WorldWideScience

Sample records for anthropic selection effects

  1. Perspectives on Current Issues Is ``Anthropic Selection'' Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ronald G.

    2007-01-01

    I argue that there are strong reasons for resisting as a principle of science the concept of “anthropic selection.” This concept asserts that the existence of “observers” in a universe can be used as a condition that selects physical laws and constants necessary for intelligent life from different laws or physical constants prevailing in a vast number of other universes, to thereby explain why the properties of our universe are conducive to intelligent life. My reasons for limiting “anthropic selection” to the realm of speculation rather than permitting it to creep into mainstream science include our inability to estimate the probabilities of emergence of “observers” in a universe, the lack of testability through direct observation of the assumed high variability of the constants of nature, the lack of a clear definition of an “observer,” and the arbitrariness in how and to what questions anthropic selection is applied.

  2. Dark energy equation of state and anthropic selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Linde, Andrei; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the dark energy is due to a potential of a scalar field and that the magnitude and the slope of this potential in our part of the Universe are largely determined by anthropic selection effects. We find that, in some models, the most probable values of the slope are very small, implying that the dark energy density stays constant to very high accuracy throughout cosmological evolution. In other models, however, the most probable values of the slope are such that the slow roll condition is only marginally satisfied, leading to a recollapse of the local universe on a time scale comparable to the lifetime of the Sun. In the latter case, the effective equation of state varies appreciably with the redshift, leading to a number of testable predictions

  3. Tools for monitoring aquatic environments to identify anthropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Cândido, Liliam Silva; Pereira, Joelson Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti

    2018-01-05

    Anthropic activities are directly related to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems owing to the release of numerous chemicals from agricultural and urban waste. These contaminants cause environmental degradation and a decrease in the availability of water quality. The objective of this search was to evaluate the efficiency of physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological tests; extraction of chlorophyll a; and genetic parameters to identify anthropic activities and weather condition effects on the stream water quality and the consequences of its use by the population. The physicochemical parameters were within the limits allowed by the Brazilian law. However, contamination by metals (Cd 0.510 mg L -1 , Co 0.405 mg L -1 , and Ni 0.316 mg L -1 ) has been found at various collection points to be more than the allowable values. The antibiotic oxytetracycline was detected in stream water in quantities of up to 89 μg L -1 . In relation to microbiological contamination, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp. have been isolated. The averages of chlorophyll a were up to 0.15558 mg cm -2 . Genetic tools identified greater number of micronuclei and DNA damage in periods that showed lower rainfall rates and lower amounts of metals. The analysis used for monitoring was efficient to verify the interference that animal breeding and planting of different cultures have caused on that stream. Thus, the continued use of this water for drinking, irrigation of vegetables, and recreational activities makes the population susceptible to contamination by bacteria and creates conditions for the development of genetic alterations in the long run.

  4. Anthropic Reasoning about Fine-Tuning, and Neoclassical Cosmology: Providence, Omnipresence, and Observation Selection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropic reasoning about observation selection effects upon the appearance of cosmic providential fine-tuning (fine-tuning that provides for life) is often motivated by a desire to avoid theological implications (implications favoring the idea of a divine cosmic provider) without appealing to sheer lucky-for-us-cosmic-jackpot happenstance and coincidence. Cosmic coincidence can be rendered less incredible by appealing to a multiverse context. Cosmic providence can be rendered non-theological by appealing to an agent-less providential purpose, or by appealing to less-than-omnipresent/local providers, such as alien intelligences creating life- providing baby universes. Instead of choosing either cosmic coincidence or cosmic providence, as though they were mutually exclusive; it is better to accept both. Neoclassical thought accepts coincidence and providence, plus many local providers and one omnipresent provider. Moreover, fundamental observation selection theory should distinguish the many local observers of some events from the one omnipresent observer of all events. Accepting both coincidence and providence avoids classical theology (providence without coincidence) and classical atheism (coincidence without providence), but not neoclassical theology (providence with coincidence). Cosmology cannot avoid the idea of an all-inclusive omnipresent providential dice-throwing living-creative whole of reality, an idea essential to neoclassical theology, and to neoclassical cosmology.

  5. Enrichment of marsh soils with heavy metals by effect of anthropic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Flora A.; Covelo, Emma F.; Cerqueira, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The impact of waste disposal on marsh soils was assessed in topsoil samples collected at eight randomly selected points in the salt marsh in Ramallosa (Pontevedra, Spain) at 4-month intervals for 2 years. Polluted soil samples were characterized in physico-chemical terms and their heavy metal contents determined by comparison with control, unpolluted samples. The results revealed a marked effect of waste discharges on the soils in the area, which have low contents in heavy metals under normal environmental conditions. In fact, the studied soils were found to contain substantial amounts of total and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Based on the relationship of the redox potential with the DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of the soils, strongly reductive conditions raised the total contents in these elements by effect of their remaining in the soils as precipitated sulphides. Such contents, however, decreased as oxidative conditions gradually prevailed. The contents in DTPA-extractable metals increased with increasing Eh through the release of the metals in ionic form to the soil solution under oxidative conditions. The contents in heavy metals concentrating in the polluted soils were several times higher than those in the control soils (viz. 2 vs. 6 for Cd, 4 vs. 6 for Cu, 4 vs. 20 for Pb, and 2 vs. 15 for Zn, all in mg kg -1 ). This can be expected to influence the amounts of available heavy metals present in the soils, and hence the environmental quality of the area, in the near future. Based on its geoaccumulation index (Class ≥3 for Cd and Cu, and 1-4 for Pb and Zn), the Ramallosa marsh is highly polluted with Cd and moderately to highly polluted with Cu, Pb and Zn. The enrichment factors obtained confirm that the salt marsh is highly polluted (especially with Cd) as the primary result of anthropic activity.

  6. Arthropods Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes: Effects of Land Use and Anthropization

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    Enrico Previati

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The greatest proportion of Po river plain is occupied by arable lands. Negative effects of modern intensive agriculture on biodiversity can derive from various phenomena operating at different spatial scales, from local to regional ones. If agricultural fields are subjected to periodical disturbances by farming practices, also landscape structure can influence community structure in the fields providing refugial areas or alternative trophic resources. In the same way in perennial habitats, such as strips and meadows, community structure and composition may be linked to both local factors and surrounding land use, that can influence organism persistence and dispersal mechanisms. We studied some natural and anthropized habitats in a wide agricultural area in the province of Ferrara (conventional annual and perennial fields, herbaceous strips, hedgerows and meadows to investigate relationships between arthropod community structure and both local impact factors (habitat type, management and surronding landscape structure and use. Results from uni and multivariate analysis showed a great influence on trophic and taxonomic structure of habitat type and quality.A less complex landscape had only slightly influence on trophic structure, leading to higher abundance and richness of generalist taxa. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of maintaining high-quality habitats to enhance arthopod diversity in agricultural landscapes.

  7. Effect of the degree of anthropization in the structure, at three sites fragmented evergreen piedmont forest

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    Hugo Gabriel Sánchez Villacis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian Amazon is recognized worldwide for its extraordinary megadiversity and multiplicity of forest goods and services. However, the inadequate practices of extractive use of non-timber forest products, the clearing of extensive areas of forests for the development of oil activity and the unsustainable use of timber as economic sustenance of communities have led to structural and functional changes In ecosystems. The study was carried out in three sites of a degraded evergreen forest of the eastern Amazon (Mera, Shell and Puyo in order to evaluate the effect of the degree of intervention on the forest structure. A floristic inventory was carried out with 60 plots of 25 x 25 m2 and tree species ≥ 2.5 cm d1.30 and species in natural regeneration phase with h <2 m were measured. We found 35 families, 65 genera, 101 species and 2 298 individuals, with Arecaceae, Fabaceae and Moraceae being the most representative botanical families. The degree of anthropization was highly modified where Mera was the best state of conservation. It was evidenced a low floristic diversity with patterns of alteration in the vertical and horizontal structure, distinguished phytosociologically by two strata in the sites of Shell and Puyo and by three in Mera, indicator of structural changes.

  8. Anthropization Effects on the Filamentous Fungal Community of the Brazilian Catimbau National Park

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    Roberta Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Caatinga biome features an exclusive endemic biodiversity, and is characterized by the presence of xerophytic, deciduous vegetation, high temperatures, and low rainfall. This important park has undergone anthropization, especially through extraction of firewood and timber and growing plants for raising goats. The objectives of this study were to compare the communities of filamentous fungi present in the preserved area and in the anthropized soil of the Catimbau National Park in Buíque, PE, Brazil, and to evaluate the impacts of anthropization on such communities. A total of 12 collections of soil samples were made, six in the preserved area and six in the anthropic area, and the physicochemical properties of the soil samples were analyzed. Fungi were isolated through suspension and serial dilution methods. After growth, the samples were purified and identified based on classical taxonomy, according to specific literature. The diversity, evenness, richness, dominance, frequency, and similarity among the species of filamentous fungi in both areas were assessed based on ecological indexes. A total of 4,488 colony-forming units of filamentous fungi were obtained, which were distributed into 65 species belonging to 15 genera. In the preserved area, higher abundance and richness of species were observed, with predominance of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. In both areas, diversity and equitability were high, demonstrating that the species are well distributed in these areas. In the preserved area, the dominant genera were Aspergillus, Gongronella, and Penicillium, whereas Aspergillus was the dominant genus in the anthropic area. Two distinct communities were observed in the areas analyzed. Principal component analysis showed that Penicillium simplicissimum influences the total diversity of both communities. The anthropization that occurred in the Catimbau National Park has changed the composition of the filamentous fungal

  9. The anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)

  10. Anthropic prediction for a large multi-jump landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz-Perlov, Delia

    2008-01-01

    The assumption of a flat prior distribution plays a critical role in the anthropic prediction of the cosmological constant. In a previous paper we analytically calculated the distribution for the cosmological constant, including the prior and anthropic selection effects, in a large toy 'single-jump' landscape model. We showed that it is possible for the fractal prior distribution that we found to behave as an effectively flat distribution in a wide class of landscapes, but only if the single-jump size is large enough. We extend this work here by investigating a large (N∼10 500 ) toy 'multi-jump' landscape model. The jump sizes range over three orders of magnitude and an overall free parameter c determines the absolute size of the jumps. We will show that for 'large' c the distribution of probabilities of vacua in the anthropic range is effectively flat, and thus the successful anthropic prediction is validated. However, we argue that for small c, the distribution may not be smooth

  11. Suceava Anthropic Torrential Basin - Prolegomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Emil BRICIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One problem discussed by urban hydrology today is the draining influence of the modern cities over the natural drainage systems. The increasing urban areas and of their imperviousness all over theworld is linked to floods shape modifications and unpredicted systemic implications.  Generally, the draining influence of a city over its environment begins when it has a surface great enough to create an anthropic-generated runoff during a rain with enoughprecipitations to provoke waters accumulation into street torrents. The size, imperviousness, precipitations, drainage system and water consumption of the Suceava city are analysed in order to estimate the discharge of the city into Suceava river at various rainfalls. The article is structured as follows:1. Argumentation on the class separation between natural and anthropic torrential basins.2. Placing Suceava city as one of the torrential anthropic basins in Romania using basic arguments.3. Extending one of the argument, the importance of the rainfalls, in more detailed discussions (rainfall characteristics mainly, but also its cumulative effect with the floods on the Suceava river and the consumption of water in the city, with two scenarios. 4. The city is analysed as being integrated into a metropolitan area which can exacerbate the influence of the main city over the surrounding natural drainage basins nearby that area.5. Conclusions, where measures are proposed in order to diminish the potential negative effects on environment and human society.This article is only an introduction to a more detailed analysis which will be complete with further field data.

  12. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~ 6700 km, from Burundi and Rwanda highlands south of the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes. It is thus the longest natural laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are carrying out a continuing research project to investigate changes in sediment composition associated with a variety of chemical and physical processes, including weathering in equatorial climate and hydraulic sorting during transport and deposition. Petrographic, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic fingerprints of sand and mud have been monitored along all Nile branches, from the Kagera and White Nile draining Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basements uplifted along the western branch of the East African rift, to the Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers sourced in Ethiopian volcanic highlands made of Oligocene basalt. Downstream of the Atbara confluence, the Nile receives no significant tributary water and hardly any rainfall across the Sahara. After construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, the Nile ceased to be an active conveyor-belt in Egypt, where the mighty river has been tamed to a water canal; transported sediments are thus chiefly reworked from older bed and levee deposits, with minor contributions from widyan sourced in the Red Sea Hills and wind-blown desert sand and dust. Extensive dam construction has determined a dramatic sediment deficit at the mouth, where deltaic cusps are undergoing ravaging erosion. Nile delta sediments are thus recycled under the effect of dominant waves from the northwest, the longest Mediterranean fetch direction. Nile sands, progressively enriched in more stable minerals such as quartz and amphiboles relative to volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene, thus undergo multistep transport by E- and NE-directed longshore currents all along the coast of Egypt and Palestine, and are carried as far as Akko Bay in northern Israel. Nile mud reaches the Iskenderun Gulf in southern Turkey. A full

  13. Neogeomorphology, prediction, and the anthropic landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    The surface of the earth is undergoing profound change due to human impact. By some measures the level of human impact is comparable to the effects of major classical geomorphic processes such as fluvial sediment transport. This change is occurring rapidly, has no geologic precedent, and may represent an irreversible transition to a new and novel landscape with which we have no experience. For these reasons prediction of future landscape evolution will be of increasing importance. The combination of physical and social forces that drive modern landscape change represents the Anthropic Force. Neogeomorphology is the study of the Anthropic Force and its present and likely future effects on the landscape. Unique properties associated with the Anthropic Force include consciousness, intention and design. These properties support the occurrence of nonclassical geomorphic phenomena, such as landscape planning, engineering, and management. The occurrence of short time-scale phenomena induced by anthropic landscape change, the direct effects of this change on society, and the ability to anticipate and intentionally influence the future trajectory of the global landscape underscore the importance of prediction in a neogeomorphic world.

  14. Understanding shallow landslides in Campos do Jordão municipality - Brazil: disentangling the anthropic effects from natural causes in the disaster of 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rodolfo M.; de Andrade, Márcio Roberto M.; Tomasella, Javier; de Moraes, Márcio Augusto E.; Scofield, Graziela B.

    2018-01-01

    Located in a mountainous area of south-eastern Brazil, the municipality of Campos do Jordão has been hit by several landslides in recent history. Among those events, the landslides of early 2000 were significant in terms of the number of deaths (10), the population affected and the destruction of infrastructure that was caused. The purpose of this study is to assess the relative contribution of natural and human factors to triggering the landslides of the 2000 event. To achieve this goal, a detailed geotechnical survey was conducted in three representative slopes of the area to obtain geotechnical parameters needed for slope stability analysis. Then, a set of numerical experiments with GEO-SLOPE software was designed, including separate natural and anthropic factors. Results showed that natural factors, that is, high-intensity rainfall and geotechnical conditions, were not severe enough to trigger landslides in the study area and that human disturbance was entirely responsible for the landslide events of 2000. Since the anthropic effects used in the simulations are typical of hazardous urban areas in Brazil, we concluded that the implementation of public policies that constrain the occupation of landslide susceptible areas are urgently needed.

  15. Understanding shallow landslides in Campos do Jordão municipality – Brazil: disentangling the anthropic effects from natural causes in the disaster of 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Mendes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Located in a mountainous area of south-eastern Brazil, the municipality of Campos do Jordão has been hit by several landslides in recent history. Among those events, the landslides of early 2000 were significant in terms of the number of deaths (10, the population affected and the destruction of infrastructure that was caused. The purpose of this study is to assess the relative contribution of natural and human factors to triggering the landslides of the 2000 event. To achieve this goal, a detailed geotechnical survey was conducted in three representative slopes of the area to obtain geotechnical parameters needed for slope stability analysis. Then, a set of numerical experiments with GEO-SLOPE software was designed, including separate natural and anthropic factors. Results showed that natural factors, that is, high-intensity rainfall and geotechnical conditions, were not severe enough to trigger landslides in the study area and that human disturbance was entirely responsible for the landslide events of 2000. Since the anthropic effects used in the simulations are typical of hazardous urban areas in Brazil, we concluded that the implementation of public policies that constrain the occupation of landslide susceptible areas are urgently needed.

  16. Seeking anthropic answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.jaffe@imperial.ac.uk

    2006-11-15

    The anthropic principle, as originally expressed by Brandon Carter in 1974, states that: 'What we can expect to observe must be restricted by the conditions necessary for our presence as observers'. That is, given that we are here, we already know that the universe must have had properties - values of coupling constants, number of space-time dimensions, magnitude of the cosmological constant, and so on - such that life could evolve. Is this a vacuous statement, a tautology? Is it at least descriptive? Or could it even be predictive - can we get a better handle on fundamental theories armed with this knowledge? Davies, a cosmologist who has just moved to Arizona State University in the US, starts by inverting the question to ask what it is about the properties of the universe that make it so perfectly suited to life. In the canonical example, Fred Hoyle pointed out that the formation of heavy elements in stars depends exquisitely on thermonuclear reaction rates. Tiny deviations in either direction would make stars unable to turn helium into the carbon of which all life (with the usual 'as we know it' caveat that lurks behind these arguments) is made. But these rates are not written in any obvious way into the fabric of the Standard Model of particle physics. They just emerge in an as-yet incalculable way from the more fundamental parameters of the model. The first half of The Goldilocks Enigma is a workmanlike introduction to the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. This material has been treated at least as well elsewhere, but is necessary background for the discussion of the anthropic argument itself. But it is when Davies moves into these murkier waters that he starts to get into trouble. Still, Davies himself is convinced that these arguments have force. He describes two extreme possibilities: a unique, 'just-so' universe that will only be understandable in the light of a truly final theory; and an &apos

  17. Relaxion: A landscape without anthropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ann; Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2017-12-01

    The relaxion mechanism provides a potentially elegant solution to the hierarchy problem without resorting to anthropic or other fine-tuning arguments. This mechanism introduces an axion-like field, dubbed the relaxion, whose expectation value determines the electroweak hierarchy as well as the QCD strong C P -violating θ ¯ parameter. During an inflationary period, the Higgs mass squared is selected to be negative and hierarchically small in a theory which is consistent with 't Hooft's technical naturalness criteria. However, in the original model proposed by Graham, Kaplan, and Rajendran [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 221801 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.221801], the relaxion does not solve the strong C P problem, and in fact contributes to it, as the coupling of the relaxion to the Higgs field and the introduction of a linear potential for the relaxion produces large strong C P violation. We resolve this tension by considering inflation with a Hubble scale which is above the QCD scale but below the weak scale, and estimating the Hubble temperature dependence of the axion mass. The relaxion potential is thus very different during inflation than it is today. We find that provided the inflationary Hubble scale is between the weak scale and about 3 GeV, the relaxion resolves the hierarchy, strong C P , and dark matter problems in a way that is technically natural.

  18. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  19. Axions and the anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowrick, N.; McDougall, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the possibility that the axion density in the Universe today may be constrained by the anthropic requirement that life should have evolved. If this were the case, the force of the usual cosmological bound on the axion decay constant would be greatly lessened. However, we find no mechanism by which excessive axion energy density could prevent the condensation of matter into potentially life-nurturing structures

  20. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  1. Cosmological Constant and the Final Anthropic Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cirkovic, Milan M.; Bostrom, Nick

    1999-01-01

    The influence of recent detections of a finite vacuum energy ("cosmological constant") on our formulation of anthropic conjectures, particularly the so-called Final Anthropic Principle is investigated. It is shown that non-zero vacuum energy implies the onset of a quasi-exponential expansion of our causally connected domain ("the universe") at some point in the future, a stage similar to the inflationary expansion at the very beginning of time. The transition to this future inflationary phase...

  2. Anthropic Risk Assessment on Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piragnolo, M.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.; Salogni, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment of anthropic activities on habitats and species. The method has been developed for Veneto Region, in order to simplify and improve the quality of EIA procedure (VINCA). Habitats and species, animals and plants, are protected by European Directive 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC but they are subject at hazard due to pollution produced by human activities. Biodiversity risks may conduct to deterioration and disturbance in ecological niches, with consequence of loss of biodiversity. Ecological risk assessment applied on Natura 2000 network, is needed to best practice of management and monitoring of environment and natural resources. Threats, pressure and activities, stress and indicators may be managed by geodatabase and analysed using GIS technology. The method used is the classic risk assessment in ecological context, and it defines the natural hazard as influence, element of risk as interference and vulnerability. Also it defines a new parameter called pressure. It uses risk matrix for the risk analysis on spatial and temporal scale. The methodology is qualitative and applies the precautionary principle in environmental assessment. The final product is a matrix which excludes the risk and could find application in the development of a territorial information system.

  3. Trading by Quantum Rules - Quantum Anthropic Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Piotrowski, E. W.; Sladkowski, J.

    2002-01-01

    This is a short review of the background and recent development in quantum game theory and its possible application in economics and finance. The intersection of science and society is discussed and Quantum Anthropic Principle is put forward. The review is addressed to non-specialists.

  4. Anthropic principle in biology and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akif'ev, A. P.; Degtyarev, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    It was suggested to add the anthropic principle of the Universe according to which the physical constants of fundamental particles of matter and the laws of their counteraction are those that an appearance of man and mind becomes possible and necessary, with some biological constants to the set of fundamental constants. With reparation of DNA as an example it was shown how a cell ran some parameters of Watson-Crick double helix. It was pointed that the concept of the anthropic principle of the Universe in its full body including biological constants was a key to developing of a unified theory of evolution of the Universe within the limits of scientific creationism [ru

  5. Copernicus, Kant, and the anthropic cosmological principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Sherrilyn

    In the last three decades several cosmological principles and styles of reasoning termed 'anthropic' have been introduced into physics research and popular accounts of the universe and human beings' place in it. I discuss the circumstances of 'fine tuning' that have motivated this development, and what is common among the principles. I examine the two primary principles, and find a sharp difference between these 'Weak' and 'Strong' varieties: contrary to the view of the progenitors that all anthropic principles represent a departure from Copernicanism in cosmology, the Weak Anthropic Principle is an instance of Copernicanism. It has close affinities with the step of Copernicus that Immanuel Kant took himself to be imitating in the 'critical' turn that gave rise to the Critique of Pure Reason. I conclude that the fact that a way of going about natural science mentions human beings is not sufficient reason to think that it is a subjective approach; in fact, it may need to mention human beings in order to be objective.

  6. Is the Strong Anthropic Principle too weak?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoli, A.; Rampone, S.

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss Carter's formula about the mankind evolution probability following the derivation proposed by Barrow and Tipler. The authors stress the relation between the existence of billions galaxies and the evolution of at least one intelligent life, whose living time is not trivial, all over the Universe. The authors show that the existence probability and the lifetime of a civilization depend not only on the evolutionary critical steps, but also on the number of places where the life can arise. In the light of these results, are proposed a stronger version of Anthropic Principle

  7. Isocurvature forecast in the anthropic axion window

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, J; Raffelt, G G; Wong, Y Y Y

    2009-01-01

    We explore the cosmological sensitivity to the amplitude of isocurvature fluctuations that would be caused by axions in the "anthropic window" where the axion decay constant f_a >> 10^12 GeV and the initial misalignment angle Theta_i << 1. In a minimal Lambda-CDM cosmology extended with subdominant scale-invariant isocurvature fluctuations, existing data constrain the isocurvature fraction to alpha < 0.09 at 95% C.L. If no signal shows up, Planck can improve this constraint to 0.042 while an ultimate CMB probe limited only by cosmic variance in both temperature and E-polarisation can reach 0.017, about a factor of five better than the current limit. In the parameter space of f_a and H_I (Hubble parameter during inflation) we identify a small region where axion detection remains within the reach of realistic cosmological probes.

  8. Vulnerability of sandy coasts to climate change and anthropic pressures: methodology and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idier, D.; Poumadère, M.; Vinchon, C.; Romieu, E.; Oliveros, C.

    2009-04-01

    1-INTRODUCTION Climate change is considered in the latest reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC (2007) as unequivocal. Induced vulnerability of the system is defined as "the combination of sensitivity to climatic variations, probability of adverse effects, and adaptive capacity". Substantial methodological challenges remain, in particular estimating the risk of adverse climate change impacts and interpreting relative vulnerability across diverse situations. As stated by the IPCC, the "coastal systems should be considered vulnerable to changes in climate". In these areas, amongst the most serious impacts of sea-level rise (Nicholls, 1996) are erosion and marine inundation. Thus, the coast of metropolitan France, being composed of 31% sandy coasts, is potentially vulnerable, as it has been qualitatively assessed on the pilot coasts of Aquitaine and Languedoc-Roussillon in the RESPONSE project (Vinchon et al., 2008). Within the ANR VULSACO project (VULnerability of SAndy COast to climate change and anthropic pressure), the present day erosion tendencies as well as the potentially future erosion trends are investigated. The main objectives are to: (1) assess indicators of vulnerability to climate change for low-lying linear sandy coastal systems, from the shore to the hinterland, facing undergoing climate change and anthropic pressure until the 2030s; and (2) identify the aggravating or improving effect of human pressure on this vulnerability. This second issue is sometimes considered as a main driver of coastal risks. The methodology proposed in the project considers anthropic adaptation (or not) by putting decision makers in front of potential modifications of the physical system, to study the decision process and the choice of adaptation (or not). The coastal system is defined by its morphology, its physical characteristics and its land use. The time scales will range from short-term (days to weeks, e.g. time scale of extreme events) to

  9. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP 1 and WAP 2 . We show that WAP 2 , the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP 1 , however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP 1 is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning

  10. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Steven [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2006-06-21

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP{sub 1} and WAP{sub 2}. We show that WAP{sub 2}, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP{sub 1}, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP{sub 1} is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning.

  11. A Non-anthropic Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spivey R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating cosmological expansion is driven by a minuscule vacuum energy density possibly seeking opportunities to decay to a true ground state. Quasar characteristics imply their central engines possess an intrinsic magnetic field compatible with the pres- ence of an electrically charged toroidal dark hole, an eternally collapsing structure lack- ing an event horizon. The possibility is consistent with the inability of black holes to capture particles in a universe of finite age, Einstein’s dismissal of the Schwarzschild metric as unphysical and the implausibility of the various paradoxes invoked by black hole existence. The uncloaked innards of these dark holes would expose immense vac- uum accelerations at their cores, inevitably tempered by Planck scale physics. The Unruh effect predicts that intense yet highly localised heating should occur there. As thermal energy gradually amasses and dissipates, radiation would eventually start to escape into the surrounding environment. Virtual from the d ark hole perspective, the emissions could not decrease the dark hole’s mass: the energy source must instead be the universal vacuum, the likely repository of dark energy. In analogy with core- collapse supernovae, neutrinos should dominate the cooling flows. Red-shifting to low energies upon escape, quantum degenerate haloes should for m predominantly around the largest galaxies. This mechanism is promising from the perspective of enabling the future universe to efficiently sustain aquatic life before stars become scarce, offering a biological yet decidedly non-anthropic solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  12. Can anthropic fires affect epigaeic and hypogaeic Cerrado ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) communities in the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo-Júnior, Ernesto de Oliveira; Cuissi, Rafael Gonçalves; Nelson Henrique de Almeida, Curi; Demetrio, Guilherme Ramos; Lasmar, Chaim José; Malves, Kira

    2016-03-01

    Fire occurrences are a common perturbation in Cerrado ecosystems, and may differently impact the local biodiversity. Arthropods are one of the taxa affected by fires, and among them, ants are known as good bioindicators. We aimed to evaluate the effect of anthropic fires on epigaeic and hypogaeic ant communities (species richness and composition) in Cerrado areas with different post-fire event recovery periods. We conducted the study in four Cerrado areas during two weeks of 2012 dry season: one unburned and three at different post-fire times (one month, one and two years). We sampled ants with pitfall traps in epigaeic and hypogaeic microhabitats. We collected 71 ant morpho-species from 25 genera. In the epigaeic microhabitat we sampled 56 morpho-species and 42 in the hypogaeic microhabitat. The area with the shortest recovery time presented lower epigaeic ant species richness (4.3 ± 2.00) in comparison to the other areas (8.1 ± 2.68 species on one year area; 10.3 ± 2.66 species on two years area; 10.4 ± 2.31 species on control area), but recovery time did not affect hypogaeic ant species richness. Regarding ant species composition, fire did not directly affect hypogaeic ant species, which remained the same even one month after fire event. However, two years were not enough to reestablish ant species composition in both microhabitats in relation to our control group samples. Our study is the first to assess anthropic fire effects upon epigaeic and hypogaeic ants communities; highlighting the importance of evaluating different microhabitats, to more accurately detect the effects of anthropic disturbances in biological communities. We concluded that ant communities are just partially affected by fire occurrences, and epigaeic assemblages are the most affected ones in comparison to hypogaeic ants. Furthermore the study provides knowledge to aid in the creation of vegetation management programs that allow Cerrado conservation.

  13. Eco-Anthropic Compatibility - a Multidisciplinary Model in Urban Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO L. BIANCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a multidisciplinary model of urban development which goes beyond the notion of ecological sustainability, by building on the concept of eco-anthropic compatibility. First of all I will sketch the historical development of human aggregations and I will underline the difference between ancient and modern aggregations. On the basis of this analysis, I will take into consideration the notion of sustainability and its possible application to present conurbations. I will underline several limits of the notion of sustainable development and I will propose a multidisciplinary model grounded on a broader and new notion: the eco-anthropic compatibility. Using this notion, which includes the idea of sustainability, it is possible to handle, within the model, the human factors and human living conditions inside an urban aggregation. Finally, I will state that the actual urban model is decaying and therefore, sooner or later, we will have to face the end of urban civilization; for this reason we can start imagining new future ways for human aggregations on the planet based on the notion of eco-anthropic compatibility.

  14. Vascular epiphytes and host trees of ant-gardens in an anthropic landscape in southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Linares, Jonas; García-Franco, José G.; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Valenzuela-González, Jorge E.; Mata-Rosas, Martín; Díaz-Castelazo, Cecilia

    2016-12-01

    Ant-gardens (AGs) are considered one of the most complex mutualist systems between ants and plants, since interactions involving dispersal, protection, and nutrition occur simultaneously in them; however, little is known about the effects of the transformation of ecosystems on their diversity and interactions. In five environments with different land use within an anthropic landscape in southeastern Mexico, we investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytes and host trees of AGs built by Azteca gnava. A total of 10,871 individuals of 26 epiphytic species, associating with 859 AGs located in 161 host trees, were recorded. The diversity and composition of epiphytes tended to be different between environments; however, Aechmea tillandsioides and Codonanthe uleana were the most important species and considered true AG epiphytes, because they were the most frequent, abundant, and occurred exclusively in AGs. Other important species were the orchids Epidendrum flexuosum, Coryanthes picturata, and Epidendrum pachyrachis, and should also be considered true AG epiphytes, because they occurred almost exclusively in the AGs. The AG abundance in agroforestry plantations was similar or even greater than in riparian vegetation (natural habitat). The AGs were registered in 37 host species but were more frequent in Mangifera indica and Citrus sinensis. We conclude that true epiphytes of A. gnava AGs persist in different environments and host trees, and even these AGs could proliferate in agroforestry plantations of anthropic landscapes.

  15. Anthropics of aluminum-26 decay and biological homochirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2017-11-01

    Results of recent experiment reinstate feasibility to the hypothesis that biomolecular homochirality originates from beta decay. Coupled with hints that this process occurred extraterrestrially suggests aluminum-26 as the most likely source. If true, then its appropriateness is highly dependent on the half-life and energy of this decay. Demanding that this mechanism hold places new constraints on the anthropically allowed range for multiple parameters, including the electron mass, difference between up and down quark masses, the fine structure constant, and the electroweak scale. These new constraints on particle masses are tighter than those previously found. However, one edge of the allowed region is nearly degenerate with an existing bound, which, using what is termed here as `the principle of noncoincident peril', is argued to be a strong indicator that the fine structure constant must be an environmental parameter in the multiverse.

  16. AnthropMMD: An R package with a graphical user interface for the mean measure of divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    The mean measure of divergence is a dissimilarity measure between groups of individuals described by dichotomous variables. It is well suited to datasets with many missing values, and it is generally used to compute distance matrices and represent phenograms. Although often used in biological anthropology and archaeozoology, this method suffers from a lack of implementation in common statistical software. A package for the R statistical software, AnthropMMD, is presented here. Offering a dynamic graphical user interface, it is the first one dedicated to Smith's mean measure of divergence. The package also provides facilities for graphical representations and the crucial step of trait selection, so that the entire analysis can be performed through the graphical user interface. Its use is demonstrated using an artificial dataset, and the impact of trait selection is discussed. Finally, AnthropMMD is compared to three other free tools available for calculating the mean measure of divergence, and is proven to be consistent with them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. GOOD AND EVIL AS VECTORS OF FREE WILL IN THE STRUCTURE OF ANTHROPIC TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Khanzhy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed at comprehending good and evil as vectors of free will in the structure of anthropic time. Methodology. The study is based on: 1 the general theory of systems (A. I. Uyomov, A. Yu. Tsofnas, L. N. Terentyeva – while justifying the possibility of representing the anthropic time as a system in general; 2 synergetics – while considering the anthropic time as a complex self-organizing system; 3 the concept of «а whole in a whole» (I. V. Yershova-Babenko – while identifying the optimal principle of correlation of the time units, taking into attention their ethical multi-vectority. Originality. In the context of the reconstruction of the concept of anthropic time: 1 the authors revealed ethical vectors of expansion of free will as the driving principle of human temporality (the vectors of «freedom for good» and «freedom for evil»; 2 the authors justified the optimality of using the principle of complementarity in solving the problem of harmonizing the coexistence of units of anthropic time («matryoshkas of time». Conclusion. 1 In a line with the tradition of anthropologization of the problem of good and evil, these intentions of human activity are interpreted as vectors of free will in the structure of anthropic time; 2 the paper represented anthropic time as a system in general (based on the general theory of systems and as a complex self-organizing system in particular (based on a synergetic methodology; 3 constituting of the system of anthropic time by the existential-actionable concept allowed to overcome the position of the one-vectored time, i.e.to reveal the ethical binarity of the anthropic time vectors prepared by the duality of expansion of free will as its driving principle; 4 formulation of the problem of discrepancy between the intentions of different temporal systems showed the optimality of the complementarity principle in solving the question how to harmonize the relations of anthropic time

  18. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  19. INVECTIVES AS ANTHROP METAPHORS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LEXEME "CUNT"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOLODNAYA V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to some formats and contexts of using the word "cunt" as an anthrop metaphors within the corpora approach. The metaphor gradation takes place in the framework of a binary opposition "We/Ours" - "They/Others", in which target groups referents are presented in a negative/positive way. The anthrop metaphor "cunt" is hypothesized to appear as a result of its emotive meaning's reconsideration.

  20. INVECTIVES AS ANTHROP METAPHORS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LEXEME "CUNT")

    OpenAIRE

    GOLODNAYA V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to some formats and contexts of using the word "cunt" as an anthrop metaphors within the corpora approach. The metaphor gradation takes place in the framework of a binary opposition "We/Ours" - "They/Others", in which target groups referents are presented in a negative/positive way. The anthrop metaphor "cunt" is hypothesized to appear as a result of its emotive meaning's reconsideration.

  1. Modern Cosmology and Anthropic Fine-Tuning: Three approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robin

    The anthropic fine-tuning of the cosmos refers to the claim that the laws of nature, the constants of physics, and the initial conditions of the universe must be set to an enormous degree of precision for embodied conscious agents to exist. Three major responses have been offered to this fine-tuning: the multiverse explanation; theism; and the claim that it is just a brute fact that requires no further explanation. In this chapter, I will consider each explanation in turn, and provide some novel arguments for the superiority of a theistic or related explanation. In the last section, I will show how whether or not one adopts a theistic or related explanation can significantly influence what features of the universe one considers in need of further scientific explanation, and the type of scientific explanation that one should find satisfactory. In particular, I will argue that in some cases atheism, not theism, serves as a science stopper in discouraging a search for deeper scientific explanations of phenomena.

  2. An infrared divergence in the cosmological measure theory and the anthropic reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, A.V.; Astashenok, A.V.; Shpilevoi, A.A.; Yurov, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    An anthropic principle has made it possible to answer the difficult question of why the observable value of cosmological constant (Λ∝10 -47 GeV 4 ) is so disconcertingly tiny compared to the predicted value of vacuum energy density ρ SUSY ∝10 12 GeV 4 . Unfortunately, there is a darker side to this argument; being combined with the cosmic heat death scenario, it consequently leads to another absurd prediction: the probability of randomly selected observer observing Λ=0 ends up being exactly equal to 1. We shall call this controversy an infrared divergence problem. It is shown that the IRD prediction can be avoided with the help of a singular runaway measure coupled with the calculation of relative Bayesian probabilities by the means of the doomsday argument. Moreover, it is shown that while the IRD problem occurs for the prediction stage of value of Λ, it disappears at the explanatory stage when Λ has already been measured by the observer. (orig.)

  3. Investigating precipitation changes of anthropic origin: data and methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2017-04-01

    There is much concern about the social, environmental and economic impacts of climate change that could result directly from changes in temperature and precipitation. For temperature, the situation is better understood; but despite the many studies that have been already dedicated to precipitation, change in this process - that could be associated to the transition to the Anthropocene - has not yet been convincingly proven. A large fraction of those studies have been exploring temporal (linear) trends in local precipitation, sometimes using records over only a few decades; other fewer studies have been dedicated to investigating global precipitation change. Overall, precipitation change of anthropic origin has showed to be difficult to establish with high statistical significance and, moreover, different data and products have displayed important discrepancies; this is valid even for global precipitation. We argue that the inadequate resolution and length of the data commonly used, as well as methodological issues, are among the main factors limiting the ability to identify the signature of change in precipitation. We propose several ways in which one can hope to improve the situation - or at least - clarify the difficulties. From the point of view of statistical analysis, the problem is one of detecting a low frequency anthropogenic signal in the presence of "noise" - the natural variability (the latter includes both internal dynamics and responses to volcanic, solar or other natural forcings). A consequence is that as one moves to longer and longer time scales, fluctuations are increasingly averaged and at some point, the anthropogenic signal will stand out above the natural variability noise. This approach can be systematized using scaling fluctuation analysis to characterizing different precipitation scaling regimes: weather, macroweather, climate - from higher to lower frequencies; in the anthropocene, the macroweather regime covers the range of time scales

  4. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  5. The lore of large numbers: some historical background to the anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of how the study of numerological coincidences in physics and cosmology led first to the Large Numbers Hypothesis of Dirac and then to the suggestion of the Anthropic Principle in a variety of forms. The early history of 'coincidences' is discussed together with the work of Weyl, Eddington and Dirac. (author)

  6. Guidelines for Effective Selective Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Joel D.; Shields, Joyce L.

    Defining selective listening as an intelligence gathering technique that depends on an individual's ability to access, monitor, and report oral messages accurately and to give processing priority to messages of possible intelligence value, this report describes one important application of the technique: overhearing the conversations of others…

  7. Disfluency effects on lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medimorec, Srdan; Young, Torin P; Risko, Evan F

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that introducing a disfluency in the context of written composition (i.e., typing with one hand) can increase lexical sophistication. In the current study, we provide a strong test between two accounts of this phenomenon, one that attributes it to the delay caused by the disfluency and one that attributes it to the disruption of typical finger-to-letter mappings caused by the disfluency. To test between these accounts, we slowed down participants' typewriting by introducing a small delay between keystrokes while individuals wrote essays. Critically, this manipulation did not disrupt typical finger-to-letter mappings. Consistent with the delay-based account, our results demonstrate that the essays written in this less fluent condition were more lexically diverse and used less frequent words. Implications for the temporal dynamics of lexical selection in complex cognitive tasks are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Choi, Seongsoo; Holm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The role of education in the process of socioeconomic attainment is a topic of long standing interest to sociologists and economists. Recently there has been growing interest not only in estimating the average causal effect of education on outcomes such as earnings, but also in estimating how...... causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects....... This might lead us to find heterogeneous effects when the true effect is homogenous, or to wrongly estimate not only the magnitude but also the sign of heterogeneous effects. We apply a test for the robustness of heterogeneous causal effects in the face of varying degrees and patterns of selection bias...

  9. Non-additive Effects in Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Varona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, genomic selection has become a standard in the genetic evaluation of livestock populations. However, most procedures for the implementation of genomic selection only consider the additive effects associated with SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers used to calculate the prediction of the breeding values of candidates for selection. Nevertheless, the availability of estimates of non-additive effects is of interest because: (i they contribute to an increase in the accuracy of the prediction of breeding values and the genetic response; (ii they allow the definition of mate allocation procedures between candidates for selection; and (iii they can be used to enhance non-additive genetic variation through the definition of appropriate crossbreeding or purebred breeding schemes. This study presents a review of methods for the incorporation of non-additive genetic effects into genomic selection procedures and their potential applications in the prediction of future performance, mate allocation, crossbreeding, and purebred selection. The work concludes with a brief outline of some ideas for future lines of that may help the standard inclusion of non-additive effects in genomic selection.

  10. Anthropic principle and the structure of the physical world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, B J; Rees, M J [Cambridge Univ. Inst. of Astronomy (UK)

    1979-04-12

    It is stated that the basic features of galaxies, stars, planets and the everyday world are essentially determined by a few microphysical constants and by the effects of gravitation. Many interrelations between different scales that at first sight seem surprising are straightforward consequences of simple physical arguments. Several aspects of our Universe - some of which seem to be prerequisites for the evolution of any form of life -depend rather delicately on apparent 'coincidences' among the physical constants.

  11. [Silvicultural treatments and their selection effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, G

    1973-01-01

    Selection can be defined in terms of its observable consequences as the non random differential reproduction of genotypes (Lerner 1958). In the forest stands we are selecting during the improvements-fellings and reproduction treatments the individuals surpassing in growth or in production of first-class timber. However the silvicultural treatments taken in forest stands guarantee a permanent increase of forest production only in such cases, if they have been taken with respect to the principles of directional (dynamic) selection. These principles require that the trees determined for further growing and for forest regeneration are selected by their hereditary properties, i.e. by their genotypes.For making this selection feasible, our study deals with the genetic parameters and gives some examples of the application of the response, the selection differential, the heritability in the narrow and in the broad sense, as well as of the genetic and genotypic gain. On the strength of this parameter we have the possibility to estimate the economic success of several silvicultural treatments in forest stands.The mentioned examples demonstrate that the selection measures of a higher intensity will be manifested in a higher selection differential, in a higher genetic and genotypic gain and that the mentioned measures show more distinct effects in the variable populations - in natural forest - than in the population characteristic by a smaller variability, e.g. in many uniform artificially established stands.The examples of influences of different selection on the genotypes composition of population prove that genetics instructs us to differentiate the different genotypes of the same species and gives us at the same time a new criterions for evaluating selectional treatments. These criterions from economic point of view is necessary to consider in silviculture as advantageous even for the reason that we can judge from these criterions the genetical composition of forest stands

  12. Contingency & Agency in the Holocene Anthropization of Mountain Landscapes of the Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragson, Theodore; Coughlan, Michael; Leigh, David

    2017-04-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that mixed forests of the humid-temperate western Pyrenees mountains were converted by human agency to managed grasslands by at least the late Neolithic. We first realized major ramifications of the conversation process from pronounced differences we observed between soil profiles of ancient pastures and old-growth forests in otherwise similar landscape positions. Subsequently through radiocarbon dating of colluvial deposits we established a chronology for anthropic manipulation of the biotic factor of pedogenesis resulting in the creation of new soil materials, processes and functions. Regional- and biome-scale paleoecological analyses and archaeological syntheses suggest that it was Neolithic agropastoral land use that initiated anthropization of mountain landscapes of the western Pyrenees. However, such macroscopic views of human behavior cannot reveal the contingency and agency on which human causality rests. We have thus followed a complementary place-based investigative strategy that couples geoarchaeological, biophysical and socio-ecological factors spatially and temporally to arrive at the coevolutionary processes of human-environment interactions and landscape history. The results often contrast sharply with conventional narratives about human landscape degradation in agropastoral systems. For the last 2000 years, the western Pyrenees mountains were spatially removed from regional centers such as Pamplona and Bordeaux, and economically and politically peripheral to continental social and governmental processes. This marginality favored a macroscopic and time-invariant interpretation of agropastoral production in the western Pyrenees as the result of unambiguously enforced social norms exacted by intense solidarities of kin and neighbors. However, anthropization of the western Pyrenees was a spatially and temporally heterogeneous process in which land transitions appear to precede intensification. Radiocarbon dating shows three

  13. Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waterfalls, historical relics, captivating beaches, rock out-crops, rolling lulls coupled with hospitable and culturally active people that are capable of making tourism a delight in Nigeria. The study therefore assessed the effectiveness of selected communication media on awareness creation towards tourism for rural ...

  14. Development of biochemical properties in anthropic soil (the study at Třinec–Jahodná plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Marosz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the anthropic soils formed at the sludge bed “Třinec-Jahodná”. The sludge bed came from a long-time depositing of fly-ash and slag layers. Therefore, the anthropic soil properties obtained their features by both a character of layered substrate and a management of the local land reclamation. The paper presented deals with the rate of an intensity of biological and biochemical soil processes in charge of the fulfilment of plant nourishment demands, and the time viewpoints focusing on the local soil development. The set of enzymatic and biological measurements were chosen for treatments of soil bodies sampled throughout 2007–2008. The study plots inside the sludge bed and the control plot were sampled; the properties of particular horizons were studied. The results proved that the twenty-year-development of soil bodies made the proper conditions for plant nutrition. The positive statement, nevertheless, is directly linked to the presence of trees and shrubs. The vegetation seems to be one of the very crucial factors for a status of the site and maintenance of soil productivity: it affects temperature amplitudes, sensitivity to erosion, a redistribution of soil water, and a humic compounds accumulation. The statistical analyses showed significantly differing results on the study plots with a shorter development and a lower rate of vegetational cover.

  15. Flood pulse influence and anthropic impact on the chemical composition and energy content of Oryza glumaepatula in an Amazonian lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Enrich-Prast

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the flood pulse influence and the anthropic impact caused by bauxite tailings on the chemical composition of O. glumaepatula in Batata lake (PA, Brazil. Sampling was carried out in stands of O. glumaepatula in the low-water, filling, high-water, and drawdown periods in impacted and natural areas of Batata lake. During the low-water and drawdown periods the stands of O. glumaepatula were exposed, and in the filling and high-water periods the water depth was respectively 1.4 and 3.8 m. The collected material was dried at 70ºC, ground, and concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and energy content were determined. The results indicate that the biomass increase, caused by the rise in water level, has a dilution effect on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in O. glumaepatula. The energy contents did not present significant differences in any of the studied periods. The results suggest that from the low water to filling period, nitrogen becomes more limiting to O. glumaepatula in the impacted area, whereas phosphorus becomes more limiting in the natural area. The population of O. glumaepatula contributes to the recovery of the impacted area of Batata lake as the detritus from this species accumulates over the sediment. This accumulation impedes future re-suspension of the bauxite tailings and increases the organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the impacted sediment.

  16. Antibiotic resistance genes in surface water of eutrophic urban lakes are related to heavy metals, antibiotics, lake morphology and anthropic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyi; Xu, Chen; Cao, Xinhua; Lin, Hui; Wang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Urban lakes are impacted by heavy human activities and represent potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, six urban lakes in Wuhan, central China were selected to analyze the distribution of sulfonamide resistance (sul) genes, tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and quinolone resistance (qnr) genes and their relationship with heavy metals, antibiotics, lake morphology and anthropic impact. sul1 and sul2 were detected in all six lakes and dominated the types of antibiotic resistance genes, which accounted for 86.28-97.79% of the total antibiotic resistance gene abundance. For eight tested tet genes, antibiotic efflux pumps (tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetG) genes were all observed in six lakes and had higher relative abundance than ribosomal protection protein genes (tetM and tetQ). For 4 plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes, only qnrD is found in all six lakes. The class I integron (intI1) is also found to be a very important media for antibiotic resistance gene propagation in urban lakes. The results of redundancy analysis and variation partitioning analysis showed that antibiotic and co-selection with heavy metals were the major factors driving the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes in six urban lakes. The heavily eutrophic Nanhu Lake and Shahu Lake which located in a high density building area with heavy human activities had the higher relative abundance of total antibiotic resistance genes. Our study could provide a useful reference for antibiotic resistance gene abundance in urban lakes with high anthropic impact.

  17. Selective mobility, segregation and neighbourhood effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Boschman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The residential neighbourhood is thought to affect residents because of presumed neighbourhood effects; the independent effects of a neighbourhood’s characteristics on the life chances of its residents. An enormous body of research has tried to measure neighbourhood effects, however, there are no clear conclusions on how much, if any, effect the neighbourhood has on its residents. There is non-random selection of people into neighbourhoods which causes a bias in the modelling of neighbourhood effects. Any correlation found between neighbourhood characteristics and individual outcomes might be explained by selection bias and can therefore not prove the existence of a causal neighbourhood effect. The question is; do poor neighbourhoods make people poor, or do poor people live in unattractive neighbourhoods because they cannot afford to live elsewhere (Cheshire, 2007. Therefore, insight in selection is important to gain more insight in neighbourhood effects (Van Ham and Manley, 2012. For neighbourhood effects research it is important to study selective mobility and neighbourhood choice and to combine neighbourhood effects research with neighbourhood selection research (Doff, 2010a; Van Ham and Manley, 2012; Van Ham et al., 2012; Galster, 2003; Hedman, 2011. The aim of this thesis therefore is to gain more insight in both the causes and the consequences of segregation and thus to study both individual residential mobility and neighbourhood selection and neighbourhood effects. Besides the neighbourhood effects literature, also the segregation literature will benefit from better insights in selective residential mobility because selective residential mobility is one of the main driving forces of segregation.  There are two main research questions for this thesis. Firstly, I try to give insight in selective mobility and neighbourhood choice and thus to study where, when and why which people move. What is the effect of personal

  18. Relay selection from an effective capacity perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we consider a cooperative network where multiple relay nodes having different modulation capabilities assist the end-to-end communication between a source and its destination. Firstly, we evaluate the effective capacity (EC) performance of the network under study. According to the analysis, an EC-based relay selection criterion is proposed. Based on the proposed selection rule and half-duplex decode-and-forward protocol, the activated relays cooperatively help with the packet transmission from the source. At the destination, packet combining is taken into account to improve the quality of service. Compared to the popular scheme, opportunistic relay selection, numerical results are provided to prove the validity and advantages of our proposed scheme in certain scenarios. Moreover, the analysis presented herein offers a convenient tool to the relaying transmission design, specifically on which relay selection scheme should be used as well as how to choose the receiving strategy between with and without packet combining at the destination. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Geochemical background of zinc, cadmium and mercury in anthropically influenced soils in a semi-arid zone (SE, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Molina, J.; Tudela, M. L.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-04-01

    This work seeks to establish the geochemical background for three potentially toxic trace elements (Zn, Cd and Hg) in a pilot zone included in the DesertNet project in the province of Murcia. The studied area, known as Campo de Cartagena, Murcia (SE Spain) is an area of intensive agriculture and has been much affected over the years by anthropic activity. The zone can be considered an experimental pilot zone for establishing background levels in agricultural soils. Sixty four samples were collected and corresponded to areas subjected to high and similar agricultural activity or soils with natural vegetation, which correspond to abandoned agricultural areas. The Zn content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry and mercury content was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Geostatistical analysis consisting of kriging and mapping was performed using the geostatistical analyst extension of ArcGIS 8.3. Zinc values ranged from 10 mg kg-1 to 151 mg kg-1, with an average value of 45 mg kg-1. Cadmium values ranged between 0.1 mg kg-1 and 0.9mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.3 mg kg-1 and mercury values ranged from 0.1 mg kg-1 to 2.3 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.5 mg kg-1. At a national level, the Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005 proposes toxicological and statistical approaches to establish background values. According to the statistical approach, background values consist of the median value for the selected element. The background values for Zn, Cd and Hg in the studied area were 40 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.3 mg kg-1 for Cd and 0.4 mg kg-1 for Hg.

  20. Relation between small-mammal species composition and anthropic variables in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olifiers

    Full Text Available Anthropic activities are frequently related in many ways to forest fragmentation and alteration of natural communities. In this study, we correlate the presence of hunting, tourism activity, agriculture/pasturing, and the distance of the study sites to the nearest human residences with the species composition of small Atlantic forest mammals. To do this, we utilize a multiple regression analysis of similarity matrices. The presence of both agriculture/pasturing and human residences near the study sites proved to be determinant factors in species composition of small mammals of the studied areas. Working with socioeconomic variables related directly with the study site could be a reliable and a direct way to predict the influence of human presence and entailed activity on small mammal communities.

  1. Galactic punctuated equilibrium: how to undermine Carter's anthropic argument in astrobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirković, Milan M; Vukotić, Branislav; Dragićević, Ivana

    2009-06-01

    A new strategy by which to defeat Carter's "anthropic" argument against extraterrestrial life and intelligence is presented. Our approach is based on relaxing hidden uniformitarian assumptions and considering instead a dynamical succession of evolutionary regimes governed by both global (Galaxy-wide) and local (planet- or planetary system-limited) regulation mechanisms. Notably, our increased understanding of the nature of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and strong coupling between the Solar System and the Galaxy, and the theories of "punctuated equilibria" and "macroevolutionary regimes" are in full accordance with the regulation-mechanism picture. The application of this particular strategy highlights the limits of application of Carter's argument and indicates that, in the real universe, its applicability conditions are not satisfied. We conclude that drawing far-reaching conclusions about the scarcity of extraterrestrial intelligence and the prospects of our efforts to detect it on the basis of this argument is unwarranted.

  2. Impacts of anthropic pressures on soil phosphorus availability, concentration, and phosphorus forms in sediments in a Southern Brazilian watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Joao Batista Rossetto; Rheinheimer dos Santos, Danilo; Goncalves, Celso Santos; Copetti, Andre Carlos Cruz [Dept. de Solos, Univ. Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciencias Rurais, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bortoluzzi, Edson Campanhola [Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria da Univ. de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Tessier, Daniel [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Versailles (France)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The transfer of soil sediments and phosphorus from terrestrial to aquatic systems is a common process in agricultural lands. The aims of this paper are to quantify the soil phosphorus availability and to characterize phosphorus forms in soil sediments as contaminant agents of waters as a function of anthropic pressures. Materials and methods On three subwatersheds with different anthropic pressure, water and sediment samples were collected automatically in upstream and downstream discharge points in six rainfall events during the tobacco growing season. Phosphorus desorption capacity from soil sediments was estimated by successive extractions with anion exchange resins. First-order kinetic models were adjusted to desorption curves for estimating potentially bioavailable particulate phosphorus, desorption rate constant, and bioavailable particulate phosphorus. Results and discussion The amount of bioavailable particulate phosphorus was directly correlated with the iron oxide content. The value of desorption rate constant was directly related with the total organic carbon and inversely with the iron oxide contents. Phosphate ions were released to solution, on average, twice as rapidly from sediments collected in subwatersheds with low anthropic activity than from those ones of highly anthropic subwatersheds. Anthropic pressure on watershed can engender high sediment discharge, but these solid particles seem to present low phosphorus-releasing capacity to water during transport due to the evidenced high affinity between phosphorus and iron oxide from sediments. Conclusions Anthropic pressure was related with sediment concentration and phosphorus release to aquatic systems. While natural vegetation along streams plays a role on soil and water depuration, it is unable to eliminate the phosphorus inputs intrinsic to the agricultural-intensive systems. Recommendations and perspectives The contamination of water in watershed by phosphates is facilitated by the

  3. Can selection explain the protective effects of farming on asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijnand Eduard

    2015-09-01

    No healthy worker selection into farming was observed and changes in asthma prevalence due to early retirement were small. Selection effects are therefore unlikely to explain the protective effects of farming on asthma.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT IN THE AREA OF THE ORNITHOLOGIC RESERVATION “THE SWAMPS FROM SATCHINEZ” (TIMIŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Török-Oance

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the anthropic impact within the Ornithologic Reservation Swamps from Satchinez is based on the field notes in the period 2003-2005, the air photos taken in 2004 and the reconstitution of past situations (1963-1973 using the photoplans from that period. Within the reservation and the buffer area a series of anthropic activities are taking place, allowed or not, which have a negative impact on the protected area: agricultural works (including agro-chemical treatments, grazing, mowing, hydrotechnical arrangements, illegal tree felling, cutting and burning the reed, poaching, hunting and fishing, collecting biological material, transport, tourism and petrol exploitation. All these lead to the deterioration of the habitat, affect the life of the birds, the water, the clogging of the swamp and cause the disappearance of the clean water spots thus endangering the reservation itself.

  5. IN THE SEARCH FOR MECHANISMS OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS: THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Dmitriev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of development of education is clearly detected the movement of various social and humanitarian disciplines to interdisciplinary and Meta-study. The article is an attempt, based on an interdisciplinary approach to analyze the anthropic principles of educational technology. For the authors of the proposed theoretical and methodological basis of identified and described the basic components of the structuring of educational space and didactic methods of modeling specific professional activity in the sphere of physical culture. The article describes the principles developed by us anthropic technologies. Especially stresses the need and importance of nature conservation kulturotvoryaschego educational system and provide a subject position of students in the educational space of the university. In the latter case, a special place is given to reflexive stages of self-reflection and self-transformation of the creative person in the professional culture - the identification of "I" self-actualization "I" self-realization "I am."

  6. GIS Assessment of Mass Tourism Anthropization in Sensitive Coastal Environments: Application to a Case Study in the Mar Menor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador García-Ayllón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On the Mediterranean coast, the tourism activity which has developed since the 1950s has become a mass tourism industry in recent decades, cohabitating with natural spaces of high environmental value. These sensitive areas are thus subjected to a varied catalog of anthropizing actions (urbanization of the natural soil, modification of the dune balances by the construction of port infrastructures, alteration of marine ecosystems by recreational activities, etc.. All these inter-related elements are often difficult to analyze in a comprehensive way because of their diffuse nature. This paper proposes a methodology based on GIS analysis for the evaluation of diffuse anthropization associated to tourism in sensitive coastal environments. By using different indicators of territorial transformation, a complete method is proposed to establish the index of diffuse anthropization of a territory. This methodology, which is easily applicable in a generalized manner in different cases for developed countries, will be applied in the Mar Menor, a coastal lagoon area in the Mediterranean that has been suffering from mass tourism during recent decades. The results will show the important impact of several actions linked to tourism and the worrying inertia that the current trend can cause in the lagoon’s ecosystem.

  7. Environmental magneto-gradiometric marine survey in a highly anthropic noisy area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cocchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    We describe a magneto-gradiometric survey performed in the «Mar Piccolo» of Taranto, Italy in May 2005 for

    environmental purposes. This region, which is a noisy harbour environment, provides a challenging test for magnetic methods. To reduce spurious noise signals, with both temporal and spatial origins, we used two Geometrics G880 model caesium magnetometers towed in a transverse gradient configuration. We show how, in shallow waters, this gradiometric configuration allows us to distinguish anomalies due to small metallic bodies near the seabed from the induced noise due to the anthropic contribution and geomagnetic field variations. A direct visual inspection confirmed that the peculiarities highlighted in the gradient anomaly map were due to abandoned metallic objects found on the seabed.


  8. Overlapping and co-occurrence pattern of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae in anthropic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayron Sousa Amaral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in two anthropic areas (Fazenda Areão and Monte Olimpo on the “Luiz de Queiroz” campus, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP. We analyzed data from 52 collections of 14 McPhail traps distributed in both areas. A total of 1,583 females belonging to 14 species were collected, including Anastrepha amita Zucchi, A. barbiellinii Lima, A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. daciformis Bezzi, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann, A. grandis (Macquart, A. manihoti Lima, A. montei Lima, A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pickeli Lima, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wiedemann and A. sororcula Zucchi. A greater number of specimens (1,041 were collected at the Fazenda Areão compared to Monte Olimpo (542. The mean niche overlap was greater than expected at random for both areas; therefore, the ecological niches of the species largely overlap. The pattern of co-occurrence indicates that segregation was not random between two pairs of species: A. pseudoparallela × A. obliqua (Fazenda Areão and A. fraterculus × A. pseudoparallela (Monte Olimpo. This segregation suggests that there may be competition for resources in each niche. The analysis also revealed three aggregated species pairs: A. bistrigata × A. montei, A. fraterculus × A. barbiellinii (Fazenda Areão, and A. fraterculus × A. bistrigata (Monte Olimpo, indicating that each pair occurs concomitantly without interfering with the permanence of the populations in these areas.

  9. Climate change impact on water resources - Example of an anthropized basin (Llobregat, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Pouget, L.; Mc Ennis, S.; Guiu Carrio, R.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Escaler, I.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate change is one of the central topics of study by water agencies and companies. Indeed, the forecasted increase of atmospheric temperature may change the amount, frequency and intensity of precipitation and affect the hydrological cycle: runoff, infiltration, aquifer recharge, etc… Moreover, global change combining climate change but also land use and water demand changes, may cause very important impacts on water availability and quality. Global change scenarios in Spain describe a general trend towards increased temperature and water demand, and reduced precipitation as a result of its geographical situation and socio-economic characteristics. The European project WATER CHANGE (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program) aims to develop a modeling system to assess the Global Change impacts, and their associated uncertainties, on water availability for water supply and water use. Its objective is to help river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. This work presents the results obtained by applying the modelling system to the Llobregat river basin (Spain). This is an anthropized catchment of about 5000 km2, where water resources are used for different purposes, such as drinking water production, agriculture irrigation, industry and hydroelectric energy production. Based on future global change scenarios, the water resources system has been assessed in terms of water deficit and supply. A cost-benefit analysis has also been conducted in order to evaluate every realistic measure that could optimize and improve the system.

  10. Binding the diproton in stars: anthropic limits on the strength of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Luke A., E-mail: L.Barnes@physics.usyd.edu.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    We calculate the properties and investigate the stability of stars that burn via strong (and electromagnetic) interactions, and compare their properties with those that, as in our Universe, include a rate-limiting weak interaction. It has been suggested that, if the diproton were bound, stars would burn ∼10{sup 18} times brighter and faster via strong interactions, resulting in a universe that would fail to support life. By considering the representative case of a star in our Universe with initially equal numbers of protons and deuterons, we find that stable, 'strong-burning' stars adjust their central densities and temperatures to have familiar surface temperatures, luminosities and lifetimes. There is no 'diproton disaster'. In addition, strong-burning stars are stable in a much larger region of the parameter space of fundamental constants, specifically the strength of electromagnetism and gravity. The strongest anthropic bound on stars in such universes is not their stability, as is the case for stars limited by the weak interaction, but rather their lifetime. Regardless of the strength of electromagnetism, all stars burn out in mere millions of years unless the gravitational coupling constant is extremely small, α{sub G}∼< 10{sup −30}.

  11. Geo-Spatial Support for Assessment of Anthropic Impact on Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Piragnolo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a methodology where geo-spatial analysis tools are used to quantify risk derived from anthropic activities on habitats and species. The method has been developed with a focus on simplification and the quality of standard procedures set on flora and fauna protected by the European Directives. In this study case, the DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses is applied using spatial procedures in a geographical information system (GIS framework. This approach can be inserted in a multidimensional space as the analysis is applied to each threat, pressure and activity and also to each habitat and species, at the spatial and temporal scale. Threats, pressures and activities, stress and indicators can be managed by means of a geo-database and analyzed using spatial analysis functions in a tested GIS workflow environment. The method applies a matrix with risk values, and the final product is a geo-spatial representation of impact indicators, which can be used as a support for decision-makers at various levels (regional, national and European.

  12. Anthropization of groundwater resources in the Mediterranean region: processes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Remini, Boualem

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview is provided of processes and challenges related to Mediterranean groundwater resources and associated changes in recent decades. While most studies are focused thematically and/or geographically, this paper addresses different stages of groundwater exploitation in the region and their consequences. Examples emphasize the complex interactions between the physical and social dimensions of uses and evolution of groundwater. In natural conditions, Mediterranean groundwater resources represent a wide range of hydrogeological contexts, recharge conditions and rates of exploitation. They have been actively exploited for millennia but their pseudo-natural regimes have been considerably modified in the last 50 years, especially to satisfy agricultural demand (80% of total water consumption in North Africa), as well as for tourism and coastal cities. Climate variability affects groundwater dynamics but the various forms of anthropization are more important drivers of hydrological change, including changes in land use and vegetation, hydraulic works, and intense pumpings. These changes affect both the quantity and quality of groundwater at different scales, and modify the nature of hydrogeological processes, their location, timing, and intensity. The frequent cases of drastic overexploitation illustrate the fragility of Mediterranean groundwater resources and the limits of present forms of management. There is no easy way to maintain or recover sustainability, which is often threatened by short-term interests. To achieve this goal, a significant improvement in hydrogeological knowledge and closer collaboration between the various disciplines of water sciences are indispensable.

  13. Binding the diproton in stars: anthropic limits on the strength of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Luke A.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the properties and investigate the stability of stars that burn via strong (and electromagnetic) interactions, and compare their properties with those that, as in our Universe, include a rate-limiting weak interaction. It has been suggested that, if the diproton were bound, stars would burn ∼10 18 times brighter and faster via strong interactions, resulting in a universe that would fail to support life. By considering the representative case of a star in our Universe with initially equal numbers of protons and deuterons, we find that stable, 'strong-burning' stars adjust their central densities and temperatures to have familiar surface temperatures, luminosities and lifetimes. There is no 'diproton disaster'. In addition, strong-burning stars are stable in a much larger region of the parameter space of fundamental constants, specifically the strength of electromagnetism and gravity. The strongest anthropic bound on stars in such universes is not their stability, as is the case for stars limited by the weak interaction, but rather their lifetime. Regardless of the strength of electromagnetism, all stars burn out in mere millions of years unless the gravitational coupling constant is extremely small, α G ∼< 10 −30

  14. Binding the diproton in stars: anthropic limits on the strength of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Luke A.

    2015-12-01

    We calculate the properties and investigate the stability of stars that burn via strong (and electromagnetic) interactions, and compare their properties with those that, as in our Universe, include a rate-limiting weak interaction. It has been suggested that, if the diproton were bound, stars would burn ~1018 times brighter and faster via strong interactions, resulting in a universe that would fail to support life. By considering the representative case of a star in our Universe with initially equal numbers of protons and deuterons, we find that stable, "strong-burning" stars adjust their central densities and temperatures to have familiar surface temperatures, luminosities and lifetimes. There is no "diproton disaster". In addition, strong-burning stars are stable in a much larger region of the parameter space of fundamental constants, specifically the strength of electromagnetism and gravity. The strongest anthropic bound on stars in such universes is not their stability, as is the case for stars limited by the weak interaction, but rather their lifetime. Regardless of the strength of electromagnetism, all stars burn out in mere millions of years unless the gravitational coupling constant is extremely small, αGlesssim 10-30.

  15. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  16. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  17. Relay selection from an effective capacity perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Ma, Hao; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    proposed scheme in certain scenarios. Moreover, the analysis presented herein offers a convenient tool to the relaying transmission design, specifically on which relay selection scheme should be used as well as how to choose the receiving strategy between

  18. Selecting sex: the effect of preferring sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese

    2011-11-01

    Son preference remains common in countries from East Asia through South Asia to the Middle East and North Africa. Where sex selective technology and abortion are readily available, such as in China, South Korea and India, this has led to a marked excess in male births. Worst excesses are seen in parts of rural China where there are 140 male births for every 100 female. This leads to large numbers of unmarriageable men. Concerns about the consequences centre around the propensity to aggression and violence of these men with increased levels of crime and antisocial behaviour, threatening societal stability and security. But recent studies do not support these assumptions, but rather suggest that these men are marginalised, lonely, withdrawn and prone to psychological problems. Measures to reduce sex selection should include enforcement of existing legislation on sex-selection, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of late abortion and gender imbalance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of heavy metals in non-anthropized soils with high levels of primordial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Rocha, Edilson Accioly; Oliveira, Jose Valdez Monterazo de; Bispo, Rodrigo Cesar Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals in the ecosystem depend naturally geological formation in each area of the planet and of anthropic activities that contribute to contamination of soil, water sources and food produced in these areas. In this context, we highlight the importance in the study of As, Cr and Ba because of the level of toxicity, availability and chemical speciation that have. The study area was chosen to present agricultural activity and milk production on a large scale. This area is located in the rugged region of the state of Pernambuco, in the town of stone, where the arable soil was monitored aiming to determine the levels of these metals. Analyses were performed by the technique of neutron activation analysis coupled with the high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Were analyzed twenty-three soil samples collected from the horizon C. The results obtained varied from values smaller that (0.2 to 6.7) mg.kg -1 for As; (12.1 to 65.5) mg.kg -1 for Cr and (443 a 1,497) mg.kg -1 for Ba. Comparing them with the values established by CONAMA Resolution 420/2009, it was found that the concentrations of Ba are 100% above the value of prevention, and approximately 91% of values above the intervention value. The As and Cr showed 100% of results below the value of prevention. Whereas the study area has no industrial activity, high concentrations are determined for the Ba from natural processes. For the levels found evidence of a possible contamination of water sources and food produced in this region. (author)

  20. Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected vegetables: okra fruit ( Abelmoshcus esculentus ), fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ), African spinach ( Amarantus viridis ), and scent leaf ( Ocumum gratissimum.

  1. Clinical applications of selected binaural effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, D

    1982-01-01

    Examination was made of the behaviors exhibited on selected binaural tasks by 556 persons with diagnosed peripheral hearing loss or central nervous system damage. The tasks used included loudness balancing (LB), intracranial midline imaging (MI), masking level differences (MLD), and binaural beats (BB). The methods used were chosen for their clinical utility. Loudness balancing and midline imaging were of the most diagnostic value when hearing loss was present. Masking level differences were best at detecting pathology which did not produce hearing loss. None of the techniques were sensitive to cortical damage.

  2. A Bayesian random effects discrete-choice model for resource selection: Population-level selection inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.L.; Johnson, D.; Griffith, B.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling the probability of use of land units characterized by discrete and continuous measures, we present a Bayesian random-effects model to assess resource selection. This model provides simultaneous estimation of both individual- and population-level selection. Deviance information criterion (DIC), a Bayesian alternative to AIC that is sample-size specific, is used for model selection. Aerial radiolocation data from 76 adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and calf pairs during 1 year on an Arctic coastal plain calving ground were used to illustrate models and assess population-level selection of landscape attributes, as well as individual heterogeneity of selection. Landscape attributes included elevation, NDVI (a measure of forage greenness), and land cover-type classification. Results from the first of a 2-stage model-selection procedure indicated that there is substantial heterogeneity among cow-calf pairs with respect to selection of the landscape attributes. In the second stage, selection of models with heterogeneity included indicated that at the population-level, NDVI and land cover class were significant attributes for selection of different landscapes by pairs on the calving ground. Population-level selection coefficients indicate that the pairs generally select landscapes with higher levels of NDVI, but the relationship is quadratic. The highest rate of selection occurs at values of NDVI less than the maximum observed. Results for land cover-class selections coefficients indicate that wet sedge, moist sedge, herbaceous tussock tundra, and shrub tussock tundra are selected at approximately the same rate, while alpine and sparsely vegetated landscapes are selected at a lower rate. Furthermore, the variability in selection by individual caribou for moist sedge and sparsely vegetated landscapes is large relative to the variability in selection of other land cover types. The example analysis illustrates that, while sometimes computationally intense, a

  3. The effect of selection on genetic parameter estimates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at ... A simulation study was carried out to investigate the effect of selection on the estimation of genetic ... The model contained a fixed effect, random genetic and random.

  4. K-selection, α-selection, effectiveness, and tolerance in competition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    selection, effectiveness, and tolerance in ... Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, P.O. Box No. 6436, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064, India; Poornaprajna ...

  5. Biodiversity conservation in an anthropized landscape: Trees, not patch size drive, bird community composition in a low-input agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Cárdenas-García, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    One of the most typical agro-ecosystems in the Llanos de Ojuelos, a semi-arid region of central Mexico, is that of fruit-production orchards of nopales (prickly pear cacti). This perennial habitat with complex vertical structure provides refuge and food for at least 112 species of birds throughout the year. Nopal orchards vary in their internal structure, size and shrub/tree composition, yet these factors have unknown effects on the animals that use them. To further understand the conservation potential of this agro-ecosystem, we evaluated the effects of patch-size and the presence of trees on bird community composition, as well as several habitat variables, through an information-theoretical modelling approach. Community composition was obtained through a year of census transects in 12 orchards. The presence of trees in the orchards was the major driver of bird communities followed by seasonality; bird communities are independent of patch size, except for small orchard patches that benefit black-chin sparrows, which are considered a sensitive species. At least 55 species of six trophic guilds (insectivores, granivores, carnivores, nectivores, omnivores, and frugivores) used the orchards. Orchards provide adequate habitat and food resources for several sensitive species of resident and migratory sparrows. The attributes that make orchards important for birds: trees, shrubs, herb seeds, and open patches can be managed to maintain native biodiversity in highly anthropized regions with an urgent need to find convergence between production and biological conservation.

  6. Sterilizing radiation effects on selected polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiens, W.E.

    1979-03-01

    The mechanism of radiation effects and their industrial applications are discussed for the following classes of polymers: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, films and fibers, and adhesives/coatings/potting compounds. 35 references, 3 tables

  7. Selection dramatically reduces effective population size in HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittler John E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In HIV-1 evolution, a 100–100,000 fold discrepancy between census size and effective population size (Ne has been noted. Although it is well known that selection can reduce Ne, high in vivo mutation and recombination rates complicate attempts to quantify the effects of selection on HIV-1 effective size. Results We use the inbreeding coefficient and the variance in allele frequency at a linked neutral locus to estimate the reduction in Ne due to selection in the presence of mutation and recombination. With biologically realistic mutation rates, the reduction in Ne due to selection is determined by the strength of selection, i.e., the stronger the selection, the greater the reduction. However, the dependence of Ne on selection can break down if recombination rates are very high (e.g., r ≥ 0.1. With biologically likely recombination rates, our model suggests that recurrent selective sweeps similar to those observed in vivo can reduce within-host HIV-1 effective population sizes by a factor of 300 or more. Conclusion Although other factors, such as unequal viral reproduction rates and limited migration between tissue compartments contribute to reductions in Ne, our model suggests that recurrent selection plays a significant role in reducing HIV-1 effective population sizes in vivo.

  8. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest...

  9. Antitrypanosomal and haematological effects of selected Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies to determine the effect of some Nigerian Medicinal plants on some haematological parameters of rats infected with T. b. brucei was carried out. The plants investigated and the dose levels per kilogram body weights used are fresh Momordica balsamina pulp (150mg); fresh Aloe vera pulp (1ml); aqueous extracts of ...

  10. Selection bias and the Rubin-Ford effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.A.; Joseph, R.D.; Collins, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    We have re-examined the 'Rubin-Ford effect', and more recent claims of galaxy streaming from the same galaxy sample, to investigate the impact of selection effects on these results. A 'Monte Carlo'-type analysis was applied to simulate the selection procedure used to obtain this sample, and a strong bias was identified, resulting in apparent velocity flows at 600-800 km s -1 . Thus the 'Rubin-Ford effect' and the associated galaxy streaming are spurious effects resulting from the method of sample selection. (author)

  11. Effective time management – selected issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Olejniczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberations included in this article contain the basic issues related to the subject of time management. As we know, people who waste their time the most, most complain about the lack of the time. We should treat our time, time of our co-workers, and friends as a valuable, but limited wealth. Principles of effective time management can be applied in any scientific and research institutions, companies or corporations. The benefits of a good and effective time management will be felt not only by ourselves but also by our friends and family. Detailed formulation of objectives, identification and elimination of time wasters and postponing work on later (Procrastination, using methods of time management and systematic control will allow for efficient use of time. A good plan is the basis for optimal and meaningful use of time.

  12. Measuring conflicts in the management of anthropized ecosystems: Evidence from a choice experiment in a human-created Mediterranean wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Ángel; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Economic valuation of ecosystem services provides valuable information for the management of anthropized environments, where individual preferences can be heterogeneous and even opposed. Here, we discuss how these ecosystem services were approached in the literature and we address the main issues in relation to their economic valuation. We consider that avoiding misspecifications in economic valuation surveys requires considering the linkages between anthropized ecosystems and human intervention. To illustrate, we analyse the case study of a human-created Mediterranean wetland (El Hondo, SE Spain) using a Choice Experiment. Our findings suggest that management strategies in El Hondo should be oriented to improve the water ecological status, to enhance biodiversity and to develop ecotourism, whereas hunting should be strictly limited and controlled. Our measures of conflict (trade-off between ecosystem services and willingness to pay values) can help to find the optimal allocation of public and private goods and services and for the implementation of compensation schemes in the area. According to public preferences, a conservationist management strategy would generate 331,100 €/year in terms of environmental benefits, whereas a tourism-based management strategy would benefit society with 805,200 €/year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selection effects and database screening in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, R.W.J.; Sjerps, M.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that it is, in principle, not difficult to deal with selection effects in forensic science. If a suspect is selected through a process that is related to the forensic evidence, then the strength of the evidence will be compensated by very small prior odds. No further correction is

  14. Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect on farmers living standard in Bauchi local government area, Bauchi state, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ... Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of 82 rice growers from these villages. The data ...

  15. 382 Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ... communication is a means to education vis-à-vis education is a means .... Strategies in Extention. ... Marketing Profile Among Rural Households in South Eastern.

  16. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Sasse

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  17. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Laura K; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  18. Topographic and depositional signature of old anthropic lakes in northern part of the Moldavian Plateau (NE Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Niculita, Mihai; Nemeth, Alexandra; Cristea, Ionut

    2017-04-01

    The role of humans and theirs social activities in reshaping earth surface is obvious in many places of the world. Anthropic fingerprints on Earth's surface morphology are recognizable by theirs topographic and depositional signatures that can cause considerable changes in geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes. Anthropic dams and their associated sediments represent recent archives that record environmental changes. They can provide substantial data to reconstruct general models in geomorphic evolution of hydrologic catchments and the identification of extreme meteorological events and sediment fluxes. Also, geochemical tracers provide us relevant indicators about climatic patterns and local condition of sedimentation processes. Until quite recently, the identification and counting the old lakes have been carried out mostly by studying different old maps and less by analyzing their fingerprints on the Earth surface. Considered a real revolution in geomorphology, the high-resolution LiDAR data allow us nowadays a more precise recognition of minor landforms, their extent and cross-relationships, as well as to discover surface features that have escaped the attention before. Furthermore, by using Electrical Resistivity Tomography techniques, the 3D extension of the sediments can be revealed. Anthropic lakes are one of the most particular hydrological anthropic features of the landscape in the northern part of the Moldavian Plateau (Eastern Carpathian lowland). The need for water supply, have forced the inhabitants to build dams of various sizes along the entire river network. Over the time, many dams were abandoned, while others have been relocated with an impressive dynamic at historical time scale. For more than 3000 sq km we have carried out an accurate inventory of abandoned dams using LIDAR imagery. Taking into consideration the last appearance of the lakes on the old maps, they were classified: pre

  19. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Phlebotomus perniciosus abundance in south-east Spain: assessing the role of environmental and anthropic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risueño, José; Muñoz, Clara; Pérez-Cutillas, Pedro; Goyena, Elena; Gonzálvez, Moisés; Ortuño, María; Bernal, Luis Jesús; Ortiz, Juana; Alten, Bulent; Berriatua, Eduardo

    2017-04-19

    Leishmaniosis is associated with Phlebotomus sand fly vector density, but our knowledge of the environmental framework that regulates highly overdispersed vector abundance distributions is limited. We used a standardized sampling procedure in the bioclimatically diverse Murcia Region in Spain and multilevel regression models for count data to estimate P. perniciosus abundance in relation to environmental and anthropic factors. Twenty-five dog and sheep premises were sampled for sand flies using adhesive and light-attraction traps, from late May to early October 2015. Temperature, relative humidity and other animal- and premise-related data recorded on site and other environmental data were extracted from digital databases using a geographical information system. The relationship between sand fly abundance and explanatory variables was analysed using binomial regression models. The total number of sand flies captured, mostly with light-attraction traps, was 3,644 specimens, including 80% P. perniciosus, the main L. infantum vector in Spain. Abundance varied between and within zones and was positively associated with increasing altitude from 0 to 900 m above sea level, except from 500 to 700 m where it was low. Populations peaked in July and especially during a 3-day heat wave when relative humidity and wind speed plummeted. Regression models indicated that climate and not land use or soil characteristics have the greatest impact on this species density on a large geographical scale. In contrast, micro-environmental factors such as animal building characteristics and husbandry practices affect sand fly population size on a smaller scale. A standardised sampling procedure and statistical analysis for highly overdispersed distributions allow reliable estimation of P. perniciosus abundance and identification of environmental drivers. While climatic variables have the greatest impact at macro-environmental scale, anthropic factors may be determinant at a micro

  1. Wildfires and post-fire erosion risk in a coastal area under severe anthropic pressure associated with the touristic fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Bachisio; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Valeriano Pintus, Gian; Ferrara, Roberto; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades a rapid and intense development of the tourism industry led to an increasing of anthropic pressure on several coastal areas of Sardinia. This fact not only modified the coastal aesthetics, but has also generated an increase of risk for the environment. This phenomenon affected also the ancient structure of the landscape with a negative impact mainly caused by the following factors: land abandonment, wildfire occurrence, post-fire erosion, urbanization. These regional changes can be analyzed in detail by considering the geo-diachronic dynamics. The main objectives of this work were i) to perform a diachronic analysis of land use and land cover dynamics, ii) to analyse the recent dynamics of wildfires, and iii) to predict the soil erosion risk in relation to land use change occurred between the 1950s and the 2000s. The study was realized in a coastal area located in North-East Sardinia where the geo-historical processes were summarized and organized in a geographic information system that has been employed to examine the landscape variations at three different time steps: 1954, 1977 and 2000. In addition, different scenarios of wildfire propagation were simulated by FlamMap in order to estimate the spatial pattern of fire danger factors in the study area. Afterwards, maps of post-fire soil erosion were produced to identify the temporal and spatial variations of the erosion risk. The results show how the changes in land use and the significant and rapid increase of the residential areas affect the risk of both wildfires and post-fire soil erosion. The study reveals the capabilities of this type of approach and can be used by management agencies and policy makers e in sustainable landscape management planning. This approach can be extended to other regions of the Mediterranean basin characterized by complex interactions among landscape and anthropic factors affecting the environmental risk.

  2. EFFECT OF SODIUM PHOSPHATES ON SELECTED FOOD GRADE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect in vitro of selected sodium phosphates (under the corporate names Hexa 68, Hexa 70, Trikrystal, FST, Pyro 52, KPS, Didi on selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Seven different concentrations of each phosphate were used. Sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phosphates was observed in broth supplemented with salts. In vitro was showed a negative effect of various phosphates on growth of selected gram-positive bacteria. Orthophosphates and diphosphates (pyrophosphates did not have significant inhibitory effect on tested bacteria at neutral pH. With the exception of phosphate Trikrystal has not been found in vitro significant inhibitory effects on gram-negative bacteria.doi:10.5219/141

  3. Effect of repeated administration of Damiana on selected kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of repeated oral administration of Damiana, an aphrodisiac, on selected renal function indices of male rats for 20 days was investigated. Male rats were orally administered with appropriate volume corresponding to human therapeutic dose of 3.6mg/kg body weight of diamiana at 24hour intervals. The effects on ...

  4. Vacuum selection on axionic landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gaoyuan; Battefeld, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    We compute the distribution of minima that are reached dynamically on multi-field axionic landscapes, both numerically and analytically. Such landscapes are well suited for inflationary model building due to the presence of shift symmetries and possible alignment effects (the KNP mechanism). The resulting distribution of dynamically reached minima differs considerably from the naive expectation based on counting all vacua. These differences are more pronounced in the presence of many fields due to dynamical selection effects: while low lying minima are preferred as fields roll down the potential, trajectories are also more likely to get trapped by one of the many nearby minima. We show that common analytic arguments based on random matrix theory in the large D-limit to estimate the distribution of minima are insufficient for quantitative arguments pertaining to the dynamically reached ones. This discrepancy is not restricted to axionic potentials. We provide an empirical expression for the expectation value of such dynamically reached minimas' height and argue that the cosmological constant problem is not alleviated in the absence of anthropic arguments. We further comment on the likelihood of inflation on axionic landscapes in the large D-limit

  5. elative age effect in the selection process of handball players of the regional selection teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gómez López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of age on adolescent handball players of the regional selection teams. To do this, data of sex and date of birth of 84 youth players from different regional selection teams in the 2015-2016 season were analyzed, performing comparisons and differences being studied by χ2 and Z tests and the Bonferroni method. The analysis of results by quarter and half of birth revealed no statistically significant differences in gender and category. It seems to confirm that there is not relative age effect in the analyzed Teams. Whereupon, seems to confirm that in handball base, all young people participate, regardless of the degree of maturity submit.

  6. Characterization of selection effects on broiler lines using DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selection for body weight on the genetic variability and diversity in broiler lines. Two paternal broiler lines (LL and LLc were used. LL line was selected for 12 generations for growth and carcass and reproduction characteristics. The LLc line was established from LL line in 1985 and mated at random. Blood samples from six chickens per line were collected and used for molecular analysis. Also, a DNA pool was made for each line to compare effects between lines. Data were analyzed considering the collected information on the presence or absence of DNA bands. Band sharing scores were calculated using the DICE coefficient. The pattern of the 21 most representative bands was used. DNA fingerprinting (DFP showed 90.48 % of polymorphism bands for both lines. Difference between lines was not due to the presence or absence of bands, but to the frequency of such bands in each genotype. Considering that both lines had the same genetic background, changes on band frequency were probably due to selection. Selection for body weight had an effect on the band frequency as evaluated by DFP, and for this reason this technique could be used as a tool in the selection process. Results also suggest that bands 4, 5 and 19 were linked to body weight traits, and bands 9, 10, 12, 13 and 21 were linked to reproductive traits such as egg production.

  7. Effects of Mode of Target Task Selection on Learning about Plants in a Mobile Learning Environment: Effortful Manual Selection versus Effortless QR-Code Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of effortless selection of target plants using quick respond (QR) code technology to effortful manual search and selection of target plants on learning about plants in a mobile device supported learning environment. In addition, it was investigated whether the effectiveness of the 2 selection methods was…

  8. Effect of balance exercise on selected kinematic gait variables in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of balance exercise on some selected kinematic gait parameters in patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. Forty subjects (18 men and 22 women) participated in the study.They were divided into two groups: Group 1 (experimental) that was treated with balance exercises, ...

  9. Effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on the in vitro methane production and microbial diversity. The plants include multi-purpose trees; Pterocarpus santallinoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbek, Albizia saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, ...

  10. The effects of s-triazines on selected marine macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewey, S.A.; Nummela, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    Although s-triazines have been used as herbicides for many years, their use and that of other herbicides and fungicides, in antifouling compounds is only fairly recent. The Hamble estuary, Hampshire UK has been identified as one such site. Investigations were conducted into the effects of s-triazines on selected marine macroalgae, local to that area

  11. The effects of carbonated alcoholic herbal beverage on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Carbonated Alcoholic herbal beverages (CAHB) are a menace in our society as the drink is grossly abused; this study is therefore aimed at investigating the Histomorphological, selected hepatorenal function indices and some hematological parameters effects induced by a Carbonated Alcoholic Herbal Beverage that ...

  12. Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma and Bacillus isolates on growth of dry bean and biological control of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off. ... Greenhouse trials showed that combined inoculations of T. atroviride strain 6 and B. subtilis B69 gave the highest growth promotion of bean in terms of ...

  13. Effect of animal manures on selected soil chemical properties (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of animal manures on selected soil properties were studied in the laboratory. Manures of Rabbit (RBM), Swine (SWM), Poultry (POM), Goat, (GTM) and Cow (COM) were added at 10, 20, 30 and 40 t/ha to an acidic Ultisol. The amended soils were incubated at 70% water holding capacity for 3 weeks.

  14. Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX). Selected data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1992-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains selected data sets compiled by the participants of the Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX) workshop on atmospheric temperature. The data sets include surface, upper air, and/or satellite-derived measurements of temperature, solar irradiance, clouds, greenhouse gases, fluxes, albedo, aerosols, ozone, and water vapor, along with Southern Oscillation Indices and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation statistics.

  15. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we investigated whether stress caused by artificial bidirectional selection for body size has any effect on the levels of FA of different morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae. The realised heritability (h2) was higher in low-line females and high-line males, which suggests an asymmetrical response to ...

  16. Effect of Thermo-extrusion Process Parameters on Selected Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Thermo-extrusion Process Parameters on Selected Quality Attributes of Meat Analogue from Mucuna Bean Seed Flour. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... The product functional responses with coefficients of determination (R2) ranging between 0.658 and 0.894 were most affected by changes in barrel temperature and ...

  17. Effects of selected coping strategies on impediment oriented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of selected coping strategies on the impediment oriented academic stress of the visually impaired pupils in Oji- River School for the Blind, Enugu State. The study is a quasi-Experimental design involving two treatment groups and one control group. Twenty visually impaired ...

  18. The effect of exchange rate devaluation on selected agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exchange rate devaluation on selected agricultural export commodities in Nigeria. ... The overall results confirmed that in most cases, the lagged values of exchange rate devaluation had a significant and positive relationship with agricultural export commodities but of a higher magnitude in the Total agricultural ...

  19. Neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucny, Jason; Olincy, Ann; Eichman, Lindsay S; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-06-01

    Although the attention-enhancing effects of nicotine have been behaviorally and neurophysiologically well-documented, its localized functional effects during selective attention are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention in healthy human nonsmokers. We hypothesized to observe significant effects of nicotine in attention-associated brain areas, driven by nicotine-induced increases in activity as a function of increasing task demands. A single-blind, prospective, randomized crossover design was used to examine neuronal response associated with a go/no-go task after 7 mg nicotine or placebo patch administration in 20 individuals who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task design included two levels of difficulty (ordered vs. random stimuli) and two levels of auditory distraction (silence vs. noise). Significant treatment × difficulty × distraction interaction effects on neuronal response were observed in the hippocampus, ventral parietal cortex, and anterior cingulate. In contrast to our hypothesis, U and inverted U-shaped dependencies were observed between the effects of nicotine on response and task demands, depending on the brain area. These results suggest that nicotine may differentially affect neuronal response depending on task conditions. These results have important theoretical implications for understanding how cholinergic tone may influence the neurobiology of selective attention.

  20. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  1. Holocene evolution of a montane lake catchment inferred from multiproxy sediment analysis : climatic and anthropic impacts in french prealps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Manon; Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; David, Fernand; Arnaud, Fabien; Develle, Anne-Lise; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Crouzet, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Lake La Thuile in the Massif des Bauges (874 m a.s.l. French Alps) provides a 18 meters sedimentary sequence. Due to its mid-altitude position, this lake is one of the first to be formed through the glacial retreat and documents the evolution of its catchment since the Late Glacial Maximum. The first 6 meters of the core cover the last 12 000 years, and allowed to study human/climate/environment interactions in a carbonated environment. This study is the first one to investigate a mid-altitude lake in the French Alps for paleoenvironment reconstruction from lake sediment archive. Its altitudinal position presents the advantage to be very accessible to human activities and allows more developed agriculture than in higher altitude. This study aims to determined how and when is expressed the erosive response of such an environment to human settlement. High resolution multiproxy analysis of the first 6 meters including sedimentological, palynological and geochemical data associated to a well-constrained chronology over the Holocene period allows us to understand the respective impacts of both climate and human on the evolution of Lake La Thuile environment. Five major phases of evolution have been highlighted over this period. From 12 000 to 10 000 yr cal. BP, the vegetation is developing with the onset of hardwood species and the disappearance of Pinus. From 10 000 to 4500 yr cal. BP the warmer climatic conditions of the middle of the Holocene allows the forest to densify and the very low sedimentation rate indicates that the forest stabilizes slopes and prevents from the erosion on the watershed. The climate cooling of the Neoglacial period triggers a first erosive phase with a decreasing of the forest around 3300 cal. BP. Human settlements are suggested at La Thuile from 2500 yr cal. BP by palynological evidence of anthropic taxa. The triggered clearing is accompanied by a second erosive phase related to anthropic activities during the Roman period. Erosion

  2. The effect of friend selection on social influences in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogdon, Justin G; Allaire, Benjamin T

    2014-12-01

    We present an agent-based model of weight choice and peer selection that simulates the effect of peer selection on social multipliers for weight loss interventions. The model generates social clustering around weight through two mechanisms: a causal link from others' weight to an individual's weight and the propensity to select peers based on weight. We simulated weight loss interventions and tried to identify intervention targets that maximized the spillover of weight loss from intervention participants to nonparticipants. Social multipliers increase with the number of intervention participants' friends. For example, when friend selection was based on a variable exogenous to weight, the weight lost among non-participants increased by 23% (14.3lb vs. 11.6lb) when targeting the most popular obese. Holding constant the number of participants' friends, multipliers increase with increased weight clustering due to selection, up to a point. For example, among the most popular obese, social multipliers when matching on a characteristic correlated with weight (1.189) were higher than when matching on the exogenous characteristic (1.168) and when matching on weight (1.180). Increased weight clustering also implies more obese "friends of friends" of participants, who reduce social multipliers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of smoking history on selective attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Constanze; Hahn, Eric; Dettling, Michael; Güntürkün, Onur; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2012-03-01

    Smoking prevalence is highly elevated in schizophrenia compared to the general population and to other psychiatric populations. Evidence suggests that smoking may lead to improvements of schizophrenia-associated attention deficits; however, large-scale studies on this important issue are scarce. We examined whether sustained, selective, and executive attention processes are differentially modulated by long-term nicotine consumption in 104 schizophrenia patients and 104 carefully matched healthy controls. A significant interaction of 'smoking status' × 'diagnostic group' was obtained for the domain of selective attention. Smoking was significantly associated with a detrimental conflict effect in controls, while the opposite effect was revealed for schizophrenia patients. Likewise, a positive correlation between a cumulative measure of nicotine consumption and conflict effect in controls and a negative correlation in patients were found. These results provide evidence for specific directional effects of smoking on conflict processing that critically dissociate with diagnosis. The data supports the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia and suggests selective attention as a specific cognitive domain targeted by nicotine consumption. A potential mechanistic model explaining these findings is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshikar, Eric D; Duarte, Audrey; Hertzog, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences). Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator). It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences) for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness) of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  5. The effects of advertisement location and familiarity on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Tanja Lund; Rodway, Paul

    2010-06-01

    This study comprised two experiments to examine the distracting effects of advertisement familiarity, location, and onset on the performance of a selective attention task. In Exp. 1, familiar advertisements presented in peripheral vision disrupted selective attention when the attention task was more demanding, suggesting that the distracting effect of advertisements is a product of task demands and advertisement familiarity and location. In Exp. 2, the onset of the advertisement shortly before, or after, the attention task captured attention and disrupted attentional performance. The onset of the advertisement before the attention task reduced target response time without an increase in errors and therefore facilitated performance. Despite being instructed to ignore the advertisements, the participants were able to recall a substantial proportion of the familiar advertisements. Implications for the presentation of advertisements during human-computer interaction were discussed.

  6. Exploiting Confinement Effects to Tune Selectivity in Cyclooctane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva

    2017-08-24

    The mechanism of cyclooctane metathesis using confinement effect strategies in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is discussed by catalytic experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. WMe6 was immobilized inside the pores of a series of MSNs having the same structure but different pore diameters (60, 30 and 25 Å). Experiments in cyclooctane metathesis suggest that confinement effects observed in smaller pores (30 and 25 Å) improve selectivity towards the dimeric cyclohexadecane. In contrast, in larger pores (60 Å) a broad product distribution dominated by ring contracted cycloalkanes was found. The catalytic cycle and potential side reactions occurring at [(≡SiO-)WMe5] were examined with DFT calculations. Analysis of the geometries for the key reaction intermediates allowed to rationalize the impact of a confined environment on the enhanced selectivity towards the dimeric product in smaller pores, while in large pores the ring contracted products are favored.

  7. Assessment of the impact of anthropic activities on carbon storage in soils of high montane ecosystems in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Zúñiga-Escobar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon in the soil was quantified to assess the impact of anthropic activities on montane ecosystems in Colombia in Chingaza Parque Nacional Natural (PNN and Los Nevados Parque Nacional Natural (PNN . For the development of the soil samples, a detailed in situ description of the edaphological profile of four ecosystems of paramo and high Andean forest areas, of both disturbed and undisturbed zones, was taken as the base. The calculation of the amount of total carbon stored by the soil profile shows that, in Colombia, undisturbed high montane ecosystems (520.9 t ha-1 in paramos and 323.6 t ha-1 in high Andean forests of Chingaza PNN , and 373.0 t ha-1 in paramos and 254.6 t ha-1 in high Andean forests of Los Nevados PNN currently have more carbon than disturbed ecosystems (135.1 t ha-1 in paramos and 141.5 t ha-1 in high Andean forests of Chingaza PNN , and 356.3 t ha-1 in paramos and 217.1 t ha-1 in high Andean forests of Los Nevados PNN . It is clear that the disturbance of high montane ecosystems decreases the amount of carbon in the soil, a situation that is more concerning in Chingaza PNN where the difference between the disturbed and undisturbed ecosystems is much more marked than in Los Nevados PNN

  8. Selective effects of cholinergic modulation on task performance during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Maura L; Pietrini, Pietro; Haxby, James V; Drevets, Wayne C

    2008-03-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmitter system is critically linked to cognitive functions including attention. The current studies were designed to evaluate the effect of a cholinergic agonist and an antagonist on performance during a selective visual attention task where the inherent salience of attended/unattended stimuli was modulated. Two randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were performed, one (n=9) with the anticholinesterase physostigmine (1.0 mg/h), and the other (n=30) with the anticholinergic scopolamine (0.4 mc/kg). During the task, two double-exposure pictures of faces and houses were presented side by side. Subjects were cued to attend to either the face or the house component of the stimuli, and were instructed to perform a matching task with the two exemplars from the attended category. The cue changed every 4-7 trials to instruct subjects to shift attention from one stimulus component to the other. During placebo in both studies, reaction time (RT) associated with the first trial following a cued shift in attention was longer than RT associated with later trials (pattention to houses condition (pattention to faces. Scopolamine increased RT relative to placebo selectively during trials greater than one (pattention to faces condition (pselective attention (ie trials greater than 1). Moreover, effects of cholinergic manipulation depend on the selective attention condition (ie faces vs houses), which may suggest that cholinergic activity interacts with stimulus salience. The findings are discussed within the context of the role of acetylcholine both in stimulus processing and stimulus salience, and in establishing attention biases through top-down and bottom-up mechanisms of attention.

  9. Selected indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of marketing communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the evaluation of marketing activity in each institution most often refers to marketing communications and therefore promotional activities of the company. Whereas measuring the effectiveness of marketing communications results, we can use many tools-indicators, the use of which will track the progress and assess the effectiveness of our institution run by marketing communications. With a view to implementing effective marketing strategy we must be able to measure our success. In this article, has been made a review of selected indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing communications. Cited indicators are commonly used. According to the authors, each institution should create its own set of indicators by which the effects of its operations will be best measured.

  10. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS AND THE M-σ RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueltekin, Kayhan; Richstone, Douglas O.; Tremaine, Scott; Loeb, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    We examine the possibility that the observed relation between black hole mass and host-galaxy stellar velocity dispersion (the M-σ relation) is biased by an observational selection effect, the difficulty of detecting a black hole whose sphere of influence is smaller than the telescope resolution. In particular, we critically investigate recent claims that the M-σ relation only represents the upper limit to a broad distribution of black hole masses in galaxies of a given velocity dispersion. We find that this hypothesis can be rejected at a high confidence level, at least for the early-type galaxies with relatively high velocity dispersions (median 268 km s -1 ) that comprise most of our sample. We also describe a general procedure for incorporating observational selection effects in estimates of the properties of the M-σ relation. Applying this procedure we find results that are consistent with earlier estimates that did not account for selection effects, although with larger error bars. In particular, (1) the width of the M-σ relation is not significantly increased, (2) the slope and normalization of the M-σ relation are not significantly changed, and (3) most or all luminous early-type galaxies contain central black holes at zero redshift. Our results may not apply to late-type or small galaxies, which are not well represented in our sample.

  11. Effective traffic features selection algorithm for cyber-attacks samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihong; Liu, Fangzheng; Du, Zhenyu

    2018-05-01

    By studying the defense scheme of Network attacks, this paper propose an effective traffic features selection algorithm based on k-means++ clustering to deal with the problem of high dimensionality of traffic features which extracted from cyber-attacks samples. Firstly, this algorithm divide the original feature set into attack traffic feature set and background traffic feature set by the clustering. Then, we calculates the variation of clustering performance after removing a certain feature. Finally, evaluating the degree of distinctiveness of the feature vector according to the result. Among them, the effective feature vector is whose degree of distinctiveness exceeds the set threshold. The purpose of this paper is to select out the effective features from the extracted original feature set. In this way, it can reduce the dimensionality of the features so as to reduce the space-time overhead of subsequent detection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and it has some advantages over other selection algorithms.

  12. Disentangling the effects of demography and selection in human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajich, Jason E; Hahn, Matthew W

    2005-01-01

    Demographic events affect all genes in a genome, whereas natural selection has only local effects. Using publicly available data from 151 loci sequenced in both European-American and African-American populations, we attempt to distinguish the effects of demography and selection. To analyze large sets of population genetic data such as this one, we introduce "Perlymorphism," a Unix-based suite of analysis tools. Our analyses show that the demographic histories of human populations can account for a large proportion of effects on the level and frequency of variation across the genome. The African-American population shows both a higher level of nucleotide diversity and more negative values of Tajima's D statistic than does a European-American population. Using coalescent simulations, we show that the significantly negative values of the D statistic in African-Americans and the positive values in European-Americans are well explained by relatively simple models of population admixture and bottleneck, respectively. Working within these nonequilibrium frameworks, we are still able to show deviations from neutral expectations at a number of loci, including ABO and TRPV6. In addition, we show that the frequency spectrum of mutations--corrected for levels of polymorphism--is correlated with recombination rate only in European-Americans. These results are consistent with repeated selective sweeps in non-African populations, in agreement with recent reports using microsatellite data.

  13. Effects of selection for cooperation and attention in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklósi Ádám

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that the functional similarities in the socio-cognitive behaviour of dogs and humans emerged as a consequence of comparable environmental selection pressures. Here we use a novel approach to account for the facilitating effect of domestication in dogs and reveal that selection for two factors under genetic influence (visual cooperation and focused attention may have led independently to increased comprehension of human communicational cues. Method In Study 1, we observed the performance of three groups of dogs in utilizing the human pointing gesture in a two-way object choice test. We compared breeds selected to work while visually separated from human partners (N = 30, 21 breeds, clustered as independent worker group, with those selected to work in close cooperation and continuous visual contact with human partners (N = 30, 22 breeds, clustered as cooperative worker group, and with a group of mongrels (N = 30. Secondly, it has been reported that, in dogs, selective breeding to produce an abnormal shortening of the skull is associated with a more pronounced area centralis (location of greatest visual acuity. In Study 2, breeds with high cephalic index and more frontally placed eyes (brachycephalic breeds, N = 25, 14 breeds were compared with breeds with low cephalic index and laterally placed eyes (dolichocephalic breeds, N = 25, 14 breeds. Results In Study 1, cooperative workers were significantly more successful in utilizing the human pointing gesture than both the independent workers and the mongrels. In study 2, we found that brachycephalic dogs performed significantly better than dolichocephalic breeds. Discussion After controlling for environmental factors, we have provided evidence that at least two independent phenotypic traits with certain genetic variability affect the ability of dogs to rely on human visual cues. This finding should caution researchers against making simple generalizations

  14. ALGORITHM OF SELECTION EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS FOR REPROFILING OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENEJLJUK A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem.Non-compliance requirements of today's industrial enterprises, which were built during the Soviet period, as well as significant technical progress, economic reform and transition to market principles of performance evaluation leading to necessity to change their target and functionality. The technical condition of many industrial buildings in Ukraine allows to exploit them for decades.Redesigning manufacturing enterprises allows not only to reduce the cost of construction, but also to obtain new facilities in the city. Despite the large number of industrial buildings that have lost their effectiveness and relevance, as well as a significant investor interest in these objects, the scope of redevelopment in the construction remains unexplored. Analysis researches on the topic. The problem of reconstruction of industrial buildings considered in Topchy D. [3], Travin V. [9], as well as in the work of other scientists. However, there are no rules in regulatory documents and system studies for improving the organization of the reconstruction of buildings at realigning. The purpose of this work is the development an algorithm of actions for selection of effective organizational decisions at the planning stage of a reprofiling project of industrial buildings. The proposed algorithm allows you to select an effective organizational and technological solution for the re-profiling of industrial buildings, taking into account features of the building, its location, its state of structures and existing restrictions. The most effective organizational solution allows realize the reprofiling project of an industrial building in the most possible short terms and with the lowest possible use of material resources, taking into account the available features and restrictions. Conclusion. Each object has a number of unique features that necessary for considering at choosing an effective reprofiling variant. The developed algorithm for selecting

  15. Selective attention and recognition: effects of congruency on episodic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Tamara M; D'Angelo, Maria C; MacLellan, Ellen; Milliken, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Recent research on cognitive control has focused on the learning consequences of high selective attention demands in selective attention tasks (e.g., Botvinick, Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 7(4):356-366, 2007; Verguts and Notebaert, Psychol Rev 115(2):518-525, 2008). The current study extends these ideas by examining the influence of selective attention demands on remembering. In Experiment 1, participants read aloud the red word in a pair of red and green spatially interleaved words. Half of the items were congruent (the interleaved words had the same identity), and the other half were incongruent (the interleaved words had different identities). Following the naming phase, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. In this test phase, recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 2, context was only partially reinstated at test, and again recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 3, all of the items contained two different words, but in one condition the words were presented close together and interleaved, while in the other condition the two words were spatially separated. Recognition memory was better for the interleaved than for the separated items. This result rules out an interpretation of the congruency effects on recognition in Experiments 1 and 2 that hinges on stronger relational encoding for items that have two different words. Together, the results support the view that selective attention demands for incongruent items lead to encoding that improves recognition.

  16. Can selection explain the protective effects of farming on asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijnand Eduard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i]Introduction and objective. Reduced asthma and allergy risks in farmers have been ascribed to microbial exposures. However, selection may also play a role and this was assessed in two Scandinavian farming populations. Materials and methods. Asthma prevalence in 739 Danish farming students was compared to that of 1,105 siblings. 8,482 Norwegian farmers were also compared with 349 early retired farmers. Results. The prevalence of ever-asthma was 5.4% in farming students and 5.2% in siblings (OR 1.1; 95%CI 0.73–1.7. Current asthma in farmers was 3.0% compared to 6.3% in farmers who had retired early (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–2.9. Adjustments for early retirement increased the asthma prevalence by 0.3–0.6%. Farmers who had changed production were more likely to have asthma (OR 9.8, 95% CI 6.0–16. Conclusions. No healthy worker selection into farming was observed and changes in asthma prevalence due to early retirement were small. Selection effects are therefore unlikely to explain the protective effects of farming on asthma.

  17. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. METHODS OF SELECTING THE EFFECTIVE MODELS OF BUILDINGS REPROFILING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Иванович МЕНЕЙЛЮК

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the important task of project management in reprofiling of buildings. It is expedient to pay attention to selecting effective engineering solutions to reduce the duration and cost reduction at the project management in the construction industry. This article presents a methodology for the selection of efficient organizational and technical solutions for the reconstruction of buildings reprofiling. The method is based on a compilation of project variants in the program Microsoft Project and experimental statistical analysis using the program COMPEX. The introduction of this technique in the realigning of buildings allows choosing efficient models of projects, depending on the given constraints. Also, this technique can be used for various construction projects.

  19. Effects of spatial and selective attention on basic multisensory integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Blurton, Steven Paul; Hughes, F.

    2011-01-01

    underlying the RSE. We investigated the role of spatial and selective attention on the RSE in audiovisual redundant signals tasks. In Experiment 1, stimuli were presented either centrally (narrow attentional focus) or at 1 of 3 unpredictable locations (wide focus). The RSE was accurately described...... task) or to central stimuli only (selective attention task). The RSE was consistent with task-specific coactivation models; accumulation of evidence, however, differed between the 2 tasks....... by a coactivation model assuming linear superposition of modality-specific activation. Effects of spatial attention were explained by a shift of the evidence criterion. In Experiment 2, stimuli were presented at 3 locations; participants had to respond either to all signals regardless of location (simple response...

  20. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Leshikar

    Full Text Available Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator. It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  1. A prospective monitoring of natural and anthropical fish populations in the basin of the Trotus river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URECHE Dorel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As a major part of the Siret river hidrography, though less known ichthyologically, the Trotus has a series of tributaries worth mentioning for their natural sources of water pollution (the Slanic River for sodium chloride, the Tazlau River for potassium chloride and the Tazlaul Sarat for petroleum derivatives as well as for the chemical pollution from the plants in Darmanesti and Onesti. All these in mind the impact of the pollution over the fish fauna of the above mentioned area was determined. The basinal analysis of the ichthyocenosis was performed in three locations the selection of which was based on the particulars of the habitat: upper Trotus free of chemical and urban waste, the Tazlau and middle and downstream Trotus – an area affected by chemical and urban waste upstream Comanesti. A total number of sampling stations was chosen so as to cover all particular fish breeding associations and changes in spreading of the species.

  2. Neural effects of cognitive control load on auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Merav; Humphries, Colin; Verber, Matthew; Liebenthal, Einat; Binder, Jeffrey R; Mangalathu, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2014-08-01

    Whether and how working memory disrupts or alters auditory selective attention is unclear. We compared simultaneous event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses associated with task-irrelevant sounds across high and low working memory load in a dichotic-listening paradigm. Participants performed n-back tasks (1-back, 2-back) in one ear (Attend ear) while ignoring task-irrelevant speech sounds in the other ear (Ignore ear). The effects of working memory load on selective attention were observed at 130-210ms, with higher load resulting in greater irrelevant syllable-related activation in localizer-defined regions in auditory cortex. The interaction between memory load and presence of irrelevant information revealed stronger activations primarily in frontal and parietal areas due to presence of irrelevant information in the higher memory load. Joint independent component analysis of ERP and fMRI data revealed that the ERP component in the N1 time-range is associated with activity in superior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate a dynamic relationship between working memory load and auditory selective attention, in agreement with the load model of attention and the idea of common neural resources for memory and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of calorie information on food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girz, L; Polivy, J; Herman, C P; Lee, H

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effects of calorie labeling on food selection and intake in dieters and non-dieters, and to explore whether expectations about food healthfulness moderate these effects. Participants were presented with a menu containing two items, a salad and a pasta dish. The menu had (a) no calorie information, (b) information that the salad was low in calories and the pasta was high in calories, (c) information that the salad was high in calories and the pasta was low in calories or (d) information that both were high in calories (study 2 only). Calorie labels influenced food selection for dieters, but not for non-dieters. Dieters were more likely to order salad when the salad was labeled as low in calories and more likely to order pasta, even high-calorie pasta, when the salad was labeled as high in calories. Participants who chose high-calorie foods over low-calorie foods did not eat less in response to calorie information, although non-dieters reduced their intake somewhat when calorie labels were put in the context of recommended daily calories. The results suggest that the rush to provide calorie information may not prove to be the best approach to fighting the obesity epidemic.

  4. Effect of efferent activation on binaural frequency selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Kordus, Monika; Drga, Vit; Yasin, Ifat

    2017-07-01

    Binaural notched-noise experiments indicate a reduced frequency selectivity of the binaural system compared to monaural processing. The present study investigates how auditory efferent activation (via the medial olivocochlear system) affects binaural frequency selectivity in normal-hearing listeners. Thresholds were measured for a 1-kHz signal embedded in a diotic notched-noise masker for various notch widths. The signal was either presented in phase (diotic) or in antiphase (dichotic), gated with the noise. Stimulus duration was 25 ms, in order to avoid efferent activation due to the masker or the signal. A bandpass-filtered noise precursor was presented prior to the masker and signal stimuli to activate the efferent system. The silent interval between the precursor and the masker-signal complex was 50 ms. For comparison, thresholds for detectability of the masked signal were also measured in a baseline condition without the precursor and, in addition, without the masker. On average, the results of the baseline condition indicate an effectively wider binaural filter, as expected. For both signal phases, the addition of the precursor results in effectively wider filters, which is in agreement with the hypothesis that cochlear gain is reduced due to the presence of the precursor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacteriostatic effect of simvastatin on selected oral streptococci in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene J Whitaker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective: Simvastatin is a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug, which has been found to have a number of pleiotropic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of simvastatin against selected oral streptococci as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Methods: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus salivarius were the test microorganisms. The serial dilution method was used to determine the MIC of simvastatin against these organisms. The MIC was defined as the lowest concentration of simvastatin that completely inhibited growth of the test organisms. Results: The data indicate that simvastatin inhibits the growth of the test organisms, with MIC's ranging from 7.8 to 15.6 μg/ml. Conclusions: Simvastatin has MIC's against the selected bacteria that compare favorably with reported values for topical agents such as essential oil, chlorhexidine gluconate, and triclosan. The levels of simvastatin required to inhibit bacterial growth of oral bacteria exceed the reported levels of the drug found in plasma or crevicular fluid of patients who are treated with this cholesterol-lowering drug. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate the potential use of simvastatin as a novel antiplaque agent that could be used in local drug delivery to the oral cavity of those patients who are prescribed this cholesterol-lowering drug.

  6. Selection effects on GRB spectral-energy correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, Lara; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental selection effects can act upon the estimates of the peak energy E peak obs , the fluence F and the peak flux P of GRBs. If this were the case, then the correlations involving the corresponding rest frame quantities (i.e. E peak , E obs and the peak luminosity L iso ) would be questioned. We estimated, as a function of E peak obs , the minimum peak flux necessary to trigger a GRB and the minimum fluence a burst must have to determine the value of E peak obs by considering different instruments (BATSE, Swift, BeppoSAX). We find that the latter dominates over the former. We then study the E peak obs -fluence (and flux) correlation in the observer plane. GRBs with redshift show well defined E peak obs -F and E peak obs -P correlations: in this planes the selection effects are present, but do not determine the found correlations. This is not true for Swift GRBs with redshift, for which the spectral analysis threshold does affect their distribution in the observer planes. Extending the sample to GRBs without z, we still find a significant E peak obs -F correlation, although with a larger scatter than that defined by GRBs with redshift. We find that 6% are outliers of the Amati correlation. The E peak obs -P correlation of GRBs with or without redshift is the same and no outlier is found among bursts without redshift.

  7. Gamma-ray Burst Prompt Correlations: Selection and Instrumental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Amati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The prompt emission mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) even after several decades remains a mystery. However, it is believed that correlations between observable GRB properties, given their huge luminosity/radiated energy and redshift distribution extending up to at least z ≈ 9, are promising possible cosmological tools. They also may help to discriminate among the most plausible theoretical models. Nowadays, the objective is to make GRBs standard candles, similar to supernovae (SNe) Ia, through well-established and robust correlations. However, differently from SNe Ia, GRBs span over several order of magnitude in their energetics, hence they cannot yet be considered standard candles. Additionally, being observed at very large distances, their physical properties are affected by selection biases, the so-called Malmquist bias or Eddington effect. We describe the state of the art on how GRB prompt correlations are corrected for these selection biases to employ them as redshift estimators and cosmological tools. We stress that only after an appropriate evaluation and correction for these effects, GRB correlations can be used to discriminate among the theoretical models of prompt emission, to estimate the cosmological parameters and to serve as distance indicators via redshift estimation.

  8. Lateralized goal framing: how selective presentation impacts message effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Michael; Seta, John J

    2012-11-01

    We tested whether framing a message as a gain or loss would alter its effectiveness by using a dichotic listening procedure to selectively present a health related message to the left or right hemisphere. A significant goal framing effect (losses > gains) was found when right, but not left, hemisphere processing was initially enhanced. The results support the position that the contextual processing style of the right hemisphere is especially sensitive to the associative implications of the frame. We discussed the implications of these findings for goal framing research, and the valence hypothesis. We also discussed how these findings converge with prior valence framing research and how they can be of potential use to health care providers.

  9. New selection effect of statistical investigations of supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allakhverdiev, A.O.; Gusejnov, O.Kh.; Kasumov, F.K.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of H2 regions on the parameters of Supernova remnants (SNR) is investigated. It has been shown that the projection of such regions on the SNRs leads to local changes of morphological structure of young shell-type SNRs and considerable distortions of integral parameters of evolved shell-type SNRs (with D > 10 pc) and plerions, up to their complete undetectability on the background of classical and gigantic H2 regions. A new selection effect, in fact, arises from these factors connected with additional limitations made by the real structure of the interstellar medium on the statistical investigations of SNRs. The influence of this effect on the statistical completeness of objects has been estimated

  10. New selection effect in statistical investigations of supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, A. O.; Guseinov, O. Kh.; Kasumov, F. K.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of H II regions on the parameters of supernova remnants (SNR) is investigated. It has been shown that the projection of such regions on the SNRs leads to: a) local changes of morphological structure of young shell-type SNRs and b) considerable distortions of integral parameters of evolved shell-type SNRs (with D > 10 pc) and plerions, up to their complete undetectability on the background of classical and gigantic H II regions. A new selection effect, in fact, arises from these factors connected with additional limitations made by the real structure of the interstellar medium on the statistical investigations of SNRs. The influence of this effect on the statistical completeness of objects has been estimated.

  11. The effect of stress on men's food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Debra A; Saito, Shin; Gonzalez, Johanie

    2007-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of stress on food choice among men. Two groups of men were given either solvable (no-stress) or unsolvable (stress) anagrams to solve. Four bowls of snack foods-two healthy (peanuts and grapes) and two unhealthy (potato chips and M&M chocolate candies)-were available and subjects were invited to snack on them. Men in the no-stress group ate significantly more of the unhealthy foods than did men in the stress group. This finding is quite different from that found with women [Zellner et al. (2006). Food selection changes under stress. Physiology & Behavior, 87, 789-793]. Women tended to eat more grapes when not stressed than when stressed and more M&Ms when stressed than when not stressed. Thus, the effect of stress level on food choice is different for men and women.

  12. Mapping malaria risk using environmental and anthropic variables Mapeamento do risco de malaria utilizando variáveis ambientais e antrópicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Edilberto Rincón-Romero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite much research in the identification of areas with malaria, it is urgent to further investigate mapping techniques to achieve better approaches in strategies to prevent, mitigate, and eradicate the mosquito and the illness eventually. By using spatial distributed modeling techniques with Geographical Information Systems (GIS, the study proposes methodology to map malaria risk zoning for the municipality of Buenaventura in Colombia. The model proposed by Craig et al.¹ using climatic information was adapted to the conditions of the study area regarding scale and spatial resolution. Geomorphologic and anthropic variables were added to improve spatial allocation of areas with higher risk of contracting the illness, refining zoning. Then, they were contrasted with the locations reported by health entities², taking into account spatial distribution. The comparison of results shows a decrease in the area obtained initially using the Craig et al. model¹ (1999, from 5,422.4 km² (89.1% of the municipality's territory to 624.3km² (approximately 10% of the municipality's area, yielding a total reduction of 78.8% when environmental and anthropic variables were included in the model. Data show that of the 9,863 cases reported during 2001 to 2005 for 20 selected towns as basis for the amount of surveyed malaria cases², 1,132 were located in the very high-risk areas, 7,662 were in the areas of moderate risk, and 1,066 cases in low-risk areas, showing that 89% of the cases reported fell into the areas with higher risk for malaria.A pesar de muchas investigaciones en la identificación de las zonas con presencia de malaria, es urgente profundizar las técnicas de su mapeo para lograr mejores aproximaciones, para ayudar a focalizar los esfuerzos y recursos en prevención, mitigación y estrategias de erradicación del mosquito y eventualmente de la enfermedad. Usando modelación espacial distribuida con herramientas de Sistemas de Información Geogr

  13. The effects of predictor method factors on selection outcomes: A modular approach to personnel selection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Sackett, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Past reviews and meta-analyses typically conceptualized and examined selection procedures as holistic entities. We draw on the product design literature to propose a modular approach as a complementary perspective to conceptualizing selection procedures. A modular approach means that a product is broken down into its key underlying components. Therefore, we start by presenting a modular framework that identifies the important measurement components of selection procedures. Next, we adopt this modular lens for reviewing the available evidence regarding each of these components in terms of affecting validity, subgroup differences, and applicant perceptions, as well as for identifying new research directions. As a complement to the historical focus on holistic selection procedures, we posit that the theoretical contributions of a modular approach include improved insight into the isolated workings of the different components underlying selection procedures and greater theoretical connectivity among different selection procedures and their literatures. We also outline how organizations can put a modular approach into operation to increase the variety in selection procedures and to enhance the flexibility in designing them. Overall, we believe that a modular perspective on selection procedures will provide the impetus for programmatic and theory-driven research on the different measurement components of selection procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination in intensive care unit patients: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.; Wit, G.A. de; Bakker, M; Smet, A.M. de; Bonten, M.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Voss, A.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine costs and effects of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) as compared with standard care (ie, no SDD/SOD (SC)) from a healthcare perspective in Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). DESIGN: A post hoc analysis of a

  15. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination in intensive care unit patients : a cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Wit, G. A.; Bakker, Marina; de Smet, Anne-Marie; Bonten, M. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine costs and effects of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) as compared with standard care (ie, no SDD/SOD (SC)) from a healthcare perspective in Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Design: A post hoc analysis of a

  16. Physico-chemical study of the anthropic aerosol and of its evolutions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinot, B.

    2006-05-01

    Beijing aerosols are characterised for the 2003-2004 period using an inclusive experimental set up for aerosol mass, chemistry and number, deployed at three sites. Aerosol size segregation in two fractions (fine and coarse) appears appropriated for source identification and investigations about gas-to-particle interactions. Several various sources contribute to air pollution: traffic, coal burning and industrial activities. The present study also shows how summer aerosol is influenced by the photochemical formation of secondary particles, and the significant amount of coarse and fine mineral dust all year long. Coal burning in winter has a lower influence than assessed in the past. The origin and altitude of the air masses entering Beijing are of key interest to understand the ageing of pollutants and their regional redistribution. By its expected effects onto these regional parameters, climate change may strongly affect Beijing air pollution in the coming decades. (author)

  17. THE PRESSURE OF ANTHROPIC ACTIVITIES ON NATURAL CAPITAL OF SATU MARE COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA BRAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between man and the natural environment, that provides the most valuable resources for existence, has transformed over time into an artificial and destructive manifestation. The encrease of the standard of living of society has been achieved through the drastic reduction of natural resources and the demage of the environment, endangering the welfare of future generations. Activities such as discharges of waste in the rivers, inappropriate use of land, uncontrolled deforestation, fragmentation of habitats due to infrastructure development pose the greatest risks to natural capital. This article aims to analyze by statistical methods, on the basis of the documents studied, the negative effects of anthropogenic activities on the natural capital of Satu Mare County.

  18. Effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) on the gut resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Elena; Gonzalez, Teresita Bello; Versluis, Dennis; Oostdijk, Evelien A N; Ogilvie, Lesley A; van Mourik, Maaike S M; Oosterink, Els; van Passel, Mark W J; Smidt, Hauke; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; de Been, Mark; Jones, Brian V; Willems, Rob J L; Bonten, Marc J M; van Schaik, Willem

    2014-08-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) is an infection prevention measure for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) that aims to eradicate opportunistic pathogens from the oropharynx and intestines, while sparing the anaerobic flora, by the application of non-absorbable antibiotics. Selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria is still a major concern for SDD. We therefore studied the impact of SDD on the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (i.e. the resistome) by culture-independent approaches. We evaluated the impact of SDD on the gut microbiota and resistome in a single ICU patient during and after an ICU stay by several metagenomic approaches. We also determined by quantitative PCR the relative abundance of two common aminoglycoside resistance genes in longitudinally collected samples from 12 additional ICU patients who received SDD. The patient microbiota was highly dynamic during the hospital stay. The abundance of antibiotic resistance genes more than doubled during SDD use, mainly due to a 6.7-fold increase in aminoglycoside resistance genes, in particular aph(2″)-Ib and an aadE-like gene. We show that aph(2″)-Ib is harboured by anaerobic gut commensals and is associated with mobile genetic elements. In longitudinal samples of 12 ICU patients, the dynamics of these two genes ranged from a ∼10(4) fold increase to a ∼10(-10) fold decrease in relative abundance during SDD. ICU hospitalization and the simultaneous application of SDD has large, but highly individualized, effects on the gut resistome of ICU patients. Selection for transferable antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic commensal bacteria could impact the risk of transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to opportunistic pathogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effective DNA Inhibitors of Cathepsin G by In Vitro Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Barbara; Vianini, Elena; Lucatello, Lorena; Sissi, Claudia; Moltrasio, Danilo; Pescador, Rodolfo; Porta, Roberto; Palumbo, Manlio

    2008-01-01

    Cathepsin G (CatG) is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. In several inflammatory and ischaemic diseases the impaired balance between CatG and its physiological inhibitors leads to tissue destruction and platelet aggregation. Inhibitors of CatG are suitable for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and procoagulant conditions. DNA released upon the death of neutrophils at injury sites binds CatG. Moreover, short DNA fragments are more inhibitory than genomic DNA. Defibrotide, a single stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide with antithrombotic effect is also a potent CatG inhibitor. Given the above experimental evidences we employed a selection protocol to assess whether DNA inhibition of CatG may be ascribed to specific sequences present in defibrotide DNA. A Selex protocol was applied to identify the single-stranded DNA sequences exhibiting the highest affinity for CatG, the diversity of a combinatorial pool of oligodeoxyribonucleotides being a good representation of the complexity found in defibrotide. Biophysical and biochemical studies confirmed that the selected sequences bind tightly to the target enzyme and also efficiently inhibit its catalytic activity. Sequence analysis carried out to unveil a motif responsible for CatG recognition showed a recurrence of alternating TG repeats in the selected CatG binders, adopting an extended conformation that grants maximal interaction with the highly charged protein surface. This unprecedented finding is validated by our results showing high affinity and inhibition of CatG by specific DNA sequences of variable length designed to maximally reduce pairing/folding interactions. PMID:19325843

  20. Effective DNA Inhibitors of Cathepsin G by In Vitro Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlio Palumbo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cathepsin G (CatG is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. In several inflammatory and ischaemic diseases the impaired balance between CatG and its physiological inhibitors leads to tissue destruction and platelet aggregation. Inhibitors of CatG are suitable for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and procoagulant conditions. DNA released upon the death of neutrophils at injury sites binds CatG. Moreover, short DNA fragments are more inhibitory than genomic DNA. Defibrotide, a single stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide with antithrombotic effect is also a potent CatG inhibitor. Given the above experimental evidences we employed a selection protocol to assess whether DNA inhibition of CatG may be ascribed to specific sequences present in defibrotide DNA. A Selex protocol was applied to identify the single-stranded DNA sequences exhibiting the highest affinity for CatG, the diversity of a combinatorial pool of oligodeoxyribonucleotides being a good representation of the complexity found in defibrotide. Biophysical and biochemical studies confirmed that the selected sequences bind tightly to the target enzyme and also efficiently inhibit its catalytic activity. Sequence analysis carried out to unveil a motif responsible for CatG recognition showed a recurrence of alternating TG repeats in the selected CatG binders, adopting an extended conformation that grants maximal interaction with the highly charged protein surface. This unprecedented finding is validated by our results showing high affinity and inhibition of CatG by specific DNA sequences of variable length designed to maximally reduce pairing/folding interactions.

  1. New technologies for the detection of natural and anthropic features in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, Sergio; Del Monte, Maurizio; Paci, M.; Valentini, Emiliana

    2015-01-01

    Some results of the sub project GE.RI.N (Natural Resources Management) conducted in the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands (Western Sicily) are presented. Coastal and sea floor morphology has been investigated integrating different data sources and using remote sensing data acquired by the Ministry of Environment during the MAMPIRA Project. This approach allowed us to recognize the real extent and distribution of several rocky outcrops emerging from the sandy bottom, south of Favignana Island (known as I Pali ) , and the anthropogenic features generated by the effects of traps, trawling and anchor on the 'Posidonia oceanica' meadow that, within the Egadi Archipelago, is the largest in the Mediterranean Sea (www.ampisoleegadi.it). Unpublished and detailed characterization of the seafloor and assessment of human impacts are the main results of the present study, which demonstrate how remote sensing technologies have a great potential and relevant management implication for Marine Protected Areas and the preservation of emerged and submerged environment [it

  2. Effective selection of transgenic papaya plants with the PMI/Man selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; McCafferty, Heather; Albert, Henrik H; Moore, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogenic calli have little or no PMI activity and cannot utilize Man as a carbon source; however, when calli were transformed with a pmi gene, the PMI activity was greatly increased and they could utilize Man as efficiently as sucrose. Plants regenerated from selected callus lines also exhibited PMI activity but at a lower specific activity level. Our transformation efficiency with Man selection was higher than that reported using antibiotic selection or with a visual marker. For papaya, the PMI/Man selection system for producing transgenic plants is a highly efficient addition to previously published methods for selection and may facilitate the stacking of multiple transgenes of interest. Additionally, since the PMI/Man selection system does not involve antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes, its use might reduce environmental concerns about the potential flow of those genes into related plant populations.

  3. The end-state comfort effect in bimanual grip selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Mark G; Stodden, David F; Lehman, Davana M

    2003-03-01

    During a unimanual grip selection task in which people pick up a lightweight dowel and place one end against targets at variable heights, the choice of hand grip (overhand vs. underhand) typically depends on the perception of how comfortable the arm will be at the end of the movement: an end-state comfort effect. The two experiments reported here extend this work to bimanual tasks. In each experiment, 26 right-handed participants used their left and right hands to simultaneously pick up two wooden dowels and place either the right or left end against a series of 14 targets ranging from 14 to 210 cm above the floor. These tasks were performed in systematic ascending and descending orders in Experiment 1 and in random order in Expiment 2. Results were generally consistent with predictions of end-state comfort in that, for the extreme highest and lowest targets, participants tended to select opposite grips with each hand. Taken together, our findings are consistent with the concept of constraint hierarchies within a posture-based motion-planning model.

  4. Virological evaluation of avian influenza virus persistence in natural and anthropic ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, summer 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A De Marco

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP avian influenza viruses (AIVs, congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems.In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118 tested virus isolation (VI-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5% were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%. Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative.We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches to virus molecular evolution and phylogenesis, will be

  5. A semiarid fruit agroecosystem as a conservation-friendly option for small mammals in an anthropized landscape in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riojas-López, Mónica E; Mellink, Eric; Luévano, Jaime

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have addressed the potential of low-input agroecosystems for biological conservation. However, most have been carried out on annual agroecosystems in temperate, developed countries. As agricultural surface will increase and natural protected areas alone will not warrant the conservation of biodiversity, it is crucial to include different types of agroecosystems in research and conservation efforts. In Mexico, perennial, low-input, fruit-oriented nopal orchards (Opuntia spp.), one of the few crops suitable for semiarid areas, are the 10th out of 61 most important fruit crops grown in the country. We assessed their value for conservation in an anthropized landscape by comparing their rodent assemblages with those in adjacent habitats and determined the influence of the latter on the rodent communities inside them. We live-trapped rodents in 12 orchards and adjacent natural xeric shrubland, grassland, and cropland. We captured 19 different species, of which 17 used the orchards. Four are Mexican endemics. Orchards have higher α diversity, species richness, and abundance than cropland and grassland and are not different from shrubland. The dominant rodent species are the same in orchards and shrubland, and where these two meet they integrate into one habitat. Within-habitat quality is a critical driver of the composition and diversity of rodent communities in the orchards studied, and the neighboring habitats do not modify them substantially. Increasing within-patch heterogeneity beyond a certain level is at the expense of habitat integrity and produces small-scale fragmentation reducing habitat quality. At a landscape scale, orchards contribute importantly to regional rodent diversity compared with other land use types, and appear to increase habitat connectivity between patches of shrubland. Orchards' higher α diversity would give them higher ecological resilience and make them better suited than grassland and cropland to contribute to the conservation

  6. Protective Effects of Selected Botanical Agents on Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jam Jolly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious health problem affecting more than 200 million elderly people worldwide. The early symptoms of this disease are hardly detectable. It causes progressive bone loss, which ultimately renders the patients susceptible to fractures. Osteoporosis must be prevented because the associated fragility fractures result in high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Many plants used in herbal medicine contain bioactive compounds possessing skeletal protective effects. This paper explores the anti-osteoporotic properties of selected herbal plants, including their actions on osteoblasts (bone forming cells, osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells, and bone remodelling. Some of the herbal plant families included in this review are Berberidaceae, Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Labiatae, Simaroubaceaea, and Myrsinaceae. Their active constituents, mechanisms of action, and pharmaceutical applications were discussed. The literature shows that very few herbal plants have undergone human clinical trials to evaluate their pharmacological effects on bone to date. Therefore, more intensive research should be performed on these plants to validate their anti-osteoporotic properties so that they can complement the currently available conventional drugs in the battle against osteoporosis.

  7. Selected bibliography on deuterium isotope effects and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Donde, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in using deuterium and heavy water not only in nuclear industry but also in various fields of basic as well as applied research in physics, chemistry and biology. As a result, the literature is being enriched with a large number of research papers and technical reports published each year. Thus, to enable the scientists to have an easy reference to these works, an endeavour has been made in this selected bibliography, to enlist the publications related to these fields. Since the interest is concerned mainly with heavy water production processes, deuterium isotope effects etc., several aspects (e.g. nuclear) of deuterium have not been covered here. The material in this bibliography which cites 2388 references has been classified under six broad headings, viz. (1) Production of heavy water, (2) Study of deuterium isotope effects, (3) Analysis and Properties of heavy water, (4) Laser Separation of deuterium, (5) Isotopic exchange reactions, and (6) Miscellaneous. The sources of information used for this compilation are chemical abstracts, nuclear science abstracts, INIS Atomindex and also some scattered search through journals and reports available in the B.A.R.C. library. However, in spite of sincere attempts for a wide coverage, no claim is being made towards the exhaustiveness of this bibliography. (author)

  8. Effects of primary selective laser trabeculoplasty on anterior segment parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Palamar, Melis; Yusifov, Emil; Ates, Halil; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) on the main numerical parameters of anterior segment with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS Pentacam measurements of 45 eyes of 25 (15 females and 10 males) patients (12 with OHT, 13 with POAG) before and after SLT were obtained. Measurements were taken before and 1 and 3mo after SLT. Pentacam parameters were compared between OHT and POAG patients, and age groups (60y and older, and younger than 60y). RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 57.8±13.9 (range 20-77y). Twelve patients (48%) were younger than 60y, while 13 patients (52%) were 60y and older. Measurements of pre-SLT and post-SLT 1mo were significantly different for the parameters of central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber volume (ACV) (P0.05). CONCLUSION SLT leads to significant increase in CCT and decrease in ACV at the 1st month of the procedure. Effects of SLT on these anterior segment parameters, especially for CCT that interferes IOP measurement, should be considered to ensure accurate clinical interpretation. PMID:26558208

  9. Higher Education: Reputational Effects, Distorted Signaling and Propitious Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Savitskaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the authors attempt to underpin the hypothesis that under certain conditions a propitious selection may take place on the higher education market. It is a phenomenon when brand universities automatically reproduce their positive reputation without improving the quality of teaching due to influx of talented entrants. The authors apply econometric modelling and regression analysis based on survey of first-year students from Moscow to demonstrate that graduates with high USE marks really prefer to choose among brand universities; moreover, they appreciate a possibility to obtain a prestigious diploma even more than that of acquiring a particular profession. However, entrants do not possess full information about the quality of teaching in a particular university. The analysis presented in the paper shows that university rankings do not contribute to overcoming of this information asymmetry, since they transmit distorted signals caused by the methodology of ranking. The rankings, first of all, accentuate academic activity of teachers rather than educational process and interaction with students. For this reason, higher schools often adopt such a strategy to meet the ranking criteria as much as possible; they also tend to improve namely these indicators disregarding the other to become a leader. As a result, brand universities may surpass ordinary universities not due to rendering educational services of higher quality but due to selection of best entrants and peer-effects. These factors allow them to have excellent graduates, thus maintain positive reputation in employers’ opinion and simultaneously raise the brand value by advancing in a ranking.

  10. Selected Enzyme Inhibitory Effects of Euphorbia characias Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Fais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of aerial part of Euphorbia characias were examined to check potential inhibitors for three selected enzymes involved in several metabolic disorders. Water and ethanol extracts from leaves and flowers showed in vitro inhibitory activity toward α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase. IC50 values were calculated for all the extracts and the ethanolic extracts were found to exert the best effect. In particular, for the α-glucosidase activity, the extracts resulted to be 100-fold more active than the standard inhibitor. The inhibition mode was investigated by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. E. characias extracts display different inhibition behaviors toward the three enzymes acting as uncompetitive, noncompetitive, and mixed-type inhibitors. Moreover, ethanolic extracts of E. characias showed no cytotoxic activity and exhibited antioxidant capacity in a cellular model. The LC-DAD metabolic profile was also performed and it showed that leaves and flowers extracts contain high levels of quercetin derivatives. The results suggest that E. characias could be a promising source of natural inhibitors of the enzymes involved in carbohydrate uptake disorders and oxidative stress.

  11. Selective effects of weight and inertia on maximum lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontijevic, B; Pazin, N; Kukolj, M; Ugarkovic, D; Jaric, S

    2013-03-01

    A novel loading method (loading ranged from 20% to 80% of 1RM) was applied to explore the selective effects of externally added simulated weight (exerted by stretched rubber bands pulling downward), weight+inertia (external weights added), and inertia (covariation of the weights and the rubber bands pulling upward) on maximum bench press throws. 14 skilled participants revealed a load associated decrease in peak velocity that was the least associated with an increase in weight (42%) and the most associated with weight+inertia (66%). However, the peak lifting force increased markedly with an increase in both weight (151%) and weight+inertia (160%), but not with inertia (13%). As a consequence, the peak power output increased most with weight (59%), weight+inertia revealed a maximum at intermediate loads (23%), while inertia was associated with a gradual decrease in the peak power output (42%). The obtained findings could be of importance for our understanding of mechanical properties of human muscular system when acting against different types of external resistance. Regarding the possible application in standard athletic training and rehabilitation procedures, the results speak in favor of applying extended elastic bands which provide higher movement velocity and muscle power output than the usually applied weights. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Relative age effect and selection of young basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to examine whether influence of relative age effect (RAE exists or not in the selected 13 year old basketball players. Subjects were 20 basketball players (HT=177.35cm±6.73, BW=61.42kg±8.98, average age 13 years and 7 months ±.28, average experience in basketball training 4 years and 6 months ±1.15. Sample was divided in two groups: 11 players born in first half of the year and 9 players born in the second half of the year. One-way ANOVA was used in order to analyze the differences between the two groups of players in set of anthropometric variables (body height, arm span, standing reach height, body weight and percentage of body fat, motor variables (velocity of neuromuscular reaction time, vertical jump, 5 meters sprint, 10 meters sprint, 20 meters sprint, T-test, Zig-zag test, ball throw from sitting position, Sit-ups for 30 seconds and standing forward bend and one functional variable (20-M shuttle run test. Subjects do not differ in applied set of parameters, except in on variable (sit-ups for 30 seconds, p=.040. It was concluded that RAE does not exist in this sample of examinees.

  13. Dissociating action-effect activation and effect-based response selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-05-25

    Anticipated action effects have been shown to govern action selection and initiation, as described in ideomotor theory, and they have also been demonstrated to determine crosstalk between different tasks in multitasking studies. Such effect-based crosstalk was observed not only in a forward manner (with a first task influencing performance in a following second task) but also in a backward manner (the second task influencing the preceding first task), suggesting that action effect codes can become activated prior to a capacity-limited processing stage often denoted as response selection. The process of effect-based response production, by contrast, has been proposed to be capacity-limited. These observations jointly suggest that effect code activation can occur independently of effect-based response production, though this theoretical implication has not been tested directly at present. We tested this hypothesis by employing a dual-task set-up in which we manipulated the ease of effect-based response production (via response-effect compatibility) in an experimental design that allows for observing forward and backward crosstalk. We observed robust crosstalk effects and response-effect compatibility effects alike, but no interaction between both effects. These results indicate that effect activation can occur in parallel for several tasks, independently of effect-based response production, which is confined to one task at a time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS WITH GROUND-BASED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik [LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world; though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  15. Effects of primary selective laser trabeculoplasty on anterior segment parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Guven Yilmaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT on the main numerical parameters of anterior segment with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG.METHODS: Pentacam measurements of 45 eyes of 25 (15 females and 10 males patients (12 with OHT, 13 with POAG before and after SLT were obtained. Measurements were taken before and 1 and 3mo after SLT. Pentacam parameters were compared between OHT and POAG patients, and age groups (60y and older, and younger than 60y.RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 57.8±13.9 (range 20-77y. Twelve patients (48% were younger than 60y, while 13 patients (52% were 60y and older. Measurements of pre-SLT and post-SLT 1mo were significantly different for the parameters of central corneal thickness (CCT and anterior chamber volume (ACV (P<0.05. These parameters returned back to pre-SLT values at post-SLT 3mo. Decrease of ACV at post-SLT 1mo was significantly higher in younger than 60y group than 60y and older group. There was no statistically significant difference in Pentacam parameters between OHT and POAG patients at pre- and post-treatment measurements (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:SLT leads to significant increase in CCT and decrease in ACV at the 1st month of the procedure. Effects of SLT on these anterior segment parameters, especially for CCT that interferes IOP measurement, should be considered to ensure accurate clinical interpretation.

  16. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS WITH GROUND-BASED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world; though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  17. Selective effect of physical fatigue on motor imagery accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Di Rienzo

    Full Text Available While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001 were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r=0.64; p<0.05 was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to

  18. Effect of selection for lean growth on gonadal development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A primary objective of commercial pig production is lean meat yield in order to satisfy consumer needs. The majority of the commercial pig breeds in South Africa have been selected for high lean growth potential and reduced backfat thickness. There are indications that selection for high lean meat yield may affect the ...

  19. The Effect of Speed Alterations on Tempo Note Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the tempo note preferences of 100 randomly selected college-level musicians using familiar orchestral music as stimuli. Subjects heard selections at increased, decreased, and unaltered tempi. Results showed musicians were not accurate in estimating original tempo and showed consistent preference for faster than actual tempo.…

  20. Response to selection in finite locus models with nonadditive effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Henryon, Mark; Berg, Peer; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Bijma, Piter; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2017-01-01

    Under the finite-locus model in the absence of mutation, the additive genetic variation is expected to decrease when directional selection is acting on a population, according to quantitative-genetic theory. However, some theoretical studies of selection suggest that the level of additive

  1. Variation of the anthropic vulnerability in Ribeirão das Pedras watershed in Campinas/SP - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damame, Desirée; Longo, Regina; Ribeiro, Admilson; Fengler, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    The human actions has caused over the years profound changes in environmental quality in urban ecosystems suffering losses in the quality of air, soil , water and vegetation also the quality of life of the population that inhabit these areas . The study area is characterized by being a highly urbanized watershed, with about 43 % of its area covered by buildings, houses , and commercial and industrial establishments . Called the Ribeirão das Pedras Basin, located in Campinas / SP - Brazil and is bounded by coordinates 22˚47'10 '' and 22˚52'20 '' S , and 47˚ 07'15 '' and 46˚ 02 ' 15' ' . Has an average temperature of 22.4 ° C and average annual rainfall of 1424.5 mm . It has an area of about 42 km² . This is located two universities and a large mall. It also demands a strong agriculture , which occupies about 30 % of the area . It has also been part of two major forest reserves of the municipality, the Forest Santa Geneva and the Forest of Quilombo , both added to other small fragments overlying only about 6% of the total basin area . Avalição to environmental quality , the analysis of the vulnerability of urban watershed becomes an important environmental management tool. The vulnerability can be defined by susceptibility to changes of environment in its initial state , a current tax status by human intervention , and is almost always associated with risk , and the intensity at which such projects in one place, person or structure. In this context , this study aimed to assess environmental vulnerability in an urban watershed coming under increasing human pressures , especially in recent years . For this analysis were prepared soil graphics, slope , elevation and land use and land cover for the years 2009 and 2014 , generating with these , comparative anthropic vulnerability maps of the past five years. Crafting vulnerability maps is a sensitivity in order to enable appropriate management of biotic systems. With the results can be seen that the variation of

  2. Effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) on the gut resistome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelow, E.; Bello Gonzalez, T.D.G.; Versluis, D.; Oostdijk, E.A.N.; Ogilvie, L.A.; Mourik, van M.S.M.; Oosterink, L.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Smidt, H.; D’Andrea, M.M.; Been, de M.; Jones, B.V.; Willems, R.J.L.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Schaik, W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) is an infection prevention measure for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) that aims to eradicate opportunistic pathogens from the oropharynx and intestines, while sparing the anaerobic flora, by the application of

  3. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Selected Vranac Wines Against Six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucoside and. Folin - Ciocalteu`s phenol reagent were supplied from Sigma Chemical Co. (St Louis, Mo, USA); used reagents were of analytical quality. Wines samples. Selected Vranac wines from vintage 2009, made from autochthonic Vranac V.

  4. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  5. The effect of sexual selection on adaptation and extinction under increasing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrett, Jonathan M; Knell, Robert J

    2018-04-25

    Strong sexual selection has been reported to both enhance and hinder the adaptive capacity and persistence of populations when exposed to novel environments. Consequently, how sexual selection influences population adaption and persistence under stress remains widely debated. Here, we present two empirical investigations of the fitness consequences of sexual selection on populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, exposed to stable or gradually increasing temperatures. When faced with increasing temperatures, strong sexual selection was associated with both increased fecundity and offspring survival compared with populations experiencing weak sexual selection, suggesting sexual selection acts to drive adaptive evolution by favouring beneficial alleles. Strong sexual selection did not, however, delay extinction when the temperature became excessively high. By manipulating individuals' mating opportunities during fitness assays, we were able to assess the effect of multiple mating independently from the effect of population-level sexual selection, and found that polyandry has a positive effect on both fecundity and offspring survival under increasing temperatures in those populations evolving with weak sexual selection. Within stable temperatures, there were some benefits from strong sexual selection but these were not consistent across the entire experiment, possibly reflecting changing costs and benefits of sexual selection under stabilizing and directional selection. These results indicate that sexual selection can provide a buffer against climate change and increase adaptation rates within a continuously changing environment. These positive effects of sexual selection may, however, be too small to protect populations and delay extinction when environmental changes are relatively rapid. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Sustainable school infrastructure through effective innovative building technology selection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a model proposed for the selection Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) and procurement of services supporting the erection of the IBTs that will ensure the construction of a sustainable school...

  7. Bayesian genomic selection: the effect of haplotype lenghts and priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Trine Michelle; Janss, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Breeding values for animals with marker data are estimated using a genomic selection approach where data is analyzed using Bayesian multi-marker association models. Fourteen model scenarios with varying haplotype lengths, hyper parameter and prior distributions were compared to find the scenario ...

  8. Effect of Model Selection on Computed Water Balance Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.; Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Roest, C.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil water flow modelling approaches as used in four selected on-farm water management models, namely CROPWAT. FAIDS, CERES and SWAP, are compared through numerical experiments. The soil water simulation approaches used in the first three models are reformulated to incorporate ail evapotranspiration

  9. Analysis of the Effect of Health Education Activities on Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... integrated management of childhood illness have the potential to improve these child ... faecal disposal, etc, all in an attempt to decrease under-five ... sanitation practices and clean water supply are .... random selection of households was done. Interviews .... A multivariate logistic regression analysis was.

  10. Nonstrategic Contributions to Putatively Strategic Effects in Selective Attention Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F.; Blais, Chris; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Proportion compatible manipulations are often used to index strategic processes in selective attention tasks. Here, a subtle confound in proportion compatible manipulations is considered. Specifically, as the proportion of compatible trials increases, the ratio of complete repetitions and complete alternations to partial repetitions increases on…

  11. The effect of Prophylactic knee bracing on selected performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the wearing of a prophylactic knee brace by uninjured rugby players affected the following performance based parameters: speed, agility, strength, proprioception and economy of running. Thirty rugby players were subjected to a selected number of carefully monitored ...

  12. Modelling the negative effects of landscape fragmentation on habitat selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape fragmentation constrains movement of animals between habitat patches. Fragmentation may, therefore, limit the possibilities to explore and select the best habitat patches, and some animals may have to cope with low-quality patches due to these movement constraints. If so, these individuals

  13. The effect of training frequency on selected physical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were randomly selected into 3 groups of 20 each. Groups A and B served as the training groups while group C formed the control group which remained sedentary, and followed their normal lifestyle. The experimental groups (A & B) initially trained for 12 weeks at a training frequency of 3 times a week. This was ...

  14. Conjunctival effects of a selective nasal pollen provocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callebaut, I.; Spielberg, L.; Hox, V.; Bobic, S.; Jorissen, M.; Stalmans, I.; Scadding, G.; Ceuppens, J. L.; Hellings, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Several clinical and experimental observations suggest that allergen deposition in the nose may partially be responsible for the induction of conjunctival symptoms in allergic rhinitis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the induction of conjunctival symptoms by selective nasal allergen

  15. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of adult behaviour of Culex (Culex species was carried out from August 1992 through December 1993 in a human modified (anthropic environment in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil. Culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. Nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. So it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. Nonetheless, Cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially St. Louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.São relatados os resultados obtidos mediante coletas regulares de adultos de Culex (Culex em ambientes antrópico do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1992 a dezembro de 1993. Pôde-se evidenciar a dominancia de Culex nigripalpus nas várias coletas efetuadas. Revelou-se claramente a preferência por parte desse mosquito em aumentar sua densidade no ambiente antrópico. Todavia, sua freqüência ao domicílio mostrou-se baixa, revelando fraco grau de sinantropia. Assim sendo, seu papel vetor de arbovirus parece restringir-se à participação no ciclo natural desses agentes infecciosos. Contudo, pode-se considerá-lo como vetor potencial no meio extradomiciliar. Nesse particular, seu papel pode não ser negligenciável, especialmente no que tange à possibilidade de transmissão de encefalite de S.Luís, cujo agente já foi assinalado na região.

  16. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.

  17. Effects of selective attention on continuous opinions and discrete decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xia-Meng; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Chao; Ding, Fei; Cheng, Hui

    2010-09-01

    Selective attention describes that individuals have a preference on information according to their involving motivation. Based on achievements of social psychology, we propose an opinion interacting model to improve the modeling of individuals’ interacting behaviors. There are two parameters governing the probability of agents interacting with opponents, i.e. individual relevance and time-openness. It is found that, large individual relevance and large time-openness advance the appearance of large clusters, but large individual relevance and small time-openness favor the lessening of extremism. We also put this new model into application to work out some factor leading to a successful product. Numerical simulations show that selective attention, especially individual relevance, cannot be ignored by launcher firms and information spreaders so as to attain the most successful promotion.

  18. Effects of genomic selection on genetic improvement, inbreeding, and merit of young versus proven bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.; Schrooten, C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic selection has the potential to revolutionize dairy cattle breeding because young animals can be accurately selected as parents, leading to a much shorter generation interval and higher rates of genetic gain. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of genomic selection and reduction

  19. Effect of selective versus non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors on ischemia-reperfusion-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Seham A; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Amin, Entesar F; Ibrahim, Salwa A; Mohammed, Rehab K; Abdelrahman, Aly M

    2015-08-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury represents an important pathological process of liver injury during major hepatic surgery. The role of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced liver injury is not clear. This study investigated the effect of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, versus non-selective, indomethacin, on hepatic IR injury in rats. Hepatic IR was induced in adult male rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: normal control (sham group), IR non-treated group; IR-indomethacin-treated group; and IR-celecoxib-treated group. Liver injury was evaluated by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and a histopathological examination of liver tissues. Hepatic tissue content of oxidative stress parameters glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and the inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (TNF-α) were measured. Moreover, the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue was performed. Celecoxib, but not indomethacin, significantly attenuated hepatic IR injury as evidenced by reduction in serum ALT as well as by improvement in the histopathological scoring. Such effect was associated with attenuation in oxidative stress and TNF-α, along with modulation of immunohistochemical expression of eNOS, iNOS and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue. The present study concluded that selective COX-2 inhibition (but not non-selective), is hepatoprotective against liver IR injury; indicating a differential role of COX-1 versus COX-2. Modulation of iNOS, eNOS and caspase-3 might participate in the protective effect of selective COX-2-inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Varying Coefficient Panel Data Model in the Presence of Endogenous Selectivity and Fixed Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Malikov, Emir; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Sun, Yiguo

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a flexible panel data sample selection model in which (i) the outcome equation is permitted to take a semiparametric, varying coefficient form to capture potential parameter heterogeneity in the relationship of interest, (ii) both the outcome and (parametric) selection equations contain unobserved fixed effects and (iii) selection is generalized to a polychotomous case. We propose a two-stage estimator. Given consistent parameter estimates from the selection equation obta...

  1. Effective Feature Selection for Classification of Promoter Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouser K

    Full Text Available Exploring novel computational methods in making sense of biological data has not only been a necessity, but also productive. A part of this trend is the search for more efficient in silico methods/tools for analysis of promoters, which are parts of DNA sequences that are involved in regulation of expression of genes into other functional molecules. Promoter regions vary greatly in their function based on the sequence of nucleotides and the arrangement of protein-binding short-regions called motifs. In fact, the regulatory nature of the promoters seems to be largely driven by the selective presence and/or the arrangement of these motifs. Here, we explore computational classification of promoter sequences based on the pattern of motif distributions, as such classification can pave a new way of functional analysis of promoters and to discover the functionally crucial motifs. We make use of Position Specific Motif Matrix (PSMM features for exploring the possibility of accurately classifying promoter sequences using some of the popular classification techniques. The classification results on the complete feature set are low, perhaps due to the huge number of features. We propose two ways of reducing features. Our test results show improvement in the classification output after the reduction of features. The results also show that decision trees outperform SVM (Support Vector Machine, KNN (K Nearest Neighbor and ensemble classifier LibD3C, particularly with reduced features. The proposed feature selection methods outperform some of the popular feature transformation methods such as PCA and SVD. Also, the methods proposed are as accurate as MRMR (feature selection method but much faster than MRMR. Such methods could be useful to categorize new promoters and explore regulatory mechanisms of gene expressions in complex eukaryotic species.

  2. Effect of Additives on the Selectivity and Reactivity of Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi-Ru; Wu, Qi; Lin, Xian-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Enzymes have been widely used as efficient, eco-friendly, and biodegradable catalysts in organic chemistry due to their mild reaction conditions and high selectivity and efficiency. In recent years, the catalytic promiscuity of many enzymes in unnatural reactions has been revealed and studied by chemists and biochemists, which has expanded the application potential of enzymes. To enhance the selectivity and activity of enzymes in their natural or promiscuous reactions, many methods have been recommended, such as protein engineering, process engineering, and media engineering. Among them, the additive approach is very attractive because of its simplicity to use and high efficiency. In this paper, we will review the recent developments about the applications of additives to improve the catalytic performances of enzymes in their natural and promiscuous reactions. These additives include water, organic bases, water mimics, cosolvents, crown ethers, salts, surfactants, and some particular molecular additives. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. 50 CFR 222.403 - Duration of selection; effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to make the rule effective without a 30-day delay. ... rule for five years, without need for NMFS to include the fishery in the intervening proposed annual... 30-day delay in effective date for implementing observer coverage will follow the annual notification...

  4. Strategies for selecting effective patient nutrition education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Laura H

    2010-10-01

    Nutrition and diet therapy are at the center of health promotion activities and self-management of chronic diseases. To assist an individual in making informed decisions regarding his or her diet and increase adherence to dietary recommendations or treatments, healthcare professionals must select health information that is appropriate to the client's level of understanding. A systematic approach in the evaluation of patient education material, whether in print or on the World Wide Web, must focus on the information's content, literacy level, graphical displays, layout and typography, motivating principles, cultural relevance, and feasibility. Additional criteria should be evaluated when accessing Web sites and include source, site credibility, conflict of interest, disclaimer, disclosure, navigation, and interactivity information.

  5. Effects of changing canopy directional reflectance on feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Oliver, R. E.; Kilpela, O. E.

    1973-01-01

    The use of a Monte Carlo model for generating sample directional reflectance data for two simplified target canopies at two different solar positions is reported. Successive iterations through the model permit the calculation of a mean vector and covariance matrix for canopy reflectance for varied sensor view angles. These data may then be used to calculate the divergence between the target distributions for various wavelength combinations and for these view angles. Results of a feature selection analysis indicate that different sets of wavelengths are optimum for target discrimination depending on sensor view angle and that the targets may be more easily discriminated for some scan angles than others. The time-varying behavior of these results is also pointed out.

  6. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1986-01-01

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  7. 76 FR 26948 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...] Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting AGENCY: U.S... INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard L. Miller, Small Business Job's Act Tour-Office of Government Contracting and..., concerning the Small Business Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government that announced a...

  8. Volume 9 No. 3 2009 May 2009 830 EFFECT OF SELECTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF SELECTED WASHING TREATMENTS AND DRYING ... chlorinated solutions (100ppm) and potable tap water (control). Results indicated that ... The constraints to effective and hygienic production of sun-dried dagaa indicate need.

  9. Effectiveness of selective intracoronary thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Nosaka, Hideyuki; Saitoh, Taroh

    1984-10-01

    Protective effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary recanalization (PTCR) on the myocardium were investigated by creatine phosphokinase levels, regional left ventricular wall motion in chronic stage and /sup 201/Tl myocardial single photon emission computed tomography. Recanalization of the occlusive coronary artery at the early stage of myocardial infarction was effective for the protection of the myocardium and heart functions. This effect depended largely on the degree of occlusion at the time of the first imaging, the final degree of occlusion after recanalization, and the time required for the recanalization. Cases in which percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography was performed following PTCR are also presented and examined. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. Effectiveness of selective intracoronary thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Nosaka, Hideyuki; Saitoh, Taroh

    1984-01-01

    Protective effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary recanalization (PTCR) on the myocardium were investigated by creatine phospho kinase levels, regional left ventricular wall motion in chronic stage and 201 Tl myocardial single photon emission computed tomography. Recanalization of the occlusive coronary artery at the early stage of myocardial infarction was effective for the protection of the myocardium and heart functions. This effect depended largely on the degree of occlusion at the time of the first imaging, the final degree of occlusion after recanalization, and the time required for the recanalization. Cases in which percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography was performed following PTCR are also presented and examined. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  12. Determinants of Propranolol's Selective Effect on Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Lackovic, Sandra F; Tobe, Russell H; Camerer, Colin F; Leventhal, Bennett L; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    Research on emotion and decision making has suggested that arousal mediates risky decisions, but several distinct and often confounded processes drive such choices. We used econometric modeling to separate and quantify the unique contributions of loss aversion, risk attitudes, and choice consistency to risky decision making. We administered the beta-blocker propranolol in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study, targeting the neurohormonal basis of physiological arousal. Matching our intervention's pharmacological specificity with a quantitative model delineating decision-making components allowed us to identify the causal relationships between arousal and decision making that do and do not exist. Propranolol selectively reduced loss aversion in a baseline- and dose-dependent manner (i.e., as a function of initial loss aversion and body mass index), and did not affect risk attitudes or choice consistency. These findings provide evidence for a specific, modulatory, and causal relationship between precise components of emotion and risky decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Determinants of propranolol’s selective effect on loss aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Lackovic, Sandra F.; Tobe, Russell H.; Camerer, Colin F.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on emotion and decision-making has suggested that arousal mediates risky decisions (e.g., Bechara et al., 1997), but several distinct and often confounded processes drive such choices. Here, we used econometric modeling to separate and quantify the unique contributions of loss aversion, risk sensitivity and choice consistency to risky decision-making. We administered the beta-blocker propranolol in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study, targeting the neurohormonal basis of physiological arousal. Matching our intervention’s pharmacological specificity with a quantitative model delineating decision-making components allowed us to identify the causal relationships between arousal and decision-making that do and do not exist. Propranolol selectively reduced loss aversion in a baseline- and dose-dependent manner (i.e. as a function of initial loss aversion and body-mass index), and did not affect risk sensitivity or choice consistency. These findings provide evidence for a specific, modulatory, and causal relationship between precise components of both emotion and risky decision-making. PMID:26063441

  14. The effectiveness of selected housing subsidies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr; Boelhouwer, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2009), s. 249-269 ISSN 1566-4910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Housing policy * Welfare economics * Subsidy effectiveness Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.springerlink.com/content/y8km555k622v8vu0/

  15. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  16. Effects of crude humin and compost produced from selected waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste from oil palm plantations, paddy fields, sawn timber and poultries are substantial. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes can cause environmental problems such as air and land pollutions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude humin and compost produced from rice straw, rice husk, sawdust, ...

  17. Selection and application of effective LNAPL recovery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) such as gasoline, diesel, fuel oil and lubricating oil resulting from historical or catastrophic releases, is present at numerous industrial and hazardous waste sites. Initiating LNAPL removal is the first step in remediating impacted groundwater with the LNAPL recovery process having a profound effect on the ability to cost effectively achieve site closure. In many cases, LNAPL recovery precedes full-scale groundwater design activities or even final site characterization due to regulatory compliance issues. Therefore, the timely and effective implementation of a LNAPL recovery system can result in reduced project costs by mitigating further plume migration, achieving maximum volume of recoverable hydrocarbons, eliminating the source area associated with dissolved phase contamination, and allowing comprehensive groundwater remediation to be employed sooner. Effective LNAPL recovery systems begin with evaluating a number of site-specific parameters to quantify the physical characteristics of the type of LNAPL to be recovered, the hydrogeological environment, LNAPL, plume geometry, and the specified client or regulatory cleanup goals. These parameters are discussed along with their significance in developing a conceptual understanding of the site

  18. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a major constrain to production of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Control of bacterial wilt is very difficult as there are no effective curative chemicals. This study was aimed at investigating the potential roles of essential oil plants in control of the disease.

  19. Effects of Spatial and Selective Attention on Basic Multisensory Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondan, Matthias; Blurton, Steven P.; Hughes, Flavia; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    When participants respond to auditory and visual stimuli, responses to audiovisual stimuli are substantially faster than to unimodal stimuli (redundant signals effect, RSE). In such tasks, the RSE is usually higher than probability summation predicts, suggestive of specific integration mechanisms underlying the RSE. We investigated the role of…

  20. Effect of stocking pressure on selected diet quality, intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKER

    Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and ... Animal productivity and efficiency of production are functions of the level of nutrition, ... among the different parts of a plant, choice of parts can markedly affect a .... is a decline in DM intake per bite and a tendency to increase the time spent grazing.

  1. Effectiveness of Urban Wastewater Treatment Policies in Selected Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Smith, Carey; Kristensen, Peter

    , and two have only recently acceded to the EU and are therefore allowed more time to accomplish the environmental acquis. The report seeks to clarify the role of local authorities, policy instruments and financial mechanisms in securing effective implementation, and it also addresses the issue of cost...

  2. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... March 2014. Published online at www.m.elewa.org on 30thJune 2014. ... Control of bacterial wilt is very difficult as there are no effective curative chemicals. ..... by Dr. S.T. Kariuki of Egerton University, Biological. Science ...

  3. Evaluating search effectiveness of some selected search engines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With advancement in technology, many individuals are getting familiar with the internet a lot of users seek for information on the World Wide Web (WWW) using variety of search engines. This research work evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of Google, Yahoo, Bing, AOL and Baidu. Precision, relative recall and response ...

  4. Layer of protection analysis: Selecting cost effective safety measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M.N.; Gort, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, in process industry risks are reduced by applying technical solutions and taking organisational measures. The performance of both types of 'solutions' depends on many factors and can not easily be compared. Especially the effectiveness of organisational measures such as the use of

  5. Morphological effects on the selectivity of intramolecular versus intermolecular catalytic reaction on Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Sun, Yuanmiao; Sun, Yinghui; Huang, Jing; Liang, Zhiqiang; Li, Shuzhou; Jiang, Lin

    2017-06-14

    It is hard for metal nanoparticle catalysts to control the selectivity of a catalytic reaction in a simple process. In this work, we obtain active Au nanoparticle catalysts with high selectivity for the hydrogenation reaction of aromatic nitro compounds, by simply employing spine-like Au nanoparticles. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations further elucidate that the morphological effect on thermal selectivity control is an internal key parameter to modulate the nitro hydrogenation process on the surface of Au spines. These results show that controlled morphological effects may play an important role in catalysis reactions of noble metal NPs with high selectivity.

  6. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination in intensive care unit patients: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A N; de Wit, G A; Bakker, Marina; de Smet, Anne Marie G A; Bonten, M J M

    2013-03-05

    To determine costs and effects of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) as compared with standard care (ie, no SDD/SOD (SC)) from a healthcare perspective in Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). A post hoc analysis of a previously performed cluster-randomised trial (NEJM 2009;360:20). 13 Dutch ICUs. Patients with ICU-stay of >48 h that received SDD (n=2045), SOD (n=1904) or SC (n=1990). SDD or SOD. Effects were based on hospital survival, expressed as crude Life Years Gained (cLYG). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated, with corresponding cost acceptability curves. Sensitivity analyses were performed for discount rates, costs of SDD, SOD and mechanical ventilation. Total costs per patient were €41 941 for SC (95% CI €40 184 to €43 698), €40 433 for SOD (95% CI €38 838 to €42 029) and €41 183 for SOD (95% CI €39 408 to €42 958). SOD and SDD resulted in crude LYG of +0.04 and +0.25, respectively, as compared with SC, implying that both SDD and SOD are dominant (ie, cheaper and more beneficial) over SC. In cost-effectiveness acceptability curves probabilities for cost-effectiveness, compared with standard care, ranged from 89% to 93% for SOD and from 63% to 72% for SDD, for acceptable costs for 1 LYG ranging from €0 to €20 000. Sensitivity analysis for mechanical ventilation and discount rates did not change interpretation. Yet, if costs of the topical component of SDD and SOD would increase 40-fold to €400/day and €40/day (maximum values based on free market prices in 2012), the estimated ICER as compared with SC for SDD would be €21 590 per LYG. SOD would remain cost-saving. SDD and SOD were both effective and cost-saving in Dutch ICUs.

  7. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Radka Staňková; Lucia Godočíková; Tomáš Krajčovič; Štefan Dráb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diff...

  8. Dietary intake and health effects of selected toxic elements

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, André Luiz Oliveira da; Barrocas, Paulo R.G.; Jacob, Silvana do Couto; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2005-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have being contributing to the spread of toxic chemicals into the environment, including several toxic metals and metalloids, increasing the levels of human exposure to many of them. Contaminated food is an important route of human exposure and may represent a serious threat to human health. This mini review covers the health effects caused by toxic metals, especially Cd, Hg, Pb and As, the most relevant toxic elements from a human health point of view. As atividad...

  9. Application of random effects to the study of resource selection by animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Cameron S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Nielsen, Scott E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Aldridge, Cameron L; Frair, Jacqueline L; Saher, D Joanne; Stevens, Cameron E; Jerde, Christopher L

    2006-07-01

    1. Resource selection estimated by logistic regression is used increasingly in studies to identify critical resources for animal populations and to predict species occurrence. 2. Most frequently, individual animals are monitored and pooled to estimate population-level effects without regard to group or individual-level variation. Pooling assumes that both observations and their errors are independent, and resource selection is constant given individual variation in resource availability. 3. Although researchers have identified ways to minimize autocorrelation, variation between individuals caused by differences in selection or available resources, including functional responses in resource selection, have not been well addressed. 4. Here we review random-effects models and their application to resource selection modelling to overcome these common limitations. We present a simple case study of an analysis of resource selection by grizzly bears in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains with and without random effects. 5. Both categorical and continuous variables in the grizzly bear model differed in interpretation, both in statistical significance and coefficient sign, depending on how a random effect was included. We used a simulation approach to clarify the application of random effects under three common situations for telemetry studies: (a) discrepancies in sample sizes among individuals; (b) differences among individuals in selection where availability is constant; and (c) differences in availability with and without a functional response in resource selection. 6. We found that random intercepts accounted for unbalanced sample designs, and models with random intercepts and coefficients improved model fit given the variation in selection among individuals and functional responses in selection. Our empirical example and simulations demonstrate how including random effects in resource selection models can aid interpretation and address difficult assumptions

  10. Effect of selected insecticides on SF9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, M.; Rahmo, A.; Hajjar, J.

    2013-01-01

    The toxic effect of three insecticides: dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide), acetamiprid (neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) were evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by the 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol - 2-yl) - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Regression Analysis was used to estimate the 20% inhibition of cells growth (IC 20). The IC 20 values obtained for deltamethrin, acetamipridand dimethoate were: 46.8, 61.6 and 68.9 μM, respectively. The proportion of phagocytic cells was positively correlated with the applied concentrations of the insecticides. (author)

  11. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Adedokun, Adeniyi Jimmy; Abiodun O. Folawewo, Abiodun O.

    2017-01-01

    Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM) technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to a...

  12. Estimation of the ancestral effective population sizes of African great apes under different selection regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-08-01

    Reliable estimates of ancestral effective population sizes are necessary to unveil the population-level phenomena that shaped the phylogeny and molecular evolution of the African great apes. Although several methods have previously been applied to infer ancestral effective population sizes, an analysis of the influence of the selective regime on the estimates of ancestral demography has not been thoroughly conducted. In this study, three independent data sets under different selective regimes were used were composed to tackle this issue. The results showed that selection had a significant impact on the estimates of ancestral effective population sizes of the African great apes. The inference of the ancestral demography of African great apes was affected by the selection regime. The effects, however, were not homogeneous along the ancestral populations of great apes. The effective population size of the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees was more impacted by the selection regime when compared to the same parameter in the ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. Because the selection regime influenced the estimates of ancestral effective population size, it is reasonable to assume that a portion of the discrepancy found in previous studies that inferred the ancestral effective population size may be attributable to the differential action of selection on the genes sampled.

  13. The joint effects of background selection and genetic recombination on local gene genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kai; Charlesworth, Brian

    2011-09-01

    Background selection, the effects of the continual removal of deleterious mutations by natural selection on variability at linked sites, is potentially a major determinant of DNA sequence variability. However, the joint effects of background selection and genetic recombination on the shape of the neutral gene genealogy have proved hard to study analytically. The only existing formula concerns the mean coalescent time for a pair of alleles, making it difficult to assess the importance of background selection from genome-wide data on sequence polymorphism. Here we develop a structured coalescent model of background selection with recombination and implement it in a computer program that efficiently generates neutral gene genealogies for an arbitrary sample size. We check the validity of the structured coalescent model against forward-in-time simulations and show that it accurately captures the effects of background selection. The model produces more accurate predictions of the mean coalescent time than the existing formula and supports the conclusion that the effect of background selection is greater in the interior of a deleterious region than at its boundaries. The level of linkage disequilibrium between sites is elevated by background selection, to an extent that is well summarized by a change in effective population size. The structured coalescent model is readily extendable to more realistic situations and should prove useful for analyzing genome-wide polymorphism data.

  14. Effect of chlorpyrifos and enrofloxacin on selected enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, D; Spodniewska, A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effect of chlorpyrifos and/or enrofloxacin on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the blood and brain, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum. The experiment was conducted on Wistar strain rats. Chlorpyrifos was administered with a stomach tube at a dose of 0.04 LD50 for 28 days and enrofloxacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg bw for 5 consecutive days. The experiment found that enrofloxacin changed the activity of the enzymes under study only to a small extent. At the dose applied in the experiment, chlorpyrifos decreased the activity of AChE significantly, both in blood and in the brain, and increased the activity of ALT and AST in rat serum. The administration of chlorpyrifos in combination with enrofloxacin changed the activity of the enzymes under study only slightly. A weaker, but longer, inhibition of AChE activity in both blood and the brain was observed in this group compared to the animals exposed only to chlorpyrifos. However, although enrofloxacin, like chlorpyrifos, increases the activity of ALT and AST in serum, their combined administration did not increase the hepatotoxic effect. Copyright© by the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  15. Effect of selected foodstuffs on strontium 89 metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keslev, D.; Jotov, M.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of a variety of food products used in human nutrition on strontium-89 cumulation in rat organism is studied. To this end the animals were fed for a week with meat, beans, maize, white and brown bread, cabbage, milk or potatoes prepared so as to be edible by man. Then for additional 15 days the animals were fed the same diet + a daily oral dose of 2 μCi strontium-89. On the 16th day radionuclide activity in the thigh bone was measured. Beans was the food product exerting optimal limiting effect on strontium deposition (reduction factor (RF) 17), milk and ranking next (RF 13, resp. 6.5). All other products showed approximately equal efforts (RF 1.4 - 1.8). The different calcium content of each of these food products is responsible for their different effectiveness. Together with the discrimination which the living organism displays in the presence of calcium, other constituents of the food products which form complexes with strontium and prevent its deposition in the bones are equally essential. (Ch.K.)

  16. Selective antibacterial effects of mixed ZnMgO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, Jasmina; Stankic, Slavica; Haque, Francia; Ciric, Danica; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vidy, Aurore; Jupille, Jacques; Delmas, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has impelled the research for new agents that can inhibit bacterial growth without showing cytotoxic effects on humans and other species. We describe the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of nanostructured ZnMgO whose antibacterial activity was compared to its pure nano-ZnO and nano-MgO counterparts. Among the three oxides, ZnO nanocrystals—with the length of tetrapod legs about 100 nm and the diameter about 10 nm—were found to be the most effective antibacterial agents since both Gram-positive (B. subtilis) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria were completely eradicated at concentration of 1 mg/mL. MgO nanocubes (the mean cube size ∼50 nm) only partially inhibited bacterial growth, whereas ZnMgO nanoparticles (sizes corresponding to pure particles) revealed high specific antibacterial activity to Gram-positive bacteria at this concentration. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that B. subtilis cells were damaged after contact with nano-ZnMgO, causing cell contents to leak out. Our preliminary toxicological study pointed out that nano-ZnO is toxic when applied to human HeLa cells, while nano-MgO and the mixed oxide did not induce any cell damage. Overall, our results suggested that nanostructured ZnMgO, may reconcile efficient antibacterial efficiency while being a safe new therapeutic for bacterial infections.

  17. Selective antibacterial effects of mixed ZnMgO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidic, Jasmina; Stankic, Slavica; Haque, Francia; Ciric, Danica; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vidy, Aurore; Jupille, Jacques; Delmas, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance has impelled the research for new agents that can inhibit bacterial growth without showing cytotoxic effects on humans and other species. We describe the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of nanostructured ZnMgO whose antibacterial activity was compared to its pure nano-ZnO and nano-MgO counterparts. Among the three oxides, ZnO nanocrystals—with the length of tetrapod legs about 100 nm and the diameter about 10 nm—were found to be the most effective antibacterial agents since both Gram-positive ( B. subtilis) and Gram-negative ( E. coli) bacteria were completely eradicated at concentration of 1 mg/mL. MgO nanocubes (the mean cube size 50 nm) only partially inhibited bacterial growth, whereas ZnMgO nanoparticles (sizes corresponding to pure particles) revealed high specific antibacterial activity to Gram-positive bacteria at this concentration. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that B. subtilis cells were damaged after contact with nano-ZnMgO, causing cell contents to leak out. Our preliminary toxicological study pointed out that nano-ZnO is toxic when applied to human HeLa cells, while nano-MgO and the mixed oxide did not induce any cell damage. Overall, our results suggested that nanostructured ZnMgO, may reconcile efficient antibacterial efficiency while being a safe new therapeutic for bacterial infections.

  18. Selective antibacterial effects of mixed ZnMgO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidic, Jasmina, E-mail: jasmina.vidic@jouy.inra.fr [VIM, Institut de la Recherche Agronomique (France); Stankic, Slavica, E-mail: slavica.stankic@insp.jussieu.fr; Haque, Francia [CNRS, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UMR 7588 (France); Ciric, Danica; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vidy, Aurore [VIM, Institut de la Recherche Agronomique (France); Jupille, Jacques [CNRS, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UMR 7588 (France); Delmas, Bernard [VIM, Institut de la Recherche Agronomique (France)

    2013-05-15

    Antibiotic resistance has impelled the research for new agents that can inhibit bacterial growth without showing cytotoxic effects on humans and other species. We describe the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of nanostructured ZnMgO whose antibacterial activity was compared to its pure nano-ZnO and nano-MgO counterparts. Among the three oxides, ZnO nanocrystals-with the length of tetrapod legs about 100 nm and the diameter about 10 nm-were found to be the most effective antibacterial agents since both Gram-positive (B. subtilis) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria were completely eradicated at concentration of 1 mg/mL. MgO nanocubes (the mean cube size {approx}50 nm) only partially inhibited bacterial growth, whereas ZnMgO nanoparticles (sizes corresponding to pure particles) revealed high specific antibacterial activity to Gram-positive bacteria at this concentration. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that B. subtilis cells were damaged after contact with nano-ZnMgO, causing cell contents to leak out. Our preliminary toxicological study pointed out that nano-ZnO is toxic when applied to human HeLa cells, while nano-MgO and the mixed oxide did not induce any cell damage. Overall, our results suggested that nanostructured ZnMgO, may reconcile efficient antibacterial efficiency while being a safe new therapeutic for bacterial infections.

  19. Selective effects of explanation on learning during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Lombrozo, Tania

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined the specificity of effects of explanation on learning by prompting 3- to 6-year-old children to explain a mechanical toy and comparing what they learned about the toy's causal and non-causal properties with children who only observed the toy, both with and without accompanying verbalization. In Study 1, children were experimentally assigned to either explain or observe the mechanical toy. In Study 2, children were classified according to whether the content of their response to an undirected prompt involved explanation. Dependent measures included whether children understood the toy's functional-mechanical relationships, remembered perceptual features of the toy, effectively reconstructed the toy, and (for Study 2) generalized the function of the toy when constructing a new one. Results demonstrate that across age groups, explanation promotes causal learning and generalization but does not improve (and in younger children can even impair) memory for causally irrelevant perceptual details. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. THE EFFECT OF LONG-TERM BIMANUAL TRAINING ON ARM SELECTION DURING REACHING TASKS

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Handedness is viewed either as a preference or an asymmetry in sensorimotor performance. It has been shown that there is a relation between sensorimotor performance and hand selection. This relation is affected by the manipulation of sensory feedback, suggesting an effect of task condition on hand selection, and by a unimanual athletic training. Thus, in the current study, the aim was to find out if arm selection and symmetry were affected by a long-term bimanual practice with respect to moto...

  1. Effectively incorporating selected multimedia content into medical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Mietchen, Daniel; Faber, Cornelius; von Hausen, Wolfram; Schöbel, Christoph; Sellerer, Markus; Ziegler, Andreas

    2011-02-17

    Until fairly recently, medical publications have been handicapped by being restricted to non-electronic formats, effectively preventing the dissemination of complex audiovisual and three-dimensional data. However, authors and readers could significantly profit from advances in electronic publishing that permit the inclusion of multimedia content directly into an article. For the first time, the de facto gold standard for scientific publishing, the portable document format (PDF), is used here as a platform to embed a video and an audio sequence of patient data into a publication. Fully interactive three-dimensional models of a face and a schematic representation of a human brain are also part of this publication. We discuss the potential of this approach and its impact on the communication of scientific medical data, particularly with regard to electronic and open access publications. Finally, we emphasise how medical teaching can benefit from this new tool and comment on the future of medical publishing.

  2. Ecotoxicological effects of selected cyanobacterial secondary metabolites a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, C.; Pflugmacher, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are one of the most diverse groups of gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes. Many of them are able to produce a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites. These cyanobacterial toxins can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). Cyanobacterial blooms are hazardous due to this production of secondary metabolites and endotoxins, which could be toxic to animals and plants. Many of the freshwater cyanobacterial blooms include species of the toxigenic genera Microcystis, Anabaena, or Plankthotrix. These compounds differ in mechanisms of uptake, affected organs, and molecular mode of action. In this review, the main focus is the aquatic environment and the effects of these toxins to the organisms living there. Some basic toxic mechanisms will be discussed in comparison to the mammalian system

  3. Effects of selective attention on perceptual filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weerd, P; Smith, E; Greenberg, P

    2006-03-01

    After few seconds, a figure steadily presented in peripheral vision becomes perceptually filled-in by its background, as if it "disappeared". We report that directing attention to the color, shape, or location of a figure increased the probability of perceiving filling-in compared to unattended figures, without modifying the time required for filling-in. This effect could be augmented by boosting attention. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of filling-in response times for attended figures could be predicted by multiplying the frequencies of response times for unattended figures with a constant. We propose that, after failure of figure-ground segregation, the neural interpolation processes that produce perceptual filling-in are enhanced in attended figure regions. As filling-in processes are involved in surface perception, the present study demonstrates that even very early visual processes are subject to modulation by cognitive factors.

  4. Incarceration as forced migration: effects on selected community health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2008-09-01

    We estimated the effects of high incarceration rates on rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies. We calculated correlations between rates of incarceration in state prisons and county jails and rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies for each of the 100 counties in North Carolina during 1995 to 2002. We also estimated increases in negative health outcomes associated with increases in incarceration rates using negative binomial regression analyses. Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies, adjusted for age, race, and poverty distributions by county, consistently increased with increasing incarceration rates. In the most extreme case, teenage pregnancies exhibited an increase of 71.61 per 100000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]=41.88, 101.35) in 1996 after an increase in the prison population rate from 223.31 to 468.58 per 100000 population in 1995. High rates of incarceration can have the unintended consequence of destabilizing communities and contributing to adverse health outcomes.

  5. Selective effects of an octopus toxin on action potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulhunty, Angela; Gage, Peter W.

    1971-01-01

    1. A lethal, water soluble toxin (Maculotoxin, MTX) with a molecular weight less than 540, can be extracted from the salivary glands of an octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa). 2. MTX blocks action potentials in sartorius muscle fibres of toads without affecting the membrane potential. Delayed rectification is not inhibited by the toxin. 3. At low concentrations (10-6-10-5 g/ml.) MTX blocks action potentials only after a certain number have been elicited. The number of action potentials, which can be defined accurately, depends on the concentration of MTX and the concentration of sodium ions in the extracellular solution. 4. The toxin has no post-synaptic effect at the neuromuscular junction and it is concluded that it blocks neuromuscular transmission by inhibiting action potentials in motor nerve terminals. PMID:4330930

  6. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Response selection difficulty modulates the behavioral impact of rapidly learnt action effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta eWolfensteller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that we can pick up action effect associations when acting in a free-choice intentional mode. However, it is less clear whether and when action effect associations are learnt and actually affect behavior if we are acting in a forced-choice mode, applying a specific stimulus-response (S-R rule. In the present study, we investigated whether response selection difficulty imposed by S-R rules influences the initial rapid learning and the behavioral expression of previously learnt but weakly practiced action effect associations when those are re-activated by effect exposure. Experiment 1 showed that the rapid acquisition of action effect associations is not directly influenced by response selection difficulty. By contrast, the behavioral expression of re-activated action effect associations is prevented when actions are directly activated by highly over-learnt response cues and thus response selection difficulty is low. However, all three experiments showed that if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high during re-activation, the same action effect associations do influence behavior. Experiment 2 and 3 revealed that the effect of response selection difficulty cannot be fully reduced to giving action effects more time to prime an action, but seems to reflect competition during response selection. Finally, the present data suggest that when multiple novel rules are rapidly learnt in succession, which requires a lot of flexibility, action effect associations continue to influence behavior only if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high. Thus, response selection difficulty might modulate the impact of experiencing multiple learning episodes on action effect expression and learning, possibly via inducing different strategies.

  8. Neural evidence reveals the rapid effects of reward history on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Mary H; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2015-05-05

    Selective attention is often framed as being primarily driven by two factors: task-relevance and physical salience. However, factors like selection and reward history, which are neither currently task-relevant nor physically salient, can reliably and persistently influence visual selective attention. The current study investigated the nature of the persistent effects of irrelevant, physically non-salient, reward-associated features. These features affected one of the earliest reliable neural indicators of visual selective attention in humans, the P1 event-related potential, measured one week after the reward associations were learned. However, the effects of reward history were moderated by current task demands. The modulation of visually evoked activity supports the hypothesis that reward history influences the innate salience of reward associated features, such that even when no longer relevant, nor physically salient, these features have a rapid, persistent, and robust effect on early visual selective attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of correlation on covariate selection in linear and nonlinear mixed effect models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonate, Peter L

    2017-01-01

    The effect of correlation among covariates on covariate selection was examined with linear and nonlinear mixed effect models. Demographic covariates were extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database. Concentration-time profiles were Monte Carlo simulated where only one covariate affected apparent oral clearance (CL/F). A series of univariate covariate population pharmacokinetic models was fit to the data and compared with the reduced model without covariate. The "best" covariate was identified using either the likelihood ratio test statistic or AIC. Weight and body surface area (calculated using Gehan and George equation, 1970) were highly correlated (r = 0.98). Body surface area was often selected as a better covariate than weight, sometimes as high as 1 in 5 times, when weight was the covariate used in the data generating mechanism. In a second simulation, parent drug concentration and three metabolites were simulated from a thorough QT study and used as covariates in a series of univariate linear mixed effects models of ddQTc interval prolongation. The covariate with the largest significant LRT statistic was deemed the "best" predictor. When the metabolite was formation-rate limited and only parent concentrations affected ddQTc intervals the metabolite was chosen as a better predictor as often as 1 in 5 times depending on the slope of the relationship between parent concentrations and ddQTc intervals. A correlated covariate can be chosen as being a better predictor than another covariate in a linear or nonlinear population analysis by sheer correlation These results explain why for the same drug different covariates may be identified in different analyses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Modeling the effect of selection history on pop-out visual search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chi Tseng

    Full Text Available While attentional effects in visual selection tasks have traditionally been assigned "top-down" or "bottom-up" origins, more recently it has been proposed that there are three major factors affecting visual selection: (1 physical salience, (2 current goals and (3 selection history. Here, we look further into selection history by investigating Priming of Pop-out (POP and the Distractor Preview Effect (DPE, two inter-trial effects that demonstrate the influence of recent history on visual search performance. Using the Ratcliff diffusion model, we model observed saccadic selections from an oddball search experiment that included a mix of both POP and DPE conditions. We find that the Ratcliff diffusion model can effectively model the manner in which selection history affects current attentional control in visual inter-trial effects. The model evidence shows that bias regarding the current trial's most likely target color is the most critical parameter underlying the effect of selection history. Our results are consistent with the view that the 3-item color-oddball task used for POP and DPE experiments is best understood as an attentional decision making task.

  11. Mitral valve prolapse and hyperthyroidism: effect of patient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, M A; Devereux, R B; Kramer-Fox, R; Lutas, E M; Brown, W T

    1985-11-01

    Patients with mitral valve prolapse and hyperthyroidism have common symptoms; the most outstanding symptom is palpitation. To determine whether or not common symptoms contributed to the reported association of these conditions, we evaluated 220 patients with symptomatic mitral valve prolapse and 216 first-degree relatives in 72 families; 65 relatives with mitral valve prolapse and 151 relatives without mitral valve prolapse, all greater than or equal to 16 years of age. Thirty subjects, aged 49 +/- 13 years (p less than 0.025 vs entire study group), had thyroid disease (23 subjects had definite thyroid disease, seven subjects had probable); 27 of 30 subjects with thyroid disease (90%) were female (p less than 0.005). The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hyperthyroidism was significantly higher in probands with mitral valve prolapse than in family members without mitral valve prolapse (3.5% vs 0%, p = 0.03), while an intermediate prevalence of hyperthyroidism (2.2%) was observed in family members with mitral valve prolapse. Thus, the prevalence of hyperthyroidism is increased among symptomatic patients with mitral valve prolapse as compared to family members without mitral valve prolapse, but the prevalence of thyroid conditions is similar among family members with or without this condition. These findings are explained by the effect of common symptoms on clinical detection of both mitral valve prolapse and hyperthyroidism.

  12. Effect of magnetic therapy on selected physical performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, David M; Ishee, Jimmy H; Titlow, Larry W

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of magnetic therapy in the form of shoe insoles on vertical jump, bench squat, 40-yd dash, and a soccer-specific fitness test performance. Subjects were 14 collegiate male soccer players who were pretested, retested 3 weeks later, and then placed into a double-blind control or treatment group using a matching procedure. The control group received magnetic shoe insoles with a rating of 125 gauss, and the treatment group received insoles with a rating of 600 gauss. Subjects wore the insoles during practice and games for 7 weeks and were then retested. Results indicated significant differences among test scores during the 3 time periods but not between the treatment and control groups. There was a decline in 40-yd dash performance from the initial evaluation (5.10 seconds) to the final evaluation (5.08 seconds). There were no other significant differences. Within the limitations of the study, magnetic therapy did not improve physical performance.

  13. Effect of neutron irradiation on select MAX phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, Darin J.; Hoffman, Elizabeth N.; Caspi, El’ad N.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Kohse, Gordon; Sindelar, Robert L.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report on the effect of neutron irradiation – of up to 0.1 displacements per atom at 360(20) °C or 695(25) °C – on polycrystalline samples of Ti 3 AlC 2 , Ti 2 AlC, Ti 3 SiC 2 and Ti 2 AlN. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns of the irradiated samples showed irradiation-enhanced dissociation into TiC of the Ti 3 AlC 2 and Ti 3 SiC 2 phases, most prominently in the former. Ti 2 AlN also showed an increase in TiN content, as well as Ti 4 AlN 3 after irradiation. In contrast, Ti 2 AlC was quite stable under these irradiation conditions. Dislocation loops are seen to form in Ti 2 AlC and Ti 3 AlC 2 after irradiation at 360(20) °C. The room temperature electrical resistivity of all samples increased by an order of magnitude after irradiation at 360(20) °C, but only by 25% after 695(25) °C, providing evidence for the MAX phases’ dynamic recovery at temperatures as low at 695(25) °C. Based on these preliminary results, it appears that Ti 2 AlC and Ti 3 SiC 2 are the more promising materials for high-temperature nuclear applications

  14. Selective effects of two systemic fungicides on soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, H M; Abdel-Kader, M I; Hamida, S

    1982-08-20

    BAS 317 00F was not toxic to the total count of fungi after 2 days but was regularly significantly toxic at the three doses after 5, 20 and 40 days and toxic at the low and the high doses after 80 days. In the agar medium, it was toxic to the counts of total fungi. Aspergillus, A. terreus, Rhizopus oryzae and Mucor racemosus at the high dose. Only the mycelial growth of Trichoderma viride which was significantly inhibited by the three doses when this fungicide was added to the liquid medium. Polyram-Combi induced two effects on the total population of soil fungi. One inhibitory and this was demonstrated almost regularly after 2, 10 and 40 days and the other stimulatory after 80 days of treatment with the low and the high doses. In the agar medium, this fungicide was very toxic to total fungi and to almost all fungal genera and species at the three doses. Several fungi could survive the high dose. In liquid medium, the test fungi showed variable degree of sensitivity and the most sensitive was Gliocladium roseum which was completely eradicated by the three doses.

  15. Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

  16. Application of marker selection to enhance estimation of genetic effects and gene interaction in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection on important genetic markers can improve estimates of additive and dominance association effects. A composite population of beef cattle was selected for intermediate frequencies of myostatin (GDF8) F94L and µ-calpain (CAPN1) polymorphisms. Important additive associations of the GDF8 locu...

  17. Distributions of Mutational Effects and the Estimation of Directional Selection in Divergent Lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Briton; Rutter, Matthew T; Fenster, Charles B; Symonds, V Vaughan; Ungerer, Mark C; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2017-08-01

    Mutations are crucial to evolution, providing the ultimate source of variation on which natural selection acts. Due to their key role, the distribution of mutational effects on quantitative traits is a key component to any inference regarding historical selection on phenotypic traits. In this paper, we expand on a previously developed test for selection that could be conducted assuming a Gaussian mutation effect distribution by developing approaches to also incorporate any of a family of heavy-tailed Laplace distributions of mutational effects. We apply the test to detect directional natural selection on five traits along the divergence of Columbia and Landsberg lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana , constituting the first test for natural selection in any organism using quantitative trait locus and mutation accumulation data to quantify the intensity of directional selection on a phenotypic trait. We demonstrate that the results of the test for selection can depend on the mutation effect distribution specified. Using the distributions exhibiting the best fit to mutation accumulation data, we infer that natural directional selection caused divergence in the rosette diameter and trichome density traits of the Columbia and Landsberg lineages. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Effect of Selected Light Spectra on the Growth of Chlorella spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility for simultaneous production of chemical and electrical energies from a single microalgae cultivation plant is opening a new chapter in the efficient use of resources to maximize biomass productivity. In the current study, the effect of selected monochromatic lights (blue, red and pink) from spectrally selective ...

  19. Selective Attentional Effects of Adjunct Study Questions on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the selective attentional effects of adjunct study questions inserted before or after the presentation of science flow diagrams. The basic design for the study was a post-test only control group design involving a total of 252 students randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Oshun State Nigeria. These were…

  20. Phenotypic assortment mediates the effect of social selection in a wild beetle population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formica, Vincent A.; McGlothlin, Joel W.; Wood, Corlett W.; Augat, Malcolm E.; Butterfield, Rebecca E.; Barnard, Mollie E.; Brodie, Edmund D.

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions often have major fitness consequences, but little is known about how specific interacting phenotypes affect the strength of natural selection. Social influences on the evolutionary process can be assessed using a multilevel selection approach that partitions the effects of social

  1. A functional-oriented assessment of environmental criticality due to anthropic actions along the hillslopes of the Somma-Vesuvio volcano (Naples, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nunzio; De Falco, Melania; Speranza, Giuseppe; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean environments are characterized by a climatic regime with a strong seasonal variability. More uniform precipitations usually occur during the winter season, whereas short and very intense rainfalls occur during the fall and early spring that, in turn, trigger surface runoff and severe soil erosion phenomena. When this typical seasonality interacts with a territory substantially altered by anthropic actions, conditions can easily arise for environmental imbalances with serious risks for flash floods and landslides. Many of the degradation dynamics recorded during the last decades in western countries are also the result of the socio-economic changes after the II world war which yielded land-use changes with the urban sprawl process and the increase in human settlements of the natural environments. We are also witnessing a change in the perception of the natural environment and the relevant values. This study benefits from the availability of historical maps and rainfall time series to analyze the profound landscape changes occurred during the last century along the hillsides of the Somma-Vesuvio volcano, in the renowned piedmont area located at east of Napoli city. We are specifically interested in the changes and disturbances made to the hydrographic network to evaluate the increasing potential risks for flood and landslides along these hillslopes characterized by the presence of highly vulnerable volcanic soils, the construction of roads, and other negative alterations of the natural overland flow patterns.

  2. β3-adrenoceptor mediates β3-selective agonist-induced effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β3-adrenoceptor mediates β3-selective agonist-induced effects on energy expenditure, insulin secrtion and food ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... is usually associated with obesity, also involves defective energy expenditure, ...

  3. Cost effectiveness of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in liver transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enckevort, PJ; Zwaveling, JH; Bottema, JT; Maring, JK; Klompmaker, IJ; Slooff, MJH; TenVergert, EM

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the cost effectiveness of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) in liver transplant patients. Design: Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with an integrated economic evaluation. Setting: Two university hospitals in The Netherlands. Cost

  4. Effects of task-irrelevant grouping on visual selection in partial report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Rasmus; Habekost, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    and the selection criterion was luminance. This effect was accompanied by impaired selectivity in unsorted-color trials. Overall, the results suggest that the benefit of task-irrelevant color grouping of targets is contingent on the processing locus of the selection criterion....... the color of the elements in these trials. In the sorted-color condition, the color of the display elements was arranged according to the selection criterion, and in the unsorted-color condition, colors were randomly assigned. The distractor cost was inferred by subtracting performance in partial......-report trials from performance in a control condition that had no distractors in the display. Across five experiments, we manipulated trial order, selection criterion, and exposure duration, and found that attentional selectivity was improved in sorted-color trials when the exposure duration was 200 ms...

  5. Ion competition effects on the selective absorption of radionuclides by komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, S.; Shinonaga, T.; Ozaki, T.; Enomoto, S.; Yasuda, H.; Uchida, S.

    1999-01-01

    The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides by a multitracer technique. Komatsuna, Brassica rapa var. perviridis, was hydroponically cultivated in a nutrient solution containing a multitracer for 1 day. Nutrient concentration dependence of the selective absorption coefficient of various elements from Be to Re was obtained separately for leaves and roots. The selective absorption coefficients of these elements were, in general, found to decrease with an increase in the concentration of nutrient solutions. Regression equations of the power function for the selective absorption coefficients and the concentration of nutrient solutions were obtained for the leaves and roots. The effects of photon flux and growth stage of plants on the selective absorption coefficients were also studied. It was found that the photon flux influenced the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots but had no significant effect on the selective absorption coefficients for the leaves in 1-day cultivation with the multitracer. The selective absorption coefficients of Mn and Zn in the leaves of the plants at the development stage were higher than those at the maturation stage. For the other elements, no significant effects of the growth stage on the selective absorption coefficients were observed. (author)

  6. Selection or network effects? Migration flows into 27 OECD countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion of the OECD immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The migration ...... evidence that selection effects have had a major influence on the observed migration patterns until now. This may partly be explained by restrictive migration policies in many OECD countries which may have dampened the potential selection effects....

  7. Selection or Network Effects? Migration Flows into 27 OECD Countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P.J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion of the OECD immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The migration ...... evidence that selection effects have had a major influence on the observed migration patterns until now. This may partly be explained by restrictive migration policies in many OECD countries which may have dampened the potential selection effects....

  8. Focusing on Attention: The Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Load on Selective Attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention.\\ud \\ud Methodology/Principal Findin...

  9. Effects of selected bioactive food compounds on human white adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Christel; Wilhelm, Uta; Mandrup, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that intake of specific bioactive compounds may have beneficial clinical effects on adipose tissue partly due to their anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. With the overall aim to contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms of selecte...... uptake albeit only with the combination of DHA and AC. Taken together, our results may link the reported health benefits of the selected bioactives on metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia to effects on white adipocytes....

  10. Effects of Rhyme and Spelling Patterns on Auditory Word ERPs Depend on Selective Attention to Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoncheva, Yuliya N.; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    ERP responses to spoken words are sensitive to both rhyming effects and effects of associated spelling patterns. Are such effects automatically elicited by spoken words or dependent on selectively attending to phonology? To address this question, ERP responses to spoken word pairs were investigated under two equally demanding listening tasks that…

  11. The incentive amplifying effects of nicotine are reduced by selective and non-selective dopamine antagonists in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmatier, Matthew I; Kellicut, Marissa R; Brianna Sheppard, A; Brown, Russell W; Robinson, Donita L

    2014-11-01

    Nicotine is a psychomotor stimulant with 'reinforcement enhancing' effects--the actions of nicotine in the brain increase responding for non-nicotine rewards. We hypothesized that this latter effect of nicotine depends on increased incentive properties of anticipatory cues; consistent with this hypothesis, multiple laboratories have reported that nicotine increases sign tracking, i.e. approach to a conditioned stimulus (CS), in Pavlovian conditioned-approach tasks. Incentive motivation and sign tracking are mediated by mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission and nicotine facilitates mesolimbic DA release. Therefore, we hypothesized that the incentive-promoting effects of nicotine would be impaired by DA antagonists. To test this hypothesis, separate groups of rats were injected with nicotine (0.4mg/kg base) or saline prior to Pavlovian conditioning sessions in which a CS (30s illumination of a light or presentation of a lever) was immediately followed by a sweet reward delivered in an adjacent location. Both saline and nicotine pretreated rats exhibited similar levels of conditioned approach to the reward location (goal tracking), but nicotine pretreatment significantly increased approach to the CS (sign tracking), regardless of type (lever or light). The DAD1 antagonist SCH-23390 and the DAD2/3 antagonist eticlopride reduced conditioned approach in all rats, but specifically reduced goal tracking in the saline pretreated rats and sign tracking in the nicotine pretreated rats. The non-selective DA antagonist flupenthixol reduced sign-tracking in nicotine rats at all doses tested; however, only the highest dose of flupenthixol reduced goal tracking in both nicotine and saline groups. The reductions in conditioned approach behavior, especially those by SCH-23390, were dissociated from simple motor suppressant effects of the antagonists. These experiments are the first to investigate the effects of dopaminergic drugs on the facilitation of sign-tracking engendered by

  12. EFFECT OF SELECTED PETROLEUM-DERIVED SUBSTANCES ON BRUCHUS RUFIMANUS BOH. FEEDING AND ON SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of petrol, used engine oil and diesel oil on Bruchus rufimanus Boh. feeding and on selected morphological characteristics of plants. In addition, the effect of bioremediation process on the above mentioned features was examined. Pest’s feeding intensity assessment was carried out by determining the number of damaged seeds and their weight. Assessment of morphological characteristics of plants was made in the technological maturity of broad bean seeds. The results of the experiment showed that all substances used in the experiment had no significant effect on B. rufimanus Boh feeding. Diesel oil most adversely affected the analyzed morphological characteristics. Applied bioremediation caused a decrease the mass of seeds developed by plant and the number of damaged seeds in the object contaminated with petrol and contributed to the increase in the number and weight of pods and the number of seeds per one plant in the object contaminated with diesel oil.

  13. Bolometric-Effect-Based Wavelength-Selective Photodetectors Using Sorted Single Chirality Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suoming; Cai, Le; Wang, Tongyu; Shi, Rongmei; Miao, Jinshui; Wei, Li; Chen, Yuan; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Wang, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper exploits the chirality-dependent optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes for applications in wavelength-selective photodetectors. We demonstrate that thin-film transistors made with networks of carbon nanotubes work effectively as light sensors under laser illumination. Such photoresponse was attributed to photothermal effect instead of photogenerated carriers and the conclusion is further supported by temperature measurements. Additionally, by using different types of carbon nanotubes, including a single chirality (9,8) nanotube, the devices exhibit wavelength-selective response, which coincides well with the absorption spectra of the corresponding carbon nanotubes. This is one of the first reports of controllable and wavelength-selective bolometric photoresponse in macroscale assemblies of chirality-sorted carbon nanotubes. The results presented here provide a viable route for achieving bolometric-effect-based photodetectors with programmable response spanning from visible to near-infrared by using carbon nanotubes with pre-selected chiralities. PMID:26643777

  14. Effects of medical school selection on student motivation: a PhD thesis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk

    2018-02-01

    High stakes are involved in student selection, for both medical schools and applicants. This thesis investigated the effects of selection on the medical student population and applicant pool in the Dutch setting. This thesis consists of six papers: two quantitative studies, one qualitative study, two mixed methods studies and one perspective paper based on a review of the literature. (1) Compared with a lottery, selection does not result in a student population with better motivation, engagement and performance, both in the clinical and pre-clinical phases of the study. (2) Selection seems to have a temporary stimulating effect on student motivation through enhancing perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness. (3) Applicants adopt a strategic approach, based on the selection procedure, in their choice of medical school. (4) The description of an applicant's motivation is not a reliable and valid tool to assess motivation during selection. (5) Gaining healthcare experience is crucial for applicants' motivation, but inequalities in access to such experiences can demotivate certain student groups from applying to medical school. (6) The gains yielded from selection compared with a lottery seem to be small. Unintentionally induced self-selection among certain groups of students and biased selection procedures may compromise student diversity. The added value of selection procedures compared with a weighted lottery for admitting students to medical school is questionable. Students are generally motivated and perform well, irrespective of how they enrolled in medical school. Selection yields only small gains, while student diversity may be hampered.

  15. A Genomic Map of the Effects of Linked Selection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Elyashiv

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection at one site shapes patterns of genetic variation at linked sites. Quantifying the effects of "linked selection" on levels of genetic diversity is key to making reliable inference about demography, building a null model in scans for targets of adaptation, and learning about the dynamics of natural selection. Here, we introduce the first method that jointly infers parameters of distinct modes of linked selection, notably background selection and selective sweeps, from genome-wide diversity data, functional annotations and genetic maps. The central idea is to calculate the probability that a neutral site is polymorphic given local annotations, substitution patterns, and recombination rates. Information is then combined across sites and samples using composite likelihood in order to estimate genome-wide parameters of distinct modes of selection. In addition to parameter estimation, this approach yields a map of the expected neutral diversity levels along the genome. To illustrate the utility of our approach, we apply it to genome-wide resequencing data from 125 lines in Drosophila melanogaster and reliably predict diversity levels at the 1Mb scale. Our results corroborate estimates of a high fraction of beneficial substitutions in proteins and untranslated regions (UTR. They allow us to distinguish between the contribution of sweeps and other modes of selection around amino acid substitutions and to uncover evidence for pervasive sweeps in untranslated regions (UTRs. Our inference further suggests a substantial effect of other modes of linked selection and of adaptation in particular. More generally, we demonstrate that linked selection has had a larger effect in reducing diversity levels and increasing their variance in D. melanogaster than previously appreciated.

  16. A Genomic Map of the Effects of Linked Selection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyashiv, Eyal; Sattath, Shmuel; Hu, Tina T; Strutsovsky, Alon; McVicker, Graham; Andolfatto, Peter; Coop, Graham; Sella, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Natural selection at one site shapes patterns of genetic variation at linked sites. Quantifying the effects of "linked selection" on levels of genetic diversity is key to making reliable inference about demography, building a null model in scans for targets of adaptation, and learning about the dynamics of natural selection. Here, we introduce the first method that jointly infers parameters of distinct modes of linked selection, notably background selection and selective sweeps, from genome-wide diversity data, functional annotations and genetic maps. The central idea is to calculate the probability that a neutral site is polymorphic given local annotations, substitution patterns, and recombination rates. Information is then combined across sites and samples using composite likelihood in order to estimate genome-wide parameters of distinct modes of selection. In addition to parameter estimation, this approach yields a map of the expected neutral diversity levels along the genome. To illustrate the utility of our approach, we apply it to genome-wide resequencing data from 125 lines in Drosophila melanogaster and reliably predict diversity levels at the 1Mb scale. Our results corroborate estimates of a high fraction of beneficial substitutions in proteins and untranslated regions (UTR). They allow us to distinguish between the contribution of sweeps and other modes of selection around amino acid substitutions and to uncover evidence for pervasive sweeps in untranslated regions (UTRs). Our inference further suggests a substantial effect of other modes of linked selection and of adaptation in particular. More generally, we demonstrate that linked selection has had a larger effect in reducing diversity levels and increasing their variance in D. melanogaster than previously appreciated.

  17. Determining the Effect of Natural Selection on Linked Neutral Divergence across Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Tanya N; Huber, Christian D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-08-01

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across genomes. Studies in a variety of species have shown that neutral genetic diversity (intra-species differences) has been reduced at sites linked to those under direct selection. However, the effect of linked selection on neutral sequence divergence (inter-species differences) remains ambiguous. While empirical studies have reported correlations between divergence and recombination, which is interpreted as evidence for natural selection reducing linked neutral divergence, theory argues otherwise, especially for species that have diverged long ago. Here we address these outstanding issues by examining whether natural selection can affect divergence between both closely and distantly related species. We show that neutral divergence between closely related species (e.g. human-primate) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with human recombination rate. We also find that neutral divergence between distantly related species (e.g. human-rodent) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with estimates of background selection from primates. These patterns persist after accounting for the confounding factors of hypermutable CpG sites, GC content, and biased gene conversion. Coalescent models indicate that even when the contribution of ancestral polymorphism to divergence is small, background selection in the ancestral population can still explain a large proportion of the variance in divergence across the genome, generating the observed correlations. Our findings reveal that, contrary to previous intuition, natural selection can indirectly affect linked neutral divergence between both closely and distantly related species. Though we cannot formally exclude the possibility that the direct effects of purifying selection drive some of these patterns, such a scenario would be possible only

  18. Effect of magnetic field on selectivity of three-step photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Hwan; Rho, Si Pyo; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Chul Joong; Izawa, Yasukazu

    2001-01-01

    Effect of magnetic field on selectivity by linearly polarized lasers was analyzed by formulating the density matrix equations. To investigate the effect of magnetic field on the selectivity of AVLIS, we proposed a general Hamiltonian for multilevel atomic system in magnetic field. The population dynamics of magnetic sublevels have been observed by solving the Liouville equation. Mixing between magnetic sublevels was observed in each state during the laser excitations when the magnetic field perpendicular to the quantization axis was applied to the atomic system. The magnetic field dependence on ionization rate of even isotopes was also discussed. In the magnetic field dependence, two ionization peaks were appeared because of the interference between Rabi and Larmor frequency during the ionization process. The permissible intensities of magnetic field were predicted to obtain enough selectivity for the target isotopes of zirconium and gadolinium in the AVLIS process based on the polarization selection rule

  19. Ion-selective field-effect transitors. A sensor for lithium and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, A.B.; Petrukhin, O.M.; Nad', V.Yh.; Ypivakov, B.Ya.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Otmakhova, O.A.; Tal'roze, R.V.; Plateh, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    An Li-sensitive sensor based on a field-effect transistor with a tantalum pentoxide gate and a poly(vinyl chloride) membrane based on diethylene glycol bis-o-2-diphenylphosphinylmethyl phenyl ether is developed. THis sensor exhibits analytical characteristics close to those of a lithium-selective electrode analogous in membrane composition; it is insensitive to the concentration of hydrogen ions in the pH range 4.5-8.5. The service life of the sensor is no shorter than four months, which is comparable to the service life of the corresponding ion-selective electrode. A bifunctional sensor for Ca and Li is prepared based on membranes used for preparing the corresponding monofunctional ion-selective field-effect transistors; this sensor exhibits analytical characteristics close to those of ion-selective electrodes and monofunctional sensors. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. SELECTION OF EFFECTIVE MODELS OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION IN A CHANGING FINANCIAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Иванович МЕНЕЙЛЮК

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the methods of selecting effective models of construction projects of residential buildings and recommendations for its use. The technique is based on the construction of the models in the program Microsoft Project and analysis using the program COMPEX. Methods can be used not only for building projects. It is especially effective in a variable financial situation.

  1. Effect of Professional Development on Classroom Practices in Some Selected Saudi Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, AbdulKhaliq Hajjad; Bin Sihes, Ahmad Johari

    2016-01-01

    "Scientific studies found the impact of professional development on effective classroom practices in Higher Education." This paper hypothesizes no statistically significant effect of lecturers' professional development on classroom practices in some selected Saudi Universities not as highlighted in the model. Hierarchical multiple…

  2. The effects of stress and sex on selection, genetic covariance, and the evolutionary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, L; Jacomb, F

    2017-10-01

    The capacity of a population to adapt to selection (evolvability) depends on whether the structure of genetic variation permits the evolution of fitter trait combinations. Selection, genetic variance and genetic covariance can change under environmental stress, and males and females are not genetically independent, yet the combined effects of stress and dioecy on evolvability are not well understood. Here, we estimate selection, genetic (co)variance and evolvability in both sexes of Tribolium castaneum flour beetles under stressful and benign conditions, using a half-sib breeding design. Although stress uncovered substantial latent heritability, stress also affected genetic covariance, such that evolvability remained low under stress. Sexual selection on males and natural selection on females favoured a similar phenotype, and there was positive intersex genetic covariance. Consequently, sexual selection on males augmented adaptation in females, and intralocus sexual conflict was weak or absent. This study highlights that increased heritability does not necessarily increase evolvability, suggests that selection can deplete genetic variance for multivariate trait combinations with strong effects on fitness, and tests the recent hypothesis that sexual conflict is weaker in stressful or novel environments. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Effects of selective attention on the electrophysiological representation of concurrent sounds in the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie; Fischer, Catherine; Besle, Julien; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Giard, Marie-Helene; Bertrand, Olivier

    2007-08-29

    In noisy environments, we use auditory selective attention to actively ignore distracting sounds and select relevant information, as during a cocktail party to follow one particular conversation. The present electrophysiological study aims at deciphering the spatiotemporal organization of the effect of selective attention on the representation of concurrent sounds in the human auditory cortex. Sound onset asynchrony was manipulated to induce the segregation of two concurrent auditory streams. Each stream consisted of amplitude modulated tones at different carrier and modulation frequencies. Electrophysiological recordings were performed in epileptic patients with pharmacologically resistant partial epilepsy, implanted with depth electrodes in the temporal cortex. Patients were presented with the stimuli while they either performed an auditory distracting task or actively selected one of the two concurrent streams. Selective attention was found to affect steady-state responses in the primary auditory cortex, and transient and sustained evoked responses in secondary auditory areas. The results provide new insights on the neural mechanisms of auditory selective attention: stream selection during sound rivalry would be facilitated not only by enhancing the neural representation of relevant sounds, but also by reducing the representation of irrelevant information in the auditory cortex. Finally, they suggest a specialization of the left hemisphere in the attentional selection of fine-grained acoustic information.

  4. EFFECT OF CORE TRAINING ON SELECTED HEMATOLOGICAL VARIABLES AMONG BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rejinadevi; Dr. C. Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of core training on selected haematological variables among basketball players. For the purpose of the study forty men basketball players were selected as subjects from S.V.N College and Arul Anandar College, Madurai, Tamilnadu at random and their age ranged from 18 to 25 years. The selected subjects are divided in to two groups of twenty subjects each. Group I acted as core training group and Group II acted as control group. The experimenta...

  5. The Effect of Exit Strategy on Optimal Portfolio Selection with Birandom Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Guohua; Shan, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to use a birandom variable to denote the stock return selected by some recurring technical patterns and to study the effect of exit strategy on optimal portfolio selection with birandom returns. Firstly, we propose a new method to estimate the stock return and use birandom distribution to denote the final stock return which can reflect the features of technical patterns and investors' heterogeneity simultaneously; secondly, we build a birandom safety-first model and...

  6. Effect of Group-Selection Opening Size on Breeding Bird Habitat Use in a Bottomland Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, C.E.; D.C. Guynn, Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.

  7. A large sample of Kohonen-selected SDSS quasars with weak emission lines: selection effects and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusinger, H.; Balafkan, N.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: A tiny fraction of the quasar population shows remarkably weak emission lines. Several hypotheses have been developed, but the weak line quasar (WLQ) phenomenon still remains puzzling. The aim of this study was to create a sizeable sample of WLQs and WLQ-like objects and to evaluate various properties of this sample. Methods: We performed a search for WLQs in the spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 based on Kohonen self-organising maps for nearly 105 quasar spectra. The final sample consists of 365 quasars in the redshift range z = 0.6 - 4.2 (z¯ = 1.50 ± 0.45) and includes in particular a subsample of 46 WLQs with equivalent widths WMg iiattention was paid to selection effects. Results: The WLQs have, on average, significantly higher luminosities, Eddington ratios, and accretion rates. About half of the excess comes from a selection bias, but an intrinsic excess remains probably caused primarily by higher accretion rates. The spectral energy distribution shows a bluer continuum at rest-frame wavelengths ≳1500 Å. The variability in the optical and UV is relatively low, even taking the variability-luminosity anti-correlation into account. The percentage of radio detected quasars and of core-dominant radio sources is significantly higher than for the control sample, whereas the mean radio-loudness is lower. Conclusions: The properties of our WLQ sample can be consistently understood assuming that it consists of a mix of quasars at the beginning of a stage of increased accretion activity and of beamed radio-quiet quasars. The higher luminosities and Eddington ratios in combination with a bluer spectral energy distribution can be explained by hotter continua, i.e. higher accretion rates. If quasar activity consists of subphases with different accretion rates, a change towards a higher rate is probably accompanied by an only slow development of the broad line region. The composite WLQ spectrum can be reasonably matched by the

  8. Richness and distribution of unicellular eukaryotes in three streams under anthropic influence, Ivinhema City, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Colzani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Unicellular eukaryotes are abundant in most aquatic environments and contribute in several ways to ecosystems. For example, they act as producers, as primary and secondary consumers, and they aid in the decrease and control of bacteria communities and in nutrient cycling. The aim of this study was to describe the abundance and distribution of unicellular eukaryotes in Ponta Porã stream and in its main tributary streams, as well as possible relationships between their presence and water quality on the sampled sites. We selected six sites (locals, considering headwaters (L1 and L2, downstreams (L5 and L6 and the main pollution source (L3. We used similarity and canonical correspondence analysis to evaluate relationships between microorganism abundance and distribution to abiotic variables (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity and conductivity. Abundance was related to the increase of organic and inorganic sediment due to decomposition and erosion. We had a variation on the genera distribution, with slight predominance of ciliates, and some genera used as eutrophicated environmental indicators. The presence of Vorticella, Saprodinium, Paramecium, Metopus and Chilodonella suggests an environment ranging from polysaprobic to olygosaprobic. Urostyla, that has been used as water quality indicators, the flagellate Cercomonas, that has broad dispersion in aquatic environments, Didinium, a ciliate predator widely dispersed, Synura, a chrysophyte sensitive to basic pH and high temperatures, and Amoeba, frequently found in clean or in depuration process waters, may suggest a recuperating environment, since they are also found on lesser impacted sites.

  9. A modified SINTACS method for groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk assessment in highly anthropized regions based on NO3- and SO42- concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busico, Gianluigi; Kazakis, Nerantzis; Colombani, Nicolò; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Voudouris, Konstantinos; Tedesco, Dario

    2017-12-31

    Groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment are worldwide tools in supporting groundwater protection and land planning. In this study, we used three of these different methodologies applied to the Campanian Plain located in southern Italy: SINTACS, AVI and LOS. However, their capability to describe the observed chemical pollution of the area has resulted quite poor. For such a reason, a modified SINTACS method has been then implemented in the area in order to get a more reliable view of groundwater vulnerability. NO 3 - and SO 4 2- from more than 400 monitoring wells were used for specific vulnerability assessment. Land use was chosen as key parameter to infer the risk of groundwater pollution in our area. The new methodology seems to show a higher correlation with observed NO 3 - concentrations and a more reliable identification of aquifer's pollution hot spots. The main sources of NO 3 - were found in sub-urban areas, where vulnerability and risk are higher than in other areas. Otherwise due to reducing conditions triggered by the presence of elevated sedimentary organic matter and peat, concentrations below agricultural areas were lower than in sub-urban areas. The SO 4 2- specific vulnerability map showed a positive correlation with observed concentrations, due to geogenic and anthropogenic SO 4 2- sources present in the area. The combination of both NO 3 - and SO 4 2- derived risk maps becomes essential to improve the conceptual model of aquifer pollution in this severely anthropized area. The application of this new and original approach shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of each of the described previous methods and clearly showed how anthropogenic activities have to be taken into account in the assessment process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of the Ordering of Natural Selection and Population Regulation Mechanisms on Wright-Fisher Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangyi; Beaumont, Mark; Yu, Feng

    2017-07-05

    We explore the effect of different mechanisms of natural selection on the evolution of populations for one- and two-locus systems. We compare the effect of viability and fecundity selection in the context of the Wright-Fisher model with selection under the assumption of multiplicative fitness. We show that these two modes of natural selection correspond to different orderings of the processes of population regulation and natural selection in the Wright-Fisher model. We find that under the Wright-Fisher model these two different orderings can affect the distribution of trajectories of haplotype frequencies evolving with genetic recombination. However, the difference in the distribution of trajectories is only appreciable when the population is in significant linkage disequilibrium. We find that as linkage disequilibrium decays the trajectories for the two different models rapidly become indistinguishable. We discuss the significance of these findings in terms of biological examples of viability and fecundity selection, and speculate that the effect may be significant when factors such as gene migration maintain a degree of linkage disequilibrium. Copyright © 2017 He et al.

  11. Quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy. The effect of method of selection of region of interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.C.; Turner, D.A.; Charters, J.R.; Golden, H.E.; Ali, A.; Fordham, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    Various authors have advocated quantitative methods of evaluating bone scintigrams to detect sacroiliitis, while others have not found them useful. Many explanations for this disagreement have been offered, including differences in the method of case selection, ethnicity, gender, and previous drug therapy. It would appear that one of the most important impediments to consistent results is the variability of selecting sacroiliac joint and reference regions of interest (ROIs). The effect of ROI selection would seem particularly important because of the normal variability of radioactivity within the reference regions that have been used (sacrum, spine, iliac wing) and the inhomogeneity of activity in the SI joints. We have investigated the effect of ROI selection, using five different methods representative of, though not necessarily identical to, those found in the literature. Each method produced unique mean indices that were different for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and controls. The method of Ayres (19) proved superior (largest mean difference, smallest variance), but none worked well as a diagnostic tool because of substantial overlap of the distributions of indices of patient and control groups. We conclude that ROI selection is important in determining results, and quantitative scintigraphic methods in general are not effective tools for diagnosing AS. Among the possible factors limiting success, difficulty in selecting a stable reference area seems of particular importance

  12. Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Agnvall

    Full Text Available Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0 and the fifth selected generation (S5, focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication.

  13. Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5), focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication. PMID:27851792

  14. THE IMPACT OF THE ANTHROPIC FACTORS ON DISRUPTING AND DESTABILIZING THE ECOLOGICAL BALANCE OF THE VÂLSAN RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela Vlăduţu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vâlsan river is the only ecosystem in Romania and in the world where Romanichthys valsanicola, a Tertiary era relict, lives; this fish has a strictly limited habitat range and is on the Red List of U.I.C.N – under resolution D-46 of the E.C., as a “critically endangered species”. At present, the river Vâlsan is subjected to a cumulative effect of the disrupting factors upstream, as a result of the hydroelectrical structures and of human activity. It also suffers a number of negative effects relating to the quantity and the quality of its water, which require taking urgent steps in order to be diminished. The present paper presents the comparative situation of the invertebrate and piscicultural fauna prior to, and after, the beginning of the functioning of the Vâlsan hydrotechnical structure.

  15. Temperature effects on the electrohydrodynamic and electrokinetic behaviour of ion-selective nanochannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Jeffery A; Benneker, Anne M; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2016-01-01

    A non-isothermal formulation of the Poisson–Nernst–Planck with Navier–Stokes equations is used to study the influence of heating effects in the form of Joule heating and viscous dissipation and imposed temperature gradients on a microchannel/nanochannel system. The system is solved numerically under various cases in order to determine the influence of temperature-related effects on ion-selectivity, flux and fluid flow profiles, as well as coupling between these phenomena. It is demonstrated that for a larger reservoir system, the effects of Joule heating and viscous dissipation only become relevant for higher salt concentrations and electric field strengths than are compatible with ion-selectivity due to Debye layer overlap. More interestingly, it is shown that using different temperature reservoirs can have a strong influence on ion-selectivity, as well as the induced electrohydrodynamic flows. (paper)

  16. Allee effect in the selection for prime-numbered cycles in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yumi; Yoshimura, Jin; Simon, Chris; Cooley, John R; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2009-06-02

    Periodical cicadas are well known for their prime-numbered life cycles (17 and 13 years) and their mass periodical emergences. The origination and persistence of prime-numbered cycles are explained by the hybridization hypothesis on the basis of their lower likelihood of hybridization with other cycles. Recently, we showed by using an integer-based numerical model that prime-numbered cycles are indeed selected for among 10- to 20-year cycles. Here, we develop a real-number-based model to investigate the factors affecting the selection of prime-numbered cycles. We include an Allee effect in our model, such that a critical population size is set as an extinction threshold. We compare the real-number models with and without the Allee effect. The results show that in the presence of an Allee effect, prime-numbered life cycles are most likely to persist and to be selected under a wide range of extinction thresholds.

  17. Effect of selection for relative growth rate and bodyweight of mice on rate, composition and efficiency of growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for parameters of a growth curve, four selection lines and a control line were started from one base population. In the selection lines is selected for a large and a small relative growth rate between 21 and 29 days (RGH and RGL) and for a large and

  18. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Matthew D.; Trucco, Elisa M.; Coffman, Donna L.; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  19. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  20. Effects of Baseline Selection on Magnetocardiography: P-Q and T-P Intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Kyoon; Kwon, Hyuk Chan; Kim, Tae En; Lee, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Mok; Kim, In Seon; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Yong Ki

    2007-01-01

    The baseline selection is the first and important step to analyze magnetocardiography (MCG) parameters. There are no difficulties to select the baseline between P- and Q-wave peak (P-Q interval) of MCG wave recorded from healthy subjects because the P-Q intervals of the healthy subjects do not much vary. However, patients with ischemic heart disease often show an unstable P-Q interval which does not seem to be appropriate for the baseline. In this case, T-P interval is alternatively recommended for the baseline. However, there has been no study on the difference made by the baseline selection. In this study, we studied the effect of the different baseline selection. MCG data were analyzed from twenty healthy subjects and twenty one patients whose baselines were alternatively selected in the T-P interval for their inappropriate P-Q interval. Paired T-test was used to compare two set of data. Fifteen parameters derived from the R-wave peak, the T-wave peak, and the period, T max/3 ∼ T max were compared for the different baseline selection. As a result, most parameters did not show significant differences (p>0.05) except few parameters. Therefore, there will be no significant differences if anyone of two intervals were selected for the MCG baseline. However, for the consistent analysis, P-Q interval is strongly recommended for the baseline correction.

  1. The effect of subdivision on variation at multi-allelic loci under balancing selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Charlesworth, D

    2000-01-01

    Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution of polymorp......Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution...

  2. Density-dependent effects of ants on selection for bumble bee pollination in Polemonium viscosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Candace; Geib, Jennifer C

    2007-05-01

    Mutualisms are commonly exploited by cheater species that usurp rewards without providing reciprocal benefits. Yet most studies of selection between mutualist partners ignore interactions with third species and consequently overlook the impact of cheaters on evolution in the mutualism. Here, we explicitly investigate how the abundance of nectar-thieving ants (cheaters) influences selection in a pollination mutualism between bumble bees and the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum. As suggested in past work with this species, bumble bees accounted for most of the seed production (78% +/- 6% [mean +/- SE]) in our high tundra study population and, in the absence of ants, exerted strong selection for large flowers. We tested for indirect effects of ant abundance on seed set through bumble bee pollination services (pollen delivery and pollen export) and a direct effect through flower damage. Ants reduced seed set per flower by 20% via flower damage. As ant density increased within experimental patches, the rate of flower damage rose, but pollen delivery and export did not vary significantly, showing that indirect effects of increased cheater abundance on pollinator service are negligible in this system. To address how ants affect selection for plant participation in the pollination mutualism we tested the impact of ant abundance on selection for bumble bee-mediated pollination. Results show that the impact of ants on fitness (seed set) accruing under bumble bee pollination is density dependent in P. viscosum. Selection for bumble bee pollination declined with increasing ant abundance in experimental patches, as predicted if cheaters constrain fitness returns of mutualist partner services. We also examined how ant abundance influences selection on flower size, a key component of plant investment in bumble bee pollination. We predicted that direct effects of ants would constrain bumble bee selection for large flowers. However, selection on flower size was significantly

  3. Heterozygote advantage: the effect of artificial selection in livestock and pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of mutants in livestock and pets that have a heterozygote advantage because of artificial selection for these mutants in heterozygotes and strong detrimental effects from natural selection in homozygotes. In livestock, these mutants include ones that influence milk yield in dairy cattle, fecundity in sheep, litter size in pigs, muscling in beef cattle, color in horses, lean meat content in pigs, and comb morphology in chickens. In pets, these mutants include ones that influence tail length in cats and hairlessness, muscling, color, or ridgeback hair in dogs. A large variety of mutants are responsible, including small or large deletions or insertions and single base-pair nonsynonymous changes. Many of the mutants cause loss of function for the genes involved, a change that results in the pleiotropic effects of a desired phenotype in heterozygotes and low fitness or an undesirable phenotype in mutant homozygotes. I examine how selection changes the frequency of these mutants and provide an approach to estimate the amount of artificial selection that is necessary to maintain these mutants at the high frequencies often observed. The amount of artificial selection ranges from low selection favoring heterozygotes for double muscling in whippet dogs to very strong selection favoring the "flash" (part white, part solid) heterozygote in boxer dogs and the rose comb in chickens. In several examples (rose comb in Wyandotte chickens and the hair ridge in Rhodesian ridgeback dogs), there is actually stronger selection for the mutant than against it, making the frequency of the mutant greater than 50%. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Effect of Mineral Powders Derived From Industrial Wastes on Selected Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galińska, Anna; Czarnecki, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, concrete has been the most popular construction material. The main component of the concrete is cement. However, its production and transport causes significant emissions of CO2. Reports in the literature show that many laboratories are attempting to modify the composition of the concrete using various additives. These attempts are primarily designed to eliminate parts of cement. The greater part of the cement will be replaced with the selected additive, the more significant is the economic and ecological effect. Most attempts are related to the replacement of the selected additive in an amount of from 10 to 30% by weight of cement. Mineral powders, which are waste material producing crushed aggregate, are increasingly used for this purpose. Management of the waste carries significant cost related to their storage and disposal. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral powders derived from industrial wastes on selected mechanical properties of concrete. In particular, the aim was to determine the effect of quartz and quartz-feldspar powders. For this purpose, 40, 50, 60% by weight of the cement was replaced by the selected powders. The results obtained were analysed and compared with previous attempts to replace the selected additive in an amount of from 10 to 30% by weight of cement.

  5. Evolution in response to social selection: the importance of interactive effects of traits on fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westneat, David F

    2012-03-01

    Social interactions have a powerful effect on the evolutionary process. Recent attempts to synthesize models of social selection with equations for indirect genetic effects (McGlothlin et al. 2010) provide a broad theoretical base from which to study selection and evolutionary response in the context of social interactions. However, this framework concludes that social selection will lead to evolution only if the traits carried by social partners are nonrandomly associated. I suggest this conclusion is incomplete, and that traits that do not covary between social partners can nevertheless lead to evolution via interactive effects on fitness. Such effects occur when there are functional interactions between traits, and as an example I use the interplay in water striders (Gerridae) between grasping appendages carried by males and spines by females. Functional interactive effects between traits can be incorporated into both the equations for social selection and the general model of social evolution proposed by McGlothlin et al. These expanded equations would accommodate adaptive coevolution in social interactions, integrate the quantitative genetic approach to social evolution with game theoretical approaches, and stimulate some new questions about the process of social evolution. © 2011 The Author. Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Accounting for anthropic energy flux of traffic in winter urban road surface temperature simulations with the TEB model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, A.; Marchetti, M.; Bouilloud, L.; Martin, E.; Bues, M.; Chancibaut, K.

    2016-02-01

    Snowfall forecasts help winter maintenance of road networks, ensure better coordination between services, cost control, and a reduction in environmental impacts caused by an inappropriate use of de-icers. In order to determine the possible accumulation of snow on pavements, forecasting the road surface temperature (RST) is mandatory. Weather outstations are used along these networks to identify changes in pavement status, and to make forecasts by analyzing the data they provide. Physical numerical models provide such forecasts, and require an accurate description of the infrastructure along with meteorological parameters. The objective of this study was to build a reliable urban RST forecast with a detailed integration of traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) numerical model for winter maintenance. The study first consisted in generating a physical and consistent description of traffic in the model with two approaches to evaluate traffic incidence on RST. Experiments were then conducted to measure the effect of traffic on RST increase with respect to non-circulated areas. These field data were then used for comparison with the forecast provided by this traffic-implemented TEB version.

  7. Accounting for anthropic energy flux of traffic in winter urban road surface temperature simulations with TEB model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, A.; Marchetti, M.; Bouilloud, L.; Martin, E.; Bues, M.; Chancibaut, K.

    2015-06-01

    A forecast of the snowfall helps winter coordination operating services, reducing the cost of the maintenance actions, and the environmental impacts caused by an inappropriate use of de-icing. In order to determine the possible accumulation of snow on pavement, the forecast of the road surface temperature (RST) is mandatory. Physical numerical models provide such forecast, and do need an accurate description of the infrastructure along with meteorological parameters. The objective of this study was to build a reliable urban RST forecast with a detailed integration of traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) numerical model for winter maintenance. The study first consisted in generating a physical and consistent description of traffic in the model with all the energy interactions, with two approaches to evaluate the traffic incidence on RST. Experiments were then conducted to measure the traffic effect on RST increase with respect to non circulated areas. These field data were then used for comparison with forecast provided by this traffic-implemented TEB version.

  8. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention.

  9. Measurement of the influences relating to anthropization on the temporal evolution of the gravitational risks and the vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebourg, T.; Llop, R.; Provitolo, D.; Allignol, F.; Zerathe, S.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to show the impact of the instrumentation on an urban area on the principle of prevention of the landslides risk and thus to contribute to decrease the vulnerability for an urban long-term future development. We show that the analyze by instrumentation of triggered factors which characterize the risk (by the quantification of the evolution in time of the mechanical properties versus weathered processes) suggest that it exists a relation between "susceptibility of landslides" and urban development The evolution of the stakes during time is at the same time, factor of evolution of the susceptibility and triggered factor of the vulnerability evolution of urban areas. The scientific goal relates to the urban systems vulnerability and resilience modelling versus landslides processes for the assistance to the risks prevention. Indeed, the installation of an effective risks prevention policy is based on a good evaluation of the intensity, the period of return of the phenomena and their zone of expansion, but also on an identification of the sectors exposed to the risks, their vulnerability and their resilience. The strategy of prevention of the risks generally relates to the construction of fortifications to protect the society but it can also be founded on the resilience concept. This other approach is not opposed to the risk, but proposes to reduce the impacts. The anthroposysteme concept of makes it possible to take into accounts the determining role played by the human society in the space system evolution; natural and social systems associated on a given territory. The study of a space system passes then by the identification of components of the physical world (natural) and the living world (social), these two components forming integral part of the Society. To be concluded, this paper and study applies to the Mediterranean coastline anthroposystemes (northern bank) where urban growth, saturation of the littorals, constructions in

  10. REE Distribution in Cultivated and No Cultivated Soils in Two Viticultural Areas of Central Chile: Mineralogical, Pedological and Anthropic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P.; Townley, B.; Aburto, F.

    2017-12-01

    Within the scope of a Corfo-Innova Project (I+D Wines of Chile-University of Chile) we have recognized remarkable REE patterns in soils of two vineyards located in traditional vinicultural areas: Casablanca and Santa Cruz. Both vineyards have granitic parent rock, with similar petrographic features and REE patterns. We studied REE distribution on twelve cultivated soil profiles at each vineyard, where a full mineralogical, geochemical and pedogenic sampling and characterization was performed. To establish the effect of management no cultivated soil profiles were included from each vineyard location. REE in soil samples were measured by ICP-MS using two digestion methods: lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion to obtain REE contents in total soil and MMI® partial extraction technique for REE contents on bioavailable phases.Soils display similar signatures of REEs respect to the rock source at both vineyards, but showing relative enrichments in soils of Casablanca and depletion in soils of Santa Cruz. Bioavailable phase data indicates a relative depletion of LREEs compared to HREEs and different anomalies for Ce (positive vs negative) in different areas of the same vineyard. Similar patterns of soils and parent rock suggest that REEs are adequate tracers of lithological source. Enrichments and/or depletions of REE patterns in soils respect to the rock source and Ce anomalies, evidence differential pedogenetic processes occurring at each sampled site. Results of bioavailable phase are coherent with the immobilization and fractionation of LREEs by stable minerals within soils as clays and Fe oxides. Mineralogical results in soil thin sections of Casablanca evidence the occurrence of Ti phases as sphene, ilmenite and rutile, which probably control the relative REE enrichment, since these minerals are considered more stable under pedogenic conditions.Finally, cultivated soils show a depleted but analogous pattern of REE regarding to no cultivated soil, indicating the

  11. Gemcitabine: Selective cytotoxicity, induction of inflammation and effects on urothelial function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, Stefanie E; Chess-Williams, Russ; McDermott, Catherine M, E-mail: camcderm@bond.edu.au

    2017-02-01

    Intravesical gemcitabine has recently been introduced for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer and has a favourable efficacy and toxicity profile in comparison to mitomycin c (MMC), the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic potency of gemcitabine in comparison to MMC in urothelial cell lines derived from non-malignant (UROtsa) and malignant (RT4 and T24) tissues to assess selectivity. Cells were treated with gemcitabine or mitomycin C at concentrations up to the clinical doses for 1 or 2 h respectively (clinical duration). Treatment combined with hyperthermia was also examined. Cell viability, ROS formation, urothelial function (ATP, acetylcholine and PGE2 release) and secretion of inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Gemcitabine displayed a high cytotoxic selectivity for the two malignant cell lines (RT4, T24) compared to the non-malignant urothelial cells (UROtsa, proliferative and non-proliferative). In contrast, the cytotoxic effects of MMC were non-selective with equivalent potency in each of the cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine in the malignant cell lines was associated with an elevation in free radical formation and was significantly decreased in the presence of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter inhibitor. Transient changes in urothelial ATP and PGE{sub 2} release were observed, with significant increase in release of interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and interleukin-1β from urothelial cells treated with gemcitabine. The selectivity of gemcitabine for malignant urothelial cells may account for the less frequent adverse urological effects with comparison to other commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. - Highlights: • Intravesical gemcitabine has recently been introduced to treat bladder cancer. • Gemcitabine is selectively toxic for malignant urothelial cells. • Urothelial ATP, PGE{sub 2} and inflammatory cytokines were altered by gemcitabine. • Selectivity of gemcitabine

  12. Environment-based selection effects of Planck clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosyra, R.; Gruen, D.; Seitz, S.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sanchez, A.; Bender, R.

    2015-07-24

    We investigate whether the large-scale structure environment of galaxy clusters imprints a selection bias on Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) catalogues. Such a selection effect might be caused by line of sight (LoS) structures that add to the SZ signal or contain point sources that disturb the signal extraction in the SZ survey. We use the Planck PSZ1 union catalogue in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region as our sample of SZ-selected clusters. We calculate the angular two-point correlation function (2pcf) for physically correlated, foreground and background structure in the RedMaPPer SDSS DR8 catalogue with respect to each cluster. We compare our results with an optically selected comparison cluster sample and with theoretical predictions. In contrast to the hypothesis of no environment-based selection, we find a mean 2pcf for background structures of -0.049 on scales of ≲40 arcmin, significantly non-zero at ~4σ, which means that Planck clusters are more likely to be detected in regions of low background density. We hypothesize this effect arises either from background estimation in the SZ survey or from radio sources in the background. We estimate the defect in SZ signal caused by this effect to be negligibly small, of the order of ~10-4 of the signal of a typical Planck detection. Analogously, there are no implications on X-ray mass measurements. However, the environmental dependence has important consequences for weak lensing follow up of Planck galaxy clusters: we predict that projection effects account for half of the mass contained within a 15 arcmin radius of Planck galaxy clusters. We did not detect a background underdensity of CMASS LRGs, which also leaves a spatially varying redshift dependence of the Planck SZ selection function as a possible cause for our findings.

  13. The effect of size on the oxygen electroreduction activity of mass-selected platinum nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Alonso, Francisco; McCarthy, David N; Nierhoff, Anders

    2012-01-01

    A matter of size: The particle size effect on the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction of size-selected platinum clusters was studied. The ORR activity decreased with decreasing Pt nanoparticle size, corresponding to a decrease in the fraction of terraces on the surfaces of the Pt nanopartic...

  14. The Effect of Size on the Oxygen Electroreduction Activity of Mass‐Selected Platinum Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Alonso, Francisco; McCarthy, David Norman; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    2012-01-01

    A matter of size: The particle size effect on the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction of size-selected platinum clusters was studied. The ORR activity decreased with decreasing Pt nanoparticle size, corresponding to a decrease in the fraction of terraces on the surfaces of the Pt nanopartic...

  15. The effect of selected initiative and cultural activities on the self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of selected initiative and cultural activities during an intervention programme on the self-concept of first year students at a multicultural tertiary institution. A self-concept scale based on the self-concept scale of Coopersmith (1967) and the Adolescent Sport Self-concept Scale of Vrey (1974) ...

  16. Efficacy of MBA: On the Role of Network Effects in Influencing the Selection of Elective Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Vivek; Parsad, Chandan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the importance of social network effects in influencing the elective (courses) selection among masters of business administration (MBA) students and its role in influencing the efficacy of MBA. As such, given the enormous time and investment required for students to pursue an MBA and the role of…

  17. Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food was investigated. Results show significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the iodine content of the processed food compared with the raw forms. The iodine value of 658.60 ± 17.2 ìg/100g observed in raw edible portion of Discorea rotundata was significantly higher ...

  18. Empirically Driven Variable Selection for the Estimation of Causal Effects with Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bryan; Chen, Jianshen

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies are common in educational research, where subjects self-select or are otherwise non-randomly assigned to different interventions (e.g., educational programs, grade retention, special education). Unbiased estimation of a causal effect with observational data depends crucially on the assumption of ignorability, which specifies…

  19. The Effects of a Six-Week Aerobic Dance Programme on Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effects of a six-week low-impact aerobic dance on selected fitness components (trunk flexibility, leg power and abdominal muscle endurance) and waist-hip-ratio (WHR) in adult males. A total of fifteen (15) Lagos State University male undergraduates (age range: 19-28 years) from the Faculty of ...

  20. New membrane materials for potassium-selective ion-sensitive field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, P.D.; van der Wal, Peter D.; Skowronska-Ptasinska, Maria; van den Berg, Albert; Bergveld, Piet; Sudholter, Ernst; Sudholter, Ernst J.R.; Reinhoudt, David

    1990-01-01

    Several polymeric materials were studied as membrane materials for potassium-selective ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) to overcome the problems related with the use of conventional plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes casted on ISFET gate surfaces. Several acrylate materials,

  1. Effect of selective removal of organic matter and iron oxides on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of selective removal of organic matter and amorphous and crystalline iron oxides on N2-BET specific surface areas of some soil clays was evaluated. Clay fractions from 10 kaolinitic tropical soils were successively treated to remove organic matter by oxidation with Na hypochlorite, amorphous Fe oxide with acid ...

  2. The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and

  3. The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and

  4. The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in healthy subjects. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Knorr, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) show antidepressant properties in many patients with a diagnosis of depression. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the effect of SSRIs in healthy patients may lead to an understanding of the yet unclear pathophysiology of d...

  5. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  6. The Effects of Reinforcer Pairing and Fading on Preschoolers' Snack Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Katherine M.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Layer, Stacy A.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of reinforcement pairing and fading on preschoolers' snack selections were evaluated in a multiple baseline design. Baseline preferences for snack options were assessed via repeated paired-item preference assessments. Edible, social, and activity-based reinforcers were then exclusively paired with a less preferred snack option. Once…

  7. Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Selection Decisions in Employment Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P.; Whiting, Steven W.; Podsakoff, Philip M.; Mishra, Paresh

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment examining the effects of job candidates' propensity to exhibit organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) on selection decisions made in the context of a job interview. We developed videos that manipulated candidate responses to interview questions tapping task performance and citizenship behavior content in…

  8. The Chronic and Acute Effects of Exercise Upon Selected Blood Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, J. L.; Brewer, J. P.

    This study investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise upon selected blood measures and indices. Nine male cross-country runners were studied. Red blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured using standard laboratory techniques; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin…

  9. Effect of Caraway Extract on the Performance of Selective Attention and Cognitive Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Barghi-Irani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This trial study is conducted in the field of psychopharmacology aiming to examine psychological effects of caraway. Materials and Methods: The sample under study consists of two groups including experimental (N=22 and control (N=28; both groups were identical in terms of demographic characteristics. The subjects participated voluntarily in the study; they were placed into experimental and control groups by random selection. The evaluation of attention function test was carried out by computerized Stroop effect test. Results: The results from analysis of covariance statistical test (ANCOVA showed that taking caraway with an effective dose may increase functions of selective attention, response inhibition ability as well as cognitive flexibility and change (p<0.005. Conclusion: Taking advantage of positive effects of caraway extract, it may be used as one of the herbal medicine in treating stress and increasing different attention functions

  10. Selective attention meets spontaneous recognition memory: Evidence for effects at retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Katherine C; Miller, Jeremy K; Lloyd, Marianne E

    2017-03-01

    Previous research on the effects of Divided Attention on recognition memory have shown consistent impairments during encoding but more variable effects at retrieval. The present study explored whether effects of Selective Attention at retrieval and subsequent testing were parallel to those of Divided Attention. Participants studied a list of pictures and then had a recognition memory test that included both full attention and selective attention (the to be responded to object was overlaid atop a blue outlined object) trials. All participants then completed a second recognition memory test. The results of 2 experiments suggest that subsequent tests consistently show impacts of the status of the ignored stimulus, and that having an initial test changes performance on a later test. The results are discussed in relation to effect of attention on memory more generally as well as spontaneous recognition memory research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The mere exposure effect is modulated by selective attention but not visual awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2013-10-18

    Repeated exposures to an object will lead to an enhancement of evaluation toward that object. Although this mere exposure effect may occur when the objects are presented subliminally, the role of conscious perception per se on evaluation has never been examined. Here we use a binocular rivalry paradigm to investigate whether a variance in conscious perceptual duration of faces has an effect on their subsequent evaluation, and how selective attention and memory interact with this effect. Our results show that face evaluation is positively biased by selective attention but not affected by visual awareness. Furthermore, this effect is not due to participants recalling which face had been attended to. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the effectiveness of Basta, Bialaphos and Glufosinate Ammonium for selecting Transformed Oil Palm Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Rahman Nurfahisza; Md Aman Rafiqah; Ghulam Kadir Ahmad Parveez; Omar Abdul Rashid

    2016-01-01

    One of the important requirements for producing transgenic plants is the ability to isolate true transformed cells and regenerate into complete plants without chimera and escapes. Therefore, an efficient selection process is essential. In this study, three different selection agents, namely Basta, bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium were evaluated on embryogenic calli and embryoids, for their effectiveness on selecting transformed oil palm tissues. Un transformed tissues were used in this study as the minimal concentrations which inhibit the growth of the tissues would be the optimum concentrations for selecting the transformed cells. Based on this study, the growth of embryogenic calli was shown to be fully inhibited at 10 mg litre -1 of Basta. Meanwhile, only 3 mg litre -1 of bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium are needed to inhibit the embryogenic calli. For oil palm embryo id cultures, the minimal concentration for Basta was determined at 20 mg litre -1 as compared to 5 mg litre -1 for bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium. This result indicated that a higher concentration of Basta is needed to completely inhibit the growth of oil palm tissues as compared to bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium. Furthermore, these observations revealed that embryogenic calli are more sensitive to the three selection agents as compared to embryoids. The information gained from this study will be used as a guideline to increase the efficiency for selecting transformed oil palm cells and producing transgenic oil palm. (author)

  13. Selective Hydrogenation of Acrolein Over Pd Model Catalysts: Temperature and Particle-Size Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Casey P; Dostert, Karl-Heinz; Schauermann, Swetlana; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-10-24

    The selectivity in the hydrogenation of acrolein over Fe 3 O 4 -supported Pd nanoparticles has been investigated as a function of nanoparticle size in the 220-270 K temperature range. While Pd(111) shows nearly 100 % selectivity towards the desired hydrogenation of the C=O bond to produce propenol, Pd nanoparticles were found to be much less selective towards this product. In situ detection of surface species by using IR-reflection absorption spectroscopy shows that the selectivity towards propenol critically depends on the formation of an oxopropyl spectator species. While an overlayer of oxopropyl species is effectively formed on Pd(111) turning the surface highly selective for propenol formation, this process is strongly hindered on Pd nanoparticles by acrolein decomposition resulting in CO formation. We show that the extent of acrolein decomposition can be tuned by varying the particle size and the reaction temperature. As a result, significant production of propenol is observed over 12 nm Pd nanoparticles at 250 K, while smaller (4 and 7 nm) nanoparticles did not produce propenol at any of the temperatures investigated. The possible origin of particle-size dependence of propenol formation is discussed. This work demonstrates that the selectivity in the hydrogenation of acrolein is controlled by the relative rates of acrolein partial hydrogenation to oxopropyl surface species and of acrolein decomposition, which has significant implications for rational catalyst design. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effect of "owners" selection strategies on autumn weight in reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Weladji

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Many northern indigenous peoples, including the Sami are dependent on reindeer herding for their livelihood. In view of the socio-cultural and economical importance of reindeer herding, emphasis should be put on appropriate herd structure and selection strategies that maximise marketable products, such as meat (the primary marketable product nowadays. Empirical observations reveal that within a herd, some owners seem to have better productivity in term of carcass autumn weight of calves, than others. We hypothesized that there may be an "owner" effect in reindeer herding, i.e. some owners may be applying particular selection strategies that might be beneficial. We investigated this in three reindeer grazing districts in South Norway, using mixed linear models. We found that autumn carcass weight of calves varied significantly with year and "owner" within herd in all three districts. Consistently some particular owners within a herd had higher average autumn carcass weight of their calves than others. We attributed this difference to "individual selection strategies", meaning that some owners may follow more accurately the sex, age and weight-based recommended strategy and in addition, they may make superior choices when selecting animals for slaughtering. We conclude that individual owners have the capability, through appropriate selection decisions to improve the average annual autumn weight of their reindeer calves. This might be an important aspect of "Traditional Ecological Knowledge", in addition to the recommended modern sex, age and weight-based selection criteria.

  15. SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF CINNAMALDEHYDE WITH Pt AND Pt-Fe CATALYSTS: EFFECTS OF THE SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature reduced TiO2-supported Pt and Pt-Fe catalysts are much more active and selective for the liquid–phase hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to unsaturated cinnamyl alcohol than the corresponding carbon-supported catalysts. High-temperature reduced catalysts, where the SMSI effect should be present, are almost inactive for this reaction. There is at present no definitive explanation for this effect but an electronic metal-support interaction is most probably involved.

  16. Selection and network effects - Migration flows into OECD countries 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows into the OECD countries during the period 1990-2000. Our results indicate that network effects are strong, but vary between different groups of welfare states and between countries according to the type of immigration policy being applie...... a major influence on the observed migration patterns until now. This may partly be explained by restrictive migration policies which may have dampened the potential selection effects....

  17. Symmetry-adaptation and selection rules for effective crystal field Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszynski, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to systematically derive an effective Hamiltonian in the presence of crystal fields in such a way as to incorporate relativistic effects and higher order perturbation corrections including configuration mixing. This Hamiltonian will then be conveniently represented as a symmetry-adapted series of one- and two-body double tensor operators whose matrix elements will be analyzed for selection rules. 16 references, 4 tables

  18. Effect of preweaning nutritional management on yearling weight response in an open-herd selection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, J D; Benyshek, L L

    1988-10-01

    Records on 276 progeny were collected in the final 2 yr (1984 and 1985) of an 8-yr Hereford cattle selection project. Selection was practiced using the top sires from the American Hereford Association's National Cattle Evaluation based on yearling weight expected progeny difference. An unselected control line was maintained to monitor environmental change. One-half of each line was creep-fed during the preweaning period for the last 2 yr to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Direct response to yearling weight selection averaged 28 +/- 8 kg. Correlated response to selection amounted to .057 +/- .028 kg/d in preweaning ADG, 14 +/- 6 kg in weaning weight, .085 +/- .033 kg/d in postweaning ADG, 4.6 +/- 1.5 cm in yearling hip height and 11.2 +/- 3.0 cm2 in yearling pelvic area. Yearling fat thickness and scrotal circumference were not significantly affected by selection. Significant effects of creep feeding were observed for yearling weight (15 +/- 3 kg), preweaning ADG (.067 +/- .012 kg/d), weaning weight (13 +/- 2 kg), yearling hip height (1.2 +/- .5 cm) and yearling fat thickness (.07 +/- .03 cm). Postweaning ADG, yearling pelvic area and yearling scrotal circumference were not affected by creep feeding. No significant genetic group x creep feeding effects were found for any of the traits analyzed, indicating calves genetically superior for growth did not gain any additional advantage from creep feeding.

  19. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Hoffmann, K.-P.; Albright, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color). PMID:22170961

  20. Multilevel selection and neighbourhood effects from individual to metapopulation in a wild passerine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laiolo

    Full Text Available Multilevel selection has rarely been studied in the ecological context of animal populations, in which neighbourhood effects range from competition among territorial neighbours to source-sink effects among local populations. By studying a Dupont's lark Chersophilus duponti metapopulation, we analyze neighbourhood effects mediated by song repertoires on fitness components at the individual level (life-span and population level (growth rate. As a sexual/aggressive signal with strong effects on fitness, birdsong creates an opportunity for group selection via neighbour interactions, but may also have population-wide effects by conveying information on habitat suitability to dispersing individuals. Within populations, we found a disruptive pattern of selection at the individual level and an opposite, stabilizing pattern at the group level. Males singing the most complex songs had the longest life-span, but individuals with the poorest repertoires lived longer than 'average' males, a finding that likely reflects two male strategies with respect to fitness and sexual trait expression. Individuals from groups with intermediate repertoires had the longest life-span, likely benefitting from conspecific signalling to attract females up to the detrimental spread of competitive interactions in groups with superior vocal skills. Within the metapopulation selection was directional but again followed opposite patterns at the two levels: Populations had the highest growth rate when inhabiting local patches with complex repertoires surrounded by patches with simple repertoires. Here the song may impact metapopulation dynamics by guiding prospecting individuals towards populations advertising habitat quality. Two fitness components linked to viability were therefore influenced by the properties of the group, and birdsong was the target of selection, contributing to linking social/sexual processes at the local scale with regional population dynamics.

  1. Analysis of particulate matter in anthropized areas characterized by the presence of crude oil pre-treatment plants: The case study of the Agri Valley (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Serena; Caggiano, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, respectively) daily mass concentrations and daily particle number concentration were performed for the first time in Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy) from July to November 2011. This area is characterized by anthropogenic activities having high potential environmental and human health impacts. In fact, the Agri Valley houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest crude oil pre-treatment plant within an anthropized area. The PM measurements were analyzed combining an innovative statistical methodology, the Singular Spectral Analysis, with forecast models and remote sensing observations. Our findings show that most of the PM collected was made up of particles in the fine and sub-micrometric fractions (i.e., PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) very likely originated by common anthropogenic sources. Moreover, PM2.5 and PM1 daily mass concentrations were characterized by a slightly increasing trend that could be related to the contribution of local sources, such as the crude oil pre-treatment plant, whose combustion processes also produce the emission of particles mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges. The integrated use of model forecasts, satellite observations and in-situ measurements shows that the only PM10 exceedance was affected by the contribution of Saharan dust, while the three PM2.5 exceedances were mainly due to local anthropogenic sources. Finally, the analysis of the PM10 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) values shows that air quality was always “good” with respect to PM10 and “moderate” with respect to PM2.5 suggesting that fine particles, if they will be not kept under control, should represent a real problem also posing health risks to the population living close to the crude oil pre-treatment plant.

  2. Anthropic changes to the biotic factor of soil formation from forests to managed grasslands along summits of the western Pyrenees Mountains, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, David; Gragson, Theodore

    2017-04-01

    conductivity tests. Pedogenically, the pastured soils indicate that melanization processes have been much more pronounced than in the forested soils. Distinct changes in soil materials result from conversion to pasture. Significantly more black carbon (including macro-charcoal) appears to be present in the pastured soils, indicating that it plays an important role in melanization, in addition to long-term sequestration of carbon. Pastured soils contain greater contents of amorphous silica due to more rapid phytolith production from grasses as opposed to trees. Pastures register significantly higher soil magnetic susceptibility than forests, presumably from past use of fire. In essence, anthropic manipulation of the biotic factor of pedogenesis has created new soil materials, processes, and functions. Our current research involves radiocarbon and chronostratigraphy to establish rates of this anthropisation of the biotic factor.

  3. The effect of morphometric atlas selection on multi-atlas-based automatic brachial plexus segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Velde, Joris; Wouters, Johan; Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Achten, Eric; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to measure the effect of a morphometric atlas selection strategy on the accuracy of multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation using the commercially available software package ADMIRE® and to determine the optimal number of selected atlases to use. Autosegmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all generated automatic BP segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard segmentations that were developed using cadavers. Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases were included in the study. One atlas was selected as a patient in ADMIRE®, and multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation was first performed with a group of morphometrically preselected atlases. In this group, the atlases were selected on the basis of similarity in the shoulder protraction position with the patient. The number of selected atlases used started at two and increased up to eight. Subsequently, a group of randomly chosen, non-selected atlases were taken. In this second group, every possible combination of 2 to 8 random atlases was used for multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation. For both groups, the average Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), Jaccard index (JI) and Inclusion index (INI) were calculated, measuring the similarity of the generated automatic BP segmentations and the gold standard segmentation. Similarity indices of both groups were compared using an independent sample t-test, and the optimal number of selected atlases was investigated using an equivalence trial. For each number of atlases, average similarity indices of the morphometrically selected atlas group were significantly higher than the random group (p < 0,05). In this study, the highest similarity indices were achieved using multi-atlas autosegmentation with 6 selected atlases (average DSC = 0,598; average JI = 0,434; average INI = 0,733). Morphometric atlas selection on the basis of the protraction position of the patient significantly improves multi-atlas-based BP autosegmentation accuracy

  4. Selective Laser Sintering of PA2200: Effects of print parameters on density, accuracy, and surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Additive manufacturing needs a broader selection of materials for part production. In order for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to investigate new materials for selective laser sintering (SLS), this paper reviews research on the effect of print parameters on part density, accuracy, and surface roughness of polyamide 12 (PA12, PA2200). The literature review serves to enhance the understanding of how changing the laser powder, scan speed, etc. will affect the mechanical properties of a commercial powder. By doing so, this understanding will help the investigation of new materials for SLS.

  5. Effects of fading and spatial correlation on node selection for estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Murad, Tamim M.

    2010-06-01

    In densely deployed sensor networks, correlation among measurements may be high. Spatial sampling through node selection is usually used to minimize this correlation and to save energy consumption. However because of the fading nature of the wireless channels, extra care should be taken when performing this sampling. In this paper, we develop expressions for the distortion which include the channel effects. The asymptotic behavior of the distortion as the number of sensors or total transmit power increase without bound is also investigated. Further, based on the channel and position information we propose and test several node selection schemes.

  6. Polymorphic genes of major effect: consequences for variation, selection and evolution in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Heath, Katy D; Brock, Marcus T; Schmitt, Johanna

    2009-07-01

    The importance of genes of major effect for evolutionary trajectories within and among natural populations has long been the subject of intense debate. For example, if allelic variation at a major-effect locus fundamentally alters the structure of quantitative trait variation, then fixation of a single locus can have rapid and profound effects on the rate or direction of subsequent evolutionary change. Using an Arabidopsis thaliana RIL mapping population, we compare G-matrix structure between lines possessing different alleles at ERECTA, a locus known to affect ecologically relevant variation in plant architecture. We find that the allele present at ERECTA significantly alters G-matrix structure-in particular the genetic correlations between branch number and flowering time traits-and may also modulate the strength of natural selection on these traits. Despite these differences, however, when we extend our analysis to determine how evolution might differ depending on the ERECTA allele, we find that predicted responses to selection are similar. To compare responses to selection between allele classes, we developed a resampling strategy that incorporates uncertainty in estimates of selection that can also be used for statistical comparisons of G matrices.

  7. Geography, assortative mating, and the effects of sexual selection on speciation with gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servedio, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research on the evolution of reproductive isolation have both indicated that the effects of sexual selection on speciation with gene flow are quite complex. As part of this special issue on the contributions of women to basic and applied evolutionary biology, I discuss my work on this question in the context of a broader assessment of the patterns of sexual selection that lead to, versus inhibit, the speciation process, as derived from theoretical research. In particular, I focus on how two factors, the geographic context of speciation and the mechanism leading to assortative mating, interact to alter the effect that sexual selection through mate choice has on speciation. I concentrate on two geographic contexts: sympatry and secondary contact between two geographically separated populations that are exchanging migrants and two mechanisms of assortative mating: phenotype matching and separate preferences and traits. I show that both of these factors must be considered for the effects of sexual selection on speciation to be inferred.

  8. EFFECT OF RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND MOTIVATION TO PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES AT DATACOMM DIANGRAHA COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut R Sudiarditha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the goal is to test empirically the effect of recruitment, selection and motivation of the employee performance at Datacomm Diangraha Company. The samples used were employees of Datacomm Diangraha especially the engineers with the total number of respondents was 126. The analysis used a linear regression, this research examines four variables: Recruitment (X1, Selection (X2 and Motivation (X3 as independent variables, and Performance employees (Y as the dependent variable. Partial test shows that the recruitment effect of 0175 (positive and significant on the performance. While the selection is also influenced significantly by 0347 on employee performance. And further motivation for 0295 was a significant influence on employee performance.Measurement model analysis in this study showed that all variables have met the criteria of validity and reliability, while at the structural model analysis shows that testing of hypotheses H1, H2, and H3 supports the hypothesis proposed. The resulting model of the independent variables and the effect on the dependent variable is Y = 16,408 + 0175 0347 X1 + X2 + X3 0295. The study concluded that the recruitment, selection and motivation affect the performance of employees with the results affect the performance of 95%, while 5% is determined by other variables.

  9. Improving observational study estimates of treatment effects using joint modeling of selection effects and outcomes: the case of AAA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A James; Cotterill, Philip; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Landon, Bruce E

    2011-12-01

    When 2 treatment approaches are available, there are likely to be unmeasured confounders that influence choice of procedure, which complicates estimation of the causal effect of treatment on outcomes using observational data. To estimate the effect of endovascular (endo) versus open surgical (open) repair, including possible modification by institutional volume, on survival after treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm, accounting for observed and unobserved confounding variables. Observational study of data from the Medicare program using a joint model of treatment selection and survival given treatment to estimate the effects of type of surgery and institutional volume on survival. We studied 61,414 eligible repairs of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms during 2001 to 2004. The outcome, perioperative death, is defined as in-hospital death or death within 30 days of operation. The key predictors are use of endo, transformed endo and open volume, and endo-volume interactions. There is strong evidence of nonrandom selection of treatment with potential confounding variables including institutional volume and procedure date, variables not typically adjusted for in clinical trials. The best fitting model included heterogeneous transformations of endo volume for endo cases and open volume for open cases as predictors. Consistent with our hypothesis, accounting for unmeasured selection reduced the mortality benefit of endo. The effect of endo versus open surgery varies nonlinearly with endo and open volume. Accounting for institutional experience and unmeasured selection enables better decision-making by physicians making treatment referrals, investigators evaluating treatments, and policy makers.

  10. Treatment selection in a randomized clinical trial via covariate-specific treatment effect curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunbei; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2017-02-01

    For time-to-event data in a randomized clinical trial, we proposed two new methods for selecting an optimal treatment for a patient based on the covariate-specific treatment effect curve, which is used to represent the clinical utility of a predictive biomarker. To select an optimal treatment for a patient with a specific biomarker value, we proposed pointwise confidence intervals for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between covariate-specific treatment effect curves of two treatments. Furthermore, to select an optimal treatment for a future biomarker-defined subpopulation of patients, we proposed confidence bands for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between each pair of covariate-specific treatment effect curve over a fixed interval of biomarker values. We constructed the confidence bands based on a resampling technique. We also conducted simulation studies to evaluate finite-sample properties of the proposed estimation methods. Finally, we illustrated the application of the proposed method in a real-world data set.

  11. Mediators of Effects of a Selective Family-Focused Violence Prevention Approach for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parenting and family characteristics targeted in a selective prevention program mediated effects on key youth proximal outcomes related to violence perpetration. The selective intervention was evaluated within the context of a multi-site trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to four conditions: a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, a selective family-focused intervention with a subset of high-risk students, a condition combining these two interventions, and a no-intervention control condition. Two cohorts of sixth-grade students (total N=1,062) exhibiting high levels of aggression and social influence were the sample for this study. Analyses of pre-post change compared to controls using intent-to-treat analyses found no significant effects. However, estimates incorporating participation of those assigned to the intervention and predicted participation among those not assigned revealed significant positive effects on student aggression, use of aggressive strategies for conflict management, and parental estimation of student’s valuing of achievement. Findings also indicated intervention effects on two targeted family processes: discipline practices and family cohesion. Mediation analyses found evidence that change in these processes mediated effects on some outcomes, notably aggressive behavior and valuing of school achievement. Results support the notion that changing parenting practices and the quality of family relationships can prevent the escalation in aggression and maintain positive school engagement for high-risk youth. PMID:21932067

  12. Selective attention modulates visual and haptic repetition priming: effects in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Heller, Morton A

    2008-08-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of selective attention at encoding on repetition priming in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients for objects presented visually (experiment 1) or haptically (experiment 2). We used a repetition priming paradigm combined with a selective attention procedure at encoding. Reliable priming was found for both young adults and healthy older participants for visually presented pictures (experiment 1) as well as for haptically presented objects (experiment 2). However, this was only found for attended and not for unattended stimuli. The results suggest that independently of the perceptual modality, repetition priming requires attention at encoding and that perceptual facilitation is maintained in normal aging. However, AD patients did not show priming for attended stimuli, or for unattended visual or haptic objects. These findings suggest an early deficit of selective attention in AD. Results are discussed from a cognitive neuroscience approach.

  13. Selection and Mode Effects in Risk Preference Elicitation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; van Soest, Arthur; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2008-01-01

    experiment is drastically below that of the representative sample in the Internet experiment, and average risk aversion is also lower. Considering the student-like subsample of the Internet subjects and comparing a traditional lab design with an Internet-like design in the lab gives two ways to decompose......We combine data from a risk preference elicitation experiment conducted on a representative sample via the Internet with laboratory data on students for the same experiment to investigate effects of implementation mode and of subject pool selection. We find that the frequency of errors in the lab...... shows that these processes are selective in selecting subjects who make fewer errors, but do not lead to biased conclusions on risk preferences. These findings point at the usefulness of the Internet survey as an alternative to a student pool in the laboratory if the ambition is to use the experiments...

  14. Propagated failure analysis for non-repairable systems considering both global and selective effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chaonan; Xing Liudong; Levitin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for the reliability analysis of non-repairable binary systems subject to competing failure propagation and failure isolation events with both global and selective failure effects. A propagated failure that originates from a system component causes extensive damage to the rest of the system. Global effect happens when the propagated failure causes the entire system to fail; whereas selective effect happens when the propagated failure causes only failure of a subset of system components. In both cases, the failure propagation that originates from some system components (referred to as dependent components) can be isolated because of functional dependence between the dependent components and a component that prevents the failure propagation (trigger components) when the failure of the trigger component happens before the occurrence of the propagated failure. Most existing studies focus on the analysis of propagated failures with global effect. However, in many cases, propagated failures affect only a subset of system components not the entire system. Existing approaches for analyzing propagated failures with selective effect are limited to series-parallel systems. This paper proposes a combinatorial method for the propagated failure analysis considering both global and selective effects as well as the competition with the failure isolation in the time domain. The proposed method is not limited to series-parallel systems and has no limitation on the type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components. The method is verified using the Markov-based method. An example of computer memory systems is analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

  15. Effective Sensor Selection and Data Anomaly Detection for Condition Monitoring of Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liansheng Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a complex system, condition monitoring (CM can collect the system working status. The condition is mainly sensed by the pre-deployed sensors in/on the system. Most existing works study how to utilize the condition information to predict the upcoming anomalies, faults, or failures. There is also some research which focuses on the faults or anomalies of the sensing element (i.e., sensor to enhance the system reliability. However, existing approaches ignore the correlation between sensor selecting strategy and data anomaly detection, which can also improve the system reliability. To address this issue, we study a new scheme which includes sensor selection strategy and data anomaly detection by utilizing information theory and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR. The sensors that are more appropriate for the system CM are first selected. Then, mutual information is utilized to weight the correlation among different sensors. The anomaly detection is carried out by using the correlation of sensor data. The sensor data sets that are utilized to carry out the evaluation are provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Ames Research Center and have been used as Prognostics and Health Management (PHM challenge data in 2008. By comparing the two different sensor selection strategies, the effectiveness of selection method on data anomaly detection is proved.

  16. The role of interviewers in job effective recruitment and selection processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola O. Odeku

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Interview processes are dynamic and sometimes very sensitive and as such, they need to be managed effectively and efficiently by evaluating applicants equally without showing favour or prejudice prior, during and until all processes have been completed. A lot of interview processes for purposes of appointment selections have been tainted with unethical practices where the panellists, who took part in the processes, displayed various forms of partisanship, prejudices and so on. Sometimes, a selector may have premeditated negative mind set towards an applicant which may be evidenced during the interview. This may impact on the reasoning and judgements of the selector and the panellists, thus influencing the decisions of the selector. A brilliant and well performed applicant may be found unqualified Ineffective selection and recruitment processes are increasingly affecting employers by denting their cooperate image and sometimes being subjected to vicious legal battles in courts. This article examines the problems associated with prejudices and unethical practices during selection processes particularly by the recruiters and selectors. It points out that panellists must be properly scrutinised before they are appointed to be part of any selection process and that they should disclose any interest, prejudices, bias and so on that could affect the outcome of the process. It is argued that any member of the panel who is found to have compromised his or her position in any selection processes should be punitively sanctioned.

  17. Individual Alpha Peak Frequency Predicts 10 Hz Flicker Effects on Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; van Viegen, Tara; Wieling, Martijn; Cohen, Michael X; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-10-18

    Rhythmic visual stimulation ("flicker") is primarily used to "tag" processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain rhythms. Here we tested the interaction between 10 Hz flicker and endogenous alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations during a selective visuospatial attention task. We recorded EEG from human participants (both genders) while they performed a modified Eriksen flanker task in which distractors and targets flickered within (10 Hz) or outside (7.5 or 15 Hz) the alpha band. By using a combination of EEG source separation, time-frequency, and single-trial linear mixed-effects modeling, we demonstrate that 10 Hz flicker interfered with stimulus processing more on incongruent than congruent trials (high vs low selective attention demands). Crucially, the effect of 10 Hz flicker on task performance was predicted by the distance between 10 Hz and individual alpha peak frequency (estimated during the task). Finally, the flicker effect on task performance was more strongly predicted by EEG flicker responses during stimulus processing than during preparation for the upcoming stimulus, suggesting that 10 Hz flicker interfered more with reactive than proactive selective attention. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that visual flicker entrained endogenous alpha-band networks, which in turn impaired task performance. Our findings also provide novel evidence for frequency-dependent exogenous modulation of cognition that is determined by the correspondence between the exogenous flicker frequency and the endogenous brain rhythms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we provide novel evidence that the interaction between exogenous rhythmic visual stimulation and endogenous brain rhythms can have frequency-specific behavioral effects. We show that alpha-band (10 Hz) flicker impairs stimulus

  18. Plant selection and soil legacy enhance long-term biodiversity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Flynn, Dan F B; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Petermann, Jana S; Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Plant-plant and plant-soil interactions can help maintain plant diversity and ecosystem functions. Changes in these interactions may underlie experimentally observed increases in biodiversity effects over time via the selection of genotypes adapted to low or high plant diversity. Little is known, however, about such community-history effects and particularly the role of plant-soil interactions in this process. Soil-legacy effects may occur if co-evolved interactions with soil communities either positively or negatively modify plant biodiversity effects. We tested how plant selection and soil legacy influence biodiversity effects on productivity, and whether such effects increase the resistance of the communities to invasion by weeds. We used two plant selection treatments: parental plants growing in monoculture or in mixture over 8 yr in a grassland biodiversity experiment in the field, which we term monoculture types and mixture types. The two soil-legacy treatments used in this study were neutral soil inoculated with live or sterilized soil inocula collected from the same plots in the biodiversity experiment. For each of the four factorial combinations, seedlings of eight species were grown in monocultures or four-species mixtures in pots in an experimental garden over 15 weeks. Soil legacy (live inoculum) strongly increased biodiversity complementarity effects for communities of mixture types, and to a significantly weaker extent for communities of monoculture types. This may be attributed to negative plant-soil feedbacks suffered by mixture types in monocultures, whereas monoculture types had positive plant-soil feedbacks, in both monocultures and mixtures. Monocultures of mixture types were most strongly invaded by weeds, presumably due to increased pathogen susceptibility, reduced biomass, and altered plant-soil interactions of mixture types. These results show that biodiversity effects in experimental grassland communities can be modified by the evolution of

  19. Effect of selection and gamma-irradiation on fecundity in Tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.P.; Raheja, K.L.; Verma, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the joint effect of selection and gamma irradiation on a polygenic trait like egg production in Tribolium castaneum, a 3 x 3 x 2 fractorial experiment with 3 levels of selection, viz. O, high (S 1 ), and low (S 2 ); 3 levels of irradiation, viz. 0,1 1500R (R 1 ) 2300R(R 2 ); and 2 replicates with 24 females in each cell, was set up. The data were collected on 721 females of parental generation subjected to selection and radiation and the subsequent progeny generation. A significant divergence of 11.6 eggs were observed due to high and low selection methods. There was no difference between control and R 1 radiation dose. The R 2 radiation dose depressed the egg production of the progeny significantly. There was a linear decrease in egg number in the progeny with an increase in dose level of radiation in parents; this is indicative of significant number of gene mutations effecting a quantitative trait like egg production. It is suggested that reduction in fecundity in the progeny of parents subjected to gamma-irradiation can possibly arise due to either (i) molecular rearrangement at a point on the chromosome leading to gene mutation or (ii) chromosome breakage with subsequent rearrangement of gene position or both. (author)

  20. Vacuum selection on the string landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetteh-Lartey, Edward

    2007-01-01

    I examine some nonanthropic approaches to the string landscape. These approaches are based on finding the initial conditions of the universe using the wave function of the multiverse to select the most probable vacuum out of this landscape. All approaches tackled so far seem to have their own problems and there is no clear-cut alternative to anthropic reasoning. I suggest that finding the initial conditions may be irrelevant since all possible vacua on the landscape are possible initial state conditions and eternal inflation could generate all the other vacua. We are now left to reason out why we are observing the small value of the cosmological constant. I address this issue in the context of noncritical string theory in which all values of the cosmological constant on the landscape are departures from the critical equilibrium state

  1. Benzazepines: Structure-activity relationships between D1 receptor blockade and selected pharmacological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, L.C.; Billiard, W.; Gold, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter describes the displacement of 3 H-23390 and 3 H-spiperone binding by dopamine agonists and antagonists. The authors undertook an evaluation of the ability of selected analogs of SCH 23390 to displace 3 H-SCH 23390 and 3 H-spiperone. Structure-activity relationships of SCH 23390 analogs: 7-position substituents, is shown. It is shown that, in general, benzazepines with a variety of substituents in the 7-position retain their selectivity for D 1 sites. Substituents at the 8-position and at the N-position are also discussed. The authors determine a correlation between displacement of 3 H-SCH 23390 and blockade of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (DSAC). These effects and inhibition of conditioned avoidance responsing (CAS) in rats was also studied. A detailed evaluation is presented of the effects of SCH 23390 and haloperidol in the Inclined Screen and CAR tests

  2. [Violent video games and aggression: long-term impact and selection effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control.

  3. Determination of Effective Criteria for Location Selection of Kiln Wood Drying Plants by AHP Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Mohebbi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the effective criteria for location selection of wood drying plants in Iran. For this purpose, after review and field visit of the industries, 35 key indicators were identified. These criteria were divided into five major groups as: materials, infrastructure, technical, economical and instructional indices. The priority rates of these criteria and sub-criteria were evaluated by AHP technique. The results indicated that among 35 effective sub-criteria in location selection of the plants, the sub-criteria of quality of raw materials(0.152, purchasing raw materials, land cost, profitability, reliability of supply, and sales had the highest priorities, which were rated as 0.118, 0.105, 0.067, 0.061 and 0.057, respectively

  4. Consistency in Estimation and Model Selection of Dynamic Panel Data Models with Fixed Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjie Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between consistent parameter estimation and model selection for autoregressive panel data models with fixed effects. We find that the transformation of fixed effects proposed by Lancaster (2002 does not necessarily lead to consistent estimation of common parameters when some true exogenous regressors are excluded. We propose a data dependent way to specify the prior of the autoregressive coefficient and argue for comparing different model specifications before parameter estimation. Model selection properties of Bayes factors and Bayesian information criterion (BIC are investigated. When model uncertainty is substantial, we recommend the use of Bayesian Model Averaging to obtain point estimators with lower root mean squared errors (RMSE. We also study the implications of different levels of inclusion probabilities by simulations.

  5. Antiproliferative Effects of Selected Chemotherapeutics in Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Caltová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effect of selected cytostatics on a human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 as a model system for ovarian cancer treatment. This cell line is considered cisplatin-sensitive. Panel of tested cytostatics included cisplatin, paclitaxel, carboplatin, gemcitabine, topotecan and etoposide. These cytostatics have a different mechanism of action. To evaluate cytotoxic potential of the tested compounds, the methods measuring various toxicological endpoints were employed including morphological studies, MTT assay, dynamic monitoring of cell proliferation with xCELLigence, cell cycle analysis, caspase 3 activity and expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and cell death. The A270 cell line showed different sensitivity towards the selected cytostatics, the highest cytotoxic effect was associated with paclitaxel and topotecan.

  6. Time-of-day effects in implicit racial in-group preferences are likely selection effects, not circadian rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Schofield

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-day effects in human psychological functioning have been known of since the 1800s. However, outside of research specifically focused on the quantification of circadian rhythms, their study has largely been neglected. Moves toward online data collection now mean that psychological investigations take place around the clock, which affords researchers the ability to easily study time-of-day effects. Recent analyses have shown, for instance, that implicit attitudes have time-of-day effects. The plausibility that these effects indicate circadian rhythms rather than selection effects is considered in the current study. There was little evidence that the time-of-day effects in implicit attitudes shifted appropriately with factors known to influence the time of circadian rhythms. Moreover, even variables that cannot logically show circadian rhythms demonstrated stronger time-of-day effects than did implicit attitudes. Taken together, these results suggest that time-of-day effects in implicit attitudes are more likely to represent processes of selection rather than circadian rhythms, but do not rule out the latter possibility.

  7. Time-of-day effects in implicit racial in-group preferences are likely selection effects, not circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Time-of-day effects in human psychological functioning have been known of since the 1800s. However, outside of research specifically focused on the quantification of circadian rhythms, their study has largely been neglected. Moves toward online data collection now mean that psychological investigations take place around the clock, which affords researchers the ability to easily study time-of-day effects. Recent analyses have shown, for instance, that implicit attitudes have time-of-day effects. The plausibility that these effects indicate circadian rhythms rather than selection effects is considered in the current study. There was little evidence that the time-of-day effects in implicit attitudes shifted appropriately with factors known to influence the time of circadian rhythms. Moreover, even variables that cannot logically show circadian rhythms demonstrated stronger time-of-day effects than did implicit attitudes. Taken together, these results suggest that time-of-day effects in implicit attitudes are more likely to represent processes of selection rather than circadian rhythms, but do not rule out the latter possibility.

  8. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  9. The Healthy Immigrant Effect and Immigrant Selection: Evidence from Four Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Kennedy; James Ted McDonald; Nicholas Biddle

    2006-01-01

    The existence of a healthy immigrant effect – where immigrants are on average healthier than the native-born – is now a well accepted phenomenon. There are many competing explanations for this phenomenon including health screening by recipient countries, healthy behaviour prior to migration followed by the steady adoption of new country (less) healthy behaviours, and immigrant self-selection where healthier and wealthier people tend to be migrants. We explore the last two of these explanation...

  10. The Effect of an Authentic Acute Physical Education Session of Dance on Elementary Students’ Selective Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Kulinna, P. H.; Stylianou, M.; Dyson, B.; Banville, D.; Dryden, C.; Colby, R.

    2018-01-01

    There have been calls to test the potential benefits of different forms of physical activity (PA) to executive function, particularly in authentic settings. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute dance session within an existing physical education class on students’ selective attention. The study employed a pre/posttest quasi-experimental design with a comparison group in one Aotearoa, New Zealand, primary school. Participants were 192 students (comparison ...

  11. Effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on prefrontal gamma activity and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Rosales-Lagarde, A; del Río-Portilla, Y; Sifuentes-Ortega, R; Alcántara-Quintero, B

    2015-05-01

    Given that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions and is deactivated and decoupled from posterior associative regions during REM sleep, that Gamma temporal coupling involved in information processing is enhanced during REM sleep, and that adult humans spend about 90 min of every 24h in REM sleep, it might be expected that REM sleep deprivation would modify Gamma temporal coupling and have a deteriorating effect on executive functions. We analyzed EEG Gamma activity and temporal coupling during implementation of a rule-guided task before and after REM sleep deprivation and its effect on verbal fluency, flexible thinking and selective attention. After two nights in the laboratory for adaptation, on the third night subjects (n=18) were randomly assigned to either selective REM sleep deprivation effectuated by awakening them at each REM sleep onset or, the same number of NREM sleep awakenings as a control for unspecific effects of sleep interruptions. Implementation of abstract rules to guide behavior required greater activation and synchronization of Gamma activity in the frontopolar regions after REM sleep reduction from 20.6% at baseline to just 3.93% of total sleep time. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups showed an overall improvement in executive task performance and no effect on their capacity to sustain selective attention. These results suggest that after one night of selective REM sleep deprivation executive functions can be compensated by increasing frontal activation and they still require the participation of supervisory control by frontopolar regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of selected parameters of the honing process on cylinder liner surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlus, P; Dzierwa, A; Michalski, J; Reizer, R; Wieczorowski, M; Majchrowski, R

    2014-01-01

    Many truck cylinder liners made from gray cast iron were machined. Ceramic and diamond honing stones were used in the last stages of operation: coarse honing and plateau honing. The effect of honing parameters on the cylinder liner surface topography was studied. Selected surface topography parameters were response variables. It was found that parameters from the Sq group were sensitive to honing parameter change. When plateau honing time varied, the Smq parameter increased, while the other parameters, Spq and Svq, were stable. (papers)

  13. The effects of globalization on firm’s stock in the selected Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Haghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to survey the effects of economic globalization on the firm’s stock that is measured by the index of the stock market by using panel data in selected countries in Asia (Iran, Saudi Arabia, India, China, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, South Korea, Russia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka during 1997- 2013. Unit root tests indicate that the variables are stationary on the level. The results of F-test, Breusch-Pagan and Hausman tests show that the unilateral fixed effects must be applied. The results show that the economic globalization significantly improves stock market index. Moreover the positive and significant effect on the firm’s stock depend on political globalization and dummy variable, however the negative and significant effect is related to the growth rate of government expenditure, the exchange rate and the interaction effects of economy.

  14. Inhibitory effects of selected Turkish spices and oregano components on some foodborne fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, A; Kivanç, M

    1988-05-01

    The inhibitory effects of 10 selected Turkish spices, oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol towards growth of 9 foodborne fungi were investigated in culture media with pH 3.5 and 5.5. The antifungal effects of sodium chloride, sorbic acid and sodium benzoate and the combined use of oregano with sodium chloride were also tested under the same conditions for comparison. Of the spices tested, only sodium chloride were also tested under the same conditions for comparison. Of the spices tested, only oregano at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% (w/v) levels showed effect on all fungi. 8% (w/v) sodium chloride was less effective than oregano. Oregano essential oil, thymol or carvacrol at concentrations of 0.025% and 0.05% completely inhibited the growth of all fungi, showing greater inhibition than sorbic acid at the same concentrations. The combined use of oregano and sodium chloride exhibited a synergistic antifungal effect.

  15. The Effect of an Authentic Acute Physical Education Session of Dance on Elementary Students' Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinna, P H; Stylianou, M; Dyson, B; Banville, D; Dryden, C; Colby, R

    2018-01-01

    There have been calls to test the potential benefits of different forms of physical activity (PA) to executive function, particularly in authentic settings. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute dance session within an existing physical education class on students' selective attention. The study employed a pre/posttest quasi-experimental design with a comparison group in one Aotearoa, New Zealand, primary school. Participants were 192 students (comparison group = 104 students) in Years 5 and 6. The intervention group participated in a dance-based physical education lesson while the comparison group continued their regular classroom work. PA during the physical education lesson was monitored using accelerometers. Selective attention was assessed at pretest and after the comparison/physical education sessions with the d2 Test of Attention. 2 × 2 ANOVA results suggested a significant time effect for all three measures, no significant group effects for any measures, and significant time by group interactions for TN and CP but not for E %. The intervention group improved significantly more than the comparison group for TN and CP. This study's findings suggest that existing school opportunities focused on cognitively engaging PA, such as dance, can improve aspects of students' selective attention.

  16. The Effect of an Authentic Acute Physical Education Session of Dance on Elementary Students’ Selective Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Kulinna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been calls to test the potential benefits of different forms of physical activity (PA to executive function, particularly in authentic settings. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute dance session within an existing physical education class on students’ selective attention. The study employed a pre/posttest quasi-experimental design with a comparison group in one Aotearoa, New Zealand, primary school. Participants were 192 students (comparison group = 104 students in Years 5 and 6. The intervention group participated in a dance-based physical education lesson while the comparison group continued their regular classroom work. PA during the physical education lesson was monitored using accelerometers. Selective attention was assessed at pretest and after the comparison/physical education sessions with the d2 Test of Attention. 2 × 2 ANOVA results suggested a significant time effect for all three measures, no significant group effects for any measures, and significant time by group interactions for TN and CP but not for E%. The intervention group improved significantly more than the comparison group for TN and CP. This study’s findings suggest that existing school opportunities focused on cognitively engaging PA, such as dance, can improve aspects of students’ selective attention.

  17. The effect of mis-specification on mean and selection between the Weibull and lognormal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiang; Nadarajah, Saralees; Guo, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The lognormal and Weibull models are commonly used to analyse data. Although selection procedures have been extensively studied, it is possible that the lognormal model could be selected when the true model is Weibull or vice versa. As the mean is important in applications, we focus on the effect of mis-specification on mean. The effect on lognormal mean is first considered if the lognormal sample is wrongly fitted by a Weibull model. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) and quasi-MLE (QMLE) of lognormal mean are obtained based on lognormal and Weibull models. Then, the impact is evaluated by computing ratio of biases and ratio of mean squared errors (MSEs) between MLE and QMLE. For completeness, the theoretical results are demonstrated by simulation studies. Next, the effect of the reverse mis-specification on Weibull mean is discussed. It is found that the ratio of biases and the ratio of MSEs are independent of the location and scale parameters of the lognormal and Weibull models. The influence could be ignored if some special conditions hold. Finally, a model selection method is proposed by comparing ratios concerning biases and MSEs. We also present a published data to illustrate the study in this paper.

  18. Effect of photo-selective nettings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds in selected tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selahle, Maphoko Kamogelo; Sivakumar, Dharini; Soundy, Puffy

    2014-08-01

    Photo-selective coloured netting is referred to as a 'new agro-technological' concept adopted to manipulate light quality changes that can induce favourable responses in plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars AlvaV, Irit and SCX 248 grown under the black net (commercial net, 25% shading) showed higher weight loss, loss of firmness, ascorbic acid content and decline in the ratio of soluble solids content/titrable acidity during post-harvest storage (low-temperature storage at 10°C and 90% relative humidity for 21 days followed by market shelf conditions at 25°C for 2 days). During post-harvest storage, lycopene, β-carotene, total phenolic content and antioxidant scavenging activity were higher in cvs AlfaV and Irit grown under the black or pearl nets. However, the β-carotene, total phenolic content and antioxidant scavenging activity were higher in SCX 248 grown under the red net during post-harvest storage. Cultivar AlfaV grown under the red and pearl nets had a higher number of odour active aroma compounds during post-harvest storage. Panellists preferred cv. AlfaV grown under the pearl nets after storage based on taste, overall appearance and firm textured fruits. Pearl photo-selective nets retained the overall fruit quality and bioactive components in cvs AlfaV and Irit during post-harvest storage. Red photo-selective nets, however, showed greater influence on retention of overall fruit quality and bioactive compounds in cv. SCX 248 during post-harvest storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Supernovae - A new selection effect. [statistical distribution in and radial distance from center of parent galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of 228 supernovae that occurred in galaxies with known redshifts is used to show that the mean projected linear supernova distance from the center of the parent galaxy increases with increasing redshift. This effect is interpreted as an observational bias: the discovery rate of supernovae is reduced in the inner parts of distant, poorly resolved galaxies. Even under the optimistic assumption that no selection effects work in galaxies closer than 33 Mpc, about 50% of all supernovae are lost in the inner regions of galaxies beyond 150 Mpc. This observational bias must be taken into account in the derivation of statistical properties of supernovae.

  20. Selective potentiation of the antitumor radiation effect by means of short-term hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmonenko, S.P.; Shapot, V.S.; Voloshina, E.A.; Gorozhanskaya, Eh.G.; Dyuskaliev, Zh.D.; Krimker, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on mice have shown that short-term induced hyperglycemia caused by 5-fold intraperitoneal administration of glucose at a dose of 2.6 and 1.3 g/kg increases notably the radiation injury to a solid type of Ehrlich carcinoma. Short-term induced hyperglycemia is mostly effective after irradiation. During irradiation together with its antitumor effect enhanced in the presence of short-term induced hyperglycemia there is observed selective protection of the normal tissues resulting from a decrease of oxygen pressure in them

  1. Predictive and Descriptive CoMFA Models: The Effect of Variable Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Bakhtyar; Omidikia, Nematollah; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Ghavami, Raouf

    2018-01-01

    Aims & Scope: In this research, 8 variable selection approaches were used to investigate the effect of variable selection on the predictive power and stability of CoMFA models. Three data sets including 36 EPAC antagonists, 79 CD38 inhibitors and 57 ATAD2 bromodomain inhibitors were modelled by CoMFA. First of all, for all three data sets, CoMFA models with all CoMFA descriptors were created then by applying each variable selection method a new CoMFA model was developed so for each data set, 9 CoMFA models were built. Obtained results show noisy and uninformative variables affect CoMFA results. Based on created models, applying 5 variable selection approaches including FFD, SRD-FFD, IVE-PLS, SRD-UVEPLS and SPA-jackknife increases the predictive power and stability of CoMFA models significantly. Among them, SPA-jackknife removes most of the variables while FFD retains most of them. FFD and IVE-PLS are time consuming process while SRD-FFD and SRD-UVE-PLS run need to few seconds. Also applying FFD, SRD-FFD, IVE-PLS, SRD-UVE-PLS protect CoMFA countor maps information for both fields. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Effect of individual thinking styles on item selection during study time allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Weijian; Cao, Liren; Li, Ping; Shi, Meiling; Wang, Jingjing; Cao, Wei; Li, Xinyu

    2018-04-01

    The influence of individual differences on learners' study time allocation has been emphasised in recent studies; however, little is known about the role of individual thinking styles (analytical versus intuitive). In the present study, we explored the influence of individual thinking styles on learners' application of agenda-based and habitual processes when selecting the first item during a study-time allocation task. A 3-item cognitive reflection test (CRT) was used to determine individuals' degree of cognitive reliance on intuitive versus analytical cognitive processing. Significant correlations between CRT scores and the choices of first item selection were observed in both Experiment 1a (study time was 5 seconds per triplet) and Experiment 1b (study time was 20 seconds per triplet). Furthermore, analytical decision makers constructed a value-based agenda (prioritised high-reward items), whereas intuitive decision makers relied more upon habitual responding (selected items from the leftmost of the array). The findings of Experiment 1a were replicated in Experiment 2 notwithstanding ruling out the possible effects from individual intelligence and working memory capacity. Overall, the individual thinking style plays an important role on learners' study time allocation and the predictive ability of CRT is reliable in learners' item selection strategy. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Selective hydrogenation of citral over supported Pt catalysts: insight into support effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofeng [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (United States); Hu, Weiming; Deng, Baolin [University of Missouri, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Liang, Xinhua, E-mail: liangxin@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highly dispersed platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited on various substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at 300 °C. The substrates included multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silica gel (SiO{sub 2}), commercial γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ALD-prepared porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The results of TEM analysis showed that ~1.3 nm Pt NPs were highly dispersed on all different supports. All catalysts were used for the reaction of selective hydrogenation of citral to unsaturated alcohols (UA), geraniol, and nerol. Both the structure and acidity of supports affected the activity and selectivity of Pt catalysts. Pt/SiO{sub 2} showed the highest activity due to the strong acidity of SiO{sub 2} and the conversion of citral reached 82% after 12 h with a selectivity of 58% of UA. Pt/MWCNTs showed the highest selectivity of UA, which reached 65% with a conversion of 38% due to its unique structure and electronic effect. The cycling experiments indicated that Pt/MWCNTs and Pt/ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were more stable than Pt/SiO{sub 2}, as a result of the different interactions between the Pt NPs and the supports.

  4. Effect of adult weight and CT-based selection on rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the meat quality of different genotypes. Maternal (M; adult weight/AW/=4.0-4.5kg; selected for the number of kits born alive, Pannon White (P; AW=4.3-4.8kg and Large type (L; AW=4.8-5.4kg rabbits were analysed. P and L genotypes were selected for carcass traits based on CT/Computer tomography/data. Rabbits were slaughtered at 11wk of age and hindleg (HL meat and M. Longissimus dorsi (LD were analysed for proximate composition and fatty acid (FA profile. Proximate composition was unaffected by the selection programme, even though the meat of P rabbits was leaner and had higher ash content (P<0.10. The LD meat of P rabbits exhibited significantly lower MUFA contents compared to M and L rabbits (25.4 vs 28.0 vs 27.7%; P<0.01 and higher PUFA content compared to M rabbits (31.9 vs 24.9%; P<0.05. This study revealed that long-term CT-based selection is effective in increasing meat leanness and PUFA content.

  5. Effect of selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Tian Deng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: A total of 68 patients with primary liver cancer who underwent left liver resection in our hospital between May 2012 and August 2015 were selected for study and divided into group A (selective hepatic inflow occlusion of left liver and group B (Prignle hepatic inflow occlusion according to different intraoperative blood occlusion methods, serum was collected before and after operation to determine liver enzyme content, the removed liver tissue was collected to determine energy metabolism indexes, inflammation indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Results: 1 d, 3 d and 5 d after operation, GPT, GOT, GGT, LDH and ALP content in serum of both groups were significantly higher than those before operation, and GPT, GOT, GGT, LDH and ALP content in serum of group A 1 d, 3 d and 5 d after operation were significantly lower than those of group B; ATP, ADP, AMP, PI3K, AKT, GSK3β, T-AOC, PrxI and Trx content in liver tissue of group A were significantly higher than those of group B while PTEN, IL-12p40, MDA and MPO content were significantly lower than those of group B. Conclusions: Selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection can reduce the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury, improve the energy metabolism of liver cells and inhibit inflammation and oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity and effects of selection on cell division symmetry in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttara N Lele

    Full Text Available Aging has been demonstrated in unicellular organisms and is presumably due to asymmetric distribution of damaged proteins and other components during cell division. Whether the asymmetry-induced aging is inevitable or an adaptive and adaptable response is debated. Although asymmetric division leads to aging and death of some cells, it increases the effective growth rate of the population as shown by theoretical and empirical studies. Mathematical models predict on the other hand, that if the cells divide symmetrically, cellular aging may be delayed or absent, growth rate will be reduced but growth yield will increase at optimum repair rates. Therefore in nutritionally dilute (oligotrophic environments, where growth yield may be more critical for survival, symmetric division may get selected. These predictions have not been empirically tested so far. We report here that Escherichia coli grown in oligotrophic environments had greater morphological and functional symmetry in cell division. Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection appeared to shape cell division time asymmetry but plasticity was lost on prolonged selection. Lineages selected on high nutrient concentration showed greater frequency of presumably old or dead cells. Further, there was a negative correlation between cell division time asymmetry and growth yield but there was no significant correlation between asymmetry and growth rate. The results suggest that cellular aging driven by asymmetric division may not be hardwired but shows substantial plasticity as well as evolvability in response to the nutritional environment.

  7. Effect of antimony oxide on magnesium vanadates for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.T.; Chi, Z.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, ROC Taichung (Taiwan)

    2001-05-17

    The effect of antimony oxide addition to MgV{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Mg{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} was studied in the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. Significant improvements in sulfur selectivity and yield were observed for the uncalcined mechanical mixtures of magnesium vanadates with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Calcination of the mechanical mixtures resulted in the much stronger synergy in catalytic activity and sulfur selectivity. For the uncalcined samples, XRD, TPR and XPS studies indicated that antimony reduction behaviors in the mechanical mixtures differed very much from those in {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} alone, suggested that their selectivity improvements might be due to the interactions (probably oxygen transfer) between {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} and magnesium vanadates. For the calcined samples, XRD results indicated that their better catalytic performances in H{sub 2}S oxidation were primarily attributed to the formation of VSbO{sub 4} compound from antimony oxide and magnesium vanadates.

  8. Age-ordered shirt numbering reduces the selection bias associated with the relative age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David L; van Ginneken, Pleun J M A

    2017-04-01

    When placed into age groups for junior sporting competition, the relative differences in age between children leads to a bias in who is evaluated as being talented. While the impact of this relative age effect (RAE) is clear, until now there has been no evidence to show how to reduce it. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selection bias associated with the RAE could be reduced. Talent scouts from an elite football club watched junior games and ranked players on the basis of their potential. Scouts were allocated to one of three groups provided with contrasting information about the age of the players: (1) no age information, (2) players' birthdates or (3) knowledge that the numbers on the playing shirts corresponded to the relative age of the players. Results revealed a significant selection bias for the scouts in the no-age information group, and that bias remained when scouts knew the players' dates-of-birth. Strikingly though, the selection bias was eliminated when scouts watched the games knowing the shirt numbers corresponded to the relative ages of the players. The selection bias associated with the RAE can be reduced if information about age is presented appropriately.

  9. An investigation of the spatial selectivity of the duration after-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarseveen, Jim; Hogendoorn, Hinze; Verstraten, Frans A J; Paffen, Chris L E

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to the duration of a visual stimulus causes the perceived duration of a subsequently presented stimulus with a slightly different duration to be skewed away from the adapted duration. This pattern of repulsion following adaptation is similar to that observed for other visual properties, such as orientation, and is considered evidence for the involvement of duration-selective mechanisms in duration encoding. Here, we investigated whether the encoding of duration - by duration-selective mechanisms - occurs early on in the visual processing hierarchy. To this end, we investigated the spatial specificity of the duration after-effect in two experiments. We measured the duration after-effect at adapter-test distances ranging between 0 and 15° of visual angle and for within- and between-hemifield presentations. We replicated the duration after-effect: the test stimulus was perceived to have a longer duration following adaptation to a shorter duration, and a shorter duration following adaptation to a longer duration. Importantly, this duration after-effect occurred at all measured distances, with no evidence for a decrease in the magnitude of the after-effect at larger distances or across hemifields. This shows that adaptation to duration does not result from adaptation occurring early on in the visual processing hierarchy. Instead, it seems likely that duration information is a high-level stimulus property that is encoded later on in the visual processing hierarchy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Designing Organizational Effectiveness Model of Selected Iraq’s Sporting Federations Based on Competing Values Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Eydi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was designing effectiveness model of selected Iraq sport federations based on competing values framework. Statistical society of present study included 221 subjects ranging from chairmen, expert staffs, national adolescent athletes, and national referees. 180 subjects (81.4 percent answered standard questionnaire of Eydi et al (2011 with five Likert values scale. Content and face validity of this tool was confirmed by 12 academic professors and its reliability was validated by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.97. Results of Structural Equation Model (SEM based on path analysis method showed that factors of expert human resources(0.88, organizational interaction (0.88, productivity (0.87, employees' cohesion (0.84, planning (0.84, organizational stability (0.81, flexibility (0.78, and organizational resources (0.74 had the most effects on organizational effectiveness.Also, findings of factor analysis showed that patterns of internal procedures and rational goals were main patterns of competing values framework and determinants of organizational effectiveness in Iraq's selected sport federations. Moreover, federations of football, track and field, weightlifting, and basketball had the highest mean of organizational effectiveness, respectively. Hence, Iraq sport federations mainly focused on organizational control, and internal attention as index of OE.

  11. Effects of the control method (Goč variety in selection forest management in Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medarević M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The control method, one of the most reliable methods of selection forest management, has been applied in selection forests of western Serbia in a somewhat modified form (Goč variety for fifty years. This paper analyzes the effects of the control method, i.e. its Goč variety, in the period from 1960/70 - 2000. It is based on the data of five successive complete inventories of the Forest Management Unit (FMU 'Tara', whose high selection forest of spruce, fir and beech (Piceo-Abieti-Fagetum subass. typicum trees on diluvium, brown and illimerised soil on limestone, and on limestone in formation with hornfels, are the best quality and the most spacious forests in the Management Class MC 491/1. The effects were monitored through the changes in the distribution of the number of trees and volume per diameter classes, separately for fir as the protagonist of the selection structure, and collectively at the level of a compartment, a typical representative of MC 491/1. Also, the analysis included the changes in the number of trees, volume, current volume increment, yield, and number of recruited trees per unit area (1 ha by tree species in MC 491/1, occupying an area of 2,648.78 ha. The study results show that in the study period the average volume in MC 491/1 increased by 18.8%, the percentage of conifers increased from 66.0% to 78.5%, and the bearer of the changes was fir. The volume of the mean fir tree increased by 35.9% and it attained 1.086 m3. The volume increment increased by 15.7%. The selection structure of conifers was satisfactory, but there were problems with beech regeneration, in its stable presence and in its achievement of the targeted structure. The number of trees per unit area (1 ha decreased, which in the long run could have detrimental consequences, but the sustainability in general was satisfactory. The levels of regeneration and recruitment were satisfactory. The health of the trees was improved; the stands were healthy, vital

  12. The Effect of Carbonaceous Reductant Selection on Chromite Pre-reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, E. L. J.; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Bunt, J. R.; Nkosi, N. S. B.; Venter, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ferrochrome (FeCr) production is an energy-intensive process. Currently, the pelletized chromite pre-reduction process, also referred to as solid-state reduction of chromite, is most likely the FeCr production process with the lowest specific electricity consumption, i.e., MWh/t FeCr produced. In this study, the effects of carbonaceous reductant selection on chromite pre-reduction and cured pellet strength were investigated. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to evaluate the effect of reductant characteristics on the aforementioned two parameters. This yielded mathematical solutions that can be used by FeCr producers to select reductants more optimally in future. Additionally, the results indicated that hydrogen (H)- (24 pct) and volatile content (45.8 pct) were the most significant contributors for predicting variance in pre-reduction and compressive strength, respectively. The role of H within this context is postulated to be linked to the ability of a reductant to release H that can induce reduction. Therefore, contrary to the current operational selection criteria, the authors believe that thermally untreated reductants ( e.g., anthracite, as opposed to coke or char), with volatile contents close to the currently applied specification (to ensure pellet strength), would be optimal, since it would maximize H content that would enhance pre-reduction.

  13. Detecting effects of donepezil on visual selective attention using signal detection parameters in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, Nancy S; White, Richard E C; Schaefer, Lynn A

    2005-05-01

    Attentional function is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, attention is mediated by acetylcholine. But, despite the widespread use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-I) to augment available acetylcholine in AD, measures of attentional function have not been used to assess the drug response. We hypothesized that as cholinergic augmentation impacts directly on the attentional system, higher-order measures of visual selective attention would be sensitive to effects of treatment using an AChE-I (donepezil hydrochloride). We also sought to determine whether these attentional measures were more sensitive to treatment than other measures of cognitive function. Seventeen patients with AD (8 untreated, 9 treated with donepezil) were contrasted on performance of a selective cancellation task. Two signal detection parameters were used as outcome measures: decision strategy (beta, beta) and discriminability (d-prime, d'). Standard screening and cognitive domain measures of vigilance, language, memory, and executive function were also contrasted. Treated patients judged stimuli more conservatively (p = 0.29) by correctly endorsing targets and rejecting false alarms. They also discriminated targets from distractors more easily (p = 0.58). The screening and neuropsychological measures failed to differentiate the groups. Higher-order attentional measures captured the effects of donepezil treatment in small groups of patients with AD. The results suggest that cholinergic availability may directly affect the attentional system, and that these selective attention measures are sensitive markers to detect treatment response. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil: effect of non ionic surfactants and selected bacteria addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collina, Elena; Lasagni, Marina; Pitea, Demetrio; Franzetti, Andrea; Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2007-09-01

    Aim of this work was to evaluate influence of two commercial surfactants and inoculum of selected bacteria on biodegradation of diesel fuel in different systems. Among alkyl polyethossilates (Brij family) and sorbitan derivates (Tween family) a first selection of surfactants was performed by estimation of Koc and Dafnia magna EC50 with molecular descriptor and QSAR model. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate soil sorption, biodegradability and toxicity. In the second part of the research, the effect of Brij 56, Tween 80 and selected bacteria addition on biodegradation of diesel fuel was studied in liquid cultures and in slurry and solid phase systems. The latter experiments were performed with diesel contaminated soil in bench scale slurry phase bioreactor and solid phase columns. Tween 80 addition increased the biodegradation rate of hydrocarbons both in liquid and in slurry phase systems. Regarding the effect of inoculum, no enhancement of biodegradation rate was observed neither in surfactant added nor in experiments without addition. On the contrary, in solid phase experiments, inoculum addition resulted in enhanced biodegradation compared to surfactant addition.

  15. Bioremediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Soil: Effect of Non Ionic Surfactants and Selected Bacteria Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collina, E.; Lasagni, M.; Pitea, D.; Franzetti, A.; Di Gennaro, P.; Bestetti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this work was to evaluate influence of two commercial surfactants and inoculum of selected bacteria on biodegradation of diesel fuel in different systems. Among alkyl polyethossilates (Brij family) and sorbitan derivates (Tween family) a first selection of surfactants was performed by estimation of Koc and Dafnia magna EC 50 with molecular descriptor and QSAR model. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate soil sorption, biodegradability and toxicity. In the second part of the research, the effect of Brij 56, Tween 80 and selected bacteria addition on biodegradation of diesel fuel was studied in liquid cultures and in slurry and solid phase systems. The latter experiments were performed with diesel contaminated soil in bench scale slurry phase bioreactor and solid phase columns. Tween 80 addition increased the biodegradation rate of hydrocarbons both in liquid and in slurry phase systems. Regarding the effect of inoculum, no enhancement of biodegradation rate was observed neither in surfactant added nor in experiments without addition. On the contrary, in solid phase experiments, inoculum addition resulted in enhanced biodegradation compared to surfactant addition

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community Exercise and Nutrition Program for Older Adults: Texercise Select.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanni, Olufolake Odufuwa; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-05-20

    The wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based programs that can improve health outcomes among older populations often requires an understanding of factors influencing community adoption of such programs. One such program is Texercise Select , a community-based health promotion program previously shown to improve functional health, physical activity, nutritional habits and quality of the life among older adults. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of Texercise Select in the context of supportive environments to facilitate its delivery and statewide sustainability. Participants were surveyed using self-reported instruments distributed at program baseline and conclusion. Program costs were based on actual direct costs of program implementation and included costs of recruitment and outreach, personnel costs and participant incentives. Program effectiveness was measured using quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, as well as health outcomes, such as healthy days, weekly physical activity and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test scores. Preference-based EuroQol (EQ-5D) scores were estimated from the number of healthy days reported by participants and converted into QALYs. There was a significant increase in the number of healthy days ( p nutrition-related outcomes among participants, this study supports the use of Texercise Select as an intervention with substantial health and cost benefits.

  17. Effect of the selected seismic energy dissipation capacity on the materials quantity for reinforced concrete walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Benjumea Royero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Regarding their design of reinforced concrete structural walls, the Colombian seismic design building code allows the engineer to select one of the three seismic energy dissipation capacity (ordinary, moderate, and special depending on the seismic hazard of the site. Despite this, it is a common practice to choose the minor requirement for the site because it is thought that selecting a higher requirement will lead to larger structural materials amounts and, therefore, cost increments.  Method: In this work, an analytical study was performed in order to determine the effect of the selected energy dissipation capacity on the quantity of materials and ductility displacement capacity of R/C walls. The study was done for a region with low seismic hazard, mainly because this permitted to explore and compare the use of the three seismic energy dissipations capacities. The effect of different parameters such as the wall total height and thickness, the tributary loaded area, and the minimum volumetric steel ratio were studied. Results: The total amount of steel required for the walls with moderate and special energy dissipation capacity corresponds, on average, to 77% and 89%, respectively, of the quantity required for walls with minimum capacity. Conclusions: it is possible to achieve reductions in the total steel required weight when adopting either moderated or special seismic energy dissipation instead of the minimum capacity.  Additionally, a significant increment in the seismic ductility displacements capacity of the wall was obtained.

  18. Effects of a novel, selective, sigma1-ligand, MS-377, on phencyclidine-induced behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Takagi, K; Horikomi, K

    2001-07-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP)-induced head-weaving is inhibited by a novel selective sigma1-ligand, (R)-(+)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate (MS-377), but not by dopamine D2 antagonists. In the present study, we examined the effects of two potent and selective sigma1-ligands, MS-377 and N,N-dipropyl-2-(4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl) ethylamine (NE-100), on PCP-induced rearing behaviour, hyperlocomotion and ataxia in comparison with the currently available antipsychotic agents with affinity for D2 receptors, haloperidol, sultopride and risperidone. Male Wistar rats or ddY mice were administered MS-377, NE-100, haloperidol, sultopride or risperidone, and PCP was administered 60 min later (in the case of NE-100 10 min later). Rearing behaviour, hyperlocomotion and ataxia were examined 10 min after PCP administration. MS-377, haloperidol, sultopride and risperidone dose-dependently inhibited PCP-induced rearing and hyperlocomotion, but did not antagonize PCP-induced ataxia. In contrast, the other selective sigma1-ligand, NE-100, did not affect any of the PCP-induced behaviour patterns in this study. These results suggest that there are at least two types of ligands for sigma1-receptors and that some sigma1-ligands, including MS-377, have more comprehensive effects against PCP-induced abnormal behaviour than other sigma1-ligands or D2 antagonists.

  19. Effects of trawl selectivity and genetic parameters on fish body length under long-term trawling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Peng; Cui, He; Sheng, Huaxiang; Zhao, Fenfang; Tang, Yanli; Chen, Zelin

    2015-10-01

    Long-term fishing pressure affects the biological characteristics of exploited fish stocks. The biological characteristics of hairtail ( Trichiurus lepturus) in the East China Sea are unable to recover because of long-term trawling. Fishing induces evolutionary effects on the fish's biological characteristics. Evidence of these changes includes small size at age, a shift to earlier age structure, and early maturation. Natural and artificial selection usually affect the fish's life history. Selection can induce different chances of reproduction, and individual fish can give a different genetic contribution to the next generation. In this study, analysis of time-dependent probability of significance and test of sensitivity were used to explore the effects of fish exploitation rate, mesh size, and heritability with long-term trawling. Results showed that fishing parameters were important drivers to exploited fish population. However, genetic traits altered by fishing were slow, and the changes in biological characteristics were weaker than those caused by fishing selection. Exploitation rate and mesh size exhibited similar evolutionary trend tendency under long-term fishing. The time-dependent probability of significance trend showed a gradual growth and tended to be stable. Therefore, the direction of fishing-induced evolution and successful management of fish species require considerable attention to contribute to sustainable fisheries in China.

  20. The Relative Age Effect On The Selection In The Slovakia National Football Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulič Martin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to determine the relative age effect (RAE on selection in the Slovakia national football teams. A factor that may have a significant impact on the quality of players chosen for the national teams or may result in a poor selection of players for the elite teams. Anthropometric and cognitive acceleration of players born in the first months of the calendar year concerning the overall context of the competition for placement in the national teams may be considered as a significant advantage. The aim of this research was to examine, determine and verify the presence of relative age effect in the selection of football players for the Slovakia national teams starting with the under 16 age category (U-16 through to the A - senior national football team. We presumed that the elite teams under this review and study consisted predominantly of players born in the first quarter of the calendar year, while also presuming that relative age effect receded with the increasing age category. Our survey sample U16 consisted of 79 players, U17 consisted of 47 players, U18 consisted of 58 players, U19 consisted of 71 players, U21 consisted of 52 players and A - senior national team consisted of 302 Slovakia national football players. The information obtained from the Slovak Football Association has been processed by the application of statistical methods and statistical significance test (T-test. Our research confirmed the presence of relative age effect in the U-16, U-17 and U-18 teams under our investigation (p≤0.01. In the U19 and U21 age categories, statistical significance has not been confirmed. As for the senior national team, statistically significant difference has been found in relation to players born in the last quarter of the year as opposed to players born in the first three months of the year (p≤0.01. Our results have shown that with the increasing age, the relative age effect fades and vanishes in full in the

  1. Effect of material selection and background impurity on interface property and resulted CIP-GMR performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xilin; Morrone, Augusto; Nikolaev, Konstantin; Kief, Mark; Ostrowski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of background base pressure, wafer-transferring time between process modules, and stack layer material selection on the current-in-plane giant magneto-resistive (CIP-GMR) interface properties and the resulted CIP-GMR performance. Experimental results showed that seed layer/AFM interface, AFM/pinned layer (PL) interface, pinned layer/Ru interface, and reference layer (RL)/Cu spacer interface are among the most critical ones for a CIP-GMR device. By reducing the background impurity level (water moisture and oxygen), optimizing the wafer process flow sequence, and careful stack-layer material selection, such critical interfaces in a CIP-GMR device can be preserved. Consequently, a much robust GMR performance control can be achieved.

  2. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley O. Stone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET, covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.

  3. Effect of Integrated Yoga Module on Selected Psychological Variables among Women with Anxiety Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S; Jaiganesh, K; Duraisamy

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of yogic practices has proven benefits in both organic and psychological diseases. Forty-five women with anxiety selected by a random sampling method were divided into three groups. Experimental group I was subjected to asanas, relaxation and pranayama while Experimental group II was subjected to an integrated yoga module. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety was measured by Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. Frustration was measured through Reaction to Frustration Scale. All data were spread in an Excel sheet to be analysed with SPSS 16 software using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Selected yoga and asanas decreased anxiety and frustration scores but treatment with an integrated yoga module resulted in significant reduction of anxiety and frustration. To conclude, the practice of asanas and yoga decreased anxiety in women, and yoga as an integrated module significantly improved anxiety scores in young women with proven anxiety without any ill effects.

  4. Effect of Ease of Doing Business to Economic Growth among Selected Countries in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorica G. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity requires a streamlined regulatory environment and effectual policies that are transparent and accessible to all. The study aimed to explain the effect of ease of doing business to economic growth among selected economies in Asia for the year 2014. The study covered 29 economies in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Ease of doing business is determined by the ten Doing Business indicators (DBI of the World Bank. In the study, Gross Domestic Product (GDP was used as the proxy variable for economic growth. Descriptive research was the research design used. Multiple regression determined the effect of doing business to economic growth. Compared to other economies, Singapore has the best regulatory performance. It achieved the easiest to do business to five indicators, namely, Starting Business, Registering Property, Protecting Investors, Trading Across Borders, and Enforcing Contracts. In addition, China showed the highest economic growth. The study found out that the variations in ease of doing business was explained by dealing with construction permits, getting credit, registering property and trading across borders. Dealing with construction permits and getting credit have negative effect to Gross Domestic Product while registering property and trading across borders have positive effect. Trading across borders greatly affect gross domestic product among selected countries in Asia. The research proposed inputs to policy which may increase the awareness of local government units of different economies on the simplification of the policies of the different components used in measuring doing business.

  5. Possible stimulatory effect of quercetin on secretion of selected pituitary hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tušimová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is found in various types of foods such as apples, red onions, grapes, berries, citrus fruits, cherries, broccoli, tea etc. It is characterized by antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on the animal organism. The aim of our study was to examine its effect on endocrine system of the rabbit in vivo. Twenty healthy adult female rabbits were divided into four groups (control group and three experimental groups. Various concentrations of quercetin (10, 100 and 1000 µg/kg body weight were intramuscularly administrated to rabbits in experimental groups during 30 days. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the concentrations of selected hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone - FSH, luteinizing hormone – LH, prolactin – PRL after 30 days of administration. Non-significant differences between groups were found after application of different quercetin concentrations. Stimulatory effect was observed on FSH secretion by higher dose of quercetin. Similarly, LH and PRL increased at concentration 100 µg/kg and 1000 µg/kg. Our results indicate the possible effect of quercetin on secretion of selected pituitary hormones.

  6. Mood and selective attention in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Matthew D; Muller, Sarah M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Gunstad, John; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-07-01

    Both mood and cognitive function are altered in cold environments. Body warming through exercise may improve Stroop interference score and lessen total negative mood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of equal caloric bouts of interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) exercise on mood and selective attention in the cold. Eleven young men underwent two experimental trials in 5°C air. Both trials consisted of 90 min acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min exercise (INT vs. CONT), and 60 min recovery (REC). The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) were administered at four time points. Mean body temperature decreased during ACE, increased during exercise, and decreased during REC. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect for time for several of the POMS sub scores. In particular, negative mood was significantly decreased after exercise relative to ACE and then significantly increased during REC. Further, CONT appears to be more effective than INT at decreasing negative mood. Components of the SCWT supported both the arousal and distraction theories for simple perception, but no significant effects were shown for the interference score. In the cold, exercise decreases negative mood but does not appear to affect selective attention. Further mechanistic studies could determine the best mode and intensity of exercise for improving cognitive function in the cold.

  7. Density-dependent selection on mate search and evolution of Allee effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Luděk; Kramer, Andrew M; Bernhauerová, Veronika; Drake, John M

    2018-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms require males and females to find each other. Increased difficulty of females finding mates as male density declines is the most frequently reported mechanism of Allee effects in animals. Evolving more effective mate search may alleviate Allee effects, but may depend on density regimes a population experiences. In particular, high-density populations may evolve mechanisms that induce Allee effects which become detrimental when populations are reduced and maintained at a low density. We develop an individual-based, eco-genetic model to study how mating systems and fitness trade-offs interact with changes in population density to drive evolution of the rate at which males or females search for mates. Finite mate search rate triggers Allee effects in our model and we explore how these Allee effects respond to such evolution. We allow a population to adapt to several population density regimes and examine whether high-density populations are likely to reverse adaptations attained at low densities. We find density-dependent selection in most of scenarios, leading to search rates that result in lower Allee thresholds in populations kept at lower densities. This mainly occurs when fecundity costs are imposed on mate search, and provides an explanation for why Allee effects are often observed in anthropogenically rare species. Optimizing selection, where the attained trait value minimizes the Allee threshold independent of population density, depended on the trade-off between search and survival, combined with monogamy when females were searching. Other scenarios led to runaway selection on the mate search rate, including evolutionary suicide. Trade-offs involved in mate search may thus be crucial to determining how density influences the evolution of Allee effects. Previous studies did not examine evolution of a trait related to the strength of Allee effects under density variation. We emphasize the crucial role that mating systems, fitness

  8. Age differences in everyday problem-solving effectiveness: older adults select more effective strategies for interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Seay, Renee Baldi

    2007-01-01

    Using the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory of Cornelius and Caspi, we examined differences in problem-solving strategy endorsement and effectiveness in two domains of everyday functioning (instrumental or interpersonal, and a mixture of the two domains) and for four strategies (avoidance-denial, passive dependence, planful problem solving, and cognitive analysis). Consistent with past research, our research showed that older adults were more problem focused than young adults in their approach to solving instrumental problems, whereas older adults selected more avoidant-denial strategies than young adults when solving interpersonal problems. Overall, older adults were also more effective than young adults when solving everyday problems, in particular for interpersonal problems.

  9. The effectiveness of group selection theory on the quality of drug addicted life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sodani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and aim: Increase in addiction in the community and the plight of its people demand for improving the problems of addicts, indicate a need for individuals to interventions and training expertise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of group selection theory on the quality of drug addicted life.  .  Methods: This study is an quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest and follow up with the control group. The study population included: all addicted people who referred to ahvaz addiction treatment center in 2015. 50 addicts were selected by using of  available sampling and randomly divided into  two experimental group (number=25 and control group (number=25. The participants were completed the quality of life inventory in three stages (pre-test, post-test and follow-up after 60 days. The experimental group was received group training of the concepts of selection theory of 10 sessions of 90 minutes per week.Statistical data were analyzed  using of covariance(ANCOVA analysis. Results: Group training theory led to a significant difference among pretest, posttest, and follow-up of quality of addicted people life (p <0.001. In this case, the post-test and follow-up, after controlling of pre-test score, the experimental group compared to the control group higher quality of life was reported. Conclusion: Group training of selected theory about the role of choosing a behavior, five senses  the importance of self control, the role of effective behavior, the way of need fulfilment, responsibility, self worth, Quality world, seven destructive behavior, seven caring behavior, faiure identification and success identification can result in increasing the quality of life for addicted people.

  10. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  11. Effect of using different cover image quality to obtain robust selective embedding in steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Karwan Asaad; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Abdulla, Alan Anwer

    2014-05-01

    One of the common types of steganography is to conceal an image as a secret message in another image which normally called a cover image; the resulting image is called a stego image. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of using different cover image quality, and also analyse the use of different bit-plane in term of robustness against well-known active attacks such as gamma, statistical filters, and linear spatial filters. The secret messages are embedded in higher bit-plane, i.e. in other than Least Significant Bit (LSB), in order to resist active attacks. The embedding process is performed in three major steps: First, the embedding algorithm is selectively identifying useful areas (blocks) for embedding based on its lighting condition. Second, is to nominate the most useful blocks for embedding based on their entropy and average. Third, is to select the right bit-plane for embedding. This kind of block selection made the embedding process scatters the secret message(s) randomly around the cover image. Different tests have been performed for selecting a proper block size and this is related to the nature of the used cover image. Our proposed method suggests a suitable embedding bit-plane as well as the right blocks for the embedding. Experimental results demonstrate that different image quality used for the cover images will have an effect when the stego image is attacked by different active attacks. Although the secret messages are embedded in higher bit-plane, but they cannot be recognised visually within the stegos image.

  12. Effect of catchment properties and flood generation regime on copula selection for bivariate flood frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, Valeriya; Lawrence, Deborah; Klempe, Harald

    2018-02-01

    Applying copula-based bivariate flood frequency analysis is advantageous because the results provide information on both the flood peak and volume. More data are, however, required for such an analysis, and it is often the case that only data series with a limited record length are available. To overcome this issue of limited record length, data regarding climatic and geomorphological properties can be used to complement statistical methods. In this paper, we present a study of 27 catchments located throughout Norway, in which we assess whether catchment properties, flood generation processes and flood regime have an effect on the correlation between flood peak and volume and, in turn, on the selection of copulas. To achieve this, the annual maximum flood events were first classified into events generated primarily by rainfall, snowmelt or a combination of these. The catchments were then classified into flood regime, depending on the predominant flood generation process producing the annual maximum flood events. A contingency table and Fisher's exact test were used to determine the factors that affect the selection of copulas in the study area. The results show that the two-parameter copulas BB1 and BB7 are more commonly selected in catchments with high steepness, high mean annual runoff and rainfall flood regime. These findings suggest that in these types of catchments, the dependence structure between flood peak and volume is more complex and cannot be modeled effectively using a one-parameter copula. The results illustrate that by relating copula types to flood regime and catchment properties, additional information can be supplied for selecting copulas in catchments with limited data.

  13. Effects of a selective iNOS inhibitor versus norepinephrine in the treatment of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fuhong; Huang, Hongchuan; Akieda, Kazuki; Occhipinti, Giovanna; Donadello, Katia; Piagnerelli, Michael; De Backer, Daniel; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2010-09-01

    Inhibition of NOS is not beneficial in septic shock; selective inhibition of the inducible form (iNOS) may represent a better option. We compared the effects of the selective iNOS inhibitor BYK191023 with those of norepinephrine (NE) in a sheep model of septic shock. Twenty-four anesthetized, mechanically ventilated ewes received 1.5 g/kg body weight of feces into the abdominal cavity to induce sepsis. Animals were randomized into three groups (each n = 8): NE-only, BYK-only, and NE + BYK. The sublingual microcirculation was evaluated with sidestream dark-field videomicroscopy. MAP was higher in the NE + BYK group than in the other groups, but there were no significant differences in cardiac index or systemic vascular resistance. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was lower in BYK-treated animals than in the NE-only group. PaO2/FiO2 was higher and lactate concentration lower in the BYK groups than in the NE-only group. Mesenteric blood flow was higher in BYK groups than in the NE-only group. Renal blood flow was higher in the NE + BYK group than in the other groups. Functional capillary density and proportion of perfused vessels were higher in the BYK groups than in the NE-only group 18 h after induction of peritonitis. Survival times were similar in the three groups. In this model of peritonitis, selective iNOS inhibition had more beneficial effects than NE on pulmonary artery pressures, gas exchange, mesenteric blood flow, microcirculation, and lactate concentration. Combination of this selective iNOS inhibitor with NE allowed a higher arterial pressure and renal blood flow to be maintained.

  14. Effects of three antagonists on selected pharmacodynamic effects of sublingually administered detomidine in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, Heather K; Stanley, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    To describe the effects of alpha2 -adrenergic receptor antagonists on the pharmacodynamics of sublingual (SL) detomidine in the horse. Randomized crossover design. Nine healthy adult horses with an average age of 7.6 ± 6.5 years. Four treatment groups were studied: 1) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL; 2) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL followed 1 hour later by 0.075 mg kg(-1) yohimbine intravenously (IV); 3) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL followed 1 hour later by 4 mg kg(-1) tolazoline IV; and 4) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL followed 1 hour later by 0.12 mg kg(-1) atipamezole IV. Each horse received all treatments with a minimum of 1 week between treatments. Blood samples were obtained and plasma analyzed for yohimbine, atipamezole and tolazoline concentrations by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Behavioral effects, heart rate and rhythm, glucose, packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma proteins were monitored. Chin-to-ground distance increased following administration of the antagonists, however, this effect was transient, with a return to pre-reversal values as early as 1 hour. Detomidine induced bradycardia and increased incidence of atrioventricular blocks were either transiently or incompletely antagonized by all antagonists. PCV and glucose concentrations increased with tolazoline administration, and atipamezole subjectively increased urination frequency but not volume. At the doses administered in this study, the alpha2 -adrenergic antagonistic effects of tolazoline, yohimbine and atipamezole on cardiac and behavioral effects elicited by SL administration of detomidine are transient and incomplete. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  15. Low concentrations of metal mixture exposures have adverse effects on selected biomarkers of Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yologlu, Ertan, E-mail: ertanyologlu82@gmail.com [Adiyaman University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Ozmen, Murat [Inonu University, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts & Science, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Selected metal mixtures were evaluated for toxicity of safety limit concentrations. • Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used as model test organism. • Combinations of LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 50}/2 caused 100% lethality for some metals. • Metals did not change metallothionein levels in low concentrations. • Selected enzyme activities showed induction after low concentration exposures. - Abstract: Polluted ecosystems may contain mixtures of metals, such that the combinations of metals, even in low concentrations, may cause adverse effects. In the present study, we focused on toxic effects of mixtures of selected metals, the LC{sub 50} values, and also their safety limit in aquatic systems imposed by the European legislation using a model organism. Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used as test organisms. They were exposed to metals or their combinations due to 96-h LC{sub 50} values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated. Metallothionein concentrations were also determined. The LC{sub 50}s for Cd, Pb, and Cu were calculated as 5.81 mg AI/L, 123.05 mg AI/L, and 0.85 mg AI/L, respectively. Low lethality ratios were observed with unary exposure of each metal in lower concentrations. Double or triple combinations of LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 50}/2 concentrations caused 100% lethality with Cd + Cu and Pb + Cd + Cu mixtures, while the Pb + Cu mixture also caused high lethal ratios. The selected enzyme activities were significantly affected by metals or mixtures, and dose-related effects were determined. The metallothionein levels generally increased as related to concentration in unary metals and mixtures. Acceptable limit values of unary metals and mixtures did not significantly change metallothionein levels. The results suggest that oxidative stress-related mechanisms are involved in the toxicity induced by selected

  16. Effect of Bacillus spp. on seed germination of selected species of the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hadizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Cuscuta are annual angiospermic rootless and leafless (achlorophyllous parasitic plants. Bacillus is an example of PGPR bacteria exhibiting plant growth promoting activity. In this study the effects of bacterial suspension on germination of dodder’s seed has been determinated. Seeds of three Cuscuta species were collected from field for evaluating effects of three different Bacillus on its germination. Results show that seed germination of the C. monogyna and C. campestris is inhibited by all three bacterial species. Based on Tukey analysis, the highest inhibitory activity on seed germination of C. monogyna was shown with B. pumilus (68.88%; as well as C. campestris with B. megaterium (95.76% and B. pumilus (91.53%, whilst seed germination of C. europaea was almost identically inhibited by all three bacterial species. This paper reports the variable effects of Bacillus species on the seed germination of selected Cuscuta species.

  17. Sex differences in immune responses: Hormonal effects, antagonistic selection, and evolutionary consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roved, Jacob; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses. In our review of the literature, we find that estrogen and progesterone enhance type 2 and suppress type 1 responses in females, whereas testosterone suppresses type 2 responses and shows an inconsistent pattern for type 1 responses in males. When we combine these patterns of generally immunosuppressive and immunoenhancing effects of the sex hormones, our results imply that the sex differences in immune responses should be particularly strong in immune functions associated with type 2 responses, and less pronounced with type 1 responses. In general the hormone-mediated sex differences in immune responses may lead to genetic sexual conflicts on immunity. Thus, we propose the novel hypothesis that sexually antagonistic selection may act on immune genes shared by the sexes, and that the strength of this sexually antagonistic selection should be stronger for type 2- as compared with type 1-associated immune genes. Finally, we put the consequences of sex hormone-induced effects on immune responses into behavioral and ecological contexts, considering social mating system, sexual selection, geographical distribution of hosts, and parasite abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of environmental variables on invasive amphibian activity: Using model selection on quantiles for counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Benjamin J.; Cade, Brian S.; Schwarzkoph, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Many different factors influence animal activity. Often, the value of an environmental variable may influence significantly the upper or lower tails of the activity distribution. For describing relationships with heterogeneous boundaries, quantile regressions predict a quantile of the conditional distribution of the dependent variable. A quantile count model extends linear quantile regression methods to discrete response variables, and is useful if activity is quantified by trapping, where there may be many tied (equal) values in the activity distribution, over a small range of discrete values. Additionally, different environmental variables in combination may have synergistic or antagonistic effects on activity, so examining their effects together, in a modeling framework, is a useful approach. Thus, model selection on quantile counts can be used to determine the relative importance of different variables in determining activity, across the entire distribution of capture results. We conducted model selection on quantile count models to describe the factors affecting activity (numbers of captures) of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in response to several environmental variables (humidity, temperature, rainfall, wind speed, and moon luminosity) over eleven months of trapping. Environmental effects on activity are understudied in this pest animal. In the dry season, model selection on quantile count models suggested that rainfall positively affected activity, especially near the lower tails of the activity distribution. In the wet season, wind speed limited activity near the maximum of the distribution, while minimum activity increased with minimum temperature. This statistical methodology allowed us to explore, in depth, how environmental factors influenced activity across the entire distribution, and is applicable to any survey or trapping regime, in which environmental variables affect activity.

  19. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Moderhak, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect that turning the netting direction 90° (T90) and halving the number of meshes around in the circumference in a diamond mesh codend had on size selection of Baltic cod. The results generally agreed with predictions of a previous simulation-based study. Both...... modifications had a significant positive effect on the size selection of cod. The best selection results were obtained for a codend in which both factors were applied together. For that codend, very little between-haul variation in cod size selection was detected, especially compared to the reference codend...

  20. Considerations in the selection of model substrates for microbiological effects research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Rose, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of several energy residues have been briefly reviewed in order to select a model or representative substrate of basic research to determine the significance of anaerobic microbial dissolution and mobilization or immobilization of toxic trace elements under subsurface environmental conditions. The major factors which influence the dissolution and mobilization of trace metals have been critically examined, e.g., (i) effects on pH of leachates (pyrite oxidation), soluble acid, and basic compounds; (ii) effects on oxidation state of leachates (oxidation state of Fe, presence of organics); (iii) concentration of toxic inorganic species, and chemical form; (iv) surface area of waste particles; and (v) physical strength and particle size, with resulting effects on permeability of the substrate. Several major physical and chemical characteristics are common to energy-related residues yet each of these materials has a unique set of physical and chemical properties. The pros and cons of selecting a single model substrate for microbiological research were discussed at the Geochemical and Biochemical Working Group Meeting and use of the end-member concept was suggested. From the abundance, distribution, forms of trace metals present, and volume of these metal-containing residues disposed of in the subsurface environments, microbiological studies can be performed with coal beneficiation and coal gasification residues under a variety of subsurface environmental conditions, and results can be validated in the field. The basic scientific information obtained from this research can be applied to other materials of similar composition. 18 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  1. Productivity effects of higher education human capital in selected countries of Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koye Gerry Bokana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the productivity effects of higher education enrolment (HEE, higher education output (HEO and the associated productivity gap (GP on selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA over the period between 1981 and 2014. It was hypothesized in the study that HEE and HEO had statistically significant positive impact on productivity in the selected sub-Saharan Africa countries over the stated period. Fixed effect Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV and a robust version of System Generalized Methods of Moment (SYSGMM were adopted as model estimating techniques. Results from the LSDV model indicated that HEE had no statistically significant positive impact on productivity growth in the twenty-one SSA countries. This non-significance was corrected in the dynamic model, but with negative effects on the growth rate of total factor productivity (TFP. The study further compared the worldwide technological frontier with those of the SSA countries under investigation and discovered that countries like Gabon, Mauritius and Swaziland ranked high, while Burundi needs to improve on its productivity determinants. The major conclusion of this study is therefore that higher education human capital should be supported with strong policy implementation, as this can have a positive impact on productivity growth.

  2. Effect of selective withdrawal on the annual thermal regime of a deep water body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, O.B.; Zinov'ev, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of any large hydraulic structure leads to the occurrence of new ecosystems in the upper and lower pools of the hydro development. A study of scenarios of the development of these ecosystems and an investigation of the possibilities of minimizing the negative ecological consequences of waterpower engineering by means of mathematical modeling in many respects determine the quality of developing the scientific and technical project. For high-head hydroelectric stations, an effective tool for controlling the water quality in the upper and lower pools is the withdrawal of water form different horizons of the upper pool reservoir. Temperature stratification of a deep sluggish water body is modeled in a one-dimensional vertical approximation with the use of an improved method of describing fluid outflow. The effect of selective withdrawal on the annual thermal regime and temperature of the outflowing water was studied. The results obtained permit estimating the effect of selective withdrawal on the thermal regime of the upper pool of the planned hydro development and temperature of the water being discharged into the lower pool on the possibility, in principle, of the water temperature in the lower pool approaching the natural both in winter and summer

  3. Effect of season on the quality of forages selected by sheep in citrus plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard K. Adjorlolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects of season on chemical composition of forages selected by sheep grazing in a citrus plantation. Forage species growing in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis plantation were identified and sampled monthly for 2 years. Samples were bulked on monthly basis for chemical analysis. The average dry matter content of the forages increased from the rainy to the dry season but effects of season on the chemical components were inconsistent. Some species, such as Asystasia gangetica, had a higher crude protein concentration in the dry season, whereas for others, such as Panicum repens, the reverse occurred. However, average concentrations of crude protein, detergent fiber and components of fiber for all species for the rainy season were not significantly different from the dry season values. It was concluded that there were differences among forage species in their responses to changing seasons, such that grazing ruminants may select a diet to enable them to meet their nutritional requirements, provided forage biomass is adequate.Keywords: Crop-livestock integration, tree plantations, chemical composition, seasonal effects, forage quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2271-277

  4. Divalent Metal Ion Transport across Large Biological Ion Channels and Their Effect on Conductance and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Giménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological characterization of large protein channels, usually displaying multi-ionic transport and weak ion selectivity, is commonly performed at physiological conditions (moderate gradients of KCl solutions at decimolar concentrations buffered at neutral pH. We extend here the characterization of the OmpF porin, a wide channel of the outer membrane of E. coli, by studying the effect of salts of divalent cations on the transport properties of the channel. The regulation of divalent cations concentration is essential in cell metabolism and understanding their effects is of key importance, not only in the channels specifically designed to control their passage but also in other multiionic channels. In particular, in porin channels like OmpF, divalent cations modulate the efficiency of molecules having antimicrobial activity. Taking advantage of the fact that the OmpF channel atomic structure has been resolved both in water and in MgCl2 aqueous solutions, we analyze the single channel conductance and the channel selectivity inversion aiming to separate the role of the electrolyte itself, and the counterion accumulation induced by the protein channel charges and other factors (binding, steric effects, etc. that being of minor importance in salts of monovalent cations become crucial in the case of divalent cations.

  5. Effect of a change in selection year on success in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Werner F.; Starkes, Janet L.; Van Winckel, Jan

    2000-11-01

    Since 1997 and following the guidelines of the International Football Association, the Belgian Soccer Federation has used January 1st as the start of the selection year. Previously, August 1 was the start. This shift prompted an investigation of changes in birth-date distributions throughout youth categories for 1996-1997 compared to the 1997-1998 competitive years. Birth dates were considered for national youth league players, ages 10-12, 12-14, 14-16, and 16-18 years. Kolmogorov Smirnov tests assessed differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses examined the relationship between month of birth and number of participants both before and after the August to January shift. Results indicated that from 1996 to 1997, youth players born from January to March (the early part of the new selection year) were more likely to be identified as "talented" and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching. In comparison, players born late in the new selection year (August to October) were assessed as "talented" in significantly lower proportions. Specific suggestions are presented to reduce the relative age effect. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:729-735, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Countering the Consequences of Ego Depletion: The Effects of Self-Talk on Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jón; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Galanis, Evangelos; Comoutos, Nikos; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the effects of a self-talk intervention on selective attention in a state of ego depletion. Participants were 62 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.02 years (SD = 1.17). The experiment was conducted in four consecutive sessions. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. A two-session training was conducted for the two groups, with the experimental group using self-talk. In the final assessment, participants performed a selective attention test, including visual and auditory components, following a task inducing a state of ego depletion. The analysis showed that participants of the experimental group achieved a higher percentage of correct responses on the visual test and produced faster reaction times in both the visual and the auditory test compared with participants of the control group. The results of this study suggest that the use of self-talk can benefit selective attention for participants in states of ego depletion.

  7. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  8. Brittleness and Packing Density Effects on Blast-hole Cuttings Yield of Selected Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adebayo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates brittleness and packing density to analysis their effects on blast-hole cutting yield for three selected rocks in Nigeria. Brittleness test (S20 was carried out in accordance with Norwegian Soil and Rock Engineering and the Brittleness Index (BI for the selected rocks were estimated. The packing density determined from the photomicrograph of the rock samples. The grain size of 45 blast-holes drill cuttings collected from three selected while drilling of these rocks were determined using standard method of America Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 2487. The brittleness values are 50%, 44% and 42% for micro granite, porphyritic granite and medium biotite granite respectively. The result of BI varied from 10.32 – 11.59 and they are rated as moderately brittle rocks. The values of packing density varied from 92.20 – 94.55%, 91.00 -92.96% and 92.92 – 94.96% for all the rocks. The maximum weights of blast-hole particle size retained at 75 µm are 106.00g, 103.28 g and 99.76 g for medium biotite granite, micro granite and porhyritic granite respectively. Packing density values have correlation to some extent with (S20 values hence, this influence the yield of blast-hole cuttings as drilling progresses. The minimum weight of blast-hole cuttings particle size retained at 150 µm agrees with brittleness index classification for micro granite.

  9. The effect of a change in selection procedures on students' motivation to study dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, S P; Roberts-Thomson, K F

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in student selection criteria at The University of Adelaide effected a change in motivation and influencing factors to study dentistry by comparing cohorts. Online questionnaire completed by first-year dentistry students at The University of Adelaide between 1993-1996 and 1997-2005. All 666 students completed the questionnaire with 647 suitable for analysis. The likelihood of students being motivated for a career in dentistry because it 'fits with family' was greater for the 1997-2005 cohort (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.14-2.49, p dentistry. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Effects of selective phosphodiesterases-4 inhibitors on learning and memory: a review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sheng; Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Gongjian; Wang, Guanglei

    2014-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) regulates the intracellular level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Recent studies demonstrated that PDE-4 inhibitors can counteract deficits in long-term memory caused by aging or increased expression of mutant forms of human amyloid precursor proteins, and can influence the process of memory function and cognitive enhancement. Therapeutics, such as ketamine, a drug used in clinical anesthesia, can also cause memory deficits as adverse effects. Targeting PDE-4 with selective inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent, slow the progress, and, eventually, treat memory deficits.

  11. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig...... by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracyclineresistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated...

  12. Effect of plastic deformation on the magnetic properties of selected austenitic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oršulová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels are materials, that are widely used in various fields of industry, architecture and biomedicine. Their specific composition of alloying elements has got influence on their deformation behavior. The main goal of this study was evaluation of magnetic properties of selected steels, caused by plastic deformation. The samples were heat treated in different intervals of temperature before measuring. Then the magnetic properties were measured on device designed for measuring of magnetism. From tested specimens, only AISI 304 confirmed effect of plastic deformation on the magnetic properties. Magnetic properties changed with increasing temperature.

  13. [Effects of anxiety and the COMT gene on cortical evoked potentials and performance effectiveness of selective attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Golimbet, V E; Lebedeva, I S; Korovaĭtseva, G I; Lezheĭko, T V

    2014-01-01

    We studied influence of the anxiety-related trait Harm Avoidance and the COMT gene, which is an important modulator of prefrontal functioning, on event-related potentials in oddball paradigm and performance effectiveness of selective attention. For 50 individuals accuracy and time of searching words among letters at any desired rate and then under an instruction to perform the task as quickly and accurate as possible were measured. Scores on the Harm Avoidance scale from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, N100 and P300 parameters, and COMTVa1158Met genotypes were obtained for them as well. Searching accuracy and time were mainly related to N100 amplitude. The COMT genotype and Harm Avoidance did not affect N100 amplitude; however, the N100 amplitude modulated their effects on accuracy and time dynamics. Harm Avoidance was positively correlated with P300 latency. The results suggest that anxiety and the COMT gene effects on performance effectiveness of selective attention depend on cognitive processes reflected in N100 parameters.

  14. Seasonal variations in diet selection of Nguni goats: effects of physical and chemical traits of browse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fomum, SW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Goats select some browse species more than others, given options. Seasonal trends of diet selection of Nguni goats indexed by intake were investigated in cafeteria-style experiments. The relationships between diet selection and plant chemical...

  15. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within and outside of Core Areas.

  16. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  17. Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt GS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

  18. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  19. Frugivoria por aves em Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae em ambientes antropizados na região de Sorocaba–SP. Frugivory by birds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae at anthropic environment in Sorocaba–SP region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Francine LAMBERTI

    2012-12-01

    dispersed seeds isn’t enough. Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, species native from Brazil, is popularlyknown as pitangueira. It has globular and grooved fruits, showing bright colors from orange to red or black, with fleshy and bittersweet pulp, usually with one or two seeds. The present study aimed to characterize the bird species that consume E. uniflora fruits in two environments in Sorocaba region, São Paulo state. The study was held with six individuals of E. uniflora, three located in Sorocaba urban area, a highly anthropized environment, and three in Araçoiaba daSerra urban area, a less anthropized city. The avifauna was sampled through the focal observation method, considering its richness, relative abundance, visit frequency, behavior and diversity. The phenological pattern of E. uniflora was also described, as well as the number of produced fruits. During 116 hours of focal observation, 185 birds consuming the fruits were registered.They belong to the Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Turdidae, and Vireonidae families. The obtainedresults indicate that less anthropized areas, with more trees and near natural forest fragments as in Araçoiaba city, show more richness, abundance and diversity of birds consumingE. uniflora fruits, when compared with more anthropized urban areas like those of Sorocaba.

  20. [Selective feeding in fish: Effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumyan, A O; Marusov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural olfactory signals (the food odor, the alarm pheromone) on choice and consumption of food items different in color and taste, and the manifestation of foraging behavior were examined in fish (koi Cyprinus carpio, roach Rutilus rutilus). The agar-agar pellets of red and green color having one of the amino acids (glycine, L-proline, L-alanine; all in concentration of 0.1 M) were simultaneously offered to single fishes in pure water, and in water extract of Chironomidae larvae or in water extract of fish skin. It was found out that odors used have different effects on fish foraging activity and on pellet selection for both pellet choice and consumption. On background of food odor, fish grasped pellets more often than in pure water. The equal choice of red and green pellets in pure water shifted to the preference of red ones in the presence of food odor. Despite the increase in the absolute number of pellets grasped, the relative consumption reduced and was replaced by selective consumption of pellets with glycine regardless of their color. Increasing demand for the food quality, due to the increased feeding motivation in response to food odor, is an important adaptation enhancing selection and consumption of food with more appropriate sensory qualities for fish. Defensive motivation caused by alarm pheromone suppressed predisposition. of fish to feed. Fish grasped pellets several times less often than in pure water and refused most of them. Any changes in the color or taste preferences were absent. Feeding behavior of fish of both species was characterized by repeated intraoral pellet testing, but in koi handling was less typical than in roach. In both species, handling activity was higher in those cases when the pellet was finally rejected. This activity was enhanced also on the background of food odor.

  1. Aging effects on selective attention-related electroencephalographic patterns during face encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, M-P; Rodriguez, C; Jaques, D; Missonnier, P; Emch, J; Millet, P; Gold, G; Giannakopoulos, P; Ibañez, V

    2010-11-24

    Previous electrophysiological studies revealed that human faces elicit an early visual event-related potential (ERP) within the occipito-temporal cortex, the N170 component. Although face perception has been proposed to rely on automatic processing, the impact of selective attention on N170 remains controversial both in young and elderly individuals. Using early visual ERP and alpha power analysis, we assessed the influence of aging on selective attention to faces during delayed-recognition tasks for face and letter stimuli, examining 36 elderly and 20 young adults with preserved cognition. Face recognition performance worsened with age. Aging induced a latency delay of the N1 component for faces and letters, as well as of the face N170 component. Contrasting with letters, ignored faces elicited larger N1 and N170 components than attended faces in both age groups. This counterintuitive attention effect on face processing persisted when scenes replaced letters. In contrast with young, elderly subjects failed to suppress irrelevant letters when attending faces. Whereas attended stimuli induced a parietal alpha band desynchronization within 300-1000 ms post-stimulus with bilateral-to-right distribution for faces and left lateralization for letters, ignored and passively viewed stimuli elicited a central alpha synchronization larger on the right hemisphere. Aging delayed the latency of this alpha synchronization for both face and letter stimuli, and reduced its amplitude for ignored letters. These results suggest that due to their social relevance, human faces may cause paradoxical attention effects on early visual ERP components, but they still undergo classical top-down control as a function of endogenous selective attention. Aging does not affect the face bottom-up alerting mechanism but reduces the top-down suppression of distracting letters, possibly impinging upon face recognition, and more generally delays the top-down suppression of task-irrelevant information

  2. The Effect of Exit Strategy on Optimal Portfolio Selection with Birandom Returns

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    Guohua Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to use a birandom variable to denote the stock return selected by some recurring technical patterns and to study the effect of exit strategy on optimal portfolio selection with birandom returns. Firstly, we propose a new method to estimate the stock return and use birandom distribution to denote the final stock return which can reflect the features of technical patterns and investors' heterogeneity simultaneously; secondly, we build a birandom safety-first model and design a hybrid intelligent algorithm to help investors make decisions; finally, we innovatively study the effect of exit strategy on the given birandom safety-first model. The results indicate that (1 the exit strategy affects the proportion of portfolio, (2 the performance of taking the exit strategy is better than when the exit strategy is not taken, if the stop-loss point and the stop-profit point are appropriately set, and (3 the investor using the exit strategy become conservative.

  3. Evaluation of effects of selected factors on inter-vertebral fusion-a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Dumas, Geneviève A

    2005-04-01

    This study simulated the effects of inter-vertebral disc degeneration and bone density distribution on the structural stiffness and strength provided by inter-vertebral fusion. Based on the original and redistributed bone density distributions, the effects of selected factors, including contact area between device/graft and vertebral endplates, endplate conditions, and bone growth capacity were evaluated using a factorial design of experiment. The simulation results suggested that the degeneration of inter-vertebral disc significantly affected the bone density and density distribution in adjacent vertebrae. The mechanical strength immediately after instrumentation is the worst case of device/graft subsidence. After that procedure, bone will adapt itself to the changed loading conditions and therefore reduce the risk of subsidence. A deficiency in structural stiffness immediately after instrumentation could be the "worst-case scenario" depending on the combinations of selected factors. The simulation results demonstrated that the contact area and initial bone density distribution should be considered jointly while estimating the risk of device/graft subsidence. The endplate condition is a secondary factor on the subsidence risk, compared with the contact area and initial bone density distribution.

  4. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  5. Criteria for validation and selection of cognitive tests for investigating the effects of foods and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Celeste A; Dye, Louise; de Bruin, Eveline A; Butler, Laurie; Fletcher, John; Lamport, Daniel J; Latulippe, Marie E; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Wesnes, Keith

    2014-03-01

    This review is an output of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe Marker Initiative, which aims to identify evidence-based criteria for selecting adequate measures of nutrient effects on health through comprehensive literature review. Experts in cognitive and nutrition sciences examined the applicability of these proposed criteria to the field of cognition with respect to the various cognitive domains usually assessed to reflect brain or neurological function. This review covers cognitive domains important in the assessment of neuronal integrity and function, commonly used tests and their state of validation, and the application of the measures to studies of nutrition and nutritional intervention trials. The aim is to identify domain-specific cognitive tests that are sensitive to nutrient interventions and from which guidance can be provided to aid the application of selection criteria for choosing the most suitable tests for proposed nutritional intervention studies using cognitive outcomes. The material in this review serves as a background and guidance document for nutritionists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, and neurologists interested in assessing mental health in terms of cognitive test performance and for scientists intending to test the effects of food or food components on cognitive function.

  6. Vernakalant selectively prolongs atrial refractoriness with no effect on ventricular refractoriness or defibrillation threshold in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Jeff; Gibson, John Ken; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Wheeler, Jeffery J; Schneidkraut, Marlowe J; Huang, Jian; Ideker, Raymond E; McAfee, Donald A

    2011-03-01

    Vernakalant is a novel antiarrhythmic agent that has demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Vernakalant blocks, to various degrees, cardiac sodium and potassium channels with a pattern that suggests atrial selectivity. We hypothesized, therefore, that vernakalant would affect atrial more than ventricular effective refractory period (ERP) and have little or no effect on ventricular defibrillation threshold (DFT). Atrial and ventricular ERP and ventricular DFT were determined before and after treatment with vernakalant or vehicle in 23 anesthetized male mixed-breed pigs. Vernakalant was infused at a rate designed to achieve stable plasma levels similar to those in human clinical trials. Atrial and ventricular ERP were determined by endocardial extrastimuli delivered to the right atria or right ventricle. Defibrillation was achieved using external biphasic shocks delivered through adhesive defibrillation patches placed on the thorax after 10 seconds of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation. The DFT was estimated using the Dixon "up-and-down" method. Vernakalant significantly increased atrial ERP compared with vehicle controls (34 ± 8 versus 9 ± 7 msec, respectively) without significantly affecting ventricular ERP or DFT. This is consistent with atrial selective actions and supports the conclusion that vernakalant does not alter the efficacy of electrical defibrillation.

  7. CHANGES IN SELECTIVITY OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID FORMATION EFFECTED BY FERMENTATION CONDITIONS AND MICROORGANISMS RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kovalovská

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we observe the effect of fermentation conditions and resources of microorganisms for production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. The content of produced GABA depends on various conditions such as the amount of precursor, an addition of salt, enzyme and the effect of pH. The highest selectivity of GABA (74.0 % from the precursor (L-monosodium glutamate has been determinate in the follow conditions: in the presence of pre-cultured microorganisms from Encián cheese in amount 1.66 % (w/v the source of microorganisms/volume of the fermentation mixture, after the addition of 0.028 % (w/v of CaCl2/volume of the fermentation mixture, 100 μM of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P and the GABA precursor concentration in the fermentation mixture 2.6 mg ml-1 in an atmosphere of gas nitrogen. Pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria increased the selectivity of GABA by an average of 20 % compared with bacteria from the path of Encián.

  8. Effect of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on the rat eosinophil chemotactic response in vitro

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    Alves Alessandra C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of the effect of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE type III, IV and V on eosinophil chemotaxis triggered by platelet activating factor (PAF and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in vitro. The effect of the analogues N6-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic AMP and N2-2'-O- dibutyrylguanosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic GMP has also been determined. The eosinophils were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of naive Wistar rats and purified in discontinuous Percoll gradients to 85-95% purity. We observed that pre-incubation of eosinophils with the PDE type IV inhibitor rolipram suppressed the chemotactic response triggered by PAF and LTB4, in association with an increase in the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. In contrast, neither zaprinast (type V inhibitor nor type III inhibitors milrinone and SK&F 94836 affected the eosinophil migration. Only at the highest concentration tested did the analogue Bt2 cyclic AMP suppress the eosinophil chemotaxis, under conditions where Bt2 cyclic GMP was ineffective. We have concluded that inhibition of PDE IV, but not PDE III or V, was able to block the eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro, suggesting that the suppressive activity of selective PDE IV inhibitors on tissue eosinophil accumulation may, at least, be partially dependent on their ability to directly inhibit the eosinophil migration.

  9. Later maturation of the beneficial than the detrimental effect of selective memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-04-01

    In adults, selective memory retrieval can both impair and improve recall of other memories. The study reported here examined whether children also show these two faces of memory retrieval. Employing a variant of the directed-forgetting task, we asked second, fourth, and seventh graders to study a list of target and nontarget words. After study, the participants received a cue to either forget or continue remembering the list. We subsequently asked some participants to recall the nontarget words before we tested their memory for the target words; for the remaining participants, we tested memory only for the target words. Prior retrieval of nontarget words impaired retrieval of to-be-remembered target words, regardless of children's age. In contrast, prior retrieval of nontarget words improved recall of to-be-forgotten target words in seventh graders, though not in fourth and second graders. These results suggest a developmental dissociation between the two faces of memory retrieval and indicate later maturation of the beneficial effect than of the detrimental effect of selective memory retrieval.

  10. Method of Observation and their Effects in the Selection of Potential Football Goalkeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The criteria and methods for goalkeeper selection are more strict and complex than those of field players. Founded on its principles, the present study tried to examine the strengths and weaknesses of selection process practised by Algerian coaches. Interpret by Algerian scientists in their subjectivity in evaluating the amount of body fat and its effect on physical performance. Seen it's built with the naked eye. Confirmed by FIFA in two categories normal vs overweight, they should work harder under these conditions. For this proposal, eight teams from the leagues of Oran, Algeria Championship second division were involved in the study. Their goalkeepers were classified into the following groups: total (GK = 28, Main goalkeeper (MG = 14 and replacement goalkeeper (RG = 14. Tested at the end of the outward phase by penalty kicks test, ‘T’ Drill Test, Ruler Drop Test (TR and anthropometric parameters (BH, BMI, BFP, BW. Backed on the applied statistical where our total sample is categorised in overweight, as well as no statistically significant differences between the two groups in all the comparisons practised. Our results confirm the weaknesses of traditional methods. Admit by similar studies in their subjective in evaluating the amount of body fat and its effect on physical performance correlate to anthropometric measurement.

  11. Occupational segregation, selection effects and gender wage differences: evidence from urban Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Guillermo Isaza Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effects of occupational segregation on the gender wage gap in urban Colombia between 1986 and 2000. The empirical methodology involves a two step procedure where by the occupational distributions ofworkers by gender aremodelled using a multinomial logit model in the first stage. In the second stage, the multinomial logit estimates are used not only to derive a counterfactual occupational distribution of women in the absence of workplace discrimination but also to correct for selectivity bias in thewage equations for each occupational category using the procedure suggested by Lee (1983. Besides the explained and unexplained components in conventional decompositions of the gender wage gap, this methodology differentiates between the justified and unjustified effects of the gender allocation ofworkers across occupational categories. The results for urban Colombia indicate that controlling for selectivity bias at the occupational category level is found to be relevant in all years reviewed in this study. They also suggest that a changing composition of the female labour supply in terms of un observables (i.e., ability and motivation is playing a role in the dramatic reduction of the observed wage gap.

  12. Deadlines in space: Selective effects of coordinate spatial processing in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Konke, Linn Andersson; Mäntylä, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. In two studies, participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. In Study 1, we found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in specific spatial abilities were selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. In both studies, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and in Study 2 these sex differences generalized to a simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated the effects on multitasking, in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple-task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical versus coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking.

  13. Selecting Effective Means to Any End: Futures and Ethics of Persuasion Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Maurits; Eckles, Dean

    Interactive persuasive technologies can and do adapt to individuals. Existing systems identify and adapt to user preferences within a specific domain: e.g., a music recommender system adapts its recommended songs to user preferences. This paper is concerned with adaptive persuasive systems that adapt to individual differences in the effectiveness of particular means, rather than selecting different ends. We give special attention to systems that implement persuasion profiling - adapting to individual differences in the effects of influence strategies. We argue that these systems are worth separate consideration and raise unique ethical issues for two reasons: (1) their end-independence implies that systems trained in one context can be used in other, unexpected contexts and (2) they do not rely on - and are generally disadvantaged by - disclosing that they are adapting to individual differences. We use examples of these systems to illustrate some ethically and practically challenging futures that these characteristics make possible.

  14. Visual discrimination in the pigeon (Columba livia): effects of selective lesions of the nucleus rotundus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverghetta, A. V.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleus rotundus is a large thalamic nucleus in birds and plays a critical role in many visual discrimination tasks. In order to test the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subdivisions in the nucleus rotundus, effects of selective lesions of the nucleus were studied in pigeons. The birds were trained to discriminate between different types of stationary objects and between different directions of moving objects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lesions in the anterior, but not posterior, division caused deficits in discrimination of small stationary stimuli. Lesions in neither the anterior nor posterior divisions predicted effects in discrimination of moving stimuli. These results are consistent with a prediction led from the hypothesis that the nucleus is composed of functional subdivisions.

  15. Effects of transient soil waterlogging and its importance for rootstock selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morales-Olmedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under transient waterlogging, a number of transformations in the soil are generated associated with lack of aeration, seriously affecting the root system. Significant progress has been reported on understanding the effects of lack of oxygen on the metabolism of the roots, although few studies have examined changes in the soil. Diverging conclusions about the degree of tolerance exhibited by plants exclude the effects of hypoxia and anoxia on physical-chemical soil properties under plant experiments. This review examines the main changes occurring in soil and roots due to transient soil waterlogging conditions. Parameters such as antioxidant capacity, nutrient uptake dynamics and regeneration and distribution of the root system are relevant for selecting rootstocks tolerant to soil waterlogging.

  16. The December 7, 1988 Armenia earthquake effects on selected power, industrial and commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.D.; Griffin, M.J.; Bragagnolo, L.J.; Yanev, P.I.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed overview of the Armenia earthquake (occurred on December 7, 1988) effects on selected power, industrial and commercial facilities is presented in this paper. It involves geologic and seismology study of the region; description of the design building standards; detailed description of the damaged nuclear and other power plants as well as other industrial facilities. Extensive damage was sustained by the industrial facilities in the epicentral area, the majority due to poor design and construction. The effects on power facilities were much less severe. response time to restore power to the transmission was 2 to 3 days following the earthquake. Power plant equipment without rigorous seismic design performed well. Mechanical equipment, pumps, valves, compressors, and piping all performed with minimal damage, Electrical control equipment if properly anchored performed well without exception

  17. Effect of Divalent Cations on RED Performance and Cation Exchange Membrane Selection to Enhance Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnaarts, Timon; Huerta, Elisa; van Baak, Willem; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2017-11-07

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a membrane-based renewable energy technology that can harvest energy from salinity gradients. The anticipated feed streams are natural river and seawater, both of which contain not only monovalent ions but also divalent ions. However, RED using feed streams containing divalent ions experiences lower power densities because of both uphill transport and increased membrane resistance. In this study, we investigate the effects of divalent cations (Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ) on RED and demonstrate the mitigation of those effects using both novel and existing commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Monovalent-selective Neosepta CMS is known to block divalent cations transport and can therefore mitigate reductions in stack voltage. The new multivalent-permeable Fuji T1 is able to transport divalent cations without a major increase in resistance. Both strategies significantly improve power densities compared to standard-grade CEMs when performing RED using streams containing divalent cations.

  18. Diversified management of coal enterprises in China: model selection, motivation and effect analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jingye; Lian, Xu; Li, Penglin

    2018-01-01

    In the context of promoting the new energy revolution and economic development of the new normal, the coal industry to excess production capacity is one of the important aspects of structural reform of the supply side. The purpose of diversification of coal enterprises in China is to seize historical opportunities, create new models of development and improve operational efficiency. In the research on diversification of coal enterprises, exploring the mode selection, motivation and effect from the aspects of the industry is conducive to the realization of the smooth replacement and the sustainable development of enterprises, to further enrich the strategic management of coal enterprises, to provide effective reference for the formulation of enterprise management decision-making and implementation of diversification strategy.

  19. Effect of Build Angle on Surface Properties of Nickel Superalloys Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Ernesto E.; Eshraghi, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aerospace, automotive, and medical industries use selective laser melting (SLM) to produce complex parts through solidifying successive layers of powder. This additive manufacturing technique has many advantages, but one of the biggest challenges facing this process is the resulting surface quality of the as-built parts. The purpose of this research was to study the surface properties of Inconel 718 alloys fabricated by SLM. The effect of build angle on the surface properties of as-built parts was investigated. Two sets of sample geometries including cube and rectangular artifacts were considered in the study. It was found that, for angles between 15° and 75°, theoretical calculations based on the "stair-step" effect were consistent with the experimental results. Downskin surfaces showed higher average roughness values compared to the upskin surfaces. No significant difference was found between the average roughness values measured from cube and rectangular test artifacts.

  20. Focusing on attention: the effects of working memory capacity and load on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan W

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. In Experiment 1, distractibility from a distractor at a fixed distance from the target was greater when either WML was high or WMC was low, but surprisingly smaller when both WML was high and WMC low. Thus we observed an inverted-U relationship between reductions in WM resources and distractibility. In Experiment 2, we mapped the distribution of spatial attention as a function of WMC and WML, by recording distractibility across several target-to-distractor distances. The pattern of distractor effects across the target-to-distractor distances demonstrated that the distribution of the attentional window becomes dispersed as WM resources are limited. The attentional window was more spread out under high compared to low WML, and for low compared to high WMC individuals, and even more so when the two factors co-occurred (i.e., under high WML in low WMC individuals). The inverted-U pattern of distractibility effects in Experiment 1, replicated in Experiment 2, can thus be explained by differences in the spread of the attentional window as a function of WM resource availability. The current findings show that limitations in WM resources, due to either WML or individual differences in WMC, affect the spatial distribution of attention. The difference in attentional constraining between high and low WMC individuals demonstrated in the current experiments helps characterise the nature of previously established associations between WMC and controlled attention.

  1. Focusing on attention: the effects of working memory capacity and load on selective attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low concurrent working memory load (WML, and in individuals with low (vs. high working memory capacity (WMC. In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, distractibility from a distractor at a fixed distance from the target was greater when either WML was high or WMC was low, but surprisingly smaller when both WML was high and WMC low. Thus we observed an inverted-U relationship between reductions in WM resources and distractibility. In Experiment 2, we mapped the distribution of spatial attention as a function of WMC and WML, by recording distractibility across several target-to-distractor distances. The pattern of distractor effects across the target-to-distractor distances demonstrated that the distribution of the attentional window becomes dispersed as WM resources are limited. The attentional window was more spread out under high compared to low WML, and for low compared to high WMC individuals, and even more so when the two factors co-occurred (i.e., under high WML in low WMC individuals. The inverted-U pattern of distractibility effects in Experiment 1, replicated in Experiment 2, can thus be explained by differences in the spread of the attentional window as a function of WM resource availability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current findings show that limitations in WM resources, due to either WML or individual differences in WMC, affect the spatial distribution of attention. The difference in attentional constraining between high and low WMC individuals demonstrated in the current experiments helps characterise the nature of previously established associations between WMC and controlled

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of FET PET-guided target selection for the diagnosis of gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, Alexander; Stock, Stephanie; Mueller, Dirk; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2012-01-01

    Several diagnostic trials have indicated that the combined use of 18 F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) PET and MRI may be superior to MRI alone in selecting the biopsy site for the diagnosis of gliomas. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of the use of amino acid PET compared to MRI alone from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance. To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of the use of amino acid PET, a decision tree model was built. The effectiveness of FET PET was determined by the probability of a correct diagnosis. Costs were estimated for a baseline scenario and for a more expensive scenario in which disease severity was considered. The robustness of the results was tested using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The combined use of PET and MRI resulted in an increase of 18.5% in the likelihood of a correct diagnosis. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for one additional correct diagnosis using FET PET was EUR6,405 for the baseline scenario and EUR9,114 for the scenario based on higher disease severity. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. The model indicates that the use of amino acid PET may be cost-effective in patients with glioma. As a result of several limitations in the data used for the model, further studies are needed to confirm the results. (orig.)

  3. Implications of astrocytes in mediating the protective effects of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators upon brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs are steroidal or non-steroidal compounds that are already used in clinical practice for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms. While SERMs actions in the breast, bone, and uterus have been well characterized, their actions in the brain are less well understood. Previous works have demonstrated the beneficial effects of SERMs in different chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple sclerosis, as well as acute degeneration as stroke and traumatic brain injury. Moreover, these compounds exhibit similar protective actions as those of estradiol in the Central Nervous System, overt any secondary effect. For these reasons, in the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the neuroprotective effects exerted directly or indirectly by SERMs in the SNC. In this context, astrocytes play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolism, and antioxidant support to neurons, thus indicating that better protection of astrocytes are an important asset targeting neuronal protection. Moreover, various clinical and experimental studies have reported that astrocytes are essential for the neuroprotective effects of SERMs during neuronal injuries, as these cells express different estrogen receptors in cell membrane, demonstrating that part of SERMs effects upon injury may be mediated by astrocytes. The present work highlights the current evidence on the protective mechanisms of SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, in the SNC, and their modulation of astrocytic properties as promising therapeutic targets during brain damage.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of FET PET-guided target selection for the diagnosis of gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, Alexander [Research Centre Juelich, Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Heinrich-Heine University of Duesseldorf, Juelich (Germany); Stock, Stephanie; Mueller, Dirk [University Hospital of Cologne, Institute for Health Economics and Clinical Epidemiology, Cologne (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Research Centre Juelich, Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine 4, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Several diagnostic trials have indicated that the combined use of {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) PET and MRI may be superior to MRI alone in selecting the biopsy site for the diagnosis of gliomas. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of the use of amino acid PET compared to MRI alone from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance. To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of the use of amino acid PET, a decision tree model was built. The effectiveness of FET PET was determined by the probability of a correct diagnosis. Costs were estimated for a baseline scenario and for a more expensive scenario in which disease severity was considered. The robustness of the results was tested using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The combined use of PET and MRI resulted in an increase of 18.5% in the likelihood of a correct diagnosis. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for one additional correct diagnosis using FET PET was EUR6,405 for the baseline scenario and EUR9,114 for the scenario based on higher disease severity. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. The model indicates that the use of amino acid PET may be cost-effective in patients with glioma. As a result of several limitations in the data used for the model, further studies are needed to confirm the results. (orig.)

  5. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  6. Effects of tryptophan depletion on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sean D; Broyd, Annabel; Robinson, Hayley; Lee, Jessica; Hudaib, Abdul-Rahman; Hince, Dana A

    2017-12-01

    depletion had no effect on the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory or Visual Analogue Scale Anxiety measures, which suggests that the mechanism of action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be different to that seen in panic, social anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Successful selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder may involve the ability of serotonin to switch habitual responding to goal-directed behaviour.

  7. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Dinkins

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m, while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%. Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m. Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available

  8. Studies of climatic effects relevant to site selection and to assessments of the radiological impact of disposal at selected sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodess, C.M.; Palutikof, J.P.; Davies, T.D.

    1988-07-01

    Projected timescales for the transport of radionuclides from an undisturbed underground nuclear waste repository to the surface are in the range of tens of thousands to millions of years. Over these timescales major natural and anthropogenic changes in climate can be expected. As part of the UK safety assessment programme time-dependent models of the repository environment are being developed and the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) has undertaken a study of relevant climatic change and climatic effects. In order to estimate the probable range succession and duration of major climate states likely to be experienced in the UK over the next 10 6 years the nature and mechanisms of climatic variations in the past are first reviewed. (Author)

  9. Individual and mixture effects of selected pharmaceuticals on larval development of the estuarine shrimp Palaemon longirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Blasco, Julian; Nieto, Elena; Hampel, Miriam; Le Vay, Lewis; Giménez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies incorporate within the experimental design environmental variability and mixture effects when assessing the impact of pollutants on organisms. We have studied the combined effects of selected pharmaceutical compounds and environmental variability in terms of salinity and temperature on survival, development and body mass of larvae of the estuarine shrimp Palaemon longirostris. Drug residues found in coastal waters occur as mixture, and the evaluation of combined effects of simultaneously occurring compounds is indispensable for their environmental risk assessment. All larval stages of P. longirostris were exposed to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac sodium (DS: 40 and 750 μg L(-1)), the lipid regulator clofibric acid (CA: 17 and 361 μg L(-1)) and the fungicide clotrimazole (CLZ: 0.14 and 4 μg L(-1)). We observed no effect on larval survival of P. longirostris with the tested pharmaceuticals. However, and in contrast to previous studies on larvae of the related marine species Palaemon serratus, CA affected development through an increase in intermoult duration and reduced growth without affecting larval body mass. These developmental effects in P. longirostris larvae were similar to those observed in the mixture of DS and CA confirming the toxic effects of CA. In the case of CLZ, its effects were similar to those observed previously in P. serratus: high doses affected development altering intermoult duration, tended to reduce the number of larval instars and decreased significantly the growth rate. This study suggests that an inter-specific life histories approach should be taken into account to assess the effect of emergent compounds in coastal waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tissue-selective effects of nucleolar stress and rDNA damage in developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Eliezer; Gu, Bo; Bowen, Margot E; Aryan, Fardin; Zalc, Antoine; Liang, Jialiang; Flynn, Ryan A; Swigut, Tomek; Chang, Howard Y; Attardi, Laura D; Wysocka, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    Many craniofacial disorders are caused by heterozygous mutations in general regulators of housekeeping cellular functions such as transcription or ribosome biogenesis. Although it is understood that many of these malformations are a consequence of defects in cranial neural crest cells, a cell type that gives rise to most of the facial structures during embryogenesis, the mechanism underlying cell-type selectivity of these defects remains largely unknown. By exploring molecular functions of DDX21, a DEAD-box RNA helicase involved in control of both RNA polymerase (Pol) I- and II-dependent transcriptional arms of ribosome biogenesis, we uncovered a previously unappreciated mechanism linking nucleolar dysfunction, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) damage, and craniofacial malformations. Here we demonstrate that genetic perturbations associated with Treacher Collins syndrome, a craniofacial disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in components of the Pol I transcriptional machinery or its cofactor TCOF1 (ref. 1), lead to relocalization of DDX21 from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, its loss from the chromatin targets, as well as inhibition of rRNA processing and downregulation of ribosomal protein gene transcription. These effects are cell-type-selective, cell-autonomous, and involve activation of p53 tumour-suppressor protein. We further show that cranial neural crest cells are sensitized to p53-mediated apoptosis, but blocking DDX21 loss from the nucleolus and chromatin rescues both the susceptibility to apoptosis and the craniofacial phenotypes associated with Treacher Collins syndrome. This mechanism is not restricted to cranial neural crest cells, as blood formation is also hypersensitive to loss of DDX21 functions. Accordingly, ribosomal gene perturbations associated with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia disrupt DDX21 localization. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that impaired rRNA synthesis elicits a DNA damage response, and that rDNA damage results in tissue-selective and

  11. Selective detection of SO2 at room temperature based on organoplatinum functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cid, C.C.; Jimenez-Cadena, G.; Riu, J.; Maroto, A.; Rius, F.X.; Batema, G.D.; van Koten, G.

    2009-01-01

    We report a field effect transistor (FET) based on a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that for the first time can selectively detect a single gaseous molecule in air by chemically functionalizing the SWCNTs with a selective molecular receptor. As a target model we used SO2. The

  12. The Effect of Using a Proposed Teaching Strategy Based on the Selective Thinking on Students' Acquisition Concepts in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudah, Ahmad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identify the effect of using a proposed teaching strategy based on the selective thinking in acquire mathematical concepts by Classroom Teacher Students at Al- al- Bayt University, The sample of the study consisted of (74) students, equally distributed into a control group and an experimental group. The selective thinking…

  13. Sex-specific effects of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, C.R.; Duffy, E.; Hosken, D.J.; Mokkonen, M.; Okada, K.; Oku, K.; Sharma, M.D.; Hunt, J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Variation in the strength of age-dependent natural selection shapes differences in ageing rates across species and populations. Likewise, sexual selection can promote divergent patterns of senescence across the sexes. However, the effects of these processes on the evolution of ageing have largely

  14. The Effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy and Input Enhancement Strategy on the Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Golfam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate empirically the effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection strategy and Input Enhancement strategy on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. After taking a diagnostic pretest, both experimental groups enrolled in two classes. Learners who practiced Vocabulary Self-Selection were allowed to…

  15. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana; Folkesson, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-06-15

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis -induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in livestock

  16. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis-induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in

  17. Effect of selected local medicinal plants on the asexual blood stage of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Afzan, Adlin; Ali, Rosnani; Amir Jalaluddin, Nur Fasihah; Wasiman, Mohd Isa; Shiekh Zahari, Siti Habsah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2014-12-15

    The development of resistant to current antimalarial drugs is a major challenge in achieving malaria elimination status in many countries. Therefore there is a need for new antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plants have always been the major source for the search of new antimalarial drugs. The aim of this study was to screen selected Malaysian medicinal plants for their antiplasmodial properties. Each part of the plants were processed, defatted by hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and water. The antiplasmodial activities of 54 plant extracts from 14 species were determined by Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein II ELISA technique. In order to determine the selectivity index (SI), all plant extracts demonstrating a good antiplasmodial activity were tested for their cytotoxicity activity against normal Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell lines by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Twenty three extracts derived from Curcuma zedoaria (rhizome), Curcuma aeruginosa (rhizome), Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Morinda elliptica (leaf), Curcuma mangga (rhizome), Elephantopus scaber (leaf), Vitex negundo (leaf), Brucea javanica (leaf, root and seed), Annona muricata (leaf), Cinnamomun iners (leaf) and Vernonia amygdalina (leaf) showed promising antiplasmodial activities against the blood stage chloroquine resistant P. falciparum (EC50 toxicity effect to MDBK cells in vitro (SI ≥10). The extracts belonging to eleven plant species were able to perturb the growth of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum effectively. The findings justified the bioassay guided fractionation on these plants for the search of potent antimalarial compounds or formulation of standardized extracts which may enhance the antimalarial effect in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Mixed signals: The effect of conflicting reward- and goal-driven biases on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Daniel; Munneke, Jaap; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Attentional selection depends on the interaction between exogenous (stimulus-driven), endogenous (goal-driven), and selection history (experience-driven) factors. While endogenous and exogenous biases have been widely investigated, less is known about their interplay with value-driven attention. The present study investigated the interaction between reward-history and goal-driven biases on perceptual sensitivity (d') and response time (RT) in a modified cueing paradigm presenting two coloured cues, followed by sinusoidal gratings. Participants responded to the orientation of one of these gratings. In Experiment 1, one cue signalled reward availability but was otherwise task irrelevant. In Experiment 2, the same cue signalled reward, and indicated the target's most likely location at the opposite side of the display. This design introduced a conflict between reward-driven biases attracting attention and goal-driven biases directing it away. Attentional effects were examined comparing trials in which cue and target appeared at the same versus opposite locations. Two interstimulus interval (ISI) levels were used to probe the time course of attentional effects. Experiment 1 showed performance benefits at the location of the reward-signalling cue and costs at the opposite for both ISIs, indicating value-driven capture. Experiment 2 showed performance benefits only for the long ISI when the target was at the opposite to the reward-associated cue. At the short ISI, only performance costs were observed. These results reveal the time course of these biases, indicating that reward-driven effects influence attention early but can be overcome later by goal-driven control. This suggests that reward-driven biases are integrated as attentional priorities, just as exogenous and endogenous factors.

  19. Serotonin selectively influences moral judgment and behavior through effects on harm aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Hauser, Marc D; Robbins, Trevor W

    2010-10-05

    Aversive emotional reactions to real or imagined social harms infuse moral judgment and motivate prosocial behavior. Here, we show that the neurotransmitter serotonin directly alters both moral judgment and behavior through increasing subjects' aversion to personally harming others. We enhanced serotonin in healthy volunteers with citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and contrasted its effects with both a pharmacological control treatment and a placebo on tests of moral judgment and behavior. We measured the drugs' effects on moral judgment in a set of moral 'dilemmas' pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person). Enhancing serotonin made subjects more likely to judge harmful actions as forbidden, but only in cases where harms were emotionally salient. This harm-avoidant bias after citalopram was also evident in behavior during the ultimatum game, in which subjects decide to accept or reject fair or unfair monetary offers from another player. Rejecting unfair offers enforces a fairness norm but also harms the other player financially. Enhancing serotonin made subjects less likely to reject unfair offers. Furthermore, the prosocial effects of citalopram varied as a function of trait empathy. Individuals high in trait empathy showed stronger effects of citalopram on moral judgment and behavior than individuals low in trait empathy. Together, these findings provide unique evidence that serotonin could promote prosocial behavior by enhancing harm aversion, a prosocial sentiment that directly affects both moral judgment and moral behavior.

  20. The effect of n-alkane selection depth on the quality of denormalizate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorodnova, V.S.; Bayburskaya, E.L.; Martynenko, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of n-alkane selection depth from crude diesel fuel on the quality of denormalization on a carbamide deparaffination G-64 device at the Gorknefteorgsintez Production Association. Diesel fuel with o.c. 210/sup 0/, c.c. 315/sup 0/, 828 kg/m/sup 3/ density, -25, n/sup 20/ D 1.4620, aniline point 66.9/sup 0/ and n-alkane content 14.7% was used. The regime of the stage of complex formation was maximal approximation of industrial conditions: ratio Cr: ben. 1:2.6 mass. no, complex formation 25/sup 0/, length of contact 30 min, levels of washing, 2; methanol, 2.0% in Cr. Changing the quantity of carbamide aided the various extraction depths of n-alkanes from the Cr. Following distillation of the solution the following parameters were examined: refraction, density, aniline point, diesel index; Obtained: the dependencies for changes in these indicators depending on the depth of the selection of n-alkanes from the potential or from their content in the denormalizate; as well as the dependence of the component composition of paraffins on the degree of their extraction from the Cr. To simultaneously obtain paraffins and diesel fuel of export quality with a diesel index no lower than 55, it is necessary to guarantee up to 50% (no higher) of paraffin selection from the potential Cr containing 14.7% n-alkanes; the sediment content of n-alkanes in the denormalizate must be found at the 7.4% level.

  1. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Nørholm, Nanna; Holm, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-09-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered from swine feces. The work encompassed two studies: 1) OTC 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to nursery pigs for 3 and 10days, respectively, under controlled experimental conditions, and 2) 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg OTC were given to a higher number of pigs for 6, 3 and 2days, respectively, under field conditions. Statistical modeling was applied to analyze trends in the proportion of TET-R coliforms. In the experimental study, no statistical difference in proportion of TET-R coliforms was observed between treatments at the end of the trial (day 18) and compared to day 0. In the field study, treatment had a significant effect on the proportion of TET-R bacteria two days after the end of treatment (2dAT) with the regimes "low dose-six days" and "medium dose-three days" yielding the highest and lowest proportions of TET-R strains, respectively. No indication of co-selection for ampicillin- and sulphonamide -R bacteria was observed for any treatment at 2dAT. By the end of the nursery period, the proportion of TET-R bacteria was not significantly different between treatments and compared to day 0. Our results suggest that similar resistance levels might be obtained by using different treatment regimes regardless of the combinations of oral dose-duration of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of mental fatigue caused by mobile 3D viewing on selective attention: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Kim, Eun-Soo; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated behavioral responses to and auditory event-related potential (ERP) correlates of mental fatigue caused by mobile three-dimensional (3D) viewing. Twenty-six participants (14 women) performed a selective attention task in which they were asked to respond to the sounds presented at the attended side while ignoring sounds at the ignored side before and after mobile 3D viewing. Considering different individual susceptibilities to 3D, participants' subjective fatigue data were used to categorize them into two groups: fatigued and unfatigued. The amplitudes of d-ERP components were defined as differences in amplitudes between time-locked brain oscillations of the attended and ignored sounds, and these values were used to calculate the degree to which spatial selective attention was impaired by 3D mental fatigue. The fatigued group showed significantly longer response times after mobile 3D viewing compared to before the viewing. However, response accuracy did not significantly change between the two conditions, implying that the participants used a behavioral strategy to cope with their performance accuracy decrement by increasing their response times. No significant differences were observed for the unfatigued group. Analysis of covariance revealed group differences with significant and trends toward significant decreases in the d-P200 and d-late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes at the occipital electrodes of the fatigued and unfatigued groups. Our findings indicate that mentally fatigued participants did not effectively block out distractors in their information processing mechanism, providing support for the hypothesis that 3D mental fatigue impairs spatial selective attention and is characterized by changes in d-P200 and d-LPP amplitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of L2 spinal nerve infiltration for selective discogenic low back pain patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtori, Seiji; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Koshi, Takana

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that rat L5/6 lumbar discs are innervated mainly by L2 dorsal root ganglion neurons. We previously reported that L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for discogenic low back pain (DLBP) patients, although the diagnosis was based only on the results of physical examination, plain films, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate L2 spinal nerve block for DLBP patients retrospectively based on MRI findings and surgical results. A total of 62 patients with only LBP and no accompanying radicular pain were investigated. Patients had only one level of disc degeneration on MRI. When pain was provoked during discography, we performed surgery at the next stage (40 patients). In all, 22 patients were excluded owing to negative discography results. Of the 40 patients, we evaluated 25 strictly selected patients suffering from DLBP. DLBP was diagnosed when the patient experienced pain relief at least 2 years after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Fifteen patients who did not show pain relief after surgery were used for the non-DLBP group. L2 spinal nerve infiltration using 1.5 ml of lidocaine was performed in all 40 patients before surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score after L2 spinal nerve infiltration was recorded, and an association of L2 spinal nerve infiltration and DLBP was explored. Low back pain scores assessed using the VAS score, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and the Oswestry Disability Index score in the two groups were not significantly different. L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for 27 patients but not effective for 13 patients; the VAS score after 15 min and 2 h improved in the DLBP group compared with that of the non-DLBP group (P<0.05). L2 spinal nerve infiltration was more effective in DLBP patients (21 patients, 84%) than in the non-DLBP group (6 patients, 40%) (P<0.05). In the current study, L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 84% of selected DLBP

  4. Effect of Planned Early Recommended Ambulation Technique on Selected Post caesarean Biophysiological Health Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti V. Dube

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caesarean section has been a part of human culture since ancient times. It has been used effectively throughout the 20th century and among the major abdominal surgeries, it is the most common, oldest worldwide surgery performed in obstetrics. Despite the life saving advantages, there are several adverse consequences of caesarean delivery for a woman and to her household. The rate and risk of these complications increases due to the increasing incidence mainly in countries like India. The role of nurse midwife is to act in the best interest of patient and newborn and make the patient independent in carrying out the activities of daily living as soon as possible. This can lead to a faster recovery and shorter hospital stay. Also it can indirectly help in reducing the complications associated with prolonged bed rest and can improve the maternal newborn bonding. Aim and Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate the effect of planned early ambulation on selected biophysiological health parameters of post caesarean patients. Material and Methods: The study included total 500 study subjects, 250 in experimental and 250 in control group. Quasi experimental approach with multiple time series design was adopted for the study. The experimental group was given an early planned recommended ambulation technique starting from the day of surgery. This consisted of deep breathing exercise, cough exercise, leg exercise and early mobilization. Over and above, the routine general health care was given by the doctors and nurses. The control group received only by routine general care by doctors and nurses and mobilization on third post operative day as per strategy adopted by the hospital. The deep breathing exercises, coughing exercises and leg exercises were not given routinely and hence were not given to the control group. Post caesarean biophysiological parameters chart was used to assess the selected parameters for first five post operative

  5. Effect of keywords assignment on secondary information processing and notice on their selection and description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu; Oi, Shoichi; Ebinuma, Yukio.

    1976-01-01

    Completed are the observation and analysis which have been made on author-assigned keywords to his paper by the Special Committee on Nuclear Documentation in cooperation with the INIS National Center. The keywords must be the most suitable information items in principle for a brief representation of the paper. Each of the keywords is a title-augmentative term, capable of structuring a very short summary. Consequently, it may be possible to transfer them easily to descriptors in every secondary information system. Keywords cited in the two journals of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan are considerably effective in general to get a high quality of indexing and a subsequent high quality of information retrieval, because of both the indexing consistency of 66% and the hit retrieval consistency of 75% in the INIS. On the other hand, it is stressed that the keywords should be selected from the terms in title and abstract of the paper except for short notes. Resulting from the experience in checking of the keywords, a guideline for their selection and description are proposed over eight items on trial so that more adequate assignment can be uniformly attained by all authors concerned. (auth.)

  6. Untold stories: biases and selection effects in research with victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunovskis, Anette; Surtees, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Recent discussions of trafficking research have included calls for more innovative studies and new methodologies in order to move beyond the current trafficking narrative, which is often based on unrepresentative samples and overly simplified images. While new methods can potentially play a role in expanding the knowledge base on trafficking, this article argues that the solution is not entirely about applying new methods, but as much about using current methods to greater effect and with careful attention to their limitations and ethical constraints. Drawing on the authors' experience in researching trafficking issues in a number of projects over the past decade, the article outlines and exemplifies some of the methodological and ethical issues to be considered and accommodated when conducting research with trafficked persons -- including unrepresentative samples; access to respondents; selection biases by "gatekeepers" and self selection by potential respondents. Such considerations should inform not only how research is undertaken but also how this information is read and understood. Moreover, many of these considerations equally apply when considering the application of new methods within this field. The article maintains that a better understanding of how these issues come into play and inform trafficking research will translate into tools for conducting improved research in this field and, by implication, new perspectives on human trafficking.

  7. Additive effects of emotional content and spatial selective attention on electrocortical facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Andreas; Moratti, Stephan; Sabatinelli, Dean; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Affectively arousing visual stimuli have been suggested to automatically attract attentional resources in order to optimize sensory processing. The present study crosses the factors of spatial selective attention and affective content, and examines the relationship between instructed (spatial) and automatic attention to affective stimuli. In addition to response times and error rate, electroencephalographic data from 129 electrodes were recorded during a covert spatial attention task. This task required silent counting of random-dot targets embedded in a 10 Hz flicker of colored pictures presented to both hemifields. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were obtained to determine amplitude and phase of electrocortical responses to pictures. An increase of ssVEP amplitude was observed as an additive function of spatial attention and emotional content. Statistical parametric mapping of this effect indicated occipito-temporal and parietal cortex activation contralateral to the attended visual hemifield in ssVEP amplitude modulation. This difference was most pronounced during selection of the left visual hemifield, at right temporal electrodes. In line with this finding, phase information revealed accelerated processing of aversive arousing, compared to affectively neutral pictures. The data suggest that affective stimulus properties modulate the spatiotemporal process along the ventral stream, encompassing amplitude amplification and timing changes of posterior and temporal cortex.

  8. Effects of carprofen or meloxicam on selected haemostatic variables in miniature pigs after orthopaedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Raušer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect and compare the haemostatic variables and bleeding after 7‑days administration of carprofen or meloxicam in clinically healthy miniature pigs. Twenty-one clinically healthy Göttingen miniature pigs were divided into 3 groups. Selected haemostatic variables such as platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, serum biochemical variables such as total protein, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase and haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells and buccal mucosal bleeding time were assessed before and 7 days after daily intramuscular administration of saline (1.5 ml per animal, control group, carprofen (2 mg·kg-1 or meloxicam (0.1 mg·kg-1. In pigs receiving carprofen or meloxicam, the thrombin time was significantly increased (p p p p < 0.05 compared to the control group. Significant differences were not detected in other haemostatic, biochemical variables or bleeding time compared to other groups or to the pretreatment values. Intramuscular administration of carprofen or meloxicam in healthy miniature pigs for 7 days causes sporadic, but not clinically important changes of selected haemostatic variables. Therefore, we can recommend them for perioperative use, e.g. for their analgesic effects, in orthopaedic or other surgical procedures without increased bleeding.

  9. Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic cells: effects on learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark G; Bucci, David J; Gorman, Linda K; Wiley, Ronald G; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-10-01

    Male Long-Evans rats were given injections of either 192 IgG-saporin, an apparently selective toxin for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (LES), or vehicle (CON) into either the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) or bilaterally into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and substantia innominata (nBM/SI). Place discrimination in the Morris water maze assessed spatial learning, and a trial-unique matching-to-place task in the water maze assessed memory for place information over varying delays. MS/VDB-LES and nBM/SI-LES rats were not impaired relative to CON rats in acquisition of the place discrimination, but were mildly impaired relative to CON rats in performance of the memory task even at the shortest delay, suggesting a nonmnemonic deficit. These results contrast with effects of less selective lesions, which have been taken to support a role for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in learning and memory. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Effects of Plymetrics Training and Weight Training on selected Motor Ability Components among University Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Alauddin; Mallick, Nazrul Islam

    2012-11-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to find out the effects of plyometrics training and weight training among university male students.Procedure: 60 male students from the different colleges of the Burdwan University were randomly selected as subjects and their age were 19-25 years served as Weight training Group (WTG), second group served as Plyometric Training Group (PTG) and the third group served as Control Group (CT). Eight weeks weight training and six weeks plyometric training were given for experiment accordingly. The control group was not given any training except of their routine. The selected subjects were measured of their motor ability components, speed, endurance, explosive power and agility. ANCOVA was calculation for statistical treatment.Finding: Plyometric training and weight training groups significantly increase speed, endurance, explosive power and agility.Conclusion: The plyometric training has significantly improved speed, explosive power, muscular endurance and agility. The weight training programme has significantly improved agility, muscular endurance, and explosive power. The plometric training is superior to weight training in improving explosive power, agility and muscular endurance.

  11. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Le

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/butadiene rubber (BR/natural rubber (NR blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phospholipids, which are linked to the α-terminal of NR can interact with the CNT surface through cation-π interactions forming strong bonding between NR and CNTs. Using the corrected surface tension value of NR, which involves the effect of phospholipids found in our previous work the selective wetting of CNTs in ternary rubber blends can be well predicted using the Z-model for a thermodynamic equilibrium state. By replacing the non-polar BR by a polar rubber like nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR as a blend component CNTs are wetted by NBR slightly more than by NR thanks to the strong interaction between CNTs and nitrile groups of NBR. SBR remains unbound to CNTs in both blends.

  12. Friendship selection and influence in bullying and defending: effects of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), it was tested whether similarity between friends in bullying and defending developed over time due to friends' influence, while controlling for friendship selection processes, and whether there were differences in these processes between children (age 9-10 years; n = 133; 42.9% girls) and young adolescents (age 11-14 years; n = 236; 40.6% girls). Results showed that individuals selected peers as friends who were similar in bullying and became more similar to friends in bullying over time, but only in early adolescence. Moreover, there was marginal support that friends' influence was stronger in young adolescents with higher moral disengagement. In early adolescence, bullying was also indirectly influenced through friends' moral disengagement, with different effects for boys and girls. With regard to defending, young adolescents maintained friendships with peers who were similar in defending, and became more similar to friends in terms of defending over time. These findings suggest important differences between late childhood and early adolescence in socialization processes and indicate that in early adolescence, friends' influence on the development of bullying is partially affected by moral disengagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  14. Mutational jackpot events generate effective frequency-dependent selection in adapting populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallatschek, Oskar

    The site-frequency spectrum is one the most easily measurable quantities that characterize the genetic diversity of a population. While most neutral models predict that site frequency spectra should decay with increasing frequency, a high-frequency uptick has been reported in many populations. Anomalies in the high-frequency tail are particularly unsettling because the highest frequencies can be measured with greatest accuracy. Here, we show that an uptick in the spectrum of neutral mutations generally arises when mutant frequencies are dominated by rare jackpot events, mutational events with large descendant numbers. This leads to an effective pattern of frequency-dependent selection (or unstable internal equilibrium at one half frequency) that causes an accumulation of high-frequency polymorphic sites. We reproduce the known uptick occurring for recurrent hitchhiking (genetic draft) as well as rapid adaptation, and (in the future) generalize the shape of the high-frequency tail to other scenarios that are dominated by jackpot events, such as frequent range expansions. We also tackle (in the future) the inverse approach to use the high-frequency uptick for learning about the tail of the offspring number distribution. Positively selected alleles need to surpass, typically, an u NSF Career Award (PoLS), NIH NIGMS R01, Simons Foundation.

  15. Energetic benefits and adaptations in mammalian limbs: Scale effects and selective pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2015-06-01

    Differences in limb size and shape are fundamental to mammalian morphological diversity; however, their relevance to locomotor costs has long been subject to debate. In particular, it remains unknown if scale effects in whole limb morphology could partially underlie decreasing mass-specific locomotor costs with increasing limb length. Whole fore- and hindlimb inertial properties reflecting limb size and shape-moment of inertia (MOI), mass, mass distribution, and natural frequency-were regressed against limb length for 44 species of quadrupedal mammals. Limb mass, MOI, and center of mass position are negatively allometric, having a strong potential for lowering mass-specific locomotor costs in large terrestrial mammals. Negative allometry of limb MOI results in a 40% reduction in MOI relative to isometry's prediction for our largest sampled taxa. However, fitting regression residuals to adaptive diversification models reveals that codiversification of limb mass, limb length, and body mass likely results from selection for differing locomotor modes of running, climbing, digging, and swimming. The observed allometric scaling does not result from selection for energetically beneficial whole limb morphology with increasing size. Instead, our data suggest that it is a consequence of differing morphological adaptations and body size distributions among quadrupedal mammals, highlighting the role of differing limb functions in mammalian evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. A simple numerical model to estimate the effect of coal selection on pulverized fuel burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.K.; Hurt, R.H.; Niksa, S.; Muzio, L.; Mehta, A.; Stallings, J. [Brown University, Providence, RI (USA). Division Engineering

    2003-06-01

    The amount of unburned carbon in ash is an important performance characteristic in commercial boilers fired with pulverized coal. Unburned carbon levels are known to be sensitive to fuel selection, and there is great interest in methods of estimating the burnout propensity of coals based on proximate and ultimate analysis - the only fuel properties readily available to utility practitioners. A simple numerical model is described that is specifically designed to estimate the effects of coal selection on burnout in a way that is useful for commercial coal screening. The model is based on a highly idealized description of the combustion chamber but employs detailed descriptions of the fundamental fuel transformations. The model is validated against data from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors burning a range of international coals, and then against data obtained from full-scale units during periods of coal switching. The validated model form is then used in a series of sensitivity studies to explore the role of various individual fuel properties that influence burnout.

  17. Effects of dance therapy on the selected hematological and rheological indicators in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Anna; Bac, Aneta; Kulis, Aleksandra; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległów, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of dance therapy on selected hematological and rheological indicators in older women. The study included 30 women (aged 71.8±7.4), and the control group comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month dance therapy program (three 45-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The dance therapy program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, the dance therapy resulted in a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in glucose and fibrinogen levels were noted. Dance therapy modulates selected hematological parameters of older women; it leads to increase in erythrocyte count and hematocrit level. Dance therapy is reflected by higher plasma viscosity. Concentrations of fibrinogen and glucose are not affected by the dance therapy in older women, suggesting maintenance of homeostasis. Those findings advocate implementation of dance therapy programs in older women.

  18. The Composition Effect of Macroeconomic Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Selected SAARC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish MALIK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the most promising economic variables i.e., foreign direct investment (FDI, exports and financial development on economic growth in selected South Asian Association of Regional Co-corporation (SAARC countries. In addition, this study argued that whether FDI, Exports and financial development fosters or hinder economic growth in SAARC countries, for this purpose, panel data set of selected five SAARC countries namely, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Srilanka considered for empirical consideration over a period of 1975 to 2011. By using two-stage least square (2SLSL technique, empirical evidence on the effects of FDI, exports and financial development on economic growth is mix in terms of apriori expectations. In case of Bangladesh, exports and broad money supply (M2 is the positive and significant contributor to increase economic growth, whereas, M2 increases India’s GDP. FDI is the only significant contributor to increase Pakistan’s economic growth. In case of Nepal and Srilanka, broad money supply increases economic growth, whereas, due to high dependency on imports, exports could not considerably increases economic growth in those regions.

  19. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiradentes, R.V.; Pires, J.G.P.; Silva, N.F.; Ramage, A.G.; Santuzzi, C.H.; Futuro, H.A. Neto

    2014-01-01

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central

  20. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiradentes, R.V. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Silva, N.F. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Ramage, A.G. [Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Futuro, H.A. Neto [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2014-05-30

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.