sludge) and redeposited alkaline resp. acidic natural substratums (mud, coal mine and coking plant deposits). Some of the soils were influenced by ground water, and all soils developed from the same kind of parent material belonged to different stages of development. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Ziele des vom BMBF gefoerderten und vom Arbeitskreis Stadtboeden der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft beratenen Verbundprojektes `Bewertung anthropogener Stadtboeden` waren die Charakterisierung von Boeden anthropogener Substrate, die exemplarische Ermittlung des Verteilungsmusters derartiger Boeden und die Pruefung, inwieweit sie sich aehnlich den Boeden natuerlicher

  11. A new method of inhibiting pollutant release from source water reservoir sediment by adding chemical stabilization agents combined with water-lifting aerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beibei Chai; Tinglin Huang; Weihuang Zhu; Fengying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Source water reservoirs easily become thermally and dynamically stratified.Internal pollution released from reservoir sediments is the main cause of water quality problems.To mitigate the internal pollution more effectively,a new method,which combined chemical stabilization with water lifting aerator (WLA) technology,was proposed and its efficiency in inhibiting pollutant release was studied by controlled sediment-water interface experiments.The results showed that this new method can inhibit pollutant release from sediment effectively.The values of mean efficiency (E) in different reactors 2#-5# (1# with no agent,2# 10 mg/L polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC) was added,3# 20 mg/L PAC was added,4# 30 mg/L PAC was added,5# 20 mg/L PAC and 0.2 mg/L palyacrylamide (PAM)were added) for PO43- were 35.0%,43.9%,50.4% and 63.6%,respectively.This showed that the higher the PAC concentration was,the better the inhibiting efficiency was,and PAM addition strengthened the inhibiting efficiency significantly.For Fe2+,the corresponding values of E for the reactors 2#-5# were 22.9%,47.2%,34.3% and 46.2%,respectively.The inhibiting effect of PAC and PAM on Mn release remained positive for a relatively short time,about 10 days,and was not so effective as for PO43- and Fe2+.The average efliciencies in inhibiting the release of UV254 were 35.3%,25.9%,35.5%,38.9% and 39.5% for reactors 2#-5#,respectively.The inhibiting mechanisms of the agents for different pollutants varied among the conditions and should be studied further.

  12. Anthropogenic impact on the sediment record from Lake Czechowskie (N-Poland) based on heavy metal contents in combination with high-resolution pollen and varve data: Geochemical background vs enrichment history and landsurface changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Słowiński, Michał; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    For Czechowskie Lake, situated in a rural environment in N-Poland, we present a detailed heavy metal enrichment history for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn for the last two hundred years at 1 cm intervals from an annually laminated sediment core and the near-by lake sediment record of Lake Głęboczek. To determine local geogenic background values for the lake different types of Holocene lake sediments (e.g. calcareous gyttja, organic gyttja etc.) were analyzed for their heavy metal concentrations. On the base of these results enrichment factors were calculated that represent the anthropogenic heavy metal deposition. This data is supplemented by on average five year resolution pollen record for the last 700 years. Based on vegetation changes (e.g. arboreal % such as Pinus and Carpinus betulus; Cerealia %; charcoal pieces), heavy metal input (mainly Pb, Zn and Cd), varve thickness, and precise varve dating (±3a years for the last 200a and ±8a years for the last 700a) five phases of significantly lower human activity interrupted by stronger human impact were distinguished. Strongest declines in anthropogenic pressure on the landscape are related to periods following war or economic regression and subsequent regeneration. Our results provide means to calculate and quantify with sub-decadal resolution anthropogenic impact as well as to define regional measures for a state of reference, reflecting natural conditions without human impact.

  13. Delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust and combustion aerosols to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. Here, we, for the first time, interactively combined laboratory kinetic experiments with global aerosol modeling to more accurately quantify anthropogenic soluble Fe due to air pollution. We firstly examined Fe dissolution kinetics of African dust samples at acidic pH values with and without ionic species commonly found in aerosol water (i.e., sulfate and oxalate. We then constructed a new empirical scheme for Fe release from mineral dust due to inorganic and organic anions in aerosol water, by using acidity as a master variable. We implemented this new scheme and applied an updated mineralogical emission database in a global atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate the atmospheric concentration and deposition flux of soluble Fe under preindustrial and modern conditions. Our improved model successfully captured the inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading measured over the North Atlantic Ocean (i.e., 1–2 orders of magnitude lower Fe solubility in North African- than combustion-influenced aerosols. The model results show a positive relationship between Fe solubility and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC/Fe molar ratio, which is consistent with previous field measurements. We estimated that deposition of soluble Fe to the ocean increased from 0.05–0.07 Tg Fe yr−1 in preindustrial era to 0.11–0.12 Tg Fe yr−1 in present days, due to air pollution. Over the High Nitrate Low Chlorophyll (HNLC regions of the ocean, the modeled Fe

  14. Delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust and combustion aerosols to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Shi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe) to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. In this study, for the first time, we interactively combined laboratory kinetic experiments with global aerosol modeling to more accurately quantify anthropogenic soluble Fe due to air pollution. Firstly, we determined Fe dissolution kinetics of African dust samples at acidic pH values with and without ionic species commonly found in aerosol water (i.e., sulfate and oxalate). Then, by using acidity as a master variable, we constructed a new empirical scheme for Fe release from mineral dust due to inorganic and organic anions in aerosol water. We implemented this new scheme and applied an updated mineralogical emission database in a global atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate the atmospheric concentration and deposition flux of soluble Fe under preindustrial and modern conditions. Our improved model successfully captured the inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading measured over the North Atlantic Ocean (i.e., 1-2 orders of magnitude lower Fe solubility in northern-African- than combustion-influenced aerosols). The model results show a positive relationship between Fe solubility and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC)/Fe molar ratio, which is consistent with previous field measurements. We estimated that deposition of soluble Fe to the ocean increased from 0.05-0.07 Tg Fe yr-1 in the preindustrial era to 0.11-0.12 Tg Fe yr-1 in the present day, due to air pollution. Over the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean, the modeled Fe

  15. Delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust and combustion aerosols to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Shi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic soluble iron (Fe) to the ocean has been suggested to modulate primary ocean productivity and thus indirectly affect the climate. A key process contributing to anthropogenic sources of soluble Fe is associated with air pollution, which acidifies Fe-containing mineral aerosols during their transport and leads to Fe transformation from insoluble to soluble forms. However, there is large uncertainty in our estimate of this anthropogenic soluble Fe. In this study, for the first time, we interactively combined laboratory kinetic experiments with global aerosol modeling to more accurately quantify anthropogenic soluble Fe due to air pollution. Firstly, we determined Fe dissolution kinetics of African dust samples at acidic pH values with and without ionic species commonly found in aerosol water (i.e., sulfate and oxalate). Then, by using acidity as a master variable, we constructed a new empirical scheme for Fe release from mineral dust due to inorganic and organic anions in aerosol water. We implemented this new scheme and applied an updated mineralogical emission database in a global atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate the atmospheric concentration and deposition flux of soluble Fe under preindustrial and modern conditions. Our improved model successfully captured the inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading measured over the North Atlantic Ocean (i.e., 1-2 orders of magnitude lower Fe solubility in northern-African- than combustion-influenced aerosols). The model results show a positive relationship between Fe solubility and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC)/Fe molar ratio, which is consistent with previous field measurements. We estimated that deposition of soluble Fe to the ocean increased from 0.05-0.07 Tg Fe yr-1 in the preindustrial era to 0.11-0.12 Tg Fe yr-1 in the present day, due to air pollution. Over the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean, the modeled Fe

  16. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the removal of pollutant compounds by peroxidases: affinity and reactivity toward a bioremediation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Cristina; Torres, Juliana Arriel; Castro, Alexandre A; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Alves de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2016-09-01

    Water pollution is a significant and growing problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries. In order to minimize environmental problems, catalysts have increasingly been designed to remove pollutants from the water. In an attempt to innovate by the creation of new low-cost alternatives to efficiently remove pollutants, the enzymatic treatment has been intensely studied for this purpose. Reactions catalyzed by enzymes are able to perform specific treatments, commonly with high rates of the final products. With this, the enzyme, peroxidase, is a promising candidate as a bioremediation catalyst. The efficiency of oxidoreductive enzymes, such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and soybean peroxidase (SP) have been studied, given that their performance depends on the substrate. In this investigation, experimental techniques and theoretical calculations have been employed in order to investigate the oxidative process for the ferulic acid and bromophenol blue dyes, performed by HRP and SP. Both enzymes showed a comparable behavior with respect to ferulic acid substrate. On the other hand, by utilizing bromophenol blue dye as a substrate, the behavior of the employed catalysts was significantly different. Experimental data have shown that HRP was more active toward bromophenol blue when compared to ferulic acid, being more rapidly degraded by the HRP enzyme. This tendency was confirmed by our theoretical docking, PM6 semi-empirical method, and DFT calculation results, in which the interaction, binding energies, and transition states were determined. PMID:26130457

  17. Ecophysiological Response of Plants to Combined Pollution from Heavy-duty Vehicles and Industrial Emissions in Higher Humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xia Cui; Gao-Ming Jiang; Shu-Li Niu; Chuang-Dao Jiang; Mei-Zhen Liu; Shun-Li Yu; Lei-Ming Gao

    2006-01-01

    Pollution can be aggravated in industrial areas if traffic exhausts are mixed with industrial emissions under high humidity conditions. Plants growing in such environments may suffer from severe stress. The impact of vehicle emissions on urban vegetation in an industrial area in Qingdao, China, was investigated by studying seven plant species at visible, physiological and chemical levels. The traits of plant species in certain environmental conditions were compared between a clear area, Badaguan (BDG), and polluted area,Roadside (RS). We found that foliar sulfur uptake for all species was not significantly high at RS compared with BDG, although the sulfur content of atmosphere and surface soils at RS were much higher than those at BDG. For Ailanthus altissima Swingle, the content of foliar pigment and net photosynthesis rate (PN)decreased by 20%. Meanwhile, leaves became incrassate and no visible leaf damage was noted, suggesting this species could adapt well to pollution. A 50% decrease in PN occurred in Hibiscus syriacus L., but there was no statistical change in content of chlorophyll a and b and water uptake. Also, thickened leaves may prevent the pollutant from permeation. Foliar water content was still at a low level, although a water compensation mechanism was established for Fraxinus chinensis Rosb. reflected by low water potential and high water use efficiency. More adversely, a 65% decrease in PN happened inevitably with the significant decomposition of photosynthetic pigments, which exhibited visible damage. We also noted in one evergreen species (Magnolia grandiflora L.) that water absorption driven by low water potential should be helpful to supply water loss induced by strong stomatal transpiration and maintain normal growth. Furthermore, photosynthetic pigment content did not decline statistically, but supported a stable net assimilation. Two herbaceous species, Poa annua L. and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl., were very tolerant to adverse stress

  18. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of anthropog

  19. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  20. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  1. [Effect of radioactive, toxic, and combined radiation and toxic pollution of the environment on the incidence of malignant neoplasms in children of the Briansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakov, A V; Troshin, V P; Mikhalev, V P

    2012-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of the frequency of incidence of all forms of primary malignant tumors in the child population over the fourteen-year period (1995-2008.) is presented. Evaluation was carried out in ecologically unfavorable territories of the Bryansk region with varying density of radioactive (from 28.1 to 661.9 kBq/m2 for 137Cs), toxic (from 1.47 to 183.6 kg/person/year for gaseous toxic substances) and combined environment pollution. Statistically significant differences of incidence of malignant neoplasms in children in ecologically unfavorable areas have been established.

  2. Distribution and mobilization of pollutants in the sediment of a constructed floating wetland used for treatment of combined sewer overflow events

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Moortel, Annelies; Du Laing, Gijs; Niels DE PAUW; Tack, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Sediments in combined sewer overflow treatment systems may exhibit elevated pollutant concentrations. Concentrations measured in the sediment of a floating treatment wetland ranged from 0.17 to 1.6 (cadmium), 28 to 142 (copper), 10 to 33 (chromium), 50 to 141 (manganese), 5 to 20 (nickel), 50 to 203 (lead), and 185 to 804 (zinc) mg/kg dry matter and 7.4 to 17 (iron), 2 to 8 (total nitrogen), and 1.3 to 4.4 (total phosphorus) g/kg dry matter. During overflow events, the entering water volumes ...

  3. Sources, Properties, Aging, and Anthropogenic Influences on OA and SOA over the Southeast US and the Amazon duing SOAS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and GoAmazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SE US and the Amazon have large sources of biogenic VOCs, varying anthropogenic pollution impacts, and often poor organic aerosol (OA) model performance. Recent results on the sources, properties, aging, and impact of anthropogenic pollution on OA and secondary OA (SOA) over ...

  4. A method for apportionment of natural and anthropogenic contributions to heavy metal loadings in the surface soils across large-scale regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-07-01

    Quantification of the contributions from anthropogenic sources to soil heavy metal loadings on regional scales is challenging because of the heterogeneity of soil parent materials and high variability of anthropogenic inputs, especially for the species that are primarily of lithogenic origin. To this end, we developed a novel method for apportioning the contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources by combining sequential extraction and stochastic modeling, and applied it to investigate the heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China. On the average, 45-86% of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were present in the acid soluble, reducible, and oxidizable fractions of the surface soils, while only 12-24% of Ni, Cr, and As were partitioned in these fractions. The anthropogenic contributions to the heavy metals in the non-residual fractions, even the ones dominated by natural sources, could be identified and quantified by conditional inference trees. Combination of sequential extraction, Kriging interpolation, and stochastic modeling reveals that approximately 10, 39, 6.2, 28, 7.1, 15, and 46% of the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively, in the surface soils of the PRD were contributed by anthropogenic sources. These results were in general agreements with those obtained through subtraction of regional soil metal background from total loadings, and the soil metal inputs through atmospheric deposition as well. In the non-residual fractions of the surface soils, the anthropogenic contributions to As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were 48, 42, 50, 51, 49, 24, and 70%, respectively. PMID:27108044

  5. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: Combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, Maria; Domeno, Celia; Nerin, Cristina [Grupo GUIA-Instituto de Investigacion de Ingenieria en Aragon (I3A), Centro Superior de Ingenieros (CPS), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The air quality in the Aragon valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragon valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g{sup -1} and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g{sup -1}), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs. (orig.)

  6. Microbial DNA records historical delivery of anthropogenic mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Alexandre J; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Blais, Jules M; Brazeau, Michelle; Keller, Wendel Bill; Paterson, Andrew M

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an anthropogenic pollutant that is toxic to wildlife and humans, but the response of remote ecosystems to globally distributed Hg is elusive. Here, we use DNA extracted from a dated sediment core to infer the response of microbes to historical Hg delivery. We observe a significant association between the mercuric reductase gene (merA) phylogeny and the timing of Hg deposition. Using relaxed molecular clock models, we show a significant increase in the scaled effective population size of the merA gene beginning ~200 years ago, coinciding with the Industrial Revolution and a coincident strong signal for positive selection acting on residues in the terminal region of the mercuric reductase. This rapid evolutionary response of microbes to changes in the delivery of anthropogenic Hg indicates that microbial genomes record ecosystem response to pollutant deposition in remote regions. PMID:26057844

  7. Interactions of anthropogenic stress factors on phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat P. Häder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton are the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Their biomass production and CO2 sequestration equals that of all terrestrial plants taken together. Phytoplankton productivity is controlled by a number of environmental factors, many of which currently undergo substantial changes due to anthropogenic global climate change. Light availability is an absolute requirement for photosynthesis, but excessive visible and UV radiation impair productivity. Increasing temperatures enhance stratification, decrease the depth of the upper mixing layer exposing the cells to higher solar radiation, and reduce nutrient upward transport from deeper layers. At the same time, stratospheric ozone depletion exposes phytoplankton to higher solar UV-B radiation especially in polar and mid latitudes. Terrestrial runoff carrying sediments and dissolved organic matter into coastal waters leads to eutrophication while reducing UV penetration. All these environmental forcings are known to affect physiological and ecological processes of primary producers. Ocean acidification due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations changes the seawater chemistry; it reduces calcification in phytoplankton, macroalgae and many zoological taxa and enhances UV-induced damage. Ocean warming results in changing species composition and favors blooms of toxic prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton; it moderates UV-induced damage of the photosynthetic apparatus because of higher repair rates. Increasing pollution from crude oil spills, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metal as well as industrial and household wastewaters affect phytoplankton, which is augmented by solar UV radiation. In view of the fact that extensive analyses of the impacts of multiple stressors are scarce, here we review reported findings on the impacts of anthropogenic stressors on phytoplankton with an emphasis on their interactive effects and a prospect for future studies.

  8. Potential of the multispectral synergism for observing ozone pollution combining measurements of IASI-NG and UVNS onboard EPS-SG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Cuesta, Juan; Emili, Emanuele; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Chailleux, Yohann; Beekmann, Matthias; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Current and future satellite observations offer a great potential for monitoring air quality on daily and global basis. However, measurements from currently in orbit sensors offer a limited capacity to probe surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as tropospheric ozone. Using single-band approaches based on IASI spaceborne thermal infrared measurements, only ozone down to the lower troposphere (3-4 km of altitude at lowest) may be observed (Eremenko et al., 2008). A recent multispectral method combining IASI and GOME-2 (both onboard MetOp satellites) spectra, respectively from the IR and UV, has shown enhanced sensitivity for probing ozone at the lowermost troposphere, but with maximum sensitivity around 2 km at lowest (Cuesta et al., 2013). Future spatial missions will be launched in the upcoming years, such as EPS-SG, carrying new generation sensors like IASI-NG and UVNS that will enhance the capacity to observe ozone pollution, and particularly when combining them through a multispectral synergism. This work presents an analysis of the potential of the multispectral synergism of IASI-NG and UVNS future spaceborne measurements for observing ozone pollution, performed in the framework of SURVEYOZON project (funded by the French Space Agency, CNES). For this, we develop a simulator of synthetic multispectral retrievals or pseudo-observations (referred as OSSE, Observing System Simulation Experiment) derived from IASI-NG+UVNS that will be compared to those from IASI+GOME2. In the first step of the OSSE, we create a pseudo-reality with simulations from the chemical-transport model MOCAGE (provided by CERFACS laboratory), where real O3 data from IASI and surface network stations have been assimilated for a realistic representation of ozone variability at the surface and the free troposphere. We focus on the high pollution event occurred in Europe on 10 July 2010. We use the coupled algorithms KOPRA+VLIDORT to simulate the spectra emitted, scattered and

  9. Single and combined effects of air pollutants on circulatory and respiratory system-related mortality in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić, Svetlana Stanišić; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja; Šoštarić, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and soot and mortality attributed to circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade area (Serbia). The analyzed data set comprised results of regular pollutant monitoring and corresponding administrative records on frequency of daily mortality in the period 2009-2014. Nonlinear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects of temperature were examined by means of distributed lag nonlinear models. The air pollutant loadings and circulatory system-related death rates in Belgrade area are among the highest in Europe. Data demonstrated that excess risk of death with short-term exposure to elevated concentrations of PM10, SO2, and soot was not significant, whereas marked effect size estimates for exposure over 90 d preceding mortality were found. The influence of chronic exposure was shown to be greater for respiratory than circulatory system-related mortality. When stratified by age and gender, higher risk was noted for male individuals below the age of 65 years. PMID:26699658

  10. Anthropogenic versus geogenic contribution to total suspended atmospheric particulate matter and its variations during a two-year sampling period in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chai, Fahe; Chen, Yizhen; Wang, Shulan; Stüben, Doris

    2010-02-01

    Weekly samples of total suspended particles in air (TSP) were taken in south-east Beijing for a two-year period continuously from August 2005 to August 2007. Mass concentrations varied between 76 and 1028 microg m(-3) with an average concentration of 370 microg m(-3) for the whole period. The chemical composition and the mass concentration of aerosols in combination with meteorological data are reflecting specific influences of distinct aerosol sources on the pollution of Beijing's atmosphere. Lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations were chosen as indicator elements for different sources. Their amounts considerably varied over the course of the year. Element ratios, such as Pb/Ti, supported the distinction between periods of predominant geogenic or anthropogenic caused pollution. However, the interactions between aerosols from different sources are numerous and aerosol pollution still is a big and complex challenge for the sustainable development of Beijing.

  11. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  12. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  13. What We Can Say About the Roles of Natural and Anthropogenic Aerosols in Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Although particles from natural sources dominate the globally averaged aerosol load, it is widely understood that human activity has added significantly to the atmospheric aerosol inventory in many regions. Anthropogenic contributions include pollution particles from industrial activity, transportation, cook-stoves, and other combustion sources, smoke from agricultural fires and those wildfires that result from land-management practices, soil and mineral dust mobilized in regions where overgrazing, severe tilling, or overuse of surface water resources have occurred, and biogenic particles from vegetation planted and maintained by the populance. The history of human influence is complex - in the 18th and 19th centuries agricultural burning tended to dominate the anthropogenic component in most places, whereas more recently, fossil fuel combustion leads the human contribution is many areas. However, identifying and quantifying the anthropogenic aerosol component on global scales is a challenging endeavor at present. Most estimates of the anthropogenic component come from aerosol transport models that are initialized with aerosol and precursor-gas source locations, emission strengths, and injection heights. The aerosol is then advected based on meteorological modeling, possibly modified chemically or physically, and removed by parameterized wet or dry deposition processes. Aerosol effects on clouds are also represented in some climate models, but with even greater uncertainty than the direct aerosol effects on Earth's radiation balance. Even for present conditions, aerosol source inventories are deduced from whatever constraints can be found, along with much creativity and many assumptions. Aerosol amount (i.e., aerosol optical depth) is routinely measured globally from space, but observational constraints on the anthropogenic component require some knowledge of the aerosol type as well, a much more difficult quantity to derive. As large-swath, multi-spectral, single

  14. Decision-tree-model identification of nitrate pollution activities in groundwater: A combination of a dual isotope approach and chemical ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dongmei; Pang, Fengmei; Meng, Fanqiao; Wang, Zhongliang; Wu, Wenliang

    2015-09-01

    To develop management practices for agricultural crops to protect against NO3- contamination in groundwater, dominant pollution activities require reliable classification. In this study, we (1) classified potential NO3- pollution activities via an unsupervised learning algorithm based on δ15N- and δ18O-NO3- and physico-chemical properties of groundwater at 55 sampling locations; and (2) determined which water quality parameters could be used to identify the sources of NO3- contamination via a decision tree model. When a combination of δ15N-, δ18O-NO3- and physico-chemical properties of groundwater was used as an input for the k-means clustering algorithm, it allowed for a reliable clustering of the 55 sampling locations into 4 corresponding agricultural activities: well irrigated agriculture (28 sampling locations), sewage irrigated agriculture (16 sampling locations), a combination of sewage irrigated agriculture, farm and industry (5 sampling locations) and a combination of well irrigated agriculture and farm (6 sampling locations). A decision tree model with 97.5% classification success was developed based on SO42 - and Cl- variables. The NO3- and the δ15N- and δ18O-NO3- variables demonstrated limitation in developing a decision tree model as multiple N sources and fractionation processes both resulted in difficulties of discriminating NO3- concentrations and isotopic values. Although only the SO42 - and Cl- were selected as important discriminating variables, concentration data alone could not identify the specific NO3- sources responsible for groundwater contamination. This is a result of comprehensive analysis. To further reduce NO3- contamination, an integrated approach should be set-up by combining N and O isotopes of NO3- with land-uses and physico-chemical properties, especially in areas with complex agricultural activities.

  15. Combining Shapley value and statistics to the analysis of gene expression data in children exposed to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinjans Jos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In gene expression analysis, statistical tests for differential gene expression provide lists of candidate genes having, individually, a sufficiently low p-value. However, the interpretation of each single p-value within complex systems involving several interacting genes is problematic. In parallel, in the last sixty years, game theory has been applied to political and social problems to assess the power of interacting agents in forcing a decision and, more recently, to represent the relevance of genes in response to certain conditions. Results In this paper we introduce a Bootstrap procedure to test the null hypothesis that each gene has the same relevance between two conditions, where the relevance is represented by the Shapley value of a particular coalitional game defined on a microarray data-set. This method, which is called Comparative Analysis of Shapley value (shortly, CASh, is applied to data concerning the gene expression in children differentially exposed to air pollution. The results provided by CASh are compared with the results from a parametric statistical test for testing differential gene expression. Both lists of genes provided by CASh and t-test are informative enough to discriminate exposed subjects on the basis of their gene expression profiles. While many genes are selected in common by CASh and the parametric test, it turns out that the biological interpretation of the differences between these two selections is more interesting, suggesting a different interpretation of the main biological pathways in gene expression regulation for exposed individuals. A simulation study suggests that CASh offers more power than t-test for the detection of differential gene expression variability. Conclusion CASh is successfully applied to gene expression analysis of a data-set where the joint expression behavior of genes may be critical to characterize the expression response to air pollution. We demonstrate a

  16. 蜈蚣草对Pb、Zn复合污染的响应%Study on response of Pteris vittata to Pb and Zn combined pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱启红; 夏红霞

    2012-01-01

    Combined heavy metal pollution is one of main soil pollutions.In order to investigate the ability of Pteris vittata in restoring soils with combined heavy metal pollution,water cultured experiment was utilized to study the accumulation of Pb and Zn in Pteris vittata and the detoxification mechanism of Pteris vittata to heavy metals under the combined Pb and Zn exposure.The experimental results show that under Pb and Zn combined exposure,Zn improved the enrichment ability of Pteris vittata roots and stems for Pb,and reduced its translocation ability for Pb as well.Pb also improved the translocation ability of the plant for Zn and its enrichment ability.The enrichmant ability of Pteris vittata for Pb was stronger than for Zn.With increasing heavy metal concentrations,chlorophyll content incrensed first and then decreased.Malondialdehyde(MDA) content decreaed first and then increasd.Starch,sucrose and superoxide radical(O-2 ·) contents all increased gradually.These results show that starch,sucrose and superoxide radical(O-2 ·) had certain detoxification function,and strengthened resistance of the plants to heavy metals.These results also show that Pteris vittata has tolerance and enrichment ability to Pb and Zn,and Pteris vittata can be used to restore Pb polluted soil and Pb-Zn combined polluted soil under low Zn concentrations.%为探明蜈蚣草修复重金属复合污染土壤的能力,本实验利用水培实验研究Pb、Zn交互作用下蜈蚣草对Pb、Zn积累变化以及蜈蚣草对Pb、Zn的解毒机理.实验结果显示,在Pb、Zn复合污染情况下,重金属Zn在0—10 mg.L-1下可促进蜈蚣草根、茎对Pb的富集能力,降低蜈蚣草对Pb的转运能力;而Pb则促进蜈蚣草对Zn的转运系数,提高蜈蚣草茎、叶对Zn的富集能力,并呈现出蜈蚣草对Pb的富集能力大于对Zn的富集能力.实验结果进一步显示,随着重金属复合暴露浓度增加,蜈蚣草叶绿素含量先上升后下降,丙二醛含

  17. Multiple biomarkers of pollution effects in caged mussels on the Greek coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, C; Kormas, K; Strogyloudi, E; Hatzianestis, I; Neofitou, C; Andral, B; Galgani, F

    2010-04-01

    A suite of biomarkers was measured in caged mussels at areas impacted by different anthropogenic activities along the Greek coastline to assess biological effects of environmental pollution. Mussels were caged at coastal sites in the vicinity of major cities, in areas influenced by major industries, agricultural practices and in islands away from known sources of pollution. Biomarkers indicative of neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase, AchE), oxidative stress (catalase, CAT), phase II biotransformation of xenobiotics (glutathione S-transferase, GST), metal exposure (metallothioneins, MTs) and protein synthesis (RNA:DNA ratio) were measured to assess effects of various types of pollutants. AchE activity proved to be the most responsive biomarker with decreased values at sites influenced by agricultural, urban and industrial activities. Decreased CAT and GST activities and increased MTs levels were recorded at a number of anthropogenic-impacted sites. RNA:DNA ratio showed a biphasic response as both high and low values were found at impacted sites. Principal component analysis clearly distinguished sites receiving pollution inputs from non-polluted sites. The combination of the selected biomarkers used in caged mussels resulted useful in the assessment of the effects of environmental pollution.

  18. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Henry W. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.

  19. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl3F (CF4) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level

  20. The combination of rotating disk photocatalytic reactor and TiO2 nanotube arrays for environmental pollutants removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined photocatalytic system on one single TiO2-nanotube (TNT)/Ti photocatalyst, which was indeed the functional combination of photon-efficient thin-film and conventional bulk-phase photocatalysis processes, was effectively developed in rotating disk photocatalytic reactor for environmental purification applications. The TNT/Ti rotating disk, of uniform size and well-aligned, was successfully prepared by direct anodic oxidation on a dominantly large surface area of 38 cm2, compared to the typical 1 cm2 in available literature. To estimate the potentials of combined photocatalytic system for environmental applications, the degradation of rhodamine B was carried out under the optimized conditions, a substrate removal efficiency of nearly 90% and a mineralization efficiency of 56% were observed for initial 20 mg/L solution after 3 h treatment. Compared with the combined photocatalytic system on TiO2 nanoparticle disk, a significant improvement in substrate removal efficiency of about 25-40% was observed on TNT/Ti disk. It was confirmed that the main degradation of rhodamine B occurred on the upper half of TNT/Ti disk above the heavily colorized sample solution, which was attributed to the superior UV utilization efficiency and the resultant high interfacial photoactivity.

  1. Destruction of pollutants in water with ozone in combination with ultraviolet radiation. 1. General principles and oxidation of tetrachloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation of organic micropollutants in water is significantly faster with ozone in combination with ultraviolet radiation than one would predict on the basis of the individual processes involved. A formalism for the analysis of O3/UV kinetics is presented in which substrate decay is represented as a linear combination of terms representing purging, ozonation, photolysis, and photolytic ozonation (O3/UV). For the substrate tetrachloroethylene (TCE) the process is overall first order in TCE. With a continuously sparged stirred tank reactor, times for the elimination of 63% of the substrate (T1) have values of 100, 26, 20, and 7 min for purging, ozonation only, photolysis only, and photolytic ozonation, respectively. Significant retardation of O3/UV kinetics is observed in a lake-water matrix as opposed to purified water, possible due to a radical intermediate involved in the O3/UV process

  2. Combination of GIS and multicriteria analysis to delineate polluted zones in Baruwa Community of Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen hand-dug wells were sampled from five different localities within Baruwa community of Lagos namely: Baruwa (BAR), Fatade (FATJ, Gowon Estate (GOW), Abesan (ABE), and Low Cost Housing Estate (LCH). Three control hand dug wells were also sampled from Ipaja (IPA), Asipa (ASI) and Agege (AGE). Chemical and statistical analyses were carried out on the water samples to determine their quality and usage while electrical resistively soundings were conducted to determine the aquiferous units. The study area was mapped by GIS using parameters such as distance from spillage point, total dissolved solid, conductivity, depth of water table, altitude etc. The present study focused on the use of GIS, hydrochemical and geophysical techniques to delineate polluted zones in the Baruwa community aquifers and to suggest possible remedial measures. Hydrochemical results show that samples collected from Baruwa community have been contaminated while samples collected from the control wells are potable. The results of the sounding data show a system of four to five geoelectric layers with variable thicknesses. The lithounits include top soil, saturated clay, sandy clay, sand and conglomeratic sand with average resistivity of the 64, 32, 167, 278 and 1299 m respectively. The relatively high resistivity of the first aquifer (20 m) suggests hydrocarbon contamination from wells within Baruwa community while, low resistivity values were observed from the first aquifers of the control wells. However, prolific uncontaminated aquifers constitute the last layer (>30 m) and could be recommended for borehole drilling in the study area. The outcome of this investigation could be used for groundwater exploration in the area. The outcome of this investigation could be used for groundwater exploration in the area and could also be applied to the broader domain of land-use management

  3. Distribution and mobilization of pollutants in the sediment of a constructed floating wetland used for treatment of combined sewer overflow events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Moortel, Annelies M K; Du Laing, Gijs; De Pauw, Niels; Tack, Filip M G

    2011-05-01

    Sediments in combined sewer overflow treatment systems may exhibit elevated pollutant concentrations. Concentrations measured in the sediment of a floating treatment wetland ranged from 0.17 to 1.6 (cadmium), 28 to 142 (copper), 10 to 33 (chromium), 50 to 141 (manganese), 5 to 20 (nickel), 50 to 203 (lead), and 185 to 804 (zinc) mg/kg dry matter and 7.4 to 17 (iron), 2 to 8 (total nitrogen), and 1.3 to 4.4 (total phosphorus) g/kg dry matter. During overflow events, the entering water volumes can disturb the sediments. A greenhouse experiment was set up to evaluate the possible mobilization of pollutants through disturbation. The disturbation did not result in an increased mobilization of cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon towards the pore and surface water. Calcium concentrations in the surface water increased for all sediments, as a result of release from the exchangeable sediment pool and dissolution of carbonates. Geochemical speciation modeling indicated that, in the pore water, the free ion form was the most abundant for calcium, iron, manganese, cadmium, and nickel, with its fraction increasing with time. PMID:21657194

  4. Benthic Nutrient Fluxes from Mangrove Sediments of an Anthropogenically Impacted Estuary in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves serve as either sinks or sources for inorganic and organic nutrients and can mitigate anthropogenic nutrient pollution, control the production in adjacent systems, and prevent eutrophication. To better understand the nutrient dynamics in a subtropical mangrove, we employed a three-way approach in the Nanliu River Estuary, southern China: Pore water profiles and sediment incubations revealed benthic early diagenesis as well as sediment–water exchange of dissolved nutrients and oxygen, while tidal sampling of estuarine and mangrove water identified source and sink functions of the entire mangrove forest. Fluxes of oxygen during incubations were always directed into the sediment, indicating heterotrophy of the system. There was a net uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly caused by nitrate influx, while ammonium and nitrite showed variable flux direction. Despite high pore water concentrations, phosphate and silica showed net uptake. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon were generally low except for high efflux in the dark following a storm event. Due to the combination of small forest area and strong anthropogenic nutrient input, the net sink function for dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus provides no significant buffer against the eutrophication of coastal waters.

  5. Environmental and anthropogenic factors affecting the respiratory toxicity of volcanic ash in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašek, Ines; Horwell, Claire J.; Damby, David E.; Ayris, Paul M.; Barošová, Hana; Geers, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2016-04-01

    Human exposure to inhalable volcanic ash particles following an eruption is a health concern, as respirable-sized particles can potentially contribute towards adverse respiratory health effects, such as the onset or exacerbation of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Although there is substantial information on the mineralogical properties of volcanic ash that may influence its biological reactivity, knowledge as to how external factors, such as air pollution, contribute to and augment the potential reactivity is limited. To determine the respiratory effects of volcanic particle interactions with anthropogenic pollution and volcanic gases we will experimentally assess: (i) physicochemical characteristics of volcanic ash relevant to respiratory toxicity; (ii) the effects of simultaneously inhaling anthropogenic pollution (i.e. diesel exhaust particles (DEP)) and volcanic ash (of different origins); (iii) alteration of volcanic ash toxicity following interaction with volcanic gases. In order to gain a first understanding of the biological impact of the respirable fraction of volcanic ash when inhaled with DEP in vitro, we used a sophisticated 3D triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier. The multi-cellular system was exposed to DEP [0.02 mg/mL] and then exposed to either a single or repeated dose of well-characterised respirable volcanic ash (0.26 ± 0.09 or 0.89 ± 0.29 μg/cm2, respectively) from the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat for a period of 24 hours using a pseudo-air liquid interface approach. Cultures were subsequently assessed for adverse biological endpoints including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and (pro)-inflammatory responses. Results indicated that the combination of DEP and respirable volcanic ash at sub-lethal concentrations incited a significant release of pro-inflammatory markers that was greater than the response for either DEP or volcanic ash, independently. Further work is planned, to determine if

  6. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system.

  7. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system. PMID:26706768

  8. Oil pollution in Chilika lagoon: An anthropogenic threat to biodiversity.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Baliarsingh, S.K.; Sahoo, S.; Acharya, A.; Dalabehera, H.B.; Sahu, K.C.; Lotliker, A.A.

    during regular field surveys (Figure 1). More than 2 lakh fisherfolk derive their livelihoods from the lagoon re- sources. About 5089 non-motorized boats and 2259 motorized boats are used for fishing6. Moreover, a small number of these boats... of the motorized boats use petrol, diesel and kerosene as fuel along with engine oil. Apart from the fishing vessels, a motorized ferry operates four times a day between Satpada and Janhikuda, a main- tenance dredger functions in different lo- cations...

  9. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marelle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using EMEP measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic, showing a good agreement, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10 during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne LIDAR measurements. Evaluating the regional impacts in the Arctic of this event in terms of aerosol vertical structure, we find that during the 4 day presence of these aerosols in the lower European Arctic (2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface. The European plumes sampled during POLARCAT-France were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in Northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top of atmosphere (TOA shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m−2, peaking at +3.3 W m−2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  10. Combination of beehive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity to study heavy metal pollution impact in a post-mining area (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alberto; Verdinelli, Marcello; Ruiu, Luca; Buffa, Franco; Salis, Severyn; Sassu, Antonio; Floris, Ignazio

    2012-11-01

    Mining activities represent a major source of environment contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of bees and ants as bioindicators to detect the heavy metal impact in post-mining areas. A biomonitoring programme involving a combination of honeybee hive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity survey was conducted over a 3-year period. The experimental design involved three monitoring stations where repeated sampling activities focused on chemical detection of cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr) and lead (Pb) from different matrices, both from hosted beehives (foraging bees, honey and pollen) and from the surrounding environment (stream water and soil). At the same time, ant biodiversity (number and abundance of species) was determined through a monitoring programme based on the use of pitfall traps placed in different habitats inside each mining site. The heavy metal content detected in stream water from the control station was always below the analytical limit of quantification. In the case of soil, the content of Cd and Pb from the control was lower than that of mining sites. The mean heavy metal concentrations in beehive matrices from mining sites were mainly higher than the control, and as a result of regression and discriminant analysis, forager bee sampling was an efficient environmental pollution bioindicator. Ant collection and identification highlighted a wide species variety with differences among habitats mostly associated with vegetation features. A lower variability was observed in the polluted landfill characterised by lack of vegetation. Combined biomonitoring with forager bees and ants represents a reliable tool for heavy metal environmental impact studies.

  11. Combination of beehive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity to study heavy metal pollution impact in a post-mining area (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alberto; Verdinelli, Marcello; Ruiu, Luca; Buffa, Franco; Salis, Severyn; Sassu, Antonio; Floris, Ignazio

    2012-11-01

    Mining activities represent a major source of environment contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of bees and ants as bioindicators to detect the heavy metal impact in post-mining areas. A biomonitoring programme involving a combination of honeybee hive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity survey was conducted over a 3-year period. The experimental design involved three monitoring stations where repeated sampling activities focused on chemical detection of cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr) and lead (Pb) from different matrices, both from hosted beehives (foraging bees, honey and pollen) and from the surrounding environment (stream water and soil). At the same time, ant biodiversity (number and abundance of species) was determined through a monitoring programme based on the use of pitfall traps placed in different habitats inside each mining site. The heavy metal content detected in stream water from the control station was always below the analytical limit of quantification. In the case of soil, the content of Cd and Pb from the control was lower than that of mining sites. The mean heavy metal concentrations in beehive matrices from mining sites were mainly higher than the control, and as a result of regression and discriminant analysis, forager bee sampling was an efficient environmental pollution bioindicator. Ant collection and identification highlighted a wide species variety with differences among habitats mostly associated with vegetation features. A lower variability was observed in the polluted landfill characterised by lack of vegetation. Combined biomonitoring with forager bees and ants represents a reliable tool for heavy metal environmental impact studies. PMID:22532121

  12. Energy production, distribution, and pollution controls: Combining engineering and economic analysis to enhance efficiency and policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkis, David F.

    Three published articles are presented which focus on enhancing various aspects of the energy supply chain. While each paper adopts a different methodology, all three combine engineering data and/or techniques with economic analysis to improve efficiency or policy design within energy markets. The first paper combines a chemical engineering plant design model with an economic assessment of product enhancements within an ethanol production facility. While a new chemical process is shown to achieve greater ethanol yields, the animal feed by-products are denatured and decrease in value due to the degradation of a key nutritional amino acid. Overall, yield increases outweigh any costs, providing additional value to firms adopting this process. The second paper uses a mixed integer linear model to assess the optimal location of cellulosic ethanol production facilities within the state of Indiana. Desired locations with low costs are linked to regions with high yield corn growth, as these areas provide an abundance of corn stover, a by-product of corn and a cellulosic source of ethanol. The third paper implements experimental economic methods to assess the effectiveness of policies intended to control prices in emissions permit markets. When utilizing reserve permit auctions as an alternative to setting explicit maximum prices, prices are elevated beyond the theoretical predictions of the model within the conditions of the experiment. The most likely cause of higher prices is the negotiating power provided to sellers by grandfathering permits as evidenced by higher than expected welfare gains to sellers. Before presenting the articles, a discussion is introduced regarding the role of assumptions used by economists. For each article, a key assumption is highlighted and the consequences of making a different assumption are provided. Whether the consequences are large or small, the benefits of elucidating our models with assumptions based on real world behaviors are clearly

  13. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. Objectives We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. Methods A total of 52,061 subjects (50–65 year...

  14. Combined effect of temperature and copper pollution on soil bacterial community: climate change and regional variation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Isabel; Araújo, Susana; Pereira, Anabela; Menezes-Oliveira, Vanessa B; Correia, António; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined effects of temperature and copper (Cu) contamination in the structure of soil bacterial community. For this, contaminated or spiked and control soils from two different geographic origins (PT-Portugal and DK-Denmark) were used. The DK soil was from a historically contaminated study field, representing a long-term exposure to Cu while the PT soil was from a clean site and freshly spiked with Cu. Soil bacterial communities were exposed in mesocosms during 84 days to 3 different temperatures based on values typically found in each geographic region and temperature conditions that simulated a warming scenario. Obtained results indicate that Cu stress alters the structure of bacterial community and that this effect is, to some extent, temperature-dependent. Effects on bacterial diversity for both soils were also observed. Differences in the DK and PT communities' response were apparent, with the community from the historically contaminated soil being more resilient to temperature fluctuations. This study presents evidence to support the hypothesis that temperature alters the effect of metals on soils. Further, our results suggest that the definition of soils quality criteria must be based on studies performed under temperatures selected for the specific geographic region. Studies taking into account temperature changes are needed to model and predict risks, this is important to e.g. future adjustments of the maximum permissible levels for soil metal contamination.

  15. Combined biological treatment of sinter plant waste water, blast furnace gas scrubber water polluted groundwater and coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine van Hoorn [Corus Staal, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the Corus coke plant in IJmuiden had been handled by the activated sludge process since start-up in 1972 but in the eighties it was clear that although this removed most phenols, the rest of the COD and thiocyanate must also be removed before discharge. The paper describes the original water treatment process and the higher pressure gas scrubber system for removal of SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and other harmful components. It goes on to describe development of a combined biological treatment system, the heart of which is the so-called Bio 2000. The performance of this new plant is discussed. COD concentrations are very constant but Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) concentrations fluctuate. COD, TKN and heavy metals are in compliance but cyanide and suspended solids are not always so. A method of overcoming this is being sought. This paper was presented at a COMA meeting in March 2005 held in Scunthorpe, UK. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Urban runoff pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum, M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the construction of wastewater treatment plants combined sewer overflows have become an increasingly important limitation to the quality of the surrounding surface waters. Over the years urban water resources have often been so modified by anthropogenic activity that water quality management r

  17. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  18. Fundamental studies on combined separation of dust and gaseous pollutants in biomass combustion systems; Grundlagenuntersuchungen zur kombinierten Abscheidung von Staeuben und gasfoermigen Schadstoffen aus Biomasseverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmer, G.

    2002-07-01

    The author attempted to characterise a model process for combined separation of redispersed ashes of a biomass combustion system (tree bark ash) and a waste incinerator, with acid pollutant gases (SO{sub 2} and HCl) in the carrier gas. The acid gases were reduced using the most common industrial sorbents,i.e. bicarbonate of sodium (NaHCO{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)-2). The development and construction of a combined filtration system was a basic prerequisite of the investigations. [German] Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Charakterisierung eines Modellprozesses zur kombinierten Abscheidung von redispergierten Aschen aus einer Biomasseverbrennung (Rindenasche) und einer Hausmuellverbrennung zusammen mit sauren Schadgasen (SO{sub 2} und HCl) im Traegergas. Zur Reduktion der sauren Schadgase wurden dabei die industriell am haeufigsten verwendeten Sorbentien, Natriumbicarbonat (NaHCO{sub 3}) und Calciumhydroxid (Ca(OH){sub 2}), eingesetzt. Eine grundlegende Voraussetzung fuer die Untersuchungen zur kombinierten Abscheidung von Staeuben und gasfoermigen Schadstoffen war die Errichtung einer eigens zu diesem Zweck entwickelten Filtrationsanlage (Kombi-Filteranlage). (orig.)

  19. Probabilistic analysis showing that a combination of bacteroides and methanobrevibacter source tracking markers is effective for identifying waters contaminated by human fecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Stewart, Jill R.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial source tracking assays to identify sources of waterborne contamination typically target genetic markers of host-specific microorganisms. However, no bacterial marker has been shown to be 100% host-specific, and cross-reactivity has been noted in studies evaluating known source samples. Using 485 challenge samples from 20 different human and animal fecal sources, this study evaluated microbial source tracking markers including the Bacteroides HF183 16S rRNA, M. smithii nifH, and Enterococcus esp gene targets that have been proposed as potential indicators of human fecal contamination. Bayes' Theorem was used to calculate the conditional probability that these markers or a combination of markers can correctly identify human sources of fecal pollution. All three human-associated markers were detected in 100% of the sewage samples analyzed. Bacteroides HF183 was the most effective marker for determining whether contamination was specifically from a human source, and greater than 98% certainty that contamination was from a human source was shown when both Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH markers were present. A high degree of certainty was attained even in cases where the prior probability of human fecal contamination was as low as 8.5%. The combination of Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH source tracking markers can help identify surface waters impacted by human fecal contamination, information useful for prioritizing restoration activities or assessing health risks from exposure to contaminated waters.

  20. Combination of Biochemical and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Methods for Detection of Heavy Metal Pollutions in Eucalyptus Leaves (case Study: the City of Bam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, R.; Anvari, S.; Honarmand, M.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution may be caused due to mines and mineral deposits. The accumulation of the associated heavy metals in soil and especially at the root zone of plants would result in plant contamination. This paper aims to detect the dominant heavy metals in Eucalyptus leaves using both biochemical and hyperspectral techniques for northern part of Bam in Iran. In this regards, using biochemical approach, some Eucalyptus leaf samples were collected, and their laboratory data containing the concentration of heavy metals were measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS). Using ASD FieldSpec3 Pro spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Devices) also, the spectral profile of leaf samples was measured and compared with healthy ones namely control samples. Finally, using supervised classification methods, the spatial distribution of heavy metals was determined by combination of biochemical results, spectral measurements of samples and hyperspectral images of EO-1 satellite. Results showed that Eucalyptus trees accumulates the heavy metals of As and Pb with the average concentrations equalling 9.98 and 14.31 ppb while compared with the relevant control samples equalling 2.32 and 8.98 ppb, respectively. Combination of biochemical and hyperspectral data analysis also proved by increasing heavy metals concentrations in all samples, their spectral profiles for the visible and near infrared regions will be changed in comparison with those obtained from the control sample.

  1. Levels, fluxes and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Thun, Switzerland: Combining trace analysis and multimedia modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdal, Christian [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scheringer, Martin, E-mail: scheringer@chem.ethz.ch [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmid, Peter [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Blaeuenstein, Markus [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Kohler, Martin [State Food Law Enforcement Authority, Werkhofstrasse 5, CH-4509 Solothurn (Switzerland); Hungerbuehler, Konrad [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-08-01

    Levels, mass fluxes, and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Thun, a peri-Alpine lake, are investigated. We present measurements of PBDEs and PCBs in air, lake water, lake sediment, and tributary water. These measurements are combined with a multimedia fate model, based on site-specific environmental parameters from the lake catchment. Measured loadings of PBDEs and PCBs in air and tributaries were used to drive the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces PBDE and PCB congener patterns in water and sediment, but it tends to yield concentrations in water below the measurements and concentrations in sediment exceeding the measurements. A sensitivity analysis reveals that partitioning of PBDEs and PCBs between the aqueous dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter in the water column strongly affects the model results, in particular the concentrations in water and sediment. For lower-brominated PBDEs, approximately 70% and 30% of input into the lake stems from atmospheric deposition and from tributaries, respectively. For heavier PBDEs and all PCBs, rivers appear to deliver the major load (64-92%). Waste water effluents are of minor importance. 50-90% of the total input is buried in the permanent sediment. Sediment burial makes PBDEs and PCBs less available for recycling in the environment, and reduces concentrations in the outflowing river. If use of deca-BDE increases in the future, levels in Lake Thun will follow the same trend. If the use and resulting environmental emissions decrease, concentrations in water will rapidly decline, according to our calculations, while sediment levels will decrease at a considerably slower rate.

  2. Levels, fluxes and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Thun, Switzerland: Combining trace analysis and multimedia modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels, mass fluxes, and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Thun, a peri-Alpine lake, are investigated. We present measurements of PBDEs and PCBs in air, lake water, lake sediment, and tributary water. These measurements are combined with a multimedia fate model, based on site-specific environmental parameters from the lake catchment. Measured loadings of PBDEs and PCBs in air and tributaries were used to drive the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces PBDE and PCB congener patterns in water and sediment, but it tends to yield concentrations in water below the measurements and concentrations in sediment exceeding the measurements. A sensitivity analysis reveals that partitioning of PBDEs and PCBs between the aqueous dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter in the water column strongly affects the model results, in particular the concentrations in water and sediment. For lower-brominated PBDEs, approximately 70% and 30% of input into the lake stems from atmospheric deposition and from tributaries, respectively. For heavier PBDEs and all PCBs, rivers appear to deliver the major load (64-92%). Waste water effluents are of minor importance. 50-90% of the total input is buried in the permanent sediment. Sediment burial makes PBDEs and PCBs less available for recycling in the environment, and reduces concentrations in the outflowing river. If use of deca-BDE increases in the future, levels in Lake Thun will follow the same trend. If the use and resulting environmental emissions decrease, concentrations in water will rapidly decline, according to our calculations, while sediment levels will decrease at a considerably slower rate.

  3. Potential emission flux to aerosol pollutants over Bengal Gangetic plain through combined trajectory clustering and aerosol source fields analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. Bharath; Verma, S.

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid source-receptor analysis was carried out to evaluate the potential emission flux to winter monsoon (WinMon) aerosols over Bengal Gangetic plain urban (Kolkata, Kol) and semi-urban atmospheres (Kharagpur, Kgp). This was done through application of fuzzy c-mean clustering to back-trajectory data combined with emission flux and residence time weighted aerosols analysis. WinMon mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom exponent (AE) at Kol (AOD: 0.77; AE: 1.17) were respectively slightly higher than and nearly equal to that at Kgp (AOD: 0.71; AE: 1.18). Out of six source region clusters over Indian subcontinent and two over Indian oceanic region, the cluster mean AOD was the highest when associated with the mean path of air mass originating from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea clusters at Kol and that from the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) cluster at Kgp. Spatial distribution of weighted AOD fields showed the highest potential source of aerosols over the IGP, primarily over upper IGP (e.g. Punjab, Haryana), lower IGP (e.g. Uttarpradesh) and eastern region (e.g. west Bengal, Bihar, northeast India) clusters. The emission flux contribution potential (EFCP) of fossil fuel (FF) emissions at surface (SL) of Kol/Kgp, elevated layer (EL) of Kol, and of biomass burning (BB) emissions at SL of Kol were primarily from upper, lower, upper/lower IGP clusters respectively. The EFCP of FF/BB emissions at Kgp-EL/SL, and that of BB at EL of Kol/Kgp were mainly from eastern region and Africa (AFR) clusters respectively. Though the AFR cluster was constituted of significantly high emission flux source potential of dust emissions, the EFCP of dust from northwest India (NWI) was comparable to that from AFR at Kol SL/EL.

  4. Anthropogenic transformation of city parks soils: spatial and time peculiarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poputnikov, Vadim; Prokofieva, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    transformation was described by historical (chronicles) text data. A whole duration of the anthropogenic effects may be subdivided into the 5 main stages: 1) The stage without significant anthropogenic pressure (up to early medieval age); 2) The stage of maximal medieval anthropogenic activities; 3) Next stage begun after sharp decrease of anthropogenic pressure and can be described as the stage of gradual growth of arable land and urban areas from latest medieval to the end of XVIII century; 4) The stage of urban areas growth and beginning of industrial and recreational effects; 5) Modern stage of recreational and aerosols pollution impacts was begun at the time of getting the "especially protected areas" status in the Soviet Union time. Time borders of the main anthropogenic transformation stages are sufficiently different as we found. Every period of anthropogenic influence transforms existing soil profiles and soil cover in general. Often these changes can be described as a formation a new complex of soil peculiarities, or new soil horizons above the old profiles, or even new soil profiles. The urbopedogenesis have sinsedimentogenic nature favorable for the evolution trends showing up. Based on the comparison of soil properties and the character of the landuse changes, three main anthropogenic transformation trends were suggested. These trends describe: i) soil transformation into the soils with anthric evidence and back evolution into the natural soil in favorable conditions; ii) transformation of soil into the urbic intergrades and Urbic Thechnosols (urbanozems in Russia); iii) transformation with forming of technogenic horizons (technosoils and technozems in Russia). Counted trends may have different mixed variants as well.

  5. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  6. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2015 on the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on freshwater organisms. It begins with two broad sections: research reviews and broad field studies and surveys. This is followed by reviews of research categorized in sections to reflect the pollutant class. These sections include wastewater, stormwater and non-point source pollution, nutrients, sediment cap materials and suspended clays, botanical extracts, surfactants, metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ionic liquids, and nanomaterials. The final section includes works describing innovations in the field of freshwater pollution research. PMID:27620107

  7. Detecting anthropogenic climate change with an optimal fingerprint method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegerl, G.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Storch, H. von [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Hasselmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Santer, B.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison; Cubasch, U. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Jones, P.D. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Climatic Research Unit

    1994-09-01

    We propose a general fingerprint strategy to detect anthropogenic climate change and present application to near surface temperature trends. An expected time-space-variable pattern of anthropogenic climate change (the `signal`) is identified through application of an appropriate optimally matched space-time filter (the `fingerprint`) to the observations. The signal and the fingerprint are represented in a space with sufficient observed and simulated data. The signal pattern is derived from a model-generated prediction of anthropogenic climate change. Application of the fingerprint filter to the data yields a scalar detection variable. The statistically optimal fingerprint is obtained by weighting the model-predicted pattern towards low-noise directions. A combination of model output and observations is used to estimate the noise characteristics of the detection variable, arising from the natural variability of climate in the absence of external forcing. We test then the null hypothesis that the observed climate change is part of natural climate variability. We conclude that a statistically significant externally induced warming has been observed, with the caveat of a possibly inadequate estimate of the internal climate variability. In order to attribute this warming uniquely to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, more information on the climate`s response to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in solar radiation, volcanic or anthropogenic aerosols) and their interaction is needed. (orig./KW)

  8. Pollutants removal and simulation model of combined membrane process for wastewater treatment and reuse in submarine cabin for long voyage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhaobo; ZHOU Aijuan; REN Nanqi; TIAN Yu; HU Dongxue

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory scale test was conducted in a combined membrane process (CMP) with a capacity of 2.91 m~3/d for 240 d to treat the mixed wastewater of humidity condensate,hygiene wastewater and urine in submarine cabin during prolonged voyage.Removal performance of COD,ammonia nitrogen (NH4~+-N),turbidity and anionic surfactants (LAS) was investigated under different conditions.It was observed that the effluent COD,NH4~+-N,turbidity and LAS flocculated in respective ranges of 0.19-0.85 mg/L,0.03-0.18 mg/L,0.0-0.15 NTU and 0.0-0.05 mg/L in spite of considerable fluctuation in corresponding influent of 2120-5350 mg/L,79.5-129.3 mg/L,110-181.1NTU and 4.9-5.4 mg/L.The effluent quality of the CMP could meet the requirements of mechanical water and hygiene water according to the class I water quality standards in China (GB3838-2002).The removal rates of COD,NH4~+-N,turbidity and LAS removed in the MBR were more than 90%,which indicated that biodegradation is indispensable and plays a major role in the wastewater treatment and reuse.A model,built on the back propagation neural network (BPNN) theory,was developed for the simulation of CMP and produced high reliability.The average error of COD and NH4~+-N was 5.14% and 6.20%,respectively and the root mean squared error of turbidity and LAS was 2.76% and 1.41%,respectively.The results indicated that the model well fitted the laboratory data,and was able to simulate the removal of COD,NH4~+-N,turbidity and LAS.It is also suggested that the model proposed could reflect and manage the operation of CMP for the treatment of the mixed wastewaters in submarine.

  9. Fuel reactivity and release of pollutants and alkali vapours in pressurized combustion for combined cycle power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K.; Rantanen, J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Plasma Technology

    1996-12-01

    This project forms a part of the overall Pressurized Power Coal Combustion Project Area (PPFC) which aims at an assessment of the viability and technical merits of pressurized pulverized coal combustion, in an atmosphere of recycled flue gas and oxygen in a coordinated and harmonized programme. The objective of the research at Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is aimed at determining the consequences of solid fuel burning in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gases. Combustion conditions of a pressurized entrained flow of pulverized coal and char particles in PEFR are determined with high precision. The effects of experimental parameters on the formation of nitrogen oxides (N{sub 2}O, NO and NO{sub 2}) and gaseous alkali compounds (indicated as NaX(g) and KX(g)) are studied. An effective on-line analysis method for vaporised Na and K compounds was developed. The dependency between particle temperatures and the vaporisation of Na and K was measured with three coals. The results show that alkali removal before gas turbines is always necessary with these coals if combusted in combined cycles. Pressure decreases the formation of NO and has usually no clear effect on the formation of N{sub 2}O. The order of NO/N{sub 2}O ratios correspond to fuel-O/fuel-N ratios. Increase of PO{sub 2} (oxygen concentration) of combustion gas increases the formation of NO{sub 2}. Remarkable concentrations of NO{sub 2} were often measured at high PO{sub 2} at 800-850 deg C. Therefore, NO{sub 2} should be measured from pressurized fluidized bed reactors. Some trends of the formation of NO{sub 2} with coal differ clearly from those with its parent char: N{sub 2}O formation is not strongly temperature dependent with char, and the concentrations of N{sub 2}O formed from char are much lower than those of coal. PO{sub 2} does not effect on the formation of NO from char in the studied range

  10. Analysis of anthropogenic impacts on the hydrological state of a Pleistocene catchment area using remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Annette; Merz, Christoph; Steidl, Jörg; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The water budget of a catchment area can be depicted by the complex interaction between topography and discharge as well as anthropogenic and climatic impacts. Over the last decades, the Pleistocene lowlands of North-Eastern Germany have experienced extensive anthropogenic modifications. The hydrological system has been significantly altered by the installation of artificial drainage, such as surface ditches and subsurface tile drains. It has been shown, that artificial drainage systems provide pathways for diffuse nutrients and pollutants leaching into surface and also subsurface water bodies, which is especially pronounced in lowland areas. The detection of these transport paths is important for obtaining an understanding of the regional water and substance balance and the development of strategies to improve hydrological conditions. Unfortunately, detailed data about locations of historic artificial drainage are rare or not available at all. The aim of this study was to identify the extensive anthropogenic modifications, like artificial drainage networks and land use changes, over the last decades with the aid of photogrammetric data and multispectral imagery. The detection of anthropogenic modifications is based on the method of Tetzlaff, et al. (2009), who developed an approach by interpreting aerial photographs for drained areas. We used color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs, in order to apply different spectral techniques for obtaining information about water content and vitality status of plant cover. Although this method is sensitive to daily variations of soil moisture and plant growth as response to climate conditions, and the type of drainage pipe installation technique, we were able to identify different locations of artificial drainage. Complementary to this approach we utilized spectral classification methods for land cover in order to extract different land cover categories, and evaporation rates, depending on the land cover and surface

  11. Caracterisation of anthropogenic contribution to the coastal fluorescent organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nahhal, Ibrahim; Nouhi, Ayoub; Mounier, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    It is known that most of the coastal fluorescent organic matter is of a terrestrial origin (Parlanti, 2000; Tedetti, Guigue, & Goutx, 2010). However, the contribution of the anthropogenic organic matter to this pool is not well defined and evaluated. In this work the monitoring of little bay (Toulon Bay, France) was done in the way to determine the organic fluorescent response during a winter period. The sampling campaign consisted of different days during the month of December, 2014 ( 12th, 15th, 17th, 19th) on 21 different sampling sites for the fluorescence measurements (without any filtering of the samples) and the whole month of December for the bacterial and the turbidity measurements. Excitation Emission Matrices (EEMs) of fluorescence (from 200 to 400 nm and 220 to 420 nm excitation and emission range) were treated by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC).The parafac analysis of the EEM datasets was conducted using PROGMEEF software in Matlab langage. On the same time that the turbidity and bacterial measurement (particularly the E.Coli concentration) were determined. The results gives in a short time range, information on the the contribution of the anthropogenic inputs to the coastal fluorescent organic matter. In addition, the effect of salinity on the photochemical degradation of the anthropogenic organic matter (especially those from wastewater treatment plants) will be studied to investigate their fate in the water end member by the way of laboratory experiments. Parlanti, E. (2000). Dissolved organic matter fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to estimate biological activity in a coastal zone submitted to anthropogenic inputs. Organic Geochemistry, 31(12), 1765-1781. doi:10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00124-8 Tedetti, M., Guigue, C., & Goutx, M. (2010). Utilization of a submersible UV fluorometer for monitoring anthropogenic inputs in the Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(3), 350-62. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.10.018

  12. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khatiwala

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant, absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data-based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air–sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on forward ocean models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of the global ocean inventory of anthropogenic carbon in 2010 of 155 ± 31 PgC (±20% uncertainty. This estimate includes a

  13. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khatiwala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant, absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data-assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air-sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on ocean forward models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of

  14. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwala, S.; Tanhua, T.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S.; Gerber, M.; Doney, S. C.; Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.; McKinley, G. A.; Murata, A.; Ríos, A. F.; Sabine, C. L.

    2013-04-01

    The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant), absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data-based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air-sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on forward ocean models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of the global ocean inventory of anthropogenic carbon in 2010 of 155 ± 31 PgC (±20% uncertainty). This estimate includes a broad range of

  15. Atmospheric black carbon in the Russian Arctic: anthropogenic inputs in comparison with average or extremal wood fires' ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Anna A.; Smirnov, Nikolay S.; Korotkov, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    Model estimates of atmospheric black carbon concentrations were made for different points of the Russian Arctic. Anthropogenic BC emissions and wood fires' ones were calculated from Russian official statistics for the 2000s. We used the data of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of RF on anthropogenic air emissions of pollution in Russian cities and regions [1], as well as the data of Federal Forestry Agency of RF (Rosleshoz) [2] on wood fires. We considered the area within (50-72)N and (20-180)E, which covers about 94% of the Russian territory, where both anthropogenic and fire BC emissions have been arranged through grid cells (1×1) deg. Anthropogenic BC emissions are estimated as annual values based on the data for 54 regions and more than 100 cities. Total emission is estimated as (220 ± 30) Gg BC in 2010 [3], including emissions from open flares associated with gas/oil extractive industry which are about (25 ± 8) Gg/yr. We analyzed the data on wood fires (detailing crown, ground and underground fires in forests and fires on non-forest lands) with their spatial and seasonal variations during 15 years (2000-2014). Different combustion factors [4] and BC emission coefficients [5] were used in calculations for different types of burning. Russian total average annual BC emission from fires, occurring mainly in summertime, was estimated as 30 Gg with large variations (4-100 Gg/yr) from year to year. Asian territory emits about 90% of this value. We estimated anthropogenic (BC_A) and fires' (BC_F) contributions to BC air concentrations at different Russian Arctic points using the approach [6] - decadal back-trajectory analysis combined with spatial distribution of sensitivity pollution emission function (SPEF). Extraordinary atmospheric circulation causing, to a great extent, abnormally intensive fires in the middle latitudes often leads to a decrease in SPEF values for these territories. As a result, fires are not so dangerous for the whole Arctic, as

  16. Anthropogenic Carbon Pump in an Urbanized Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Yoon, T. K.; Jin, H.; Begum, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of estuaries as a carbon source has been increasingly recognized over the recent decades. However, constraining sources of CO2 evasion from urbanized estuaries remains incomplete, particularly in densely populated river systems receiving high loads of organic carbon from anthropogenic sources. To account for major factors regulating carbon fluxes the tidal reach of the Han River estuary along the metropolitan Seoul, characterization of organic carbon in the main stem and major urban tributaries were combined with continuous, submersible sensor measurements of pCO2 at a mid-channel location over a year and continuous underway measurements using a submersible sensor and two equilibrator sytems across the estuarine section receiving urban streams. Single-site continuous measurements exhibited large seasonal and diurnal variations in pCO2, ranging from sub-ambient air levels to exceptionally high values approaching 10,000 ppm. Diurnal variations of pCO2 were pronounced in summer and had an inverse relationship with dissolved oxygen, pointing to a potential role of day-time algal consumption of CO2. Cruise measurements displayed sharp pCO2 pulses along the confluences of urban streams as compared with relatively low values along the upper estuary receiving low-CO2 outflows from upstream dams. Large downstream increases in pCO2, concurrent with increases in DOC concentrations and fluorescence intensities indicative of microbially processed organic components, imply a translocation and subsequent dilution of CO2 carried by urban streams and/or fast transformations of labile C during transit along downstream reaches. The unique combination of spatial and temporal continuous measurements of pCO2 provide insights on estuarine CO2 pulses that might have resulted from the interplay between high loads of CO2 and organic C of anthropogenic origin and their priming effects on estuarine microbial processing of terrigenous and algal organic matter.

  17. Models to predict emissions of health-damaging pollutants and global warming contributions of residential fuel/stove combinations in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.D.; Smith, K.R. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health; Zhang, J. [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.; Yuqing Ma [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2003-01-01

    Residential energy use in developing countries has traditionally been associated with combustion devices of poor energy efficiency, which have been shown to produce substantial health-damaging pollution, contributing significantly to the global burden of disease, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Precision of these estimates in China has been hampered by limited data on stove use and fuel consumption in residences. In addition limited information is available on variability of emissions of pollutants from different stove/fuel combinations in typical use, as measurement of emission factors requires measurement of multiple chemical species in complex burn cycle tests. Such measurements are too costly and time consuming for application in conjunction with national surveys. Emissions of most of the major health-damaging pollutants (HDP) and many of the gases that contribute to GHG emissions from cooking stoves are the result of the significant portion of fuel carbon that is diverted to products of incomplete combustion (PIC) as a result of poor combustion efficiencies. The approximately linear increase in emissions of PIC with decreasing combustion efficiencies allows development of linear models to predict emissions of GHG and HDP intrinsically linked to CO{sub 2} and PIC production, and ultimately allows the prediction of global warming contributions from residential stove emissions. A comprehensive emissions database of three burn cycles of 23 typical fuel/stove combinations tested in a simulated village house in China has been used to develop models to predict emissions of HDP and global warming commitment (GWC) from cooking stoves in China, that rely on simple survey information on stove and fuel use that may be incorporated into national surveys. Stepwise regression models predicted 66% of the variance in global warming commitment (CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, TNMHC) per 1 MJ delivered energy due to emissions from these stoves if survey information on

  18. A novel approach combining self-organizing map and parallel factor analysis for monitoring water quality of watersheds under non-point source pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Yixiang Zhang; Xinqiang Liang; Zhibo Wang; Lixian Xu

    2015-01-01

    High content of organic matter in the downstream of watersheds underscored the severity of non-point source (NPS) pollution. The major objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watersheds affected by NPS pollution, and to apply self-organizing map (SOM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to assess fluorescence properties as proxy indicators for NPS pollution and labor-intensive routine water quality indicators. Water from upstreams and do...

  19. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  20. Multilevel cycle of anthropogenic copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T E; van Beers, D; Bertram, M; Fuse, K; Gordon, R B; Gritsinin, A; Kapur, A; Klee, R J; Lifset, R J; Memon, L; Rechberger, H; Spatari, S; Vexler, D

    2004-02-15

    A comprehensive contemporary cycle for stocks and flows of copper is characterized and presented, incorporating information on extraction, processing, fabrication and manufacturing, use, discard, recycling, final disposal, and dissipation. The analysis is performed on an annual basis, ca. 1994, at three discrete governmental unit levels--56 countries or country groups that together comprise essentially all global anthropogenic copper stocks and flows, nine world regions, and the planet as a whole. Cycles for all of these are presented and discussed, and a "best estimate" global copper cycle is constructed to resolve aggregation discrepancies. Among the most interesting results are (1) transformation rates and recycling rates in apparently similar national economies differ by factors of two or more (country level); (2) the discard flows that have the greatest potential for copper recycling are those with low magnitude flows but high copper concentrations--electronics, electrical equipment, and vehicles (regional level); (3) worldwide, about 53% of the copper that was discarded in various forms was recovered and reused or recycled (global level); (4) the highest rate of transfer of discarded copper to repositories is into landfills, but the annual amount of copper deposited in mine tailings is nearly as high (global level); and (5) nearly 30% of copper mining occurred merely to replace copper that was discarded. The results provide a framework for similar studies of other anthropogenic resource cycles as well as a basis for supplementary studies in resource stocks, industrial resource utilization, waste management, industrial economics, and environmental impacts. PMID:14998044

  1. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Lijun [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Sapozhnikova, Yelena [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J., E-mail: Steven.Lehotay@ars.usda.gov [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The first report that combines in-vial filtration and dispersive-SPE for sample cleanup. • The unique application of ammonium formate for salting-out partitioning in QuEChERS. • Evaluations of a new zirconium-based and a non-friable GCB sorbent for d-SPE cleanup. • A new analytical method for 59 pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp. Abstract: A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g⁻¹ spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix.

  2. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The first report that combines in-vial filtration and dispersive-SPE for sample cleanup. • The unique application of ammonium formate for salting-out partitioning in QuEChERS. • Evaluations of a new zirconium-based and a non-friable GCB sorbent for d-SPE cleanup. • A new analytical method for 59 pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp. - Abstract: A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g−1 spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix

  3. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  4. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  5. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview » Title IV - Noise Pollution Title IV - Noise Pollution The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments added a ... abatement 7642 Authorization of appropriations What is Noise Pollution? The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or ...

  6. Natural versus anthropogenic inhalable aerosol chemistry of transboundary East Asian atmospheric outflows into western Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, T.; Kojima, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Gibbons, W.

    2012-01-01

    The eastward transport of aerosols exported from mainland Asia strongly influences air quality in the Japanese archipelago. The bulk of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in these intrusions comprises either natural, desert-derived minerals (mostly supermicron silicates) or anthropogenic pollut

  7. 环境中药品和个人护理品的复合污染风险%Combined Pollution of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs):A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓晖; 卢少勇; 王炜亮; 国晓春

    2016-01-01

    Pollutants in environment often exist in the form of mixture, which can enlarge or reduce the effect on the environment.However, most of the environmental health risk researches about PPCPs as the new pollutant only related to single substance, thus can result in deviation in the risk value.In this paper, the combined pollution of PPCPs with organic and inorganic pollutants are mainly analyzed and future researches on the mechanism of toxication were proposed.It also provided a theoretical basis for reducing effectively the potential risks of PPCPs combined pollution in water environment.%在环境中污染物常以混合物的形式存在,从而扩大或减小了其对环境和生物的效应。指出目前对药品和个人护理品( PPCPs)环境健康风险的研究多停留在单一物质表观层面,造成其风险值出现偏差。系统分析了PPCPs与有机和无机污染物之间的复合污染,提出加强复合污染毒性风险及致毒机理等方面的研究,为有效降低环境水体中PPCPs潜在的安全风险提供理论支持。

  8. Assessment of health and economic effects by PM2.5 pollution in Beijing: a combined exposure-response and computable general equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhi; Gu, SaiJu; Chen, Jibo; Wu, Xianhua; Yu, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of the health and economic impacts of PM2.5 pollution is of great importance for urban air pollution prevention and control. In this study, we evaluate the damage of PM2.5 pollution using Beijing as an example. First, we use exposure-response functions to estimate the adverse health effects due to PM2.5 pollution. Then, the corresponding labour loss and excess medical expenditure are computed as two conducting variables. Finally, different from the conventional valuation methods, this paper introduces the two conducting variables into the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts on sectors and the whole economic system caused by PM2.5 pollution. The results show that, substantial health effects of the residents in Beijing from PM2.5 pollution occurred in 2013, including 20,043 premature deaths and about one million other related medical cases. Correspondingly, using the 2010 social accounting data, Beijing gross domestic product loss due to the health impact of PM2.5 pollution is estimated as 1286.97 (95% CI: 488.58-1936.33) million RMB. This demonstrates that PM2.5 pollution not only has adverse health effects, but also brings huge economic loss.

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC TRANSFORMATIONS SOILS URBOECOSYSTEMS OF DNEPROPETROVSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T.F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The functioning of the city, as artificially created system of the result of the anthropogenic activity, promotes degradation and, sometimes, destruction of the environment, with change it to the technogenic replacement. First of all suffers the soil, as a basic component of any ecosystem, where the circulation of materials close, because it is a powerful biogeochemical barrier to their migration, able to deposit toxicants a long time through its protective functions. The leading role of the formation of the urban soil plays an anthropogenic factor, which is able to influence directly – the destruction of the soil profile due to construction activity and indirectly – with aerogenic or hydrogenous pollution xenobiotics contained in the emissions and discharges of the industrial enterprises; and it is determined by the type of economic use and history of area developing. The variability of using the urban soil is reflected in the soil profile and contributed to the creation of the organic-mineral layer by the mixing, mound, burial and (or contamination of the different substances on the surface. Therefore, classification of the urban soils by the anthropogenic destruction degree of the soil profile is very important scientific and practical task for the urban ecology to the achievement standards of the ecological safety of the modern city, because the restoring of their protective functions is impossible without knowledge of the morphological structure. Purpose. Classify the anthropogenical soils of city Dnipropetrovsk disturbed by the construction activities by the determining of the morphological characteristics of the soil profile structure with separation of the anthropogenic and technogenic surface formations compared to the zonal soil – ordinery chernozem. Conclusion. Within urboecosystem city Dnipropetrovsk long-term human impact to the zonal soil – chernozem led to its transformation into urbanozem witch

  10. Potential Impacts of Pollution Aerosol and Dust Acting As Cloud-Nucleating Aerosol on Precipitation in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V.; Cotton, W. R.; Carrio, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The southwest US has huge demands on water resources. The Colorado River Basin (CRB) is potentially affected by anthropogenic aerosol pollution and dust acting as cloud-nucleating aerosol as well as impacting snowpack albedo.The specific objective of this research is to quantify the impacts of both dust and pollution aerosols on wintertime precipitation in the Colorado Mountains for the years 2005-2006. We examine the combined effects of anthropogenic pollution aerosol and dust serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), ice nuclei (IN) and giant CCN(GCCN) on precipitation in the CRB. Anthropogenic pollution can enhance droplet concentrations, and decrease collision and coalescence and ice particle riming largely via the "spillover" effect. Dust can serve as IN and enhance precipitation in wintertime orographic clouds. Dust coated with sulfates or originating over dry lake beds can serve as GCCN which when wetted can result in larger cloud droplets and thereby enhance the warm-rain collision and coalescence process and ice particle riming. But smaller dust particles coated with sulfates, can decrease collision and coalescence and ice particle riming similar to anthropogenic pollution aerosols. The Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6.0 is used for this study. RAMS was modified to ingest GEOS-CHEM output data and periodically update aerosol fields. GEOS-CHEM is a chemical transport model which uses assimilated meteorological data from the NASA Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS). The aerosol data comprise a sum of hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon and organic aerosol, hydrophilic SOAs, hydrocarbon oxidation and inorganic aerosols (nitrate, sulfate and ammonium). In addition, a RAMS-based dust source and transport model is used. Preliminary analysis suggests pollution dominates over dust resulting in a decrease in precipitation via the spillover effect. Dust serving as GCCN and IN tend to enhance ice

  11. CO2 Biogenic vs Anthropogenic Sectoral Contribution for INFLUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Hu, H.; Whetstone, J. R.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Turnbull, J. C.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Brewer, A.; Hardesty, M.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Shepson, P. B.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to use a top-down inversion methodology to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over an urban domain with high spatial and temporal resolution. This project is an experimental test bed which is intended to establish reliable methods for quantifying and validating GHG emissions independently of the inventory methods typically used for Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of pollution sources. Analyzing the contribution of different source types or sectors is a fundamental step in order to achieve an accuracy level desired for such MRV applications. This is especially challenging when attempting to determine anthropogenic emissions during the growing season since biological GHG fluxes reach a maximum at this time. To this end, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) version 3.5.1 was used along with a modified version of the Green House Gases chemistry module for simulating the CO2 mole fraction transport during September and October 2013. Sectoral anthropogenic CO2 emissions were obtained from Hestia 2012 and from Vulcan 2002 beyond the spatial coverage of Hestia. Biogenic CO2 emissions were simulated by using an augmented version of the "Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model" (VPRM) included in WRF-CHEM. An implementation of the unconstrained nonlinear global optimization method of Nelder and Mead was employed to find the optimum values for the VPRM parameters for each vegetation category by using data from Ameriflux eddy covariance flux towers. Here we present a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of biological vs sectoral anthropogenic CO2 fluxes on the INFLUX measurements network. The simulations are compared to tower and aircraft measurements that include trace gases with the capacity to distinguish observationally anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 sources and sinks. In addition, an evaluation of the sensitivity of the sectoral attribution to meteorological

  12. Research and Development in the Anthropogenic Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.; Luthe, T.; Hohenwallne, D.

    2009-04-01

    fauna, modification of local hydrological cycle and modification of local climate and atmospheric pollution. Research in mountains should balance the needs of scientists and stakeholders alike, but this requires re-orientation of mountain research into multi-disciplinary projects next to basic science. Unlike the polar regions (with exceptions like Longyearbyen, Spitzbergen), seasonal population pressure in mountains is intense, causing local problems such as water scarcity. Research in these areas therefore requires close collaboration with stakeholders. Large-scale events such as Winter Olympics that have benefited from the classical mountain cryosphere in the past are now increasingly becoming internationally competitive and independent of the natural cryospheric conditions. New ski areas are developed world-wide in zones that do not offer natural climatological conditions for maintaining ski runs. Sub-zero temperatures are used as a basis for snow-making even in those regions that do not benefit from sufficient natural snow-fall. Large-scale landscape modification results in motorway like ski runs, large snow water reservoirs and extensive housing projects on vulnerable slopes. Due to steep and remote topography, transport is often dominated by cars and increases CO2 emissions intensively at local hot spots. In future, mountain slopes that have been heavily modified for winter tourism, may rapidly become neglected zones due to rapid snowline retreat. As the summer season extends, the modifications to the cryosphere will become more and more evident. Even with positive temperatures and snow-free ground, the vegetation season will not be extensive enough to enable rapid recovery, especially at altitudes above 2000 m a.s.l and north-facing aspects. Several decades of anthropogenic modification may require several centuries of recovery to provide new economical benefits.

  13. Anthropogenic impact on sediment composition and geochemistry in vertical overbank profiles of river alluvium from Belgium and Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Swennen, R.; Van der Sluys, J.

    2002-01-01

    The geochemical study of alluvial sediments allows to reconstruct pollution through time. Geochemical and sedimentological variations recorded in 40 vertical overbank sediment profiles from Belgium and Luxembourg can be classified in three dominant pattern types: . type 1 profiles with dominantly non-anthropogenically influenced geochemical distribution patterns. These profiles are devoid of anthropogenic particles such as charcoal, plastic, brick and slag fragments, with the exception, in so...

  14. Monitoring of pollution in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs were analyzed in surface sediments collected from Suez till Hurgharda coasts to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated identification of anthropogenic activities, petrogenic and biogenic. AHs for all samples were dominated by unresolved complex mixture (UCM, and petrogenic mixed with biogenic sources. Results also revealed that sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from pyrolysis sources.

  15. Estimation of continuous anthropogenic CO2: model-based evaluation of CO2, CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2) tracer methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardag, S. N.; Gerbig, C.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Levin, I.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate different methods for estimating anthropogenic CO2 using modeled continuous atmospheric concentrations of CO2 alone, as well as CO2 in combination with the surrogate tracers CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2). These methods are applied at three hypothetical stations representing rural, urban and polluted conditions. We find that, independent of the tracer used, an observation-based estimate of continuous anthropogenic CO2 is not yet feasible at rural measurement sites due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of anthropogenic CO2 estimates at such settings. The tracers δ13C(CO2) and CO provide an accurate possibility to determine anthropogenic CO2 continuously, only if all CO2 sources in the catchment area are well characterized or calibrated with respect to their isotopic signature and CO to anthropogenic CO2 ratio. We test different calibration strategies for the mean isotopic signature and CO to CO2 ratio using precise Δ14C(CO2) measurements on monthly integrated as well as on grab samples. For δ13C(CO2), a calibration with annually averaged 14C(CO2) grab samples is most promising, since integrated sampling introduces large biases into anthropogenic CO2 estimates. For CO, these biases are smaller. The precision of continuous anthropogenic CO2 determination using δ13C(CO2) depends on measurement precision of δ13C(CO2) and CO2, while the CO method is mainly limited by the variation in natural CO sources and sinks. At present, continuous anthropogenic CO2 could be determined using the tracers δ13C(CO2) and/or CO with a precision of about 30 %, a mean bias of about 10 % and without significant diurnal discrepancies. Hypothetical future measurements of continuous Δ14C(CO2) with a precision of 5 ‰ are promising for anthropogenic CO2 determination (precision ca. 10-20 %) but are not yet available. The investigated tracer-based approaches open the door to improving, validating and reducing biases of highly resolved emission inventories using atmospheric

  16. Tackling pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from land-based sources by an integrated ecosystem approach and the use of the combined international and European legal regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Antoinette Hildering; Andrea M. Keessen; Helena F.M.W. van Rijswick

    2009-01-01

    The successful protection of marine and freshwater areas and ecosystems, including specially protected areas, is highly dependent on the effectiveness of an integrated approach to prevent and combat land-based pollution. Several legal regimes have been developed to regulate and solve this kind of pollution on the international level as well as on the European level. Therefore, this integrated approach requires coherence between European and international legal regimes and between the regulati...

  17. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vleeschouwer, Francois de [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: fdevleeschouwer@student.ulg.ac.be; Gerard, Laetitia [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium); Goormaghtigh, Catherine [Unite de recherche: ' Isotopes, Petrologie et Environnement' , Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, CP 160/02 Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue FD. Roosevelt, 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Mattielli, Nadine [Unite de recherche: ' Isotopes, Petrologie et Environnement' , Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, CP 160/02 Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue FD. Roosevelt, 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Le Roux, Gael [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236 B-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Fagel, Nathalie [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium)

    2007-05-15

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with {sup 14}C and {sup 210}Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles.

  18. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia. Human impact on a regional to global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vleeschouwer, Francois; Gerard, Laetitia; Fagel, Nathalie [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium); Goormaghtigh, Catherine; Mattielli, Nadine [Unite de recherche: ' ' Isotopes, Petrologie et Environnement' ' , Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, CP 160/02 Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue FD. Roosevelt, 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Le Roux, Gael [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236 B-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with {sup 14}C and {sup 210}Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles. (author)

  19. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with 14C and 210Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles

  20. Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Lu, H.; Fu, S.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities are resulting in an increase of the use and extraction of heavy metals. Heavy metals cannot be degraded and hence accumulate in the environment, having the potential to contaminate the food chain. This pollution threatens soil quality, plant survival and human health. The remediation of heavy metals deserves attention, but it is impaired by the cost of these processes. Phytoremediation and biochar are two sound environmental technologies which could be at the forefront to mitigate soil pollution. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the scientific research on phytoremediation and biochar application to remediate heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Research to date has attempted only in a limited number of occasions to combine both techniques, however we discuss the potential advantages of combining both, and the potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between phytoremediators and biochar. We identified specific research needs to ensure a sustainable use of phytoremediation and biochar as remediation tools.

  1. Microscopic anthropogenic litter in terrestrial birds from Shanghai, China: Not only plastics but also natural fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shiye; Zhu, Lixin; Li, Daoji

    2016-04-15

    The level of contamination by microscopic anthropogenic litter (0.5-5mm) in terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood. After chemical digestion in 10% KOH, microscopic anthropogenic litter from the gastrointestinal tracts of 17 terrestrial birds was identified and categorized under a stereomicroscope based on its physical properties and melting tests. In total, 364 items from 16 birds were identified as microscopic anthropogenic litter, ranging in size from 0.5 to 8.5mm. No relationship between plastic load and body condition was found. Natural fibers, plastic fibers and fragmented plastics represented, respectively, 37.4% (136 items), 54.9% (200 items) and 7.7% (28 items) of total litter items. Small sample sizes limited our ability to draw strong conclusions about the metabolism of natural fibers, but the decline in the proportion of natural fibers from the esophagus to stomach to intestine suggested that they may be digestible. Particles smaller than 5mm represented more than 90% of the total number of pollutant items. Particles with colors in the mid-tones and fibrous shapes were overwhelmingly common particles. The results reflect pollution by microscopic anthropogenic litter in the terrestrial ecosystem of the study area. Microscopic natural fibers, which may disperse and adsorb chemical pollutants differently from microplastic and may pose an even greater risk, are in urgent need of further research. PMID:26874248

  2. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part IV. The impact of anthropogenous nitrogen deposition on the diversity and functionality of soil organisms; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht IV. Der Einfluss anthropogener Stickstoffeintraege auf die Diversitaet und Funktion von Bodenorganismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Wolters, Volkmar [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieroekologie

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physicochemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OeKO-DATA and Waldkundeinstitut Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at Institute of Animal Ecology (Justus Liebig University Giessen) focused on a Meta-Analysis about the impact of N-deposition on the diversity of soil organisms. Based on 1457 relevant publications soil organisms are threatened most in semi-natural ecosystems and experimental increases of nitrogen reduced soil organism diversity in forest ecosystems. Fungi communities were affected most seriously, with a strong decline of diversity in Mycorrhiza communities in response to experimental nitrogen addition. If N-deposition generally affects soil fauna and bacterial communities remains unclear, as the database is either too small or as results are not unequivocal. Those limitations are also present summarizing the impact of N-deposition on functions and services provided by soil organisms, the current literature database does not provide enough results to predict the impact of N-deposition on decomposition processes and nutrient cycling in soils. (orig.)

  3. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  4. MODELING OF GENERIC AIR POLLUTION DISPERSION ANALYSIS FROM CEMENT FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E EMETERE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution from cement factory is classified as one of the sources of air pollution. The control of the air pollution by addressing the wind field dynamics was the main objective of the paper. The dynamics of dispersion showed a three way flow which was calculated and explained accordingly. The 3D model showed good level of accuracy by determining field values of air deposited pollutants. Mean concentration of diffusing pollutants was shown to be directly proportional to the plume angular displacement. The 2D model explained the details of the wind field dynamics and proffers a solution which may be relevant in controlling air pollution from anthropogenic sources.

  5. Pollutant fates in fluvial systems: on need of individual approach to each case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Novakova, Tereza

    2015-04-01

    deposition in a channel belt and subsequent secondary pollution via physical mobilisation, most pollution storing in the floodplain in a surprisingly heterogeneous manner - in hotspots with a size comparable to fragments of abandoned channels (from a few to few tens of metres). The hotspots are hence best revealed by well-designed field analysis using portable instruments (gamma spectrometry or XRF). The Litavka is specific because most pollution is in its floodplain in the form of anthropogenic alluvium, a very thick vertical accretion body of "artificial" material added to the river system in the amount exceeding its normal transport capacity. That situation favours secondary pollution by chemical mobilisation of pollutants under low river discharges revealed by geochemical analysis. Our case studies show that simple "rules" such as continuous decay of pollutant concentrations downstream from the pollution source, existence of a continuous blanket of polluted overbank fines in floodplain, simple change of the pollution extent with growing distance from the river channel and as a consequence of extreme floods, or simple recipes such as low-density sampling to trace point pollution sources are too simplistic to be applicable in real polluted fluvial systems. Each river system represents a nearly unique combination of individual geomorphic processes, and each pollution has been specific by the mode how it entered the fluvial system. We will not offer "magic tools" in our contribution. In literature we can find all pieces we need for the jigsaw puzzle - pollutants fates in fluvial systems. The question is why so rarely researchers put them together. We would like to encourage them to do so.

  6. Potential Uses of Anthropogenic Noise as a Source of Information in Animal Sensory and Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Amanda; Deecke, Volker; Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Although current research on the impact of anthropogenic noise has focused on the detrimental effects, there is a range of ways by which animals could benefit from increased noise levels. Here we discuss two potential uses of anthropogenic noise. First, local variations in the ambient-noise field could be used to perceive objects and navigate within an environment. Second, introduced sound cues could be used as a signal for prey detection or orientation and navigation. Although the disadvantages of noise pollution will likely outweigh any positive effects, it is important to acknowledge that such changes may benefit some species. PMID:26611074

  7. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: a combined analysis in mine French cities; Effets a court terme de la pollution atmospherique sur la mortalite: resultats d'une analyse combinee realisee dans 9 villes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quenel, P.; Le Tertre, A.; Eilstein, D.; Zeghnoun, A.; Saviuc, P.; Prouvost, H.; Cassadou, S.; Pascal, L.; Medina, S.; Le Goaster, C. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Dept. Sante Environnement, 94415 - Saint-Maurice (France); Declercq, C. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante Nord Pas de Calais, 59 - Lille (France)

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the short term effects of air pollution on the activity of a medical practitioners network and to test if this network can contribute to epidemiological monitoring of atmospheric pollution. Twenty-two physicians counted respiratory, ocular and neurological symptoms between February 1996 and September 1997 in the Urban Area of Strasbourg. The indicators of pollution were the maximum and mean of daily concentrations for sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), air particles (PM13) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), daily maximum and mean of 8-hours for ozone (O{sub 3}). The statistical method for correlation between symptoms and pollutants was a Poisson regression based on a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) which takes into account auto-regression, seasonal variations, influenza epidemics, pollen counts and meteorological factors. Statistically significant associations are presented below (in brackets: relative increase of daily number of the symptoms associated with an inter-quartile increase of pollutant's concentration). Maximum of SO{sub 2} was associated with cough (7.9%) and number of symptomatic patients (4.6%); mean of SO{sub 2} with hoarseness (5.4%) and headache (6.5%): maximum of PM13 with pharynx symptoms (5.5%), cough (5.6%), wheezing dyspnea (7.3%) and number of symptomatic patients (5.7%); mean of PM13 with pharynx symptoms (2.9%), cough (3.1%) and number of symptomatic patients (4.8%); maximum of NO{sub 2} with cough (4.4%) and number of symptomatic patients (2.8%); mean of NO{sub 2} with rhinorrhea (7.4%), pharynx symptoms (5.7%), cough (11.2%), wheezing dyspnea (9.7%) and no wheezing dyspnea (6.6%), headache (9.6%) and number of symptomatic patients (5.8%); maximum of O{sub 3} with ocular irritation (12.6%); mean of O{sub 3} with ocular irritation (10.9%). Using of a medical practitioners network is possible under several conditions (recall, workshops, easy collection of symptoms) and may be recommended for

  8. Anthropogenic mercury emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, David G.; Hao, Jiming; Wu, Ye; Jiang, Jingkun; Chan, Melissa; Tian, Hezhong; Feng, Xinbin

    An inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China is compiled for the year 1999 from official statistical data. We estimate that China's emissions were 536 (±236) t of total mercury. This value includes open biomass burning, but does not include natural sources or re-emission of previously deposited mercury. Approximately 45% of the Hg comes from non-ferrous metals smelting, 38% from coal combustion, and 17% from miscellaneous activities, of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest. Emissions are heaviest in Liaoning and Guangdong Provinces, where extensive smelting occurs, and in Guizhou Province, where there is much small-scale combustion of high-Hg coal without emission control devices. Emissions are gridded at 30×30 min spatial resolution. We estimate that 56% of the Hg in China is released as Hg 0, 32% as Hg 2+, and 12% as Hg p. Particulate mercury emissions are high in China due to heavy burning of coal in residential and small industrial settings without PM controls. Emissions of Hg 2+ from coal-fired power plants are high due to the absence of flue-gas desulfurization units, which tend to dissolve the soluble divalent mercury. Metals smelting operations favor the production of elemental mercury. Much of the Hg is released from small-scale activities in rather remote areas, and therefore the activity levels are quite uncertain. Also, emissions test data for Chinese sources are lacking, causing uncertainties in Hg emission factors and removal efficiencies. Overall, we calculate an uncertainty level of ±44% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions. We recommend field testing of coal combustors and smelters in China to improve the accuracy of these estimates.

  9. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  10. Natural versus anthropogenic sources in the surface- and groundwater dissolved load of the Dommel river (Meuse basin): Constraints by boron and strontium isotopes and gadolinium anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Klaver, Gerard; Negrel, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    SummaryThe river Dommel, a tributary of the Meuse River, drains an area of intensive agriculture (livestock farming, maize and grassland over 50% of the basin), and a dense population of about 600,000 people representing 20% of the total area. The combined human activities in the Dommel catchment lead to a large amount of dissolved elements and compounds released in surface- and groundwaters. The aim of this study was to discriminate the natural (including infiltration of Meuse water) versus anthropogenic sources of the dissolved load, and to identify the various pollution sources such as agriculture, industrial activity, and wastewater treatment plants, using geochemical tools including major- and trace elements, Sr and B isotopes, and rare earth elements (REE). For that purpose, a same-day geochemical "Snapshot" picture of the entire basin was combined with monthly monitoring in strategic points. The major- and trace elements analyses allowed discriminating the main pollution sources affecting the basin, i.e. point versus diffuse sources. Strontium isotopes helped to identify each tributary and to calculate mixing proportions. Combining these calculations with the Sr-isotopic data obtained from the "Snapshot" sampling campaign during a low-flow period, shows that Meuse water infiltration represents 25% of the total Dommel discharge. Boron isotopes used for assessing the amount of water affected by anthropogenic input cannot discriminate between the two main anthropogenic inputs, i.e. urban wastewater and the zinc-smelter effluent, as they have similar δ11B values. Finally, the REE, and especially the use of Gd anomalies (Gd ∗), demonstrated the generalized impact of urban wastewater on the streams of the Dommel Basin. The coupled use of different geochemical tracers (Sr and B isotopes together with Gd ∗) in addition to the standard major-element analyses, led to discriminating the various anthropogenic components influencing the Dommel Basin water quality

  11. Immune- and Pollution-mediated DNA Damage in Two Wild Mya arenaria Clam Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Gagné

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In aquatic environments, genotoxicity results from the effects of pollution combined with the inflammatory response triggered by the immune system. Indeed, the production of nitrosylated DNA and proteins are though to arise from the production of peroxinitrite during phagocytosis and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine new DNA biomarkers that differentiate between immune- and pollution-mediated genotoxicity in wild clam populations. Intertidal clam populations were sampled and analyzed for gonadal DNA strand breaks, DNA nitrosylation and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR activity (purine salvage pathway. The clam weight-to-shell-length ratio, the gonado-somatic index (GSI, age status, lipid peroxidation, xenobiotic conjugation activity (glutathione S-transferase (GST and phagocytic activity were examined to shed light on their relationships with the observed genotoxic endpoints. XOR activity and DNA strand breaks were generally elevated at polluted sites and correlated significantly with clam weight-to-shell-length ratios and DNA nitrosylation. DNA nitrosylation was also higher at some sites and correlated significantly with phagocytic activity and with DNA strand breaks. This study showed that DNA strand breaks were associated with both immune- and pollution-mediated effects. This suggests that there is a loss of DNA repair capacity due to the combined effects of aging, pollution and immune response in wild clam populations that are impacted by anthropogenic activity.

  12. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  13. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana L Melcón; Amanda J Cummins; Kerosky, Sara M; Lauren K Roche; Wiggins, Sean M.; John A. Hildebrand

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to...

  14. THE POTENTIAL SOURCES OF POLLUTION AFFECTING THE WATER QUALITY OF LAKE IZNIK

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcın Askın OKTEM; Murat GUMUS; Gokcen BAYRAK YILMAZ

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine Lake Iznik, one of the most significant water resources of the South Marmara Region, and the anthropogenic pollution types affecting the drainage basin and their possible effects. Lake Iznik, a water resource that is quite significant because of its geographical position, is polluted not only with the point and non-point sources of pollution around it, but also with the pollutants spread via highways which are linear pollutants. The fertilization and di...

  15. Late Holocene climate: Natural or anthropogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddiman, W. F.; Fuller, D. Q.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kaplan, J. O.; Ellis, E. C.; Vavrus, S. J.; Roberts, C. N.; Fyfe, R.; He, F.; Lemmen, C.; Woodbridge, J.

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, scientists have argued about the warmth of the current interglaciation. Was the warmth of the preindustrial late Holocene natural in origin, the result of orbital changes that had not yet driven the system into a new glacial state? Or was it in considerable degree the result of humans intervening in the climate system through greenhouse gas emissions from early agriculture? Here we summarize new evidence that moves this debate forward by testing both hypotheses. By comparing late Holocene responses to those that occurred during previous interglaciations (in section 2), we assess whether the late Holocene responses look different (and thus anthropogenic) or similar (and thus natural). This comparison reveals anomalous (anthropogenic) signals. In section 3, we review paleoecological and archaeological syntheses that provide ground truth evidence on early anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. The available data document large early anthropogenic emissions consistent with the anthropogenic ice core anomalies, but more information is needed to constrain their size. A final section compares natural and anthropogenic interpretations of the δ13C trend in ice core CO2.

  16. Imaging of SO2 emissions from anthropogenic sources as part of AROMAT campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenot, H. H.; Merlaud, A.; Meier, A.; Ruhtz, T.; Van Roozendael, M.; Stebel, K.; Constantin, D.; Belegante, L.; Dekemper, E.; Theys, N.; Campion, R.; Schuettemeyer, D.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents field campaign measurements of SO2 emissions from pollution source in Romania. Three types of instruments (SO2 camera, whisk and push broom imager) proceeded ground-based and airborne data acquisition as part of the AROMAT ESA project (monitoring of SO2 plume from a large thermoelectric plant). The SO2 camera used is an imaging system composed of two UV cameras (synchronised in space and time) allowing fast acquisitions of intensity. Each camera is equipped with the same lens and a specific narrow band-pass filter (one at the wavelength at which SO2 absorbs and one at an off-band wavelength). The combination of two UV cameras provides a 2D image of the integrated content of SO2. The Small Whisk broom Imager for trace gases monitoriNG (SWING) used in this study and developed at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA), is based on a compact ultra-violet visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror. The Airborne imaging instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) constructed at the Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen (IUP), performed SO2 measurements in the UV-visible spectral range. Both whisk and push broom scanner use the DOAS technique, that is based on the relationship between the quantity of light absorbed and the number of SO2 molecules in the light path. SWING and AirMAP instruments provide scans of SO2 column density. Quantification of 2D field contents and fluxes of anthropogenic SO2 emissions from Turceni power station (Romania) are shown. Preparatory results from data acquisition in the harbour of Antwerp (monitoring of SO2 emissions from refinery and chemical industry) are also presented.

  17. Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parise

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, about one quarter of the country is occupied by outcroppings of soluble rocks; thus, karst represents an important and typical natural environment. Today karst areas are seriously threatened by a number of hazards, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Many problems are related to agricultural practices: the use of heavy machinery, ever-increasing in recent years, results at many sites in destruction of the original karst landscapes. Use of pesticides and herbicides, in addition, causes the loss of karst ecosystems of great biological relevance, as has been observed in the Dumre district, where about 80 lakes of karst origin are present in the evaporites of Permian-Triassic age. Agricultural practice performed on slopes with medium to high gradient is a further factor which greatly predispose the slopes to erosion. The cave heritage of Albania (estimated so far in about 1000 caves is at risk because of the uncontrolled quarrying activities which determine the total or partial destruction of karst caves, including many of naturalistic, archaeological and speleological interest. Many caves have also become sites of illegal disposal of solid and liquid wastes, which causes pollution of the karst ecosystems and of the aquifer therein present, with heavy negative consequences on the quality of water. Even though most of the cases here mentioned are related to anthropogenic activities, the natural hazards, such as subsidence phenomena, floods, and the development of sinkholes, have not to be disregarded.

  18. Searching for anthropogenic contaminants in human breast adipose tissues using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Félix; Portolés Nicolau, Tania; Pitarch Arquimbau, María Elena; López Benet, Francisco José

    2008-01-01

    The potential of GC-TOF MS for screening anthropogenic organic contaminants in human breast adipose tissues has been investigated. Initially a target screening was performed for a list of 125 compounds which included persistent halogen pollutants (OC pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs), PAHs, alkylphenols, and a notable number of pesticides from the different fungicide, herbicide and insecticide families. Searching for target pollutants was done by evaluating the presence of up to five representative io...

  19. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J.; Pan, D.; S. J. Davis; Q. Zhang; He, K.; Wang, C; D. G. Streets; D. J. Wuebbles; Guan, D.

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeli...

  20. Anthropogenic aerosols may have increased upper tropospheric humidity in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bister

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent simulations of deep convection with a spectral microphysics cloud model show that an increase in aerosol concentration can have a significant effect on the nature of convection with more ice precipitation and less warm rain in polluted air. The cloud lifetime and the area covered by cloud anvils of deep convection are also larger for polluted air. Therefore, it is possible that the increase of anthropogenic aerosols in most of the 20th century has increased humidity and perhaps also cloudiness in the mid- to upper troposphere. Satellite data of upper tropospheric relative humidity in 1979–1997 and observed changes in cloudiness support this hypothesis. As changes in upper tropospheric humidity strongly affect longwave radiation, it is possible that anthropogenic aerosols have had a significant warming effect in addition to their other known effects on radiation.

  1. Influence of anthropogenic emissions on the production of organic particulate matter during GoAmazon2014/5

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, S. S.; Palm, B. B.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Liu, Y.; Thalman, R. M.; Shilling, J. E.; Newburn, M. K.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Artaxo, P.; Wang, J.; Goldstein, A. H.; Alexander, L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    As part of GoAmazon2014/5, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed to characterize the composition of fine-mode particulate matter (PM) and provide insights into the production of airborne particle material in the central Amazon basin, Brazil. The focus was on the influence of biogenic-anthropogenic interactions on the measured aerosol particles, especially as related to the formation of organic PM. Through a combination of meteorology, emissions, and chemistry, the T3 research site (located 70 km downwind of Manaus) was affected by biogenic emissions from the tropical rainforest that were periodically mixed with urban outflow from the Manaus metropolitan area as well as with biomass burning plumes. Results from the T3 site are presented in the context of measurements at T0a (ATTO) and T2, representing predominantly clean and polluted conditions, respectively. At T3, in the wet season (1/Feb - 31/Mar 2014) the non-refractory PM1 mass concentration had values on order of 1 to 2 μg m-3, while in the dry season (15/Aug - 15/Oct 2014) PM1was eight times higher. In both seasons, the organic component was dominant, contributing 80-85% by mass.The analysis of the results aims at delineating the anthropogenic impact on the measurements, especially focusing on anthropogenic sulfate as a mediator. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis is applied to the time series of organic mass spectra. The factors and their loadings provide information on the relative and time-varying contributions of different sources and processes of organic PM. A factor associated with secondary organic material produced from the reactive uptake of epoxydiols (a product of isoprene photooxidation under HO2-dominant conditions) is resolved for both seasons (hereafter, IEPOX-SOA). The time trends of the factors, especially of IEPOX-SOA, are investigated against co-located measurements, toward the goal of improving the understanding of anthropogenic

  2. ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin A. Đukić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different (mineral and organic fertilisers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in Cacak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the Czapek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg?ha-1 and organic fertilisers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg?ha- 1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  3. 有机-无机复合污染对扇贝积累石油烃的影响%Influence of the Combined Pollution of Organic and Inorganic Compounds on Petroleum Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Chlamys farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱萍; 姜雪梅; 柳瑞翠; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究有机-无机复合污染对扇贝积累石油烃的影响.[方法]在实验室模拟条件下研究石油烃与Cu、Pb复合污染对栉孔扇贝积累石油烃的影响.[结果]单一石油烃污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量随暴露时间的延长及石油烃浓度的增大都有明显增大趋势;复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量随暴露时间及污染物种类及浓度的变化发生着动态变化,且不同浓度处理组间差异很大,当石油烃浓度固定为0.6 mg/L时,不同处理浓度组的Cu、Pb及Cu与Pb组合都促进了栉孔扇贝对石油烃的积累,但低处理浓度组的Cu、高处理浓度组的Pb、低处理浓度组的Cu与Pb组合更有利于促进栉孔扇贝对石油烃的积累.[结论]石油烃与Cu、Pb复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累状况比单一石油烃污染条件下要复杂得多.%[Objective] To study the influence of the combined pollution of organic and inorganic compounds on petroleum hydrocarbon accumulation in Chlamys farreri. [ Method ] The accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri under the condition of combined pollution of petroleum hydrocarbon with copper, plumbum was experimentally studied. [ Result] Under pollution of single petroleum hydrocarbon , the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri presented an obvious trend of growth with the increase of exposure time and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon as well; Under the condition of combined pollution, the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the body of Chlamys farreri had a dynamic trend with the increase of exposure time and the changes in the types and concentrations of pollutants. When the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was fixed at 0.6 mg/L, Cu, Pb and the combination of Cu and Pb in different treatment groups with different concentrations all had positive contribution to the Chlamys

  4. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  5. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Enfeng, E-mail: efliu@niglas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Ting [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Birch, Gavin [School of Geosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zhu, Yuxin [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. - Highlights: • Pollution and

  6. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. - Highlights: • Pollution and

  7. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-08-17

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  8. An automated, real time classification system for biological and anthropogenic sounds from fixed ocean observatories

    OpenAIRE

    Zaugg, Serge Alain; Schaar, Mike van der; Houegnigan, Ludwig; André, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The automated, real time classification of acoustic events in the marine environment is an important tool to study anthropogenic sound pollution, marine mammals and for mitigating human activities that are potentially harmful. We present a real time classification system targeted at many important groups of acoustic events (clicks, buzzes, calls, whistles from several cetacean species, tonal and impulsive shipping noise and explosions). The achieved classification performance ...

  9. Continental scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-F. Graf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While Antarctica is often described as a pristine environment, there is an increasing awareness of the potential threats from local pollution sources including tourist ships and emissions associated with scientific activities. However, to date there has been no systematic attempt to model the impacts of such pollutants at the continental scale. Indeed, until very recently there was not even a sulphur emission budget available for Antarctica. Here we present the first comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Antarctica using a limited area chemistry climate model, and a monthly emissions inventory for sulphur from maintenance of research stations, ground and air traffic, shipping and the active Erebus volcano. We find that ship emissions, both sulphurous and black carbon, dominate anthropogenic pollution near the ground. Their prevalence is likely to rise dramatically if recent trends in tourism continue.

  10. Continental Scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-F. Graf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While Antarctica is often described as a pristine environment, the potential threats from local pollution sources including tourist ships and emissions associated with scientific activities have recently been raised. However, to date there has been no systematic attempt to model the impacts of such pollutants at the continental scale. Indeed, until very recently there was not even a sulphur emission budget available for Antarctica. Here we present the first comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Antarctica using a limited area chemistry climate model, and a monthly emissions inventory for sulphur from maintenance of research stations, ground and air traffic, shipping and the active volcano Mt. Erebus. We find that ship emissions, both sulphurous and black carbon, dominate anthropogenic pollution near the ground. These are likely to rise considerably if recent trends in tourism continue.

  11. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  12. Ozone Tendency in Biomass Burning Plumes: Influence of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Emissions Downwind of Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, D.; Palmer, P. I.

    2015-12-01

    Forest fires emit pollutants that can influence downwind surface concentrations of ozone, with potential implications for exceeding air quality regulations. The influence of emissions from biogenic and anthropogenic sources that are mixed into a biomass burning plume as it travels downwind is not well understood. Using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry transport model and a novel method to track the centre of biomass burning plumes, we identify the chemical reactions that determine ozone production and loss along the plume trajectory. Using a series of sensitivity runs, we quantify the role of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions on the importance of individual chemical reactions. We illustrate the method using data collected during the BORTAS aircraft campaign over eastern Canada during summer 2011. We focus on two contrasting plume trajectories originating from the same multi-day fire in Ontario. The first plume trajectory on 16th July 2011 travels eastward from the fire and eventually mixes with anthropogenic emissions travelling up the east coast of the United States before outflow over the North Atlantic. The second plume trajectory we follow is three days later and travels eastward with a strong northeast component away from large anthropogenic sources. Both trajectories are influenced by downwind biogenic emissions. We generate a chemical reaction narrative for each plume trajectory, allowing is to quantify how mixing pyrogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic emissions influences downwind ozone photochemistry.

  13. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances C. Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with mitigation options. The local nature of many of the impacts, combined with their short atmospheric lifetime and the existence of cost-effective abatement technologies that are already widely deployed in developed countries means reducing these emissions provides a highly climatically-effective mitigation option that is also appropriate to the development strategy of industrializing countries.

  14. Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric Pollution Lead in Swedish Boreal Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the fate of anthropogenic lead (Pb)pollution in boreal forest soils, and to predict future trends, it is important to know where in the soil the pollution Pb is accumulated and how large the pollution and natural Pb inventories are in different soil horizons. We combined stable Pb isotope (206Pb/207Pb ratios) and concentration analyses to study Pb in podzol profiles and mor samples from old-growth forest stands at seven sites distributed from southern to northern Sweden. Additional samples were taken from managed forests, and from an agricultural field, to give some idea of the effects of land-use. Pb concentrations are typically 60-100 μg g-1 dry mass in the mor layer in southern Sweden and about 30 μg g-1 in northern Sweden. Pb isotope analyses show that virtually all of this Pb is pollution Pb. The isotope composition also shows that pollution Pb has penetrated downwards between 20-60 cm in the forest soils. The total pollution Pb inventories vary between 0.7-3.0 g m-2 ground surface, with larger inventories in southern compared to northern Sweden. Although the highest Pb concentrations occur in the mor layer, the largest inventories of pollution Pb are found in the Bs-horizon. The limited investigation of Pb distribution and inventories in soils from managed forests did not point to any major difference compared to the old-growth forests. The agricultural field revealed, however, a completely deviating Pb profile with all pollution Pb evenly distributed in the 20 cm thick top-soil

  15. On Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊

    2005-01-01

    Long long ago,our world was very beautiful, there were trees, flowers,rivers ... they were very clean and tidy.But now, the hillsarenrt green, the rivers aren't clean,the fish has died. Pollution is becoming more and more serious all over the world. We are living in a polluted environment which is bad forour health.

  16. Freeliving marine nematodes as a pollution indicator of Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A hierarchical diversity index--taxonomic distinctnessindex +, which was first defined by Warwick and Clark in 1998, wasemployed to evaluate the pollution status of the Bohai Sea withfreeliving marine nematodes. The result showed that the Bohai Bayand other coastal sampling sites might be affected by oil and gasproduction and other anthropogenic influences. In other words,anthropogenic disturbance was affecting this component of thebenthos in these locations. And most offshore sampling sites in themiddle of the Bohai Sea were clear and unpolluted.

  17. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Monge; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Antonio García-Alix; Francisca Martínez-Ruiz; Nadine Mattielli; Clive Finlayson; Naohiko Ohkouchi; Miguel Cortés Sánchez; Jose María Bermúdez de Castro; Ruth Blasco; Jordi Rosell; José Carrión; Joaquín Rodríguez-Vidal; Geraldine Finlayson

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution ...

  18. The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine, Chris [NOAA, Seattle, WA; Feely, R. A. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Gruber, N. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Key, Robert [Princeton University; Lee, K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Wong, C. S. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Climate Chemistry Laboratory, Sidney, BC Canada; Wallace, D.W.R. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Tilbrook, B. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Millero, F. J. [University of Miami; Peng, T.-H. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Ono, Tsueno [Frontier Research System for Global Change/Institute for Global Change Research, Japan; Rios, Aida F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientificas, Spain

    2004-01-01

    Using inorganic carbon measurements from an international survey effort in the 1990s and a tracer-based separation technique, we estimate a global oceanic anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) sink for the period from 1800 to 1994 of 118 19 petagrams of carbon. The oceanic sink accounts for ~48% of the total fossil-fuel and cement-manufacturing emissions, implying that the terrestrial biosphere was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere of about 39 28 petagrams of carbon for this period. The current fraction of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions stored in the ocean appears to be about one-third of the long-term potential.

  19. Visual attention based detection of signs of anthropogenic activities in satellite imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skurikhin, Alexei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-13

    With increasing deployment of satellite imaging systems, only a small fraction of collected data can be subject to expert scrutiny. We present and evaluate a two-tier approach to broad area search for signs of anthropogenic activities in high-resolution commercial satellite imagery. The method filters image information using semantically oriented interest points by combining Harris corner detection and spatial pyramid matching. The idea is that anthropogenic structures, such as rooftop outlines, fence corners, road junctions, are locally arranged in specific angular relations to each other. They are often oriented at approximately right angles to each other (which is known as rectilinearity relation). Detecting the rectilinearity provides an opportunity to highlight regions most likely to contain anthropogenic activity. This is followed by supervised classification of regions surrounding the detected corner points as man-made vs. natural scenes. We consider, in particular, a search for anthropogenic activities in uncluttered areas. In this paper, we proposed and evaluated a two-tier approach to broad area search for signs of anthropogenic activities. Results from experiments on high-resolution ({approx}0.6m) commercial satellite image data showed the potential applicability of this approach and its ability of achieving both high precision and recall rates. The main advantage of combining corner-based cueing with general object recognition is that the incorporation of domain specific knowledge even in its more general form, such as presence of comers, provides a useful cue to narrow the focus of search for signs of anthropogenic activities. Combination of comer based cueing with spatial pyramid matching addressed the issue of comer categorization. An important practical issue for further research is optimizing the balance between false positive and false negative rates. While the results presented in the paper are encouraging, the problem of an automated broad area

  20. Characteristics, Control and Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Combined Pollution from a Solid Waste Dismantling Area%固废拆解土壤的复合污染特性及其控制与修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于红艳; 张昕欣; 杨伟群; 陈红云; 杨雪雪; 朱梦琪

    2012-01-01

    The dismantling of solid waste has resulted in severe contamination of toxic heavy metals, persistant organic pollutant( POPs) , pol-ycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) , polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) for soil in these areas. The methods of control of soil pollutants and remediation of contaminated soil were put forward in the basis of analysis of pollutants environmental behavior in the soil and its migration and transformation laws, which to provide a reliable basis for green dismantling industry and provide reference for remediation of soil contaminated with combined pollution from a solid waste dismantling area.%固废拆解造成了包括重金属、持久性有机污染物(POPs)[多环芳烃(PAHs)、多氯联苯(PCBs)、二噁英(PCDD/Fs)及多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)]的土壤复合污染.探讨了固废拆解土壤的污染源及污染现状,分析了复合污染物在土壤中的环境行为及迁移转化规律,提出了控制土壤污染物对策及污染土壤修复方法,旨在为发展绿色拆解产业提供可靠的依据,为固废拆解导致的土壤污染控制与修复提供参考.

  1. Using oysters as anthropogenic indicators to evaluate the occurrence of the wastewater contamination of the estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2015-04-01

    The oyster (Crossostrea gigas) is an important aquacultural species in Taiwan. With an area of over 85% of the total inshore aquacultural field, its production, measured by quantity or economic value, ranks above all other aquacultural products in Taiwan. Since oyster's habitat is on shelves near the coast, the samples from a particular "oyster cultural site" can be applied to evaluate the pollution of a segment of the coastal water. Deficient wastewater treatment has caused untreated wastewaters to have flown in rivers into oyster cultural areas in estuaries as well as shallow coastal water. Therefore, the concentration of pollutants in the oysters can be used as anthropogenic indicators to evaluate the occurrence of the for wastewater contamination of the coastal water. In this study, two groups of anthropogenic organic compounds, chlorinated flame retardant (i.e., Dechlorane Plus) and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances (i.e., 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone), were determined in oyster samples as wastewater contamination pollutants. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion prior to their determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results show that these two groups of compounds are ubiquitous in oysters with the concentrations of chlorinated flame retardant and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances ranging from 0.3 to 3.6 ng/g and from 120 to 910 ng/g (lipid weight), respectively. Oysters are useful anthropogenic indicators of organic pollutants in Taiwan's marine environment. The ubiquity of these pollutants in Taiwan's coastal environment supports the need for greater awareness of bioaccumulation processes.

  2. Nonlinear effects of anthropogenic aerosol and urban land surface forcing on spring climate in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming; Zhang, Leying

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols and urban land cover change induce opposite thermal effects on the atmosphere near surface as well as in the troposphere. One can think of these anthropogenic effects as composed of two parts: the individual effect due to an individual anthropogenic forcing and the nonlinear effects resulting from the coexistence of two forcing factors. In this study, we explored the role of such nonlinear effects in affecting East Asian climate, as well as individual forcing effects, using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 coupled with the Community Land Model version 4. Atmospheric responses were simulated by including anthropogenic aerosol emission only, urban cover only, or the combination of the two, over eastern China. Results showed that nonlinear responses were different from any effects by an individual forcing or the linear combination of individual responses. The nonlinear interaction could generate cold horizontal temperature advection to cool the troposphere, which induced anomalous subsidence along the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). This anomalous vertical motion, together with a weakened low-level southwesterly, favored below-normal (above-normal) rainfall over the YRV (southern China), shifting the spring rain belt southward. The resultant diabatic cooling, in turn, amplified the anomalous descent and further decreased tropospheric temperature over the YRV, forming a positive feedback loop to maintain the nonlinear effects. Consequently, the nonlinear effects acted to reduce the climate anomalies from a simple linear combination of two individual effects and played an important role in regional responses to one anthropogenic forcing when the other is prescribed.

  3. Documentation and analysis of a geographic information system application for combining data layers, using nonpoint-source pollution as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesler, James L.

    2002-01-01

    A geographical information system application has been developed that allows scientists to combine multiple data layers into a single data layer. This application provides an effective tool for identifying areas where the potential effect of the combination of data layers may be greater than any single data layer. Such a tool is useful in studying an activity that cannot be measured directly. Scientists wanting to identify areas where an activity may have the greatest effect can identify factors that directly or indirectly reflect the effect of the activity being studied. When combined, these factors would identify areas where the potential for the activity to have an effect are greatest.

  4. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (all anthropogenic, biomass burning and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. On the global scale, our results show that land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols...

  5. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding global emissions of mercury and presents a new inventory of global emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources for the year 2000. The largest emissions of Hg to the global atmosphere occur from combustion of fossil fuel

  6. Anthropogenic point and non-point nitrogen inputs into Huai River Basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux

    OpenAIRE

    W. S. Zhang; D. P. Swaney; Li, X.Y.; Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W.; Ding, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a new approach to estimate both anthropogenic non-point and point nitrogen (N) inputs to the landscape, and determines their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen (AN) flux, providing a foundation for further exploration of anthropogenic effects on N pollution. Our study site is Huai River Basin of China, a watershed with one of the highest levels of N input in the world. Multi-year average (2003–2010) inputs of N to the watershed are 27 2...

  7. Foreign versus Domestic Contributions to China's Ozone Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Lin, Weili; Yan, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant because it damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China' ozone pollution. Here, we use the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations to quantify the contributions of ozone transport from regions with large anthropogenic emissions to China. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone air quality. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign anthropogenic emissions contribute 40% near the surface, and the foreign contribution increases with altitude and reaches up to 70% in the upper troposphere. The contributions by North America and Europe reach maximum levels in spring, in which season Chinese influence on the western United States also peaks. The springtime maxima are associated with strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities favorable to the long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhanced surface ozone concentrations by 1~4 ppbv over Western and Northern China in spring and winter. Despite much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is distinctly greater than that from Europe due to the nearly tripled VOC emissions. Ozone contributed by Foreign Asian countries peaks in summer and autumn, widely dispersed to the upper troposphere over Southern China with strong upwelling. Therefore, although China produces large amounts of ozone precursor emissions, its domestic ozone pollution is still contributed significantly by foreign anthropogenic emissions. Our study is relevant to Chinese ozone pollution control and global collaboration.

  8. The impact of chemical pollution on the resilience of soils under multiple stresses: A conceptual framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf; Hollert, Henner; Kaestner, Matthias; Kandeler, Ellen; Kruse, Jens; Miltner, Anja; Ottermanns, Richard; Pagel, Holger; Peth, Stephan; Poll, Christian; Rambold, Gerhard; Schloter, Michael; Schulz, Stefanie; Streck, Thilo; Roß-Nickoll, Martina

    2016-10-15

    Soils are faced with man-made chemical stress factors, such as the input of organic or metal-containing pesticides, in combination with non-chemical stressors like soil compaction and natural disturbance like drought. Although multiple stress factors are typically co-occurring in soil ecosystems, research in soil sciences on this aspect is limited and focuses mostly on single structural or functional endpoints. A mechanistic understanding of the reaction of soils to multiple stressors is currently lacking. Based on a review of resilience theory, we introduce a new concept for research on the ability of polluted soil (xenobiotics or other chemical pollutants as one stressor) to resist further natural or anthropogenic stress and to retain its functions and structure. There is strong indication that pollution as a primary stressor will change the system reaction of soil, i.e., its resilience, stability and resistance. It can be expected that pollution affects the physiological adaption of organisms and the functional redundancy of the soil to further stress. We hypothesize that the recovery of organisms and chemical-physical properties after impact of a follow-up stressor is faster in polluted soil than in non-polluted soil, i.e., polluted soil has a higher dynamical stability (dynamical stability=1/recovery time), whereas resilience of the contaminated soil is lower compared to that of not or less contaminated soil. Thus, a polluted soil might be more prone to change into another system regime after occurrence of further stress. We highlight this issue by compiling the literature exemplarily for the effects of Cu contamination and compaction on soil functions and structure. We propose to intensify research on effects of combined stresses involving a multidisciplinary team of experts and provide suggestions for corresponding experiments. Our concept offers thus a framework for system level analysis of soils paving the way to enhance ecological theory. PMID:27372890

  9. Modelling of long-term anthropogenic changes in stratospheric temperature and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A numerical two-dimensional interactive dynamical-radiative-photochemical model including aerosol physics is used to examine the expected long-term changes in stratospheric temperature and the Earth's ozone layer due to anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and by ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2050. The mechanisms of the impact of each of the pollutants on stratospheric temperature have been analysed, their relative contributions to the predicted temperature change have been estimated. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere, have been studied in details. The contributions of different pollutions to the predicted ozone changes have been estimated. The results of the calculations show that the basic mechanism by which greenhouse gases influence the ozone layer is stratospheric cooling accompanied by a weakness in the efficiency of the catalytic cycles of ozone destruction due to temperature dependencies of the photochemical gas-phase reactions. Modification of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) caused by anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases is important only for the polar ozone. An essential influence of the greenhouse gases on the ozone by a modification of the stratospheric sulphate aerosol is revealed. The aerosol changes caused by the greenhouse gases modify the distribution of the ozone-active gaseous chlorine, bromine and nitrogen components by means of heterogeneous reactions on the aerosol surface, resulting in a significant decrease in springtime polar ozone depletion of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  10. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  11. Anthropogenic processing of dust affects the oxygen content of the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Ito, Taka; Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Valett, Jackie; Deutsch, Curtis

    2015-04-01

    Observations from the last several decades show a significant expansion of the tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, the underlying causes remain elusive, as the currently accepted effects of ocean warming and associated solubility decease cannot fully explain the observed oxygen trend. Here we show that anthropogenic pollution can change the pattern of biological productivity and oxygen trends consistent with observations in the tropics and extratropics. These effects are caused by the mobilization of iron in mineral dust by pollutants, where it is transported and deposited to the HNLC regions of the tropical pacific affecting primary productivity and oxygen consumption by bacterial respiration. In this study, it is shown that pollution-mobilized iron deposited to high latitude oceanic environments can profoundly impact subsurface oxygen and the extent of the OMZ through long-range oceanic transport. Together with the intensification of tropical upwelling since the 1990s associated with natural climate variability, our results can explain the expansion of the OMZ in the tropical Pacific in the late twentieth century. Unlike climate variability, however, anthropogenic pollution likely influences the long-term trends in marine biogeochemistry and further alters regional productivity and subsurface oxygen distributions with profound implications for marine habitats and nitrate inventory of the oceans.

  12. Coastal pollution limits pelagic larval dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The ecological impact of large coastal human populations on marine ecosystems remains relatively unknown. Here, we examine the population structure of Patiria miniata, the bat star, and correlate genetic distances with a model based on flow rates and proximity to P. miniata populations for the four major stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent sources of the Southern California Bight. We show that overall genetic connectivity is high (F(ST)~0.005); however, multivariate analyses show that genetic structure is highly correlated with anthropogenic inputs. The best models included both stormwater and wastewater variables and explained between 26.55 and 93.69% of the observed structure. Additionally, regressions between allelic richness and distance to sources show that populations near anthropogenic pollution have reduced genetic diversity. Our results indicate that anthropogenic runoff and effluent are acting as barriers to larval dispersal, effectively isolating a high gene flow species that is virtually free of direct human impact.

  13. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Rosivatz, Erika [Institute of Chemical Biology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Scholze, Martin [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kortenkamp@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  14. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  15. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  16. Environmental pollution at Linfen and its change - magnetic monitoring of leaves and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Appel, E.; Hu, S. Y.; Yin, G.; Rösler, W.

    2012-04-01

    Linfen city (Shanxi Province, China) is one of the world's most polluted city due to coal mining, refineries and other industries. During recent years the local government took enormous efforts to improve the environmental standard. In this study, we are testing the efficiency of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements for the assessment of this pollution "hot spot" where the environmental issues dictate the questions and up turning methodical obstacles have to be mastered. In particular we are testing to which extent the combination of MS results from soil and dust-loaded tree leaves allow to discriminate in between historical and present pollution. MS signals in the large abandoned industrial area and in new industrial areas are strongly enhanced with surface soil mass-specific MS (χ) between (232-3126)×10-8m3kg-1, while in the agricultural areas they range from (88-179)×10-8m3kg-1. Temperature dependence of MS identifies magnetite as the major magnetic phase in all topsoil samples; additionally a variable content of a harder coercive phase indicated by S-ratios of 0.82-0.99. Low χfd% (<5%) and hysteresis properties show that magnetite particles occur in PSD+MD domain state. In contrast to soil samples which accumulate pollutants over a long time span, dust-loaded tree leaf samples reflect the current air spread of pollution. Leaf samples were taken from the wider Linfen city area at intervals of about 2 km. Values of χ (normalized to the mass of the dried leaf) range from (2.2-501.1)×10-8m3kg-1 with a median of 23.16×10-8m3kg-1, and gradually decrease with distance from pollution sources. Rock magnetic parameters again identify a dominance of PSD+MD low-coercivity magnetite. Strong enhancement of MS occurs in the new urban industrial area and in the southern part of city, which is also controlled by the prevailing wind direction and the typical basin topography. XRF results show an enrichment of heavy metals for topsoils and leaves, which were outlined

  17. Clays and clay minerals in Bikaner: Sources, environment pollution and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Sharma; Anu, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Environmental pollution can also be caused by minerals which include natural as well as human activities. Rapid urbanization, consumerist life style, anthropogenic deeds are increasing environmental pollution day by day. Fluctuation in our ecosystem or polluted environment leads to many diseases and shows adverse effects on living organisms. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the environmental pollution from clays and clay minerals and their mitigation..

  18. The Effects of Organic Pollutants in Soil on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    The soil has always been depository of the organic chemicals produced naturally or anthropogenically. Soil contamination is a serious human and environmental problem. A large body of evidence has shown the risks of adverse health effects with the exposure to contaminated soil due to the large quantities of organic chemicals used in agriculture and urban areas that have a legacy of environmental pollution linked to industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration and waste dumping. In agricultural areas, because of the effort to provide adequate quantities of agricultural products, farmers have been using an increasing amount of organic chemicals, but the resulting pollution has enormous potential for environmental damage. The types of organic pollutants commonly found in soils are polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, herbicides and organic fuels, especially gasoline and diesel. Another source of soil pollution is the complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals and microorganisms in the effluent from septic systems, animal wastes and other sources of biowaste. The soils of the world are a vast mixture of chemicals and although conditions are such that an individual is rarely exposed to a single compound, the great majority of people are exposed to a vast chemical mixture of organics, their metabolites, and other compounds at low concentrations Human exposure to organic pollutants in the soil is an area of toxicology that is very difficult to study due to the low concentration of the pollutants. The toxicological studies of single organic pollutants found in soils are limited and research on the metabolites and of chemical mixtures is very limited. The majority of toxicological studies are conducted at relatively high doses and for short periods of exposure. This makes the application of this data to exposure

  19. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  20. Pollution charges, community pressure, and abatement cost of industrial pollution in China

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Hua

    2000-01-01

    The author evaluates the strength of the effect that community pressure and pollution charges have on industrial pollution control in China, and estimates the marginal cost of pollution abatement. He examines a well-documented set of plant-level data, combined with community-level data, to assess the impact of pollution charges and community pressure on industrial behavior in China. He constructs and estimates an industrial organic water pollution discharge model for plants that violate stand...

  1. Thallium isotope variations in anthropogenically-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Ales; Chrastny, Vladislav; Penizek, Vit; Mihaljevic, Martin; Komarek, Michael; Cabala, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Our preliminary data from soils impacted by long-term Tl deposition in the vicinity of a primary/secondary Zn smelter at Olkusz (Poland) indicate apparent variability of ɛ205Tl within soil profiles. The identified ɛ205Tl values presented for the forest soil profile reached -1.7 in the surface/organic horizon, +1.9 in the organo-mineral horizon (Ap), and +1.0 in the mineral horizon (C). This finding suggests both the enrichment of 203Tl isotope in the topsoil, as well as its preferential release during smelting operations, as "lighter" Tl tends to enter the emissions during a high-temperature process. The maximum ɛ205Tl value in the subsurface horizon Ap is in accordance with the concentration peak of oxalate-extractable Mn, indicating the presence of amorphous/poorly-crystalline Mn oxides with a potential to isotopically fractionate Tl toward the "heavier" fraction. The Tl isotope signature in the bottom horizon probably reflects the composition of a local geochemical anomaly of Tl. However, a portion of mobile (anthropogenic) Tl with negative ɛ205Tl moving downwards in the soil profile cannot be neglected. In general, there is no detailed information about the biogeochemical cycling and variations of Tl isotopes in areas affected by significant anthropogenic inputs of the metal (e.g., coal burning and primary metallurgy); the questions of the degree to which the factors such as soil (and sediment) chemistry, mineralogy, local biota, and pollution source control Tl isotope fractionation remain unresolved. Therefore, further research on the topic is needed before any principal conclusions will be made.

  2. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  3. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was appli...

  4. Impact of air pollution in deterioration of carbonate building materials in Italian urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Geochemical study of black crusts developed on three monuments located in Milan, Florence and Rome. • Trace element composition of the black crusts is greatly influenced by anthropogenic pollution. • Geochemical characterization of black crusts can be used as a reliable indicator of environmental pollution. - Abstract: This work presents results from a petrographic, morphological and chemical study of the black crusts developing on monuments in three Italian cities, the Cathedral of Milan, the Cathedral of St. Maria del Fiore in Florence, and the Vittoriano Monument in Rome. Black crusts (BCs) were studied with traditional techniques such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR), in combination with laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which has shown itself to be particularly useful in determining concentrations of heavy metals in BCs. Although the BCs of the three monuments show general enrichment in heavy metals with respect to the substrate (S), interesting differences were observed among them. The BCs from Milan are the richest in heavy metals, particularly Pb and Zn, reflecting the severe air pollution of this very large city, which, in addition to its intense traffic, is located in the most highly industrialized area of Northern Italy. The BCs from the south-eastern side of the Cathedral of St. Maria del Fiore in Florence, facing a pedestrian area, show little enrichment in heavy metals, and those from the Vittoriano Monument in Rome, which is exposed to intense road traffic, display variable enrichment, attributable to mobile emission sources. Results show that the various enrichment trends in heavy metals observed in the BCs of these three monuments are due to many factors: various sources of anthropogenic pollution, sampling height, exposure, orientation, and the shape of the deposition

  5. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters basin.

  6. Biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt sulfate size-segregated aerosols in the Arctic summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Norman, Ann-Lise; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Levasseur, Maurice; Thomas, Jennie L.

    2016-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Amundsen in the Arctic during July 2014. The objective of this study was to utilize the isotopic composition of sulfate to address the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions in the Arctic atmosphere. Non-sea-salt sulfate is divided into biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate using stable isotope apportionment techniques. A considerable amount of the average sulfate concentration in the fine aerosols with a diameter 63 %), which is higher than in previous Arctic studies measuring above the ocean during fall ( 30 %) (Norman et al., 1999). The anthropogenic sulfate concentration was less than that of biogenic sulfate, with potential sources being long-range transport and, more locally, the Amundsen's emissions. Despite attempts to minimize the influence of ship stack emissions, evidence from larger-sized particles demonstrates a contribution from local pollution. A comparison of δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols was used to show that gas-to-particle conversion likely occurred during most sampling periods. δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols were similar, suggesting the same source for SO2 and aerosol sulfate, except for two samples with a relatively high anthropogenic fraction in particles Arctic Ocean during the productive summer months.

  7. Anthropogenic and Natural Changes in the Climate of China: Can we Separate Them ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes result from all forces, natural and anthropogenic. Among various anthropogenic factors, greenhouse gases, aerosol and urbanization are arguably the most significant ones whose effects are often hard to differentiate, as they often intertwined together. It is, however, extremely, important to separate their effects for the sake of both science (e.g. accounting for them in GCMs) and for making sound policy in light of their diverse implications. Few places in the world are more affected by all three factors than China where decades of fast development have drastically altered atmospheric and terrestrial environment with huge greenhouse emissions. Such changes have left deep footprints in the climate system. While the anthropogenic impact is substantial, it is a nontrivial task to detangle them. In this talk, I will present a pilot study showing how changes in temperature and precipitation are linked with these factors with a particular focus on temperature and precipitation. From their long-term observations, we are able to see the contributions of increasing air pollution to mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, and rainfall of varying intensity from drizzle to thunderstorms. By means of analysis of long-term meteorological records and model simulations, we have tried to differentiate natural and anthropogenic changes in the climate of China.

  8. 复合污染条件下石油烃在扇贝体内的积累状况%Accumulation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Chlamys Farreri Exposed to Combined Pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱萍; 马兆虎; 姜雪梅; 刘伟; 柳瑞翠

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory simulating accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in Chlamys farreri is studied. Experiments of single petroleum hydrocarbon pollution and combined pollution of petroleum hydrocarbon-heavy metal Cd-Pb are conducted. The results show that the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in Chlamys farreri, compared with 0. 6 mg/L of single petroleum hydrocarbon pollution, increases in all three experiments; combining petroleum hydrocarbon with Cd, petroleum hydrocarbon with Pb, petroleum hydrocarbon with Cd and Pb. It also shows that the accumulation is significantly promoted when concentration of Cd and Pb are 0.05mg/L and 0.50mg/L respectively, or 0.03 mg/L Cd is combined with 0. 15mg/L Pb.%采用室内模拟天然海水养殖栉孔扇贝方法,通过石油烃单一污染实验与石油烃、Cd、Pb复合污染实验结果对比,探讨石油烃与重金属Cd、Pb复合污染下石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累状况.结果表明:石油烃与不同种类及浓度的重金属复合污染条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累状况有很大差异.与0.6 mg/L的石油烃单一污染相比较,石油烃-Cd、石油烃-Pb、石油烃-Cd -Pb的3种不同复合污染实验条件下,石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累量都增大,说明实验设置浓度的Cd、Pb及其组合都促进了石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累,但0.05 mg/L的Cd、0.50 mg/L的Pb以及0.03 mg/L的Cd +0.15mg/L的Pb组合3种情形更有利于促进石油烃在栉孔扇贝体内的积累.

  9. Quantifying the Anthropogenic Footprint in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunlei; Dou, Youjun

    2016-04-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one of the most focuses in urban climate study. The parameterization of the anthropogenic heat (AH) is crucial important in UHI study, but universal method to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH is lacking now. This paper uses the NOAA DMSP/OLS nighttime light data to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH. Two experiments were designed and performed to quantify the influences of the AH to land surface temperature (LST) in eastern China and 24 big cities. The annual mean heating caused by AH is up to 1 K in eastern China. This paper uses the relative LST differences rather than the absolute LST differences between the control run and contrast run of common land model (CoLM) to find the drivers. The heating effect of the anthropogenic footprint has less influence on relatively warm and wet cities.

  10. Biomarkers of marine pollution and bioremediation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    species of marine organisms and their bio-magnification across the food chain leading to serious threat to human health. In recent years, levels of contaminants in the marine environment have increased to a large extent as a consequence of vari- ous... anthropogenic activities. Most of the coastal areas around the world are reported to be damaged due to pol- lution, significantly affecting marine resources. In view of the stringent situation caused by marine pollution there is an urgent need of the hour...

  11. Field Application of Modified In Situ Soil Flushing in Combination with Air Sparging at a Military Site Polluted by Diesel and Gasoline in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the full-scale operation of soil flushing with air sparging to improve the removal efficiency of petroleum at depths of less than 7 m at a military site in Korea was evaluated. The target area was polluted by multiple gasoline and diesel fuel sources. The soil was composed of heterogeneous layers of granules, sand, silt and clay. The operation factors were systemically assessed using a column test and a pilot study before running the full-scale process at the site. The discharged TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes concentrations in the water were highest at 20 min and at a rate of 350 L/min, which was selected as the volume of air for the full-scale operation in the pilot air sparging test. The surfactant-aid condition was 1.4 times more efficient than the non-surfactant condition in the serial operations of modified soil flushing followed by air sparging. The hydraulic conductivity (3.13 × 10−3 cm/s increased 4.7 times after the serial operation of both processes relative to the existing condition (6.61 × 10−4 cm/s. The removal efficiencies of TPH were 52.8%, 57.4%, and 61.8% for the soil layers at 6 to 7, 7 to 8 and 8 to 9 m, respectively. Therefore, the TPH removal was improved at depth of less than 7 m by using this modified remediation system. The removal efficiencies for the areas with TPH and BTEX concentrations of more than 500 and 80 mg/kg, were 55.5% and 92.9%, respectively, at a pore volume of 2.9. The total TPH and BTEX mass removed during the full-scale operation was 5109 and 752 kg, respectively.

  12. Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

  13. Potential climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols act as part of the climate system through their influence on solar and terrestrial radiation. The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on the reduction of visibility is explored in this chapter. Elemental carbon has been identified as the most effective visibility-reducing species. Most of the visibility reduction is due to particles with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm. Studies indicate that sulfate is also a very important aerosol species that results in low visibility and high turbidity. Radiative properties such as aerosol single-scattering albedo values and absorption-to-backscatter ratios purported to produce warming or cooling effects of aerosols are discussed. It is concluded that aerosol clouds have a tendency to cool when they are over a low-albedo surface and have a tendency to warm when they are over high-albedo surfaces such as snow. Anthropogenic aerosols have a tendency to warm the earth's atmospheric system, based on calculations and assumed aerosol optical properties. However, this effect is somewhat offset by the absorption and re-emission into space of infrared terrestrial radiation. The net effect depends on the ratio of the absorption coefficients in the visible and infrared and also on the surface albedo. The effects on infrared radiation are documented for two anthropogenic aerosol sources in the United States, the Denver metropolitan area and power plant plumes in New Mexico, through calculations and measurements. Measured cooling rates within an aerosol plume are not sufficient to offset the warming rate due to absorption of short-wave radiation. Research indicates that anthropogenic aerosols can possibly cause local-scale warming of the atmosphere, but global-scale climatic effects remain an open question

  14. The topographic signature of anthropogenic geomorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, P.; Sofia, G.

    2014-12-01

    Within an abiotic-dominated context, geomorphologic patterns and dynamics are single expressions of trade-offs between the physical resistance forces, and the mechanical and chemical forces related to climate and erosion. Recently, however, it has become essential for the geomorphological community to take into account also biota as a fundamental geomorphologic agent acting from local to regional scales. However, while there is a recent flourishing literature about the impacts of vegetation on geomorphic processes, the study of anthropogenic pressure on geomorphology is still at its early stages. Humans are indeed among the most prominent geomorphic agents, redistributing land surface, and causing drastic changes to the geomorphic organization of the landscape (e.g. intensive agriculture, urbanization), with direct consequences on land degradation and watershed response. The reconstruction or identification of artificial or anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the context of the Anthropocene epoch. High-resolution topographic data derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, SAR, SfM), offer now new opportunities to recognize better understand geomorphic processes from topographic signatures, especially in engineered landscapes where the direct anthropic alteration of processes is significant. It is possible indeed to better recognize human-induced geomorphic and anthropogenic features (e.g. road networks, agricultural terraces), and the connected erosion. The study presented here may allow improved understanding and targeted mitigation of the processes driving geomorphic changes during urban development and help guide future research directions for development-based watershed studies. Human society is deeply affecting the environment with consequences on the landscape. It is therefore fundamental to establish greater management control over the Earth

  15. Removal of Mutagenic Organic Pollutants from Drinking Water by Combined Reverse Osmosis%反渗透组合工艺去除水中致突变有机物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍园; 姜兆春; 贾智萍; 李予江

    2001-01-01

    Using CODMn and Ames test as evaluation index,the reverse osmosisbase d process for drinking water treatment was studied on removal of mutagenic organ ic pollutants from tap water.The study results show that the activated carbon un it in the process can remove about 50% of organic pollutants,but the attenuation of tap water mutagenicity is poor.The reverse osmosis unit can remove organic p ollutants and attenuate mutagenicity simultaneously.This combined process is fea sible for providing safe potable water with good quality.%以高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)和Ames试验为评价指标,研究了以反渗透为主的组合工艺对自来水中致突变性有机物的去除效果。试验表明,组合工艺中的活性炭单元可以去除自来水中约50%的有机污染物,但对自来水的致突变性没有明显改善;反渗透膜单元能达到同时去除有机污染物和改善自来水致突变性的效果。此工艺是获得安全优质饮用水的一种可行办法。

  16. Insights into a historic severe haze event in Shanghai: synoptic situation, boundary layer and pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Chunpeng; Duan, Junyan; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Hefeng; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Yanyu; Li, Xiang; Kong, Lingdong; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Renjian; Cheng, Tiantao; Zha, Shuping; Yu, Xingna

    2016-07-01

    A historic haze event, characterized by lengthy, large-scale and severe pollution, occurred in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China from 1 to 10 December 2013. This haze event significantly influenced air quality throughout the region, especially in urban areas. Aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties were measured in Shanghai. Sometimes the 1 h average particle concentration (e.g., PM2.5) exceeded 600 µg m-3. Inorganic water-soluble ions in particles, trace gases and aerosol optical coefficients had a similar tendency to increase evidently from clear to hazy episodes. A combination of various factors contributed to the formation and evolution of the haze event, among which meteorological conditions, local anthropogenic emissions and pollutants are the major factors. High pressure system, calm surface wind and subsidence airflow were responsible for the decrease of planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the accumulation of pollutants. Atmospheric visibility correlated strongly with relative humidity (RH), particle number in size of 600-1400 nm other than particulate water-soluble species and particle mass (PM2.5). The particle hygroscopicity plays an important role in atmospheric visibility reduction. The results are somewhat helpful to forecast and eliminate regional atmospheric pollution in China.

  17. Acceleration of oxygen decline in the tropical Pacific over the past decades by aerosol pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Nenes, A.; Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Deutsch, C.

    2016-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen in the mid-depth tropical Pacific Ocean has declined in the past several decades. The resulting expansion of the oxygen minimum zone has consequences for the region's ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles, but the causes of the oxygen decline are not yet fully understood. Here we combine models of atmospheric chemistry, ocean circulation and biogeochemical cycling to test the hypothesis that atmospheric pollution over the Pacific Ocean contributed to the redistribution of oxygen in deeper waters. We simulate the pollution-induced enhancement of atmospheric soluble iron and fixed nitrogen deposition, as well as its impacts on ocean productivity and biogeochemical cycling for the late twentieth century. The model reproduces the magnitude and large-scale pattern of the observed oxygen changes from the 1970s to the 1990s, and the sensitivity experiments reveal the reinforcing effects of pollution-enhanced iron deposition and natural climate variability. Despite the aerosol deposition being the largest in mid-latitudes, its effect on oceanic oxygen is most pronounced in the tropics, where ocean circulation transports added iron to the tropics, leading to an increased regional productivity, respiration and subsurface oxygen depletion. These results suggest that anthropogenic pollution can interact and amplify climate-driven impacts on ocean biogeochemistry, even in remote ocean biomes.

  18. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  19. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  20. Anthropogenic and geogenic impacts on arsenic bioaccessibility in UK topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Cave, M R; Wragg, J

    2012-10-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible arsenic (B-As) and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed in order to assess the potential for developing a national B-As dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total arsenic (As) is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating B-As in urban areas where it explains 75-92% of the variance. The broad compatibility of the London, Glasgow and Swansea regression models suggests that application of these models to estimate bioaccessible As in UK soils impacted by diffuse anthropogenic urban contamination and non-ferrous metal processing should be relatively accurate. In areas dominated by Jurassic ironstones and associated clays and limestones, total As, P and pH are significant, accounting for 53, 14 and 5%, respectively, of the B-As variance. Models based on total As as the sole predictor in the combined Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary ironstones datasets explain about 40% of the B-As variance. The median As bioaccessible fraction (%As-BAF) is 19 to 28% in the anthropogenic contamination impacted urban domains, but much lower (5-9%) in geogenic terrains dominated by ironstones. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. PMID:22842593

  1. Anthropogenic carbon release rate unprecedented during past 66 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon release rates from anthropogenic sources have reached a record high of about 10 Pg C/y in 2013. However, due to uncertainties in the strength of climate system feedbacks, the full impact of the rapid carbon release on the Earth system is difficult to predict with confidence. Geologic analogues from past transient climate changes could provide invaluable constraints but only if the associated carbon release rates can be reliably reconstructed. We present a new technique - based on combined data-model analysis - to extract rates of change from the geological record, without the need for a stratigraphic age model. Given currently available records, we then show that the present anthropogenic carbon release rate is unprecedented during the Cenozoic (past 66 million years) by at least an order of magnitude. Our results have important implications for our ability to use past analogues to predict future changes, including constraints on climate sensitivity, ocean acidification, and impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, the fact that we have effectively entered an era of 'no analogue' state presents fundamental challenges to constraining forward modeling. Furthermore, future ecosystem disruptions will likely exceed the relatively limited extinctions observed during climate aberrations throughout the Cenozoic.

  2. Change in diurnal variations of meteorological variables induced by anthropogenic aerosols over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meigen; Gao, Yi; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Lili

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the impacts of all anthropogenic aerosols and anthropogenic black carbon (BC) on the diurnal variations of meteorological variables in the atmospheric boundary layer over the North China Plain (NCP) during June to August 2008, using a coupled meteorology and chemistry model (WRF-Chem). The results of the ensemble numerical experiments show that surface air temperature decreases by about 0.6 to 1.2 K with the maximum decrease over the Beijing urban area and the southern part of Hebei province, and the surface relative humidity (RH) increases by 2-4 % owing to all anthropogenic aerosols. On the contrary, anthropogenic BC induces a small change of temperature and RH at surface. Averaged for Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei province (BTH region) and High Particle Concentration (HPC) periods when PM2.5 surface concentration is more than 60 μg m-3 and daily AOD is more than 0.9, all anthropogenic aerosols decrease air temperature under 850 hPa and increase it between 500 and 850 hPa, while anthropogenic BC increases it for whole atmosphere. The maximum changes occur at 08:00-20:00 (local time). Aerosol-induced surface energy and diabatic heating change leads to a cooling at the surface and in the lower atmosphere and a warming in the middle troposphere at 08:00-17:00, with reversed effects at 20:00-05:00. BC cools the atmosphere at the surface and warms the atmosphere above for the whole day. As a result, the equivalent potential temperature profile change shows that the lower atmosphere is more stable at 08:00 and 14:00. All anthropogenic aerosols decrease the surface wind speed by 20-60 %, while anthropogenic BC decreases the wind speed by 10-40 % over the NCP with the maximum decrease at 08:00. The aerosol-induced stabilization of the lower atmosphere favors the accumulation of air pollutants and thus contributes to deterioration of visibility and fog-haze events.

  3. Change in diurnal variations of meteorological variables induced by anthropogenic aerosols over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meigen; Gao, Yi; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Lili

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the impacts of all anthropogenic aerosols and anthropogenic black carbon (BC) on the diurnal variations of meteorological variables in the atmospheric boundary layer over the North China Plain (NCP) during June to August 2008, using a coupled meteorology and chemistry model (WRF-Chem). The results of the ensemble numerical experiments show that surface air temperature decreases by about 0.6 to 1.2 K with the maximum decrease over the Beijing urban area and the southern part of Hebei province, and the surface relative humidity (RH) increases by 2-4 % owing to all anthropogenic aerosols. On the contrary, anthropogenic BC induces a small change of temperature and RH at surface. Averaged for Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei province (BTH region) and High Particle Concentration (HPC) periods when PM2.5 surface concentration is more than 60 μg m‑3 and daily AOD is more than 0.9, all anthropogenic aerosols decrease air temperature under 850 hPa and increase it between 500 and 850 hPa, while anthropogenic BC increases it for whole atmosphere. The maximum changes occur at 08:00-20:00 (local time). Aerosol-induced surface energy and diabatic heating change leads to a cooling at the surface and in the lower atmosphere and a warming in the middle troposphere at 08:00-17:00, with reversed effects at 20:00-05:00. BC cools the atmosphere at the surface and warms the atmosphere above for the whole day. As a result, the equivalent potential temperature profile change shows that the lower atmosphere is more stable at 08:00 and 14:00. All anthropogenic aerosols decrease the surface wind speed by 20-60 %, while anthropogenic BC decreases the wind speed by 10-40 % over the NCP with the maximum decrease at 08:00. The aerosol-induced stabilization of the lower atmosphere favors the accumulation of air pollutants and thus contributes to deterioration of visibility and fog-haze events.

  4. Future trends of global atmospheric antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities until 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junrui; Tian, Hezhong; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Yong; Xue, Yifeng; Hua, Shenbin; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the scenario forecast of global atmospheric antimony (Sb) emissions from anthropogenic activities till 2050. The projection scenarios are built based on the comprehensive global antimony emission inventory for the period 1995-2010 which is reported in our previous study. Three scenarios are set up to investigate the future changes of global antimony emissions as well as their source and region contribution characteristics. Trends of activity levels specified as 5 primary source categories are projected by combining the historical trend extrapolation with EIA International energy outlook 2013, while the source-specific dynamic emission factors are determined by applying transformed normal distribution functions. If no major changes in the efficiency of emission control are introduced and keep current air quality legislations (Current Legislation scenario), global antimony emissions will increase by a factor of 2 between 2010 and 2050. The largest increase in Sb emissions is projected from Asia due to large volume of nonferrous metals production and waste incineration. In case of enforcing the pollutant emission standards (Strengthened Control scenario), global antimony emissions in 2050 will stabilize with that of 2010. Moreover, we can anticipate further declines in Sb emissions for all continents with the best emission control performances (Maximum Feasible Technological Reduction scenario). Future antimony emissions from the top 10 largest emitting countries have also been calculated and source category contributions of increasing emissions of these countries present significant diversity. Furthermore, global emission projections in 2050 are distributed within a 1° × 1°latitude/longitude grid. East Asia, Western Europe and North America present remarkable differences in emission intensity under the three scenarios, which implies that source-and-country specific control measures are necessary to be implemented for abating Sb emissions from

  5. Inter-annual variability of air pollutants over East Asia: an integrated analysis using satellite, lidar and numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumimoto, K.; Uno, I.; Kuribayashi, M.; Miyazaki, K.; Nishizawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in East Asia has a drastic temporal and spatial variability. The rapid economic growth in the last three decades enhanced the increase of anthropogenic emission of air pollutions, and caused deterioration of the air quality in both source and downwind regions. The unprecedented heavy PM­2.5 pollution over the central China in January 2013 records the maximum PM2.5 concentration of 996 μg/m3 and raised critical environmental issues (e.g., mortality, human health, social activity and trans-boundary transport, etc.). Recently, efforts to reduce anthropogenic emissions (e.g., emission regulations and improvements of emission factors and removal efficiencies) decelerate their growth rates. In fact, Asian SO2 emission is estimated to be reducing from 2007 [Kurokawa et al., 2013]. However, growth rates other pollutant emissions (e.g., NOx and PM10) still remain in high. To understand the life cycle of pollutants (emission, transport, reaction and deposition) and their temporal and spatial variation, an integrated analysis using observation and numerical model (chemical transport model; CTM) is useful. In this study, we installed a comprehensive observation operator system, which converts model results into observed variables, into the GEOS-Chem CTM. A long-term (2005-2013) full-chemistry simulation over East Asia was performed, and simulation results are translated to tropospheric NO2 and SO2 columns and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient equivalent to satellite measurements and in-situ lidar network observations. Combining CTM and observations, and integrating analyses of aerosols over the downwind region and their precursors over the source region will provide important insights into temporal and spatial variation of air pollutants over East Asia.

  6. Modeling study on the transport of summer dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP is located at the juncture of several important natural and anthropogenic aerosol sources. Satellites have observed substantial dust and anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere during summer over the TP. These aerosols have distinct effects on the earth's energy balance, microphysical cloud properties, and precipitation rates. To investigate the transport of summer dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the TP, we combined the Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS with a non-hydrostatic regional model (NHM. The model simulation shows heavily loaded dust aerosols over the northern slope and anthropogenic aerosols over the southern slope and to the east of the TP. The dust aerosols are primarily mobilized around the Taklimakan Desert, where a portion of the aerosols are transported eastward due to the northwesterly current; simultaneously, a portion of the particles are transported northward when a second northwesterly current becomes northeasterly because of the topographic blocking of the northern slope of the TP. Because of the strong upward current, dust plumes can extend upward to approximately 7–8 km a.s.l. over the northern slope of the TP. When a dust event occurs, anthropogenic aerosols that entrain into the southwesterly current via the Indian summer monsoon are transported from India to the southern slope of the TP. Simultaneously, a large amount of anthropogenic aerosols is also transported from eastern China to east of the TP by easterly winds. An investigation on the transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the plateau may provide the basis for determining aerosol impacts on summer monsoons and climate systems.

  7. Modeling study on the transport of summer dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Sato, Y.; Jia, R.; Xie, Y.; Huang, J.; Nakajima, T.

    2015-11-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is located at the juncture of several important natural and anthropogenic aerosol sources. Satellites have observed substantial dust and anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere during summer over the TP. These aerosols have distinct effects on the earth's energy balance, microphysical cloud properties, and precipitation rates. To investigate the transport of summer dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the TP, we combined the Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS) with a non-hydrostatic regional model (NHM). The model simulation shows heavily loaded dust aerosols over the northern slope and anthropogenic aerosols over the southern slope and the east of the TP. The dust aerosols are primarily mobilized around the Taklimakan Desert, where a portion of the aerosols are transported eastward due to the northwesterly current; simultaneously, a portion of the particles are transported southward when a second northwesterly current becomes northeasterly because of the topographic blocking of the northern slope of the TP. Because of the strong upward current, dust plumes can extend upward to approximately 7-8 km a.s.l. over the northern slope of the TP. When a dust event occurs, anthropogenic aerosols that entrained into the southwesterly current via the Indian summer monsoon are transported from India to the southern slope of the TP. Simultaneously, a large amount of anthropogenic aerosol is also transported from eastern China to the east of the TP by easterly winds. An investigation on the transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols over the plateau may provide the basis for determining aerosol impacts on summer monsoons and climate systems.

  8. Anthropogenic features and hillslope processes interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Topography emerges as a result of natural driving forces, but some human activities (such as mining, agricultural practices and the construction of road networks) directly or indirectly move large quantities of soil, which leave clear topographic signatures embedded on the Earth's morphology. These signatures can cause drastic changes to the geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes (Tarolli and Sofia, 2016). To this point, the present research investigates few case studies highlighting the influences of anthropogenic topographic signatures on hillslope processes, and it shows the effectiveness of High-Resolution Topography (HRT) derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, satellite, structure from motion photogrammetry), to better understand this interaction. The first example is related to agricultural terraces. In recent times, terraced areas acquired a new relevance to modern concerns about erosion and land instability, being the agricultural land mostly threatened by abandonment or intensification and specialization of agriculture, resulting in more landslide-prone bench terraces, or heavy land levelling with increased erosion. The second case study discusses about the role of agricultural and forest roads on surface erosion and landslides. The third case study investigates geomorphic processes in an open pit mine. In all case studies, HRT served as the basis for the development of new methodologies able to recognize and analyze changes on Earth surface processes along hillslopes. The results show how anthropogenic elements have crucial effects on sediment production and sediment delivery, also influencing the landscape connectivity. The availability of HRT can improve our ability to actually model anthropogenic morphologies, quantify them, and analyse the links between anthropogenic elements and geomorphic processes. The results presented here, and the creation and dissemination of

  9. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice on anthropogenic organic particles collected in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, D.A.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Moffet, R.C.; Gilles, M.K.

    2010-06-20

    This study reports on heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of predominantly organic (or coated with organic material) anthropogenic particles sampled within and around the polluted environment of Mexico City. The onset of heterogeneous ice nucleation was observed as a function of particle temperature (Tp), relative humidity (RH), nucleation mode, and particle chemical composition which is influenced by photochemical atmospheric aging. Particle analyses included computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). In contrast to most laboratory studies employing proxies of organic aerosol, we show that anthropogenic organic particles collected in Mexico City can potentially induce ice nucleation at experimental conditions relevant to cirrus formation. The results suggest a new precedent for the potential impact of organic particles on ice cloud formation and climate.

  10. Anthropogenic iodine-129 in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas: Numerical modeling and prognoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model simulation has been used to predict extent and variability in the anthropogenic 129I pollution in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas region over a period of 100 years. The source function of 129I used in the model is represented by a well-known history of discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague nuclear reprocessing facilities. The simulations suggest a fast transport and large inventory of the anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. In a fictitious case of abrupt stop of the discharges, a rapid decline of inventories is observed in all compartments except the North Atlantic Ocean, the deep Nordic Seas and the deep Arctic Ocean. Within 15 years after the stop of releases, the model prediction indicates that near-equilibrium conditions are reached in all compartments

  11. Analysis and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal in Soil, Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were studied in the soils around Perlis, to assess heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm in eighteen station around Perlis. The soil samples (2 mm) were obtained duplicates and subjected to hot block digestion and the concentration of total metal was determined via ICP-MS. Overall concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the soil samples ranged from 0.38-240.59, 0.642-3.921, 0.689-2.398, 0-0.63 and 0.39-27.47 mg/ kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil display the following decreasing trend: Cu> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. From this result, found that level of heavy metal in soil near centralized Chuping industrial areas give maximum value compared with other location in Perlis. The Pollution index revealed that only 11 % of Cu and 6 % of Cd were classes as heavily contaminated. Meanwhile, Cu and Pb showed 6 % from all samples result a moderately contaminated and the others element give low contamination. Results of combined heavy metal concentration and heavy metal assessment indicate that industrial activities and traffic emission represent most important sources for Cu, Cd and Pb whereas Cr, Ni mainly from natural sources. Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially pollution loadings, have caused negative changes in natural ecosystems and decreased biodiversity. (author)

  12. Hybrid technologies for the remediation of Diesel fuel polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Alcantara, M.T.; Rosales, E.; Sanroman, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Diesel fuel may be released into soil due to anthropogenic activities, such as accidental spills or leaks in underground storage tanks or pipelines. Since diesel fuel is mainly composed of hydrophobic organic compounds, it has low water solubility. Therefore, treating contaminated areas with conventional techniques is difficult. In this study, electrokinetic treatment of soil contaminated with diesel fuel was carried out. Two different hybrid approaches to pollutant removal were tested. A surfactant was used as a processing fluid during electrokinetic treatment to increase desorption and the solubility of diesel fuel. Additionally, a hybrid technology combining a Fenton reaction and electrokinetic remediation (EK-Fenton) was tested in an attempt to generate favorable in situ degradation of pollutants. The efficiency of each treatment was determined based on diesel fuel removal. After 30 days of treatment, the highest removal of diesel fuel was found to be achieved with the EK-Fenton process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Characterizing the influence of anthropogenic emissions and transport variability on sulfate aerosol concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lauren E.

    Sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere has substantial impacts on human health and environmental quality. Most notably, atmospheric sulfate has the potential to modify the earth's climate system through both direct and indirect radiative forcing mechanisms (Meehl et al., 2007). Emissions of sulfur dioxide, the primary precursor of sulfate aerosol, are now globally dominated by anthropogenic sources as a result of widespread fossil fuel combustion. Economic development in Asian countries since 1990 has contributed considerably to atmospheric sulfur loading, particularly China, which currently emits approximately 1/3 of global anthropogenic SO2 (Klimont et al., 2013). Observational and modeling studies have confirmed that anthropogenic pollutants from Asian sources can be transported long distances with important implications for future air quality and global climate change. Located in the remote Pacific Ocean (19.54°N, 155.58°W) at an elevation of 3.4 kilometers above sea level, Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is an ideal measurement site for ground-based, free tropospheric observations and is well situated to experience influence from springtime Asian outflow. This study makes use of a 14-year data set of aerosol ionic composition, obtained at MLO by the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Daily filter samples of total aerosol concentrations were made during nighttime downslope (free-tropospheric) transport conditions, from 1995 to 2008, and were analyzed for aerosol-phase concentrations of the following species: nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), methanesulfonate (MSA), chloride (Cl-), oxalate, sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH 4+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg 2+), and calcium (Ca2+). An understanding of the factors controlling seasonal and interannual variations in aerosol speciation and concentrations at this site is complicated by the relatively short lifetimes of aerosols, compared with greenhouse gases which have also been sampled over long time periods at MLO. Aerosol filter

  14. Copper Corrosion by Atmospheric Pollutants in the Electronics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Valdez Salas; Michael Schorr Wiener; Roumen Zlatev Koytchev; Gustavo López Badilla; Rogelio Ramos Irigoyen; Monica Carrillo Beltrán; Nicola Radnev Nedev; Mario Curiel Alvarez; Navor Rosas Gonzalez; Jose María Bastidas Rull

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is considered one of the most corrosive atmospheric pollutants. It is a weak, diprotic, reducing acid, readily soluble in water and dispersed into the air by winds when emitted from natural, industrial, and anthropogenic sources. It is a pollutant with a high level of toxicity impairing human health and the environment quality. It attacks copper forming thin films of metallic sulphides or dendrite whiskers, which are cathodic to the metal substrate, enhancing corrosion...

  15. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; S. C. Obiora

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  16. Influence of air pollution to physiological charcteristics by plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Komůrková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    The atmosphere is polluted since the very beginning, firstly by action of natural processes and later by anthropogenic influences. Mainly the coming of industrial revolution in 19th century man started to exhale into atmosphere enormous amount of pollutants by combustion of fossil fuels. Soon, he began to observer the consequences of that not only on himself, but also on plants, on which he was dependent. The light is next important factor of stress. It is integral part of photosynthesis a...

  17. Pollution in the Summertime Canadian High Arctic observed during NETCARE 2014: Investigation of origin and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The clean and sensitive Arctic atmosphere is influenced by transport of air masses from lower latitudes that bring pollution in the form of aerosol particles and trace gases into the Arctic regions. However, the transport processes causing such pollution events are yet not sufficiently well understood. Here we report on results from the aircraft campaign NETCARE 2014 that took place in July 2014 in Resolute Bay, Nunavut (Canada) as part of the "Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environment" (NETCARE). These airborne measurements add to only a very few of such measurements conducted in the Arctic during the summertime. The instrumentation on board the research aircraft Polar 6 (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) included a large set of physico-chemical aerosol analysis instruments, several trace gas measurements and basic meteorological parameters. Here we focus on observed pollution events that caused elevated trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the summertime Canadian High Arctic between 50 and 3500 m. In order to better understand the chemical composition and the origin of those polluted air masses, we use single particle aerosol composition obtained using the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA), combined with aerosol size distributions and number concentrations from an Optical Particle Counter as well as trace gas measurements of CO and CO2. CO and CO2 are important tracers to study pollution events, which are connected to anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic combustion processes, respectively biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. The ALABAMA provides a detailed single particle aerosol composition analysis from which we identify different particle types like soot-, biomass burning-, organics-, diesel exhaust- and metallic particles. The measurements were compared to Lagrangian models like FLEXPART and LAGRANTO to find the pollution sources

  18. 镉和乙草胺单一及复合污染对浮萍生长的影响%Effects of Single and Combined Pollution of Cadmium and Acetochlor on the Growth of Lemna minor L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄河; 姜萍萍

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究镉和乙草胺单一及复合污染对浮萍生长的影响.[方法]采用室内培养的方法,研究了镉和乙草胺单一及复合污染对浮萍生物量(鲜重)、叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量、游离脯氨酸含量和丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响.[结果]在镉和乙草胺单一及复合污染条件下,浮萍的鲜重和叶绿素含量在处理后第5天显著下降,且随处理时间的延长,下降趋势更明显;可溶性糖含量在处理后第5天增加近29%,但在处理后第10和15天,随处理浓度的增加可溶性糖含量下降了近23%和28%;而脯氨酸和丙二醛含量随处理浓度的增加而显著增加.[结论]复合污染加剧了对浮萍的毒害作用.%[Objective ] The aim was to study the effects of cadmium ( Cd ) and acetochlor ( AC ) on Lemna minar L. Growth. [ Method ] Hydroponics culture experiments were conducted with Lemna minar L. In room, the single and joint toxic effects of cadmium and acetochlor on the biomass (fresh weight) , chlorophyll, soluble sugar, free praline, and malondialdehyde( MDA) contents in the leaves of Lemna minor L. Were studied. [ Result] The results showed that under the condition of single and combined pollution,the biomass were decreased significantly as compared to the control after 5 days treatment,and decreased more significantly with the time; the soluble sugar content increased by 29% after 5 days treatment,but then decreased by 23% and 28% .after 10 days and 15 days treatment respectively. The free proline and MDA content were increased significantly with the concentration. [ Conclusion] The results showed shown that the effects of combined pollution were heavier than those of single pollution.

  19. Direct Radiative Forcing of Anthropogenic Aerosols over Oceans from Satellite Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; SHI Guangyu; QIN Shiguang; YANG Su; ZHANG Peng

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols play an important role in the atmospheric energy balance. Anthropogenic aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its accompanying shortwave radiative forcing (RF) are usually simulated by numerical models. Recently, with the development of space-borne instruments and sophisticated retrieval algorithms, it has become possible to estimate aerosol radiative forcing based on satellite observations. In this study, we have estimated shortwave direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols over oceans in all-sky conditions by combining clouds and the Single Scanner Footprint data of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES/SSF) experiment, which provide measurements of upward shortwave fluxes at the top of atmosphere, with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol and cloud products. We found that globally averaged aerosol radiative forcing over oceans in the clear-sky conditions and all-sky conditions were -1.03±0.48 W m-2 and -0.34 ±0.16 W m-2, respectively. Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols shows large regional and seasonal variations. In some regions and in particular seasons, the magnitude of direct forcing by anthropogenic aerosols can be comparable to the forcing of greenhouse gases. However, it shows that aerosols caused the cooling effect, rather than warming effect from global scale, which is different from greenhouse gases.

  20. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  1. Numerical simulations examining the possible role of anthropogenic and volcanic emissions during the 1997 Indonesian fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Langmann, Bärbel; Heil, Angelika; Graf, Hans-F

    2012-09-01

    The regional atmospheric chemistry and climate model REMOTE has been used to conduct numerical simulations of the atmosphere during the catastrophic Indonesian fires of 1997. These simulations represent one possible scenario of the event, utilizing the RETRO wildland fire emission database. Emissions from the fires dominate the atmospheric concentrations of O(3), CO, NO(2), and SO(2) creating many possible exceedances of the Indonesian air quality standards. The scenario described here suggests that urban anthropogenic emissions contributed to the poor air quality due primarily to the fires. The urban air pollution may have increased the total number of people exposed to exceedances of the O(3) 1-h standard by 17%. Secondary O(3) from anthropogenic emissions enhanced the conversion of SO(2) released by the fires to [Formula: see text], demonstrating that the urban pollution actively altered the atmospheric behavior and lifetime of the fire emissions. Under the conditions present during the fires, volcanic SO(2) emissions had a negligible influence on surface pollution. PMID:22942920

  2. River under anthropogenic stress: An isotope study of carbon cycling in the Vistula, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers play an important role in global carbon cycling as they transform and transport substantial amounts of carbon derived from the terrestrial systems to the oceans. Riverine carbon cycling is affected by anthropogenic influences on hydrology, chemistry and biology of the river and its catchment. The Vistula, one of the most mineralized rivers of the world, drains industrialized and agriculturally-used areas populated by almost 23 million inhabitants. Moreover, much of the industrial and domestic wastewaters discharged into the Vistula river are untreated or insufficiently treated. High levels of pollution have serious environmental and economical consequences. For example, they limit use of Vistula waters as a source of drinking water and for industrial purposes. Pollutants transported by the Vistula river significantly influence water quality far into the open Baltic Sea. The aim of the paper is to show how stable isotope techniques can be used to assess human impact on sources, fluxes and fate of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other pollutants in rivers, taking the Vistula river as an example. Vistula waters were sampled over a one-year period at Krakow (upper reaches), where the anthropogenic influences are at the extreme, and at the river mouth. Two campaigns were undertaken to sample the Vistula river along its course in summer and in autumn. Analyses of river water included temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon and stable isotope composition of water (δ18O and δ2H)

  3. Geophysical surveys combined with laboratory soil column experiments to identify and explore risk areas for soil and water pollution in feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Pérez, Antonio Jesus; Sainato, Claudia Mabel; Jairo Márquez-Molina, John; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Changes of land use without a correct planning may produce its deterioration with their social, economical and environmental irreversible consequences over short to medium time range. In Argentina, the expansion of soybean fields induced a reduction of the area of pastures dedicated to stockbreeding. As cattle activity is being progressively concentrated on small pens, at feedlots farms, problems of soil and water pollution, mainly by nitrate, have been detected. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content is very important because the mostly advective transport of solutes. To avoid intensive soil samplings, very expensive, one has to recur to geophysical exploration methods. The objective of this work was to identify risk areas within a feedlot of the NW zone of Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina through geophysical methods. The surveys were carried out with an electromagnetic induction profiler EMI-400 (GSSI) and a Time domain Reflectometry (TDR) survey of depth 0-0.10 m with soil sampling and measurement of moisture content with gravimetric method (0-1.0 m). Several trenches were dug inside the pens and also at a test site, where texture, apparent density, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract and organic matter content (OM) were measured. The water retention curves for these soils were also determined. At one of the pens undisturbed soil columns were extracted at 3 locations. Laboratory analysis for 0-1.0 m indicated that soil texture was classified as sandy loam, average organic matter content (OM) was greater than 2.3% with low values of apparent density in the first 10 cm. The range of spatial dependence of data suggested that the number of soil samples could be reduced. Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil moisture were well correlated and indicated a clear spatial pattern in the corrals. TDR performance was acceptable to identify the spatial

  4. Simulation of climate variability and anthropogenic climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic changes in the last century were discussed and focus was on the questions: 1) What are the causes of the rapid climate fluctuations and 2) Is the global warming, which is observed during the last century, caused by natural or anthropogenic effects. It is concluded that an understanding of climate based on the interpretation of observational data only is not feasible, unless supported by an adequate theoretical interpretation. The capabilities of climatic models were discussed and the importance of incorporating 1) calculations of the internal variability of the atmosphere when forced from an ocean with prescribed sea surface temperature as well as for a system consisting of an atmosphere and a mixed ocean of limited depth, 2) a fully coupled atmospheric and ocean model and finally, 3) a fully coupled system including transiently changing greenhouse gases and aerosols. A short summation of the results is presented. The pronounced warming during the last century is not reproduced under the assumption of constant forcing and pollution emissions have to be incorporated into the models in order to bring the simulated data in agreement with observations

  5. Anthropogenic phosphorus flow analysis of Hefei City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substance flow analysis (SFA) method was employed to examine phosphorus flow and its connection to water pollution in the city of Hefei, China, in 2008. As human activity is the driving force of phosphorus flux from the environment to the economy, the study provides a conceptual framework for analyzing an anthropogenic phosphorus cycle that includes four stages: extraction, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management. Estimates of phosphorus flow were based on existing data as well as field research, expert advice, local accounting systems, and literature. The total phosphorus input into Hefei in 2008 reached 7810 tons, mainly as phosphate ore, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, crops and animal products. Approximately 33% of the total phosphorus input left the area, and nearly 20% of that amount was discharged as waste to surface water. Effluent containing excessive fertilizer from farming operations plays an important role in phosphorus overloads onto surface water; the other major emission source is sewage discharge. We also provide suggestions for reducing phosphorus emissions, for example reducing fertilizer use, recycling farming residues, and changing human consumption patterns.

  6. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  7. Artificial breakwaters as garbage bins: Structural complexity enhances anthropogenic litter accumulation in marine intertidal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Broitman, Bernardo R; Thiel, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal urban infrastructures are proliferating across the world, but knowledge about their emergent impacts is still limited. Here, we provide evidence that urban artificial reefs have a high potential to accumulate the diverse forms of litter originating from anthropogenic activities around cities. We test the hypothesis that the structural complexity of urban breakwaters, when compared with adjacent natural rocky intertidal habitats, is a driver of anthropogenic litter accumulation. We determined litter abundances at seven sites (cities) and estimated the structural complexity in both urban breakwaters and adjacent natural habitats from northern to central Chile, spanning a latitudinal gradient of ∼15° (18°S to 33°S). Anthropogenic litter density was significantly higher in coastal breakwaters when compared to natural habitats (∼15.1 items m(-2) on artificial reefs versus 7.4 items m(-2) in natural habitats) at all study sites, a pattern that was temporally persistent. Different litter categories were more abundant on the artificial reefs than in natural habitats, with local human population density and breakwater extension contributing to increase the probabilities of litter occurrence by ∼10%. In addition, structural complexity was about two-fold higher on artificial reefs, with anthropogenic litter density being highest at intermediate levels of structural complexity. Therefore, the spatial structure characteristic of artificial reefs seems to enhance anthropogenic litter accumulation, also leading to higher residence time and degradation potential. Our study highlights the interaction between coastal urban habitat modification by establishment of artificial reefs, and pollution. This emergent phenomenon is an important issue to be considered in future management plans and the engineering of coastal ecosystems.

  8. Artificial breakwaters as garbage bins: Structural complexity enhances anthropogenic litter accumulation in marine intertidal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Broitman, Bernardo R; Thiel, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal urban infrastructures are proliferating across the world, but knowledge about their emergent impacts is still limited. Here, we provide evidence that urban artificial reefs have a high potential to accumulate the diverse forms of litter originating from anthropogenic activities around cities. We test the hypothesis that the structural complexity of urban breakwaters, when compared with adjacent natural rocky intertidal habitats, is a driver of anthropogenic litter accumulation. We determined litter abundances at seven sites (cities) and estimated the structural complexity in both urban breakwaters and adjacent natural habitats from northern to central Chile, spanning a latitudinal gradient of ∼15° (18°S to 33°S). Anthropogenic litter density was significantly higher in coastal breakwaters when compared to natural habitats (∼15.1 items m(-2) on artificial reefs versus 7.4 items m(-2) in natural habitats) at all study sites, a pattern that was temporally persistent. Different litter categories were more abundant on the artificial reefs than in natural habitats, with local human population density and breakwater extension contributing to increase the probabilities of litter occurrence by ∼10%. In addition, structural complexity was about two-fold higher on artificial reefs, with anthropogenic litter density being highest at intermediate levels of structural complexity. Therefore, the spatial structure characteristic of artificial reefs seems to enhance anthropogenic litter accumulation, also leading to higher residence time and degradation potential. Our study highlights the interaction between coastal urban habitat modification by establishment of artificial reefs, and pollution. This emergent phenomenon is an important issue to be considered in future management plans and the engineering of coastal ecosystems. PMID:27149151

  9. Assessment of surface water pollutant models of estuaries and coastal zone of Quang Ninh – Hai Phong using Spot-5 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Luong Chinh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone and estuaries of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong have great potential not only for economic development but also for protection and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem. Nowadays, due to industrial, agricultural and anthropogenic activities signs of water pollution in the region have been found. The level of surface water pollution can be determined by traditional methods through observatory stations. However, a traditional approach to determine water contamination is discontinuous, and thereby makes pollution assessment of the entire estuary very difficult. Nowadays, remote sensing technology has been developed and widely applied in many fields, for instance, in monitoring water environments. Remote sensing data combined with information from in-situ observations allow for extraction of polluted components in water and accurate measurements of pollution level in the large regions ensuring objectivity. According to results obtained from Spot-5 imagery of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong, the extracted pollution components, like BOD, COD and TSS can be determined with the root mean square error, the absolute mean error and the absolute mean percentage error (%: ±4.37 (mg/l 3.86 (mg/l, 27%; ±55.32 (mg/l, 48.30 (mg/l, 14%; and ±32.90 (mg/l, 23.38 (mg/l, 28%; respectively. Obtained outcomes guarantee objectivity in assessing water contaminant levels in the investigated regions and show the advantages of remote sensing applications in Resource and Environmental Monitoring in relation to Water – Air – Land.

  10. Large gain in air quality compared to an alternative anthropogenic emissions scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-08-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistry-transport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the year-to-year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  11. Large Gain in Air Quality Compared to an Alternative Anthropogenic Emissions Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistrytransport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the yearto- year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  12. Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific

  13. Anthropogenic global warming threatens world cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny

    2014-05-01

    Numerous cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global warming and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034001). Projecting future sea level rise and associated regional variability, these authors investigate which sites will be at risk. Because UNESCO cultural sites represent the common heritage of human beings and reflect the Earth and humanity history, they need to be protected for future generations.

  14. Past and Future of the Anthropogenic Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2010-12-01

    Human populations and their use of land have now transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes). As anthromes have emerged as the dominant global forms of ecological pattern and process, human interactions with terrestrial ecosystems have become a key earth system process, determining the structure and functioning of the biosphere. This presentation explores Ester Boserup’s land use intensification theories as models for understanding the emergence and dynamics of anthromes and their ecological processes, including their biogeochemistry and community structure, from the mostly wild biosphere of the Holocene to the primarily anthropogenic biosphere of the present and future. Existing global models and data for human population growth and land use over the Holocene differ in their portrayal of the global transition to a mostly anthropogenic biosphere. Yet there is little doubt that human populations have continued to grow over the long term and that anthromes have been increasingly important global ecological systems for millennia. This is conclusive evidence that human interactions with ecosystems can be sustained over the long-term, albeit under conditions that may no longer be realizable by either Earth or human systems. The classic Malthusian paradigm, in which human population growth outstrips natural resources leading to population collapse is unsupported by historical observations at global scale. Boserupian intensification is the better model, providing a robust theoretical foundation in which socio-ecological systems evolve as human populations increase, towards increasingly efficient use of limiting natural resources and enhanced production of anthropogenic ecological services such as food. This is not a story of technical advance, but rather of the forced adoption of ever more energy-intensive technical solutions in support of ever increasing population demands. And it does explain historical changes in the biosphere

  15. Anthropogenic global warming threatens world cultural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    A. Cazenave

    2014-01-01

    1748-9326 Numerous cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global warming and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/034001] 034001 ). Projecti...

  16. Organic Contaminants in Riverine and Groundwater Systems: Aspects of the Anthropogenic Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, Jan

    This book summarizes a selection of organic-geochemical investigations, which deal with the characterization and environmental behaviour of organic contaminations of German river and groundwater systems. The aim is to resume and present an overview of comprehensive current research activities, which have been published diversely in specialised scientific journals and, are therefore not easily available in a concise and clearly arranged way. Important topics include comprehensive non-target screening as well as isotope analysis of contaminants in water and sediments, detailed characterisation of bound residues, recording river ine pollution histories and an extensive application of the anthropogenic marker approach.

  17. Transport of anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A: a climatology and regional case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Harrigan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA conducted the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission during 2008 as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY. The purpose of ARCTAS was to study the factors responsible for changes in the Arctic's atmospheric composition and climate. A major emphasis was to investigate Arctic haze, which is most pronounced during winter and early spring. This study focuses on the spring phase of ARCTAS (ARCTAS-A that was based in Alaska during April 2008. Although anthropogenic emissions historically have been associated with Arctic haze, biomass burning dominated the ARCTAS-A period and has been the focus of many ARCTAS related studies.

    This study determines the common pathways for anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A. Trajectories (air parcels are released each day from three historically significant regions of anthropogenic emissions (Asia, North America, and Europe. These fifteen day forward trajectories are calculated using data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model at 45 km horizontal resolution. The trajectories then are examined to determine: origins of emissions that reach the Arctic (defined as north of 70° N within fifteen days, pathways of the emissions reaching the Arctic, Arctic entry locations, and altitudes at which the trajectories enter the Arctic. These results serve as regional "climatologies" for the ARCTAS-A period.

    Three cases during the ARCTAS-A period (one for each of the regions above are examined using backward trajectories and chemical fingerprinting based on in situ data sampled from the NASA DC-8. The fingerprinting utilizes volatile organic compounds that represent pure anthropogenic tracers, Asian anthropogenic pollution, incomplete combustion, and natural gas emissions. We determine flight legs containing anthropogenic emissions and the pathways travelled by these emissions

  18. Anthropogenic contribution to the geological and geomorphological record: A case study from Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah; Hamilton, Ken; Lawley, Russell; Price, Simon James

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of artificial or anthropogenic topographies, sediment thicknesses and volumes provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to sedimentary systems in the context of the proposed Anthropocene epoch. We present a methodology for determining the volumetric contribution of anthropogenic deposits to the geological and geomorphological record and apply it to the Great Yarmouth area of Norfolk, UK. 115 boreholes, drilled to a maximum depth of 6 m below ground level, were used to determine the thickness and distribution of seven geo-archaeological units comprising natural and anthropogenic deposits in the central Great Yarmouth area. This was supplemented by additional depth information derived from 467 existing ground investigation boreholes and published 1:50 000 scale geological maps. The top and base of each geo-archaeological unit were modelled from elevations recorded in the borehole data. Grids were produced using a natural neighbour analysis with a 25 m cell size using MapInfo 8.0 Vertical Mapper 3.1 to produce palaeotopographical surfaces. Maximum, minimum and average elevations for each geo-archaeological unit generally increase with decreasing age with the exception of the Early-Medieval palaeotopographical surface which locally occurs at higher elevations than that of the younger Late-Medieval unit. The total sediment volume for the combined Modern, Post-Medieval, Late-Medieval and Early-Medieval geo-archaeological units is 10.91 × 105 m3. The total sediment volume for the Aeolian, River Terrace and Marine geo-archaeological units combined is 65.58 × 105 m3. Anthropogenic sedimentation rates were calculated to increase from ~ 590 m3/yr during the Early-Medieval period, ~ 1500 m3/yr during the Post-Medieval period and ~ 2300 m3/yr during the Modern period. It is estimated that the combined anthropogenic geo-archaeological units contribute approximately 15% of the total volume of sediments that would have been traditionally

  19. Marine and brackish-water ostracods as sentinels of anthropogenic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, F.; Abad, M.; Bodergat, A. M.; Carbonel, P.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, J.; Yasuhara, M.

    2005-09-01

    This review analyses the ostracod responses to pollution-induced environmental changes by anthropogenic impacts. Different biological features such as the variability of the local assemblages, population density, species diversity, age population structure and polymorphism, coupled with the favourable results of recently developed bioassays, suggest that these microorganisms may be included between the most promising sentinel groups in both brackish and marine areas. In meiofaunal studies, these microcrustaceans show high sensitivity to heavy-metal pollution, oil discharges and anoxic conditions. In specific investigations based on surveys of recent populations or stratigraphic box-core analysis, both ostracod densities and species diversities decrease remarkably near sources of pollution after a period of pollutant discharge, with a lesser impact in distant or protected areas. Strong heavy metal pollution or frequent oil spills may cause the disappearance of these organisms or a strong reduction in the number of individuals in a relatively short time period, whereas total or partially untreated urban wastes or agricultural discharges causing eutrophication effects lead to the dominance of distinctive species that are adapted to hypoxic conditions. The environmental improvement derived from the recent implementation of legal regulations in some countries has also been documented in the changes in ostracod assemblages back to pre-disturbed conditions. In addition to population and community changes, morphological and geochemical changes can also be detected in the ostracod carapace, which serves as a tracer of the water quality during the moulting processes.

  20. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  1. Anthropogenic carbon in the East Greenland Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutterström, Sara; Jeansson, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Sections of dissolved inorganic anthropogenic carbon ( CTanthro) based on 2002 data in the East Greenland Current (EGC) are presented. The CTanthro has been estimated using a model based on optimum multiparameter analysis with predefined source water types. Values of CTanthro have been assigned to the source water types through age estimations based on the transit time distribution (TTD) technique. The validity of this approach is discussed and compared to other methods. The results indicated that the EGC had rather high levels of CTanthro in the whole water column, and the anthropogenic signal of the different source areas were detected along the southward transit. We estimated an annual transport of CTanthro with the Denmark Strait overflow ( σθ > 27.8 kg m -3) of ∼0.036 ± 0.005 Gt C y -1. The mean CTanthro concentration in this density range was ∼30 μmol kg -1. The main contribution was from Atlantic derived waters, the Polar Intermediate Water and the Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water.

  2. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in sediments from Xiangjiang River (China) using sequential extraction and lead isotope analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋博峰; 孙卫玲

    2014-01-01

    The heavy metal (such as Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) concentration, speciation, and pollution source in 43 sediment samples from the Xiangjiang River were investigated using sequential extraction combined with Pb isotope analysis. Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations are higher than their background values, while Cr and Ni concentrations are close to those. Sequential extraction demonstrates that heavy metals have different fractions, showing different bioavailabilities. Thew(206Pb)/w(207Pb) ratio increases with decreasing bioavailability in the order of exchangeableanthropogenic and natural sources of Pb, respectively. The percentages of anthropogenic Pb in the exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides, and organic fractions are (91.5±16.7)%, (61.1±13.9)%, (57.4±11.1)%, and (55.5±11.2)%, respectively, suggesting a significant input of anthropogenic Pb in these four fractions.

  3. Anthropogenic heat fluxes over Moscow agglomeration and other Russian and world cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Iya; Ginzburg, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Urbanization, particularly with respect to its sustainability, remains to be a great challenge in all regions of the world. Urbanization has an influence on soils, hydrology, and climate, these changes have effect on global climate, pollution, increase of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere and human health. Thus anthropogenic heat flux is an important factor for estimation of development of global climate. The simple formula for anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHF) was proposed in the EGU General Assembly 2008 presentation [1] AHF = k × PD × EC, were PD is urban population density and EC is total energy consumption per capita. It was estimated that two of the world megacities - Seoul and Moscow - have the highest AHF values - 83 and 56 W/m2 correspondently. In presented paper it was studied the reasons of such high anthropogenic heat fluxes within Moscow region as well as AHF over the major Russian cities. It was shown that main reason of this circumstance is the administrative divisions in Moscow region. Moscow is ringed by Moscow circle motor road. Accordingly the city has sharply defined boundaries and densely populated residential suburbs are cut off and don't included in Moscow city administrative area. It was constructed the special graph to illuminate why Moscow city has such a high anthropogenic heat factor and how much Moscow agglomeration AHF could be if consider not only Moscow city itself but also the nearest suburb towns. Using the data from World Bank [2] and Russian governmental statistic agency [3] anthropogenic heat fluxes for Russian cities with population more than 500 000 were estimated. Energy consumption data for different Russian regions were calculated by special routine using in the Web-atlas [4]. This research is supported by RAS Fundamental Research Project 'Influence of anthropogenic heat fluxes and aerosol pollution on heat balance and climate of urbanized areas'. Other results of this project is presented in paper [5

  4. The Internet Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁宁

    2005-01-01

    Life today has brought new problems. As we know, there are fourterrible pollutions in the world: water pollution, noise pollution, air pol-lution and rubbish pollution. Water pollution kills our fish and pollutesour drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution makes us hold our breath longer and be badto all living things in the world. Rubbish pollution often makes our livingenvironment much dirtier. But I think that the Internet pollution is anothernew pollution in the world.

  5. Monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as anthropogenic and socio-economic indicators of urban and industrial impact on surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vystavna, Yuliya

    2014-05-01

    The research focuses on the monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as potential anthropogenic indicators of industrial and urban influences on surface water in poorly gauged transboundary Ukraine/Russia region. This study includes analysis of tracers use for the indication of water pollution events, including controlled and emerging discharges, and discussion of the detection method of these chemicals. The following criteria were proposed for the evaluation of indicators: specificity (physical chemical properties), variability (spatial and temporal) and practicality (capacity of the sampling and analytical techniques). The combination of grab and passive water sampling (i.e. DGT and POCIS) procedure was applied for the determination of dissolved and labile trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diazepam, paracetamol, caffeine, diclofenac and ketoprofen). Samples were analysed using ICP - MS (trace metals) and LC-MS/MS ESI +/- (pharmaceuticals). Our results demonstrate the distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of trace elements distribution along an urban watercourse. Accordingly, two general groups of trace metals have been discriminated: 'stable' (Cd and Cr) and 'time-varying' (Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb). The relationship Cd >> Cu > Ag > Cr ≥ Zn was proposed as an anthropogenic signature of the industrial and urban activities pressuring the environment from point sources (municipal wastewaters) and the group Pb - Ni was discussed as a relevant fingerprint of the economic activity (industry and transport) mainly from non-point sources (run-off, atmospheric depositions, etc.). Pharmaceuticals with contrasting hydro-chemical properties of molecules (water solubility, bioaccumulation, persistence during wastewater treatment processes) were discriminated on conservative, labile and with combined properties in order to provide information on wastewater treatment plant efficiency, punctual events (e.g. accidents on sewage

  6. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  7. Increased antioxidant response and capability to produce ROS in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis L. exposed to anthropogenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollutants exert immunotoxical effects on aquatic organisms. The aim was to determine the antioxidant response, markers of oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis, the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea, under anthropogenic pressure. P. nobilis individuals were collected from two locations along Mallorca Island waters attending to different degree of human impact and the hemocytes were obtained. Specimens from the impacted area showed increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes – catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase –, myeloperoxidase activity and reduced glutathione levels. No differences in oxidative damage markers – malondiahdehyde and carbonyl index – were evidenced between the pristine and polluted areas. Hemocytes from the polluted area presented increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species and nitrite/nitrate when activated. In conclusion, the human activities primed hemocytes for oxidative burst and increased the antioxidant mechanism without evidence of oxidative damage. -- Highlights: •Pinna nobilis is very sensitive to the human activities. •Anthropogenic pressure induces an antioxidant adaptation to the stressful situation. •Increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species in impacted areas. -- Pinna nobilis responds to the anthropogenic activity with an antioxidant adaptation to the increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species

  8. The impact of multiple anthropogenic contaminants on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Bituh, Tomislav; Žužul, Silva; Dvoršćak, Marija; Fingler, Sanja; Jurasović, Jasna; Klinčić, Darija; Marović, Gordana; Orct, Tatjana; Rinkovec, Jasmina; Stipičević, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park (PLNP) was investigated through the analysis of three groups of major contaminants (persistent organochlorine pollutants including 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), trace elements/heavy metals (6 major and 23 trace constituents), and anthropogenic radionuclides ((90)Sr, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs)) in three terrestrial compartments (soil, air, and bioindicators of air contamination) during 2011-2013. The correlation coefficients of element mass fractions with soil properties indicated that total Fe and Al minerals, soil organic matter (OM), and organic carbon (OC) content affected the mass fractions of most trace elements in the topsoils. The annual and spatial distributions of heavy metals in total deposited matter (TDM) indicated that the metals came from natural sources and long-range transfer of particulate matter. The PCB and OCP levels found in soil and conifer needles corresponded to global environmental pollution levels by persistent organic pollutants and represented the lower end of the mass fraction ranges reported in the relevant literature. Analyses of anthropogenic radionuclides in bioindicators (conifer needles, lichens, and mosses) showed low but measurable activity concentrations of (134)Cs (for the first time after the Chernobyl accident), which indicated origin from the March 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. Our overall results indicated that human activity inside or near the PLNP had no significant impact either on contaminant spread by air or on their content in topsoils. PMID:26661963

  9. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  10. Tracking and verifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the Swiss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Leuenberger, Markus

    2013-04-01

    The Swiss Plateau is the densely populated and industrialized part of Switzerland producing more than 90% of the country's total greenhouse gas emissions. Verification of the efficacy of emission mitigation measures in a post Kyoto Protocol era will require several levels of scrutiny at local and regional scales. We present a measurement and modeling system, which quantifies anthropogenic CO2 emissions at a regional scale using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART driven by output from a high-resolution regional scale atmospheric model (COSMO) and observations from two tall tower sites. These rural measurement sites are situated between the largest cities of Switzerland (Zürich, Geneva, Basel and Bern). We present methods used to discretize the anthropogenic CO2 signal from atmospheric CO2 measurements. First, we perform high resolution, time-inverted simulations of air transport combined with a new high quality Swiss CO2 emissions inventory to determine a model-estimated anthropogenic portion of the measured CO2. Second, we assess the utility of CO measurements and the relationship between CO2 and CO in combustion processes as a proxy to quantify the anthropogenic CO2 fraction directly from the measurements. We then compare these two methods in their ability to determine the anthropogenic portion of CO2 measurements at a high temporal resolution (hours). Finally, we assess the quality of the simulated atmospheric transport by comparing CO concentrations obtained with the same atmospheric transport model and a high resolution CO emission inventory with the measured CO concentrations. This comparison of methods for determining anthropogenic CO2 emissions provides information on how to independently certify reported CO2 emissions. This study is a first step towards a prototype GHG monitoring and verification system for the regional scale in a complex topographic setting, which constitutes a necessary component of emissions reporting.

  11. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  12. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjun; DENG; Yan; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,this paper analyzed content of heavy metals,including arsenic(As),mercury(Hg),lead(Pb),cadmium(Cd),and chromium(Cr) in soil.After Pb,Cd,Cr,Hg and As content in soil is determined,it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard for soil pollution.Analysis results indicate that As,Hg,Pb,Cd,Cr content is different in pollution-free agricultural product bases,but all conform to related standards and there is no standard exceeding problem.It is concluded that the quality of soil in pollution-free agricultural product bases is excellent,not polluted and completely meet requirements of evaluation standards,and suitable for developing pollution-free agricultural products.

  13. Trans boundary transport of pollutants by atmospheric mineral dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Yigal; Dayan, Uri; Rabi, Reut; Rudich, Yinon; Stein, Mordechai

    2006-05-01

    The transport of anthropogenic pollution by desert dust in the Eastern Mediterranean region was studied by analyzing major and trace element composition, organic species, and Pb isotope ratios in suspended dust samples collected in Jerusalem, Israel. Dust storms in this region are associated with four distinct synoptic conditions (Red Sea Trough (RS), Eastern High (EH), Sharav Cyclone (SC), and Cold Depression (Cyprus low, CD)) that carry dust mostly from North African (SC, CD, EH) and Arabian and Syrian (RS, EH) deserts. Substantial contamination of dust particles by Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni is observed, while other elements (Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr, Rb, REE, U, and Th) display natural concentrations. Sequential extraction of the abovementioned elements from the dust samples shows that the carbonate and sorbed fractions contain most of the pollution, yet the Al-silicate fraction is also contaminated, implying that soils and sediments in the source terrains of the dust are already polluted. We identified the pollutant sources by using Pb isotopes. It appears that before the beginning of the dust storm, the pollutants in the collected samples are dominated by local sources but with the arrival of dust from North Africa, the proportion of foreign pollutants increases. Organic pollutants exhibit behavior similar and complementary to that of the inorganic tracers, attesting to the importance of anthropogenic-pollutant addition en route of the dust from its remote sources. Pollution of suspended dust is observed under all synoptic conditions, yet it appears that easterly winds carry higher proportions of local pollution and westerly winds carry pollution emitted in the Cairo basin. Therefore, pollution transport by mineral dust should be accounted for in environmental models and in assessing the health-related effects of mineral dust.

  14. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    DENG, Minjun; Luo, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, this paper analyzed content of heavy metals, including arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in soil. After Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As content in soil is determined, it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard ...

  15. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  16. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES TO REDUCE THE ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT WHEN USING FORESTRY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinskaya A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article speaks about the impact on the soil by the logging machines is the compaction, deformation, mineralization of the soil, changing its structure, biological, water-physical and chemical properties. The negative impact of machinery on soils depends on the construction and systems of machines, technologies of timber harvesting, climate, forest, and other factors. This work considers a comprehensive assessment of the impact of the process of logging on the environment and proposes measures to reduce the anthropogenic impact on soil, water bodies. We have determined the annual volume of emissions to the atmosphere from combustion engines of logging equipment, characteristics of gross emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere after cleaning of the neutralizer gas; we have also determined the amount of pollutants by vehicles in the transportation of wood total in the process of clear cutting

  18. Responses of Carrot under Zn-Ni Combined Pollution in Arid Oasis Soil%干旱区绿洲土壤中胡萝卜对Zn-Ni复合污染的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧振峰; 南忠仁; 王胜利

    2011-01-01

    Growth responses of carrot and its accumulation characteristics of Zn and Ni were analyzed under Zn-Ni combined pollution through pot experiment. The results showed that when the amendments were lower than TS5 (Zn 450 mg/kg and Ni 350 mg/kg), the growth of carrot was promoted under Zn-Ni combined pollution, once over TS5, that was inhibited to different extent, especially, the biomass of carrot decreased significantly at TS8 (Zn 1 000 mg/kg and Ni 1 100 mg/kg) . The accumulation ability of tuber and stem leaf of carrot was Zn > Ni, I. E. Zn was easier to be accumulated from soil to issues of carrot than Ni. The translocation ability of Zn and Ni in carrot was Zn > Ni, which indicated that Zn was easier to transport from tuber to stem leaf. Being illustrated by the translocation factors of Zn and Ni, it can be concluded that Zn mainly accumulate in the stem leaf of carrot, but Ni mainly in the tuber of carrot, so Ni may be easier to pose health threats to humans.%通过盆栽试验,分析Zn-Ni复合污染对胡萝卜生长及其Zn、Ni吸收累积特征的影响.结果表明,Zn-Ni复合污染下,低于TS5(Zn 450 mg/kg、Ni350 mg/kg)处理水平促进胡萝卜生长,超过这个处理水平,胡萝卜生长受到不同程度抑制,其生物量在TS8 (Zn 1 000 mg/kg、Ni 1 100 mg/kg)处理水平显著下降(P<0.05).胡萝卜块茎、茎叶对Zn、Ni的富集能力为Zn>Ni,即Zn更容易由土壤进入胡萝卜体内.Zn、Ni在胡萝卜体内由地下部分向地上部分的迁移能力为Zn>Ni,表明Zn更容易由胡萝卜地下部分向地上部分迁移.由Zn、Ni的转移系数可知,Zn主要累积在胡萝卜的茎叶中,而Ni主要累积于胡萝卜的块茎中,所以Ni可能更容易对人类健康造成威胁.

  19. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Molander, Sverker;

    2015-01-01

    forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental......Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience...... of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales...

  20. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI, Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season. Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  1. Attributing Atmospheric Methane to Anthropogenic Emission Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David

    2016-07-19

    Methane is a greenhouse gas, and increases in atmospheric methane concentration over the past 250 years have driven increased radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Increases in atmospheric methane concentration since 1750 account for approximately 17% of increases in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, and that percentage increases by approximately a factor of 2 if the effects of the greenhouse gases produced by the atmospheric reactions of methane are included in the assessment. Because of the role of methane emissions in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, the identification and quantification of sources of methane emissions is receiving increased scientific attention. Methane emission sources include biogenic, geogenic, and anthropogenic sources; the largest anthropogenic sources are natural gas and petroleum systems, enteric fermentation (livestock), landfills, coal mining, and manure management. While these source categories are well-known, there is significant uncertainty in the relative magnitudes of methane emissions from the various source categories. Further, the overall magnitude of methane emissions from all anthropogenic sources is actively debated, with estimates based on source sampling extrapolated to regional or national scale ("bottom-up analyses") differing from estimates that infer emissions based on ambient data ("top-down analyses") by 50% or more. To address the important problem of attribution of methane to specific sources, a variety of new analytical methods are being employed, including high time resolution and highly sensitive measurements of methane, methane isotopes, and other chemical species frequently associated with methane emissions, such as ethane. This Account describes the use of some of these emerging measurements, in both top-down and bottom-up methane emission studies. In addition, this Account describes how data from these new analytical methods can be used in conjunction with chemical mass balance (CMB) methods for source

  2. Attributing Atmospheric Methane to Anthropogenic Emission Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David

    2016-07-19

    Methane is a greenhouse gas, and increases in atmospheric methane concentration over the past 250 years have driven increased radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Increases in atmospheric methane concentration since 1750 account for approximately 17% of increases in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, and that percentage increases by approximately a factor of 2 if the effects of the greenhouse gases produced by the atmospheric reactions of methane are included in the assessment. Because of the role of methane emissions in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, the identification and quantification of sources of methane emissions is receiving increased scientific attention. Methane emission sources include biogenic, geogenic, and anthropogenic sources; the largest anthropogenic sources are natural gas and petroleum systems, enteric fermentation (livestock), landfills, coal mining, and manure management. While these source categories are well-known, there is significant uncertainty in the relative magnitudes of methane emissions from the various source categories. Further, the overall magnitude of methane emissions from all anthropogenic sources is actively debated, with estimates based on source sampling extrapolated to regional or national scale ("bottom-up analyses") differing from estimates that infer emissions based on ambient data ("top-down analyses") by 50% or more. To address the important problem of attribution of methane to specific sources, a variety of new analytical methods are being employed, including high time resolution and highly sensitive measurements of methane, methane isotopes, and other chemical species frequently associated with methane emissions, such as ethane. This Account describes the use of some of these emerging measurements, in both top-down and bottom-up methane emission studies. In addition, this Account describes how data from these new analytical methods can be used in conjunction with chemical mass balance (CMB) methods for source

  3. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  4. Development and application of a proteomic approach to the assessment of pollution in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Apraiz Larrucea, Itxaso

    2009-01-01

    Today, assessment of the health of coastal waters is recognized as being important for both the conservation of nature and well-being of humans. Anthropogenic pollution has been the focus of extensive research for some time and a variety of programs for the monitoring and assessment of environmental pollution have been developed. Determination of the levels of pollution in sensitive ‘sentinels’ such as mussels, allows monitoring of these levels in a given area over a prolonged period of time....

  5. Mineral and organic pollution in river Sabor (Northeastern Portugal): ecotoxicological effects on freshwater fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Touir, Ahlem

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are final collectors of all kinds of pollution as an outcome of anthropogenic inputs, such us untreated industrial and municipal sewage and agricultural pollutants. There are several aquatic ecosystems that are threatened by mineral and organic pollution. In Northeastern Portugal, near Bragança, different watercourses are suffering negative impacts of human activities. It has been developed several studies in the monitoring of environmental impacts in these river basins, na...

  6. Size-resolved particulate matter composition in Beijing during pollution and dust events

    OpenAIRE

    Dillner, Ann M.; Schauer, James J; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Cass, Glen R.

    2006-01-01

    Each spring, Beijing, China, experiences dust storms which cause high particulate matter concentrations. Beijing also has many anthropogenic sources of particulate matter including the large Capitol Steel Company. On the basis of measured size segregated, speciated particulate matter concentrations, and calculated back trajectories, three types of pollution events occurred in Beijing from 22 March to 1 April 2001: dust storms, urban pollution events, and an industrial pollution event. For eac...

  7. Gravitactic orientation of Euglena gracilis – a sensitive endpoint for ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz eUllah; Waheed eMurad; Muhammad eAdnan; Waheed eUllah; Häder, Donat P.

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of aquatic environments with natural and anthropogenically produced substances is one of the major environmental problems of the world. In many countries the decreasing quantity of water coupled with its increasing usage in multiple sectors has adversely affected water quality and caused problems of water pollution. Polluted water has been a main cause of adverse effects on plants, animals and humans throughout the world. Physicochemical analysis of water, which is a common method u...

  8. Gravitactic orientation of Euglena gracilis—a sensitive endpoint for ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Waheed; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of aquatic environments with natural and anthropogenically produced substances is one of the major environmental problems of the world. In many countries the decreasing quantity of water coupled with its increasing usage in multiple sectors has adversely affected water quality and caused problems of water pollution. Polluted water has been a main cause of adverse effects on plants, animals and humans throughout the world. Physicochemical analysis of water, which is a common method u...

  9. Depth profiles of lithogenic and anthropogenic mercury in the sediments from Thane Creek, Mumbai, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SKSAHU; RCBHANGARE; M TIWARI; PYAJMAL; GGPANDIT

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is well known as one of the most toxic elements to man. The coastal environments adjacent to industrial areas are reported to often be contaminated with mercury. Mercury becomes more toxic in the form of methylmercury (Me-Hg) which is converted from inorganic mercury in aqueous systems by microbial activity and can bio-magnify through the food chain. A simple method for the determination of total mercury and methylmercury in sediments was optimized by slightly modifying an old method using the direct mercury analyzer technique. Core sediment samples from Thane Creek, Mumbai, India were collected and analysed for total mercury and methylmercury. The Hg concentration in the creek varied between 0.54 to 16.03 µg g-1 while Me-Hg concentrations ranged between 0.04 to 1.07 µg g-1. In surface sediment, mercury concentrations ranged from 4.33 µg g-1 to 12.16µg g-1. Total organic carbon content was found to be around 2 percent in different layers of the sediments. The enrichment factors, which indicate the extent of pollution in sediments, were estimated to range from 26 to 50 at different locations in the creek. Lithogenic and anthropogenic concentrations of mercury in the creek were also determined to compare the impact of anthropogenic and natural sources. Anthropogenic inventories were about 5-70 times more in concentration than the lithogenic in the different core sediments.

  10. Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Pacific Storm Track Using a Multiscale Global Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Renyi; Ghan, Steven J.; Lin, Yun; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Levy, Misti; Jiang, Jonathan; Molina, Mario J.

    2014-05-13

    Atmospheric aerosols impact weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track using a multi-scale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and pre-industrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by - 2.5 and + 1.3 W m-2, respectively, by emission changes from pre-industrial to present day, and an increased cloud-top height indicates invigorated mid-latitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides for the first time a global perspective of the impacts of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multi-scale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on the global scale.

  11. ЕFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the general (GА, nM pyruvic acid/ml∙second and specific (SA, nM pyruvic acid /mg second transferase enzyme activity of protein metabolism (Аlanine aminotransferase ALT, EC 2.6.1.2, and Аspartate aminotransferase, AST, EC 2.6.1.1 in Salix alba L. leaves, that planted on the banks of Mokra Sura River (anthropogenic polluted, increased level of salinity and Shpakova River (relatively clean, control which are parts of Dnipro River Basin of Steppe Dnipro Region. We used the plant growth regulator “Kornevin” in order to accelerate rooting and reducing of exogenous pressures on the plant. We registered the Aminotransferase nonspecific reaction towards anthropogenic pressure, which was associated with the formation of non-specific mechanisms of adaptation to support the homeostasis. We revealed the significant differences between experiment and control in index of protein synthesis and metabolism depending on the conditions of growth and development. Protective and leveling effects of growth regulator have been proved. The advisability of using the "Kornevin" as an adaptogene and a protector in variable environmental conditions have been indicated. Salix alba L., increased level of salinity, growth regulators, alaninaminotransferase, aspartataminotransferase, adaptogene, anthropogenic factors

  12. Confirming anthropogenic influences on the major organic and inorganic constituents of rainwater in an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and organic compounds of rainwater were investigated from June to December 2012 at Gwangju in Korea. The volume weighted mean of pH ranged from 3.83 to 8.90 with an average of 5.78. 50 % of rainwater samples had pH values below 5.6. The volume-weighted mean concentration (VWMC of major ions followed the order: Cl− > SO42− > NH4+ > Na+ > NO3− > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. The VWMC of trace metals decreased in the order as follows Zn > Al > Fe > Mn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Cr. The VWMCs of major ions and trace metals were higher in winter than in summer. The high enrichment factors indicate that Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd originated predominantly from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis (principal component analysis indicates the influence of anthropogenic pollutants, sea salt, and crustal materials on the chemical compositions of rainwater. Benzoic acids, 1H-Isoindole-1,3(2H-dione, phthalic anhydride, benzene, acetic acids, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acids, benzonitrile, acetaldehyde, and acetamide were the most prominent pyrolysis fragments for rainwater organic compounds identified by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The results indicate that anthropogenic sources are the most important factors affecting the organic composition of rainwater in urban area.

  13. Characteristics of Anthropogenic Sulfate and Carbonaceous Aerosols over East Asia: Regional Modeling and Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HUANG; William L. CHAMEIDES; Qian TAN; Robert E. DICKINSON

    2008-01-01

    The authors present spatial and temporal characteristics of anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols over East Asia using a 3-D coupled regional climate-chemistry-aerosol model, and compare the simulation with the limited aerosol observations over the region. The aerosol module consists of SO2, SO42-, hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon (BC) and organic carbon compounds (OC), including emission, advections, dry and wet deposition, and chemical production and conversion. The simulated patterns of SO2 are closely tied to its emission rate, with sharp gradients between the highly polluted regions and more rural areas. Chemical conversion (especially in the aqueous phase) and dry deposition remove 60% and 30% of the total SO2 emission, respectively. The SO42- shows less horizontal gradient and seasonality than SO2, with wet deposition (60%) and export (27%) being two major sinks. Carbonaceous aerosols are spatially smoother than sulfur species. The aging process transforms more than 80% of hydrophobic BC and OC to hydrophilic components, which are removed by wet deposition (60%) and export (30%). The simulated spatial and seasonal SO42-, BC and OC aerosol concentrations and total aerosol optical depth are generally consistent with the observations in rural areas over East Asia, with lower bias in simulated OC aerosols, likely due to the underestimation of anthropogenic OC emissions and missing treatment of secondary organic carbon. The results suggest that our model is a useful tool for characterizing the anthropogenic aerosol cycle and for assessing its potential climatic and environmental effects in future studies.

  14. Impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhe; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; Worden, John R.; Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Henze, Daven K.

    2016-05-01

    Significant progress has been made in identifying the influence of different processes and emissions on the summertime enhancements of free tropospheric ozone (O3) at northern midlatitude regions. However, the exact contribution of regional emissions, chemical and transport processes to these summertime enhancements is still not well quantified. Here we focus on quantifying the influence of regional emissions on the summertime O3 enhancements over the Middle East, using updated reactive nitrogen (NOx) emissions. We then use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model with these updated NOx emissions to show that the global total contribution of lightning NOx on middle free tropospheric O3 over the Middle East is about 2 times larger than that from global anthropogenic sources. The summertime middle free tropospheric O3 enhancement is primarily due to Asian NOx emissions, with approximately equivalent contributions from Asian anthropogenic activities and lightning. In the Middle Eastern lower free troposphere, lightning NOx from Europe and North America and anthropogenic NOx from Middle Eastern local emissions are the primary sources of O3. This work highlights the critical role of lightning NOx on northern midlatitude free tropospheric O3 and the important effect of the Asian summer monsoon on the export of Asian pollutants.

  15. [Influence of industrial and traffic pollution on reproduction of spermatophytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, M P; Glazunova, K P

    2010-01-01

    A review of studies conducted, primarily, in Europe in last 30 years that deal with influence of anthropogenic environmental pollution on functioning of reproductive and, by comparison, vegetative organs of spermatophytes is presented. In the papers considered the impacts of typical industrial and traffic pollutants (compounds of iron, zinc, copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, as well as sulfur dioxide, ozone, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on plants via soil, water, air, and precipitation have been studied. Special attention is paid to effects of heavy metals on embryological structures and processes in staminate and pistillate reproductive spheres of plants (archesporium, meiosis, sporogenesis, gametophytogenesis, morphology and functioning of gametophyte, endospermogenesis, embryogenesis). Detrimental effects of anthropogenic pollution on reproductive sphere of spermatophytes are manifested through disorder in processes of cells fission and differentiation, abnormality in structures development at early stages of morphogenesis, broadening of anomalies spectrum, decrease in pollen fertility, derangement of seed-bearing and germination.

  16. 一种兼顾目标总量和容量总量的水污染物排放限值确定方法%A method for determining water pollutant discharge limit based on combination of administrative goal-oriented and environmental capacity-based total pollution load control patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文龙; 曾思育; 杜鹏飞; 陈吉宁; 刘毅

    2014-01-01

    针对中国水污染物总量管理面临由目标总量管理向容量总量管理的转变趋势,提出了一种兼顾两种管理模式的水污染物排放限值计算方法.该方法建立在水体分类计算、汇水区与行政区相关联、自下而上、不同保护要求的水体予以差别化对待、污染物控制类型扩展的原则上,将水体按环境容量利用方式的不同划分为保护性利用、恢复性利用、控制性利用、开发性利用和限制性利用5种类型,分别采用目标总量、混合管理、容量总量、容量总量和混合管理等不同模式,并给出了分别按汇水区和行政区计算污染物排放限值的一般过程.将上述方法应用于西南区域发展战略环评案例,结果表明云南省31.25%地市需调减COD总量,43.75%地市需调减氨氮总量,而贵州省55.56%地市可适当调增 COD 总量,44.44%地市可适当调增氨氮排放总量.该方法可将总量限值的确定与当地水环境质量改善紧密结合,强化水环境对现状质量不达标地区未来发展的约束,同时适当减弱水环境条件对达标地区的约束以换取其发展空间.以计算出的排放限值为依据对当前的减排目标进行调整可为云贵实现又好又快发展提供支撑.经案例验证,本文所建立的方法为中国水环境管理从目标总量模式向容量总量模式发展提供了技术手段.%Since China was facing the challenge to transit its control pattern on total pollution load from an administrative goal-oriented way to an environmental capacity-based way, an approach for determining water pollutant discharge limit which could combine advantages of two patterns was put forward. To establish the method, five principles were involved, i.e., calculations were dependent on water body classification; relations between catchment and administration boundaries were considered;bottom-up way was applied;protection levels for different water bodies were

  17. Giant natural fluctuation models and anthropogenic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, S.; Rio Amador, L.; Hébert, R.; Lima, I.

    2016-08-01

    Explanations for the industrial epoch warming are polarized around the hypotheses of anthropogenic warming (AW) and giant natural fluctuations (GNFs). While climate sceptics have systematically attacked AW, up until now they have only invoked GNFs. This has now changed with the publication by D. Keenan of a sample of 1000 series from stochastic processes purporting to emulate the global annual temperature since 1880. While Keenan's objective was to criticize the International Panel on Climate Change's trend uncertainty analysis (their assumption that residuals are only weakly correlated), for the first time it is possible to compare a stochastic GNF model with real data. Using Haar fluctuations, probability distributions, and other techniques of time series analysis, we show that his model has unrealistically strong low-frequency variability so that even mild extrapolations imply ice ages every ≈1000 years. Helped by statistics, the GNF model can easily be scientifically rejected.

  18. Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedamke, Jason; Ferguson, Megan; Harrison, Jolie; Hatch, Leila; Henderson, Laurel; Porter, Michael B; Southall, Brandon L; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the potential effects of chronic underwater noise in US waters, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) organized two working groups in 2011, collectively called "CetSound," to develop tools to map the density and distribution of cetaceans (CetMap) and predict the contribution of human activities to underwater noise (SoundMap). The SoundMap effort utilized data on density, distribution, acoustic signatures of dominant noise sources, and environmental descriptors to map estimated temporal, spatial, and spectral contributions to background noise. These predicted soundscapes are an initial step toward assessing chronic anthropogenic noise impacts on the ocean's varied acoustic habitats and the animals utilizing them. PMID:26610977

  19. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  20. Anthropogenic signals in Iranian extreme temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Robert; Kiany, Mohammad; Roy, Shouraseni Sen

    2016-04-01

    Studies from throughout the world indicate that maximum and minimum temperatures are rising during the period of historical records; urbanization has contributed to some extent to these increases. In this investigation, we analyzed patterns in temperature extremes for stations located throughout Iran. We found that the number of days (a) with high maximum temperatures was increasing, (b) with high minimum temperatures was rising, and (c) with low minimum temperatures is declining. Based on population records at the station locations, we found that population growth was positively related to the increase the number of days with high maximum temperatures and negatively related to days with low maximum temperatures. A day-of-the-week signal also appeared in the number of days with high maximum temperatures. Our research shows a number of identifiable and statistically significant anthropogenic signals in the temperature records from Iran, but unlike most other studies, the signals are stronger with indices related to maximum, not minimum, temperatures.

  1. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  2. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release as much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  3. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C; Hartter, Joel; Lemcke-Stampone, Mary; Moore, David W; Safford, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews) yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40%) concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15%) say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire) finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus.

  4. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Hamilton

    Full Text Available A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40% concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15% say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus.

  5. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a Pb isotope survey of ∼350 rural topsoils in The Netherlands. • Nearly all studied topsoils contain anthropogenic Pb. • Nature and agricultural soils contain coal/galena, incinerator ash and gasoline Pb. • Agricultural soils also contain fertilizer Pb with characteristic Pb isotope values. • Spatial patterns in the Pb isotope composition of the topsoils are observed. - Abstract: Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of anthropogenic Pb content and anthropogenic Pb sources in rural topsoils is remarkably limited. This study presents results of a survey of approximately 350 topsoil samples from rural locations covering the entire Netherlands, for which the bulk geochemical and Pb isotope compositions were determined. The specific aim of this study is to determine the anthropogenic Pb sources in the topsoils from rural areas in The Netherlands. The spatial distribution of anthropogenic Pb in soils in The Netherlands will be explained in terms of land use and pollution sources. Nearly all studied topsoils display Pb contents that exceed the amount expected based on the soil lithology. The range in Pb isotope ratios of the additional Pb fraction in rural Dutch topsoils is established at 1.056–1.199, 2.336–2.486 and 0.452–0.490 for 206Pb/207Pb, 207Pb/208Pb and 206Pb/208Pb, respectively. Five land use types are distinguished (forest, open nature, moor, arable land and grassland) with distinct isotopic compositions for added Pb. Additional Pb in soils of natural areas (forest, open nature and moor) has on average lower 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/208Pb ratios than the agricultural soils (arable land and grassland). Additional Pb in both natural area soils and agricultural soils

  6. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. PMID:26218303

  7. Individual, population and community level effects of subtle anthropogenic contamination in estuarine meiobenthos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubal, Marcos [CIIMAR/CIMAR-LA - Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia M. [CIIMAR/CIMAR-LA - Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS - Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Lg. Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Medina, Matias H., E-mail: matias.medina@avs-chile.c [AVS Chile SA, Imperial 0655, Off. 3A, Puerto Varas (Chile); Centro i-mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Camino Chinquihue km 6, Puerto Montt (Chile)

    2009-10-15

    The study presented here searched for the level of taxonomic resolution required to detect the effects of low-level chronic pollution on estuarine meiobenthic communities. Meiofauna from two sites, with special attention to harpacticoid copepods, was analysed at different taxonomic levels of aggregation using uni- and multivariate methods. Adaptation processes that could buffer biodiversity disruptions were also considered through the analysis of fitness-related and tolerance traits in the harpacticoid copepod Paronychocamptus nanus. Results showed that uni- and multivariate analyses could be inadequate when assessing subtle anthropogenic contamination. Instead, the assessment of inter-population differences in tolerance to the main source of stress rises as a required procedure if potential effects of this type of contamination are being investigated. Specifically, a 96 h acute toxicity test performed with populations from the affected site appears as a faster and reliable general tool to assess impacts of low-level chronic pollution in estuaries. - Tolerance of local populations as a reliable tool to assess impacts of subtle anthropogenic contamination in estuaries.

  8. Influence of anthropogenic activities on microbial and nutrient levels along the Mara River tributaries, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Nyambane Anyona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of factors have a negative impact on natural surface water resources across the world. Although sources of surface water pollution are numerous, anthropogenic activities have been singled out as among the most important and of great concern. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities on nutrients and microbial levels along the Amala and Nyangores tributaries of the Mara River in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Four sampling sites along each tributary were specifically selected from which water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients by use of spectrophotometric techniques, and coliform bacterial presence by a multiple tube fermentation technique. Results: Higher levels of total phosphorus were recorded along the Nyangores than the Amala tributary (P= 0.02. Significant differences in phosphorus levels were recorded between different sites along the Nyangores tributary (P=<0.001 and also along the Amala tributary (P= 0.0036. However, total nitrogen levels varied only within sites along the Nyangores tributary (P<0.0001 but not along the Amala tributary. Similarly, Escherichia coli and total coliform levels varied significantly within Nyangores tributary sites. Sites with frequent and direct human and livestock contact had higher microbial and nutrient levels, indicative of a localized pollution effect. Conclusion: The findings imply that the health of local communities who depend on this water for domestic use might be compromised. As such, regular monitoring, strict enforcement of environmental protection laws, public education and proper sewage disposal is recommended.

  9. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  10. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  11. Direct radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols on Indian summer monsoon circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sushant; Dey, Sagnik; Dash, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The direct radiative impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the dynamics of Indian summer monsoon circulation are examined using the regional climate model version 4.1 (RegCM4.1). High anthropogenic aerosol optical depth (AAOD >0.1) and surface shortwave cooling (0.2 °C due to the dimming effect of anthropogenic aerosols. The aerosol-induced cooling leads to an increase in surface pressure over the local hotspots in the Indian landmass, which reduces the land-sea pressure contrast resulting in weakening of summer monsoon circulation. The simulated surface pressure anomaly also inhibits moisture transport from the BoB towards Indian landmass thereby enhancing precipitation over the BoB and parts of the east coast of India. The impacts are interpreted as conservative estimates because of the underestimation of AAOD by the model due to uncertainties in emission inventory and biases in simulated meteorology. Our results demonstrate the direct radiative impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the Indian monsoon circulation and call for future studies combining the dynamical and microphysical impacts, which are not considered in this study.

  12. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  13. Investigation of runoff generation from anthropogenic sources with dissolved xenobiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, A.; Pailler, J.; Guignard, C.; Iffly, J.; Pfister, L.; Hoffmann, L.

    2009-04-01

    In the experimental Mess basin (35 km2, Luxembourg) dissolved xenobiotics in surface water are used to study the influences of anthropogenic sources like separated sewer systems on runoff generation. Emerging contaminants like pharmaceuticals are of growing interest because of their use in large quantities in human and veterinary medicine. The amounts reaching surface waters depend on rainfall patterns, hydraulic conditions, consumption, metabolism, degradation, and disposal. The behaviour of endocrine disruptors including pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is widely unknown. The twelve molecules analyzed belong to three families: the estrogens, the antibiotics (sulfonamides, tetracyclines), and the painkillers (ibuprofen, diclofenac). Xenobiotics can be used as potential environmental tracers for untreated sewerage. Our results show that the concentrations are highly variable during flood events. The highest concentrations are reached in the first flush period, mainly during the rising limb of the flood hydrographs. As a result of the kinematic wave effect the concentration peak occurs in some cases a few hours after the discharge maximum. In floodwater (eleven floods, 66 samples) the highest concentrations were measured for ibuprofen (g/l range), estrone, and diclofenac (all ng/l range). From the tetracycline group, essentially tetracycline itself is of relevance, while the sulfonamides are mainly represented by sulfamethoxazole (all in ng/l range). In the Mess River the pharmaceuticals fluxes during flood events proved to be influenced by hydrological conditions. Different pharmaceuticals showed their concentration peaks during different times of a flood event. An example is the estrone peak that - during summer flash floods - often occurred one to two hours prior to the largest concentrations of the painkillers. This suggests for more sources than the sole storm drainage through the spillway of the single sewage water treatment plant, different

  14. An empirical assessment of exposure measurement errors and effect attenuation in bi-pollutant epidemiologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using multipollutant models to understand the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, the complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates from ...

  15. Effects of anthropogenic activities on snow distribution, and melt in an urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Matheussen, Bernt Viggo

    2004-01-01

    In many parts of the world snow melt runoff influence discharge from combined sewer overflows (CSO) and flooding in urban drainage systems. Despite this, urban snow hydrology is a field that has received little attention from the urban drainage community. The objectives of this research were to better understand urban snow hydrology and through field work and hydrological modelling quantify effects of anthropogenic activities (AA) on snow distribution, and melt in an urban environment. This m...

  16. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the feeding ecology of a top marine predator, the Magellanic penguin

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Francisco; Afán, Isabel; Hobson, Keith A.; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Blanco, Guillermo; Forero, Manuela G.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how top predators respond to natural and anthropogenically induced changes in their environment is a major conservation challenge especially in marine environments. We used a multidisciplinary approach to explore the mechanisms through which a typical central-place forager, the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) from the Chubut province of Argentina, responds to variations in oceanic conditions and prey resources. We combined habitat and species distribution modeling w...

  17. Tolerance of benthic foraminifera to anthropogenic stressors from three sites of the Egyptian coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Amani Badawi; Wafaa El-Menhawey

    2016-01-01

    Surely the coupling of natural and anthropogenic stressors combined with a lack of regulation resulted in the current threat to a large part of coastal marine biodiversity as well as coastal human societies, particularly in highly populated regions. The distribution pattern of benthic foraminifera as sensitive bio-indicator is utilized to assess human-induced impact on the coastal area, at Alexandria, Port Said and Suez cites of Egypt. Twenty-two benthic foraminiferal genera were identified a...

  18. Surviving in a toxic world: transcriptomics and gene expression profiling in response to environmental pollution in the critically endangered European eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujolar Jose

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic and transcriptomic approaches have the potential for unveiling the genome-wide response to environmental perturbations. The abundance of the catadromous European eel (Anguilla anguilla stock has been declining since the 1980s probably due to a combination of anthropogenic and climatic factors. In this paper, we explore the transcriptomic dynamics between individuals from high (river Tiber, Italy and low pollution (lake Bolsena, Italy environments, which were measured for 36 PCBs, several organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants and nine metals. Results To this end, we first (i updated the European eel transcriptome using deep sequencing data with a total of 640,040 reads assembled into 44,896 contigs (Eeelbase release 2.0, and (ii developed a transcriptomic platform for global gene expression profiling in the critically endangered European eel of about 15,000 annotated contigs, which was applied to detect differentially expressed genes between polluted sites. Several detoxification genes related to metabolism of pollutants were upregulated in the highly polluted site, including genes that take part in phase I of the xenobiotic metabolism (CYP3A, phase II (glutathione-S-transferase and oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase. In addition, key genes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation were down-regulated at the Tiber site relative to the Bolsena site. Conclusions Together with the induced high expression of detoxification genes, the suggested lowered expression of genes supposedly involved in metabolism suggests that pollution may also be associated with decreased respiratory and energy production.

  19. Surviving in a toxic world: transcriptomics and gene expression profiling in response to environmental pollution in the critically endangered European eel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic and transcriptomic approaches have the potential for unveiling the genome-wide response to environmental perturbations. The abundance of the catadromous European eel (Anguilla anguilla) stock has been declining since the 1980s probably due to a combination of anthropogenic and climatic factors. In this paper, we explore the transcriptomic dynamics between individuals from high (river Tiber, Italy) and low pollution (lake Bolsena, Italy) environments, which were measured for 36 PCBs, several organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants and nine metals. Results To this end, we first (i) updated the European eel transcriptome using deep sequencing data with a total of 640,040 reads assembled into 44,896 contigs (Eeelbase release 2.0), and (ii) developed a transcriptomic platform for global gene expression profiling in the critically endangered European eel of about 15,000 annotated contigs, which was applied to detect differentially expressed genes between polluted sites. Several detoxification genes related to metabolism of pollutants were upregulated in the highly polluted site, including genes that take part in phase I of the xenobiotic metabolism (CYP3A), phase II (glutathione-S-transferase) and oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase). In addition, key genes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation were down-regulated at the Tiber site relative to the Bolsena site. Conclusions Together with the induced high expression of detoxification genes, the suggested lowered expression of genes supposedly involved in metabolism suggests that pollution may also be associated with decreased respiratory and energy production. PMID:23009661

  20. Lead isotopes and trace metal ratios of aerosols as tracers of Pb pollution sources in Kanpur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida; Paul, Debajyoti; Tyagi, Swati; Sengupta, Deep

    2015-04-01

    The anthropogenic flux of Pb in the Earth's surface is almost an order of magnitude higher than its corresponding natural flux [1]. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb- isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, an industrial city in northern India. The Pb concentration in the airborne particulate matter varies between 14-216 ng/m3, while the other heavy metals vary by factor of 10 or less, e.g. Cd=0.3-3 ng/m3, As=0.4-3.5 ng/m3, Zn=36-161 ng/m3, and Cu=3-22 ng/m3. The 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/207Pb vary between 1.112 - 1.129, 2.123-2.141, and 2.409-2.424 respectively, and are highly correlated with each other (R2>0.9). Pb isotopes and trace metal data reveals that coal combustion is the major source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere, with limited contribution from mining and smelting processes. We further conclude that combination of Pb isotope ratios and V/Pb ratios are powerful tracers for Pb source apportionment studies, which is otherwise difficult to differentiate based only on Pb systematics [1] Sen and Peucker-Ehrenbrink (2012), Environ. Sci. Technol.(46), 8601-8609

  1. Consequences of Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine Particle Air Pollution Combined with the Adult Paraquat and Maneb Model of the Parkinson’s Disease Phenotype in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joshua L.; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests suceptibility of both the substantia nigra and striatum to exposure to components of air pollution. Further, air pollution has been associated with increased risk of PD diagnsosis in humans or PD-like pathology in animals. This study examined whether exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS;

  2. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring δ18O and δ13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured δ18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled δ13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated δ13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual δ13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled δ13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the δ13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce δ15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements

  3. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone. PMID:27372101

  4. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  5. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Strada, Susanna; Unger, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and ph...

  6. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ► The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ► Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ► The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ► Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  7. Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí

    2016-05-01

    Impacts of recent regional changes in climate on natural and human systems are documented across the globe, yet studies explicitly linking these observations to anthropogenic forcing of the climate are scarce. Here we provide a systematic assessment of the role of anthropogenic climate change for the range of impacts of regional climate trends reported in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report. We find that almost two-thirds of the impacts related to atmospheric and ocean temperature can be confidently attributed to anthropogenic forcing. In contrast, evidence connecting changes in precipitation and their respective impacts to human influence is still weak. Moreover, anthropogenic climate change has been a major influence for approximately three-quarters of the impacts observed on continental scales. Hence the effects of anthropogenic emissions can now be discerned not only globally, but also at more regional and local scales for a variety of natural and human systems.

  8. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing CO emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in East Asia from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC program. High CO abundances of 300–550 ppbv were observed in MOZAIC data in the free troposphere during these episodes. These are among the highest CO abundances documented at these altitudes. Correspondingly, elevated CO was shown in MOPITT daytime data in the middle to upper troposphere in the 2003 case, mostly in the lower to middle troposphere in the 2004 case, and in the upper troposphere in the 2005 case. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases. In the 2003 case, CO from large forest fires near Lake Baikal dominated the elevated CO, which had been rapidly transported upward by a~frontal system from the fire plumes. In the 2004 case, anthropogenic CO from the North China Plain experienced frontal lifting and mostly reached ~ 700 hPa near the East China Sea, while CO from biomass burning from Indochina experienced orographic lifting, leeside-trough induced convection, and frontal lifting through two separate transport pathways, leading to two distinct CO enhancements around 700 hPa and 300 hPa. In the 2005 case, high CO of ~ 300 ppbv, observed in the MOZAIC data around 350 hPa, originated from the anthropogenic source over the vicinity of the

  9. Estimation of the Distribution of Global Anthropogenic Heat Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The radiance lights data in 2006 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) and authoritative energy data distributed by the United State Energy Information Administration were applied to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic heat flux.A strong linear relationship was found to exist between the anthropogenic heat flux and the DMSP/OLS radiance data.On a global scale,the average value of anthropogenic heat flux is approximately 0.03 W m 2 and 0.10 W m 2 for global land area.The results indicate that global anthropogenic heat flux was geographically concentrated and distributed,fundamentally correlating to the economical activities.The anthropogenic heat flux concentrated in the economically developed areas including East Asia,Europe,and eastern North America.The anthropogenic heat flux in the concentrated regions,including the northeastern United States,Central Europe,United Kingdom,Japan,India,and East and South China is much larger than global average level,reaching a large enough value that could affect regional climate.In the center of the concentrated area,the anthropogenic heat flux density may exceed 100 W m 2,according to the results of the model.In developing areas,including South America,Central and North China,India,East Europe,and Middle East,the anthropogenic heat flux can reach a level of more than 10 W m 2 ;however,the anthropogenic heat flux in a vast area,including Africa,Central and North Asia,and South America,is low.With the development of global economy and urban agglomerations,the effect on climate of anthropogenic heat is essential for the research of climate change.

  10. Detection of anthropogenic dust using CALIPSO lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. P.; Liu, J. J.; Chen, B.; Nasiri, S. L.

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic dusts are those produced by human activities on disturbed soils, which are mainly cropland, pastureland, and urbanized regions, and are a subset of the total dust load which includes natural sources from desert regions. Our knowledge of anthropogenic dusts is still very limited due to a lack of data. To understand the contribution of anthropogenic dust to the total global dust load, it is important to identify it apart from total dust. In this study, a new technique for distinguishing anthropogenic dust from natural dust is proposed by using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) dust and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height retrievals along with a land use data set. Using this technique, the global distribution of dust is analyzed and the relative contribution of anthropogenic and natural dust sources to regional and global emissions are estimated. Results reveal that local anthropogenic dust aerosol due to human activity, such as agriculture, industrial activity, transportation, and overgrazing, accounts for about 25 % of the global continental dust load. Of these anthropogenic dust aerosols, more than 53 % come from semi-arid and semi-wet regions. Annual mean anthropogenic dust column burden (DCB) values range from 0.42 g m-2, with a maximum in India, to 0.12 g m-2, with a minimum in North America. A better understanding of anthropogenic dust emission will enable us to focus on human activities in these critical regions and with such knowledge we will be more able to improve global dust models and to explore the effects of anthropogenic emission on radiative forcing, climate change, and air quality in the future.

  11. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  12. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate con