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Sample records for anthraquinones

  1. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  2. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  3. Anthraquinone Content in Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Lothar Hennig; Athanassios Giannis; Jutta Ortwein; Kutchan, Toni M.; Xi Feng

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been used in traditional medicine and as food for thousands of years. While the fruits serve as food and internal medicine, leaves were traditionally used only topically. In recent years, concern regarding the possible content of anthraquinones in noni has led to scrutiny by the European Food Safety Authority. Little research existed on the content of anthraquinones in different noni preparations, with no information about the potential effect of harvest and preparation methods. Our ...

  4. Anthraquinone Content in Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Hennig, Lothar; Giannis, Athanassios; Ortwein, Jutta; Kutchan, Toni M; Feng, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been used in traditional medicine and as food for thousands of years. While the fruits serve as food and internal medicine, leaves were traditionally used only topically. In recent years, concern regarding the possible content of anthraquinones in noni has led to scrutiny by the European Food Safety Authority. Little research existed on the content of anthraquinones in different noni preparations, with no information about the potential effect of harvest and preparation methods. Our research focused on lucidin, alizarin, and rubiadin, the most important anthraquinones from a health perspective. We found that the production process (fermentation/juice production versus drying/lyophilization) has no effect on the anthraquinone content. The source product, however, does have implications: noni fruit puree from which seeds had been removed as well as consumer products produced from such puree had no detectable amounts of any anthraquinones. Products that did contain seed or leaf material in all cases did contain partly significant amounts of anthraquinones. To alleviate safety concerns, we suggest that noni products, whether fermented or unfermented juice or powder, should be derived only from fully ripe noni fruits, and that any seed material needs to be removed during the production process. PMID:24062780

  5. Anthraquinone Content in Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Hennig, Lothar; Giannis, Athanassios; Ortwein, Jutta; Kutchan, Toni M; Feng, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been used in traditional medicine and as food for thousands of years. While the fruits serve as food and internal medicine, leaves were traditionally used only topically. In recent years, concern regarding the possible content of anthraquinones in noni has led to scrutiny by the European Food Safety Authority. Little research existed on the content of anthraquinones in different noni preparations, with no information about the potential effect of harvest and preparation methods. Our research focused on lucidin, alizarin, and rubiadin, the most important anthraquinones from a health perspective. We found that the production process (fermentation/juice production versus drying/lyophilization) has no effect on the anthraquinone content. The source product, however, does have implications: noni fruit puree from which seeds had been removed as well as consumer products produced from such puree had no detectable amounts of any anthraquinones. Products that did contain seed or leaf material in all cases did contain partly significant amounts of anthraquinones. To alleviate safety concerns, we suggest that noni products, whether fermented or unfermented juice or powder, should be derived only from fully ripe noni fruits, and that any seed material needs to be removed during the production process.

  6. Anthraquinone Content in Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer W. Bussmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noni has been used in traditional medicine and as food for thousands of years. While the fruits serve as food and internal medicine, leaves were traditionally used only topically. In recent years, concern regarding the possible content of anthraquinones in noni has led to scrutiny by the European Food Safety Authority. Little research existed on the content of anthraquinones in different noni preparations, with no information about the potential effect of harvest and preparation methods. Our research focused on lucidin, alizarin, and rubiadin, the most important anthraquinones from a health perspective. We found that the production process (fermentation/juice production versus drying/lyophilization has no effect on the anthraquinone content. The source product, however, does have implications: noni fruit puree from which seeds had been removed as well as consumer products produced from such puree had no detectable amounts of any anthraquinones. Products that did contain seed or leaf material in all cases did contain partly significant amounts of anthraquinones. To alleviate safety concerns, we suggest that noni products, whether fermented or unfermented juice or powder, should be derived only from fully ripe noni fruits, and that any seed material needs to be removed during the production process.

  7. New anthraquinone derivatives from the roots of Berchemia floribunda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wei; Jian Shuang Jiang; Zi Ming Feng; Pei Cheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A new naphthoquinone-anthraquinone dimer named floribundiquinone E (1) and a new anthraquinone 2-acetylphyscion (2)were isolated from the roots of Berchemia floribunda Brongn. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF ANTHRAQUINONES FROM CASSIA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rizwan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal problem mainly constipation is the major disorder in human beings in almost all regions. The present work aimed to study exclusively on various seeds of Cassia species for exploration and phytochemical estimation of anthraquinones and for its laxative activity. Three species of Cassia namely C. fistula, C. angustifolia,, C. siamea have been taken for the study in which three varieties of Cassia fistula has been taken viz. C. fistula seed marketed, C. fistula seed collected and C. fistula pod. The process was carried out in which initially the samples of different varieties were extracted by four methods namely maceration, percolation, decoction and Soxhlation. The crude extract obtained was subjected for qualitative and quantitative estimation of anthraquinones. The content of total anthraquinone glycoside in the crude extract prepared by each extraction method was determined by U.V. spectrophotometry. The extract prepared by maceration method (Cassia siamea exhibit highest content of anthraquinone glycoside of followed by extract of percolation method, Soxhlation and decoction method. The investigation reviles that seed of C. siamea and C. angustifolia possess maximum amount of anthraquinone glycoside in majority of extraction processes.

  9. Bio-antioxidant of Anthraquinone Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI,Jian; LI,Zhao-Long; HONG,Xiao-Yin

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Rubiaceae family is well known for containing anthraquinones. More specifically, lapachol and its analogues are known to possess antitumor, antibiotic, antimalarial and antiulceric activities.[1] Several report indicated that some quinones containing OH in its structure were found to have higher bio-activity than quinines lacking the OH group.

  10. Anthraquinones from the bark of Senna macranthera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Branco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 2-acetyl physcion (2-acetyl-1,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 2, a rare anthraquinone, was isolated from Senna macranthera var. nervosa (Vogel H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae. The chemical structure was elucidated and all ¹H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were assigned by NMR one- (¹HNMR, {¹H}-13CNMR, and APT-13CNMR and two (COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC dimensional of this natural compound. Furthermore, the minor anthraquinones chrysophanol (3, chrysophanol-8-methyl ether (4 and physcion (5 were characterized by GC-MS analysis. The occurrence of the anthraquinones 3-5 confirms that S. macranthera is a typical representative of the genus Senna.2-acetil-fisciona (2-acetil-1, 8-di-hidróxi-6-metóxi-3-metil-9, 10-antraquinona, 2, uma antraquinona rara, foi isolada de Senna acranthera var. nervosa (Vogel H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae. estrutura química foi elucidada e todos os deslocamentos químicos de RMN ¹H e 13C foram atribuídos através de RMN uni- (RMN¹H, {¹H}-RMN-13C e APT-RMN13C e bi- (COSY, NOESY, HMQC e HMBC dimensional deste composto natural. Adicionalmente, as antraquinonas minoritárias crisofanol (3, crisofanol-8-metil éter (4 e fisciona (5 foram caraterizadas pela análise de CG-EM. A ocorrência das antraquinonas 3-5 confirma que S. macranthera é uma típica representante do gênero Senna.

  11. Comparative studies on anthraquinone retention following the soda/anthraquinone process using 14C-labelled anthraquinone, and mode of action of anthraquinone on lignins and lignin model components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation contributes to the clarification of the following questions: how much of the additive is retained in cellulose following soda/anthraquinone-wood pulping; how much anthraquinone can be detected after extraction studies and after a conventional CEHD-bleaching treatment; can differences be detected between soda lignins and soda/anthraquinone lignins with respect to analytical data, spectroscopie characteristics and macromolecular properties; and how do dimeric lignin models with #betta#-arylether structure behave in decomposition studies using the soda/anthraquinone process. (orig./MG)

  12. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  13. Degradation of anthraquinone dyes by ozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The decolorization of three kinds of anthraquinone dyes by ozone was investigated and the residues in the degradation solution were analyzed. The results indicate that the decolorizing effects are obvious with the decolorization efficiency of dyes all above 96% in 40 min. The pH value and TOC concentration decline while the conductivity increases with the lapse of reaction time.The complicated dye molecules are decomposed to simple compounds with -SO3H, -Cl in the dye molecules transformed into SO4 2-, Cl-, and nitrogen partially degrades into NO3- according to the bases of different groups. The organic acids are found in the degradation solutions and dyes with larger relative molecular mass are decomposed into substances with larger relative molecular mass.

  14. Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dollendorf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethylphenylamino-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2, blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyloxyphenylaminoanthraquinone (6 and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethylaminoanthraquinone (12, as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-ylaminoanthraquinone (15 were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants.

  15. Decolorization of Anthraquinone dye by Rhodopseudomonas XL-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas XL-1 gained from textile wastewater can effectively decolorize anthraquinone dye. Under anaerobic condition, 93 percent of the anthraquinone dye is decolorized , which is higher than that under aerobic condition. The optimum pH is 6~9 and the optimum temperature is 20~40℃ for the anthraquinone dye decolorization by XL-1 . XL-1 can not decolorize the anthraquinone dye when it is the sole carbon source. Microbial cometabolism and decolorization of the dye take place in the presence of some other carbon source(0.2~0.4g/100ml)called cometabolic substrate. The cometabolic substrate can be peptone, glucose, sodium acetate, beef extract, amylum, etc. The change of molecular structure of the dye before and after decolorized by XL-1 is studied by UV-Vis absorption spectrum. The results indicate that its molecular structure is changed evidently.

  16. Anthraquinone laxatives and human cancer: an association in one case.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P. M.; Selby, P J; Deacon, J; Chilvers, C; McElwain, T J

    1989-01-01

    An 18 year old girl presented with a leiomyosarcoma of the small bowel with widespread dissemination. Despite short term remissions after chemotherapy and surgery she died of the disease 10 months later. A history of prolonged exposure to danthron (an anthraquinone laxative) in childhood was obtained. Anthraquinones are known to be mutagenic and may be carcinogenic in experimental systems but danthron is not a proven carcinogen in man. The association of danthron and a rare bowel cancer in on...

  17. A new anthraquinone glycoside from seeds of Cassia obtusifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying Tang; Zhu Ju Wang; Mei Hong Fu; Yan He; Hong Wei Wu; Lu Qi Huang

    2008-01-01

    A new anthraquinone glycoside 1, along with a known anthraquinone glycoside aurantio-obtusin-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 2, were isolated from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia. On the basis of spectral and chemical evidences, the structure of 1 was established as 1-demethylaurantio-obtusin-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Moreover, the 13C NMR of 2 was assigned totally and correctly for the first time based on the two-dimensional NMR.

  18. Isolation and antimicrobial acitivity of anthraquinones from some species of the lichen genus Xanthoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ. KRSTIC

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of six anthraquinones, erythroglaucin, physcion, xanthorin, emodin, fallacinal and teloschistin, from three species of the lichen genus Xanthoria (X. fallax, X. elegans and X. policarpa is reported. Physcion is the dominant anthraquinone in all species. the anthraquinones showed broad-spectrum antifingal activity and selective activity against some phytopathogenic bacterial species.

  19. Brominated thiophenes as precursors in the preparation of brominated and arylated anthraquinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Thies; Tanaka, Yasuko; Iniesta, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Brominated anthraquinones can be synthesized directly from bromothiophenes when these are reacted with 1,4-naphthoquinones in the presence of meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. The bromoanthraquinones are versatile building blocks in the preparation of arylated anthraquinones and of extended pi-systems with interspersed anthraquinone units. PMID:19305356

  20. Brominated Thiophenes as Precursors in the Preparation of Brominated and Arylated Anthraquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thies Thiemann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Brominated anthraquinones can be synthesized directly from bromothiophenes when these are reacted with 1,4-naphthoquinones in the presence of meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. The bromoanthraquinones are versatile building blocks in the preparation of arylated anthraquinones and of extended π-systems with interspersed anthraquinone units.

  1. Brominated Thiophenes as Precursors in the Preparation of Brominated and Arylated Anthraquinones

    OpenAIRE

    Thies Thiemann; Jesus Iniesta; Yasuko Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Brominated anthraquinones can be synthesized directly from bromothiophenes when these are reacted with 1,4-naphthoquinones in the presence of meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. The bromoanthraquinones are versatile building blocks in the preparation of arylated anthraquinones and of extended π-systems with interspersed anthraquinone units.

  2. Presence of Wolbachia in insect eggs containing antimicrobially active anthraquinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankewitz, Florian; Zöllmer, Anja; Hilker, Monika; Gräser, Yvonne

    2007-11-01

    Wolbachia are obligatory, cytoplasmatically inherited alpha-proteobacteria, which are common endosymbionts in arthropods where they may cause reproductive abnormalities. Many insects are well known to protect themselves from deleterious microorganisms by antibiotic components. In this study, we addressed the question whether Wolbachia are able to infect insects containing antimicrobial anthraquinones and anthrones, and if so, whether these genotypes of Wolbachia comprise a monophyletic cluster within one of the known supergroups. Leaf beetles of the taxon Galerucini (Galerucinae) are known to contain 1,8-dihydroxylated anthraquinones and anthrones. Also, the scale insect Dactylopius contains an anthraquinone glycoside, carminic acid. Our analyses revealed that a representative of the Galerucini, Galeruca tanaceti and Dactylopius, are indeed infected by endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of the wsp and ftsZ genes of these bacteria revealed that strains in G. tanaceti cluster in supergroup A, whereas those present in Dactylopius are distinctive from each other and from those of G. tanaceti. They are clustering in supergroups A and B. Wolbachia strains present in close, but anthraquinone-free relatives of G. tanaceti were shown to belong also to supergroup A. From these results, we can conclude (1) a double infection in Dactylopius, (2) that the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as anthraquinones does not necessarily protect insects from infection by Wolbachia, and (3) that genotypes of Wolbachia-infecting anthraquinone-containing insects most likely do not comprise a unique genotype. These results show that Wolbachia bacteria might be adapted to cope even with conditions usually detrimental to other bacteria and that these adaptations are widespread among Wolbachia supergroups. PMID:17364245

  3. Key factors regarding decolorization of synthetic anthraquinone and azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyakamol, A; Imai, T; Chairattanamanokorn, P; Higuchi, T; Sekine, M

    2009-07-01

    The factors affecting decolorization of anthraquinone dye represented by Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and azo dye represented by Methyl Orange (MO) were studied in batch experiments under mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic conditions. The results indicated differences in decolorization properties of the dyes with different chromophore structures. In abiotic conditions, MO could be decolorized by a physicochemical reaction when it was sterilized at 121 degrees C together with sludge cells or glucose. RB4 only showed absorption onto the cell mass. The presence of a redox mediator accelerated the decolorizing reaction when supplied together with glucose in the presence of sterilized sludge cells. In biotic conditions, the results indicated that the biological activity of microorganisms was an important factor in decolorization. The main factor involved in decolorization was the conversion of cosubstrate as electron donor, which reacted with dye as an electron acceptor in electron transfer. Redox mediators, anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid, and anthraquinone could accelerate decolorization even if a small amount (0.2 mM) was applied. On the other hand, a high concentration of redox mediator (1.0 mM) had an inhibitory effect on decolorization especially under thermophilic conditions. In addition, the decolorization of dye was accelerated by increasing treatment temperature, as shown in biotic treatments. Based on these results, increasing the treatment temperature could be used to improve the decolorizing process of textile dye wastewater treatment, especially for recalcitrant dyes such as anthraquinone.

  4. Porphyrin-anthraquinone dyads: Synthesis, spectroscopy and photochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Prashanth Kumar; G Premaladha; Bhaskar G Maiya

    2005-03-01

    Free-base (H2L2), copper(II) (CuL2) and zinc(II) (ZnL2) derivatives of a porphyrin-anthraquinone conjugate with an azomethine group separating the two photoactive subunits have been synthesized and characterized by mass (FAB), IR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and ESR spectroscopic techniques and also by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric methods. Analysis of the data reveals that the spectral and electrochemical properties of the individual chromophoric entities are retained and that there is no specific - interaction between the porphyrin and anthraquinone subunits. H2L2 and ZnL2 are shown to exhibit substantial quenching (88-97%) of the porphyrin fluorescence compared to their corresponding monomeric analogues. An intramolecular electron-transfer mechanism is proposed for the substantial decrease in fluorescence in both derivatives. The fluorescence decays of porphyrin-anthraquinone conjugates are fit to 2/3 exponentials and indicate that multiple orientations of the porphyrin and anthraquinone groups contribute to the electron-transfer event. These results are in good agreement with steady-state fluorescence results. From the time-resolved fluorescence data, the electron-transfer rate constants are calculated, indicating ET values in the range of 1.1 × 109 to 9.9 × 1010 s-1 that are dependent upon the solvent.

  5. Comparison studies on soda lignin and soda-anthraquinone lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin were compared in this study. The physico-chemical properties and structural features of the isolated lignin were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV), ash test, Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analyzer, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C-NMR) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Nitrobenzene oxidation was performed on these two types of lignin especially for the HPLC analysis. Based on the CHN, 13C-NMR and UV results there were no significant differences between soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin. The FTIR results also showed that there were no significant differences in terms of functional groups that exist in both lignins. (author)

  6. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  7. Molecular structure and reversible photodegradation in anthraquinone dyes

    CERN Document Server

    Dhakal, Prabodh

    2016-01-01

    Reversible photodegradation is a process that has been observed in several dye molecules, but the underlying mechanisms are not still well understood. In this contribution, we characterize a series of anthraquinone dyes to determine how self-healing depends on molecular structure. Past studies have used probing techniques that rely on linear absorption, two-photon fluorescence, and amplified spontaneous emission. Each of these probes provide an indirect measure of the populations of the damaged and undamaged species, requiring calibrations or assumptions to be made that might affect the accuracy of the results. The present studies use fluorescence as a probe, which is shown to directly measure the undamaged population. It is found that certain anthraquinone classes share common structural features that are associated with self healing. Furthermore, the time and temperature dependence of photodegradation and self-healing is found to be consistent with the domain model of self healing.

  8. Adsorption of Anthraquinone Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Penicillium Terrestre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Bao-ping; LIU Xiao-mei

    2006-01-01

    Penicillium terrestre was used for removing four anthraquinone dyes from aqueous solution. The experiments were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks and spore suspension was used for inoculation. The results show that the mechanism of dye removal by penicillium terrestre is biosorption and the growing pellets exhibit higher adsorptive capacity than the resting or dead ones. The maximum removals of disperse blue 2BLN, reactive brilliant blue KN-R, acid anthraquinone blue and bromamine acid at the concentration of 120 mg/L by biosorption of growing pellets are 100 %, 100 %, 96 % and 91%, respectively. The 100.0 % and 91.4 % KN-R removals are achieved respectively at the much higher concentration of 250 and 400 mg/L. 2.5 g/L glucose is sufficient for 100% KN-R removal by growing pellets. Salinity (NaC1) increase from 0 to 2% (W/V) moderately accelerates both mycelium growth and KN-R removal.

  9. Five new anthraquinones from the seed of Cassia obtusifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Long; Tang, Li-Ying; Zhou, Xi-Dan; Zhou, Guo-Hong; Wang, Zhu-Ju

    2015-06-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia led to the isolation of five new anthraquinones, including one aglycon and four glycosides. The structures were elucidated by analysis of extensive spectroscopic data and the results of acid hydrolysis. All these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase, and 1 showed potent activity with IC50 value of 185 ± 15 µM.

  10. The electrochemistry of arylated anthraquinones in room temperature ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Berenguer, Alicia; Gómez Mingot, María; García Cruz, Leticia; Thiemann, Thies; Banks, Craig E.; Montiel Leguey, Vicente; Iniesta Valcárcel, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Arylated anthraquinone derivatives of different sizes and different π-basicities have been prepared, and the electrochemical behaviour of these substances has been studied on screen printed graphite electrodes in the three room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4MIM][PF6]), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6MIM][PF6]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM][PF6]). Half redox potentials for the first and...

  11. 2-Hydr-oxy-1-methoxy-anthraquinone monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Meng; Jiao, Yuan-Qi

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C(15)H(10)O(4)·H(2)O, also known as alizarin 1-methyl ether monohydrate, was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two outer benzene rings being 3.07 (4)°. In the crystal structure, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the organic mol-ecules and the water mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21582814

  12. Synthesis of New DNA G-Quadruplex Constructs with Anthraquinone Insertions and Their Anticoagulant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouda, Alaa S.; Amine, Mahasen S.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    potassium buffer conditions as previously observed for TBA. Although the majority of the anthraquinone modified TBA analogues showed a decrease in clotting times in a fibrinogen clotting assay when compared to TBA, modified aptamers containing a 1,8-disubstituted anthraquinone linker replacing G8 or T9 in...

  13. Anthraquinone with tailored structure for a nonaqueous metal-organic redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-07-01

    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of ~82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to those of aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes. PMID:22641051

  14. Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron unwind negatively supercoiled DNA and lengthen linear DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verebová, Valéria [Institute of Biophysics, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice (Slovakia); Adamcik, Jozef [Food and Soft Materials Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 9, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Danko, Patrik; Podhradský, Dušan [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, P.J. Šafárik University, Moyzesova 11, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Miškovský, Pavol [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Sciences, P.J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Faculty of Sciences, P.J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Staničová, Jana, E-mail: jana.stanicova@uvlf.sk [Institute of Biophysics, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice (Slovakia)

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron unwind negatively supercoiled DNA. • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron lengthen linear DNA. • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron possess middle binding affinity to DNA. • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron interact with DNA by intercalating mode. - Abstract: The intercalating drugs possess a planar aromatic chromophore unit by which they insert between DNA bases causing the distortion of classical B-DNA form. The planar tricyclic structure of anthraquinones belongs to the group of chromophore units and enables anthraquinones to bind to DNA by intercalating mode. The interactions of simple derivatives of anthraquinone, quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone) and danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone), with negatively supercoiled and linear DNA were investigated using a combination of the electrophoretic methods, fluorescence spectrophotometry and single molecule technique an atomic force microscopy. The detection of the topological change of negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA, unwinding of negatively supercoiled DNA, corresponding to appearance of DNA topoisomers with the low superhelicity and an increase of the contour length of linear DNA in the presence of quinizarin and danthron indicate the binding of both anthraquinones to DNA by intercalating mode.

  15. 3-Hydr-oxy-1,2-dimethoxy-anthraquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Hong-Bin

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C(16)H(12)O(5), was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings being 1.12 (4)°. In the crystal structure, O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-eculesin the crystallographic a-axis direction. Weak π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance between symmetry-related benzene rings of 3.699 (4) Å] are also present. PMID:21582815

  16. Laser photolysis of interaction of poly-guanylic acid (5’) with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建华; 韩镇辉; 林维真; 姚思德; 王文峰; 林念芸

    2002-01-01

    The electron transfer reaction between triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and poly-guanylic acid (5’) in CH3CN-H2O (97 : 3) has been investigated by 248 nm (KrF) laser flash photolysis. The transient absorption spectra and kinetics obtained from the interaction of triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and poly[G] demonstrate that the primary ionic radical pair, radical cation of poly[G] and radical anion of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate have been detected simultaneously. The free energy changes in the process of the electron transfer were also calculated.

  17. A new anthraquinone from seed of Cassia obtusifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-jun; Zhang, Wei-dong; Jiang, Hong-fang; Zhu, Yu-yao; Chen, Lei; Zha, Xiao-ming; Lu, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Wei-ming

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of Cassia obtusifolia L. are known as homology of medicine and food material, which is a commonly consumed beverage in China. One new compound, 8-hydroxy-1,7-dimethoxy-3-methylanthracene-9,10-dione-2-O-β-d-glucoside (1), together with 11 known compounds, including seven anthraquinones (2-8), was isolated from the seeds. The 2D NMR data of compound 2 are reported for the first time. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, IR and HR-ESI-MS spectra. The cytotoxic activities of all the compounds against five cell lines (LO2, HCT-116, A549, HepG2 and SGC7901) were evaluated by using CCK8 methods. Compounds 1, 3 and 7 show moderate cytotoxicity towards HCT-116 cells compared with oxaliplatin.

  18. Coverage Dependent Assembly of Anthraquinone on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Brad; Deloach, Andrew; Einstein, Theodore; Dougherty, Daniel

    A study of adsorbate-adsorbate and surface state mediated interactions of anthraquinone (AnQ) on Au(111) is presented. We utilize scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to characterize the coverage dependence of AnQ structure formation. Ordered structures are observed up to a single monolayer (ML) and are found to be strongly dependent on molecular surface density. While the complete ML forms a well-ordered close-packed layer, for a narrow range of sub-ML coverages irregular close-packed islands are observed to coexist with a disordered pore network linking neighboring islands. This network displays a characteristic pore size and at lower coverages, the soliton walls of the herringbone reconstruction are shown to promote formation of distinct pore nanostructures. We will discuss these nanostructure formations in the context of surface mediated and more direct adsorbate interactions.

  19. Photochemical modification and patterning of SU-8 using anthraquinone photolinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoi, Gabriela; Keller, Stephan; Persson, Fredrik; Boisen, Anja; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2008-09-16

    Bioactive protein patterns and microarrays achieved by selective localization of biomolecules find various applications in biosensors, bio-microelectromechanical systems (bio-MEMS), and in basic protein studies. In this paper we describe simple photochemical methods to fabricate two-dimensional patterns on a Novolac A derivative polymer (SU-8) and, subsequently, their functionalization with biomolecules. Anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives are used to chemically modify and pattern SU-8 surfaces. Features as small as 20 mum are obtained when using uncollimated light. The X-Y spatial resolution of micropatterned AQ molecules is improved to 1.5 mum when a collimated light source is used. This micropatterning process will be important for the functionalization of MEMS-based biosensors. The method saves several processing steps and can be integrated in cleanroom fabrication thus avoiding contamination of the sensor surfaces.

  20. Thermal Characterization and Decomposition Kinetics of Free Anthraquinones from Rhubarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming ZHANG; Xia LI; Yu Jie DAI

    2006-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of aloe-emodin, chrysophanol and physcion and their kinetics have been investigated under non-isothermal conditions by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry (TG). The thermal characteristics have been determined using the DTA and TG-DTG curves. The non-isothermal kinetic data were analyzed by means of the Achar method and the Madhusudanan-Krishnan-Ninan (MKN) method. The possible reaction mechanisms have been investigated by comparing the kinetic parameters. The kinetic equation for aloe-emodin, chrysophanol and physcion can be expressed as dα/dt=Aexp(-E/RT)1/3(1-α)[-In(1-α)]-2. The activation energy E (kJ mol-1) of the three free anthraquinones are 78.09, 89.54,and 107.5 and their lnA/s-1 are 22.98, 36.85 and 43.60, respectively.

  1. [Distribution of anthraquinones in leaves of two Aloe species and their defence strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zonggen; Li, Jingyuan; Hu, Zhenghai

    2002-11-01

    Aloe plants are the succulents mainly distributed in arid or semi-arid desert in South Africa. TLC analysis indicated that Aole arborescens and Aloe hereroensis contained the high concentration of phenolic derivative metabolites, anthraquinones such as barbaloin, homonataloin, aloeresin and aloenin. In younger leaf, L3 of A. hereroensis, the average content of 4 anthraquinones reached 44.9% of the dry weight of exudates. The similar distribution of the anthraquinones in the two species were found, which showed that the youngest leaves had the highest content, the top part of each leaf had the highest content, and the basal part had the lowest content. Along leaf margin, the content was higher than that of central parts. However, some different distributions were also revealed and compared between the two species. It was inferred that the special distribution of anthraquinones in Aloe was a chemical defense strategy for protection themselves. PMID:12624988

  2. Phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Bezerra de Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens. The chemical analysis of ethanolic extracts showed a mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone in the leaf extract. Two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion were isolated and identified from the root extract. Phytochemical screening using the pharmacognostic methods revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaves and roots. Anthraquinones were only found in the root extract, no alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics were present. The antifungal activity of C. mollis extracts and anthraquinones isolated from the root of this plant against Botryospheria ribis, B. rhodina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium sp showed promising results for their use as fungicides, where emodin was the most active compound, which inhibited the microorganisms tested up to 44%.

  3. Antiosteoporotic Activity of Anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis on Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Jian Zheng; Yan-Bin Wu; Lian-Na Sun; Lu-Ping Qin; Ting Han; Jin-Zhong Wu; Qiao-Yan Zhang; Lei Jiao

    2009-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the successful isolation of antiosteoporotic components, i.e. physicion (1), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy- anthraquinone (3), 1,2-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (4), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy- anthraquinone (5), 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxyanthraquinone (6), 2-methoxyanthraquinone (7) and scopoletin (8) from an ethanolic extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis. Compounds 4-8 are isolated for the first time from M. officinalis. Amo...

  4. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Ž. Šekuljica; Nevena Ž. Prlainović; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Milena G. Žuža; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Dušan Ž. Mijin; Zorica D. Knežević-Jugović

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal cond...

  5. Distribution of Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones, Iridoids and Flavonoids from Morinda genus: Chemistry and Biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Phakhodee, Wong

    2012-01-01

    The present review covers chemistry and bioactivities of anthraquinones, iridoids, and flavonoids from the Morinda genus. The plants of Morinda species, belonging to the Rubiaceae family, have been used as traditional folk medicine with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-tumor, anti-helmin, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. They are rich sources of anthraquinones and iridoids. The relevant 2-methoxy-1,3,6-trihydroxyanthraquinone is one of the most potent quinone reduc...

  6. Treatment of anthraquinone dye wastewater by hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WU Min; Li Dan

    2004-01-01

    Experiment on microbial degradation with two kinds of biological process, hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process and aerobic process was conducted to treat the anthraquinone dye wastewater with CODCr concentration of 400 mg/L and chroma 800. The experimental result demonstrated that the hydrolytic-aerobic process could raise the biodegradability of anthraquinone dye wastewater effectively. The effluent CODCr can reach 120-170 mg/L and chroma 150 which is superior to that from simple aerobic process.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Anthraquinone-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Hong, Sungyoul; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Shi Hyung; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinone compounds are one of the abundant polyphenols found in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. However, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms of anthraquinones have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the activity of anthraquinones using acute inflammatory and nociceptive experimental conditions. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, AQCA), one of the major anthraquinones identified from Brazilian taheebo, ameliorated various inflammatory and algesic symptoms in EtOH/HCl- and acetylsalicylic acid- (ASA-) induced gastritis, arachidonic acid-induced edema, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing without displaying toxic profiles in body and organ weight, gastric irritation, or serum parameters. In addition, AQCA suppressed the expression of inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 in stomach tissues and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. According to reporter gene assay and immunoblotting analyses, AQCA inhibited activation of the nuclear factor- (NF-) κB and activator protein- (AP-) 1 pathways by suppression of upstream signaling involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK1), p38, Src, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Our data strongly suggest that anthraquinones such as AQCA act as potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive components in vivo, thus contributing to the immune regulatory role of fruits and herbs. PMID:27057092

  8. Structure-activity studies: in vitro antileishmanial and antimalarial activities of anthraquinones from Morinda lucida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sittie, A A; Lemmich, E; Olsen, C E;

    1999-01-01

    Anthraquinones have been isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from Morinda lucida. Structure-activity studies show that an aldehyde group at C-2 and a phenolic hydroxy group at C-3 enhance the activity of the anthraquinones against the growth of Plasmodium falciparum and promastigotes of Lei...

  9. Electrochemical lithiation-induced polymorphism of anthraquinone derivatives observed by operando X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Katharine E; Pastore, James P; Zhou, Weidong; Potash, Rebecca A; Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Abruña, Héctor D

    2015-11-01

    The use of organic molecules represents a very attractive and promising alternative for electrical energy storage applications. Quinones, in general, and anthraquinones, in particular, are especially attractive due to their ability to reversibly exchange multiple electrons per formula unit. When used as the active electrode material in a real lithium-ion battery (LIB), crystalline anthraquinone powders reversibly change crystal packing as a function of state-of-charge (redox state), with well-defined voltage plateaus appearing concomitantly with new phases. Operando powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful method for screening the structural stability of organic cathode candidates and for understanding electrochemically-induced structural transformations within organic molecular crystals. Herein we explore the electrochemical lithiation-induced polymorphism of anthraquinone (AQ) and three related derivatives. We believe that this analysis can serve as a model for studying organic charge storage within crystalline small-molecule candidates. PMID:26427626

  10. Antiosteoporotic Activity of Anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis on Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jian Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the successful isolation of antiosteoporotic components, i.e. physicion (1, rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy- anthraquinone (3, 1,2-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (4, 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy- anthraquinone (5, 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxyanthraquinone (6, 2-methoxyanthraquinone (7 and scopoletin (8 from an ethanolic extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis. Compounds 4-8 are isolated for the first time from M. officinalis. Among them, compounds 2 and 3 promoted osteoblast proliferation, while compounds 4, 5 increased osteoblast ALP activity. All of the isolated compounds inhibited osteoclast TRAP activity and bone resorption, and the inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption of compounds 1 and 5 were stronger than that of other compounds. Taken together, antiosteoporotic activity of M. officinalis and its anthraquinones suggest therapeutic potential against osteoporosis.

  11. Antiosteoporotic activity of anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis on osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Bin; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Qin, Lu-Ping; Sun, Lian-Na; Han, Ting; Jiao, Lei; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Wu, Jin-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the successful isolation of antiosteoporotic components, i.e. physicion (1), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy- anthraquinone (3), 1,2-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (4), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy- anthraquinone (5), 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxyanthraquinone (6), 2-methoxyanthraquinone (7) and scopoletin (8) from an ethanolic extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis. Compounds 4-8 are isolated for the first time from M. officinalis. Among them, compounds 2 and 3 promoted osteoblast proliferation, while compounds 4, 5 increased osteoblast ALP activity. All of the isolated compounds inhibited osteoclast TRAP activity and bone resorption, and the inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption of compounds 1 and 5 were stronger than that of other compounds. Taken together, antiosteoporotic activity of M. officinalis and its anthraquinones suggest therapeutic potential against osteoporosis. PMID:19169204

  12. [Relation between root structure and accumulation of anthraquinones of Morinda officinalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui; Wu, Hong; Feng, Cheng Hao; Zhao, Sheng; Liang, She Jian

    2004-04-01

    The histological structures of the roots of Morinda officinalis How of different ages were observed, the distribution and accumulation of anthraquinones in the root were studied with the help of paraffin section, fluorescent microscope and ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the mature structures of the roots of M. officinalis were similar to those of common perennial herbs, and that the anthraquinones in the root of M. officinalis distributed in parenchymatous cells and the content of anthraquinones in the root gradually increased in number with age. Based on above mentioned investigation, we came to the conclusion that the root of M. officinalis should be collected after four years of growing and the top grade root should have well developed phloem and thin xylem. PMID:15259981

  13. Photoinduced interaction between MPA capped CdTe QDs and certain anthraquinone dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeeswari, S.; Asha Jhonsi, M.; Kathiravan, A. [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Renganathan, R., E-mail: rrengas@gmail.co [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-04-15

    Photoinduced interaction of mercapto propionic acid (MPA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with certain anthraquinone dyes namely alizarin, alizarin red S, acid blue 129 and uniblue has been studied by steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements. Addition of anthraquinone dyes to CdTe QDs results in the reduction of electron hole recombination has been observed (i.e., fluorescence quenching). The Stern-Volmer constant (K{sub SV}), quenching rate constant (k{sub q}) and association constants (K) were obtained from fluorescence quenching data. The interaction of anthraquinone dyes with QDs occurs through static quenching was confirmed by unaltered fluorescence lifetime. The occurrence of electron transfer quenching mechanism has been proved by the negative free energy change ({Delta}G{sub et}) obtained as per the Rehm-Weller equation.

  14. Anthraquinone compounds from Morinda officinalis inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Leilei; Qin, Luping; Liu, Lei; Wu, Yanbin; Han, Ting; Xue, Liming; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2011-11-15

    The root of Morinda officinalis has been claimed to have a protective effect against bone loss in sciatic neurectomized and ovariectomized osteoporotic rats, and this protective effect is supposed to be attributed to anthraquinone compounds in the plant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of three anthraquinones isolated from M. officinalis, including 1, 3, 8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (1), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-anthraquinone (2) and rubiadin (3) on bone resorption activity in vitro and the mechanism on osteoclasts derived from rat bone marrow cells. Compound 1, 2 and 3 decreased the formation of bone resorption pits, the number of multinucleated osteoclasts, and the activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphates (TRAP) and cathepsin K in the coculture system of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells in the presence of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamine D(3) and dexamethasone. They also enhanced the apoptosis of osteoclasts induced from bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. In addition, Compound 1, 2 and 3 improved the ratio of mRNA and protein expression of OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts, interfered with the JNK and NF-κB signal pathway, and reduced the expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) and carbonic anhydrase/II (CA II) in osteoclasts induced from bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. These findings indicate that the anthraquinone compounds from M. officinalis are potential inhibitors of bone resorption, and may also serve as evidence to explain the mechanism of the inhibitory effects of some other reported anthraquinones on bone loss. PMID:21945525

  15. Dual recognition of the human telomeric G-quadruplex by a neomycin-anthraquinone conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Nihar; Davis, Erik; Xue, Liang; Arya, Dev P

    2013-06-28

    The authors report the recognition of a G-quadruplex formed by four repeat human telomeric DNA with aminosugar intercalator conjugates. The recognition of the G-quadruplex through dual binding mode ligands significantly increased the affinity of ligands for the G-quadruplex. One such example is a neomycin-anthraquinone conjugate (2) which exhibited nanomolar affinity for the quadruplex, and the affinity of (2) is nearly 1000 fold higher for the human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA than its constituent units, neomycin and anthraquinone.

  16. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  17. Bactericidal activity under UV and visible light of cotton fabrics coated with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed

    2013-06-01

    This study describes a method derived from ISO/TC 206/SC specifications to assess the bactericidal activity against a bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens, of various photocatalytic fabrics, under UVA and filtered visible light. The experimental method allowed the accurate quantification of bacteria survival on photoactive surfaces and films under UVA and UV-free visible irradiation. Cotton fabrics coated with TiO2, anthraquinone or anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 display a significant bactericidal efficiency. TiO2-coated fabrics are very efficient against P. fluorescens after 4 h UVA irradiation (bacteria survival below the detection limit). Under UVA-free visible light, anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 coated fabrics induced a significant bactericidal activity after 2 h irradiation, while anthraquinone alone-coated fabrics were not as efficient and TiO2 coated fabrics were almost inefficient. These results show that although exhibiting a weak n-π* band in the 350-420 nm range, anthraquinone is a good candidate as an efficient visible light photosensitizer. A synergy effect between anthraquinone and TiO2 was demonstrated. A possible reaction mechanism, involving a synergy effect for singlet oxygen formation with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 is proposed to account for these results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel organogermanium sesquioxides with anthraquinone or naphthalene moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Four novel organogermanium sesquioxides with anthraquinone or naphthalene moiety were synthesized. The structures were characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis, and their cytotoxicities were evaluated against human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell lines. The cytotoxicity could be improved by the introduction of planar aromatic chromophore moiety to the parent compound, Ge-132.

  19. Surfactant-induced non-lethal release of anthraquinones from suspension culture of Morinda citrifolia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassetti, L.; Hagendoorn, M.J.M.; Tramper, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new approach based on the use of the surfactant Pluronic F-68 to obtain non-lethal release of plant cell intracellular products was investigated. Suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), producing anthraquinones as secondary metabolites, were selected as model system. By supplementin

  20. Two Validated HPLC Methods for the Quantification of Alizarin and other Anthraquinones in Rubia tinctorum Cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, G.C.H.; Lelyveld, G.P.; Beek, van T.A.; Capelle, A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    Direct and indirect HPLC-UV methods for the quantitative determination of anthraquinones in dried madder root have been developed, validated and compared. In the direct method, madder root was extracted twice with refluxing ethanol-water. This method allowed the determination of the two major native

  1. Red, redder, madder. Analysis and isolation of anthraquinones from madder roots (Rubia tinctorum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, G.C.H.

    2001-01-01

    The roots of Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) are the source of a natural dye. The dye components are anthraquinones with alizarin being the main dye component. Alizarin as such is present in madder root in only small quantities, most of the alizarin is present as its glycoside ruberythric acid. The suga

  2. Development of anti-acne gel formulation of anthraquinones rich fraction from Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Acne vulgaris, a common skin disorder speculated in the age group of 15-25 years begins with increased production of sebum followed by the attack of Propionibacterium acne (Kathryn et al. Most of the synthetic anti-acne drugs tend to exhibit mild to severe side effects along with peeling and darkening of skin, ultimately leading to social withdrawal. Hence, there arises a need to develop a safe and effective anti-acne formulation that would cure and also prevent recurrence of acne. Considering the fact that roots of R. cordifolia (Rubiaceae are rich in anthraquinones characterized for their anti-inflammatory as well as wound healing property, (Singh, 2004 a gel formulation of anthraquinone rich fraction was developed and evaluated for its anti-acne potential using Cup plate diffusion method. A gel formulation containing 0.1 % of anthraquinone rich fraction exhibited optimum anti-acne activity against P.acne, S.epidermidis, M.furfur (zone of inhibition- 28.9, 20.4, 24.6 mm respectively when compared with standard i.e. Clindamycin gel (zone of inhibition- 36.7, 35.3, 32.7 mm respectively. Thus anthraquinone rich fraction in a gel formulation is proved to have a better potential in treating acne. Industrial relevance. Rubia cordifolia, often known as Common Madder, Indian Madder or Manjistha is highly recommended in skin diseases associated with edema and oozing (Yuangang Zu et al, 2010. The root powder was found to work well with ghee, for the medicament of acne. Used externally as a paste by itself or with honey, it heals inflammation and gives the skin an even tone and smoothness. Since the roots are claimed to be rich in anthraquinones, in this research work anthraquinone rich fraction from the roots R. cordifolia were extracted and formulated into an herbal gel and evaluated for its anti-acne activity. Topical gels are very useful as palliative products and prove to be economical and safe; hence it was decided to formulate a simple

  3. Influence of anthraquinone scaffold on E/Z isomer distribution of two thiosemicarbazone derivatives. 2D NMR and DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Violeta; Joksović, Milan D.; Marković, Svetlana; Jakovljević, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A distribution of possible isomeric and tautomeric forms of two tautomerizable anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazones with pronounced cytotoxic potential was investigated using 2D NMR and DFT studies. Conformational analysis of the E and Z isomers of both thiosemicarbazones was performed to find out the most stable conformation for each molecule. It was found that superior stability of E-isomers results from ten-membered intramolecular hydrogen bond between thiosemicarbazone N2H and anthraquinone carbonyl group. This hydrogen bond is stronger than that between thiosemicarbazone N2H and ester oxygen, owing to the large partial negative charge on the anthraquinone oxygen.

  4. Self-healing properties of 1-amino, 2,4-dibromo anthraquinone dye doped in PMMA polymer

    CERN Document Server

    Dhakal, Prabodh

    2016-01-01

    We used fluorescence spectroscopic measurements as a probe to study the self-healing properties of anthraquinone derivative molecules doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). 2,4-dibromo anthraquinone dye doped in PMMA recovers after photodegradation. Its dynamics differs from other anthraquinone derivative molecules. This could be due to the relatively heavier bromine atom attached to one of the carbon atoms of the benzene ring. In this paper, we will discuss the self-healing properties of 2,4-dibromo anthraquinone doped in PMMA matrix. We also tested the correlated chromophore domain model (CCrDM) and have characterized the self-healing properties by determining the CCrDM parameters. We also estimated the self-absorption of fluorescence signal by the dye molecule without which the analysis of the self-recovery of the molecule would be incomplete.

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR using single reference standard.

  6. The Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Five Anthraquinones from Rheum palmatum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Xianghua Xia; Geng-Liang Yang; Xin Deng; Kun-Mu Cheng; Wei Li; Jian Liang; Li-Chun Zhao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied to the extraction of anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) from Rheum palmatum L. The five anthraquinones were quantified and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time parameters, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the highes...

  7. Design, Synthesis and Electrochromic Properties of Anthraquinone Imide-based Donor-acceptor Type of Near Infrared Chromophores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Wen-qiang

    2012-01-01

    A new series of near infrared(NIR)electrochromic anthraquinone imides containing a triphenylamine moiety as an electron donor was synthesized and their electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior were investigated.The results show that the new anthraquinone imides are redox active which can be reduced electrochemically from the neutral state to the radical anion form that absorbs in a range of 700-1200 nm.

  8. Anthraquinone glycosides from Cassia roxburghii and evaluation of its free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Toumy, Sayed A; El Souda, Sahar S; Mohamed, Tahia K; Brouard, Iñaki; Bermejo, Jame

    2012-10-01

    The methanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia roxburghii DC., was investigated for its anthraquinone glycosides and antioxidant activity. Two new anthraquinone glycosides named emodin 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-glucopyranoside (1) and aloemodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-glucopyranoside (2) along with aloemodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), emodin (4), aloemodin (5) and one flavonoid, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, were isolated from the leaves of C. roxburghii. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV, HRESI-MS, and 1D/2D (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The total extract and some isolated compounds were determined against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazinyl radical, for their free radical scavenging activity, the total alcoholic extract showed strong antioxidant activity while the two new compounds showed weak antioxidant activity.

  9. Preparative Isolation of Three Anthraquinones from Rumex japonicus by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Guo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three anthraquinones—emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion—were successfully purified from the dichloromethane extract of the Chinese medicinal herb Rumex japonicus by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. The extract was separated with n-hexane–ethanol–water (18:22:3, v/v/v as the two-phase solvent system and yielded 3.4 mg of emodin, 24.1 mg of chrysophanol, and 2.0 mg of physcion from 500 mg of sample with purities of 99.2 %, 98.8% and 98.2%, respectively. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the chemical structures of the three anthraquinones were confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analysis. This is the first time these anthraquinones have been obtained from R. japonicus by HSCCC.

  10. Distribution of Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones, Iridoids and Flavonoids from Morinda genus: Chemistry and Biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong PHAKHODEE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present review covers chemistry and bioactivities of anthraquinones, iridoids, and flavonoids from the Morinda genus. The plants of Morinda species, belonging to the Rubiaceae family, have been used as traditional folk medicine with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-tumor, anti-helmin, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. They are rich sources of anthraquinones and iridoids. The relevant 2-methoxy-1,3,6-trihydroxyanthraquinone is one of the most potent quinone reductase enzyme inducers with no cytotoxicity with normal cells. Damnacanthol-3-O-b-D-primeveroside and lucidin-3-O-b-D-primeveroside displayed a significant reduction of the blood glucose levels in anti-diabetic tests. Additionally, iridoids, 9-epi-6a-methoxy geniposidic acid, scandoside methyl ester, asperulosidic acid, showed a more potent inhibitory effect of melanogenesis than the commercial available depigmented arbutin used in cosmetic industry.

  11. 2-Hydr­oxy-1-methoxy­anthraquinone monohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhi-Meng; Jiao, Yuan-Qi

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C15H10O4·H2O, also known as alizarin 1-methyl ether monohydrate, was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two outer benzene rings being 3.07 (4)°. In the crystal structure, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the organic mol­ecules and the water mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  12. Anthraquinone-based demultiplexer and other multiple operations at the molecular level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navneet Kaur; Subodh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Anthraquinone-based chemosensor L with pyridine units as additional functional groups has been found to show pH-dependent multiple coordinationmodes towards differentmetal ions (Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+). Based on these different absorption changes, this differential colorimetric chemosensor L has found promising applications as a multiple-mode molecular logic system, i.e., OR, three - input NOR, three - input INHIBIT, TRANSFER and 1:2 DEMUX.

  13. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Pestalotiopsis guepinii, an endophytic of the medicinal plant Virola michelii (Myristicaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marilene N.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P; Santos, Alberdan S.; Ferreira, Isabel C.S.; Lopes-Junior, Manoel L.; Arruda, Mara Silvia P.; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Silva, Milton N. da, E-mail: lss@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Oliveira, Maria C.F. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    A new anthraquinone derivative, named guepinone (1), along with the known substances isosulochrin (2) and chloroisosulochrin (3), were isolated from a rice culture of Pestalotiopsis guepinii, an endophytic fungus of Virola michelii. The compounds were identified by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectral data. The antimicrobial activity of these compounds was evaluated and chloroisosulchrin (3) was the most active. (author)

  14. CFTR chloride channel as a molecular target of anthraquinone compounds in herbal laxatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong YANG; Li-na XU; Cheng-yan HE; Xin LIU; Rou-yu FANG; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To clarify whether CFTR is a molecular target of intestinal fluid secretion caused by the anthraquinone compounds from laxative herbal plants.Methods: A cell-based fluorescent assay to measure I- influx through CFTR chloride channel. A short-circuit current assay to measure transcellular Cl- current across single layer FRT cells and freshly isolated colon mucosa. A closed loop experiment to measure colon fluid secretion in vivo.Results: Anthraquinone compounds rhein, aloe-emodin and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAN) stimulated l- influx through CFTR chloride channel in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of physiological concentration of cAMP. In the short-circuit current assay,the three compound enhanced Cl- currents in epithelia formed by CFTR-expressing FRT cells with EC5o values of 73±1.4, 56±1.7, and 50±0.5 μmol/L, respectively, and Rhein also enhanced Cl- current in freshly isolated rat colonic mucosa with a similar potency. These effects were completely reversed by the CFTR selective blocker CFTRinh-172. In in vivo closed loop experiments, rhein 2 mmol/L stimu-lated colonic fluid accumulation that was largely blocked by CFTRinh-172. The anthraquinone compounds did not elevate cAMP level in cultured FRT cells and rat colonic mucosa, suggesting a direct effect on CFTR activity.Conclusion: Natural anthraquinone compounds in vegetable laxative drugs are CFTR potsntiators that stimulated colonic chloride and fluid secretion. Thus CFTR chloride channel is a molecular target of vegetable laxative drugs.

  15. Reversible Micro- and Nano- Phase Programming of Anthraquinone Thermochromism Using Blended Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-12-22

    Here, we present an approach to generate materials with programmable thermochromic transition temperatures (TTTs), based on the reversible microcrystallization of anthraquinone dyes with the assistance of blended Pluronic block copolymers. At temperatures above block copolymer critical micellization temperature (CMT), hydrophobic anthraquinone dyes, including Sudan blue II, were dispersed in copolymer micelles, whereas at lower temperature, the dyes formed microcrystals driven by dye-dye and dye-Pluronic molecular interactions. The crystallization process altered the optical properties of the dye with bathochromatic shifts detectable by eye and the thermochromic process was fully reversible. Not only could Pluronic reversibly incorporate the anthraquinone dyes into micelles at elevated temperatures, but it also modulated the crystallization process and resulting morphology of microcrystals via tuning the molecular interactions when the temperature was lowered. Crystal melting transition points (and TTTs) were in agreement with the CMTs, demonstrating that the thermochromism was dependent on block copolymer micellization. Thermochromism could be readily programmed over a broad range of temperatures by changing the CMT by using different types and concentrations of Pluronics and combinations thereof. PMID:26626998

  16. The Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Five Anthraquinones from Rheum palmatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Xia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE was applied to the extraction of anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion from Rheum palmatum L. The five anthraquinones were quantified and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time parameters, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of 84% methanol as solvent, an extraction time of 33 min and an extraction temperature of 67 °C. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance indicated a high goodness of model fit and the success of RSM method for optimizing anthraquinones extraction in Rheum palmatum L.

  17. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ž. Šekuljica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C. The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes.

  18. Decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes from textile effluent using horseradish peroxidase: optimization and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Prlainović, Nevena Ž; Stefanović, Andrea B; Žuža, Milena G; Čičkarić, Dragana Z; Mijin, Dušan Ž; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes.

  19. Isomer effect on the near-infrared electrochromism of anthraquinone imides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two pairs of unsubstituted isomers (Ia and Ib) and nitro-substituted isomers (IIa and IIb) of anthraquinone imides (AQIs), which are a unique type of cathodically-colouring NIR electrochromic materials bearing both quinone and imide moieties, were synthesized. • Isomer effect on the NIR electrochromism of n-type optoelectric materials was first approached. • A meaningful reference to design cathodically active NIR EC materials, in which the molecular planarity and the orientation of polar groups are two key elements must to be carefully considered, is provided. - Abstract: To deeply explore the interplay between molecular structure and near-infrared electrochromism of anthraquinone imides, two pairs of unsubstituted isomers (Ia and Ib) and nitro-substituted isomers (IIa and IIb) of anthraquinone imides were synthesized, in which the molecules Ia and IIa took more linear shapes than Ib and IIb. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry were combined to investigate their electrochemical properties. Cyclic voltammetry showed that Ib and IIb revealed decreased first reduction potentials and low cyclic stability compared to their isomers, indicating that the isomerization weakened the stabilization effect. Upon one-electron reduction, both the absorption wavelengths and absorption intensities of radical anions were greatly dependent on the structures of isomers. The radical anions of Ia, IIa, and IIb illustrated NIR absorptions peaked at 820, 1260, and 1380 nm, respectively, but that of Ib exhibited only weak absorption in the visible region centered at 660 nm. Gaussian calculations suggested that the electrons were delocalized over the whole molecular skeletons of Ia and IIa radical anions, but the effective conjugation length was interrupted on the imide section in both Ib and IIb. The isomer effects on the effective conjugation length and electron density distribution were considered to rationalize the

  20. Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Determination of Anthraquinone Hair Dyes in Wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo de Oliveira; Felipe Hudari; Jefferson Franco; Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a voltammetric sensor for the selective determination of Acid Green 25 (AG25) hair dye, widely used in commercial temporary hair dyes. The method is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes activated in the presence of sulfuric acid, where the anthraquinone group present as a chromophore in the dye molecule is reduced at −0.44 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a reversible process involving two electrons in Britton-Robinson (B-...

  1. CHLORINE DIOXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE JUTE PULP TO A VERY HIGH BRIGHTNESS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarwar Jahan; Yonghao Ni,; Zhibin He

    2010-01-01

    Bleaching of soda-anthraquinone jute pulp by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) was studied to reach a target brightness of above 88% for the purpose of using less bleaching chemicals. The performance of either chlorine dioxide or peroxide in the final bleaching to boost brightness was also studied. The experimental results revealed that the final brightness depended on ClO2 charge in the Do and D1 stages. The brightness reversion was lower when the final stage brightening was done by peroxide. The use ...

  2. 3-Hydr­oxy-1,2-dimethoxy­anthraquinone

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Hong-Bin

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C16H12O5, was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings being 1.12 (4)°. In the crystal structure, O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­eculesin the crystallographic a-axis direction. Weak π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance between symmetry-related benzene rings of 3.699 (4) Å] are also present.

  3. Red, redder, madder. Analysis and isolation of anthraquinones from madder roots (Rubia tinctorum)

    OpenAIRE

    Derksen, G.C.H.

    2001-01-01

    The roots of Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) are the source of a natural dye. The dye components are anthraquinones with alizarin being the main dye component. Alizarin as such is present in madder root in only small quantities, most of the alizarin is present as its glycoside ruberythric acid. The sugar in this disaccharide is primeverose. Madder roots have been used to dye textiles in many parts of the world since ancient times. From 1600-1900 there was a heavy trade in madder throughout Europe...

  4. Peptidyl anthraquinones as potential antineoplastic drugs: synthesis, DNA binding, redox cycling, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, B; Zagotto, G; Sissi, C; Cera, C; Uriarte, E; Palù, G; Capranico, G; Palumbo, M

    1996-08-01

    A series of new compounds containing a 9,10-anthracenedione moiety and one or two peptide chains at position 1 and/or 4 have been synthesized. The amino acid residues introduced are glycine (Gly), lysine (Lys), and tryptophan (Trp), the latter two in both the L- and D-configurations. The peptidyl anthraquinones maintain the ability of intercalating efficiently into DNA, even though the orientation within the base-pair pocket may change somewhat with reference to the parent drugs mitoxantrone (MX) and ametantrone (AM). The interaction constants of the mono-, di-, and triglycyl derivatives are well comparable to those found for AM but 5-10 times lower than the value reported for MX. On the other hand, the glycyl-lysyl compounds bind DNA to the same extent as (L-isomer) or even better than (D-isomer) MX. As for the parent drugs without peptidyl chains, the new compounds prefer alternating CG binding sites, although to different extents. The bis-Gly-Lys derivatives are the least sensitive to base composition, which may be due to extensive aspecific charged interactions with the polynucleotide backbone. As far as redox properties are concerned, all peptidyl anthraquinones show a reduction potential very close to that of AM and 60-80 mV less negative than that of MX; hence, they can produce free-radical-damaging species to an extent similar to the parent drugs. The biological activity has been tested in human tumor and murine leukemia cell lines. Most of the test anthraquinones exhibit cytotoxic properties close to those of AM and considerably lower than those of MX. Stimulation of topoisomerase-mediated DNA cleavage is moderately present in representatives of the glycylanthraquinone family, whereas inhibition of the background cleavage occurs when Lys is present in the peptide chain. For most of the test anthraquinones, the toxicity data are in line with the DNA affinity scale and the topoisomerase II stimulation activity. However, in the lysyl derivatives, for which

  5. Potential Antioxidant Anthraquinones Isolated from Rheum emodi Showing Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and nematicidal properties were evaluated for R. emodi extractives which are extracted by standardizing and adopting accelerated solvent extraction (ASE method along with traditional Soxhlet extraction. The extracted material was separated using flash chromatography and the separation conditions and solvents were standardized for the extracted plant constituents. The purity was detected by using analytical reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. LC-MS/MS detection in the direct infusion mode of the isolated, purified products afforded four anthraquinones, characterized by their infrared spectra (IR and 1H spectra as chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, and aloe-emodin. Five antraquinone glucoside derivatives and piceatannol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside have also been detected from the extracted product. During in vitro evaluation the antioxidant potential of methanolic crude extract (CE1 was the highest, followed by ethyl acetate crude extract (CE2 and chloroform extract (CE3 in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The CE1 also demonstrated outstanding nematicidal activity as compared with other extracts, pure anthraquinones, and even positive control azadirachtin. The study conclusively demonstrated the antioxidant potential of R. emodi extracts and also its ability in extenuating the Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode. The bioassay results can be extrapolated to actual field condition and clinical studies.

  6. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Becelic-Tomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrite ash (PA is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4 degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0=5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes.

  7. Electronic Transport Properties of an Anthraquinone-Based Molecular Switch with Carbon Nanotube Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng; LIU De-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method and density functional theory calculations,we theoretically investigate the electronic transport properties of an anthraquinone-based molecular switch with carbon nanotube electrodes.The molecules that comprise the switch can convert between reduced hydroquinone (HQ) and oxidized anthraquinne (AQ) states via redox reactions.Our results show that the on-off ratio is increased one order of magnitude when compared to the case of gold electrodes.Moreover,an obvious negative differential resistance behavior at much low bias (0.07 V) is observed in the HQ form.%Based on the nonequilihrium Green's function method and density functional theory calculations, we theoretically investigate the electronic transport properties of an anthraquinone-based molecular switch with carbon nanotube electrodes. The molecules that comprise the switch can convert between reduced hydroquinone (HQ) and oxidized anthraquinne (AQ) states via redox reactions. Our results show that the on-off ratio is increased one order of magnitude when compared to the case of gold electrodes. Moreover, an obvious negative differential resistance behavior at much low bias (0.07 V) is observed in the HQ form.

  8. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi's productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  9. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Fouillaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  10. Aminoacyl-anthraquinone conjugates as telomerase inhibitors: synthesis, biophysical and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagotto, Giuseppe; Sissi, Claudia; Lucatello, Lorena; Pivetta, Claudia; Cadamuro, Sergio A; Fox, Keith R; Neidle, Stephen; Palumbo, Manlio

    2008-09-25

    The telomerase-telomere complex is a prospective anticancer target. To inhibit enzyme activity by induction of G-quadruplex in human telomeres, we have synthesized a small library of 2,6- and 2,7-amino-acyl/ peptidyl anthraquinones with diverse connecting linkers, charge, lipophilicity and bulk. The test compounds modulated G-quadruplex stability to different extents and showed clear preference for quadruplex over duplex DNA. Telomerase inhibition correlated with G-quadruplex stabilization. A SAR analysis showed that type of linkage between the linker and the anthraquinone, together with the position of the side chains and the nature of the amino acid components play a major role both in stabilizing G-quadruplex and producing telomerase inhibition. Short-term cytotoxic activity was poor. However, after prolonged exposure to effective G-quadruplex binders, cells became senescent. These results are of help in the rational design of more efficient G-quadruplex stabilizers, possibly endowed with cancer cell-selective antiproliferative effects. PMID:18754611

  11. Bank security dye packs: synthesis, isolation, and characterization of chlorinated products of bleached 1-(methylamino)anthraquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, James M; Rickenbach, Michael; Mooney, Kim E; Palenik, Chris S; Golombeck, Rebecca; Mueller, Karl T

    2006-11-01

    Banknote evidence is often submitted after a suspect has attempted to disguise or remove red dye stain that has been released because of an anti-theft device that activates after banknotes have been unlawfully removed from bank premises. Three chlorinated compounds have been synthesized as forensic chemical standards to indicate bank security dye bleaching as a suspect's intentional method for masking a robbery involving dye pack release on banknotes. A novel, facile synthetic method to provide three chlorinated derivatives of 1-(methylamino)anthraquinone (MAAQ) is presented. The synthetic route involved Ultra Clorox bleach as the chlorine source, iron chloride as the catalyst, and MAAQ as the starting material and resulted in a three-component product mixture. Two mono-chlorinated isomers (2-chloro-1-(methylamino)anthraquinone and 4-chloro-1-(methylamino)anthraquinone) and one di-chlorinated compound (2,4-dichloro-1-(methylamino)anthraquinone) of the MAAQ parent molecule were detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and subsequently isolated by liquid chromatography (LC) with postcolumn fraction collection. Although GC-MS is sensitive enough to detect all of the chlorinated products, it is not definitive enough to identify the structural isomers. Liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was utilized to elucidate structurally the ortho- and para-mono-chlorinated isomers once enough material was properly isolated. A reaction mechanism involving iron is proposed to explain the presence of chlorinated MAAQ species on stolen banknotes after attempted bleaching.

  12. Electron-deficient anthraquinone derivatives as cathodic material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Taniki, Ryosuke; Masuda, Asuna; Honma, Itaru; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-10-01

    We studied the electronic and structural properties of electron-deficient anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives, Me4N4AQ and TCNAQ, and investigated their charge-discharge properties in lithium ion batteries along with those of AQ. Cyclic voltammogram, X-ray structure analysis and theoretical calculations revealed that these three acceptors have different features, such as different electron-accepting properties with different reduction processes and lithium coordination abilities, and different packing arrangements with different intermolecular interactions. These differences greatly affect the charge-discharge properties of lithium ion batteries that use these compounds as cathode materials. Among these compounds, Me4N4AQ showed a high charge/discharge voltage (2.9-2.5 V) with high cyclability (>65% of the theoretical capacity after 30 cycles; no decrease after 15 cycles). These results provide insight into more in-depth design principles for lithium ion batteries using AQ derivatives as cathodic materials.

  13. CHLORINE DIOXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE JUTE PULP TO A VERY HIGH BRIGHTNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarwar Jahan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching of soda-anthraquinone jute pulp by chlorine dioxide (ClO2 was studied to reach a target brightness of above 88% for the purpose of using less bleaching chemicals. The performance of either chlorine dioxide or peroxide in the final bleaching to boost brightness was also studied. The experimental results revealed that the final brightness depended on ClO2 charge in the Do and D1 stages. The brightness reversion was lower when the final stage brightening was done by peroxide. The use of Mg(OH2 in the D1 and D2 stages improved the final brightness due to the formation of less chlorate and chlorite during the Mg(OH2- based ClO2 brightening stages. The strength properties of pulp bleached by peroxide in the final stage was slightly better than that from ClO2 as the final ClO2 bleaching stage.

  14. Characterization of an anthraquinone fluor from the bioluminescent, pelagic polychaete Tomopteris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Warren R; Powers, Meghan L; Haddock, Steven H D

    2014-12-01

    Tomopteris is a cosmopolitan genus of polychaetes. Many species produce yellow luminescence in the parapodia when stimulated. Yellow bioluminescence is rare in the ocean, and the components of this luminescent reaction have not been identified. Only a brief description, half a century ago, noted fluorescence in the parapodia with a remarkably similar spectrum to the bioluminescence, which suggested that it may be the luciferin or terminal light-emitter. Here, we report the isolation of the fluorescent yellow-orange pigment found in the luminous exudate and in the body of the animals. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the mass to be 270 m/z with a molecular formula of C(15)H(10)O(5), which ultimately was shown to be aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone previously found in plants. We speculate that aloe-emodin could be a factor for resonant-energy transfer or the oxyluciferin for Tomopteris bioluminescence.

  15. Monte Carlo study of the honeycomb structure of anthraquinone molecules on Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-06-01

    Using Monte Carlo calculations of the two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattice gas model, we demonstrate a mechanism for the spontaneous formation of honeycomb structure of anthraquinone (AQ) molecules on a Cu(111) plane. In our model long-range attractions play an important role, in addition to the long-range repulsions and short-range attractions proposed by Pawin, Wong, Kwon, and Bartels [ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1129309 313, 961 (2006)]. We provide a global account of the possible combinations of long-range attractive coupling constants which lead to a honeycomb superstructure. We also provide the critical temperature of disruption of the honeycomb structure and compare the critical local coverage rate of AQ’s where the honeycomb structure starts to form with the experimental observations.

  16. Anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis roots enhance adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Kim, Seon Beom; Ahn, Jong Hoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    To search for anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitising natural products, the effect on adipocyte differentiation was investigated by assessing fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using Oil Red O staining. Fractionation and separation of n-hexane and CHCl₃ fractions of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) using several chromatographic methods led to the isolation of three anthraquinones, 1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone (1), alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) and rubiadin-1-methyl ether (3). Among them, alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) showed the strongest enhancing activity, followed by rubiadin-1-methyl ether (3) and 1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone (1). At a concentration of 100 µM, alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) enhanced adipocyte differentiation by up to 131% (compared to insulin-treated cells). Thus, these compounds could be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22008000

  17. Direct observation of large quantum interference effect in anthraquinone solid-state junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabache, Vincent; Chaste, Julien; Petit, Philippe; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Martin, Pascal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; McCreery, Richard L; Lafarge, Philippe

    2013-07-17

    Quantum interference in cross-conjugated molecules embedded in solid-state devices was investigated by direct current-voltage and differential conductance transport measurements of anthraquinone (AQ)-based large area planar junctions. A thin film of AQ was grafted covalently on the junction base electrode by diazonium electroreduction, while the counter electrode was directly evaporated on top of the molecular layer. Our technique provides direct evidence of a large quantum interference effect in multiple CMOS compatible planar junctions. The quantum interference is manifested by a pronounced dip in the differential conductance close to zero voltage bias. The experimental signature is well developed at low temperature (4 K), showing a large amplitude dip with a minimum >2 orders of magnitude lower than the conductance at higher bias and is still clearly evident at room temperature. A temperature analysis of the conductance curves revealed that electron-phonon coupling is the principal decoherence mechanism causing large conductance oscillations at low temperature.

  18. Characterization of an anthraquinone fluor from the bioluminescent, pelagic polychaete Tomopteris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Warren R; Powers, Meghan L; Haddock, Steven H D

    2014-12-01

    Tomopteris is a cosmopolitan genus of polychaetes. Many species produce yellow luminescence in the parapodia when stimulated. Yellow bioluminescence is rare in the ocean, and the components of this luminescent reaction have not been identified. Only a brief description, half a century ago, noted fluorescence in the parapodia with a remarkably similar spectrum to the bioluminescence, which suggested that it may be the luciferin or terminal light-emitter. Here, we report the isolation of the fluorescent yellow-orange pigment found in the luminous exudate and in the body of the animals. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the mass to be 270 m/z with a molecular formula of C(15)H(10)O(5), which ultimately was shown to be aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone previously found in plants. We speculate that aloe-emodin could be a factor for resonant-energy transfer or the oxyluciferin for Tomopteris bioluminescence. PMID:24760626

  19. Biodegradation of Acid Anthraquinone Dye in a Facultative-aerobic Process: Kinetics and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin; LI Zai-lei

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of an anthraquinone dye blue 324 in a facultative-aerobic (F-A) system was investigated. Kinetic parameter study showed that higher Vmax coupled with more recalcitrant chemical oxygen demand (COD) were found in the facuitative biofilm reactor (FBR) than in the aerobic reactor (AR). Results of the product analyses indicated that most of dye molecular could be facultatively broken down into simple intermediates, which would be further degraded under subsequent aerobic condition. The main metabolites in each reactor were detected by infrared (FT-IR) and high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Comparison of the toxicities among the dye and its metabolites was conducted, surprisingly, the colorless intermediates from FBR possessed less inhibitory than original dye and the median effective luminescence concentration (EC50) in 15 min for aerobic effluent could not be detected, showing that hardly toxic products existed in the aerobic process effluent.

  20. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

  1. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  2. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  3. Synthesis and in Vitro Screening of New Series of 2,6-Dipeptidyl-anthraquinones: Influence of Side Chain Length on HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecentese, Francesco; Sosic, Alice; Saccone, Irene; Gamba, Elia; Link, Kristina; Miola, Angelica; Cappellini, Marta; Cattelan, Massimiliano Gianni; Severino, Beatrice; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Magli, Elisa; Corvino, Angela; Perissutti, Elisa; Fabris, Dan; Gatto, Barbara; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Santagada, Vincenzo

    2016-03-10

    2,6-Dipeptidyl-anthraquinones are a promising class of nucleic acid-binding compounds that act as NC inhibitors in vitro. We designed, synthesized, and tested new series of 2,6-disubstituted-anthraquinones, which are able to bind viral nucleic acid substrates of NC. We demonstrate here that these novel derivatives interact preferentially with noncanonical structures of TAR and cTAR, stabilize their dynamics, and interfere with NC chaperone activity. PMID:26797100

  4. Anthraquinone dyes decolorization capacity of anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta CCBAS 930 strain and its HRP-like negative mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Rybczyńska, Kamila

    2014-06-01

    Cultures of the anamorphic fungus Bjerkandera adusta CCBAS 930 decolorizing, in stationary cultures, 0.01 % solutions of carminic acid and Poly R-478, were characterised by a strong increase in the activity of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP-like) and manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) at a low activity of lignin peroxidase. Genotypically modified mutants of B. adusta CCBAS 930: 930-5 and 930-14, with total or partial loss of decolorization capabilities relative to anthraquinonic dyes, showed inhibition of the activity of HRP-like peroxidase and MnP. Whereas, compared to the parental strain, in the mutant cultures there was an increase in the activity of lignin peroxidase and laccase. The paper presents a discussion of the role of the studied enzymatic activities in the process of decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes by the strain B. adusta CCBAS 930. PMID:24415463

  5. Electrocoagulation removal of anthraquinone dye Alizarin Red S from aqueous solution using aluminum electrodes: kinetics, isothermal and thermodynamics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Balakrishnan, Ramesh Babu

    2016-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) was used for the removal of anthraquinone dye, Alizarin Red S (ARS) from aqueous solution. The process was carried out in a batch electrochemical cell with Al electrodes in a monopolar connection. The effects of some important parameters such as current density, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration, on the process were investigated. Equilibrium was attained after 10 minutes at 30 °C. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovic, and Avrami kinetic models we...

  6. Applicability of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) to enhance colour removal in mesophilic UASB reactors treating textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    P. I. M. Firmino; M. E. R. da Silva; F. S. B. Mota; A.B. dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    This work assessed the applicability of the redox mediator anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) to enhance colour removal in mesophilic UASB reactors treating textile wastewater under different operational conditions, such as different electron donor (ethanol) concentrations and different HRT. The anaerobic reactors were able to remove reasonably well the colour of the textile wastewater (35-63%) even when operated with a relatively short HRT (6 h), being a good option for textile effluents p...

  7. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen on Anthraquinone/Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in Neutral Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Gong; Guoquan Zhang; Song Wang

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of monohydroxy-anthraquinone/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MHAQ/MWCNTs) nanohybrid modified glassy carbon (MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC) electrodes in neutral medium were investigated; also reported was their application in the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The resulting MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that the ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrode occurs ...

  8. Simultaneous determination of five anthraquinones in a Chinese traditional preparation by RP-HPLC using an improved extraction procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-bin Shi; Hui-li Li; Hai-qin Wang; Yan-biao Yang; Xiao-yun Zhang; Hui Wang; Zong-jie Zhu; Zhi-ye Zhang; Cheng-an Zhang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The stable quality of Chinese herbal medicines is a critical factor for their reliable clinical efficiency. An improved liquid-liquid extraction procedure and a liquid chromatographic method were developed to simultaneously analyze five anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) in a Chinese traditional hospital preparation, Fuyankang mixture, in order to quantitatively control its quality in a more effective way. METHODS: A more economical and repeatable extraction procedure based on conventional liquid-liquid extraction technique was developed and used to extract ifve marker components in Fuyankang mixture. These anthraquinones were separated in less than 20 min on a C18 column with methanol and 0.1%phosphoric acid (88:12, v/v) as mobile phase. The method was validated for speciifcity, precision, spiked recovery and stability. RESULTS: Compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction, the improved liquid-liquid extraction was found to be more effective for simultaneous extraction of anthraquinones from an aqueous Chinese herbal preparation, especially for hydrophobic compounds. The improved extraction method was successful y applied to determine the content of ifve marker components in Fuyankang mixture by the means of reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. CONCLUSION:The improved extraction procedure may be suitable for routine quality control of Fuyankang mixture and other traditional preparations at city-level hospitals in China.

  9. Varying Electronic Structures of Diosmium Complexes from Noninnocently Behaving Anthraquinone-Derived Bis-chelate Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Grupp, Anita; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2015-08-17

    The new compounds [(bpy)2Os(II)(μ-L1(2-))Os(II)(bpy)2](ClO4)2 ([1](ClO4)2) and [(pap)2Os(II)(μ-L1(2-))Os(II)(pap)2](ClO4)2 ([2](ClO4)2) (H2L1 = 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, bpy = 2,2(/)-bipyridine, and pap = 2-phenylazopyridine) and [(bpy)2Os(II)(μ-L2(•-))Os(II)(bpy)2](ClO4)3 ([3](ClO4)3) and [(pap)2Os(II)(μ-L2(2-))Os(II)(pap)2](ClO4)2 ([4](ClO4)2) (H2L2 = 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone) have been analytically identified as the meso and rac diastereoisomers, respectively. The paramagnetic [3](ClO4)3 was also characterized by crystal structure determination. In CD3CN solution, [3](ClO4)3 displays rather narrow but widely split (13 > δ > -8 ppm) resonances in the (1)H NMR spectrum, yet no EPR signal was observed down to 120 K. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry reveal several accessible redox states on oxidation and reduction, showing that the replacement of 1,4-oxido by imido donors causes cathodic shifts and that the substitution of bpy by the stronger π-accepting pap ligands leads to a strong increase of redox potentials. Accordingly, system 3(n) with the lowest (2+/3+) potential was synthetically obtained in the mono-oxidized (3+) form. The (3+) intermediates display small comproportionation constants Kc of about 10(3) and long-wavelength near-infrared absorptions; an EPR signal with appreciable g splitting (1.84, 1.96, and 2.03) was only observed for 4(3+), which exhibits the smallest spin density on the osmium centers. An oxidation state formulation [Os(III)(μ-L(•3-))Os(III)](3+) with some [Os(II)(μ-L(2-))Os(III)](3+) contribution was found to best describe the electronic structures. UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra were recorded for all accessible states by OTTLE spectroelectrochemistry and assigned on the basis of TD-DFT calculations. These results and additional EPR measurements suggest rather variegated oxidation state situations, e.g., the pap ligands competing with the bridge L for electrons, while the oxidation produces

  10. Spontaneous modification of graphite anode by anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinhua; Li, Haoran; Du, Zhuwei; Ng, How Yong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS), an electron transfer mediator, was immobilized onto graphite felt surface via spontaneous reduction of the in situ generated AQS diazonium cations. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) characterizations of AQS modified graphite demonstrated that AQS was covalently grafted onto the graphite surface. The modified graphite, with a surface AQS concentration of 5.37 ± 1.15 × 10(-9)mol/cm(2), exhibited good electrochemical activity and high stability. The midpoint potential of the modified graphite was about -0.248 V (vs. normal hydrogen electrode, NHE), indicating that electrons could be easily transferred from NADH in bacteria to the electrode. AQS modified anode in MFCs increased the maximum power density from 967 ± 33 mW/m(2) to 1872 ± 42 mW/m(2). These results demonstrated that covalently modified AQS functioned as an electron transfer mediator to facilitate extracellular electron transfer from bacteria to electrode and significantly enhanced the power production in MFCs.

  11. Mechanisms of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Inhibition by Lysyl-Peptidyl-Anthraquinone Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic, Alice; Sinigaglia, Laura; Cappellini, Marta; Carli, Ilaria; Parolin, Cristina; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Rovero, Paolo; Fabris, Dan; Gatto, Barbara

    2016-01-20

    The Nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) is a nucleic acid chaperone responsible for essential steps of the HIV-1 life cycle and an attractive candidate for drug development. NC destabilizes nucleic acid structures and promotes the formation of annealed substrates for HIV-1 reverse transcription elongation. Short helical nucleic acid segments bordered by bulges and loops, such as the Trans-Activation Response element (TAR) of HIV-1 and its complementary sequence (cTAR), are nucleation elements for helix destabilization by NC and also preferred recognition sites for threading intercalators. Inspired by these observations, we have recently demonstrated that 2,6-disubstituted peptidyl-anthraquinone-conjugates inhibit the chaperone activities of recombinant NC in vitro, and that inhibition correlates with the stabilization of TAR and cTAR stem-loop structures. We describe here enhanced NC inhibitory activity by novel conjugates that exhibit longer peptidyl chains ending with a conserved N-terminal lysine. Their efficient inhibition of TAR/cTAR annealing mediated by NC originates from the combination of at least three different mechanisms, namely, their stabilizing effects on nucleic acids dynamics by threading intercalation, their ability to target TAR RNA substrate leading to a direct competition with the protein for the same binding sites on TAR, and, finally, their effective binding to the NC protein. Our results suggest that these molecules may represent the stepping-stone for the future development of NC-inhibitors capable of targeting the protein itself and its recognition site in RNA. PMID:26666402

  12. Enzymatic decolorization of anthraquinone and diazo dyes using horseradish peroxidase enzyme immobilized onto various polysulfone supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mithat; Kaya, Mehmet Arif; Altikatoglu, Melda; Yildirim, Huseyin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, covalent immobilization of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto various polysulfone supports was investigated. For this purpose, different polysulfones were methacrylated with methacryloyl chloride, and then, nonwoven fabric samples were coated by using solutions of these methacrylated polysulfones. Finally, support materials were immersed into aquatic solution of HRP enzyme for covalent immobilization. Structural analysis of enzyme immobilization onto various polysulfones was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Decolorization of textile diazo (Acid Black 1) and anthraquinone (Reactive Blue 19) dyes was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Covalently immobilized enzyme has been used seven times in freshly prepared dye solutions through 63 days. Dye decolorization performance of the immobilized systems was observed that still remained high (70%) after reusing three times. Enzyme activities of immobilized systems were determined and compared to free enzyme activity at different conditions (pH, temperature, thermal stability, storage stability). Enzyme activities of immobilized systems and free enzyme were also investigated at the different temperatures and effects of temperature and thermal resistance for different incubation time at 50 °C. In addition, storage activity of free and immobilized enzymes was determined at 4 °C at different incubation days.

  13. Monte Carlo Study of the Diffusion of CO Molecules inside Anthraquinone Hexagons on Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Einstein, T. L.; Wyrick, Jon; Bartels, Ludwig

    2010-03-01

    Using Monte Carlo calculations of the two-di-men-sion-al (2D) lattice gas model, we study the diffusion of CO molecules inside anthraquinone (AQ) hexagons on a Cu(111) plane. We use experimentally-derived CO-CO interactionsfootnotetextK.L. Wong, , L. Bartels, J. Chem.Phys.123, 201102 (2005) and the analytic expression for the long-range surface-state- mediated interactionsfootnotetextK. Berland, TLE, and P. Hyldgaard, Phys.Rev. B 80, 155431 (2009) to describe the CO-AQ interactions. We assume that the CO-CO interactions are not affected by the presence of AQ's and that the CO-AQ interactions can be controlled by varying the intra-surface-state (ISS) reflectance r and the ISS phase shift δ of the indirect-electronic adsorbate-pair interactions. Comparing our results with experimental observations, we find that not only pair but also surface-state-mediated trio interactionsfootnotetextP. Hyldgaard and T.L. Einstein, EPL 59, 265 (2002) are needed to understand the data.

  14. Anthraquinones and flavonoids of Cassia tora leaves ameliorate sodium selenite induced cataractogenesis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Cassia tora leaves, an edible plant traditionally used for eye ailments, in preventing experimental cataractogenesis. Cataract is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide characterized by the cloudiness or opacification of the lens due to the disturbance of even distribution of lens proteins and lipids. A significant number of epidemiological studies have suggested the potential role of herbal medicine in the prevention of cataract by maintaining lens architecture. The study was conducted in neonatal rat pups of 8-10 days old with an ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora leaves (ECT) administered by gastric intubation. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and various parameters such as redox status and gene expressions were evaluated in lenses. ECT administration caused a significant decrease in the onset and maturation of cataract, potentiated antioxidant defense and normalized lens crystallin expression against cataract induced animals. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis of ECT revealed the presence of flavonoids and anthraquinones. Thus, the present study indicates the therapeutic potential of Cassia tora leaves in preventing cataract and the effect is endorsed by the presence of antioxidants in Cassia tora leaves. PMID:26786764

  15. Removal of azo and anthraquinone reactive dyes from industrial wastewaters using MgO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, a porous MgO powder was synthesized and tested for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. The size of the MgO particles was in the range of 38-44 nm, with an average specific surface area of 153.7 m2/g. Adsorption of reactive blue 19 and reactive red 198 was conducted to model azo and anthraquinone dyes at various MgO dosages, dye concentrations, solution pHs and contact times in a batch reactor. Experimental results indicate that the prepared MgO powder can remove more than 98% of both dyes under optimum operational conditions of a dosage of 0.2 g, pH 8 and a contact time of 5 min for initial dye concentrations of 50-300 mg/L. The isotherm evaluations revealed that the Langmuir model attained better fits to the experimental equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities were 166.7 and 123.5 mg of dye per gram of adsorbent for RB 19 and RR 198, respectively. In addition, adsorption kinetic data followed a pseudo-second-order rate for both tested dyes.

  16. Magnetic field effects on geminate reactions. Study of anthraquinone - hydrogen donors systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is devoted to magnetic field effects on chemical reactions which involve a radical pair with correlated spins (radical in a 'cage'). In the first part, the radical pair theory is described: mechanisms of singlet-triplet mixing, the different interactions inside the pair and a quantum mechanical treatment of the radical pair. The details of the experimental method (nanosecond laser flash photolysis) are reported in the second part. In the third part are shown experimental results obtained on Anthraquinone (AQ) - Hydrogen donors systems: - There is no magnetic field effect in homogeneous solution even at a high viscosity. The absorption spectra of the different reaction intermediates are obtained. - However a magnetic field effect is put forward when AQ is introduced in SDS micelles which are hydrogen donors. The absorption spectrum of the AQH·. semi-quinone radical in 'cage' is shown and a mechanism is proposed for its disappearance to generate the AQH-S and AQH2 species. - The addition of 9, 10 Dihydroanthracene (DH2) inside the micelle near AQ induces an increase of the magnetic field effect by creation of (AQH·. - DH·.) pairs which diffuse slowly. - Fixed radical pairs in a protein matrix were studied in reaction centers of photosynthetic bacteria: in that case, the half effect field is shifted to low fields when compared to the previously described systems. (author)

  17. Dual Sensing by Simple Heteroditopic Salt Receptors Containing an Anthraquinone Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbarz, Marcin; Romański, Jan

    2016-04-01

    We synthesized simple ion pair receptors consisting of a crown ether cation binding site and an anthraquinone-supported thiourea anion binding domain and studied their anion-, cation-, and salt-binding properties using spectroscopic, spectrophotometric, and electrochemical measurements in acetonitrile solution. Apart from carboxylate anions, which cause deprotonation, all the anions tested were found to associate with receptor 1 more strongly in the presence of sodium cations, whereas in the presence of potassium or ammonium cation the anion binding strength was greatly diminished. A homotopic anion receptor 3, lacking a crown ether unit, was unable to bind sodium salt more strongly than tetrabutylammonium salts. Solution and solid-state X-ray measurements revealed that strong sodium coordination with the cation-binding domain is responsible for the salt-binding enhancement. Electrochemical measurements showed that the addition of anions to the receptor 1 pretreated with sodium cations resulted in greater changes in reduction potentials compared to the addition of anions to receptor 1 in the absence of Na(+). PMID:26981921

  18. Effect of sulfhydryls on potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality by substituted anthraquinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of various substituted anthraquinones (SAQ's) and Adriamycin (ADR) were investigated in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells. These drugs cause a potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality, albeit by different mechanisms. One possibility is that these components operate through the production of free radicals which then produce DNA strand breaks and crosslinks. If so, then one should be able to change the degree of cell kill by modifying sulfhydryl (SH) levels such that free radical processes are altered. Diamide, buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were used to reduce intracellular SH levels. Cysteamine and dithiotheitol were used to increase SH levels. In general, altered SH levels did not affect SAQ-induced cytotoxicity at low drug concentrations. When drug-tested cells were also irradiated, survival levels were generally those predicted from assuming purely additive interactions. On the other hand, survival after treatment with high concentrations of ADR and one other SAQ were decreased by concomitant treatment with NEM. Since altered SH levels do not produce changes in the potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality by SAQs, it is concluded that free radicals are not involved in this potentiation. A free radical-mediated process may be involved in the cytotoxicity induced by ADR and other SAQs; however, it is not a simple process

  19. Antagonistic properties of seagrass associated Streptomyces sp. RAUACT-1:A source for anthraquinone rich compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Ravikumar; M Gnanadesigan; A Saravanan; N Monisha; V Brindha; S Muthumari

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To identify the antibacterial potential of seagrass (Syringodium isoetifolium) associate microbes against bacterial pathogens. Methods: Eumeration of microbial associates were analyzed with leaf and root samples of Syringodium isoetifolium. MIC and MBC were calculated for bacterial pathogens with microbial associates. Phylogenetic and GC-MS analysis were calculated for Actinomycetes sp. (Act01) which was the most potent. Results: Of the isolated microbial associates phosphatase producing bacterial isolates were identified as maximum [(261.78±35.09) CFU×104/g] counts in root sample. Of the selected microbial isolates Actinomycete sp (Act01) showed broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant and fish bacterial pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of Act01 showed maximum identities (99%) with the Streptomyces sp. (GU5500072). The 16s rDNA secondary structure of Act01 showed the free energy values as-366.3 kkal/mol. The GC-MS analysis Act01 showed maximum retention value with 23.742 RT and the corresponding chemical class was identified as 1, 4-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxybutyl)-9, 10-anthraquinone 9, 10-anthrac. Conclusions:In conclusion, Streptomyces sp. (GU045544.1) from Syringodium isoetifolium could be used as potential antibacterial agent.

  20. Preferred interaction of D-peptidyl-anthraquinones with double-stranded B-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, B; Zagotto, G; Sissi, C; Palumbo, M

    1997-12-01

    The quest for more specific drugs in antitumor chemotherapy led us to the design of anthraquinone-peptide conjugates capable of selective recognition of the nucleic acid. We present here the DNA binding characteristics, sequence specificity and geometry of interaction of a pair of enantiomers containing the lysine-glycine dipeptide in the side chains. The D enantiomer binds right handed double stranded DNA more efficiently than the L form under all conditions tested. The source of higher binding affinity is not electrostatic in nature and rests in the more favorable hydrophobic contacts of the D-lysyl side chains in the drug-DNA complex. Both derivatives exhibit preference for alternating GC base sequences and intercalate into DNA in a threading mode as suggested by chiroptical and theoretical studies. The D enantiomer, being a peptidyl derivative that contains a non-natural amino acid, has the considerable advantage of being less susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis and could therefore represent a lead compound for further development. PMID:9493055

  1. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by anthraquinone-related compounds. A structural insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moliner, Erika; Moro, Stefano; Sarno, Stefania; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Battistutta, Roberto

    2003-01-17

    Protein kinases play key roles in signal transduction and therefore are among the most attractive targets for drug design. The pharmacological aptitude of protein kinase inhibitors is highlighted by the observation that various diseases with special reference to cancer are because of the abnormal expression/activity of individual kinases. The resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the target kinase in complex with inhibitors is often the starting point for the rational design of this kind of drugs, some of which are already in advanced clinical trial or even in clinical practice. Here we present and discuss three new crystal structures of ATP site-directed inhibitors in complex with "casein kinase-2" (CK2), a constitutively active protein kinase implicated in a variety of cellular functions and misfunctions. With the help of theoretical calculations, we disclose some key features underlying the inhibitory efficiency of anthraquinone derivatives, outlining three different binding modes into the active site. In particular, we show that a nitro group in a hydroxyanthraquinone scaffold decreases the inhibitory constants K(i) because of electron-withdrawing and resonance effects that enhance the polarization of hydroxylic substituents in paraposition. PMID:12419810

  2. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in chrysanthemum by capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yan Zhang; Zi Cheng Li; Jin Kun Zhu; Zhi Yong Yang; Qing Jiang Wang; Pin Gang He; Yu Zhi Fang

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection method(CE-AD)has been developed for the analysis of flavonoids and anthraquinones(emodin,kaempferol,apigenin,luteolin and rhein)in chrysanthemum.Under optimum conditions,these five analytes were base-line separated within 17 min using a borate-phosphate running buffer(1.5 × 10-2mol/L borate-3 × 10-2 mol/L phosphate running buffer,pH 9.0)at a working potential of+0.90 V(vs.SCE)and a separation voltage of 19 kV.The linear relationship between concentration and current response was obtained with detection limits(S/N = 3)ranging from 1.0 × 10-7 to 2.1 × 10-7 g/mL for all analytes.This proposed method was successfully used in the analysis of four kinds of chrysanthemum with relatively simple extraction procedures,the assay results were satisfactory.

  3. Separation of three anthraquinone glycosides including two isomers by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Hongmei; Zou, Denglang; Liu, Yongling; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Guoying; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    Anthraquinone glycosides, such as chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside, chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside, and physion 8-O-β-d-glucoside, are the accepted important active components of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. due to their pharmacological properties: antifungal, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. However, an effective method for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from this herb is not currently available. Especially, greater difficulty existed in the separation of the two isomers chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside and chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside. This study demonstrated an efficient strategy based on preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf.

  4. Safety of purified decolorized (low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L) Burm. f. juice in a 3-month drinking water toxicity study in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, A; Broadmeadow, A; Goddard, G; Bejar, E; Frankos, V

    2013-07-01

    Decolorized (purified, low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. juice was administered at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% in the drinking water of F344Du rats for 3 months without any adverse effect. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in this study was considered to be >2%w/v (>1845 mg/kg bodyweight/day for males and >2920 mg/kg bodyweight for females). The test material contained total anthraquinones at Aloe vera extracts tested in other studies have resulted in an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea and colon adenomas and carcinomas. The results of this study supports the assertion that the high levels of anthraquinone present in orally administered, non-purified whole leaf Aloe vera extract may be responsible for the adverse effects observed on the colon. PMID:23500775

  5. Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Determination of Anthraquinone Hair Dyes in Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a voltammetric sensor for the selective determination of Acid Green 25 (AG25 hair dye, widely used in commercial temporary hair dyes. The method is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes activated in the presence of sulfuric acid, where the anthraquinone group present as a chromophore in the dye molecule is reduced at −0.44 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a reversible process involving two electrons in Britton-Robinson (B-R buffer solution at pH 4.0. Analytical curves were obtained using square wave voltammetry in the range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 7.0 × 10−6 mol·L−1, achieving a detection limit of 2.7 × 10−9 mol·L−1. The voltammograms recorded for the Acid Black 1 (AB1 dye showed that the azo groups of the dye were reduced on the carbon nanotube-modified electrode (CNTME, presenting a pair of redox peaks at −0.27 V and −0.24 V in the reverse scan. Under these experimental conditions, both dyes could be detected in the water sample, since the AG25 dye is reduced at −0.47 V. The presence of other hair dyes bearing other chromophore groups, such as Acid Black 1, Acid Red 33 and basic blue 99, did not interfere with the method, which showed an average recovery of 96.7 ± 3.5% (n = 5 for AG25 dye determination in the presence of all of these dyes. The method was successfully applied to tap water and wastewater samples collected from a water treatment plant.

  6. Structure elucidation and chromatographic identification of anthraquinone components of cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) detected in historical objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Valianou, Lemonia; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2013-12-01

    Cochineal is one of the most well known organic red dyes. Dactylopius coccus Costa (Dactylopiidae) is a scale insect that is used as the source of the dye known as Mexican cochineal. Although cochineal is today a natural food colorant (E120) and although it has been used in art objects (textiles and paintings) for centuries, its exact chemical consistency is not well clarified except for carminic acid which is the major component and kermesic and flavokermesic acids. Several minor components (typically less than 5% of the colouring material) remained unknown or partially studied, although their presence has been reported in numerous analytical works related to art objects. Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the dried insects, after subsequent HPLC chromatographic separations, led to the isolation and structure elucidation of six new anthraquinones, along with the known compounds carminic acid, kermesic acid and flavokermesic acid. The new compounds formerly described as DCII and DCIII, were found to be the 2-C-glucoside of flavokermesic acid and 4-aminocarminic acid, respectively, while DCIV and DCVII were found to be the α/β C-glucofuranosides of kermesic acid, and were studied as a mixture due to equilibrium. In addition, 3-O-glucoside of flavokermesic acid (DCOFK), and 3,4-dideoxycarminic acid (DDCA) were identified. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of their NMR and MS data. Finally, the new compounds were detected in silk dyed with cochineal, lake pigment and, furthermore, in historical objects of the cultural heritage (icon and textile) using LC-DAD and LC-MS. PMID:24267092

  7. On the interaction of the anthraquinone barbaloin with negatively charged DMPG bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Evandro L; Oliveira, Tiago R; Alves, Daiane S; Micol, Vicente; Lamy, M Teresa

    2008-04-15

    Barbaloin is a bioactive glycosilated 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone present in several exudates from plants, such as Aloe vera, which are used for cosmetic or food purposes. It has been shown that barbaloin interacts with DMPG (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) model membranes, altering the bilayer structure (Alves, D. S.; Pérez-Fons, L.; Estepa, A.; Micol, V. Biochem. Pharm. 2004, 68, 549). Considering that ESR (electron spin resonance) of spin labels is one of the best techniques to monitor structural properties at the molecular level, the alterations caused by the anthraquinone barbaloin on phospholipid bilayers will be discussed here via the ESR signal of phospholipid spin probes intercalated into the membranes. In DMPG at high ionic strength (10 mM Hepes pH 7.4 + 100 mM NaCl), a system that presents a gel-fluid transition around 23 degrees C, 20 mol % barbaloin turns the gel phase more rigid, does not alter much the fluid phase packing, but makes the lipid thermal transition less sharp. However, in a low-salt DMPG dispersion (10 mM Hepes pH 7.4 + 2 mM NaCl), which presents a rather complex gel-fluid thermal transition (Lamy-Freund, M. T.; Riske, K. A. Chem. Phys. Lipids 2003, 122, 19), barbaloin strongly affects bilayer structural properties, both in the gel and fluid phases, extending the transition region to much higher temperature values. The position of barbaloin in DMPG bilayers will be discussed on the basis of ESR results, in parallel with data from sample viscosity, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), and SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering). PMID:18318556

  8. Immobilization-free electrochemical DNA detection with anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongpeth, Jutatip; Jampasa, Sakda; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Chailapakul, Orawon; Vilaivan, Tirayut

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical detection provides a simple, rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for DNA detection. In traditional electrochemical DNA biosensors, the probe is immobilized onto the electrode. Hybridization with the DNA target causes a change in electrochemical signal, either from the intrinsic signal of the probe/target or through a label or a redox indicator. The major drawback of this approach is the requirement for probe immobilization in a controlled fashion. In this research, we take the advantage of different electrostatic properties between PNA and DNA to develop an immobilization-free approach for highly sequence-specific electrochemical DNA sensing on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) using a square-wave voltammetric (SWV) technique. Anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (AQ-PNA) was employed as a probe together with an SPCE that was modified with a positively-charged polymer (poly quaternized-(dimethylamino-ethyl)methacrylate, PQDMAEMA). The electrostatic attraction between the negatively-charged PNA-DNA duplex and the positively-charged modified SPCE attributes to the higher signal of PNA-DNA duplex than that of the electrostatically neutral PNA probe, resulting in a signal change. The calibration curve of this proposed method exhibited a linear range between 0.35 and 50 nM of DNA target with a limit of detection of 0.13 nM (3SD(blank)/Slope). The sub-nanomolar detection limit together with a small sample volume required (20 μL) allowed detection of DNA. With the high specificity of the pyrrolidinyl PNA probe used, excellent discrimination between complementary and various single-mismatched DNA targets was obtained. An application of this new platform for a sensitive and specific detection of isothermally-amplified shrimp's white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) DNA was successfully demonstrated.

  9. Separation of anthraquinone compounds from the seed of Cassia obtusifolia L. using recycling counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Ye, Haoyu; Lai, Huijun; Li, Shucai; He, Shichao; Zhong, Shijie; Chen, Lijuan; Peng, Aihua

    2012-01-01

    Recycling counter-current chromatography (CCC) together with step-gradient CCC and medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) was employed to separate nine anthraquinone compounds from Cassia obtusifolia L. in this study. The results showed that recycling CCC is a powerful tool for compounds that are difficult to separate with common elution mode. CCC was the better option for crude material while MPLC had advantage for the final tuning. The combination of recycling CCC and MPLC could simplify the method exploring process in the separation process. The structures of these compounds were identified according to their mass spectra, by (1)H-NMR and compared with standard compounds.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yang; Jun-Fang Jia; Rui Wang; Fang Long; Ping Li; Hui-Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) using single reference standard. Methods:The four components including emodin-8-O-β-D-(EMG), physcion-8-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin and physcion were separated on an ODS C18 column within 13 min and detected at 280 nm. Emodin was selected as the reference standard, and the response factor for each analyte with respect to emodin were calculated. Robustness were also tested including different columns, equipments, temperatures, detection wavelengths, and other chromatographic conditions which might influence stability of response factors. Results: The method was validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9995), LOQs (0.820–3.05 ng/mL), LODs (0.180–0.920 ng/mL), precision, accuracy (95.8–103.6%, RSD Conclusion:This work provided a single standard to determine multi-components method for quantitation of four anthraquinones in PMR, which could be applied in the quality control of this herbal drug.

  11. Tuning G-quadruplex vs double-stranded DNA recognition in regioisomeric lysyl-peptidyl-anthraquinone conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagotto, Giuseppe; Ricci, Antonio; Vasquez, Elena; Sandoli, Andrea; Benedetti, Silvia; Palumbo, Manlio; Sissi, Claudia

    2011-10-19

    Anthraquinone is a versatile scaffold to provide effective DNA binders. This planar system can be easily conjugated to protonable side chains: the nature of the lateral groups and their positions around the tricyclic moiety largely affect the DNA recognition process in terms of binding affinity and mode, as well as sequence and structure of the target nucleic acid. Starting from an anthracenedione system symmetrically functionalized with N-terminal lysyl residues, we incremented the length of side chains by introducing a Gly, Ala, or Phe spacer, characterized by different flexibility, lipophilicity, and bulkiness. Moreover, 2,6, 2,7, 1,8, and 1,5 regioisomers were examined to yield a small bis(lysyl-peptidyl) anthracenedione library. By merging spectroscopic, enzymatic, and cellular results, we showed that the proper combination of a basic aminoacid (Lys) with a more hydrophobic residue (Phe) can provide selective G-quadruplex recognition, in particular when side chains are located at positions 2,6 or 2,7. In fact, while these derivatives effectively bind G-quadruplex structures, they behave at the same time as rather poor double-stranded DNA intercalators. As a result, the Lys-Phe substituted anthraquinones are poorly cytotoxic but still able to promote a senescence mechanism in cancer cells. This combination of chemical and biological properties foresees potentially valuable applications in anticancer medicinal chemistry. PMID:21905741

  12. Near-infrared and multicolored electrochromism of solution processable triphenylamine-anthraquinone imide hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A series of donor-acceptor molecules based on TPA and AQI-derivatives were prepared. • The energy level and band gaps of these molecules could be effectively tuned by alternating the number of AQI arms. • Multicolored electrochromism was achieved electrochemically by tuning the intramolecular charge transfer interaction. • NIR electrochromism was observed and detailed transitions of these NIR absorptions were calculated. -- Abstract: A series of novel donor-acceptor molecules (TPA-AQI, TPA-AQI2 and TPA-AQI3) with various number of electron-accepting anthraquinone imide (AQI) arms connected to the electron-donating triphenylamine (TPA) core were synthesized and characterized by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical measurements. The geometries of these molecules in ground-state as well as the electronic absorption properties on the basis of the optimized geometries were investigated by theoretical calculations. For all the three molecules, there are two main absorptions in the range of 300–450 nm and 450–700 nm, respectively. The former corresponds to π-π* transitions and the latter a nature of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). Hypsochromic shift of the ICT absorption was observed from the single armed molecule TPA-AQI to the tribranched molecule TPA-AQI3, which may result from the increased steric hindrance between the donor and acceptor segments. Electrochemical studies revealed the ambipolar properties of these molecules and three redox couples, with two quasi-reversible redox couples appearing in the cathodic regime and one redox couple in the anodic regime, on CV curves. CV results also indicated the stabilization of the HOMO levels by increasing AQI arms. Spectroelectrochemical measurements demonstrated the near-infrared (NIR) and multicolor electrochromism of these molecules. When reduced to radical anions or oxidized to radical cations, intense NIR absorptions were observed accompanied

  13. 芦荟蒽醌类物质的提取及其抑菌性研究%Extraction of Aloe Anthraquinones and Analysis of Its Antibacterial Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟; 乔丹; 宝力德

    2011-01-01

    本试验利用超声波提取库拉索芦荟中蒽醌类物质,测定其含量,并对枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌及金黄色葡萄球菌进行抑菌性研究.用滤纸片法、固体稀释法及最小抑菌浓度法(MIC)分别检测芦荟蒽醌类物质对各种菌的抑菌性,并比较分析3种方法的抑菌效果.由固体稀释法测定芦荟蒽醌提取液的抑菌效果可知,蒽醌类物质百分浓度越高,菌落数越少,显示出越高的抑菌性.最小抑菌浓度法(MIC)测出,芦荟蒽醌提取液对大肠杆菌、金色葡萄球菌的MIC为90%,对枯草芽孢杆菌的MIC为80%,显示出MIC都较高,说明低浓度的芦荟蒽醌类抑菌能力有限,需要较高的浓度才能抑制菌生长.%In this study, the Aloe vera L. anthraquinones had been extracted by ultrasonic extraction and its content had been determined. The antibacterial effect of the Aloe anthraquinones on the Bacillus subtilis,Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus had been investigated. The filter paper method, solid dilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method had been used to determine the antibacterial effect of the Aloe anthraquinones, and the efeects of this three methods had been compared. The solid dilution method showed that the high concentration of Aloe anthraquinone extract had the significant antibacterial effect. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 90% for E. coli and S. aureus, and 80% for B. subtilis. The MIC of the Aloe anthraquinones showed a higher values, that meant antibacterial activity of Aloe anthraquinones was limited, only the Aloe anthraquinones with higher concentrations could inhibit the bacteria growth.

  14. Applicability of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS to enhance colour removal in mesophilic UASB reactors treating textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. M. Firmino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work assessed the applicability of the redox mediator anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS to enhance colour removal in mesophilic UASB reactors treating textile wastewater under different operational conditions, such as different electron donor (ethanol concentrations and different HRT. The anaerobic reactors were able to remove reasonably well the colour of the textile wastewater (35-63% even when operated with a relatively short HRT (6 h, being a good option for textile effluents pre-treatment. Aditionally, colour removal efficiency was positively influenced not only by the addition of ethanol as external electron donor, but also by the initial wastewater absorbance. Although the applicability of AQDS is reported in the literature to enhance remarkably colour removal from synthetic dye-containing wastewaters, especially for recalcitrant azo dyes, the same effect was not evident in the present study with the textile wastewater tested, since the reactors did not show significant differences on decolourisation capacity.

  15. Study on the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds of Dibenzofurans, Xanthones and Anthraquinones with One or Two Positions Substituted by Hydroxyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jing; SHI Jia-Qi; CHEN Guo-Song

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of dibenzofurans (DFs),xanthones (XTs) and anthraquinones (AQs) with one and two positions substituted with hydroxyls in the ideal gas state at 298.15 K and 1.013×105 pa were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G* level using Gaussian 03 program.The isodesmic reactions were designed to calculate the standard free energy of formation (△fGθ).Three types of hydrogen bonds exist in the three kinds of chemicals and their bond energies were ascertained as 7-15,15-23 and 49-58 kJ·mo1-1 respectively by comparing the △fGθ values.Electronic density topology analysis was applied to validate the strength of bond.

  16. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen on Anthraquinone/Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in Neutral Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviors of monohydroxy-anthraquinone/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified glassy carbon (MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrodes in neutral medium were investigated; also reported was their application in the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. The resulting MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. It was found that the ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrode occurs irreversibly at a potential about 214 mV less negative than at a bare GC electrode in pH 7.0 buffer solution. Cyclic voltammetric and rotating disk electrode (RDE techniques indicated that the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid has high electrocatalytic activity for the two-electron reduction of oxygen in the studied potential range. The kinetic parameters of ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified GC electrode were also determined by RDE and EIS techniques.

  17. Investigation of six bioactive anthraquinones in slimming tea by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Su, Ming; Liang, Shuxuan; Sun, Hanwen

    2016-05-15

    A rapid and effective method for effective separation and rapid simultaneous determination of six bioactive anthraquinones by capillary zone electrophoresis was developed. An accelerated solvent extraction procedure was used for the extraction of anthraquinones from slimming tea. Under the optimized conditions, the effective separation of six anthraquinones was achieved within 8 min. Good linearity was achieved, with a correlation coefficient (r) of ⩾ 0.999. The limit of detection ranged from 0.33 to 1.40 μg mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of the six analytes was in the range of 2.3-3.9% and 3.2-4.9%, respectively. The average recovery of the six analytes from real tea samples was in the range of 86.15-98.30% with the RSD of 1.04-4.99%. The developed and validated method has speediness, high sensitivity, recovery and precision, and can be applied for the quality control of slimming tea.

  18. Synthesis of an anthraquinone derivative (DHAQC and its effect on induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeap SK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available SweeKeong Yeap,1 Muhammad Nadeem Akhtar,2 Kian Lam Lim,3 Nadiah Abu,4,5 Wan Yong Ho,6 Seema Zareen,2 Kiarash Roohani,1 Huynh Ky,4 Sheau Wei Tan,1 Nordin Lajis,7 Noorjahan Banu Alitheen1,4 1Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 4Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 5Bright Sparks Unit, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 6School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 7Scientific Chairs Unit, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Anthraquinones are an important class of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. In this study, anthraquinone derivative 1,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (DHAQC (2 was synthesized with 32% yield through the Friedel–Crafts condensation reaction. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity of DHAQC (2 in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were further investigated. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed that DHAQC (2 exhibited potential cytotoxicity and selectivity in the MCF-7 cell line, comparable with the naturally occurring anthraquinone damnacanthal. DHAQC (2 showed a slightly higher IC50 (inhibitory concentration with 50% cell viability value in the MCF-7 cell line compared to damnacanthal, but it is more selective in terms of the ratio of IC50 on MCF-7 cells and normal MCF-10A cells. (selective index for DHAQC (2 was 2.3 and 1.7 for damnacanthal. The flow cytometry cell cycle analysis on the MCF-7 cell line treated with the IC50 dose of DHAQC (2 for 48 hours showed that DHAQC (2 arrested MCF-7 cell line at the G2/M phase in association with an

  19. Evaluation of the efficiency of monopolar and bipolar BDD electrodes for electrochemical oxidation of anthraquinone textile synthetic effluent for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessamad, NourElHouda; Akrout, Hanene; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Elghniji, Kais; Ksibi, Mohamed; Bousselmi, Latifa

    2013-10-01

    The efficiency of the electrochemical degradation of synthetic wastewater containing an anthraquinone dye has been comparatively studied in two electrolytic cells with a synthetic boron-doped diamond (Si/BDD) as an anode. The first is an individual cell (Cell 1) with monopolar electrode BDD and the second (Cell 2) has two bipolar electrodes BDD self-polarized. The bulk electrolysis was performed at the same initial operating conditions in order to quantify the influence of the initial pH and current density on dye discoloration and global mineralization removal. The current efficiency and the consumption energy were also evaluated. When the same solutions have been comparatively treated with the two cells, a quite good mineralization is found in Cell 2. This result supposed more fraction of the applied current is used for the electrocombustion reaction on Cell 2 if compared to Cell 1 and small amount rest for the side reaction of oxygen evolution. The HPLC analyses confirmed this hypothesis and showed that the concentration trend of intermediates (sulfanilic acid, phthalate acid and salicylic acid) with electrolysis time was different on two cells. Phototoxicity tests show that the electrochemical oxidation with BDD electrodes could be useful as a pretreatment technique for reducing hazardous wastewater toxicity. PMID:23916748

  20. Evaluation of the efficiency of monopolar and bipolar BDD electrodes for electrochemical oxidation of anthraquinone textile synthetic effluent for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessamad, NourElHouda; Akrout, Hanene; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Elghniji, Kais; Ksibi, Mohamed; Bousselmi, Latifa

    2013-10-01

    The efficiency of the electrochemical degradation of synthetic wastewater containing an anthraquinone dye has been comparatively studied in two electrolytic cells with a synthetic boron-doped diamond (Si/BDD) as an anode. The first is an individual cell (Cell 1) with monopolar electrode BDD and the second (Cell 2) has two bipolar electrodes BDD self-polarized. The bulk electrolysis was performed at the same initial operating conditions in order to quantify the influence of the initial pH and current density on dye discoloration and global mineralization removal. The current efficiency and the consumption energy were also evaluated. When the same solutions have been comparatively treated with the two cells, a quite good mineralization is found in Cell 2. This result supposed more fraction of the applied current is used for the electrocombustion reaction on Cell 2 if compared to Cell 1 and small amount rest for the side reaction of oxygen evolution. The HPLC analyses confirmed this hypothesis and showed that the concentration trend of intermediates (sulfanilic acid, phthalate acid and salicylic acid) with electrolysis time was different on two cells. Phototoxicity tests show that the electrochemical oxidation with BDD electrodes could be useful as a pretreatment technique for reducing hazardous wastewater toxicity.

  1. Extraction and purification of anthraquinones derivatives from Aloe vera L. using alcohol/salt aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi-jian; Li, Fen-fang; Xu, Xue-lei

    2013-08-01

    An alcohol/salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of 1-propanol and (NH4)2SO4 was employed to purify anthraquinones (AQs) extracted from Aloe vera L. The main influencing system parameters such as type of alcohol, type and concentration of salt, temperature and pH were investigated in detail. Under the optimal extraction conditions, AQs can be extracted into alcohol-rich phase with high extraction efficiency, meanwhile majority polysaccharides, proteins, mineral substances and other impurities were extracted into salt-rich phase. Partitioning of AQs is dependent on hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bond interaction, and salting-out effect in ATPS. Temperature also played a great role in the partitioning. After ATPS extraction, alcohol can be recycled by evaporation; moreover, salt can be recycled by dilution crystallization method. Compared with other liquid-liquid extractions, this alcohol/salt system is much simpler, lower in cost with easier recovery of phase-forming components, which has the potential scale-up in down-processing of active ingredients in plant.

  2. Laser photolysis study of anthraquinone in binary mixtures ofionic liquid [bmim][PF6] and organic solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Side Yao

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical properties of the ionic liquid (RTIL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF6] and its binary mixed solutions with organic solvent(DMF and MeCN were investigated by laser photolysis at an excitation wavelength of 355nm, using anthraquinone (AQ as a probe molecule. It was indicated that the triplet excitedstate of AQ (3AQ* can abstract hydrogen from [bmim][PF6]. Moreover, along with thechange of the ratio of RTIL and organic solvent, the reaction rate constant changes regularly.Critical points were observed at volume fraction VRTIL = 0.2 for RTIL/MeCN and VRTIL =0.05 for RTIL/DMF. For both systems, before the critical point, the rate constant increasesrapidly with increasing VRTIL; however, it decreases obviously with VRTIL after the criticalpoint. We conclude that the concentration dependence is dominant at lower VRTIL, while theviscosity and phase transformation are dominant at higher VRTIL for the effect of ionic liquidon the decay of rate constant.

  3. THE COMPARISON OF STRENGTH PROPERTY BETWWEEN KRAFT PULP AND ALKALINE SULFITE-ANTHRAQUINONE PULP FOR THICKER CELL WALL FIBER MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLi; FeifeiWang; YunzhanZhang

    2004-01-01

    The comparison of strength property between kraftpulp ( KP ) and Alkaline Sulfite-Anthraquinone(AS-AQ) pulp for thicker cell wall fiber materialsLarch and Quercus as examples was studied. Theaverage coefficient of flexibility of Larch andQuercus are 0.6-0.7 and 0.45-0.50, respectively. Theresults showed that the strength property of thickercell wall pulp is some what different from thosereported earlier. The strengths of AS-AQ are allhigher than those of KP for Larch and Quercus. ForLarch, under same beating degree the breaking lengthof AS-AQ is 8-16% higher than that of KP, burstindex 3-14% higher, folding endurance 30% higher,tear index slightly higher. For Quercus, the breakinglength of AS-AQ is 5-10% higher then that of KP,burst index 10-15% higher, folding endurance30-50% higher, tear index 5-15% higher. Under thesame breaking length the tear index of AS-AQ pulpis significantly higher than that of KP for both Larchand Quercus.

  4. Enhancement of anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia cell suspension cultures after stimulation of the proline cycle with two proline analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Carla V; Perassolo, María; Giulietti, Ana M; Rodríguez Talou, Julián

    2012-03-01

    Synthesis of anthraquinones (AQs) involves the shikimate and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathways. The proline cycle is linked to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to generate NADPH needed in the first steps of this pathway. The effect of two proline analogs, azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (A2C) and thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C), were evaluated in Morinda citrifolia suspension cultures. Both analogs gave higher proline accumulation after 6 and 10 days (68 and 179% after 6 days with A2C at 25 and 50 μM, respectively, and 111% with T4C added at 100 μM). Induction of the proline cycle increased the AQ content after 6 days (~40% for 50 μM A2C and 100 μM T4C). Whereas A2C (50 μM) increased only AQ production, T4C also enhanced total phenolics. However, no induction of the PPP was observed with any of the treatments. This pathway therefore does not limit the supply of carbon skeletons to secondary metabolic pathways.

  5. Characterization of Anthraquinone-DerivedRedox Switchable Ionophores and Their Complexes with Li+, Na+, K+, Ca+, and Mg+ Metal Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone derived redox switchable ionophores 1,5 bis (2-(2-(2-ethoxy ethoxy ethoxyanthracene-9,10-dione (V1 and 1,8-bis(2-(2-(2-ethoxyethoxyethoxy anthracene—9,10-dione (V2 have been used for isolation, extraction and liquid membrane transport studies of Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ metal ions. These isolated complexes were characterized by melting point determination, CV and IR, 1H NMR spectral analysis. Ionophore V2 shows maximum shift in reduction potential (ΔE with Ca(Pic2. The observed sequence for the shifting in reduction potential (ΔE between V2 and their complexes is V2 calcium picrate (42 mV > V2 potassium picrate (33 mV > V2 lithium picrate (25 mV > V2 sodium picrate (18 mV > V2 magnesium picrate (15 mV. These findings are also supported by results of extraction, back extraction and transport studies. Ionophore V2 complexed with KPic and showed much higher extractability and selectivity towards K+ than V1. These synthetic ionophores show positive and negative cooperativity towards alkali and alkaline earth metal ions in reduced and oxidized state. Hence, this property can be used in selective separation and enrichment of metal ions using electrochemically driven ion transport.

  6. Generic Hockey-Stick Model for Estimating Benchmark Dose and Potency: Performance Relative to BMDS and Application to Anthraquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Kenneth T

    2011-01-01

    Benchmark Dose Model software (BMDS), developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, involves a growing suite of models and decision rules now widely applied to assess noncancer and cancer risk, yet its statistical performance has never been examined systematically. As typically applied, BMDS also ignores the possibility of reduced risk at low doses ("hormesis"). A simpler, proposed Generic Hockey-Stick (GHS) model also estimates benchmark dose and potency, and additionally characterizes and tests objectively for hormetic trend. Using 100 simulated dichotomous-data sets (5 dose groups, 50 animals/group), sampled from each of seven risk functions, GHS estimators performed about as well or better than BMDS estimators, and a surprising observation was that BMDS mis-specified all of six non-hormetic sampled risk functions most or all of the time. When applied to data on rodent tumors induced by the genotoxic chemical carcinogen anthraquinone (AQ), the GHS model yielded significantly negative estimates of net potency exhibited by the combined rodent data, suggesting that-consistent with the anti-leukemogenic properties of AQ and structurally similar quinones-environmental AQ exposures do not likely increase net cancer risk. In addition to its simplicity and flexibility, the GHS approach offers a unified, consistent approach to quantifying environmental chemical risk. PMID:21731536

  7. Effects of operational parameters of process UV radiation/hydrogen peroxide on decolorization of anthraquinone textile dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Miljana D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation of textile dye Reactive Blue 19, an anionic anthraquinone dye of reactive class, was investigated using UV radiation in the presence of H2O2 in UV reactor with low-pressure mercury lamps, with maximum energy output at the wavelength 254 nm. The effects of experimental variables, namely initial pH, initial dye concentration and concentration of peroxide were studied. The change of concentration of RB19 was followed by UV/vis spectrophotometric measurement of absorbance at 592 nm. The increase of the initial pH resulted in the efficiency increase of dye decolorization. The total decolorization was achieved in about 15 min. Results show that with the increase of dye concentration from 10 to 100 mg dm-3 the efficiency of process decreases. With the increase of the initial concentration of H2O2 from 10 to 30 mmol dm-3, the decolorization rate constant increased from 0.083 to 0.120 min1, with the decrease of process rate at the concentrations above. The highest decolorization rates were achieved at peroxide concentration of approx. 30 mmol dm-3, above which decolorization was inhibited by scavenging effect of peroxide. This study shows that UV/H2O2 process is promising treatment for dye RB 19 degradation in water and wastewater.

  8. Accelerated anaerobic dechlorination of DDT in slurry with Hydragric Acrisols using citric acid and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiying; Xu, Xianghua; Fan, Jianling

    2015-12-01

    The application of electron donor and electron shuttle substances has a vital influence on electron transfer, thus may affect the reductive dechlorination of 1,1,1-trichoro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in anaerobic reaction systems. To evaluate the roles of citric acid and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) in accelerating the reductive dechlorination of DDT in Hydragric Acrisols that contain abundant iron oxide, a batch anaerobic incubation experiment was conducted in a slurry system with four treatments of (1) control, (2) citric acid, (3) AQDS, and (4) citric acid+AQDS. Results showed that DDT residues decreased by 78.93%-92.11% of the initial quantities after 20days of incubation, and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDD) was the dominant metabolite. The application of citric acid accelerated DDT dechlorination slightly in the first 8days, while the methanogenesis rate increased quickly, and then the acceleration effect improved after the 8th day while the methanogenesis rate decreased. The amendment by AQDS decreased the Eh value of the reaction system and accelerated microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides to generate Fe(II), which was an efficient electron donor, thus enhancing the reductive dechlorination rate of DDT. The addition of citric acid+AQDS was most efficient in stimulating DDT dechlorination, but no significant interaction between citric acid and AQDS on DDT dechlorination was observed. The results will be of great significance for developing an efficient in situ remediation strategy for DDT-contaminated sites.

  9. Anti-proliferative effect of rhein, an anthraquinone isolated from Cassia species, on Caco-2 human adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviello, Gabriella; Rowland, Ian; Gill, Christopher I; Acquaviva, Angela Maria; Capasso, Francesco; McCann, Mark; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, the use of anthraquinone laxatives, in particular senna, has been associated with damage to the intestinal epithelial layer and an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of rhein, the active metabolite of senna, on human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) and its effect on cell proliferation. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral red (NR) and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assays whereas (3)H-thymidine incorporation and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate the effect of rhein on cell proliferation. Moreover, for genoprotection studies Comet assay and oxidative biomarkers measurement (malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species) were used. Rhein (0.1-10 microg/ml) had no significant cytotoxic effect on proliferating and differentiated Caco-2 cells. Rhein (0.1 and 1 microg/ml) significantly reduced cell proliferation as well as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation; by contrast, at high concentration (10 microg/ml) rhein significantly increased cell proliferation and extracellular-signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Moreover, rhein (0.1-10 microg/ml): (i) did not adversely affect the integrity of tight junctions and hence epithelial barrier function; (ii) did not induce DNA damage, rather it was able to reduce H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage and (iii) significantly inhibited the increase in malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels induced by H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+). Rhein was devoid of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in colon adenocarcinoma cells. Moreover, at concentrations present in the colon after a human therapeutic dosage of senna, rhein inhibited cell proliferation via a mechanism that seems to involve directly the MAP kinase pathway. Finally, rhein prevents the DNA damage probably via an anti-oxidant mechanism.

  10. Analysis of Redox Series of Unsymmetrical 1,4-Diamido-9,10-anthraquinone-Bridged Diruthenium Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Hoque, Md Asmaul; Grupp, Anita; Paretzki, Alexa; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The unsymmetrical diruthenium complexes [(bpy)2Ru(II)(μ-H2L(2-))Ru(III)(acac)2]ClO4 ([3]ClO4), [(pap)2RuII(μ-H2L(2-))Ru(III)(acac)2]ClO4 ([4]ClO4), and [(bpy)2Ru(II)(μ-H2L(2-))Ru(II)(pap)2](ClO4)2 ([5](ClO4)2) have been obtained by way of the mononuclear precursors [(bpy)2Ru(II)(H3L(-))]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) and [(pap)2Ru(II)(H3L(-))]ClO4 ([2]ClO4) (where bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, pap = 2-phenylazopyridine, acac(-) = 2,4-pentanedionate, and H4L = 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone). Structural characterization by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and magnetic resonance (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)) were used to establish the oxidation state situation in each of the isolated materials. Cyclic voltammetry, EPR, and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroelectrochemistry were used to analyze the multielectron transfer series of the potentially class I mixed-valent dinuclear compounds, considering the redox activities of differently coordinated metals, of the noninnocent bridge and of the terminal ligands. Comparison with symmetrical analogues [L2′Ru(μ-H2L)RuL2′](n) (where L′ = bpy, pap, or acac(-)) shows that the redox processes in the unsymmetrical dinuclear compounds are not averaged, with respect to the corresponding symmetrical systems, because of intramolecular charge rearrangements involving the metals, the noninnocent bridge, and the ancillary ligands. PMID:26887785

  11. In situ SERS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on the pH-dependant adsorption of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid on silver electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Jia, Shaojie; Fodjo, Essy Kouadio; Xu, Hu; Wang, Yuhong; Deng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemistry and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) are used to investigate the redox reaction and adsorption behavior of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ-2-COOH) on an Ag electrode at different pH values. The obtained results indicate that AQ-2-COOH is adsorbed tilted on the Ag electrode through O-atom of ring carbonyl in a potential range from -0.3 to -0.5 V vs. SCE, but the orientation turns to more tilted orientation with both O-atom of the ring carbonyl and carboxylate group in positive potential region for pH 6.0 and 7.4. However, at pH 10.0, the orientation adopts tilted conformation constantly on the Ag electrode with both O-atom of the anthraquinone ring and carboxylate group in the potential range from -0.3 to -0.5 V vs. SCE or at positive potentials. Moreover, the adsorption behavior of AQ-2-COOH has been further confirmed by AR-XPS on the Ag surface. Proposed reasons for the observed changes in orientation are presented.

  12. A new ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction for simultaneous preconcentration flavonoids and anthraquinones from traditional Chinese prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Sha; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique, ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction (ILWOS-3p-ME) was developed and introduced for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in Chinese herbal formula and its preparations. This technique was performed in one step by using a syringe. High performance liquid chromatography with an UV-detector (HPLC/UV) was subsequently conducted. Two solvents with different densities (organic solvent and ionic liquid with densities less than and higher than water, respectively) were separately placed in a syringe, which was used as an extraction device. A cloudy emulsion was formed by manually shaking the syringe. The mixture was allowed to stand for several minutes; afterward, the emulsion readily separated into three phases: an upper organic solvent extraction phase; a middle aqueous sample phase; and a lower ionic liquid extraction phase. Both the upper and lower layers were transferred to a small Eppendorf (EP) tube. Conducting ILWOS-3P-ME with HPLC/UV, we simultaneously determined the bioactive components of flavonoids and anthraquinones in traditional Chinese medicine. ILWOS-3P-ME is a simple, rapid, practical, and effective method to extract and preconcentrate of different types of trace bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine simultaneously. PMID:23969331

  13. All-organic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light-valves integrated with electroactive anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films as driving electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Fabrication of flexible semi-transparent all-polymer electrodes under ambient conditions without using a CVD system. → Characterization of the above electrodes based on anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films. → Demonstration of all-organic liquid crystal light-valves with polypyrrole thin films as the driving electrodes. - Abstract: All-organic PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystal) light-valves using all-polymer conductive substrates containing thin films of polypyrrole doped with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQSA-) as the driving electrodes were fabricated in this study. The all-polymer conductive substrates were prepared under ambient conditions by in situ depositing polypyrrole thin films on blank flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate), or PET, substrates from aqueous media in which oxidative polymerization of pyrrole was taking place. The obtained flexible all-polymer conductive substrates were semi-transparent with cohesive coatings of AQSA-doped polypyrrole thin films (thickness ∼55 nm). The all-polymer flexible conductive substrates had sheet resistivity ∼40 kΩ □-1and T% transparency against air ∼78% at 600 nm. The light-valves fabricated using the above all-polymer conductive substrates showed ∼50% transparency against air at 600 nm when 4 V μm-1 electric field was applied.

  14. Microwave-assisted ionic liquid homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of anthraquinones in Rheum palmatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; Hu, Jianxue; Du, Hongxia; He, Shuang; Li, Qing; Zhang, Hanqi

    2016-06-01

    The microwave-assisted ionic liquid homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction (MA-IL-HLLME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the determination of anthraquinones, including aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion in root of Rheum palmatum L. Several experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, including amount of sample, type and volume of ionic liquid, volume and pH value of extraction medium, microwave power and extraction time, concentration of NH4PF6 as well as centrifugal condition were optimized. When 140μL of ionic liquid ([C8MIM][BF4]) was used as an extraction solvent, target analytes can be extracted from sample matrix in one minute with the help of microwave irradiation. The MA-IL-HLLME is simple and quick. The calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r>0.9984). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.026 and 0.051-0.088μgmL(-1), respectively. The spiked recovery for each analyte was in the range of 81.13-93.07% with relative standard deviations lower than 6.89%. The present method is free of volatile organic solvents, and represents lower expenditures of sample, extraction time and solvent, compared with ultrasonic and heat reflux extraction. The results indicated that the present method can be successfully applied to the determination of anthraquinones in medicinal plant.

  15. Solid phase extraction of radioyttrium from irradiated strontium target using nanostructure ion imprinted polymer formed with 1-hydroxy-4-(prop-2-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new complex of 1-hydroxy-4-(prop-2-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone and Y(III) was synthesized and used as the functional monomer for a novel Y(III) nanostructure ion-imprinted polymer. This polymer was used as a sorbent for fast and selective separation. The separation method was based on radioyttrium sorption from aqueous HCl solution containing strontium onto ion-imprinted polymer. Influence of various parameters such as pH, mass sorbent, nature, concentration and volume of eluent was investigated. The radioyttrium recovery yield was 99.8% and Sr content was estimated to be 3 µg mL−1. - Highlights: • Ion imprinted polymer was synthesized based upon Y-1,4-dihydroxy-9,10 anthraquinone. • The polymer had a good selectivity towards Y(III) over competitor ions. • This method is suitable particularly for short half-life radionuclides. • The proposed method is selective, simple, rapid and low-cost

  16. All-organic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light-valves integrated with electroactive anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films as driving electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng, E-mail: wangpc@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jing-Yu; Li, Kuan-Hsun [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} Fabrication of flexible semi-transparent all-polymer electrodes under ambient conditions without using a CVD system. {yields} Characterization of the above electrodes based on anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films. {yields} Demonstration of all-organic liquid crystal light-valves with polypyrrole thin films as the driving electrodes. - Abstract: All-organic PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystal) light-valves using all-polymer conductive substrates containing thin films of polypyrrole doped with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQSA{sup -}) as the driving electrodes were fabricated in this study. The all-polymer conductive substrates were prepared under ambient conditions by in situ depositing polypyrrole thin films on blank flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate), or PET, substrates from aqueous media in which oxidative polymerization of pyrrole was taking place. The obtained flexible all-polymer conductive substrates were semi-transparent with cohesive coatings of AQSA{sup -}doped polypyrrole thin films (thickness {approx}55 nm). The all-polymer flexible conductive substrates had sheet resistivity {approx}40 k{Omega} {open_square}{sup -1}and T% transparency against air {approx}78% at 600 nm. The light-valves fabricated using the above all-polymer conductive substrates showed {approx}50% transparency against air at 600 nm when 4 V {mu}m{sup -1} electric field was applied.

  17. Co-Administration of Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics and Anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. Ameliorate Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lu; Tang, Youcai; Li, Ming; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Jieli; Zheng, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a common liver disease in recent decades. No effective treatment is currently available. Probiotics and natural functional food may be promising therapeutic approaches to this disease. The present study aims to investigate the efficiency of the anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. (AC) together with cholesterol-lowering probiotics (P) to improve high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in rat models and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Cholesterol-lowering probiotics were screened out by MRS-cholesterol broth with ammonium ferric sulfate method. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HFD and subsequently administered with AC and/or P. Lipid metabolism parameters and fat synthesis related genes in rat liver, as well as the diversity of gut microbiota were evaluated. The results demonstrated that, compared with the NAFLD rat, the serum lipid levels of treated rats were reduced effectively. Besides, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) were up-regulated while the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) was reduced. The expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α protein was significantly increased while the expression of PPAR-γ and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) was down-regulated. In addition, compared with HFD group, in AC, P and AC+P group, the expression of intestinal tight-junction protein occludin and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) were up-regulated. Furthermore, altered gut microbiota diversity after the treatment of probiotics and AC were analysed. The combination of cholesterol-lowering probiotics and AC possesses a therapeutic effect on NAFLD in rats by up-regulating CYP7A1, LDL-R, FXR mRNA and PPAR-α protein produced in the process of fat metabolism while down-regulating the expression of HMGCR, PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c, and through normalizing the intestinal

  18. Effects of Aloe's Anthraquinones on Soybean Growth under Ultraviolet Radiation Stress.%芦荟蒽醌物质对大豆抗紫外线辐射的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红艳; 贵梦园; 张翔宇

    2011-01-01

    Gradual depletion of stratospheric ozone layer has lead to increase of UVB radiation that reaches earthsurface. The enhanced UVB radiation would affect terrestrial plants in various extents. In order to explore new approaches to prevent or alleviate the UVB harm, the effects of Aloe's anthraquinones on the growth and physiological indexes of soybeans in the field under Ultraviolet radiation stress have been investigated. The results show that the height, leaf areas of the soybeans' leaves sprayed with Aloe's anthraquinones increased separately, comparing with leaves without spraying Aloe's anthraquinones under Ultraviolet Radiation stress. The contents of chlorophyll increase and the contents of MDA decrease. The results prove that Aloe's anthraquinones components could absorb and consume a part of energy of Ultraviolet Radiation. The harm of Ultraviolet Radiation to plants could be reduced effectively by spraying Aloe's anthraquinones components on plant's surfaces.%研究了芦荟蒽醌类物质在人工增强UVB辐射条件下对大豆生长发育和生理生化的影响,旨在探索预防UVB辐射对植物伤害的新途径.结果表明:在增强UVB辐射条件下,叶面喷施蒽醌类物质的大豆,其株高、叶面积比分别比没有喷施蒽醌类物质的大豆增加;叶绿素含量略有增加、丙二醛含量降低,大豆的生长发育接近正常水平.为此,喷施芦荟蒽醌类物质可有效减少UVB辐射对大豆的伤害.

  19. Anthraquinone profile, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effect of root extracts of eight Asphodeline taxa from Turkey: can Asphodeline roots be considered as a new source of natural compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Gokhan; Locatelli, Marcello; Ceylan, Ramazan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2016-10-01

    Plant-based foods have become attractive for scientists and food producers. Beneficial effects related to their consumption as dietary supplements are due to the presence of natural occurring secondary metabolites. In this context, studies on these products are important for natural and safely food ingredients evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate root extract of eight Asphodeline species as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and phytochemical content. Spectrophotometric antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays were performed. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the chemical free-anthraquinones profiles were determined using routinely procedure (HPLC-PDA). Data show that Asphodeline roots can be considered as a new source of natural compounds and can be used as a valuable dietary supplement. Some differences related to biological activities can be inferred to other phytochemicals that can be considered in the future for their synergic or competitive activities. PMID:26207512

  20. Application of an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Yongling; Zou, Denglang; Chen, Chen; You, Jinmao; Zhou, Guoying; Sun, Jing; Li, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum. A new solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/water (4:2:1, v/v/v) was developed for the liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract from R. tanguticum. As a result, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol were greatly enriched in the organic layer. In addition, an efficient method was successfully established to separate and purify the above anthraquinones by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC. This study supplies a new alternative method for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of emodin, aloe-emodin, physcione, and chrysophanol.

  1. Influence of Different Processing Methods for Removing Woody Core on Free Anthraquinones Content in Morinda Officinalis%不同炮制去心法对巴戟天游离蒽醌含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娥; 周灿; 廖莎; 石金敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of different processing methods for removing woody core on the free anthraquinones content in Morinda officinalis. Methods:A UV detection method was used with the detection wavelength of 498 nm. Results:The or-der of free anthraquinones content in Morinda officinalis with different processing methods was soaking method>steaming after soaking>steaming with salt>cooking method>moistening method>steaming method. Conclusion:Soaking method can reduce the loss of the free anthraquinones content in Morinda officinalis.%目的::比较不同炮制去心法对巴戟天游离蒽醌含量的影响。方法:采用紫外分光光度法测定,检测波长为498 nm。结果:巴戟天各去心炮制品中游离蒽醌含量高低为:泡法>泡后蒸法>盐蒸法>煮法>润法>清蒸法。结论:采用泡法去心可减少巴戟天中游离蒽醌的损失。

  2. Copper(II)-selective fluorimetric bulk optode membrane based on a 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone derivative having two propenyl arms as a neutral fluorogenic ionophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Poursaberi, Tahereh; Avanes, Armen; Sharghi, Hashem

    2006-01-01

    A new optical chemical sensor has been developed for the selective determination of copper(II) ions in aqueous solutions. The reversible sensing system was prepared by incorporating 1-hydrpxy-2-(prop-2‧-enyl)-4-(prop-2‧-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) as a neutral Cu2+-selective fluoroionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane with potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl borate) as an anionic additive. The response of the sensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of AQ by Cu2+ ions. At a pH 5.5, the proposed sensor displays a calibration response for Cu2+ over a wide concentration rang of 1.0 × 10-2 to 1.0 × 10-6 M, with a relatively fast response of less than 40 s. In addition to high stability and reproducibility, the sensor shows a unique selectivity towards Cu2+ ion with respect to common co-existing cations. The proposed fluorescence optode was applied successfully to the determination of copper(II) in black tea samples.

  3. Cooperative redox-active additives of anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate and K4Fe(CN)6 for enhanced performance of active carbon-based capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Liu, Ming; Che, Ruxing; Xue, Rong; Huang, Liping

    2016-08-01

    Two redox additives of anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate (AQDS) and K4Fe(CN)6 are introduced into the neutral medium of KNO3 for enhanced performance of active carbon-based (AC) capacitor. The Faradaic redox reactions of AQ/H2AQ and Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- are diffusion-controlled and occurred on the negative electrode and the positive electrode respectively and simultaneously, resulting in the enhancement of specific capacitance, power density and energy density of 240 F g-1, 527 W kg-1 and 26.3 Wh kg-1, respectively at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 for a symmetric AC capacitor in the electrolyte of 1 M KNO3-0.017 M K4Fe(CN)6-0.017 M AQDS. These values are much higher than those in the controls of either 1 M KNO3-0.017 M K4Fe(CN)6 or 1 M KNO3-0.017 M AQDS with only one pair of redox additives. These results demonstrate the cooperative K4Fe(CN)6 and AQDS for enhanced performance of AC capacitor, and thus provide an alternative approach for efficient capacitors.

  4. Characterization and identification of iridoid glucosides, flavonoids and anthraquinones in Hedyotis diffusa by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, E-Hu; Zhou, Ting; Li, Guo-Bin; Li, Jing; Huang, Xiu-Ning; Pan, Feng; Gao, Ning

    2012-01-01

    The multiple bioactive constituents in Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (H. diffusa) were extracted and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)). The optimized separation condition was obtained using an Agilent ZorBax SB-C18 column (4.6×150 mm, 5 μm) and gradient elution with water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid), under which baseline separation for the majority of compounds was achieved. Among the compounds detected, 14 iridoid glucosides, 10 flavonoids, 7 anthraquinones, 1 coumarin and 1 triterpene were unambiguously identified or tentatively characterized based on their retention times and mass spectra in comparison with the data from standards or references. The fragmentation behavior for different types of constituents was also investigated, which could contribute to the elucidation of these constituents in H. diffusa. The present study reveals that even more iridoid glycosides were found in H. diffusa than hitherto assumed. The occurrence of two iridoid glucosides and five flavonoids in particular has not yet been described. This paper marks the first report on the structural characterization of chemical compounds in H. diffusa by a developed HPLC-ESI-MS(n) method. PMID:25940590

  5. A Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for the Identification of Anthraquinones: the Case of Historical Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Francesca; Lluveras-Tenorio, Anna; Degano, Ilaria; Kuckova, Stepanka; Krizova, Iva; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2016-08-01

    This study deals with the identification of anthraquinoid molecular markers in standard dyes, reference lakes, and paint model systems using a micro-invasive and nondestructive technique such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS). Red anthraquinoid lakes, such as madder lake, carmine lake, and Indian lac, have been the most widely used for painting purposes since ancient times. From an analytical point of view, identifying lakes in paint samples is challenging and developing methods that maximize the information achievable minimizing the amount of sample needed is of paramount importance. The employed method was tested on less than 0.5 mg of reference samples and required a minimal sample preparation, entailing a hydrofluoric acid extraction. The method is fast and versatile because of the possibility to re-analyze the same sample (once it has been spotted on the steel plate), testing both positive and negative modes in a few minutes. The MALDI mass spectra collected in the two analysis modes were studied and compared with LDI and simulated mass spectra in order to highlight the peculiar behavior of the anthraquinones in the MALDI process. Both ionization modes were assessed for each species. The effect of the different paint binders on dye identification was also evaluated through the analyses of paint model systems. In the end, the method was successful in detecting madder lake in archeological samples from Greek wall paintings and on an Italian funerary clay vessel, demonstrating its capabilities to identify dyes in small amount of highly degraded samples.

  6. New approaches of PARP-1 inhibitors in human lung cancer cells and cancer stem-like cells by some selected anthraquinone-derived small molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Lee

    Full Text Available Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 and telomerase, as well as DNA damage response pathways are targets for anticancer drug development, and specific inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate anticancer activities of anthraquinone-derived tricyclic and tetracyclic small molecules and their structure-activity relationships with PARP-1 inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and NSCLC-overexpressing Oct4 and Nanog clone, which show high-expression of PARP-1 and more resistance to anticancer drug. We applied our library selected compounds to NCI's 60 human cancer cell-lines (NCI-60 in order to generate systematic profiling data. Based on our analysis, it is hypothesized that these drugs might be, directly and indirectly, target components to induce mitochondrial permeability transition and the release of pro-apoptotic factors as potential anti-NSCLC or PARP inhibitor candidates. Altogether, the most active NSC747854 showed its cytotoxicity and dose-dependent PARP inhibitory manner, thus it emerges as a promising structure for anti-cancer therapy with no significant negative influence on normal cells. Our studies present evidence that telomere maintenance should be taken into consideration in efforts not only to overcome drug resistance, but also to optimize the use of telomere-based therapeutics. These findings will be of great value to facilitate structure-based design of selective PARP inhibitors, in general, and telomerase inhibitors, in particular. Together, the data presented here expand our insight into the PARP inhibitors and support the resource-demanding lead optimization of structurally related small molecules for human cancer therapy.

  7. A Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for the Identification of Anthraquinones: the Case of Historical Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Francesca; Lluveras-Tenorio, Anna; Degano, Ilaria; Kuckova, Stepanka; Krizova, Iva; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2016-11-01

    This study deals with the identification of anthraquinoid molecular markers in standard dyes, reference lakes, and paint model systems using a micro-invasive and nondestructive technique such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS). Red anthraquinoid lakes, such as madder lake, carmine lake, and Indian lac, have been the most widely used for painting purposes since ancient times. From an analytical point of view, identifying lakes in paint samples is challenging and developing methods that maximize the information achievable minimizing the amount of sample needed is of paramount importance. The employed method was tested on less than 0.5 mg of reference samples and required a minimal sample preparation, entailing a hydrofluoric acid extraction. The method is fast and versatile because of the possibility to re-analyze the same sample (once it has been spotted on the steel plate), testing both positive and negative modes in a few minutes. The MALDI mass spectra collected in the two analysis modes were studied and compared with LDI and simulated mass spectra in order to highlight the peculiar behavior of the anthraquinones in the MALDI process. Both ionization modes were assessed for each species. The effect of the different paint binders on dye identification was also evaluated through the analyses of paint model systems. In the end, the method was successful in detecting madder lake in archeological samples from Greek wall paintings and on an Italian funerary clay vessel, demonstrating its capabilities to identify dyes in small amount of highly degraded samples.

  8. A spectroscopic study of the effect of ligand complexation on the reduction of uranium(VI) by anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH{sub 2}DS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Wagnon, K.B.; Ainsworth, C.C.; Liu, C.; Rosso, K.M.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the reduction rate of uranyl complexes with hydroxide, carbonate, EDTA, and desferriferrioxamine B (DFB) by anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH{sub 2}DS) is studied by stopped-flow kinetic technique under anoxic atmosphere. The apparent reaction rates varied with ligand type, solution pH, and U(VI) concentration. For each ligand, a single largest pseudo-1{sup st} order reaction rate constant, k{sub obs}, within the studied pH range was observed, suggesting the influence of pH-dependent speciation on the U(VI) reduction rate. The maximum reaction rate found in each case followed the order of OH{sup -} > CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} > EDTA > DFB, in reverse order of the trend of the thermodynamic stability of the uranyl complexes and ionic sizes of the ligands. The pH-dependent rates were modeled using a second-order rate expression that was assumed to be dependent on a single U(VI) complex and an AH{sub 2}DS species. By quantitatively comparing the calculated and measured apparent rate constants as a function of pH, species AHDS{sup 3-} was suggested as the primary reductant in all cases examined. Species UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(aq), UO{sub 2}HEDTA{sup -}, and (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+} were suggested as the principal electron acceptors among the U(VI) species mixture in each of the carbonate, EDTA, and hydroxyl systems, respectively. (orig.)

  9. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) characterized by ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.

    2014-05-01

    We combine ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling to investigate the photoinduced excited-state intramolecular hydrogen-transfer dynamics in 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) in tetrachloroethene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol. We analyze the electronic excited states of DHAQ with various possible hydrogen-bonding schemes and provide a general description of the electronic excited-state dynamics based on a systematic analysis of femtosecond UV/vis and UV/IR pump-probe spectroscopic data. Upon photoabsorption at 400 nm, the S 2 electronic excited state is initially populated, followed by a rapid equilibration within 150 fs through population transfer to the S 1 state where DHAQ exhibits ESIHT dynamics. In this equilibration process, the excited-state population is distributed between the 9,10-quinone (S2) and 1,10-quinone (S1) states while undergoing vibrational energy redistribution, vibrational cooling, and solvation dynamics on the 0.1-50 ps time scale. Transient UV/vis pump-probe data in methanol also suggest additional relaxation dynamics on the subnanosecond time scale, which we tentatively ascribe to hydrogen bond dynamics of DHAQ with the protic solvent, affecting the equilibrium population dynamics within the S2 and S1 electronic excited states. Ultimately, the two excited singlet states decay with a solvent-dependent time constant ranging from 139 to 210 ps. The concomitant electronic ground-state recovery is, however, only partial because a large fraction of the population relaxes to the first triplet state. From the similarity of the time scales involved, we conjecture that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the intramolecular hydrogen bond of DHAQ during the S2/S1 relaxation to either the ground or triplet state. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. 大黄总蒽醌大孔树脂纯化工艺优化%Optimum Purification Technology of Total Anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei by Macroporous Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝才; 尹蓉莉; 李东芬; 陈金玉; 吴圣琴; 赵明琴

    2011-01-01

    目的:筛选大黄蒽醌类成分的最佳纯化工艺.方法:以总蒽醌类成分的含量为指标,比较不同型号的大孔树脂对大黄蒽醌类成分的吸附性能和解析能力,从而筛选出适宜的树脂类型.采用单因素考察法筛选树脂纯化工艺中的最大上样量、上样速度、洗脱剂浓度、速度、用量等参数.结果:AB-8型大孔树脂纯化大黄的工艺,固形物收率由原来的38.03%下降到12.23%,主要蒽醌类成分的洗脱率82.96%,结论:AB-8树脂吸附大黄总蒽醌的纯化方法是切实可行的,同时具有良好的应用前景.%Objective:To screen out the optimum technology for purification of total anthraquinones from Radix et Rhizoma Rhei.Method: Adsorption performance and desorption capacity were compared with different types of macroporous resin with the content of total anthraquinones as the target, so as to select the appropriate resin category.Thus, specific parameters of greatest sample volume, sample speed and elution solution etc were selected from resin purification technology by single-factor study.Result: The technology for AB-8 macroporous resin to purify total anthraquinones from Rheum could not only guarantee the elution rate of 82.96% of major effective indigent, but also decrease the solid content from 38.03% to 12.23% at the same time.Conclusion:AB-8 had a good effect on the adsorption of total anthraquinones from Rheum and has a good appliccation prospect.

  11. 增强UV-B辐射对3种芦荟蒽醌类物质含量的影响%Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Anthraquinones Content of 3 Species of Aloe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红星; 胡春红; 李景原

    2011-01-01

    以中华芦荟、库拉索芦荟和木立芦荟为试验材料,采用HPLC技术,研究了增强UV-B辐射对3种芦荟叶片中主要药用成分总蒽醌、芦荟素和芦荟大黄素含量的影响.结果显示:增强UV-B辐射20 d,每天处理6 h,库拉索芦荟和木立芦荟叶中总蒽醌、芦荟素、芦荟大黄素的含量增加,叶提取物中出峰数量增多,总峰面积增大;而中华芦荟中蒽醌类物质含量显著降低,叶提取物中出峰数量减少,总峰面积减少.研究表明,增强UV-B辐射能刺激库拉索芦荟和木立芦荟叶片中蒽醌类物质的积累和新物质的合成,而不利于中华芦荟蒽醌类物质的积累.%Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on anthraquinones,aloin and aloe-emondin contents of 3 species of Aloe were studied by High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC).The results indicated that twenty days of enhanced UV-B radiation (daily 6 h) could increase total anthraquinone,aloin,aloe-emodin contents in Aloe barbadensis and Aloe arborescens leaves.In addition,the number of peaks,the total peak area increased in A.barbadensis and A.arborescens leaf extracts.However, the total anthraquinone, aloin,aloe-emodin contents, the number of peaks,the total peak area lowered significantly under the UV-B radiation in Aloe vera var.chinensis.This result shows that the accumulation of anthraquinone in A.barbadensis and A.arborescens leaves can be promoted by UV-B radiation but not conducive to A.vera var.chinensis.

  12. 1,8-二(2-羟乙基)亚氨基蒽醌荧光探针用于Fe3+的高选择性测定%Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensing of Fe3+ by a New Anthraquinone Derivative 1,8-Bis (2-hydroxyethylimino) Anthraquinone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时丽丽; 孙欢鹤; 尚卓镔; 王煜

    2013-01-01

    在蒽醌荧光团上修饰乙醇胺分子,合成了用于铁离子识别检测的新的荧光探针.实验结果表明,在乙醇∶水=4∶1,pH值为7.20的条件下,Fe3+的加入使体系荧光猝灭,荧光强度和Fe3+浓度在4.0×10-5-3.0×10-4 mol/L范围内呈线性关系,由此可以实现在乙醇/水体系中对Fe3+离子的高选择性检测.检测限为3.8×1O-7mol/L.%A new fluorionophore, which is composed of anthraquinone and a hydroxyl ethanol-amine receptor, has been synthesized. Effect of metal ions on the fluorescence of the ionophore was investigated. The results show that the ionophore displays a highly selective and sensitive response of fluorescence quenching toward Fe3+ in neutral buffer aqueous solution. There is a good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and Fe3+ concentration in the range of 4.0×10-5-3. 0×10-4 mol/L. The detection limit is 3. 8×10-7 mol/L.

  13. 1,5-Diamido-9,10-anthraquinone, a Centrosymmetric Redox-Active Bridge with Two Coupled β-Ketiminato Chelate Functions: Symmetric and Asymmetric Diruthenium Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Asif; Mandal, Abhishek; Paretzki, Alexa; Beyer, Katharina; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The dinuclear complexes {(μ-H2L)[Ru(bpy)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([3](ClO4)2), {(μ-H2L)[Ru(pap)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([4](ClO4)2), and the asymmetric [(bpy)2Ru(μ-H2L)Ru(pap)2](ClO4)2 ([5](ClO4)2) were synthesized via the mononuclear species [Ru(H3L)(bpy)2]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) and [Ru(H3L)(pap)2]ClO4 ([2]ClO4), where H4L is the centrosymmetric 1,5-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and pap is 2-phenylazopyridine. Electrochemistry of the structurally characterized [1]ClO4, [2]ClO4, [3](ClO4)2, [4](ClO4)2, and [5](ClO4)2 reveals multistep oxidation and reduction processes, which were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of paramagnetic intermediates and by UV-vis-NIR spectro-electrochemistry. With support by time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) calculations the redox processes could be assigned. Significant results include the dimetal/bridging ligand mixed spin distribution in 3(3+) versus largely bridge-centered spin in 4(3+)-a result of the presence of Ru(II)-stabilizig pap coligands. In addition to the metal/ligand alternative for electron transfer and spin location, the dinuclear systems allow for the observation of ligand/ligand and metal/metal site differentiation within the multistep redox series. DFT-supported EPR and NIR absorption spectroscopy of the latter case revealed class II mixed-valence behavior of the oxidized asymmetric system 5(3+) with about equal contributions from a radical bridge formulation. In comparison to the analogues with the deprotonated 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone isomer the centrosymmetric H2L(2-) bridge shows anodically shifted redox potentials and weaker electronic coupling between the chelate sites.

  14. Biotic and abiotic reduction and solubilization of Pu(IV)O₂•xH₂O(am) as affected by anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plymale, Andrew E; Bailey, Vanessa L; Fredrickson, James K; Heald, Steve M; Buck, Edgar C; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Resch, Charles T; Moore, Dean A; Bolton, Harvey

    2012-02-21

    This study measured reductive solubilization of plutonium(IV) hydrous oxide (Pu(IV)O(2)·xH(2)O((am))) with hydrogen (H(2)) as electron donor, in the presence or absence of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB), anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). In PIPES buffer at pH 7 with excess H(2), Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens both solubilized <0.001% of 0.5 mM Pu(IV)O(2)·xH(2)O((am)) over 8 days, with or without AQDS. However, Pu((aq)) increased by an order of magnitude in some treatments, and increases in solubility were associated with production of Pu(III)((aq)). The solid phase of these treatments contained Pu(III)(OH)(3(am)), with more in the DMRB treatments compared with abiotic controls. In the presence of EDTA and AQDS, PuO(2)·xH(2)O((am)) was completely solubilized by S. oneidensis and G. sulfurreducens in ∼24 h. Without AQDS, bioreductive solubilization was slower (∼22 days) and less extensive (∼83-94%). In the absence of DMRB, EDTA facilitated reductive solubilization of 89% (without AQDS) to 98% (with AQDS) of the added PuO(2)·xH(2)O((am)) over 418 days. An in vitro assay demonstrated electron transfer to PuO(2)·xH(2)O((am)) from the S. oneidensis outer-membrane c-type cytochrome MtrC. Our results (1) suggest that PuO(2)·xH(2)O((am)) reductive solubilization may be important in reducing environments, especially in the presence of complexing ligands and electron shuttles, (2) highlight the environmental importance of polynuclear, colloidal Pu, (3) provide additional evidence that Pu(III)-EDTA is a more likely mobile form of Pu than Pu(IV)-EDTA, and (4) provide another example of outer-membrane cytochromes and electron-shuttling compounds facilitating bioreduction of insoluble electron acceptors in geologic environments. PMID:22276620

  15. 1,5-Diamido-9,10-anthraquinone, a Centrosymmetric Redox-Active Bridge with Two Coupled β-Ketiminato Chelate Functions: Symmetric and Asymmetric Diruthenium Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Asif; Mandal, Abhishek; Paretzki, Alexa; Beyer, Katharina; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The dinuclear complexes {(μ-H2L)[Ru(bpy)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([3](ClO4)2), {(μ-H2L)[Ru(pap)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([4](ClO4)2), and the asymmetric [(bpy)2Ru(μ-H2L)Ru(pap)2](ClO4)2 ([5](ClO4)2) were synthesized via the mononuclear species [Ru(H3L)(bpy)2]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) and [Ru(H3L)(pap)2]ClO4 ([2]ClO4), where H4L is the centrosymmetric 1,5-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and pap is 2-phenylazopyridine. Electrochemistry of the structurally characterized [1]ClO4, [2]ClO4, [3](ClO4)2, [4](ClO4)2, and [5](ClO4)2 reveals multistep oxidation and reduction processes, which were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of paramagnetic intermediates and by UV-vis-NIR spectro-electrochemistry. With support by time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) calculations the redox processes could be assigned. Significant results include the dimetal/bridging ligand mixed spin distribution in 3(3+) versus largely bridge-centered spin in 4(3+)-a result of the presence of Ru(II)-stabilizig pap coligands. In addition to the metal/ligand alternative for electron transfer and spin location, the dinuclear systems allow for the observation of ligand/ligand and metal/metal site differentiation within the multistep redox series. DFT-supported EPR and NIR absorption spectroscopy of the latter case revealed class II mixed-valence behavior of the oxidized asymmetric system 5(3+) with about equal contributions from a radical bridge formulation. In comparison to the analogues with the deprotonated 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone isomer the centrosymmetric H2L(2-) bridge shows anodically shifted redox potentials and weaker electronic coupling between the chelate sites. PMID:27171539

  16. Study on the Fingerprint of Anthraquinone Components of Morinda officinalis%炮制方法对巴戟天蒽醌类成分指纹的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟成; 许晓峰

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立巴戟天蒽醌类成分指纹图谱分析方法,分析炮制技术对巴戟天蒽醌类成分的影响,为巴戟天炮制品质量标准评价体系的制定提供实验参考.方法:采用HPLC法,Sinergi 4u fusion-RP 80 A色谱柱(Phenomenex,250 mm×4.6 mm,4μm),以乙腈-0.4%磷酸水梯度洗脱,检测波长:254 nm,柱温:室温.建立巴戟天蒽醌类成分指纹图谱模型,使用计算机辅助相似度评价软件及统计学方法进行数据处理,得出不同产地巴戟天生品及炮制品蒽醌类成分指纹图谱共有模式.结果:经相似度软件分析后确定不同产地巴戟天生品与广东德庆巴戟天不同炮制品的蒽醌类成分指纹图谱中均有20个共有峰.其中,不同炮制品蒽醌类成分具有相似性,但共有峰相对含量具有差异性.另对照品对样品峰进行标定,结果12号峰为1,8-二羟基蒽醌.结论:巴戟天经不同炮制方法处理后,蒽醌类成分相对含量有变化.炮制辅料与温度为炮制过程中对巴戟天蒽醌类成分的二大影响因素.其中,以甘草制得的巴戟天蒽醌类成分含量变化尤为明显,其次为酒制与盐制,同时炒制对巴戟天中蒽醌类成分的影响较蒸制大.%Objective: To establish HPLC fingerprint analysis methods of anthraquinone components of Morinda officinalis and provide experimental method for quality standard of processed Morinda officinalis. Methods: HPLC method was employed and Sinergi 4u fusion-RP(Phenomenex, 250 mm μ4. 6 mm, 4 μm)was used at column temperature of 25 ℃. The mobile phase was composed of ace-tonitrile-0. 4% phosphoric acid solution by gradient elution. The experiment data was analyzed by computer aided similarity evaluation software and statistic methods to draw total pattern of anthraquinone components of Morinda officinalis from different places. At the same time, under the same experimental condition, the qualities and quantities of different processed Morinda officinalis was analyzed

  17. 大黄总蒽醌大鼠在体胃肠吸收%Study on in situ rats stomach and intestinal absorption of the total anthraquinones of rhubarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜纲; 崔英慧; 陈大为; 李忠思; 常金花; 刘翠哲

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究大黄总蒽醌在大鼠胃、肠的吸收性质.方法:采用大鼠在体胃、肠吸收模型,以高效液相色谱法测定胃、肠灌注液中大黄总蒽醌的含量,并考察离子浓度增加对吸收的影响.结果:大黄总蒽醌在大鼠小肠2 h累积吸收率为66.99%,在结肠中2 h累积吸收率为23.54%,增加离子强度对吸收没有影响.结论:大黄总蒽醌在大肠吸收相对较少.提示根据其泻下作用机制,可以将大黄总蒽醌制备成口服结肠定位给药形式.%OBJECTIVE To observe of the study was to observe the absorption of total anthraquinones of rhubarb extract (TARE) in the rats stomach and intestine. METHODS In situ perfusion was carried out by using the perfusion solution of the TARE (total anthraquinones content over 50%). The concentrations of total anthraquinones (TA) in the perfusion samples were determined by HPLC. RESULTS The results demonstrated that the absorption rate constants (Ka) of TA had no significant difference when its concentration varied between 0. 95 - 3. 8 mg·L-1. The absorption quantity of TA was proportional to its concentration respectively and the saturate absorption phenomenon was not observed. These suggested that the absorption of TA was a passive diffusion process. The results showed that in small bowel and colon the mechanism of absorption was the passive transport and the first order kinetics. TA could be absorbed in the whole intestinal sections. CONCLUSION The absorption rate of TA was higher in small bowel than that in colon. TA was poor absorbed in the colon, and was suitable to be prepared as oral colon-specific drug delivery system.

  18. 决明子蛋白质和蒽醌苷对高脂血症大鼠血脂的影响%Effects of cassia seeds protein and anthraquinone glycoside on blood fat of rats with hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李续娥; 郭宝江

    2004-01-01

    背景:有报道决明子的水煎液、糖浆剂或片剂均有降血脂作用,但起到降脂作的有效成分为何尚未阐明.目的:探讨决明子蛋白质和蒽醌苷对高脂血症大鼠血脂的影响.设计:随机对照的实验研究.地点、材料和干预:本实验在西安医科大学实验动物中心进行.实验选取健康SD大鼠80只,按体质量随机均分为8组,分别为正常对照组、高脂血症对照组、阳性药多烯康组,决明子蛋白质小剂量[0.25mg/(kg·d)]、大剂量[1mg/(kg·d)]组,决明子蒽醌苷小剂量[5mg/(kg·d)]、大剂量[20mg/(kg·d)]组,决明子蛋白质小剂量[0.25mg/(kg·d)]和蒽醌苷小剂量[5mg/(kg·d)]合用组.主要观察指标:决明子蛋白质和蒽醌苷的不同剂量、以及两者小剂量合用后,对高脂血症大鼠的血清总胆固醇、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol,LDL-C)和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol,HDL-C)的影响.结果:决明子蛋白质大剂量组高脂血症大鼠的总胆固醇、三酰甘油和LDL-C[(2.08±0.54),(0.50±0.14),(0.69±0.35)mmol/L]显著低于高血脂症对照组[(2.69±0.67),(0.79±0.30),(1.17±0.52)mmol/L](t=2.24,2.77,2.42,P<0.05),蒽醌苷大剂量(20mg/kg·d)组高脂血症大鼠的总胆固醇、三酰甘油和LDL-C显著低于高脂血症对照组(t=2.73,2.36,2.28,P<0.05),两者的小剂量[蛋白质0.25mg/(kg·d),蒽醌苷5mg/(kg·d)]合用组高脂血症大鼠的总胆固醇、LDL-C、三酰甘油显著低于高脂血症对照组(t=3.62,3.13,P<0.01;t=2.80,P<0.05).结论:决明子蛋白质、蒽醌苷皆可降低高脂血症大鼠的总胆固醇、三酰甘油和LDL-C.%BACKGROUND: It is reported that the decoction, syrup or tablet of cassia seed all can reduce blood fat. However, what the active elements are is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the effects of protein and anthraquinone glycoside of cassia seeds on blood fat of rats with hyperlipemia

  19. 巴戟天环烯醚萜苷类及蒽醌类成分HPLC指纹图谱研究%Studies on HPLC Fingerprint of Iridoid and Anthraquinone Components of Radix Morindae Officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新开; 叶家宏; 曹子丰; 魏刚; 林伟斌; 吴小莉

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立巴戟天环烯醚萜苷类和蒽醌类成分HPLC指纹图谱。方法采用ZOBAX SB Aq (250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱;流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(梯度洗脱);检测波长分别为235,280 nm;柱温为30℃;流速为1.0 mL·min-1。结果标示出巴戟天环烯醚萜苷类和蒽醌类成分指纹图谱具有8个和7个共有峰。结论市售巴戟天药材质量较稳定,本研究为巴戟天的质量控制提供了方法依据。%Objective To establish HPLC fingerprint of iri doid and anthraquinone components of Radix Morindae Officinalis. Methods Zorbax SB Aq (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column was used with acetonitrile-0.1%phosphoric acid solution as the mobile phase by gradient elution, the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1 and the column temperature was 30 ℃. The detection wavelength was set at 235 nm and 280 nm respectively. Results Eight characteristic peaks of iridoid components and 7 characteristic peaks of anthraquinone components were separated from 11 batches of Radix Morindae Officinalis. Conclusion The quality of Radix Morindae Officinalis in the market is stable , and the results will provide a reference for the quality control of Radix Morindae Officinalis.

  20. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  1. Recent advances in development of the fluidized bed and fixed bed in the anthraquinone route%蒽醌法流化床与固定床的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟建; 潘智勇; 李文林; 郑博; 宗保宁

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the research progress of the fixed bed catalyst and fluidized bed catalyst and their advantages and disadvantages are introduced. The influences of the factors during Ni-based catalyst and Pd-based catalyst preparation process on their catalytic performance are introduced. Researches on the catalysts with high catalytic activity and selectivity for the hydrogenation reaction are reviewed. The characteristics and research progress of hydrogenation reactors are also introduced and compared. Based on the detailed comparisons between the fluidized bed and fixed bed, it is concluded that the production with fluidized bed has many advantages of relative lower cost, less anthraquinone degradation, high catalyst utilization rate and high hydrogenation efficiency. From an application perspective, the differences between fluidized bed and fixed bed are introduced. The paper finally points out that the production with fluidized bed has become the developing tendency of the anthraquinone route and will replace the process with fixed bed. The practical research difficulties, developing trend and some suggestions for the development of the anthraquinone route are presented.%综述了国内外蒽醌法流化床与固定床催化剂的研究进展,并且重点介绍了它们的优点和缺点,总结出各种因素对镍催化剂和钯催化剂催化氢化性能的影响,同时单独介绍了蒽醌加氢催化剂在选择性、活性等方面的内容。还介绍了氢化反应器的特点和研究进展,并进行了比较。在详细比较了流化床与固定床生产技术优缺点的基础上,总结出流化床相比于固定床技术具有生产成本低、蒽醌降解少、催化剂利用率高、氢效高等优点。与此同时,简单介绍了蒽醌法流化床和固定床反应器应用方面相互比较的数据,得出流化床在大规模装置生产方面具有明显优势。最后指出蒽醌法流化床技术将取代固定床技术成为

  2. Adsorption and deposition of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid on alumina studied by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higo, Morihide [Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)], E-mail: higo@apc.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Miake, Takeshi; Mitsushio, Masaru; Yoshidome, Toshifumi [Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Ozono, Yoshihisa [Center for Instrumental analysis, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)

    2008-04-30

    The adsorption state of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ-2-COOH) deposited from acetone solutions (0.01-1.00 mg/ml) on native oxide surfaces of Al films was characterized by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxide was prepared on evaporated Al films at room temperature in an oxygen-dc glow discharge. The morphology of the deposited AQ-2-COOH on the oxide surfaces was observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy. These surface analyses showed that AQ-2-COOH is adsorbed predominantly as a uniform nanometer-scale film of carboxylate anions on the oxide surfaces deposited from solutions with concentrations lower than or equal to 0.02 mg/ml. It was found that AQ-2-COOH is adsorbed as both a uniform film of anions and as micron-sized particles of neutral molecules with heights of a few tens of nanometers when AQ-2-COOH is deposited from solutions with concentrations higher than 0.02 mg/ml. A comparison of the results obtained by these surface analytical techniques clearly shows the features and advantages of these analytical techniques.

  3. BME, a novel compound of anthraquinone, down regulated P-glycoprotein expression in doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells via generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Liu, Lu; Cen, Juan; Ji, Biansheng

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is still a main obstacle for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers. Thus, development of effective MDR reversing agents is an important approach in the clinic. The present study revealed that BME, a novel compound of anthraquinone, elevated intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrates and reduced concentration resulting in 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50) values for doxorubicin (DOX) in doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells. Further more, BME was also reported to down regulated P-gp expression accompanying with generation of nontoxic low level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 as well as c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), U0216 and SP600125 almost abolished actions of the BME mentioned above. These results indicated that the effect of the BME on the P-gp may be involved in generation of nontoxic low level of iROS and activation of ERK1/2 or JNK, which suggested valuable clues to screen and develop P-gp reversing agents.

  4. Antraquinonas e naftoquinonas do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandi (Verbenaceae Anthraquinones and naphtoquinones from the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae reforestation specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Y.O. Moreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato hexânico do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae, através de procedimentos fitoquímicos clássicos, levou ao isolamento das naftoquinonas lapachol e desidro-a-lapachona e das antraquinonas tectoquinona e obtusifolina. As estruturas das substâncias foram caracterizadas através da análise de métodos espectrométricos de RMN. Este é o primeiro estudo fitoquímico de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis, no Brasil, sendo o objetivo principal deste trabalho a comprovação da presença de tectoquinona em espécimes cultivados.The hexane extract of the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae afforded two anthraquinones and two naphtoquinones. Their caracterizations were obtained through NMR spectroscopic techniques. This is the first phytochemical study of the bark of Tectona grandis reforestation specimen in Brazil. The main interest in this work is proving the presence of tectoquinone in reforestation specimen.

  5. Adsorption and deposition of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid on alumina studied by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption state of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ-2-COOH) deposited from acetone solutions (0.01-1.00 mg/ml) on native oxide surfaces of Al films was characterized by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxide was prepared on evaporated Al films at room temperature in an oxygen-dc glow discharge. The morphology of the deposited AQ-2-COOH on the oxide surfaces was observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy. These surface analyses showed that AQ-2-COOH is adsorbed predominantly as a uniform nanometer-scale film of carboxylate anions on the oxide surfaces deposited from solutions with concentrations lower than or equal to 0.02 mg/ml. It was found that AQ-2-COOH is adsorbed as both a uniform film of anions and as micron-sized particles of neutral molecules with heights of a few tens of nanometers when AQ-2-COOH is deposited from solutions with concentrations higher than 0.02 mg/ml. A comparison of the results obtained by these surface analytical techniques clearly shows the features and advantages of these analytical techniques

  6. Effects of degree of substitution of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium on anthraquinone cathode%羧甲基纤维素钠取代度对蒽醌正极的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万君玲; 赵磊; 谢龙; 邵自强

    2012-01-01

    采用淤浆法制备水溶性粘结剂羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC),并进行红外光谱(FT-IR)、核磁氢谱(1H-NMR)和SEM分析.对蒽醌(AQ)正极进行了恒流充放电、循环伏安和交流阻抗等测试.以CMC为粘结剂的AQ电极,比容量和循环性能均比以PVDF为粘结剂的更高.以0.2 mA/cm2的电流密度在1.5~3.5 V循环,以高取代度(DS=1.23)的CMC-1为粘结剂的AQ/CMC-1电极首次和第50次循环的放电比容量分别为226.4 mAh/g和70.9 mAh/g.高取代度的CMC-1的电化学性能好于低取代度(DS=0.86)的CMC-2.%Water-soluble binder carboxymethyl cellulose sodium(CMC) was synthesized by slurry process. The Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR),nuclear magnetic resonance(1H-NMR)and SEM analyses were taken.The 9,10-anthraquinone( AQ)electrodes was tested by galvanostatic discharge-charge,cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The specific capacity and cycle performance of electrode using CMC as binder was higher than the one using PVDF. When cycled with the current density of 0.2 mA/cm2 in 1.5~3.5 V,the specific discharge capacity of AQ/CMC-1 electrode which was prepared with the binder CMC-1 which had high degree of substitution(DS= 1.23)in the initial and 50th cycle was 226.4 mAh/g and 70.9 mAh/g, respectively. The electrochemical performance of CMC-1, which had a higher DS was superior to CMC-2 with a lower DS(DS= 0.86).

  7. 何首乌游离蒽醌对兔颈动脉粥样硬化斑块及基质金属蛋白酶-9的影响%Effect of Free Anthraquinone in Fallopia Multiflora on Carotid Atherosclerosis and MMPs-9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健雄; 赖陈岑; 王和生; 王永萍; 杨长福

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究何首乌游离蒽醌对动脉粥样硬化( AS)的影响。方法:40只新西兰大白兔,随机分为AS模型组、何首乌高剂量干预组、中剂量干预组、低剂量干预组、血脂康组和正常组,除正常组外,用免疫注射法加高脂饲料喂养法进行兔颈AS模型的复制,全部从兔耳缘静脉注射牛血清白蛋白,在免疫注射当天,同时开始喂食高脂饲料;16周后,给予何首乌游离蒽醌高中低3个不同剂量灌胃,阳性对照组给予血脂康灌服;给药4周后取材,观察兔颈动脉粥样硬化病理改变,取胸主动脉和腹主动脉做实时荧光定量PCR( RT-qPCR)检测基质金属蛋白酶-9(MMPs-9)。结果:HE结果显示何首乌游离蒽醌中剂量组能延缓AS的发生和发展;MMPs的表达显示,模型组与正常组相比(P﹤0.05),提示模型复制成功;高中低剂量组、阳性组与模型组相比(P﹤0.05),有统计学意义,提示何首乌游离蒽醌和血脂康胶囊都能干预 MMPs-9的表达;阳性组与高中低剂量组相比( P ﹤0.05),有统计学意义。结论:何首乌游离蒽醌能干预AS的病变发展,其机制可能与影响MMPs-9有关。%Objective:To investigate the influence of free anthraquinone in fallopia multiflora on ath-erosclerosis( AS). Methods:Divide New Zealand rabbits into 6 groups randomly:model group,high dose group,mid-dose group,low dose group,control group and normal group. Injecting with bovine serum albumin( BSA)from ear veins,feeding all the rabbits with high-fat diet from day one except normal group. After 16 weeks,irrigation with high dose,mid-dose and low dose free anthraquinone in fallopia multiflora,and feed the rabbits of control group with Xuezhikang. Taking samples to observe the pathologic change of rabbit AS and adopting the RT-PCR on aorta thoracica and aorta abdominalis to test MMPs-9 after 4 weeks. Results:Mid-dose group of free anthraquinone

  8. 大黄游离蒽醌在正常和重症急性胰腺炎犬体内吸收动力学比较研究%A Comparative Study on the Absorption Kinetics Parameters of Rhubarb Free Anthraquinones between Normal Dogs and Dogs with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永茂; 王平; 张艳; 孟宪丽; 陈瑛; 邱一行

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) on absorption kinetic parameters of rhubarb free anthraquinones. Methods Eleven healthy Beagle dogs were randomly divided into the normal group (n =6) and the SAP group (n=5). The SAP animal model was prepared by surgery through portal vein blood channel building to collect blood from normal dogs and dogs with SAP. The free anthraquinones (20 mg/kg) was given by gastrogavage. The concentrations of five anthraquinones (aloe emodin, rhein, emod-in, chrysophanol, and physcion) in the blood plasma of the portal vein and the femoral artery were determined u-sing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The kinetic parameters were calculated using MAT-LAB2007B Software. The half life (t1/2Ka), the absorption peak time (Tmax), the peak concentration (Cmax), the area under the curve [ AUC(0-∞)], and the mean residence time (MRT) were calculated using the statistical moment method. The transport velocity of corresponding medicines from the gastrointestinal tract to the blood (ka) was calculated. Results There was no difference in the chemical composition absorption type of the portal vein and the femory artery beween the two groups. Aloe emodin could be detected in the portal vein of each animal at each time point, and they were in the quantitative range. Rhein could be detected in the portal vein of each animal at each time point, and they were lower than the quantitative limit at few time points. Emodin and chrysophanol could be detected in the portal vein of partial animals at each time point, and most of them were higher than the quantitative limit. Physcion could be detected only in the portal vein of less animals at few time points. Rhein could be detected in the femoral artery at most time points, but the rhein plasma concentration at most time points were lower than the quantitative limit. Lower concentration of aloe emodin, emodin, and chrysophanol could be detected in the femoral artery at

  9. Integrated Process of Propylene Epoxidation Catalyzed by TS-1 and H2O2 Production Ⅰ.Influence on Epoxidation of Propylene of Various Reagents in the Anthraquinone Route%TS-1催化丙烯环氧化与H2O2生产过程的集成Ⅰ.蒽醌法中各物质对环氧化反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥堃; 李韦; 许锡恩

    2001-01-01

    The influence on the epoxidation of propylene of anthraquinone derivatives, solvents, stabilizers and corrosion resisters used in the anthraquinone route for the production of hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The experimental results show that anthraquinone derivatives and solvents have no obvious influence on the epoxidation of propylene and the deactivation of TS-1. Na2H2P2O7 and NaNO3 used as stabilizer and corrosion resister of hydrogen peroxide have no influence on the epoxidation of propylene and only slight influence on the deactivation of TS-1. H3PO4 lowers the selectivity of propylene oxide, and NH4NO3 lowers both H2O2 conversion and propylene oxide selectivity, they accelerate the process of deactivation of TS-1 catalyst. K2CO3 hydrolyzes propylene oxide to propylene glycol and catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Trimethylamine catalyzes the reaction of propylene oxide to polyethers, and causes the deactivation of TS-1.%研究了蒽醌法生产H2O2过程中蒽醌衍生物、溶剂、各种添加剂对丙烯环氧化反应的影响。结果表明,在过程集成中,少量蒽醌衍生物及其溶剂,对丙烯环氧化反应及TS-1催化剂失活、再生没有明显的影响;酸性焦磷酸二钠、硝酸钠对环氧化反应没有影响,对TS-1催化剂失活影响不大;磷酸使环氧丙烷选择性降低,硝酸铵使H2O2转化率和环氧丙烷选择性均降低,它们使TS-1催化剂失活加快;碳酸钾使环氧丙烷选择性降低,三甲胺引起TS-1催化剂失活。

  10. Separation and determination of anthraquinones in Paedicalyx attopevensis Pierre ex Pitard by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography%微乳液毛细管电动色谱法对匙鄂木中蒽醌类化合物的分离测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈安家; 陈晓峰; 李进冉; 李霞; 李青山; 胡之德

    2008-01-01

    A rapid and effective microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography method was established for simultaneous determination of three bioactive components (anthraquinones) extract of Chinese herb Paedicalyx attopevensis Pierre ex Pitard for the first time.After optimization of separation conditions,baseline separation was obtained for the three analytes within 8 rain using a running buffer composed of 10 mmol/L borate solution+12% microemulsion stock solution [sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)+lbutanol+n-heptane+water=16.55%+33.05%+4.05%+46.35% (w/w)]+5% acetonitrile.Regression equations revealed linear relationships (correlation coefficients 0.999 2~0.999 5) between the peak area of each analyte and the concentration.The relative standard deviations of the migration times and the peak areas of the three constituents were less than 0.53% and 3.2%.The recoveries of three constituents ranged from 97.3% to 106.2%.%建立了一种快速、有效分离测定茜草科植物匙鄂木中3种蒽醌类化合物的微乳液毛细管电动色谱新方法.研究了硼砂浓度、微乳液浓度、乙腈浓度以及电压对分离行为的影响.实验结果表明:最佳缓冲体系组成为10 mmol/L硼砂-12%微乳储备液-5%乙腈,最佳运行电压为25 kv,检测波长为264nm.分析物浓度与峰面积之间的线性关系良好,相关系数在0.9992~0.9995之间.该方法用于对匙鄂木中蒽醌类化合物的含量测定,回收率为97.3%~106.2%.

  11. Anthraquinones and nitrogen secondary metabolites from the coral-derived symbiotic fungi NG-15 -3 of South China Sea%南海珊瑚共附生真菌 NG -15-3中蒽醌和含氮类次生代谢产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀婷; 刘炳新; 胡谷平; 汪玉梅; 张翠仙

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the secondary metabolites from the coral-derived symbiotic fungi NG-15 -3 of South China Sea,the compounds were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and HPLC.Their structures were identified on the basis of spectral data and physical constant comparison.Four anthraqui-nones and six nitrogen compounds were isolated as preechinulin (1),emodin (2),1-O -methyl emodin (3),physcion (4),carviolin (5),cyclo-(Phe-Gly)(6),cyclo-(Gly-Pro)(7),3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (8),2-methyl-3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (9)and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (10).All the secondary metabolites were firstly acquired from the coral-derived symbiotic fungi NG-15 -3 of South China Sea and compound 1 was a precursors of the monodehydro -2,5-diketopiperazines, which showed varied biological activity.%为了研究南海珊瑚共附生真菌 NG -15-3次生代谢产物,采用硅胶柱层析和 HPLC 等分离手段从乙酸乙酯提取部位分离得到单体化合物,结合现代波谱技术、物理常数对照对单体化合物的结构进行结构鉴定。从其分离得到4个蒽醌类:emodin (2)、1-O -methyl emodin (3)、physcion (4)、carviolin (5)和6个含氮类次生代谢产物:preechinulin (1)、cyclo-(Phe-Gly)(6)、cyclo-(Gly-Pro)(7)、3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (8)、2-methyl-3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (9)和1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (10)。所有化合物均为首次从该真菌中分离得到,且化合物1为单去氢2,5-二酮哌嗪类化合物的前体物质,具有丰富的生理活性。

  12. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Redox Grafting of Diazotated Anthraquinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Bousquet, Antoine; Torbensen, Kristian;

    2012-01-01

    Redox grafting of aryldiazonium salts containing redox units may be used to form exceptionally thick covalently attached conductingfilms, even in the micrometers range, in a controlled manner on glassy carbon and gold substrates. With the objective to investigate the mechanism of this process...

  13. Biological active anthraquinone analogs from the fungus Eurotium sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Gawas, D.; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.

    the leaves of the mangrove plant Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.). These compounds have previously been reported as fungal / angiosperm metabolites exhibiting anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic properties. The structures of these compounds were finalized...

  14. Photochemical modification and patterning of SU-8 using Anthraquinone photolinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoi, Gabriela; Keller, Stephan Urs; Persson, Karl Fredrik;

    2008-01-01

    of micropatterned AQ molecules is improved to 1.5 μm when a collimated light source is used. This micropatterning process will be important for the functionalization of MEMS-based biosensors. The method saves several processing steps and can be integrated in cleanroom fabrication thus avoiding contamination...

  15. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of anthraquinone glycosides from Madder roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, G.C.H.; Naayer, M.; Beek, T.A. van; Capelle, A.; Haaksman, I.K.; Doren, H.A. van; Groot, Æ. de

    2003-01-01

    For the production of a commercially useful dye extract from madder, the glycoside ruberythric acid has to be hydrolysed to the aglycone alizarin which is the main dye component. An intrinsic problem is the simultaneous hydrolysis of the glycoside lucidin pritneveroside to the unwanted mutagenic agl

  16. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis fo anthraquinone glycosides from madder roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, G.C.H.; Naayer, M.; Beek, van T.A.; Capelle, A.; Haaksman, I.K.; Doren, H.A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2003-01-01

    For the production of a commercially useful dye extract from madder, the glycoside ruberythric acid has to be hydrolysed to the aglycone alizarin which is the main dye component. An intrinsic problem is the simultaneous hydrolysis of the glycoside lucidin primeveroside to the unwanted mutagenic agly

  17. Phenothiazine-anthraquinone donor-acceptor molecules: synthesis, electronic properties and DFT-TDDFT computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Wei; Mao, Wei-Li; Hu, Yun-Xia; Tian, Zi-Qi; Wang, Zhi-Lin; Meng, Qing-Jin

    2009-09-17

    Two donor-acceptor molecules with different pi-electron conjugative units, 1-((10-methyl-10H-phenothiazin-3-yl)ethynyl)anthracene-9,10-dione (AqMp) and 1,1'-(10-methyl-10H-phenothiazine-3,7-diyl)bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl)dianthracene-9,10-dione (Aq2Mp), have been synthesized and investigated for their photochemical and electrochemical properties. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide insights into their molecular geometry, electronic structures, and properties. These studies satisfactorily explain the electrochemistry of the two compounds and indicate that larger conjugative effect leads to smaller HOMO-LUMO gap (Eg) in Aq2Mp. Both compounds show ICT and pi --> pi* transitions in the UV-visible range in solution, and Aq2Mp has a bathochromic shift and shows higher oscillator strength of the absorption, which has been verified by time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. The differences between AqMp and Aq2Mp indicate that the structural and conjugative effects have great influence on the electronic properties of the molecules. PMID:19705823

  18. Serum concentrations of anthraquinones after intake of Folium Sennae and potential modulation on P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chen, Min-Yu; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2014-10-01

    Folium Sennae (leaves of Cassia angustifolia or senna) is a laxative and a component in diets for weight control. It contains a variety of anthranoids such as sennosides, aloe-emodin, and rhein. In order to measure the serum concentrations of senna anthranoids, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with single dose and multiple doses of Folium Sennae. The concentrations of anthranoids in serum were determined by HPLC method before and after hydrolysis with sulfatase and β-glucuronidase. The results showed that in the serum, aloe-emodin glucuronides and rhein glucuronides were the major metabolites. Traces of rhein free form were present transiently during the early phase, whereas the free form of aloe-emodin was not detected. We also evaluated the modulation effect of Folium Sennae on P-glycoprotein by using the LS 180 cell model which showed that it significantly inhibited P-glycoprotein by 16-46 %. In conclusion, senna anthranoids were rapidly and extensively metabolized to rhein glucuronides and aloe-emodin glucuronides in rats. Folium Sennae ingestion inhibited the efflux function of P-glycoprotein in the intestine.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory and Antiarthritic Activity of Anthraquinone Derivatives in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay D. Kshirsagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe emodin is isolated compound of aloe vera which is used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro pharmacokinetic data suggest that glucuronosyl or sulfated forms of aloe emodin may provide some limitations in its absorption capacity. Aloe emodin was reported to have in vitro anti-inflammatory activity due to inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (iNO and prostaglandin E2, via its action on murine macrophages. However, present work evidenced that molecular docking of aloe emodin modulates the anti-inflammatory activity, as well as expression of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2 in rodent. The AEC (4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2 carboxylic acid was synthesized using aloe emodin as starting material. The study was planned for evaluation of possible anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity in carrageenan rat induced paw oedema and complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The AE (aloe emodin and AEC significantly P<0.001 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema at 50 and 75 mg/kg. Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis model showed significant P<0.001 decrease in injected and noninjected paw volume, arthritic score. AE and AEC showed significant effect on various biochemical, antioxidant, and hematological parameters. Diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg showed significant P<0.001 inhibition in inflammation and arthritis.

  20. Two New Cerebrosides and Anthraquinone Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zu-Jian; OUYANG Ming-An; SU Ren-Kuan; KUO Yueh-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    Two new cerebrosides, asperiamide B (1) and C (2), and two known aflatoxins, averufin and nidurufin, have been isolated from a Quanzhou marine fungus Aspergillus niger (MF-16), and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical means. Among the compounds 5 and 6 showed moderate activities in inhibiting multiplication of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).

  1. Functionalization of anthracene: A selective route to brominated 1,4-anthraquinones

    OpenAIRE

    Kiymet Berkil Akar; Osman Cakmak; Orhan Büyükgüngör; Ertan Sahin

    2011-01-01

    Efficient and stereoselective syntheses are described for the preparation of 2,3,9,10-tetrabromo-1,4-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroanthracenes 7, 8 and the corresponding 1,4-diol 17 by silver ion-assisted solvolysis of hexabromotetrahydroanthracene 6. Base-promoted aromatization of 7 and 8 afforded synthetically valuable tribromo-1-methoxyanthracenes 10 and 11. The reaction of 17 with sodium methoxide generated tribromodihydroanthracene-1,4-diol 27, whose oxidation with PCC gave 2,9,10-tribromo...

  2. Electrochemical control of quantum interference in anthraquinone-based molecular switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Schiøtz, Jakob; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2010-01-01

    absent in the hydroquinone molecular bridge. A simple explanation of the interference effect is achieved by transforming the frontier molecular orbitals into localized molecular orbitals thereby obtaining a minimal tight-binding model describing the transport in the relevant energy range in terms of...

  3. Antiviral anthraquinones and azaphilones produced by an endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. from Aconitum carmichaeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-Peng; Huang, Rong; Li, Fang-Fang; Wei, Hong-Xia; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Xie, Xiao-Song; Lin, Dong-Guo; Wu, Shao-Hua; He, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A new hydroanthraquinone derivative, 6-O-demethyl-4-dehydroxyaltersolanol A (1), and two new azaphilones, 8,11-didehydrochermesinone B (6) and (7S)-7-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-isochromene-6,8-dione (8), along with five known analogues (2-5 and 7), were isolated from the culture broth of Nigrospora sp. YE3033, an endophytic fungus obtained from Aconitum carmichaeli. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Biological activity test indicated that compounds 1-3, and 7 exhibited the inhibitory effects on influenza viral strain of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) with the IC50 values of 2.59, 8.35, 7.82, and 0.80μg/mL, respectively, while the low cytotoxicity of 7 with the CC50 value of 184.75μg/mL, displaying a promising potential of 7 in the development of anti-influenza A virus drugs. PMID:27233986

  4. Characterization of an anthraquinone fluor from the bioluminescent, pelagic polychaete Tomopteris

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Warren R.; Powers, Meghan L.; Haddock, Steven H. D.

    2014-01-01

    Tomopteris is a cosmopolitan genus of polychaetes. Many species produce yellow luminescence in the parapodia when stimulated. Yellow bioluminescence is rare in the ocean, and the components of this luminescent reaction have not been identified. Only a brief description, half a century ago, noted fluorescence in the parapodia with a remarkably similar spectrum to the bioluminescence, which suggested that it may be the luciferin or terminal light-emitter. Here, we report the isolation of the fl...

  5. A rapid two-step bioremediation of the anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 4 by a marine-derived fungus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verma, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.; Parvatkar, R.R.; Naik, C.G.

    . These analyses confirmed changes in the aromatic character of the parent dye and formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds as the final products of the enzymatic degradation. Based on these results, the probable degradation products of RB4 were 2...

  6. Novel Gas-assisted Three-liquid-phase Extraction System for Simultaneous Separation and Concentration of Anthraquinones in Herbal Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingfu Yang; Xiangfeng Liang; Liangrong Yang; Feng Pan; Fuli Deng; Huizhou Liu

    2014-01-01

    abstract Gas-assisted three-liquid-phase extraction (GATE), which has the advantages of both three-liquid-phase extrac-tion and solvent sublation, is a novel separation technique for separation and concentration of two organic com-pounds into different phases in one step. This highly effective and economically applicable method has been developed for separating emodin and rhein from herbal extract. In a GATE system composed of butyl acetate/PEG4000/ammonium sulfate aqueous solution, influence of various parameters including gas flow rate, flotation time, salt concentration, initial volume of PEG and butyl acetate was investigated. Within 50 min of 30 ml·min-1 nitrogen flow, removal ratio of emodin and rhein from aqueous phase could be over 99%and 97%, respectively. Mass fraction of emodin in the BA phase and rhein in the PEG phase could reach 97%and 95%, respectively. It is demonstrated that gas bubbling is effective for partitioning of emodin and rhein into butyl acetate and PEG phase respectively, and dispersed PEG and butyl acetate could be captured from the aqueous solution. Experi-mental results show that GATE could be an effective and economical technology for concentration and separation of co-existed products in medicinal plants.

  7. Redox Reactions of Reduced Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN), Riboflavin (RBF), and Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) with Ferrihydrite and Lepidocrocite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zachara, John M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Liang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, Dean A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kennedy, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fredrickson, Jim K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-09-17

    Flavins are secreted by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella and can function as endogenous electron transfer mediators (ETM). In order to assess the potential importance of flavins in Fe(III) bioreduction, we investigated the redox reaction kinetics of reduced flavins (FMNH2 and RBFH2) with ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. The organic reductants rapidly reduced and dissolved ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite in the pH range 4-8. The rate constant k for 2-line ferrihydrite reductive dissolution by FMNH2 was 87.5 ± 3.5 M-1∙s-1 at pH 7.0 in batch reactors, and the k was similar for RBFH2. For lepidocrocite, the k was 500 ± 61 M-1∙s-1 for FMNH2, and 236 ± 22 M-1∙s-1 for RBFH2. The surface area normalized initial reaction rates (ra) were between 0.08 and 77 μmoles∙m-2∙s-1 for various conditions in stopped-flow experiments. Initial rates (ro) were first-order with respect to Fe(III) oxide concentration, and ra increased with decreasing pH. Poorly crystalline 2-line ferrihydrite yielded the highest ra, followed by more crystalline 6-line ferrihydrite, and crystalline lepidocrocite. Compared to a previous whole-cell study with Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, our findings suggest that ETM reduction by the Mtr pathway coupled to lactate oxidation are rate limiting, rather than heterogeneous electron transfer to the Fe(III) oxide.

  8. Enhanced bio-decolorization of azo dyes by co-immobilized quinone-reducing consortium and anthraquinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, YY; Zhang, Yifeng; Wang, J;

    2009-01-01

    exhibited good catalytic activity and increased the decolorization rate for many kinds of azo dyes. The reusability of the co-immobilized beads was evaluated with repeated-batch decolorization experiments. After ten repeated experiments, the decolorization rate of co-immobilized beads retained over 92.8% of...

  9. Photocatalytic Removal of Azo Dye and Anthraquinone DyeUsing TiO2 Immobilised on Ceramic Tiles

    OpenAIRE

    P. N. Palanisamy; Kavitha, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 immobilized on different supports; cement and ceramic tile, was studied to decolorize two commercial dyes. The catalyst was immobilised by two different techniques, namely, slurry method on ceramic tile and powder scattering on cement. The degradation of the dyes was carried out using UV and solar irradiation. The comparative efficiency of the catalyst immobilised on two different supports was determined. The photodegradation process was monitored by UV-Vis...

  10. Heterogeneous sono-Fenton process using pyrite nanorods prepared by non-thermal plasma for degradation of an anthraquinone dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Gholami, Peyman; Vahid, Behrouz; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-09-01

    Natural pyrite (NP) was treated using oxygen and nitrogen non-thermal plasmas to form modified catalysts. Cleaning effect of the O2 plasma by chemical etching leads to removal of impurities from catalyst surface and sputtering effect of the N2 plasma results in formation of pyrite nanorods. The mentioned plasmas were applied separately or in the order of first O2 and then N2, respectively. The catalytic performance of the plasma-modified pyrites (PMPs) is better than the NP for treatment of Reactive Blue 69 (RB69) in heterogeneous sono-Fenton process (US/H2O2/PMP). The NP and the most effective modified pyrite (PMP4) samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EDX, XPS and BET analyses. The desired amounts were chosen for operational parameters including initial pH (5), H2O2 concentration (1mM), PMP4 dosage (0.6g/L), dye concentration (20mg/L), and ultrasonic power (300W). Moreover, the effects of peroxydisulfate and inorganic salts on the degradation efficiency were investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied to identify the generated intermediates and a plausible pathway was proposed for RB69 degradation. Environmentally-friendly modification of the NP, low amount of leached iron and repeated reusability at milder pH are the significant privileges of the PMP4. The phytotoxicity test using Spirodela polyrrhiza verified the remarkable toxicity removal of the RB69 solution after the treatment process. PMID:27150782

  11. Generic Hockey-Stick Model for Estimating Benchmark Dose and Potency: Performance Relative to BMDS and Application to Anthraquinone

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth T. Bogen

    2010-01-01

    Benchmark Dose Model software (BMDS), developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, involves a growing suite of models and decision rules now widely applied to assess noncancer and cancer risk, yet its statistical performance has never been examined systematically. As typically applied, BMDS also ignores the possibility of reduced risk at low doses (“hormesis”). A simpler, proposed Generic Hockey-Stick (GHS) model also estimates benchmark dose and potency, and additionally characteri...

  12. Synchrotron Radiation Linear Dichroism (SRLD) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) Calculations on Dihydroxy-Anthraquinones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    SRLD spectra of Quinizarin, Anthrarufin, and Chrysazin partially aligned in stretched polyethylene were measured at the ASTRID synchrotron UV1 beamline (ISA, Aarhus University), yielding absorbance and polarization data up to 57000 cm-1. The observed absorption bands were assigned to electronic t...

  13. Synthesis and electrospinning carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) modified 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) high-rate lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Liu, Minglong; Wang, Jianquan; Li, Pengfa; Zhao, Ming

    2014-02-15

    New cellulose derivative CMC-Li was synthesized, and nanometer CMC-Li fiber was applied to lithium-ion battery and coated with AQ by electrospinning. Under the protection of inert gas, modified AQ/carbon nanofibers (CNF)/Li nanometer composite material was obtained by carbonization in 280 °C as lithium battery anode materials for the first time. The morphologies and structures performance of materials were characterized by using IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, CV and EIS, respectively. Specific capacity was increased from 197 to 226.4 mAhg(-1) after modification for the first discharge at the rate of 2C. Irreversible reduction reaction peaks of modified material appeared between 1.5 and 1.7 V and the lowest oxidation reduction peak of the difference were 0.42 V, the polarization was weaker. Performance of cell with CMC-Li with the high degree of substitution (DS) was superior to that with low DS. Cellulose materials were applied to lithium battery to improve battery performance by electrospinning.

  14. Properties of a novel acid dye 1-amino-4-[(6-nitro-2-benzothiazolyl)amino]-9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid with anti-UV capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel acid dye acid was synthesized by the condensation reaction between bromamine acid and 2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole and its anti-UV protection properties were evaluated.The results showed that silk dyed with this dye had very good ultraviolet radiation protection capability and excellent dyeing performance.The UV-absorption mechanism of this dye was also discussed.

  15. Effect of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Conditions and Beating Revolution on the Mechanical Properties of Paper made from Gigantochloa scortechinii (Semantan Bamboo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of soda-AQ pulping conditions and beating revolution on the mechanical properties of paper made from Semantan bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) was studied. The bamboo chips were pulped using MK digester pulping unit with 10 to 20 % alkali charge and 150 to 170 degree Celsius cooking temperature. The screened yield varies from 38.7 to 48.4 %, and each yield went through beating process at 1000 or 8000 beating revolutions. The bamboo pulp was then made into 60 g/ m2 laboratory scale papers and their mechanical properties were assessed conforming to TAPPI standards. The results revealed that tensile index, bursting index, tearing index and folding endurance ranged from 42.04 to 91.09 Nm/ g, 2.68 to 7.10 kPa.m2/g, 11.03 to 26.64 mN.m2/g and 30 to 1127 double folds, respectively. The highest paper properties were found from pulping condition of 15 % alkali charge and 150 degree Celsius cooking temperature based on the fibre bonding index, with tensile index at 87.71 Nm/g, bursting index at 6.94 kPa.m2/ g, tearing index at 12.72 mN.m2/ g and folding endurance at 613 double folds. Such findings indicate that comparable high strength mechanical properties of paper can be produced from Semantan bamboo pulp with more environmentally friendly pulping process compared to the kraft pulping process that had been used in bamboo pulping. (author)

  16. Studies on anthraquinone biosynthesis in Morinda citrifolia suspension cells%海巴戟天悬浮细胞合成蒽醌类物质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 李永成

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究外源激素、水杨酸、茉莉酸甲酯对海巴戟天悬浮细胞生长及蒽醌类化合物合成的影响.方法 建立海巴戟天细胞悬浮培养体系,并向海巴戟天细胞悬浮培养物中添加外源激素、水杨酸和茉莉酸甲酯,测定细胞比生长速率和蒽醌产量.结果 外源激素萘乙酸(NAA)、激动素(KT)对海巴戟天悬浮细胞的生长和蒽醌类化合物的合成有显著影响,采用B5培养基时,较佳激素组合为NAA2 mg/L+ KT 0.1 mg/L.在对数生长初期(培养9d)时,添加200 μmol/L水杨酸和50 μmol/L茉莉酸甲酯,蒽醌质量浓度分别为588.34 mg/L和595.49 mg/L,比对照分别提高了17.05%和18.47%.结论 适宜激素配比结合一定质量浓度的水杨酸和茉莉酸甲酯外源诱导对蒽醌类化合物的合成有促进作用.

  17. Effects of Light on Anthraquinones of Aloe arborescens%光质对木立芦荟蒽醌类物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红星; 郭翠红; 李景原

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究光质处理对木立芦荟中蒽醌类物质的影响.[方法] 运用植物化学法和HPLC技术研究红、蓝和黄光处理对木立芦荟中蒽醌类物质的影响.[结果] 3种光质处理均能导致总蒽醌、芦荟素和芦荟大黄素含量增加,黄光更利于总蒽醌、芦荟素的积累,蓝光利于芦荟大黄素的积累. [结论] 研究结果可为我国北方芦荟栽培提供指导.

  18. Dyeability of Polylactide Fabric with Hydrophobic Anthraquinone Dyes%疏水性葸醌染料在聚乳酸织物上的染色性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亮; 张淑芬; 唐炳涛; 王丽丽; 杨锦宗

    2009-01-01

    The dyeability of polylactide fabric has been investigated with the substituted aminoanthraquinone hydrophobic dyes. Their application to the polylactide fabric led to good exhaustion values and good wash fastness between 4 and 5. Microscopic assessment of cross-sections of the dyed polylactide fibres confirmed that these dyes could penetrate into the fibres. The nature of the substituted amino groups showed little influence on the wash fastness, but clearly influenced the exhaustion and light fastness.

  19. Radiochemical methods and spectroscopical analyses for investigating the catalytic effects of 2-methyltetrahydro-anthraquinone and phenanthraquinone in wood pulp production using the soda additive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were to show whether 2-methyltetrahydroanthraquinone or phenanthraquinone, two additives obtainable at low cost, will have a suitable catalytic effect on the delignification using the soda additive pulping method. For this purpose, soda cookings have been made in a 7 l rotary autoclave. The results have shown that 2-MeTHAQ is by far the better catalytic agent. Further experiments have been made to investigate the mode of action of the redox additives, intended to reveal further characteristics which can be correlated with the knowledge obtained from the preceding soda cookings. The analysis shows that there is a connection between the analytical lignin characteristics and the effectiveness of quinoid additives. (orig./PW)

  20. Emodin, a Naturally Occurring Anthraquinone Derivative, Ameliorates Dyslipidemia by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic effects of emodin on high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese rats, and on the regulation of the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism to elucidate the mechanisms. After being fed HFD for two weeks, Wistar rats were dosed orally with emodin (40 and 80 mg kg−1 or pioglitazone (20 mg kg−1, once daily for eight weeks. Emodin (80 mg kg−1 per day displayed similar characteristics to pioglitazone (20 mg kg−1 per day in reducing body weight gain, plasma lipid levels as well as coronary artery risk index and atherogenic index of HFD-fed rats. Emodin also caused dose related reductions in the hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents and lowered hepatic lipid droplets accumulation in HFD-fed rats. Emodin and pioglitazone enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in hepatocytes of HFD-fed rats. Our findings suggest emodin could attenuate lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis and increasing mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway.

  1. Emodin, a Naturally Occurring Anthraquinone Derivative, Ameliorates Dyslipidemia by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Thing-Fong Tzeng; Hung-Jen Lu; Shorong-Shii Liou; Chia Ju Chang; I-Min Liu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic effects of emodin on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats, and on the regulation of the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism to elucidate the mechanisms. After being fed HFD for two weeks, Wistar rats were dosed orally with emodin (40 and 80 mg kg−1) or pioglitazone (20 mg kg−1), once daily for eight weeks. Emodin (80 mg kg−1 per day) displayed similar characteristics to pioglitazone (20 mg kg−1...

  2. Effects of Quinizarin and Five Synthesized Derivatives on Fifth Larval Instar Midgut Ecdysone 20-Monooxygenase Activity of the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Drummond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant allelochemical, quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, and five anthraquinones that were synthesized from quinizarin, namely, 1,4-anthraquinone; 2-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; 2-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone; 9-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; and 9-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone, were assessed as to their effects on the essential, P450-dependent ecdysone 20-monooxygenase system of the insect model Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm. This steroid hydroxylase converts the arthropod molting hormone, ecdysone, to the physiologically required 20-hydroxyecdysone form. M. sexta fifth larval instar midgut homogenates were incubated with increasing concentrations (10−8 to 10−3 M of each of the six anthraquinones followed by ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assessments using a radioenzymological assay. Four of the five anthraquinones exhibited I50’s of about 4×10-6 to 6×10-2 M. The most effective inhibitors were 2-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone and 1,4-anthraquinone followed by 9-hydroxy-1,4 anthraquinone and 9-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone. At lower concentrations the latter anthraquinone stimulated E20M activity. Quinizarin was less inhibitory and 2-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone was essentially without effect. Significantly, these studies make evident for the first time that anthraquinones can affect insect E20M activity, and thus insect endocrine regulation and development, and that a relationship between anthraquinone structure and effectiveness is apparent. These studies represent the first demonstrations of anthraquinones affecting any steroid hydroxylase system.

  3. 分散蒽醌和晶体蒽醌在黑碱土欧美杨107 ASAM制浆中的对比研究%A Comparing Research on the Performances of Dispersing Anthraquinone and Common Crystal Anthraquinone in ASAM Pulping of Black Alkali Soil Populus × euramericana '74/76'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕾; 姚春丽; 夏耀玲

    2007-01-01

    欧美杨107是速生杨木的新品种,该研究使用分散蒽醌和普通蒽醌作为蒸煮助剂在黑碱土欧美杨107ASAM制浆中进行了对比,结果表明,分散蒽醌易溶于水,溶于碱,易与原料充分混合,蒸煮均匀,在保持纸浆较高得率的同时具有较低的硬度和较高的白度,比普通晶体蒽醌更具优势.

  4. 蒽醌类化合物对大型潘(Daphnia magna)的急性光致毒性研究%Acute Photoinduced Toxicity of Anthraquinones to the Crustacean Daphnia magna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽; 陈景文; 林晶; 黄丽萍; 乔显亮

    2006-01-01

    通过测定模拟光照和无光照条件下20种蒽醌类化合物对大型(Daphnia magna)的48h半数活动抑制浓度(EC50),研究了该类化合物的光致毒性.比较了两种助溶剂(二甲基亚砜和丙酮)对这些化合物光致毒性的影响,初步讨论了光致毒性的机理.结果表明,所研究的助溶剂不影响这些化合物对大型溞的光致毒性.蒽醌类化合物因其取代基的不同(-NH2、-OH、-Cl、-Br、-NO2)、取代基位置的不同和取代基数目的不同,而表现出对大型潘光致毒性的不同.最低未占据分子轨道能(ELUMO)和最高占据分子轨道能(EHOMO)之间的能级差,可用于初步判断蒽醌类化合物溞大型的潜在光致毒性.

  5. 芦荟皮渣中多糖和葸醌类物质的联合提取工艺研究%Study on the Extraction Process of Polysaccharide and Anthraquinone from the Pomace of Aloe Vera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈妙顺

    2015-01-01

    芦荟皮渣是芦荟凝胶加工中的废弃物.本文采用超声波辅助提取技术,进行多糖和蒽醌类物质联合提取工艺研究,确定蒽醌类物质的最佳提取工艺为:乙醇浓度70%,液固比30:1,超声功率200W,提取时间30 min,提取温度为室温;芦荟多糖的最佳提取工艺为:pH值9,液固比3.5:1,超声功率200W,提取温度65℃,提取时间40 min.应用该工艺可对芦荟皮渣进行再利用,提高原材料的经济价值.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted Extraction Technology of Anthraquinones In Aloe vera%超声波辅助萃取芦荟中蒽醌类化合物工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培; 陈少明

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究影响超声波辅助提取芦荟中蒽醌类化合物的主要因素,并确定其最佳提取条件.[方法]在单因素试验研究不同乙醇浓度、料液比、超声波功率和硫酸水解时间对芦荟中蒽醌类化合物提取率影响的基础上,设计正交试验优化芦荟中蒽醌类化合物超声波提取工艺.[结果] 超声波辅助萃取芦荟中蒽醌类化合物的最佳工艺条件为:乙醇浓度70%,料液比1∶25,超声波功率300 W,硫酸水解时间40 min, 在此工艺条件下,提取率可达6.41 mg/g.[结论]超声波技术应用于芦荟中蒽醌类化合物的提取能够节省时间,提高提取效率.

  7. Study of decolorization of anthraquinone dye SN4R by laccase from white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus%白腐菌Pleurotus ostreatus漆酶对蒽醌染料SN4R脱色研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯红漫; 周集体; 王竞; 吕红; 杜翠红; 严滨

    2004-01-01

    利用白腐菌Pleurotus ostreatus 324粗漆酶和纯漆酶进行蒽醌染料SN4R的脱色研究. 粗漆酶可使蒽醌染料SN4R脱色,最适脱色pH、温度和漆酶酶活分别为4.0、40 ℃和30 IU/mL,12 h染料脱色率为55%. 纯漆酶不能使SN4R脱色,但小分子介体物质可介导纯漆酶对染料SN4R的氧化脱色,在最适条件下4 h染料脱色率可达80.6%. 粗漆酶添加适当浓度的介体物质,可使染料完全脱色. 因此,小分子还原介体物质的存在有助于染料废水的降解和脱色.

  8. Synthesizing Novel Anthraquinone Natural Product-Like Compounds to Investigate Protein-Ligand Interactions in Both an in Vitro and in Vivo Assay: An Integrated Research-Based Third-Year Chemical Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Nancy; McNulty, James; McLeod, David; McFadden, Meghan; Balachandran, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    A new undergraduate program in chemical biology was launched in 2008 to provide a unique learning experience for those students interested in this interdisciplinary science. An innovative undergraduate chemical biology laboratory course at the third-year level was developed as a key component of the curriculum. The laboratory course introduces…

  9. 干燥条件对海巴戟天果中水分和蒽醌类化合物含量的影响%The Effects of Drying Conditions on Moisture Transfer and Anthraquinones Contents in Morinda Citrifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    在真空干燥、密闭干燥、热风干燥条件下,研究干燥温度为50 ℃、60 ℃、70 ℃和样品厚度(1 mm、2 mm、3 mm)对海巴戟天果的干燥动力学和蒽醌类化合物含量的影响.水分的干燥曲线表明干燥动力学和有效水分扩散率的关系,阿伦尼乌斯方程则表示扩散系数与温度的关系.干燥条件、样品厚度(1 mm、2 mm和3 mm厚度)以及干燥温度影响干燥率和蒽醌类化合物含量.真空干燥条件具有更高的干燥效率,水分扩散率和葸醌类化合物含量均较高.当样品厚度为3 mm,真空条件下扩散系数8.82×10-10 m2/S,活化能为36.52 K J/mol.

  10. 烧碱蒽醌法非木材制浆的环境影响评估%Environmental Impact Assessment of Non-wood Based Pulp Production by Soda-anthraquinone Pulping Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董凤霞

    2011-01-01

    通过生命周期评估(LCA)方法定量研究了采用烧碱蒽醌蒸煮生产非木材高质量纸浆对环境的影响。文中以特种纸浆厂为例,探讨了6个主要子系统(农业生产、化学品生产、发电、运输、制浆和废物处理)对环境的影响(影响类型有:非生物资源枯竭(AD)、全球变暖(GW)、臭氧层破坏(OLD)、对人的毒性(HT)、生态毒性、光化学氧化物形成(POF)、酸化(A)和富营养化(E))。研究结果表明,环境影响主要由化学品生产、发电和纤维生产(农业生产)中温室气体排放、含磷和氮化合物排放引起的。纸浆厂的生产活动对影响类型作用除GW占15%、E占6%和OLD占25%外,其余都很小。本研究旨在为以非木材原料为基础的工业(如纸浆生产和生物质精炼)提供有用的信息,以提高其可持续性。

  11. 红树植物内生真菌Penicillium sp.中一个醌类化学成分的研究%Studies on the Chemical Structure of an Anthraquinone from Marine Fungus Penicillium sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 姚燕华; 孙光芝; 郑毅男; 林文翰; Isabel SATTLER

    2007-01-01

    利用各种层析手段(反相ODS健合硅胶、葡聚糖凝胶LH-20柱层析等),从红树植物内生真菌Penicillium sp.的发酵液中分离纯化了1个醌类化合物,通过各种波谱实验(1D-NMR,2D-NMR以及ESI MS)确定其结构为:5-甲氧基-11,12,18,19-四羟基蒽醌(1).

  12. Multielectron transfer in a dicopper(II) anthraquinophane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, María; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Journaux, Yves; De Munno, Giovanni; Armentano, Donatella

    2013-05-01

    The new dinuclear copper(II) metallacyclophane with the non-innocent N,N'-1,4-bis(oxamate)-9,10-anthraquinone bridging ligand possesses a dual multielectron redox behavior featuring stepwise one-electron oxidation of the antiferromagnetically coupled Cu(II) ions and two-electron reduction of the anthraquinone spacers in a π-stacked anti conformation.

  13. Structural conversion and intramolecular electron transfer in ferrocenylanthraquinones triggered by Keggin type of heteropoly acid serving as proton source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuxia; LI Dehui; SU Zhongmin; WANG Enbo

    2004-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer triggered by proton and the mechanism of structural conversion in a ethynylene-bridged ferrocene-anthraquinone organic electron donor(D)-acceptor(A) g-conjugated system (1-FcAq) in the presence of a Keggin type heteropoly acid as proton source are discussed. Heteropoly acids can stabilize the protonated ethynylene-bridged ferrocene-anthraquinone conjugated complex, and the stable protonated complex has been isolated in air and characterized by elemental analyses, IR,1H NMR, and CV. Upon the inducement of proton, electron transfer from ferrocene moiety (Fc) to anthraquinone moiety (Aq) causes the rearrangement of the conjugated system to create a fulvene-cumulene structuere.

  14. Determination of Metal Zinc in ZnO Raw Materials for Preparation of Metal Oxide Varistors byAnthraquinone Coloration Method%蒽醌显色法判定金属氧化物电阻片用氧化锌原料中的金属锌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越; 王兰义; 徐学亭

    2011-01-01

    提供了一种用蒽醌显色法判定金属氧化物电阻片用氧化锌原料中金属锌的定性分析方法.采用有机试剂蒽醌在一定浓度的碱性溶液中,在水浴加热下与金属锌反应生成一种红色的络合物,根据反应后生成络合物的红点数量,来判断氧化锌中是否含有金属锌.与传统的盐酸溶解法相比,该方法操作简单,反应现象明显直观,易于观察,判断准确.该方法具有在氧化锌原料生产厂家、金属氧化物电阻片生产厂家和压敏电阻生产厂家推广使用的价值.

  15. Quenching of bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence in chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus by exogenous quinones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokita, S; Frigaard, N-U; Hirota, M;

    2000-01-01

    The quenching of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c fluorescence in chlorosomes isolated from Chloroflexus aurantiacus was examined by the addition of various benzoquinones, naphthoquinones (NQ), and anthraquinones (AQ). Many quinones showed strong quenching in the micromolar or submicromolar range. Th...

  16. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FLAVONOIDS FROM IRANIAN SENNA

    OpenAIRE

    A.R GHANADI; N.A GHASEMI DEHKORDI; M.J SOHRABI

    2000-01-01

    Background. Senna italica Miller or Cassia italica (Miller) Sprengel is a native medicinal plant growing in south of Iran and has laxative and cathartic effects. Anthraquinone compounds have been partly associated with the purgative effects of the plant. One of the side effects of anthraquinones is griping and presence of flavonoid compounds in the plant may decrease this effect. Methods. In this study, the plant after being collected, was extracted by a soxhlet method. The isolation of ...

  17. A pulse radiolysis study on electron affinity of piperonal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Jianhua; LIN; Weizhen; WANG; Wenfeng; YAO; Side

    2005-01-01

    The piperonal electron affinity was studied using pulse radiolysis technique. The electron transfer reaction process between piperonal and anthraquinone-2-sulfate was observed in the pH 7 phosphoric acid salt buffer. The transient absorption spectra of electron transfer reaction between piperonal and anthraquinone-2-sulfate were obtained, and the initial proof of the electron transfer between electron donor and acceptor was provided directly. The one-electron reduction potential of piperonal was determined to be -0.457 V.

  18. A modified method for isolation of rhein from senna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Namita; Laddha, K S

    2009-03-01

    A simple and efficient method for the isolation of rhein from Cassia angustifolia (senna) leaves is described in which the hydrolysis of the sennosides and extraction of the hydrolysis products (free anthraquinones) is carried out in one step. Further isolation of rhein is achieved from the anthraquinone mixture. This method reduces the number of steps required for isolation of rhein as compared to conventional methods.

  19. A modified method for isolation of Rhein from Senna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Namita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method for the isolation of rhein from Cassia angustifolia (senna leaves is described in which the hydrolysis of the sennosides and extraction of the hydrolysis products (free anthraquinones is carried out in one step. Further isolation of rhein is achieved from the anthraquinone mixture. This method reduces the number of steps required for isolation of rhein as compared to conventional methods.

  20. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen;

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage.......Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage....

  1. Selective enrichment in bioactive compound from Kniphofia uvaria by super/subcritical fluid extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Johanna; Destandau, Emilie; Pecher, Virginie; Poujol, Marion; Tranchant, Jean-François; Lesellier, Eric

    2016-05-20

    Nowadays, a large portion of synthetic products (active cosmetic and therapeutic ingredients) have their origin in natural products. Kniphofia uvaria is a plant from Africa which has proved in the past by in-vivo tests an antioxidant activity due to compounds present in roots. Recently, we have observed anthraquinones in K. uvaria seeds extracts. These derivatives are natural colorants which could have interesting bioactive potential. The aim of this study was to obtain an extract enriched in anthraquinones from K. uvaria seeds which mainly contains glycerides. First, the separation of the seed compounds was studied by using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the goal to provide a rapid quantification method of these bioactive compounds. A screening of numerous polar stationary phases was achieved for selecting the most suited phase to the separation of the four anthraquinones founded in the seeds. A gradient elution was optimized for improving the separation of the bioactive compounds from the numerous other families of major compounds of the extracts (fatty acids, di- and triglycerides). Besides, a non-selective and green Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 was applied to seeds followed by a Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The CPC system was optimized by using the Arizona phase system, to enrich the extract in anthraquinones. Two systems were selected to isolate the bioactive compounds from the oily extract with varied purity target. The effect of the injection mode for these very viscous samples was also studied. Finally, in order to directly apply a selective process of extraction to the seeds, the super/subcritical fluid extraction was optimized to increase the anthraquinone yield in the final extract, by studying varied modifier compositions and nature, as well as different temperatures and backpressures. Conditions suited to favour an enrichment factor bases on the ratio of anthraquinone and trilycerides extracted are

  2. Tuning photophysical properties and electronic energy levels of 1-aminoanthraquinone derivatives by introducing N-ethyl substituent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Sun, Haiya; Lu, Ting; Weerasinghe, Krithanthi C.; Liu, Dongzhi; Hu, Wenping; Zhou, Xueqin; Wang, Lichang; Li, Wei; Liu, Lizeng

    2016-07-01

    It is proved that introducing the ethyl substituted group to 1-amino will enhance the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process of 1-N substituted anthraquinone derivatives. Bathochromic shift of the absorption maxima and diminished absorption intensity are observed with the increase of the electron donation abilities of the N-ethyl groups. Moreover, the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds further intensify the ICT properties through introducing the end amino group. This work exhibits more effective acceptors than anthraquinone in novel multichromophore materials for organic solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.

  3. New 1,4-anthracene-9,10-dione derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagotto, G; Supino, R; Favini, E; Moro, S; Palumbo, M

    2000-01-01

    The amino-substituted anthracene-9,10-dione (9,10-anthraquinone) derivatives represent one of the most important classes of potential anticancer agents. To better understand the basic rules governing DNA sequence specificity, we have recently synthesized a new class of D- and L-aminoacyl-anthraquinone derivatives. We have tested these new compounds as cytotoxic agents, and we have correlated their activity with the configuration of the chiral aminoacyl moiety. Molecular modeling studies have been performed to compare the test drugs in terms of steric overlapping. PMID:10755224

  4. Quinalizarin as a potent, selective and cell permeable inhibitor of protein kinase CK2

    OpenAIRE

    Cozza, Giorgio; Mazzorana, Marco; Papinutto, Elena; Bain, Jenny; Elliott, Matthew; Di Maira, Giovanni; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Pagano, Mario A.; Sarno, Stefania; Ruzzene, Maria; Battistutta, Roberto; Meggio, Flavio; Moro, Stefano; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Pinna, Lorenzo A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is a moderately potent and poorly selective inhibitor of CK2, one of the most pleiotropic Ser/Thr protein kinases, implicated in neoplasia and in other global diseases. By virtual screening of the MMS database we have now identified quinalizarin (1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxy-anthraquinone) as an inhibitor of CK2 more potent and selective than emodin. CK2 inhibition by quinalizarin is competitive with respect to ATP, with a Ki value ...

  5. 40 CFR 799.18 - Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... action under TSCA section 5, 6, or 7 (in addition to final actions under section 4); see 40 CFR part 707... 80-05-7 Bisphenol A 51 FR 33047, 9/18/86 April 6, 1993 84-65-1 Anthraquinone 52 FR 21018, 6/4/87...

  6. Rhubarb botany, horticulture, and genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhubarb (Rheum spp.) is native to areas around the Tibetan Plateau and has been cultivated for medicinal purposes for approximately 4,000 years. The roots (rhizomes) of species in this genus are rich in anthraquinones and other biochemicals that may show promise in treating or preventing cancer, dia...

  7. Natural products from fungi. Pt. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding of biosynthetically prepared [u-14C]emodin([u-14C]-2) to surface cultures of Aspergillus terreus yielded radioactive geodin (5) and dihydrogeodin (3c) with significant incorporation rates. Thus it is proven that these two chlorine containing fungus metabolites are seco-anthraquinones formed similarily as the ergochromes from emodin by oxidative ring cleavage. (orig.)

  8. Safrol e eugenol: estudo da reatividade química e uso em síntese de produtos naturais biologicamente ativos e seus derivados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Paulo R. R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical reactivity of safrole, eugenol, piperonal, vanillin and derivates toward ozone, aluminium chloride, brominating agents and butyl lithium was investigated. The synthesis of naturally occuring anthraquinones, furonaphthoquinones, naphthoquinones, lignans and pterocarpans from these easily available staring materials is also discussed.

  9. Coordination Complexes as Catalysts: The Oxidation of Anthracene by Hydrogen Peroxide in the Presence of VO(acac)[subscript 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleton, Kimberly D. M.; Prokopchuk, Ernest M.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment aimed at students who are studying coordination chemistry of transition-metal complexes is described. A simple vanadyl acetylacetonate complex can be used as a catalyst in the hydrogen peroxide oxidation of anthracene to produce anthraquinone. The reaction can be performed under a variety of reaction conditions, ideally by…

  10. Screening and antibacterial activity analysis of some important medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    G. Senthilmurugan Viji; B. Vasanthe; Kuru Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The screening and study of five different plant specimens belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were saponins, combined anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, xantho proteins, couramins, alkaloids, quinones, vitamin C. The distribution of these constituents in the plant specimens were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant s...

  11. Chemical variation in the lichen genus Letrouitia (Ascomycota, Letrouitiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, S.; Søchting, Ulrik; Elix, J.A.;

    2005-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from 193 specimens belonging to 15 species of Letrouitia were analyzed by HPLC. Significant quantities of the anthraquinones parietin and fragilin were found in most species and occasionally minor quantities of emodin, 5-chloroemodin, 7-chloroemodin, 7-chloroteloschistin, 7...

  12. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Liang Cui

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein, at a low concentration, antagonized the MMP9-induced HUVEC monolayer permeability by promoting HUVEC proliferation and reducing extracellular VE-cadherin concentrations.

  13. [Chemical constituents of Morinda officinalis How].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Ouyang, Q; Tan, X; Shi, S; Yao, Z

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the identification of four compounds isolated from the cortex of Morinda officinalis growing in Guangdong Province. These compounds are beta-sitosterol (I), 2-methyl-anthraquinone(II), rubiadin-1-methyl ether(III) and 24-ethylcholesterol(VI). Compounds II and VI are isolated from Morinda Genus for the first time. PMID:1804172

  14. Intramolecular Acylation of Aryl- and Aroyl-Aliphatic Acids by the Action of Pyrophosphoryl Chloride and Phosphorus Oxychloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Rayyan

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Both pyrophosphoryl chloride and phosphorus oxychloride react with aryl aliphatic acids to form mixed anhydrides which undergo intramolecular acylation to afford cyclic ketones without the addition of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. Aryl and aroylbenzoic acids could be cyclized to the corresponding anthrones and anthraquinones respectively.

  15. Draft genome sequence of Talaromyces (Penicillium) islandicus WF-38-12, a neglected mold with significant biotechnological potential - Genome announcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schafhauser, T.; Wibberg, D.; Rueckert, C.; Winkler, A.; Flor, L.; Pée, van K.H.; Fewer, D.P.; Sivonen, K.; Jahn, L.; Ludwig-Müller, J.; Caradec, T.; Jacques, P.; Huijbers, M.M.E.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Weber, T.; Wohlleben, W.; Kalinowsky, J.

    2015-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) islandicus is a common mold found in stored rice or cereals. It has a highly versatile metabolism characterized by the secretion of numerous biopolymer degrading enzymes, mycotoxins, and anthraquinones that altogether offer a broad range of potential industrial applications

  16. Draft genome sequence of Talaromyces islandicus ("Penicillium islandicum") WF-38-12, a neglected mold with significant biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafhauser, Thomas; Wibberg, Daniel; Rückert, Christian; Winkler, Anika; Flor, Liane; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Fewer, David P; Sivonen, Kaarina; Jahn, Linda; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Caradec, Thibault; Jacques, Philippe; Huijbers, Mieke M E; van Berkel, Willem J H; Weber, Tilmann; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2015-10-10

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) islandicus is a common mold found in stored rice or cereals. It has a highly versatile metabolism characterized by the secretion of numerous biopolymer degrading enzymes, mycotoxins, and anthraquinones that altogether offer a broad range of potential industrial applications. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Talaromyces islandicus, which provides the basis of a biotechnological usage of this species. PMID:26197417

  17. Draft genome sequence of Talaromyces islandicus (“Penicillium islandicum”) WF-38-12, a neglected mold with significant biotechnological potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schafhauser, Thomas; Wibberg, Daniel; Rückert, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) islandicus is a common mold found in stored rice or cereals. It has a highly versatile metabolism characterized by the secretion of numerous biopolymer degrading enzymes, mycotoxins, and anthraquinones that altogether offer a broad range of potential industrial applicati...... applications. Here, we reportthe draft genome sequence of Talaromyces islandicus, which provides the basis of a biotechnological usage of this species...

  18. Caloplaca alstrupii, a new lichen species from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik

    1999-01-01

    Caloplaca alstrupii Søchting is described from an old Platanus in Denmark. The sorediate species has a greyish smooth thallus with very characteristic globose to subglobose blister-like areoles that rupture at maturity exposing pale yellowish green soredia. Apothecia sparse, orange, differing from...... those of the other species having soralia without anthraquinones....

  19. Drug: D05510 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 510.gif Antineoplastic anthraquinone derivative CAS: 105118-12-5 PubChem: 47207179 LigandBox: D05510 ATOM 32...D05510 Drug Piroxantrone hydrochloride (USAN) C21H25N5O4. 2HCl 483.144 484.3762 D05

  20. Quinone-respiration improves dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervantes, F.J.; Vu-Thi-Thu, L.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of humic acids and the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), on the biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by anaerobic granular sludge was studied. Addition of both humic acids and AQDS at sub-stoichiometric levels increased the first-order rate of conversion o

  1. Enhancing the Electron Transfer Capacity and Subsequent Color Removal in Bioreactors by Applying Thermophilic Anaerobic Treatment and Redox Mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos A.B.; Traverse, J.; Cervantes, F.J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the redox mediator anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), on electron transfer and subsequent color removal from textile wastewater was assessed in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic bioreactors. The results clearly show that compared w

  2. Selective production of hydrogen peroxide and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in an unbiased solar photoelectrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Xu; Chen, Hongjun; Seger, Brian;

    2014-01-01

    A solar-to-chemical conversion process is demonstrated using a photoelectrochemical cell without external bias for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfur (S). The process integrates two redox couples anthraquinone/anthrahydroquinone and I−/I3...

  3. Synthesis and crystal structure of a wheel-shaped supramolecular coordination complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Gupta; Palanisamy Rajakannu; Bhaskaran Shankar; Firasat Hussain; Malaichamy Sathiyendiran

    2014-09-01

    Supramolecular coordination complex (SCC) possessing spatially arranged three anthraquinone dimers in a slipped-cofacial orientation was achieved by the treatment of Re2(CO)10, 2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone and tritopic N-donor via fac-Re(CO)3-directed one pot approach. The off-set -stacking and C≡O…H bonding interactions stabilize the ring structure.

  4. Environ: E00408 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00408 Knoxia valerianoides root Crude drug Anthraquinone derivative Knoxia valerian...oides, Knoxia [TAX:60375] Rubiaceae (madder family) Knoxia valerianoides root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br083...05] Dicot plants: asterids Rubiaceae (madder family) E00408 Knoxia valerianoides root ...

  5. Enabling direct H2O2 production through rational electrocatalyst design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza;

    2013-01-01

    Future generations require more efficient and localized processes for energy conversion and chemical synthesis. The continuous on-site production of hydrogen peroxide would provide an attractive alternative to the present state-of-the-art, which is based on the complex anthraquinone process...

  6. Toward efficient Zn(II)-based artificial nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseggia, Elisa; Gatos, Maddalena; Lucatello, Lorena; Mancin, Fabrizio; Moro, Stefano; Palumbo, Manlio; Sissi, Claudia; Tecilla, Paolo; Tonellato, Umberto; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2004-04-14

    A series of cis-cis-triaminocyclohexane Zn(II) complex-anthraquinone intercalator conjugates, designed in such a way to allow their easy synthesis and modification, have been investigated as hydrolytic cleaving agents for plasmid DNA. The ligand structure comprises a triaminocyclohexane platform linked by means of alkyl spacers of different length (from C(4) to C(8)) to the anthraquinone group which may intercalate the DNA. At a concentration of 5 microM, the complex of the derivative with a C(8) alkyl spacer induces the hydrolytic stand scission of supercoiled DNA with a rate of 4.6 x 10(-6) s(-1) at pH 7 and 37 degrees C. The conjugation of the metal complex with the anthraquinone group leads to a 15-fold increase of the cleavage efficiency when compared with the anthraquinone lacking Zn-triaminocyclohexane complex. The straightforward synthetic procedure employed, allowing a systematic change of the spacer length, made possible to gain more insight on the role of the intercalating group in determining the reactivity of the systems. Comparison of the reactivity of the different complexes shows a remarkable increase of the DNA cleaving efficiency with the length of the spacer. In the case of too-short spacers, the advantages due to the increased DNA affinity are canceled due to the incorrect positioning of the reactive group, thus leading to cleavage inhibition. PMID:15070372

  7. Emodin negatively affects the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signalling pathway: a study on its mechanism of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte B; Bjørling-Poulsen, Marina; Guerra, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The development of selective cell-permeable inhibitors of protein kinases whose aberrant activation contributes to cell transformation is a promising approach in cancer treatment. Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative that exhibits anti-proliferative effects in various cancer cell lines by...

  8. Sex, secondary compounds and asymmetry. Effects on plant herbivore interaction in a dioecious shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Sierra, Marta; Obeso, José-Ramón

    2004-05-01

    We analysed the links between herbivory, anthraquinone content and developmental instability of leaves in Rhamnus alpinus, taking into account possible effects of sexual dimorphism. The amount of leaf loss caused by herbivores averaged 3%, rarely exceeding 25%. Leaf losses were evenly distributed in the shrubs, with highest variability among leaves of the same shoot, thus hiding possible shrub, sex or population effects. This pattern of herbivory implies a shifting of caterpillars from one leaf to another before consuming all readily available material. We suggest that this behaviour might be triggered by a short-term change in leaf palatability by means of an increase in the production of secondary compounds. Supporting this hypothesis, we have found a higher anthraquinone content in damaged leaves compared with undamaged ones. The leaves of male plants exhibited a higher concentration of anthraquinones than those of females, which contrasts with classic hypotheses. We relate this to the lower rate of biomass increase in males, which should allow them to allocate more resources to defence. Leaves showed fluctuating asymmetry (FA), but we did not find any relationship between the degree of asymmetry and sex, herbivory or anthraquinone content at any level considered. Therefore, FA cannot be considered as an indicator of susceptibility to damage by herbivores or of the ability to induce the production of defensive compounds in R. alpinus.

  9. Pharmacognostic and Biological Studies of the Roots of Rubia Cordifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMESH S. DEODA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae is also known as, Manjishtha, Indian madder known to contain substantial amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots which is responsible for anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, urinary disorders, antistress antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, radio protective, and anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antileukemic and mutagenic functions, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. The plant contains substantial amounts of anthraquinones, triterpenoids especially in the roots, which is responsible for most of its pharmacological activity. In present study the chloroform fraction from methanolic extract of roots of R. cordifolia were evaluated for its biological effect and compared with the parent extract and remaining fraction, where chloroform fraction showed potent protective action for stress induced complications in mice.

  10. From N-vinylpyrrolidone anions to modified paraffin-like oligomers via double alkylation with 1,8-dibromooctane: access to covalent networks and oligomeric amines for dye attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obels, Daniela; Lievenbrück, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Summary The double alkylation of N-vinylpyrrolidone (N-VP) with 1,8-dibromooctane yields paraffin-like oligomeric chains bearing polymerizable vinyl moieties. These oligomers were radically crosslinked in bulk with N-VP as co-monomer yielding swellable polymer disks. The vinylic side groups of the N-VP oligomers allow thiol–ene click reactions with 2-aminoethanethiol hydrochloride to obtain reactive amino-functionalized oligomers. Further modification of the free amino groups with 1,4-difluoro-9,10-anthraquinone (DFA) yields red-colored oligomeric anthraquinone dyes. The final reaction of DFA-substituted N-VP oligomers with Jeffamine® M 600 leads to blue-colored and branched oligomers with poly(ethylene glycol) side chains. PMID:27559389

  11. From N-vinylpyrrolidone anions to modified paraffin-like oligomers via double alkylation with 1,8-dibromooctane: access to covalent networks and oligomeric amines for dye attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obels, Daniela; Lievenbrück, Melanie; Ritter, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The double alkylation of N-vinylpyrrolidone (N-VP) with 1,8-dibromooctane yields paraffin-like oligomeric chains bearing polymerizable vinyl moieties. These oligomers were radically crosslinked in bulk with N-VP as co-monomer yielding swellable polymer disks. The vinylic side groups of the N-VP oligomers allow thiol-ene click reactions with 2-aminoethanethiol hydrochloride to obtain reactive amino-functionalized oligomers. Further modification of the free amino groups with 1,4-difluoro-9,10-anthraquinone (DFA) yields red-colored oligomeric anthraquinone dyes. The final reaction of DFA-substituted N-VP oligomers with Jeffamine(®) M 600 leads to blue-colored and branched oligomers with poly(ethylene glycol) side chains. PMID:27559389

  12. HPLC quantitative analysis of rhein and antidermatophytic activity of Cassia fistula pod pulp extracts of various storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewchinda, Savita; Wuthi-udomlert, Mansuang; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula is well known for its laxative and antifungal properties due to anthraquinone compounds in the pods. This study quantitatively analyzed rhein in the C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts kept under various storage conditions using HPLC. The antifungal activity of the extracts and their hydrolyzed mixture was also evaluated against dermatophytes. The contents of rhein in all stored decoction extracts remained more than 95% (95.69-100.66%) of the initial amount (0.0823 ± 0.001% w/w). There was no significant change of the extracts kept in glass vials and in aluminum foil bags. The decoction extract of C. fistula pod pulp and its hydrolyzed mixture containing anthraquinone aglycones were tested against clinical strains of dermatophytes by broth microdilution technique. The results revealed good chemical and antifungal stabilities against dermatophytes of C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts stored under various accelerated and real time storage conditions.

  13. Selective recognition and stabilization of new ligands targeting the potassium form of the human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hwa; Chuang, Show-Mei; Wu, Pei-Ching; Chen, Chun-Liang; Jeyachandran, Sivakamavalli; Lo, Shou-Chen; Huang, Hsu-Shan; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2016-01-01

    The development of a ligand that is capable of distinguishing among the wide variety of G-quadruplex structures and targeting telomeres to treat cancer is particularly challenging. In this study, the ability of two anthraquinone telomerase inhibitors (NSC749235 and NSC764638) to target telomeric G-quadruplex DNA was probed. We found that these ligands specifically target the potassium form of telomeric G-quadruplex DNA over the DNA counterpart. The characteristic interaction with the telomeric G-quadruplex DNA and the anticancer activities of these ligands were also explored. The results of this present work emphasize our understanding of the binding selectivity of anthraquinone derivatives to G-quadruplex DNA and assists in future drug development for G-quadruplex-specific ligands. PMID:27511133

  14. Spektroskopiske undersøgelser af anthraquinonerne Alizarin og Purpurin

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Signe Høgsberg; Pedersen, Trine Fich

    2005-01-01

    I dette projekt undersøges Alizarin (1,2-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinon) og Purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinon) med optisk spektroskopi. Der måles i det ultraviolette og visuelle (UV-VIS) område på prøver af de to stoffer i chloroform, n-hexan, ethanol og strakt polyethylen (PE) og i det infrarøde (IR) område på prøver af de to stoffer i KBr-tabletter, PE-tabletter og strakt PE. Desuden har vi fået udført DFT beregninger af stoffernes elektroniske og vibrationelle overgange som b...

  15. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brett J West; C Jarakae Jensen; Johannes Westendorf

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice,as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. Citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity.

  16. Isolation and extraction of lucidin primeveroside from Rubia tinctorum L. and crystal structure elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Robert L; Rayner, Christopher M; Blackburn, Richard S

    2013-11-01

    Madder (Rubia tinctorum L.) has been used as a dye for over 2000 years with alizarin and purpurin the major natural dyes analysed from extractions undertaken. The use of ethanol as the solvent in the extraction process produced an extract that yielded four anthraquinone compounds lucidin primeveroside, ruberythric acid, alizarin and lucidin-ω-ethyl ether. Gravitational separation of the extract was used to record the first crystal structure of lucidin primeveroside, which is also the first ever known crystal structure of a glycoside containing anthraquinone moiety. The crystal structure along with (1)H and (13)C NMR helped elucidate and confirm the structure of this overlooked natural dye which has been shown to be a major compound in R. tinctorum L. PMID:23891215

  17. Identification of novel protein kinase CK1 delta (CK1delta) inhibitors through structure-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Giorgio; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Montopoli, Monica; Caparrotta, Laura; Venerando, Andrea; Meggio, Flavio; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Moro, Stefano

    2008-10-15

    In eukaryotes, protein phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine residues by protein kinases plays an important role in many cellular processes. Members of the protein kinase CK1 family usually phosphorylate residues of serine that are close to other phosphoserine in a consensus motif of pS-X-X-S, and they are implicated in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes as well as in pathologies like cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Using a structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) approach we have identified two anthraquinones as novel CK1delta inhibitors. These amino-anthraquinone analogs (derivatives 1 and 2) are among the most potent and selective CK1delta inhibitors known today (IC(50)=0.3 and 0.6 microM, respectively). PMID:18799313

  18. Secondary Metabolites of Aspergillus sp. CM9a, an E ndophytic Fungus of Cephalotaxus mannii

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Xue; Chunhua Lu; Lanying Liang; Yuemao Shen

    2012-01-01

    Eleven compounds belonging to eight structure types, namely cyclopentenedione (1), diketopiperazines (2, 9, 10), lactone (3), benzophenone (4, 5), terpene (6), anthraquinone (7), diphenyl ethers (10), and alkaloid (11) were isolated from the cultivation extract of the strain Aspergillus sp. CM9a, which was isolated from the stems of Cephalotaxus mannii. Among them, compounds 1, 2, and 3 were determined to b e new ones on the basis of spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D - NMR experiments a...

  19. Cell-specific regulation of apoptosis by designed enediynes.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Stabila, P; Esmaeli-Azad, B; Wrasidlo, W; Hiatt, A

    1993-01-01

    The naturally occurring enediyne antibiotics are a unique class of antitumor drugs that combine reactive enediynes with additional structural features conferring affinity for DNA. Dynemicin A, in which an enediyne core is attached to an anthraquinone group capable of DNA intercalation, readily cleaves double-stranded DNA. This activity is thought to be the basis of its potent antitumor cytotoxicity. To investigate cell-specific mechanisms of cytotoxicity in the absence of DNA affinity, we hav...

  20. The Marine Metabolite SZ-685C Induces Apoptosis in Primary Human Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Cells by Inhibition of the Akt Pathway in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Ting Tan; Zhi-Gang Mao; Ni Lei; Zong-Ming Wang; Bin Hu; Zhi-Yong Chen; Zhi-Gang She; Yong-Hong Zhu; Hai-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) which is found in the South China Sea. Recent research has shown that SZ-685C possesses anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) to investigate the different effect of the marine compound SZ-6...

  1. The antimicrobial activities of Ethanolic extracts of Basella alba on selected microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwafemi Adebayo Oyewole; owolabi Azeez Kalejaiye

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Basella alba against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albican was determined using the agar cup plate method. The phytochemical components of the ethanolic extracts of the leaf and stem of B. alba showed the presence of tannin, terpene, steroid, saponin, anthraquinone, and with carbohydrate only in the stem extracts. The result of this study showed that all the organisms except Candida albican. were ...

  2. THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA ON SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Oyewole OA; Al-Khalil S; Kalejaiye OA

    2012-01-01

    Agar cup plate method was used to determine the antimicrobial effects of Basella alba against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albican. Ethanolic extracts of the leaf and stem of B. alba revealed the presence of tannin, terpene, steroid, saponin, anthraquinone, and with carbohydrate present only in the stem extracts. The result of this study showed that S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli were susceptible to 60mg/ml and 100mg/ml of the extract while...

  3. Scientific Validation of the Medicinal Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Mishra; Shashank Kumar; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    Present communication reports the scientific evaluation of Tinospora cordifolia for its medicinal efficacy which includes phytochemical screening, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of the plant. Secondary metabolites including anthraquinones, terpenoids, and saponins were present in many extracts in addition to phenolics. Total phenol contents in various extracts were found in the range of 8.75–52.50 catechol equivalent per gram (CE/g). In disc diffusion assays, polar extr...

  4. Usefulness of a Technique Based on Negative Corona Discharge for the Degradation of Selected, Condensed PAHs: Application to the Oxidation of Anthracene and Similar Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tessier, D.; OGUIC, C.; PINART, J.

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of negative corona discharge for oxidation of condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including anthracene, naphthalene and 2,3-benzanthracene, adsorbed on a solid substrate is evaluated. In the case of anthracene, the application of corona discharge under high voltage (10-20 kV) for 10 to 180 min with a current intensity of 5-120 m A in a controlled, humid atmosphere leads to the progressive formation of anthraquinone. A kinetic study of the anthracene o...

  5. A New Anthranquinone Glycoside from the Seeds of Cassia obtusifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Hua LI; Xiao Yi WEI; Xu ELI; Ping WU; Bao Jiang GUO

    2004-01-01

    A new anthraquinone glycoside, emodin-1-O-β-gentiobioside 1, together with three known compounds, chrysophanol-1-O-β-gentiobioside 2, physcion-8-O-β-gentiobioside 3, and chrysophanol- 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside 4 was isolated from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  6. Reduction of Fe(III), Cr(VI), U(VI), and Tc(VII) by Deinococcus radiodurans R1

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, J. K.; Kostandarithes, H. M.; Li, S. W.; Plymale, A. E.; Daly, M J

    2000-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is an exceptionally radiation-resistant microorganism capable of surviving acute exposures to ionizing radiation doses of 15,000 Gy and previously described as having a strictly aerobic respiratory metabolism. Under strict anaerobic conditions, D. radiodurans R1 reduced Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid coupled to the oxidation of lactate to CO2 and acetate but was unable to link this process to growth. D. radiodurans reduced the humic acid analog anthraquinone-2,6-disulfo...

  7. Pharmacognostic Study of Adhatoda vasica Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthale P R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmacognostic study of Adulsa leaves was carried out to detect the adulteration. Studied characters are stomata, trichomes and anatomical features etc. The plant was analyzed for its preliminary screening of phytochemicals. The results reveal that the plant shows presence of bioactive constituents comprising alkaloids, reducing sugar, anthraquinones, saponins, flavanods and tannins. In the present study medicinal uses, Phytochemical analysis and Pharmacognosy of plant have been revived.

  8. Pharmacognostic Study of Adhatoda vasica Nees

    OpenAIRE

    Kanthale P R; Panchal V H

    2015-01-01

    The Pharmacognostic study of Adulsa leaves was carried out to detect the adulteration. Studied characters are stomata, trichomes and anatomical features etc. The plant was analyzed for its preliminary screening of phytochemicals. The results reveal that the plant shows presence of bioactive constituents comprising alkaloids, reducing sugar, anthraquinones, saponins, flavanods and tannins. In the present study medicinal uses, Phytochemical analysis and Pharmacognosy of plant have been revived.

  9. Autochthonous white rot fungi from the tropical forest: Potential of Cuban strains for dyes and textile industrial effluents decolourisation

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Lopez, Maria I.; Vanhulle, Sophie F.; Mertens, Valerie; Guerra, Gilda; Figueroa, Sara Herrera; Decock, Cony; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Penninckx, Michel J.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen strains of wood-inhabiting pores fungi, representing thirteen species and ten genera, collected from both natural and "anthropic" ( urban) ecosystems in Cuba were tested for their ability to decolourise the industrial anthraquinonic dye Acid Blue 62 ( AB 62) in laboratory conditions, in both solid and liquid media. On the basis of their decolourisation rate and growth inhibition, seven strains viz. Tinctoporellus epimiltinus, Trametes maxima, Perenniporia tephropora, Coriolopsis rigi...

  10. Comparative Study for Adsorptive Removal of Coralene Blue BGFS Dye from Aqueous Solution by MgO and Fe2O3 as an Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Parth Desai,; Kartik Gonawala

    2014-01-01

    Textile industries represent biggest impact on the environment due to high water consumption and waste water discharge as government control water pollution by setting strength regulation for waste water discharge, removal of color from waste water becomes more and more essential and attractive. Adsorption technology is very efficient in treatment of textile effluent. In this paper comparison of adsorption phenomena of textile dye Anthraquinone blue onto two different adsorben...

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS FOR DECOLORIZATION AND DEGRADATION OF C.I.REACTIVE BLUE 29 BY OZONE

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Mesdaghinia; K Naddafi; K. Dindarloo Inaloo; Simin Nasseri; R Nabizadeh Nodehi; A. Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    Because conventional wastewater treatment of effluent containing anthraquinone dye causes notable environmental problems, it is important to find effective alternative methods for dye removal. This study evaluated the efficacy of ozonation for dye removal and Chemical Oxygen Demand reduction and identified optimal operational conditions for parameters such as pH, contact time and concentration of C.I. Reactive Blue 29 dye in a semi-batch reactor. Values of pH between 3 and 11 and contact time...

  12. Empirical models for the decoloration of dyes in an electrochemical batch cell

    OpenAIRE

    Pepió Viñals, Montserrat; Gutiérrez Bouzán, María Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Among several types of textiles colorants, reactive dyes represent about 30 50% of the total market share, and the most common group used as chromophore is the azo group (70%), followed by anthraquinone. The removal of such dyes from wastewater is a problem in textile mills. Electrochemical treatment has proven to be an interesting technique for removing dyes from wastewater, as it does not require any added chemical reagents. Generally, this technique is applied to obtain partial dy...

  13. Electrocoagulation of Quinone Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duang Buddhasukh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Some representative quinones, viz. one naphthoquinone (plumbagin and five anthraquinones (alizarin, purpurin, chrysazin, emodin, and anthrarufin, were subjected to electrocoagulation. It was found that the rate and extent of coagulation of these compounds appears to correlate with the number and relative position of their phenolic substituent groups, and that all of the coagulated quinones could be recovered. Attempts were then made to electrochemically isolate three quinones, namely plumbagin, morindone and erythrolaccin, from natural sources.

  14. 2-Hydroxy-1-methoxyanthraquinone monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Meng Liu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H10O4·H2O, also known as alizarin 1-methyl ether monohydrate, was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two outer benzene rings being 3.07 (4°. In the crystal structure, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the organic molecules and the water molecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  15. 3-Hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Jun Xu; Xiao-Xi Yang; Hong-Bin Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C16H12O5, was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings being 1.12 (4)°. In the crystal structure, O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the moleculesin the crystallographic a-axis direction. Weak π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance between symmetry-related benzene rings of 3.699&#...

  16. Chemical constituents of Chinese natural medicine, morindae radix, the dried roots of morinda officinalis how.: structures of morindolide and morofficinaloside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M; Yamaguchi, S; Nishisaka, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

    1995-09-01

    A new iridoid lactone, morindolide, and a new iridoid glucoside, morofficinaloside, have been isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, Morindae Radix, the dried root of Morinda officinalis How. together with a number of known compounds: five anthraquinones, four iridoid glucosides, a monoterpene glycoside, two sterols, an ursane-type triterpene, and a lactone compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:7586069

  17. 2-Hydroxy-1-methoxyanthraquinone monohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Meng Liu; Yuan-Qi Jiao

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C15H10O4·H2O, also known as alizarin 1-methyl ether monohydrate, was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two outer benzene rings being 3.07 (4)°. In the crystal structure, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the organic molecules and the water molecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  18. 2-(4-Methylphenyl-1H-anthraceno[1,2-d]imidazole-6,11-dione: a fluorescent chemosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio V. Pinto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H14N2O2, the five rings of the molecule are not coplanar. There is a significant twist between the four fused rings, which have a slightly arched conformation, and the pendant aromatic ring, as seen in the dihedral angle of 13.16 (8° between the anthraquinonic ring system and the pendant aromatic ring plane.

  19. Związki polifenolowe i ich suplementacja u kobiet po menopauzie

    OpenAIRE

    Ireneusz Połać; Mateusz Bobrowski; Michał Bijak; Marta Borowiecka; Tomasz Stetkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are a broad group of organic compounds of plant secondary metabolites, whichhave in their structure one or more aromatic rings and from one to several hydroxyl groups with acidic character.Due to their heterogeneous construction polyphenolic compounds have been classified into several groups:simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, xanthones, stilbenes, lignans, anthraquinones and the largest group– flavonoids. Polyphenols are characterized by a variety of biological ...

  20. Free radical-scavenging activity of sequential leaf extracts of Embothrium coccineum

    OpenAIRE

    Leyton Miguel; Mellado Marco; Jara Carlo; Montenegro Iván; González Sebastian; Madrid Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of phenolic, flavonoid, and anthraquinones from sequential extracts (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol) of Embothrium coccineum leaves on the antioxidant capacity, cell viability, and toxicity of the same, in order to find possible sources for novel antioxidants for food and pharmaceutical formulations. Antioxidant potential of sequential extracts was analyzed by five different assays: 2,2-diphenyl...

  1. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa; Graciela M. L. Ruiz-Aguilar; Leticia López-Martínez; Guillermo González-Sánchez; Germán Cuevas-Rodríguez; Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in t...

  2. Determination of Pharmacologically Active Compounds in Root Extracts of Cassia alata L. by use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Fernand, Vivian E.; Dinh, David T.; Washington, Samuel J.; FAKAYODE, SAYO O.; Losso, Jack N.; van Ravenswaay, Rick O.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of six phenolic compounds, five anthraquinones (rhein, aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) and a flavonoid (kaempferol), in root extracts from Cassia alata L. Solid-phase extraction, using C18 cartridges, was used to remove interfering substances from the root extracts. The extracts were analyzed on a C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase which consisted of acetonit...

  3. アロエ植物の抗突然変異原

    OpenAIRE

    中杉, 徹; 駒井, 功一郎

    1994-01-01

    [Author abstract]The antimutagenicity of substances from a species of Aloe was investigated, and an antimutagen was isolated. Methanol extracts from dried leaves of A. arborescens inhibited frameshift mutation caused by 3-amino-l-methyl-5H-pyrido [4, 3b] indole in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. An antimutagen isolated from the methanol extracts was identified as an anthraquinone, aloe-emodin. Aloe-emodin inhibited frameshift mutation at concentrations from 10^ to 10^. Barbaloin, the monoglucosi...

  4. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; J. S. Upadhyaya; C. H. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers), when used together with hardwood (core fibers), gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A com...

  5. PHYTOCHEMISTRY, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITIES EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS, ETHANOLIC AND HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK FROM BENIN

    OpenAIRE

    Yaya A. Koudoro; Cokou P. Agbangnan Dossa; Boniface B. Yèhouénou; Fidèle P. Tchobo; Guy A. Alitonou; Felicien Avlessi; Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2014-01-01

    The precipitation and coloration reactions implemented in this study revealed in the leaves of E. citriodora (Myrtaceae) of Benin the presence of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, mucilages, anthraquinones, leucoanthocyanins, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, proteins, sterols and triterpenes. The essential oil from the leaves of this plant was extracted with a yield of 3% and then analyzed by GC/MS. Nine compounds, representing 94.46% of the chemical composition of the o...

  6. Pulping characteristics of Eucalyptus species grown in Malawi (ODNRI Bulletin No. 33)

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, E. R.; Gibbs, J A; Ganguli, S; Dutta, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Eight species of Eucalyptus, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. cloeziana, E. grandis, E. maculata, E. maidenii, E. saligna and F. tereticornis grown in the Viphya plateau, Malawi, were examined to determine their suitability for the production of papermaking pulp. The size of 9-year-old trees, wood density, chemical characteristics and fibre dimensions are reported. All species were pulped by sulphate, soda and soda-anthraquinone processes. By the sulphate process all species yielded over 4...

  7. Screening for novel plant sources of prenyloxyanthraquinones: Senna alexandrina Mill. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to reveal the presence of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in plants claimed to have a laxative effect, in this article, we describe the extraction and HPLC separation of madagascin (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) and 3-geranyloxyemodine from dried leaves and fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill. (Leguminosae) and leaves and gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Both compounds are described herein for the first time as components of extracts of the title plants. PMID:25342202

  8. Secondary Metabolites from Rubiaceae Species

    OpenAIRE

    Daiane Martins; Cecilia Veronica Nunez

    2015-01-01

    This study describes some characteristics of the Rubiaceae family pertaining to the occurrence and distribution of secondary metabolites in the main genera of this family. It reports the review of phytochemical studies addressing all species of Rubiaceae, published between 1990 and 2014. Iridoids, anthraquinones, triterpenes, indole alkaloids as well as other varying alkaloid subclasses, have shown to be the most common. These compounds have been mostly isolated from the genera Uncaria, Psych...

  9. The Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae): A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control and Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Chen; Jingyu He; Xueli Tong; Lan Tang; Menghua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa) is a well-known Chinese medicine with a variety of activities, especially its anti-cancer effect in the clinic. Up to now, 171 compounds have been reported from H. diffusa, including 32 iridoids, 26 flavonoids, 24 anthraquinones, 26 phenolics and their derivatives, 50 volatile oils and 13 miscellaneous compounds. In vitro and in vivo studies show these phytochemicals and plant extracts to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, antioxi...

  10. Magnetic fields facilitate DNA-mediated charge transport

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Jiun Ru; Lee, Kee Jin; Shu, Jian-Jun; Shao, Fangwei

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerate radical-induced DNA damage under magnetic fields is of great concerns to medical biosafety and to bio-molecular device based upon DNA electronic conductivity. In this report, the effect of applying an external magnetic field (MF) on DNA-mediated charge transport (CT) was investigated by studying guanine oxidation by a kinetics trap (8CPG) via photoirradiation of anthraquinone (AQ) in the presence of an external MF. Positive enhancement in CT efficiencies was observed in both the pr...

  11. Attenuation of DNA charge transport by compaction into a nucleosome core particle

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorklund, Chad C.; Davis, William B.

    2006-01-01

    The nucleosome core particle (NCP) is the fundamental building block of chromatin which compacts ∼146 bp of DNA around a core histone protein octamer. The effects of NCP packaging on long-range DNA charge transport reactions have not been adequately assessed to date. Here we study DNA hole transport reactions in a 157 bp DNA duplex (AQ-157TG) incorporating multiple repeats of the DNA TG-motif, a strong NCP positioning sequence and a covalently attached Anthraquinone photooxidant. Following a ...

  12. DNA Charge Transport Leading to Disulfide Bond Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Takada, Tadao; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we show that DNA-mediated charge transport (CT) can lead to the oxidation of thiols to form disulfide bonds in DNA. DNA assemblies were prepared possessing anthraquinone (AQ) as a photooxidant spatially separated on the duplex from two SH groups incorporated into the DNA backbone. Upon AQ irradiation, HPLC analysis reveals DNA ligated through a disulfide. The reaction efficiency is seen to vary in assemblies containing intervening DNA mismatches, confirming that the reaction is DNA-medi...

  13. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FLAVONOIDS FROM IRANIAN SENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R GHANADI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Senna italica Miller or Cassia italica (Miller Sprengel is a native medicinal plant growing in south of Iran and has laxative and cathartic effects. Anthraquinone compounds have been partly associated with the purgative effects of the plant. One of the side effects of anthraquinones is griping and presence of flavonoid compounds in the plant may decrease this effect. Methods. In this study, the plant after being collected, was extracted by a soxhlet method. The isolation of flavonoids was carried out by means of preparative Thin Layer Chromatography of extract of the plant leaves. The structure of flavonoids was determined by the UV-Vis. techniques in methanol and by addition of the shift reagents and hydrolysis. The quantitative determinations of flavonoids in plant were also performed using an UV-Vis. spectroscopy method. Results and Discussion. Rutin or 5, 7, 3', 4' tetrahydroxy-flavone 3-O-rhamnoglucoside and two flavonoids from aurone group were isolated and identified from the leaves of Senna italica. The percent of flavonoids in Iranian Senna determined 1.5 fold than Cassia angustifolia. These flavonoids may decrease the griping effects of Senna anthraquinones

  14. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Thaís Pochapski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP, has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed.

  15. Electrochemical synthesis of hydrogen peroxide: Rotating disk electrode and fuel cell studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical reduction of oxygen on various catalysts was studied using the thin-layer rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. High-surface-area carbon was modified with an anthraquinone derivative and gold nanoparticles. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and cationic polyelectrolyte (FAA) were used as binders in the preparation of thin-film electrodes. Our primary goal was to find a good electrocatalyst for the two-electron reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. All electrochemical measurements were carried out in 0.1 M KOH. Cyclic voltammetry was used in order to characterise the surface processes of the modified electrodes in O2-free electrolyte. The RDE results revealed that the carbon-supported gold nanoparticles are active catalysts for the four-electron reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Anthraquinone-modified high-area carbon catalyses the two-electron reduction at low overpotentials, which is advantageous for hydrogen peroxide production. In addition, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology was used for the generation of hydrogen peroxide. The cell was equipped with a bipolar membrane which consisted of commercial Nafion 117 as a cation-exchange layer and FT-FAA as an anion-exchange layer. The bipolar membranes were prepared by a hot pressing method. Use of the FAA ionomer as a binder for the anthraquinone-modified carbon catalyst resulted in production of hydrogen peroxide

  16. Adição de antraquinona na polpação alcalina de Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Jerônimo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated different alkaline pulping conditions for Eucalyptus saligna wood. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the anthraquinone (AQ on the reduction of the total reduced sulfur (TRS in the aerial emissions, by reducing the sulfidity. The experiment consisted of 8 cooking with active alkali varying from 19 to 21%, sulfidity from 0 to 20% and anthraquinone from 0 to 0.1%, aiming to obtain kappa numbers in the range 15.5±1.5. The H factor was used to control the relation time/temperature along cooking. The addition of anthraquinone increased the delignification rate allowing sulfidity reduction. The kraft/AQ pulping with sulfidities of 5 and 10% presented satisfactory results, making it possible the replacement of conventional kraft cooking, giving a reduction in process sulfidity without harms in pulping. In spite of a slightly lower performance, the soda/AQ cooking has potential to be used where the smell is a critical problem in the industrial operation.

  17. Polyanthraquinone as a Reliable Organic Electrode for Stable and Fast Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiping; Qian, Yumin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Tang, Duihai; Xu, Terrence; Otani, Minoru; Zhan, Hui; Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Donghai

    2015-11-16

    In spite of recent progress, there is still a lack of reliable organic electrodes for Li storage with high comprehensive performance, especially in terms of long-term cycling stability. Herein, we report an ideal polymer electrode based on anthraquinone, namely, polyanthraquinone (PAQ), or specifically, poly(1,4-anthraquinone) (P14AQ) and poly(1,5-anthraquinone) (P15AQ). As a lithium-storage cathode, P14AQ showed exceptional performance, including reversible capacity almost equal to the theoretical value (260 mA h g(-1); >257 mA h g(-1) for AQ), a very small voltage gap between the charge and discharge curves (2.18-2.14=0.04 V), stable cycling performance (99.4% capacity retention after 1000 cycles), and fast-discharge/charge ability (release of 69% of the low-rate capacity or 64% of the energy in just 2 min). Exploration of the structure-performance relationship between P14AQ and related materials also provided us with deeper understanding for the design of organic electrodes.

  18. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  20. Functional Significance Of Ultraviolet Feeding Cues In Wild Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Scott J; Buchholz, Richard; Tupper, Shelagh K; Pettit, Susan E; Ellis, Jeremy W

    2013-10-25

    WERNER, S. J., R. BUCHHOLZ, S. K. TUPPER, S. E. PETTIT AND J. W. ELLIS. Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00:000-000, 2013.- Most birds are able to sense ultraviolet (UV) visual signals. Ultraviolet wavelengths are used for plumage signaling and sexual selection among birds. The aim of our study was to determine if UV cues are also used for the process of food selection in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). We used avoidance conditioning to test the hypothesis that UV feeding cues can be used functionally for foraging behavior in wild turkeys. Female turkeys exhibited no avoidance of untreated food and 75-98% avoidance of food treated with an UV-absorbent, postingestive repellent (0.5-4% anthraquinone; wt/wt) during repellent exposure. Male turkeys exhibited 78-99% avoidance of food treated with 0.5-4% anthraquinone. Female and male turkeys that consumed more than 200mg and 100mg of anthraquinone, respectively, subsequently avoided food treated only with an UV-absorbent cue. In contrast, unconditioned females consumed 58% more food treated with the UV-absorbent cue than untreated food. Thus, wild turkeys do not prefer foods associated with UV wavelengths regardless of feeding experience. We also observed 1) a weak negative correlation between body condition and intestinal parasite infection and 2) moderate, positive correlations between consumption of food treated with the conditioned UV cue and intestinal parasite infection among male turkeys. The UV feeding cue was used to maintain food avoidance during the four days subsequent to postingestive conditioning. Moreover, the consequences of consuming food treated with the postingestive, UV-absorbent repellent were necessary for conditioned avoidance of the UV-absorbent cue. These findings suggest functional significance of UV feeding cues for avian foraging behavior, the implications of which will enable subsequent investigations regarding the sensory physiology and

  1. Identification of novel metabolites from Aspergillus flavus by high resolution and multiple stage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, Svetlana V; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Cary, Jeffrey W; Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Di Mavungu, José Diana; De Saeger, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important species in the Aspergillus genus and is distributed worldwide as a prevalent aflatoxin-producing food and feed contaminant. A. flavus contains more than 55 gene clusters that are predicted to encode proteins involved in secondary metabolite production. One of these, cluster 27, contains a polyketide synthase (pks27) gene that encodes a protein that is highly homologous to the aflatoxin cluster PKS. Comparative metabolomics, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) was used to detect metabolites differentially expressed in the A. flavus wild-type and ∆pks27 mutant strains. Metabolite profiling was aided by a statistical differential analysis of MS data using SIEVE software. This differential analysis combined with accurate mass data from the Orbitrap and ion trap multiple stage MS allowed four metabolites to be identified that were produced only by the wild-type culture. These included asparasone A (358 Da), an anthraquinone pigment, and related anthraquinones with masses of 316, 340 and 374 Da. These latter three compounds had similar fragmentation patterns to that of asparasone A. The 316 Da anthraquinone is particularly interesting because it is most likely formed by incorporation of seven malonyl-CoA units rather than the eight units required for the formation of asparasone A. The 340 and 374 Da metabolites are the dehydration and an oxy-derivative of asparasone A, respectively. Asparasone A was also identified in extracts from several other Aspergillus species.

  2. Juglanthraquinone C, a novel natural compound derived from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, induces S phase arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Liu, Biao; Bao, Yong-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yu; Zheng, Li-Hua; Sun, Ying; Yu, Chun-Lei; Wu, Yin; Wang, Guan-Nan; Li, Yu-Xin

    2012-08-01

    Juglanthraquinone C (1,5-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-3-carboxylic acid, JC), a naturally occurring anthraquinone isolated from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica, shows strong cytotoxicity in various human cancer cells in vitro. Here, we first performed a structure-activity relationship study of six anthraquinone compounds (JC, rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion and chrysophanol) to exploit the relationship between their structural features and activity. The results showed that JC exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity of all compounds evaluated. Next, we used JC to treat several human cancer cell lines and found that JC showed an inhibitory effect on cell viability in dose-dependent (2.5-10 μg/ml JC) and time-dependent (24-48 h) manners. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of JC on HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cells was more significant as shown by an IC(50) value of 9 ± 1.4 μg/ml, and 36 ± 1.2 μg/ml in L02 (human normal liver) cells. Further study suggested that JC-induced inhibition HepG2 cell proliferation was associated with S phase arrest, decreased protein expression of proliferation marker Ki67, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and increased expression of cyclin E and CDK inhibitory protein Cip1/p21. In addition, JC significantly triggered apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which was characterized by increased chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and induction of a higher Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Collectively, our study demonstrated that JC can efficiently inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  3. Rational design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of novel sequence-selective peptidyl congeners of ametantrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Basili, Serena; Scalabrin, Matteo; Sosic, Alice; Moro, Stefano; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Manlio; Gresh, Nohad; Gatto, Barbara

    2010-07-01

    Natural and synthetic compounds characterized by an anthraquinone nucleus represent an important class of anti-neoplastic agents, the mechanism of action of which is related to intercalation into DNA. Ametantrone (AM) is a synthetic 9,10-anthracenedione bearing two (hydroxyethylamino)ethylamino residues at positions 1 and 4; along with other anthraquinones and anthracyclines, it shares a polycyclic intercalating moiety and charged side chains that stabilize DNA binding. All these drugs elicit adverse side effects, which represent a challenge for antitumor chemotherapy. In the present work the structure of AM was augmented with appropriate groups that target well-defined base pairs in the major groove. These should endow AM with DNA sequence selectivity. We describe the rationale for the synthesis and the evaluation of activity of a new series of compounds in which the planar anthraquinone is conjugated at positions 1 and 4 through the side chains of AM or other bioisosteric linkers to appropriate dipeptides. The designed novel AM derivatives were shown to selectively stabilize two oligonucleotide duplexes that both have a palindromic GC-rich hexanucleotide core, but their stabilizing effects on a random DNA sequence was negligible. In the case of the most effective compound, the 1,4-bis-[Gly-(L-Lys)] derivative of AM, the experimental results confirm the predictions of earlier theoretical computations. In contrast, AM had equal stabilizing effects on all three sequences and showed no preferential binding. This novel peptide derivative can be classified as a strong binder regarding the sequences that it selectively targets, possibly opening the exploitation of less cytotoxic conjugates of AM to the targeted treatment of oncological and viral diseases. PMID:20458714

  4. Chemical profile studies on the secondary metabolites of medicinally important plant Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC using HPTLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya Alphonso; Aparna Saraf

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the chemical fingerprint of various secondary metabolites of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC, a medicinally important plant. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening for various secondary metabolites was carried out. HPTLC profiles of various individual secondary metabolites were done and profiles were developed for authentication. Result: The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of 8 Glycosides, 10 Flavonoids, 6 Essential Oils, 5 Anthraquinones, 9 bitter principles, 7 Coumarins and 8 Terpenoids. Conclusions: The development of such fingerprint for the fruits of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC is useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and also act as biomarker for this plant in the Pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Isolation And Purification Of Flavonoids From The Leaves Of Locally Produced Carica Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Mobmi Musa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves of Carica papaya 150g was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin Tannin Glycoside Anthraquinone Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column 200g60-200 mesh and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2CH3OH H2O in the ratio of 70301. The yield of the isolated Flavonoid was 0.23.

  6. Isolation And Purification Of Flavonoids From The Leaves Of Locally Produced Carica Papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya Mobmi Musa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The leaves of Carica papaya 150g was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin Tannin Glycoside Anthraquinone Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column 200g60-200 mesh and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2CH3OH H2O in the ratio of 70301. The yield o...

  7. Activation Effect of Cathartic Natural Compound Rhein to CFTR Chloride Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in intestinal exocrine glands, which plays a key role in intestinal fluid secretion. A natural anthraquinone activator of CFTR Cl- channel, rhein, was identified by screening 217 single compounds from Chinese herbs via a cellbased halide-sensitive fluorescent assay. Rhein activates CFTR Cl- transportation in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of cAMP with a physiological concentration. This study provides a novel molecular pharmacological mechanism for the laxative drugs in Traditional Chinese Medicine such as aloe, cascara and senna.

  8. Aquatic Fern (Azolla Sp.) Assisted Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Anal K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic pteridophyte (Azolla sp.) was taken to assess its potential to synthesize the metal (Au) nanoparticles. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray, UV-visible, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape having the sizes of 5-17nm are found. UV-visible study revealed the surface plasmon resonance at 538nm. Responsible phytochemicals for the transformation were principally phenolics, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides and sugars present abundantly in the plant thereby bestowing it adaptive prodigality. Also, the use of Azolla sp. for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles offers the benefit of eco-friendliness.

  9. Ultrasonic synthesis and crystal structure analysis of two trimethylsilyloxy-substituted bicyclo[2.2.2]octene derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Srinivasa; H Nagarajaiah; B S Palakshamurthy; S Hariprasad; Noor Shahina Begum

    2013-09-01

    The compounds: 11-trimethylsilyloxy-1,2,3,4,4a,9a-hexahydro-1,4-etheno-anthraquinone and 4-benzyl-8-trimethylsilyloxy-4-aza-tricyclo[5.2.2.0]undec-8-ene-3,5-dione were synthesized by the Diels-Alder [4 +_2 ] cycloaddition reaction of 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)-1,3-cyclohexadiene with naphthaquinoneand -benzylmaleimide under ultrasonic conditions. The crystal structure analysis was done using single crystal X-ray diffraction method. In both the compounds, the trimethylsilyloxy- and naphthaquinone/-benzylmaleimide moieties are endo- to the bicyclic ring.

  10. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AGAVE SISALANA PERRINE LEAVES (WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwandogo O. Chigodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical properties of the methanolic, Ethyl acetate and Hexane extract of the Agave sisalana Perrine leaves were investigated to evaluate the chemical properties. The phytochemical screening revealed that Tannins, Cardiac glycosides, Reducing sugars, Saponins, Flavonoids, Phlobatannins, Steroids, Terpenoids, and Coumarins were present in the three extracts of A. sisalana Perrine leaves while, Alkaloids were present only in the methanolic and Ethyl acetate extracts. Anthraquinones and Emodins were present only in methanolic extract, while Anthocyanins were absent in all the three extracts. The study revealed that A. sisalana Perrine leave juice (waste has potential Phytochemical compounds which could be investigated for antimicrobial activities for treatment of pathogenic organisms

  11. A report on anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinu John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora L. leaves were evaluated for anthelmintic property using the Indian adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma as a model. Among the earthworms the ethyl acetate fraction was potent. The results were compared with a standard drug, albendazole. The phytochemical analysis of both extracts showed the presence of phenolics like flavonoids and tannins as well as anthraquinones, which may be the active principle. The present study confirms the ethno-medicinal report of the plant as an anthelmintic drug.

  12. Mechanisms of anticonvulsant and sedative actions of the ethanolic stem-bark extract of Ficus sur Forssk (Moraceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Olayemi, Sunday O; Yemitan, Omoniyi K; Ekpemandudiri, Ngozi K

    2013-11-01

    Ficus sur Forssk (Moraceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of epilepsy, pain and inflammations. Anticonvulsant activity was investigated using picrotoxin (PTX), strychnine (SCN), isoniazid (INZ), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid NMDA models of convulsion. The phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and anthraquinone. Oral administration of Ficus sur, 1 h before intraperitoneal injection of chemical convulsants significantly (p uses of Ficus sur in the treatment of epilepsies; mechanisms of which could involve interaction with GABAergic, glycinergic, serotonergic and glutaminergic system barks. PMID:24511736

  13. Chemical insight from density functional modeling of molecular adsorption: Tracking the bonding and diffusion of anthracene derivatives on Cu(111) with molecular orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Jonathan; Einstein, T. L.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2015-03-01

    We present a method of analyzing the results of density functional modeling of molecular adsorption in terms of an analogue of molecular orbitals. This approach permits intuitive chemical insight into the adsorption process. Applied to a set of anthracene derivates (anthracene, 9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-dithioanthracene, and 9,10-diselenonanthracene), we follow the electronic states of the molecules that are involved in the bonding process and correlate them to both the molecular adsorption geometry and the species' diffusive behavior. We additionally provide computational code to easily repeat this analysis on any system.

  14. ELECTROCHROMETIC STUDIES ON POLAR MULTILAYERS OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Mingxuan; REN Yanzhi; LIU Wang; GAO Manglai; ZHAO Yingying; BAI Yubai; LI Tiejin

    1995-01-01

    Electrochrometic measurements were carried on the Z-type Langmuir-Blodgett films oftwo liquid crystalline polymers: mono- {6-[4-(phenylazo) naphthyloxy] hexyl } (1a) andmono- { 6-[4- (anthraquinone-1-azo) naphthyloxy] hexyl} (2a) ester of polymaleic acid . Itwas found that for both polymers, poling fields parallel and antiparallel to dipole momentsof the polymer side chains induce red and blue shift in absorption bands, respectively. Forpolymer la blue shift is accompanied by absorbance increase, while red shift by absorbancedecrease;but for polymer 2a only decrease in absorbance is observed. A simple model wasproposed to analyze the results.

  15. Utilization of the pomegranate tree (Punica granatum L.) in the paper industry

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLSOY, SEZGİN KORAY; PEKGÖZLÜ, AYBEN KILIÇ; AKTAŞ, ASLI CEREN

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the chemical composition, fiber morphology, pulp, and paper properties of the pomegranate tree (Punica granatum L.) were determined. Stem and branch wood were analyzed separately. Kraft and kraft- anthraquinone (AQ) methods were used for the pulping processes. Stem wood showed superiority to branch wood with longer, wider, thicker-walled fibers. The holocellulose, $\\alpha$-cellulose, and lignin contents of branch and stem wood were 72.98%-73.50%, 38.37%-39.92%, and 21.04%-25.29...

  16. 3-Hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jun Xu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H12O5, was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings being 1.12 (4°. In the crystal structure, O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the moleculesin the crystallographic a-axis direction. Weak π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance between symmetry-related benzene rings of 3.699 (4 Å] are also present.

  17. Synthesis and binding properties of conjugates between oligodeoxynucleotides and daunorubicin derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Garbesi; Bonazzi, S.; Zanella, S.; Capobianco, M L; Giannini, G; Arcamone, F

    1997-01-01

    Conjugation of an anthracycline to a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) allows delivery of this drug to a specific DNA site, preserving the intercalation geometry of this class of anticancer agents. Conjugate 11, in which the TFO is linked via a hexamethylene bridge to the O-4 on the D ring of the anthraquinone moiety, affords the most stable triple helix, through intercalation of the planar chromophore between DNA bases and binding of both the TFO and the amino sugar to the major and the ...

  18. Descoloração redutiva de corantes azo e o efeito de mediadores redox na presença do aceptor de elétrons sulfato Reductive decolourisation of azo dyes and the effect of redox mediators in the presence of the electron acceptor sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of sulphate and the redox mediator Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS on the decolorization of the azo dyes Congo Red (CR and Reactive Black 5 (RB5. In anaerobic reactors free of extra sulphate dosage, the color removal efficiency decreased drastically when the external electron donor ethanol was removed. In presence of an extra dosage of sulphate, CR decolourisations were 47.8% (free of AQDS and 96.5% (supplemented with AQDS. The decolourisations achieved in both reactors with RB5 were lower than the ones found with CR. Finally, the biogenic sulphide contribution on azo dye reduction was negligiable.

  19. Chemical components of the roots of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) and their cytotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lishuang; Chen, Huadong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Sang, Shengmin

    2011-06-01

    Roots of Morinda citrifolia (Noni or Yor in Thai) have been used traditionally for thousands of years to treat chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. In this study, three new anthraquinones together with 15 known compounds were isolated from the roots of M. citrifolia (Rubiaceae). Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods, particularly 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Six known compounds, together with two new compounds (2 and 3) showed significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human lung and colon cancer cells.

  20. Antifungal effects of different plant extracts and their major components of selected aloe species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M I; Shalaby, N M; Elgamal, M H; Mousa, A S

    1999-08-01

    Different extracts of both fresh and dry leaves of Aloe eru A. Berger, A. vera L. Webb & Berth and A. arborescens Mill. were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium moniliforme. The toxicity of the isolated pure components were evaluated on the tested fungi. A comparative chromatographic study was performed to differentiate between natural components existing in various fractions and extracts of Aloe species and specific spray reagents were used for the detection of anthraquinones in the isolated components. PMID:10441780

  1. 大黄生、熟饮片质量评价方法研究%Quality Evaluation of Raw Rhubarb and Stewed Rhubarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田国芳; 李丽; 张村; 肖永庆; 王云; 黄文倩

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨建立具有生、熟大黄饮片专属性的质量评价方法.方法:以TLC及HPLC对生、熟大黄饮片进行定性、定量比较分析.结果:石油醚-乙酸乙醋-甲酸(15:5:1)和氯仿-甲醇-甲酸(6:1:0.2)2个展开系统的TLC鉴别和HPLC指纹图谱比较,均可以清晰地反映出2种饮片化学成分组成和含量上的变化.主要化学成分的含量测定显示,除苯丁酮及其苷类成分无明显变化外,其余成分的变化均较显著.结论:可将蒽醌苷及其苷元、二苯乙烯苷及鞣质单体的含量作为大黄生、熟饮片定量分析的指标,其中大黄素-8-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷和儿茶素可作为生大黄饮片的特征指标成分.%Objective: To study the individual quality evaluation standard of raw rhubarb and stewed Rhubarb. Method: Qualitative and quantitative identification of two pieces from rhubarb were performed by using the thin-layer chromatography, HPLC fingerprint chromatogram. Result: The change of quantity and content in pieces could be reflected directly and clearly in HPLC fingerprint chromatogram and the TLC in which two kinds of mobile phase were used. There were notable differences in the content of 5 kinds of free anthraquinone,anthraquinone glycoside, stilbene glycoside, catechin and gallic acid in stewed Rhubarb and raw rhubarb.Conclusion: Suggestion on quality standard of raw rhubarb and stewed Rhubarb should be taken differently by the indicator including the content of free anthraquinone, anthraquinone glycoside, catechin, gallic acid and stilbene glycoside. The emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside and the catechin are the characteristics index of raw rhubarb.

  2. Characterization of cultural remains associated to a human skeleton found at the site HMS Swift (1770)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M. S.; Gómez, B. A.; Parera, S. D.; Elkin, D.; De Rosa, H.; Ciarlo, N. C.; Svoboda, H.

    2010-08-01

    Different types of materials found in association with a human skeleton found in an 18th century shipwreck in Patagonia (Argentina) were analyzed by means of OM, SEM-EDX, HPLC, and chemical analysis. Alizarin and purpurin, the main anthraquinones of the dye plant Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) were identified as the coloring matter of a red fabric attached to the skeleton. Metallographic and chemical analysis of one of the dome-shaped buttons associated to the human bones revealed that it was composed of a Pb-Sn-Cu alloy known as pewter. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the remains originally were part of a private marine uniform.

  3. Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

  4. An efficient synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of Schiff bases containing 9,10-anthracenedione moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method has been developed for the synthesis of novel Schiff bases containg anthraquinone moiety using dodeca-Tungstosilicic acid/P2O5 under solvent free conditions at room temperature. The reaction was completed in 1-3 minutes with excellent yields. This method was found to be more efficient, easy and hazardous free for the synthesis of azomethines. The development of these type of methadologies in synthetic chemistry may contribute to green chemistry. The structures of synthesized novel Schiff bases was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, LCMS, FTIR and CHN analysis.

  5. Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončarić Božić, A.; Koprivanac, N.; Šunka, P.; Člupek, M.; Babický, V.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying a high voltage pulsed electrical discharges for dye wastewater treatment. Commercial organic monochlorotriazine reactive dye of the anthraquinone type C.I. Reactive Blue 49 (RB49) was chosen as a representative of persistent and recalcitrant wastewater pollutant. The modified pinhole discharge flow-through reactor was used to treat such type of contaminant. Applying HV pulses 30 kV, 3.15 J/pulse, 50 Hz repetition rate, complete decolorisation and partial mineralization of RB49 has been reached and demonstrated by means of UV/VIS absorption, TOC and AOX measurements.

  6. Chemical insight from density functional modeling of molecular adsorption: Tracking the bonding and diffusion of anthracene derivatives on Cu(111) with molecular orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrick, Jonathan; Bartels, Ludwig, E-mail: ludwig.bartels@ucr.edu [Pierce Hall, University of California-Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Einstein, T. L. [Department of Physics and Condensed Matter Theory Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    We present a method of analyzing the results of density functional modeling of molecular adsorption in terms of an analogue of molecular orbitals. This approach permits intuitive chemical insight into the adsorption process. Applied to a set of anthracene derivates (anthracene, 9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-dithioanthracene, and 9,10-diselenonanthracene), we follow the electronic states of the molecules that are involved in the bonding process and correlate them to both the molecular adsorption geometry and the species’ diffusive behavior. We additionally provide computational code to easily repeat this analysis on any system.

  7. Chemical and preclinical studies on Hedyotis diffusa with anticancer potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yu; Meng, Qiu-Xia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the chemical and preclinical anticancer research on Hedyotis diffusa Willd. in detail, one of the most renowned herbs often prescribed in the polyherbal formulas for cancer treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Anthraquinones, flavonoids, and terpenoids constitute the majority of the 69 compounds that have been isolated and identified from H. diffusa. The anticancer effects of the methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts in various preclinical cancer models have been described. This review also summarized the anticancer activity of constituents of the herb and the mechanisms of action. All the studies suggest that H. diffusa has enormous potential in the therapy of cancer and warrants further chemical and pharmacological investigation. PMID:23600735

  8. Secondary Metabolites of Aspergillus sp. CM9a, an E ndophytic Fungus of Cephalotaxus mannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven compounds belonging to eight structure types, namely cyclopentenedione (1, diketopiperazines (2, 9, 10, lactone (3, benzophenone (4, 5, terpene (6, anthraquinone (7, diphenyl ethers (10, and alkaloid (11 were isolated from the cultivation extract of the strain Aspergillus sp. CM9a, which was isolated from the stems of Cephalotaxus mannii. Among them, compounds 1, 2, and 3 were determined to b e new ones on the basis of spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D - NMR experiments and HR Q-TOF MS. The structures of the eight known compounds were characterized based on their NMR data and by comparison with those reported.

  9. A role for DNA-mediated charge transport in regulating p53: Oxidation of the DNA-bound protein from a distance

    OpenAIRE

    Augustyn, Katherine E.; Merino, Edward J.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2007-01-01

    Charge transport (CT) through the DNA base pairs provides a means to promote redox reactions at a remote site and potentially to effect signaling between molecules bound to DNA. Here we describe the oxidation of a cell-cycle regulatory protein, p53, from a distance through DNA-mediated CT. A consensus p53 binding site as well as three DNA promoters regulated by p53 were synthesized containing a tethered DNA photooxidant, anthraquinone. Photoinduced oxidation of the protein occurs from a dista...

  10. Decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes with a laccase from Trametes hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadulla, E; Tzanov, T; Costa, S; Robra, K H; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Gübitz, G M

    2000-08-01

    Trametes hirsuta and a purified laccase from this organism were able to degrade triarylmethane, indigoid, azo, and anthraquinonic dyes. Initial decolorization velocities depended on the substituents on the phenolic rings of the dyes. Immobilization of the T. hirsuta laccase on alumina enhanced the thermal stabilities of the enzyme and its tolerance against some enzyme inhibitors, such as halides, copper chelators, and dyeing additives. The laccase lost 50% of its activity at 50 mM NaCl while the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the immobilized enzyme was 85 mM. Treatment of dyes with the immobilized laccase reduced their toxicities (based on the oxygen consumption rate of Pseudomonas putida) by up to 80% (anthraquinonic dyes). Textile effluents decolorized with T. hirsuta or the laccase were used for dyeing. Metabolites and/or enzyme protein strongly interacted with the dyeing process indicated by lower staining levels (K/S) values than obtained with a blank using water. However, when the effluents were decolorized with immobilized laccase, they could be used for dyeing and acceptable color differences (DeltaE*) below 1.1 were measured for most dyes.

  11. Comparative Study for Adsorptive Removal of Coralene Blue BGFS Dye from Aqueous Solution by MgO and Fe2O3 as an Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Desai,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Textile industries represent biggest impact on the environment due to high water consumption and waste water discharge as government control water pollution by setting strength regulation for waste water discharge, removal of color from waste water becomes more and more essential and attractive. Adsorption technology is very efficient in treatment of textile effluent. In this paper comparison of adsorption phenomena of textile dye Anthraquinone blue onto two different adsorbents MgO nano powder and Fe2O3 amorphous powder has been studied for removal of said dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorption of Anthraquinone blue on adsorbents occurs by studying the effects of adsorbent amount, dye concentration, contact time and pH of solution. All results found that MgO nano powder and Fe2O3 provide a fairly high dye adsorption capacity, which combined with their fulfilment of pollution control board’s standards, lack of pollution, lower environmental hazard and low-cost makes them promising for future applications. The present work also provides information on optimum value of different operating parameter for dye removal by two adsorbent.

  12. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ERα Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hsuan Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ERα activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ERα protein levels, thereby suppressing ERα transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 and ERα and increased ERα ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ERα dissociation and ERα ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ERα degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ERα degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ERα distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ERα protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future.

  13. Biological decolorization of the reactive dyes Reactive Black 5 by a novel isolated bacterial strain Enterobacter sp. EC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Su, Jian-Qiang; Tian, Yun; Xiong, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Tian-Ling

    2009-11-15

    Studies were carried out on the decolorization of the reactive dye Reactive Black 5 by a newly isolated bacterium, EC3. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence comparisons indicate that this strain belonged to the genus Enterobacter. The optimal conditions for the decolorizing activity of Enterobacter sp. EC3 were anaerobic conditions with glucose supplementation, at pH 7.0, and 37 degrees C. The maximum decolorization efficiency against Reactive Black 5 achieved in this study was 92.56%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) analyses before and after decolorization and the colorless bacterial biomass after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation, rather than inactive surface adsorption. The bacterial strain also showed a strong ability to decolorize various reactive textile dyes, including both azo and anthraquinone dyes. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a bacterial strain of Enterobacter sp. has been reported with decolorizing ability against both azo and anthraquinone dyes.

  14. Phytochemical properties of Ganoderma applanatum as potential agents in the application of nanotechnology in modern day medical practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akpera T MANASSEH FIMLS; Jombo TA Godwin FMCPath; EMANGHE E Ubleni FMCPath; Oguntayo O Borisde MSc

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was set up to review the phytochemistry of Ganoderma applanatum, its potentiality in nanotechological engineering for clinical use as well as impact of aqueous extracts of Ganoderma applanatum on laboratoery rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Methods: Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma applanatum were obtained using hot sterile distilled water and whatmann filter paper. The presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and steroids were tested using standard procedures. Acqueous extracts were also inoculated into laboratory rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei along with both positive and negative controls. Blood samples were collected daily, stained with Giemsa’s stain and examined for the presence of parasites.Results: Ganoderma applanatum aqueous extracts contained detectable levels of saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and steroids but undetectable levels of alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinone. All the infected rats died by day 12 from overwhelming trypanosomal infections.Conclusion: The biochemical constituents of Ganoderma species should be subjected to nanotechnological engineering in order to probably discover more of its wider therapeutic benefits, and to further disprove its suitability or otherwise in the treatment of African sleeping sickness.

  15. Investigation of the Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Studies of Plant Withania Coagulans Dunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Salwaan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of traditional medicinal plants is increasing now a days because of various advantages over the synthetic drugs. Withania Coagulans dunal was studied for its antioxidant activity. Various physicochemical parameters were studied such as ash value, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash alcohol soluble extractive value etc. Various qualitative phytochemical tests were done for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids etc. It was observed that 50% ethanol extract of withania coagulans contains carbohydrates, proteins, glycosides, steroids and sterols, anthraquinones and triterpenoids. The anti oxidant activity of Withania coagulans dunal was studied by DPPH and Nitric oxide method and it was observed that it has anti oxidant activity. It showed more activity in DPPH method than Nitric oxide method. Preliminary Phytochemical study of 50% ethanolic extract of the root parts is found to contain carbohydrates, protein, some steroids, anthraquinone, flavonoids, tannin, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids are present. The antioxidant activity was determined and the plant extract showed low activity nitric oxide free radical inhibition method and moderate activity by DPPH method. The activity was compared with rutin and ascorbic acid.

  16. Crystalline guanine adducts of natural and synthetic trioxacarcins suggest a common biological mechanism and reveal a basis for the instability of trioxacarcin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröpper, Kevin; Dittrich, Birger; Smaltz, Daniel J; Magauer, Thomas; Myers, Andrew G

    2014-09-15

    X-ray crystallographic characterization of products derived from natural and fully synthetic trioxacarcins, molecules with potent antiproliferative effects, illuminates aspects of their reactivity and mechanism of action. Incubation of the fully synthetic trioxacarcin analog 3, which lacks one of the carbohydrate residues present in the natural product trioxacarcin A (1) as well as oxygenation at C2 and C4 yet retains potent antiproliferative effects, with the self-complimentary duplex oligonucleotide d(AACCGGTT) led to production of a crystalline covalent guanine adduct (6). Adduct 6 is closely analogous to gutingimycin (2), the previously reported guanine adduct derived from incubation of natural trioxacarcin A (1) with duplex DNA, suggesting that 3 and 1 likely share a common basis of cytotoxicity. In addition, we isolated a novel, dark-red crystalline guanine adduct (7) from incubation of trioxacarcin A itself with the self-complimentary duplex oligonucleotide d(CGTATACG). Crystallographic analysis suggests that 7 is an anthraquinone derivative, which we propose arises by a sequence of guanosine alkylation within duplex DNA, depurination, base-catalyzed elimination of the trioxacarcinose A carbohydrate residue, and oxidative rearrangement to form an anthraquinone. We believe that this heretofore unrecognized chemical instability of natural trioxacarcins may explain why trioxacarcin analogs lacking C4 oxygenation exhibit superior chemical stabilities yet, as evidenced by structure 3, retain a capacity to form lesions with duplex DNA. PMID:25176186

  17. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  18. Preliminary phytochemicals evaluation of different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in plants, such as vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, flowers, leaves and roots that work with nutrients and fibers to protect against various human diseases. Gynura procumbens or locally known as Sambung Nyawa is a plant species widely planted in many warmer regions. It is a perennial plant of the Asteraceae family, which may grow to 100 cm high with oval-shaped, leaves to 10 cm long and have a rather fleshy feel. Gynura procumbens has been used for the treatment of eruptive fevers, rash and kidney disease. The leaves of this plant continue to be used as folk medicine to control diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. The aim of this research was to evaluate the presence of phytochemicals constituents in different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens leaves. Qualitative phytochemicals screening of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were carried out for the detection of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, lipids, coumarin, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. The phytochemicals screening showed positive results for terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, lipids, coumarin and anthraquinones in methanol and water extracts of Gynura procumbens. The diversity of phytochemicals present suggests that Gynura procumbens leaves could serve as a source of useful drugs. (author)

  19. Characterization of the Principal Constituents of Danning Tablets, a Chinese Formula Consisting of Seven Herbs, by an UPLC-DAD-MS/MS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsen Zhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Danning Tablets are a traditional Chinese formula showing broad clinical applications in hepatobiliary diseases and containing a diversity of bioactive chemicals. However, the chemical profiling of the formula, which serves as the material foundation of its efficacy, is really a big challenge as Danning Tablets consist of seven herbs from different origins. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS approach was developed to characterize the principal polyphenol constituents in the formula. As a result, a total of 32 constituents, including 14 anthraquinones and their glucosides, four anthrones, two naphthalene glycosides, two stilbenes and 10 flavonoids were identified based on their retention time, UV absorption and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. The sources of these compounds were also illustrated. Most of the bioactive anthraquinone derivatives were found in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma or Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix, which are the Emperor drugs in the formula for its clinic usage. These findings indicate the merit of using this integrated UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS approach to rapidly illustrate the chemical foundation of complex formulas. The present study will facilitate the quality control of Danning Tablet formulas as well as the individual herbs.

  20. Action mechanism for 3β-hydroxykaurenoic acid and 4,4-dimethylanthracene-1,9,10(4H)-trione on Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Leonora; Ribera, Alejandra; Saavedra, Alejandra; Silva, Evelyn; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro; Cotoras, Milena

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the diterpenoid 3β-hydroxykaurenoic acid and the anthraquinone 4,4-dimethylanthracene-1,9,10(4H)-trione on the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea was studied. The effect of both compounds on the respiratory process and on the membrane integrity of B. cinerea was evaluated. The results showed that 3β-hydroxykaurenoic acid inhibited the growth of this fungus by disrupting the plasmatic membrane. This compound also partially affected oxygen consumption of B. cinerea germinating conidia. Conversely, 4,4-dimethylanthracene-1,9,10(4H)-trione did not produce membrane disruption of B. cinerea. The effect of this compound on mycelial growth was notably increased by the presence of an inhibitor of the cyanide-resistant respiration pathway. It also was shown that the anthraquinone inhibited oxygen consumption by about 80%; therefore this compound would act as a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome pathway of the respiratory chain to exert its antifungal effect. PMID:25977212

  1. Non-invasive and micro-destructive investigation of the Domus Aurea wall painting decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Catia; Ciocan, Valeria; Vagnini, Manuela; Doherty, Brenda; Tabasso, Marisa Laurenzi; Conti, Cinzia; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Miliani, Costanza

    2011-10-01

    The paper reports on the exploitation of an educated multi-technique analytical approach based on a wide non invasive step followed by a focused micro-destructive step, aimed at the minimally invasive identification of the pigments decorating the ceiling of the Gilded Vault of the Domus Aurea in Rome. The combination of elemental analysis with molecular characterization provided by X-ray fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopies, respectively, allowed for the in situ non-invasive identification of a remarkable number of pigments, namely Egyptian blue, green earth, cinnabar, red ochre and an anthraquinonic lake. The study was completed with the Raman analysis of two bulk samples, in particular, SERS measurements allowed for the speciation of the anthraquinonic pigment. Elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer combined with micro-fluorimetry on cross-section gave an insight into both the distribution of different blend of pigments and on the nature of the inorganic support of the red dye. PMID:21805319

  2. Phytochemical, proximate and elemental analysis of acalypha wilkesiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kingsley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acalypha wilkesiana,commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the south pacific islands andbelongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Apart from its use as a vegetable, theplant is also used in traditional medicine as a diuretic plant and is eaten inthe management of hypertension. In this study, three samples (ethanol extract,aqueous extract and dried powder of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were analyzedfor the presence of phytochemicals according to standard methods. Apart fromflavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones and phytate, all the phytochemicals testedfor are present in the three samples. This qualitative analysis showed thepresence of flavonoids only in the ethanol extract and powdered leave, steroidsonly in the ethanol extract, anthraquinones and phytate in the aqueous extractand powdered leave only. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash [4.16%(aqueous extract,13.98% (ethanol extract and 13.65% (powdered leaves],moisture [66.0% (aqueous extract, 30.89% (ethanol extract and 12.0% (powderedleaves], total lipid [1.75% (aqueous extract, 4.25% (ethanol extract and2.20% (powdered leaves], as well as fiber, crude protein and energy, whileelemental analysis revealed the presence of sodium [0.0086% (aqueous extract,0.024% (ethanol extract and 0.015% (powdered leaves], potassium [0.49%(aqueous extract, 1.36% (ethanol extract and 1.44% (powdered leaves], aswell as chloride and calcium. The various phytochemical compounds detected areknown to have beneficial use in industries and medical sciences, and alsoexhibit physiological activity.

  3. Syntheses of 2-substituted 1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinones (bromaminic acid analogues – precursors for dyes and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas M. Malik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone (AQ derivatives play a prominent role in medicine and also in textile industry. Bromaminic acid (1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid is an important precursor for obtaining dyes as well as biologically active compounds through the replacement of the C4-bromo substituent with different (aralkylamino residues. Here we report methods for the synthesis of bromaminic acid analogues bearing different substituents at the 2-position of the anthraquinone core. 1-Aminoanthraquinone was converted to its 2-hydroxymethyl-substituted derivative which, under different reaction conditions, yielded the corresponding carbaldehyde, carboxylic acid, and nitrile derivatives. The latter was further reacted to obtain 1-amino-2-tetrazolylanthraquinone. Subsequent bromination using bromine in DMF led to the corresponding bromaminic acid derivatives in excellent isolated yields (>90% and high purities. Alternatively, 1-amino-4-bromo-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone could be directly converted to the desired 2-substituted bromaminic acid analogues in high yields (85–100%. We additionally report the preparation of bromaminic acid sodium salt and 1-amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone directly from 1-aminoanthraquinone in excellent yields (94–100% and high purities. The synthesized brominated AQs are valuable precursors for the preparation of AQ drugs and dyes.

  4. Application of the laser spectroscopy techniques for analysis of pigments on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Katarzyna; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2005-09-01

    Techniques of laser emission spectroscopy such as LIPS and LIF are applied to identify pastels and pigments composition for the use in conservation of historical documents. The question of data reliable for pigment identification by these techniques is considered. For model samples made of the cotton paper of chemical composition corresponding to the historical ones, and coated with pastels of different colors the LIPS and LIF spectra are recorded. Samples are excited by the pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 or 266 nm. The reference Raman spectra are collected, too. Bands characteristic for the blue pigments: PB15, PB29; violet one PV16, and yellow PY 184 are identified exclusively by LIPS in agreement with literature. Also additives such as the barium white found in the Scarlet pastel, and ultramarine (Na8-10[Al6Si6O24]S2-4) with titanium white (TiO2) in the Phthalo Blue are identified, and confirmed by the Raman technique as well. The pigments anthraquinone (PR 168), isoindolinone (PY 110) and monoazo (PY 74) are not revealed. In the LIF spectra only a broad band centered at 612 nm and corresponding to anthraquinone (red pastel) can be clearly assigned.

  5. Kinetics of the electropolymerization of aminoanthraquinone from aqueous solutions and analytical applications of the polymer film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymaa S. Medany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly 1-amino-9, 10-anthraquinone (PAAQ films were prepared by the electropolymerization of 1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone (AAQ on platinum substrate from aqueous media, where 5.0 × 10−3 mol L−1 AAQ and 6.0 mol L−1 H2SO4 were used. The kinetics of the electropolymerization process was investigated by determining the change of the charge consumed during the polymerization process with time at different concentrations of both monomer and electrolyte. The results have shown that the process follows first order kinetics with respect to the monomer concentration. The order of the reaction with respect to the aqueous solvent i.e. H2SO4 was found to be negative. The polymer films were successfully used as sensors for the electroanalytical determination of many hazardous compounds, e.g. phenols, and biologically important materials like dopamine. The electroanalytical determination was based on the measurements of the oxidation current peak of the material in the cyclic voltammetric measurements. The cyclic voltammograms were recorded at a scan rate of 100 mV s−1 and different analyte concentrations. A calibration curve was constructed for each analyte, from which the determination of low concentrations of catechol and hydroquinone (HQ as examples of hazardous compounds present in waste water and also for ascorbic acid and dopamine as examples of valuable biological materials can be achieved.

  6. Toxicity, antioxidant activity and phytochemical characterization of Coccoloba mollis roots and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Bezerra de Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccoloba mollis is a plant that is used in medicine in Londrina, Brazil. The root extract showed stronger activity against A. salina (68.5 μg/mL than did the leaf extract (1342 μg mL, and demonstrated good activity when compared with the positive control (16.24 μg /mL. The antioxidant potential (Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl – DPPH of root and leaf extracts was comparable to that of commonly used BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene. In the chemical characterization the compounds identified were a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone from leaf ethanolic extract and two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion from the root one. Phytochemical screening using pharmacognostic methodology revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in leaves and roots. Anthraquinones only in the roots. While this analysis resulted negative for alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics. We conclude that the identified emodin and physcion in roots extract, corroborate with the anti-stress action and the use for memory loss attributed by popular use of this medicinal plant in the Londrina region.

  7. ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF HARUNGANA MADAGASCARIENSIS L (HYPERICACEAE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afieroho O.E.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of resistance to orthodox drugs are on the rise. Medicinal plants are a source of lead compounds in drug discovery. Harungana madagascariensis is known for its ethno medicinal uses in the treatment of dysentery and related bacterial infections. In view of this, investigating its antibacterial drug lead potential is an imperative .The crude methanol extract of the fresh seeds was fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone successively. Agar dilution method was used for the antibacterial evaluation with clinical and ATCC strains of .E. coli and S.aureus as test microorganisms. Phytochemical methods were by using standard phytochemical screening reagents.The Chloroform fraction was the most active against the test pathogenic organisms with observed minimum inhibitory concentration MIC trend: chloroform (0.03125 mg/ml > ethyl acetate (0.50000 mg/ml. Anthraquinones were found only in the most active chloroform fraction with some amount of flavonoids aglycones, and triterpenoids. This study showed that anthraquinones and/or flavonoids aglycones could be responsible for the antibacterial activity with possible synergistic effect from flavonoids and terpenoids. This further confirmed its ethnomedicinal uses.

  8. Impact of Artificial Perspiration on Photo-stability of Reactive Dyes on Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG De-hua; ZHANG Li-yuan; PAN Da-wei; HE Jin-xin

    2006-01-01

    The photo-reactions between metabolic products of human sweat and dyestuffs on garments may produce many toxic substances which could directly contact skin and threaten human health. In order to investigate the impact of the perspiration on photo-fading of reactive dyes on cellulose,nine commercial reactive dyes belonging to three types of chromophores (azo, Cu-complex azo and anthraquinone)respectively were chosen and their perspiration-light stability on cotton fabric was studied following ATTS test standard.It is found that the impact of the artificial perspiration on dyes varies with different chromophores: anthraquinone reactive dyes always show the best photo-stability, whereas Cu-complex azo reactive dyes appear to be the most sensitive under exposure to light and perspiration. The pH value of perspiration also greatly influences the fading of dyes with different reactive groups: the fading rate of most chlorotriazinyl reactive dyes in acidic perspiration (pH = 3.5) is higher than in alkaline perspiration (pH=8.0), while the reverse is true for most vinylsulphonyi dyes.Furthermore, the study of the contribution of individual component of the artificial perspiration discloses that LHistidine monohydrochloride monohydrate, DL-Aspartic acid and lactic acid play the major roles on the photo-fading of those selected dyestuffs and inorganic salts including disodium hydrogen phosphate and sodium chloride usually decelerate photo-fading.

  9. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hong; Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Xu-Lin; He, Jing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa) Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight) obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones. PMID:26580602

  10. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hong Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography -diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones.

  11. Synthesis of marmycin A and investigation into its cellular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañeque, Tatiana; Gomes, Filipe; Mai, Trang Thi; Maestri, Giovanni; Malacria, Max; Rodriguez, Raphaël

    2015-09-01

    Anthracyclines such as doxorubicin are used extensively in the treatment of cancers. Anthraquinone-related angucyclines also exhibit antiproliferative properties and have been proposed to operate via similar mechanisms, including direct genome targeting. Here, we report the chemical synthesis of marmycin A and the study of its cellular activity. The aromatic core was constructed by means of a one-pot multistep reaction comprising a regioselective Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and the complex sugar backbone was introduced through a copper-catalysed Ullmann cross-coupling, followed by a challenging Friedel-Crafts cyclization. Remarkably, fluorescence microscopy revealed that marmycin A does not target the nucleus but instead accumulates in lysosomes, thereby promoting cell death independently of genome targeting. Furthermore, a synthetic dimer of marmycin A and the lysosome-targeting agent artesunate exhibited a synergistic activity against the invasive MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line. These findings shed light on the elusive pathways through which anthraquinone derivatives act in cells, pointing towards unanticipated biological and therapeutic applications.

  12. Secondary Metabolites from Rubiaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes some characteristics of the Rubiaceae family pertaining to the occurrence and distribution of secondary metabolites in the main genera of this family. It reports the review of phytochemical studies addressing all species of Rubiaceae, published between 1990 and 2014. Iridoids, anthraquinones, triterpenes, indole alkaloids as well as other varying alkaloid subclasses, have shown to be the most common. These compounds have been mostly isolated from the genera Uncaria, Psychotria, Hedyotis, Ophiorrhiza and Morinda. The occurrence and distribution of iridoids, alkaloids and anthraquinones point out their chemotaxonomic correlation among tribes and subfamilies. From an evolutionary point of view, Rubioideae is the most ancient subfamily, followed by Ixoroideae and finally Cinchonoideae. The chemical biosynthetic pathway, which is not so specific in Rubioideae, can explain this and large amounts of both iridoids and indole alkaloids are produced. In Ixoroideae, the most active biosysthetic pathway is the one that produces iridoids; while in Cinchonoideae, it produces indole alkaloids together with other alkaloids. The chemical biosynthetic pathway now supports this botanical conclusion.

  13. Secondary metabolites from Rubiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Daiane; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica

    2015-01-01

    This study describes some characteristics of the Rubiaceae family pertaining to the occurrence and distribution of secondary metabolites in the main genera of this family. It reports the review of phytochemical studies addressing all species of Rubiaceae, published between 1990 and 2014. Iridoids, anthraquinones, triterpenes, indole alkaloids as well as other varying alkaloid subclasses, have shown to be the most common. These compounds have been mostly isolated from the genera Uncaria, Psychotria, Hedyotis, Ophiorrhiza and Morinda. The occurrence and distribution of iridoids, alkaloids and anthraquinones point out their chemotaxonomic correlation among tribes and subfamilies. From an evolutionary point of view, Rubioideae is the most ancient subfamily, followed by Ixoroideae and finally Cinchonoideae. The chemical biosynthetic pathway, which is not so specific in Rubioideae, can explain this and large amounts of both iridoids and indole alkaloids are produced. In Ixoroideae, the most active biosysthetic pathway is the one that produces iridoids; while in Cinchonoideae, it produces indole alkaloids together with other alkaloids. The chemical biosynthetic pathway now supports this botanical conclusion. PMID:26205062

  14. Near-IR luminescent lanthanide complexes with 1,8-diaminoanthraquinone-based chromophoric ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Oliver J; Ward, Benjamin D; Amoroso, Angelo J; Pope, Simon J A

    2016-04-12

    Three new chromophoric anthraquinone-based multidentate ligands have been synthesised in a step-wise manner from 1,8-dichloroanthraquinone. The ligands each comprise two dipicolyl amine units and react with trivalent lanthanide ions to form monometallic complexes of the form [Ln(L)](OTf)3 as indicated by MS studies and elemental analyses. Supporting DFT studies show that the monometallic species are highly favoured (>1000 kJ mol(-1)) over the formation of a 2 : 2 dimetallic congener. Both ligands and complexes absorb light efficiently (ε ∼ 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)) in the visible part of the spectrum, with λabsca. 535-550 nm through an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) transition localised on the substituted anthraquinone unit. In all cases the complexes show a fluorescence band at ca. 675 nm due to the ICT emitting state. The corresponding Nd(iii), Yb(iii) and Er(iii) complexes also reveal sensitised near-IR emission characteristic of each ion following excitation of the ICT visible absorption band at 535 nm. PMID:26974664

  15. 庐山石韦和柔软石韦营养叶片组织化学定位研究%Histochemical Localization of Foliage Leaves of Pyrrosia sheareri and P. porosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟霞军; 李雁群; 黄荣韶

    2012-01-01

    利用泳冻切片法对庐山石韦和柔软石韦营养叶片中的皂苷类化合物、蒽醌类化合物及多糖物质进行了组织化学定位研究.结果表明,皂苷类化合物主要积累在营养叶片主脉的薄壁组织和叶片的栅栏组织中,海绵组织、厚角组织、表皮中也有少量皂苷类化合物分布;蒽醌类化合物主要分布在营养叶片主脉的薄壁组织以及叶肉同化组织中,在表皮和韧皮部含有少量的蒽醌类化合物,木质部无明显显色反应;而多糖物质普遍存在于叶肉同化组织中.从显色程度上看,庐山石韦皂苷类化合物和多糖物质含量高于柔软石韦,而柔软石韦的蒽醌类化合物含量则高于庐山石韦.这为石韦资源的合理利用提供了参考依据.%Frozen section methods was applied to locate saponins, anthraquinones and polysaccharides in the foliage leaves of Pyrrosia sheareri (Bak.) Ching and P. Porosa (C. Presl) Hovenk. The histochemical localization showed that saponins mainly distributed in parenchyma cells of major vein transection and palisade tissue, some existed in spongy tissue, epidermis and phloem. Anthraquinones were mainly detected in parenchyma cells of major vein transection and mesophyll assimilation organization, some were tested in epidermis and phloem; no coloration was observed in xylem. Polysaccharides generally distributed in mesophyll assimilation organization of P. Sheareri and P. Porosa. The content of saponins and polysaccharides in P. Sheareri was higher than that in P. Porosa; hut the content of anthraquinones was less than that of P. Porosa according to color reaction. The results provided data for rational utilization of pyrrosia.

  16. 新疆油莎草全株活性成分定性分析%Quality Analysis of Activity Component of Cyperus esculentus Whole Plant in

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬思群; 欧阳位麒; 马泽鑫

    2012-01-01

    By the use of system experiment, the activity component of Cyperus esculentus whole piant was analyzed. The results showed that: Stems and leaves mainly contained protein, carbohydrates, organic acids, flavonoids, lactones, coumarins and their glycosides, steroids and triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, volatile oils, fats and oils and other active ingredients, while saponins, anthraquinones, alkaloids were not detected; Roots mainly consisted of proteins, organic acids, tannins and phenolic anthraquinone, coumarin and its glycosides, lactones, steroids and triterpenes, volatile oil, grease and other active ingredients, while carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids were not detected; Tubers mainly contained proteins, carbohydrates, tannins and phenols, alkaloids, terpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids and triterpenes, volatile oil, grease and other active ingredients, while lactones, coumarins and their glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides were not detected.%采用系统试验法,对新疆油莎草全株活性成分进行了分析,结果表明:地上茎叶中含有蛋白质、糖类、有机酸、黄酮、内酯、香豆素及其苷类、甾体及三萜类、强心苷、挥发油、油脂类等活性成分,而皂苷、蒽醌、生物碱未检出;根须中含有蛋白质、有机酸、鞣质与酚类蒽醌、香豆素及其苷类、内酯、甾体与三萜类、挥发油、油脂类等活性成分,而糖类、皂苷、黄酮、强心苷、生物碱未检出。块茎中含有蛋白质、糖类、鞣质与酚类、生物碱、萜类、蒽醌、甾类及三萜类、挥发油、油脂等活性成分,而内酯、香豆素及其苷类、皂苷、黄酮、强心苷未检出。

  17. P-glycoprotein Mediated Efflux Modulators of Plant Origin: A Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Salgueiro, Lígia; Fortuna, Ana; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) help maintain cellular homeostasis but are also major contributors to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomena. Since P-gp was associated with MDR, several compounds showing potential to inhibit this transporter have been identified. Particular attention has been given to natural products, namely those of plant origin, looking for highly effective and safe P-gp inhibitors with little to no interaction with other cellular or metabolic processes. Here we abridge several examples of plant compounds from distinct classes, polyketides, lignans, anthraquinones, coumarins, alkaloids, mono- and sesqui-terpenes, steroids and limonoids, which have shown the ability to modulate in vitro or in vivo the P-gp activity. PMID:27319155

  18. 白藜芦醇制备方法及其生物活性的研究进展%Advances in Resveratrol Preparations and the Bioactivities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞; 陈继承; 薛丽华; 汪秀妹; 林好; 庞杰

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol, known as anthraquinone terpene, is a kind of natural bioactive polyphenol derivatives -diphenylethene compounds generated in plants. On the basis of correlated references, the preparation technologies of resveratrol were summarized in this paper concerning the extraction methods, biological activity and biosynthesis in order to provide reference for their preparation research and utilization.%白藜芦醇属蒽醌萜类化合物,是一种植物体内产生的天然二苯乙烯类活性多酚物质.本文通过查阅国内外相关文献,从提取方法、生理活性和生物合成3个方面对白藜芦醇制备技术进行了综述,以期为白藜芦醇的制备研究和开发利用提供参考.

  19. SIMULTANEOUS REACTION AND LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION IN THE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxiang L(u); Li Wang; Zhentao Mi; Yaquan Wang

    2004-01-01

    The gas-liquid-liquid reactive extraction system for preparing hydrogen peroxide via anthraquinone was investigated. The oxidation reaction of hydrogenated working solution was combined with the extraction of hydrogen peroxide from working solution in a sieve plate column. The reaction of 2-ethylanthrahydroquionone with oxygen and the liquid-liquid extraction of hydrogen peroxide take place simultaneously. The oxygen was introduced with hydrogenated working solution through a nozzle in the bottom of the column, which worked as agitated air as well as oxidation reagent. The results showed the oxidation and extraction do not hamper each other, on the contrary, the presence of oxidation gas in the column can promote the transfer of hydrogen peroxide from organic phase to aqueous phase, thus the reaction efficiency and extraction efficiency increased with increasing gas superficial velocity. Furthermore, the oxidation efficiency is almost 100% and the extraction efficiency is higher than 90% in this process.

  20. Sulfur by-product formation in the Stretford process. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trofe, T.W.; DeBerry, D.W.

    1993-09-01

    Liquid redox sulfur recovery processes remove H2S from sour gas streams and produce elemental sulfur for sale or disposal. The Stretford Process is one of the oldest commercial liquid redox processes and it is based on a vanadium and anthraquinone redox system. Improvements in the operability and reliability of the Stretford process would be beneficial to the process user. The report presents results of research focused on developing an understanding of the process parameters and factors that impact sulfur by-product formation (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate) in the Stretford process. The information in the report can help current Stretford plant process users better understand the operations of their plants, especially with regards to sulfur by-product formation and control strategies.

  1. Spectroscopic study one thiosemicarbazone derivative with ctDNA using ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shaoguang; Wu, Qing; Shi, Lei; Cui, Fengling

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a thiosemicarbazone derivative (E)-2-((1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-yl)methylene)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide (DAFPT) was synthesized, and the interaction of DAFPT with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was explored using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe. The binding mode between DAFPT and ctDNA was investigated by UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of EB-ctDNA by DAFPT might be a combined quenching type. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the reaction was spontaneous. According to ionic strength, fluorescence polarization and melting temperature (T(m)) curve results, DAFPT-ctDNA interaction was groove binding. The molecular modeling results indicated that DAFPT could slide into the A-T rich region of ctDNA. PMID:23769721

  2. Proposal of an in silico profiler for categorisation of repeat dose toxicity data of hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, M D; Ates, G; Madden, J C; Vinken, M; Cronin, M T D; Rogiers, V; Enoch, S J

    2015-05-01

    This study outlines the analysis of 94 chemicals with repeat dose toxicity data taken from Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety opinions for commonly used hair dyes in the European Union. Structural similarity was applied to group these chemicals into categories. Subsequent mechanistic analysis suggested that toxicity to mitochondria is potentially a key driver of repeat dose toxicity for chemicals within each of the categories. The mechanistic hypothesis allowed for an in silico profiler consisting of four mechanism-based structural alerts to be proposed. These structural alerts related to a number of important chemical classes such as quinones, anthraquinones, substituted nitrobenzenes and aromatic azos. This in silico profiler is intended for grouping chemicals into mechanism-based categories within the adverse outcome pathway paradigm. PMID:24888375

  3. Components in Antineoplastic Actinomycete Strain(N2010-37)of Bottom Mud in Mangrove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-liu; JIN Bei; YIN Wen-qing; FU Chun-yan; FENG Hua-fen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the antitumor components from an actinomycete strain(N2010-37)of bottom mud in Zhanjiang Mangrove,South China Sea.Methods The components were isolated and purified by chromatographic techniques and recrystallization,and the structures were identified by spectral methods together with physicochemical analyses.The antitumor effects of these components were tested in vitro by MTT method.Results Three compounds were identified including two anthrones and one novel lactone.They are(3S,4R,7R,8R,9S)-3,8-dihydroxy-4,7,9-trimethyl-2,6-cyclononanediolacetone(1),2-hydroxy-l-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone(2),and 1,6,8-thihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone(3).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound,and compounds 1 and 3 show the favorablecytotoxic activities against human chronic granulocytic leukemia cell line K562 strain by MTT method in vitro.

  4. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  5. Effect of modification of polyacrylonitrile-based graphite felts on their performance in redox fuel cell and redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Qian, Guocai; Huang, Chengde; Wang, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical behavior of nitrogen-doped polyacrylonitrile (PAN) -based graphite felt prepared by three pretreatment methods for the reaction of Fe3+/Fe2+ was investigated. Then the effects of three pretreatment, including doped nitrogen, heat treatment and acid treatment, on the 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid (AQDS) electrochemical reaction activity of the PAN-based graphite felt were investigated and compared. The crystal structure, the surface morphology, and surface chemical composition of the PAN-based graphite felt were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray electron spectroscopy. The results of the electrochemical performance showed that the nitrogen content can influence the activity of PAN-based graphite felt in the reaction of Fe3+/Fe2+. Besides, the activity of PAN-based graphite felt in the AQDS electrochemical reaction was affected by the content of sbnd COOH group on the surface of graphite felt.

  6. Electrochemical Control of Single-Molecule Conductance by Fermi- Level Tuning and Conjugation Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghernejad, Masoud; Zhao, Xiaotao; Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël;

    2014-01-01

    Controlling charge transport through a single molecule connected to metallic electrodes remains one of the most fundamental challenges of nanoelectronics. Here we use electrochemical gating to reversibly tune the conductance of two different organic molecules, both containing anthraquinone (AQ......) centers, over >1 order of magnitude. For electrode potentials outside the redox-active region, the effect of the gate is simply to shift the molecular energy levels relative to the metal Fermi level. At the redox potential, the conductance changes abruptly as the AQ unit is oxidized....../reduced with an accompanying change in the conjugation pattern between linear and cross conjugation. The most significant change in conductance is observed when the electron pathway connecting the two electrodes is via the AQ unit. This is consistent with the expected occurrence of destructive quantum interference...

  7. Decolorization of mixtures of different reactive textile dyes by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete sordida and inhibitory effect of polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazono, Koichi; Nakamura, Kazunori

    2005-03-01

    We tried to decolorize mixtures of four reactive textile dyes, including azo and anthraquinone dyes, by a white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete sordida. P. sordida decolorized dye mixtures (200 mg l-1 each) by 90% within 48 h in nitrogen-limited glucose-ammonium media. Decolorization of dye mixtures needed Mn2+ and Tween 80 in the media. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) played a major role in dye decolorization by P. sordida. Decolorization of dye mixtures by P. sordida was partially inhibited by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that wastewaters from textile industries often contain. This was caused by an inhibitory effect of PVA on the decolorization of Reactive Red 120 (RR120) with MnP reaction system. Second addition of Tween 80 to the reaction mixtures in the presence of PVA improved the decolorization of RR120. These results suggest that PVA could interfere with lipid peroxidation or subsequent attack to the dye.

  8. Antiprotozoal activity of Senna racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J; Quijano, Leovigildo; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto

    2007-06-13

    Methanol extracts of leaves, roots and bark of Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) were tested for antiprotozooal activity against Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. All of the tested extracts showed good activity against both protozoa species. Extracts from stem bark and leaves were most active, with an IC(50) of 2.10 microg/mL for Giardia intestinalis and 3.87 microg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica. Of the previously isolated compounds from Senna racemosa, the piperidine alkaloid cassine had greater activity against Giardia intestinalis with an IC(50) of 3.28 microg/mL and chrysophanol, a 1,8-dihydroxy-anthraquinone, was the most active agent against Entamoeba histolytica, with an IC(50) of 6.21 microg/mL.

  9. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  10. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Qing-xia; WU; Hai-feng; GUO; Jian; NAN; Hai-jiang; CHEN; Shi-lin; YANG; Jun-shan; XU; Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  11. Spectrophotometeric determination of trace amounts of Al3+ ion in water samples after cloud point extraction using quinizarin as a complexing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Roghayeh

    2014-02-01

    In this study, cloud point extraction was used for the preconcentration of Al(3+) ion after the complex formation with 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (Quinizarin [QUIN]), and subsequent analysis by spectrophotometeric method, using Triton X-114 as surfactant. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions were studied (i.e., pH = 5.5, 0.1 mM QUIN, Triton X-114 = 0.1% (w/v)), and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection, linear range, preconcentration, and enrichment factors) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 3.33-166.67 ng ml(-1) of Al(3+) ion. The detection limit of the method was 2.09 ng ml(-1) for Al(3+) ion. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also tested. The method was applied to determine Al(3+) ion in water samples.

  12. Crystal structure of tetraaquabis(8-chloro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1-carboxylato-κO1cobalt(II dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Cai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Co(C15H6ClO42(H2O4]·2H2O, the CoII ion is bound by two carboxylate O atoms of two 5-chloro-9,10-anthraquinone-1-carboxylate anions and four water O atoms in a trans conformation, forming an irregular octahedral coordination geometry. This arrangement is stabilized by intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds between water and carboxylate. Further O—H...O hydrogen bonds between coordinating and non-coordinating water and carboxylate produce layers of molecules that extend parallel to (001. The organic ligands project above and below the plane. Those ligands of adjacent planes are interdigitated and there are π–π interactions between them with centroid–centroid distances of 3.552 (2 and 3.767 (2 Å that generate a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  13. The use of the fungus Dichomitus squalens for degradation in rotating biological contactor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Ceněk; Trošt, Nina; Šlušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Mikesková, Hana; Válková, Hana; Malachová, Kateřina; Pavko, Aleksander

    2012-06-01

    Biodegradation potential of Dichomitus squalens in biofilm cultures and rotating biological contactor (RBC) was investigated. The fungus formed thick biofilms on inert and lignocellulosic supports and exhibited stable activities of laccase and manganese peroxidase to reach 40-62 and 25-32% decolorization of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic phthalocyanine dyes, respectively. The decolorization ceased when glucose concentration dropped to 1 mmol l(-1). In RBC reactor, respective decolorizations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic Methylene Blue and Azure B dyes (50 mg l(-1)) attained 99%, 93%, and 59% within 7, 40 and 200 h. The fungus exhibited tolerance to coliform and non-coliform bacteria on rich organic media, the inhibition occurred only on media containing tryptone and NaCl. The degradation efficiency in RBC reactor, capability to decolorize a wide range of dye structures and tolerance to bacterial stress make D. squalens an organism applicable to remediation of textile wastewaters.

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Morinda officinalis Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Yan Zhang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ethanol extract from the root of Morinda Officinalis (RMO on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Administration of RMO extract increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca and OPG, decreased the levels of DPD/Cr, TRAP, ACTH and corticosterone, but did not reverse the levels of ALP, TNF-α and IL-6 in serum of ovariectomized rats. These findings demonstrated that RMO extract reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats, probably via the inhibition of bone resorption, but was not involved with bone formation. Anthraquinones and polysaccharides from Morinda officinals could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity, and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied. Therefore, RMO has the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent.

  15. A NEW PULP YIELD PREDICTION METHOD APPLIED TO KRAFT,KRAFT-AQ,POLYSULFIDE AND PSAQ PULPING OF ROCK MAPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriaan van Heiningen; Yang Gao; Mehmet Sefik Tunc

    2004-01-01

    Pulp yield has a major impact on the competitiveness of a mill. In order to optimize pulp yield, for example by changing operating conditions, a mill must be able to monitor the yield accurately. In our previous work,a new method was presented for prediction of pulp yield. The method is based on a fundamental relationship derived from the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis, peeling and stopping reactions of cellulose and the cellulose mass balance during pulping. In this paper the application of the pulp yield prediction equation for pulping of Rock Maple is investigated. The effect of different operating conditions, such as H-factor, temperature, alkali charge, sulfidity, and the presence of anthraquinone and polysulfide are described.

  16. A NEW PULP YIELD PREDICTION METHOD APPLIED TO KRAFT, KRAFT-AQ, POLYSULFIDE AND PSAQ PULPING OF ROCK MAPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdriaanvanHeiningen; YangGao; MehmetSefikTunc

    2004-01-01

    Pulp yield has a major impact on the competitiveness of a mill. In order to optimize pulp yield, for example by changing operating conditions, a mill must be able to monitor the yield accurately. In our previous work, a new method was presented for prediction of pulp yield. The method is based on a fundamental relationship derived from the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis, peeling and stopping reactions of cellulose and the cellulose mass balance during pulping. In this paper the application of the pulp yield prediction equation for pulping of Rock Maple is investigated. The effect of different operating conditions, such as H-factor, temperature, alkali charge, sulfidity, and the presence of anthraquinone and polysulfide are described.

  17. em cultura de células de melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vieira Berti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, extraction, isolation and characterization of plant derived active molecules that modulate cell viability are of great clinical and pharmacological interest. Phytochemical tests have been used to demonstrate the presence of several compounds both from the primary and secondary metabolism of Aloe vera L. Aloin, an anthraquinone isolated from the chlorophyll parenchyma of A. vera L, is known for its biological activity. The antitumoral activity of aloin and the chlorophyll parenchyma extract was evaluated in vitro with the use of murine melanoma cell line B16F10. Cells incubated with 5% CO 2 at 37ºC were treated with different aloin and parenchyma extract concentrations. Both affected cellular stability, acting as modulators of tumoral cell viability. Experimental data were fitted to a developed mathematical model. From the fitting parameters we concluded that the chlorophyll parenchyma extract is 2.3 times more toxic to the cell than aloin.

  18. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  19. Damnacanthal from the Congolese medicinal plant Garcinia huillensis has a potent preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibwe, Dya Fita; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Screening of eight Congolese medicinal plants showed that the CHCl(3) and MeOH extracts of Aframomum melegueta (PC(50)  = 47.8 µg/mL and 13.8 µg/mL, respectively) and CHCl(3) extracts of Garcinia huillensis (PC(50)  = 17.8 µg/mL) and Securidaca longepedunculata (PC(50)  = 23.4 µg/mL) had preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells under nutrient-deprived conditions. The active constituents of the CHCl(3) extract of G. huillensis were examined and 12 known anthraquinones were identified. Among them, damnacanthal (1) caused preferential necrotic cell death of PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells under nutrient-deprived and serum-sensitive conditions (PC(50)  = 4.46 µm and 3.77 µm, respectively). PMID:22447631

  20. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Laurera benguelensis growing in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Nedeljko T; Vasiljevic, Perica J; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Manojlovic, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metabolites of the lichen Laurera benguelensis. A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the characterization of xanthones and anthraquinones in extracts of this lichen. Lichexanthone, secalonic acid D, norlichexanthon, parietin, emodin, teloschistin and citreorosein were detected in the lichen samples, which were collected from two places in Thailand. Components of the lichen were identified by relative retention time and spectral data. This is the first time that a detailed phytochemical analysis of the lichen L. benguelensis was reported and this paper has chemotaxonomic significance because very little has been published on the secondary metabolites present in Laurera species. Some of the metabolites were detected for the first time in the family Trypetheliaceae. The results of preliminary testing of benzene extract and its chloroform and methanol fractions showed that all samples showed a weak radical scavenging activity. The chloroform extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:21031261

  1. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Laurera benguelensis growing in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Nedeljko T; Vasiljevic, Perica J; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Manojlovic, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metabolites of the lichen Laurera benguelensis. A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the characterization of xanthones and anthraquinones in extracts of this lichen. Lichexanthone, secalonic acid D, norlichexanthon, parietin, emodin, teloschistin and citreorosein were detected in the lichen samples, which were collected from two places in Thailand. Components of the lichen were identified by relative retention time and spectral data. This is the first time that a detailed phytochemical analysis of the lichen L. benguelensis was reported and this paper has chemotaxonomic significance because very little has been published on the secondary metabolites present in Laurera species. Some of the metabolites were detected for the first time in the family Trypetheliaceae. The results of preliminary testing of benzene extract and its chloroform and methanol fractions showed that all samples showed a weak radical scavenging activity. The chloroform extract showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  2. Inhibitory effects of morinda officinalis extract on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting; Wu, Yan-Bin; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ethanol extract from the root of Morinda Officinalis (RMO) on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Administration of RMO extract increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and OPG, decreased the levels of DPD/Cr, TRAP, ACTH and corticosterone, but did not reverse the levels of ALP, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum of ovariectomized rats. These findings demonstrated that RMO extract reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats, probably via the inhibition of bone resorption, but was not involved with bone formation. Anthraquinones and polysaccharides from Morinda officinals could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity, and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied. Therefore, RMO has the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent. PMID:19513005

  3. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex. PMID:26986231

  4. Electrochemical Reduction of Quinones in Different Media: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Guin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron transfer reactions involving quinones, hydroquinones, and catechols are very important in many areas of chemistry, especially in biological systems. The therapeutic efficiency as well as toxicity of anthracycline anticancer drugs, a class of anthraquinones, is governed by their electrochemical properties. Other quinones serve as important functional moiety in various biological systems like electron-proton carriers in the respiratory chain and their involvement in photosynthetic electron flow systems. The present paper summarizes literatures on the reduction of quinones in different solvents under various conditions using different electrochemical methods. The influence of different reaction conditions including pH of the media, nature of supporting electrolytes, nature of other additives, intramolecular or intermolecular hydrogen bonding, ion pair formation, polarity of the solvents, stabilization of the semiquinone and quinone dianion, catalytic property, and adsorption at the electrode surface, are discussed and relationships between reaction conditions and products formed have been presented.

  5. Potent triple helix stabilization by 5',3'-modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Gaied, Nouha; Zhao, Zhengyun; Gerrard, Simon R; Fox, Keith R; Brown, Tom

    2009-07-20

    Anthraquinone and pyrene analogues attached to the 3' and/or 5' termini of triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) by various linkers increased the stability of parallel triple helices. The modifications are simple to synthesize and can be introduced during standard solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. Potent triplex stability was achieved by using doubly modified TFOs, which in the most favourable cases gave an increase in melting temperature of 30 degrees C over the unmodified counterparts and maintained their selectivity for the correct target duplex. Such TFOs can produce triplexes with melting temperatures of 40 degrees C at pH 7 even though they do not contain any triplex-stabilizing base analogues. These studies have implications for the design of triplex-forming oligonucleotides for use in biology and nanotechnology. PMID:19554592

  6. Two new quinones from the roots of Juglans mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mei; Sun, Jinfeng; Li, Ren; Diao, Shengbao; Zhang, Changhao; Cui, Jiongmo; Son, Jong-Keun; Zhou, Wei; Li, Gao

    2016-09-01

    Two new quinones, 1-hydroxy-5-pentyl-anthraquinone (1) and 4-(5-hydroxy-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-naphthalen-2-ylamino)-butyric acid methyl ester (2), together with two known quinones, 5-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-ethylamino)-(1,4) naphthoquinone (3) and juglone (4) were isolated from the roots of Juglans mandshurica (Juglandaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data. Compound 3 was isolated from the Juglans genus for the first time. Compounds 1-4 exhibited significant cytotoxicity towards cultured MDA-MB231, HepG2 and SNU638 cells with IC50 values ranging from 4.46 to 88.47 μM.

  7. Probing electron-phonon excitations in molecular junctions by quantum interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, C; Della Rocca, M L; Barraud, C; Martin, P; Lacroix, J C; Markussen, T; Lafarge, P

    2016-02-11

    Electron-phonon coupling is a fundamental inelastic interaction in condensed matter and in molecules. Here we probe phonon excitations using quantum interference in electron transport occurring in short chains of anthraquinone based molecular junctions. By studying the dependence of molecular junction's conductance as a function of bias voltage and temperature, we show that inelastic scattering of electrons by phonons can be detected as features in conductance resulting from quenching of quantum interference. Our results are in agreement with density functional theory calculations and are well described by a generic two-site model in the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions formalism. The importance of the observed inelastic contribution to the current opens up new ways for exploring coherent electron transport through molecular devices.

  8. Characteristics and Kinetic Analysis of AQS Transformation and Microbial Goethite Reduction:Insight into "Redox mediator-Microbe-Iron oxide" Interaction Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weihuang; Shi, Mengran; Yu, Dan; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Tinglin; Wu, Fengchang

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and kinetics of redox transformation of a redox mediator, anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS), during microbial goethite reduction by Shewanella decolorationis S12, a dissimilatory iron reduction bacterium (DIRB), were investigated to provide insights into "redox mediator-iron oxide" interaction in the presence of DIRB. Two pre-incubation reaction systems of the "strain S12- goethite" and the "strain S12-AQS" were used to investigate the dynamics of goethite reduction and AQS redox transformation. Results show that the concentrations of goethite and redox mediator, and the inoculation cell density all affect the characteristics of microbial goethite reduction, kinetic transformation between oxidized and reduced species of the redox mediator. Both abiotic and biotic reactions and their coupling regulate the kinetic process for "Quinone-Iron" interaction in the presence of DIRB. Our results provide some new insights into the characteristics and mechanisms of interaction among "quinone-DIRB- goethite" under biotic/abiotic driven.

  9. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qing-xia; WU Hai-feng; GUO Jian; NAN Hai-jiang; CHEN Shi-lin; YANG Jun-shan; XU Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L.(Polygonaceae).Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarbroots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function.About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone,anthrone,stilbene,flavonoids,acylglucoside,and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic,diuretic,anticancer,hepatoprotective,anti-inflammatory,and analgesic effects,as well as toxicological effects.Chemical fingerprint,LC-MS,and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb.This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation,pharmacological activities,and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s.In addition,pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  10. Nutraceutical properties of Thai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareonchai Jeamchanya

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia Linn. is known in Thailand as "Yor" and commonly called "Noni" in Hawaii, Tahiti and USA. This paper reports the results of chemical analysis of Thai "Yor" (M. citrifolia juice extract. The juice from "Yor" fruit, was found to be high in vitamin C, vitamin B-complex contents (HPLC method, and was also high in anti-oxidants, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins and scopoletin (TLC method. Sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and selenium contents of the juice (AAS method are also reported. All the results of Thai "yor" juice are comparable to those of the commercially distributed 'Noni' juice. The Thai "Yor" juice was free of microorganisms and could safely be consumed in the recommended amount of 30 ml/day. The results of this study only apply to the Thai "Yor" juice preparation. The commercial "Noni" juice may be processed differently and may contain other ingredients.

  11. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  12. Invited: Tailoring Platinum Group Metals Towards Optimal Activity for Oxygen Electroreduction to H2o and H2O2: From Extended Surfaces to Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan

    2014-01-01

    , H2O2 is produced via the anthraquinone process, a complex, batch process, conducted in large scale facilities. The electrochemical production of H2O2 would enable on-site small scale production of hydrogen peroxide, closer to the point of consumption. The viability of the process would require......, including electrochemical measurements, ex-situ physicochemical characterisation techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy) and density functional theory calculations. 1. I. E. L. Stephens, A. S. Bondarenko, U....... Grønbjerg, J. Rossmeisl and I. Chorkendorff, Energy Environ. Sci., 5, 6744 (2012). 2. H. A. Gasteiger, S. S. Kocha, B. Sompalli and F. T. Wagner, Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 56, 9 (2005). 3. T. Toda, H. Igarashi, H. Uchida and M. Watanabe, J. Electrochem. Soc., 146, 3750 (1999). 4. C. H. Cui, L. Gan, M. Heggen...

  13. Nigrodiquinone A, a Hydroanthraquinone Dimer Containing a Rare C-9–C-7′ Linkage from a Zoanthid-Derived Nigrospora sp. Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Feng; Hou, Xue-Mei; Yang, Kai-Lin; Cao, Fei; Yang, Rui-Yun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Shao, Chang-Lun

    2016-01-01

    One new hydroanthraquinone dimer with a rare C-9–C-7′ linkage, nigrodiquinone A (1), and four known anthraquinone monomers 2–5, were isolated from a fungus Nigrospora sp. obtained from the zoanthid Palythoa haddoni collected in the South China Sea. The structure of 1 was established through extensive NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration was elucidated by comparing computed electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and optical rotations (OR) with experimental results. All the compounds were evaluated for antiviral activity, and 1 was also evaluated for antibacterial activity. Compound 4 displayed mild antiviral activity against coxsackie virus (Cox-B3) with the IC50 value of 93.7 μM, and 5 showed an IC50 value of 74.0 μM against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). PMID:27005638

  14. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers, when used together with hardwood (core fibers, gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A comparison of properties AS-AQ pulping processes with soda and kraft pulping processes of H. cannabinus, C. sativa, and H. sabdariffa was made. All the properties were found to be better than soda and kraft pulps except tear index. All of the mechanical strength properties of handsheets of AS-AQ pulp improved except tear index. Therefore, the AS-AQ pulping process can be considered as ideal for manufacturing of paper grades like greaseproof, glassine, and high-quality writing and printing paper.

  15. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  16. Library of UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra of modern organic dyes from historic pattern-card coloured papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Cristina; Bacci, Mauro; Bracci, Susanna; Freeman, Rachel; Picollo, Marcello

    2011-09-01

    An accurate characterisation of the organic dyes used in artworks, especially those made of paper, is an important factor in designing safe conservation treatments. In the case of synthetic organic dyes used in modern works of art, for example, one frequently encountered difficulty is that some of these dyes are not still commercially available. Recognizing this problem, the authors of this paper present the results of an analysis of UV-Vis-NIR fibre optic reflectance spectra of 82 samples of dyed paper prepared with 41 dyes. The samples come from a historic book, The Dyeing of Paper in the Pulp, which was published by Interessen-Gemeinschaft (I.G.) Farbenindustrie in 1925. The dyes used in the paper pulp belong to the azo compounds, acridine, anthraquinone, azine, diphenylmethane, indigoid, methine, nitro, quinoline, thiazine, triphenylmethane, sulphur and xanthene classes.

  17. Aristololactams and aporphines from the stems of Fissistigma oldhamii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Wei; Zhu, Shu; Shang, Ming-Ying; Zang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xuan; Bai, Yan-Jing; Li, Li; Komatsu, Katsuko; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-02-01

    Two aristololactams, aristololactam GI (1) and aristololactam GII (2), and three aporphines, fissistigamide A (3), fissistigamide B (4) and fissistigmine (5), together with nineteen known alkaloids, one flavone and one anthraquinone were isolated from the ethanol extracts of the stems of Fissistigma oldhamii (Annonaceae). Their structures were elucidated primarily by analysis of NMR, IR, UV, MS and CD data. Alkaloid 1 is a chiral aristololactam formed from a phenylpropanoid derivative attached to a 3,4-dihydroxy aristololactam scaffold. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by comparing experimental and calculated ECD spectra. The anti-inflammatory activity of the crude extracts and the five alkaloids were tested by measuring the amount of TNF-α and IL-6 released from LPS stimulated RAW264 cell via ELISA. The results demonstrated that the CHCl(3)-soluble part and alkaloid 2 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in both assays.

  18. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic-Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza; Bentien, Anders; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-06-13

    The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide-hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron-hole recombination. PMID:27151516

  19. Degradation of Synthetic Dyes by Laccases – A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legerská Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laccases provide a promising future as a tool to be used in the field of biodegradation of synthetic dyes with different chemical structures. These enzymes are able to oxidize a wide range of phenolic substrates without the presence of additional co-factors. Laccases have been confirmed for their potential of synthetic dye degradation from wastewater and degradation products of these enzymatic reactions become less toxic than selected dyes. This study discusses the potential of laccase enzymes as agents for laccase-catalyzed degradation in terms of biodegradation efficiency of synthetic dyes, specifically: azo dyes, triphenylmethane, indigo and anthraquinone dyes. Review also summarizes the laccase-catalyzed degradation mechanisms of the selected synthetic dyes, as well as the degradation products and the toxicity of the dyes and their degradation products.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance.

  1. Hedyotis diffusa water extract diminished the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy drugs against human breast cancer MCF7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiulin; Ling, Binbing; Gao, Bosong; Maley, Jason; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Yang, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Hedyotis diffusa is a Chinese herbal medicine widely used in combination with other herbal medicines such as Scutellaria barbata to treat various types of cancer. Late-stage and recurrent cancer patients usually use H. diffusa during chemotherapy in expecting to achieve additive or synergistic therapeutic effects. Several classes of active ingredients, including anthraquinones, iridoid glucosides and stigmasterols. have been isolated and characterized from H. diffusa. In the current study, we isolated alkaloid/flavonoid from H diffusa and showed that the crude alkaloid/flavonoid extract rather than its three major components possessed antitumor activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF7. Co-administration of H. diffusa water extract diminished the cytotoxicities of chemotherapy drugs doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and docetaxel towards the MCF7 cells, implicating that H. diffusa should not be used during breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25026725

  2. Pharmacognostic Studies on Indian Madder (Rubia cordifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Priya M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Indian Madder’ (Rubia cordifolia L. has wide range of pharmacological properties. In the present study, an attempt was made to identify the pharmacognostic features of various parts of R. cordifolia to differentiate it from adulterants. The organoleptic characters, proximate analysis, physio-chemical behavior of powders were recorded. The stomatal index, palisade ratio and ash value were shown to be characteristic under standard conditions. Opticalactivity of various R. cordifolia extracts under visible and UV light (254 nm and 366 nm were recorded. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of anthraquinone and other metabolites in different plant parts. Powder analysis showed trace red colour in root powder under most of the standard test conditions. Phytochemical and pharmacognostic records evolved in the present study can be used for framing standard parameters for the proper identification of raw materials of R. cordifolia.

  3. DISY. The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, a bridge for innovative applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzzoni, R.; Perego, C. [Eni S.p.A., Novara (Italy). Research Center for Non-Conventional Energies

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is largely recognized as the green oxidant of choice for future sustainable processes. The current industrial production still goes through the old anthraquinone process, a complex, two-step process suffering from a low specific productivity. Following the development of TS-1/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} based selective oxidation processes e.g. propylene epoxidation, cyclohexanone ammoximation and the new benzene direct oxidation to phenol, there has been an incentive for the development of a new technology, simpler and with better economics. DISY process, based on direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen, is highly suitable to the design of integrated selective oxidation processes as well as for production of commercial-grade high concentration aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions. Catalyst and process development up to pilot scale are described. (orig.)

  4. Isolation and extraction of ruberythric acid from Rubia tinctorum L. and crystal structure elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lauren; Rayner, Christopher M; Blackburn, Richard S

    2015-09-01

    Madder (Rubia tinctorum L.) has been exploited as a dye throughout history. The roots of the plant are very rich in the highly coloured glycosidic compounds ruberythric acid and lucidin primeveroside, alongside the corresponding aglycons which can be readily formed by deglycosylation, particularly during extraction. Supported by (1)H and (13)C NMR data, the conclusive X-ray crystal structure of the natural dye ruberythric acid is presented for the first time. The solid state structure revealed extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between the sugar moieties in the unit cell, but only intramolecular hydrogen bonding through the hydroxyquinone groups. There is also some additional π-π stacking from the anthraquinone moiety. PMID:26091962

  5. An MCBJ case study: The influence of π-conjugation on the single-molecule conductance at a solid/liquid interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Hong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available π-Conjugation plays an important role in charge transport through single molecular junctions. We describe in this paper the construction of a mechanically controlled break-junction setup (MCBJ equipped with a highly sensitive log I–V converter in order to measure ultralow conductances of molecular rods trapped between two gold leads. The current resolution of the setup reaches down to 10 fA. We report single-molecule conductance measurements of an anthracene-based linearly conjugated molecule (AC, of an anthraquinone-based cross-conjugated molecule (AQ, and of a dihydroanthracene-based molecule (AH with a broken conjugation. The quantitative analysis of complementary current–distance and current–voltage measurements revealed details of the influence of π-conjugation on the single-molecule conductance.

  6. Study on Dyeing of a Novel, Pro-environment Polylactic Acid (PLA) Fiber Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ke-jie; MIN Jie; LI Zheng-rong; YANG Li-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Seventeen disperse dyes including anthraquinone, azo, methine, nitro, and quinoline dyes were applied to dye the Polylactic Acid (PLA) yarns at different conditions, and the dyebath exhaustion was determined. The result shows that C.I. disperse red 167, C.I. disperse orange 30, and C.I. disperse blue 284 have dye-uptakes greater than 80%. Therefore, they can be used as the three principal dyes for PLA yams. The experiment discovered that the dyes, because of their Monoazo and ester group contents, have a higher dye-uptake for the PLA fiber. The research on the optimization of dyeing techniques suggests that PLA yarn can obtain a high level of dyeing effectiveness at the following conditions: pH 4-5, dyeing temperture 110℃ for 30- 40 min. Color fastness to perspiration, and water-washing fastness increased 1 - 1. 5 by the addition of the abstergent FB during the reduction clearing.

  7. Synthesis and fluorescence enhancement behavior of a novel fluorescent aqueous polyurethane emulsion DDAQ-TDI-PU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Hai Hu; Xing Yuan Zhang; Jia Bing Dai

    2012-01-01

    A novel fluorescent aqueous polyurethane emulsion DDAQ-TDI-PU was synthesized by blocking the anthraquinone moiety of 1,4-diamino-2,3-diphenoxyanthraquinone (DDAQ) into polyurethane chain using 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate (TDI),poly(propylene glycol) and 2,2-dimethylol propionic acid.The chain structure of DDAQ-TDI-PU was confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-vis analysis.Comparing to the UV-vis spectrum of DDAQ,DDAQ-TDI-PU showed a hypsochromic shift from the absorption maxima of 518,558,609 nm to 510,548,586 nm,respectively.It was found that the fluorescence intensity of DDAQ-TDI-PU emulsion was enhanced greatly comparing with that of DDAQ.The fluorescence of DDAQ-TDI-PU was very stable not only for the long term storage but also for the fluorescence quencher.

  8. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PATHYADI VARTI (PVN 1: A HERBOMINERAL FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Varun B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Present study evolves a systematic approach and to develop well designed methodologies for the standardization of Pathyadi varti (PVN 1, an Ayurvedic herbomineral formulation. The varti is consists of Pathya, Tuttha, Yashtimadhu and Maricha. The finished product was subjected to organoleptic study, microscopic characterization, physico-chemical screening, phyto-chemical analysis and HPTLC. The pharmacognostical evaluation shows fragments of mesocarp cells, sclereids, starch, stone cells and tannin content from Pathya (Haritaki; lignified fibers, fibers with crystals, prismatic crystals, pitted vessels, and larger starch grains of Yashtimadhu; simple fibers, beaker shaped stone cells and oil globules from Maricha. The Phytochemical analysis shows the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and anthraquinon glycosides. Spots obtained in HPTLC were found resembling spots of glycyrrhizin at Rf 0.27 and piperine at Rf 0.40 as reported in previous studies.

  9. 8-cyclopropyl-2'-deoxyguanosine: a hole trap for DNA-mediated charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jiun Ru; Shao, Fangwei

    2014-05-26

    DNA duplexes containing 8-cyclopropyl-2'-deoxyguanosine ((8CP) G) were synthesized to investigate the effect of the C8-modified deoxyguanosine as a kinetic trap for transient hole occupancy on guanines during DNA-mediated hole transport (HT). Thermal denaturation and CD spectra show that DNA duplexes containing (8CP) G are able to form stable B-form duplexes. Photoirradiation of terminal tethered anthraquinone can induce oxidative decomposition of (8CP) G through DNA HT along adenine tracts with lengths of up to 4.8 nm. Shallow and periodic distance dependence was observed in a long adenine tract with intervening guanines. The efficient charge transport indicates that (8CP) G can electronically couple well with a DNA bridge and form HT-active conformational domains to facilitate transient hole delocalization over an adenine tract. PMID:24764318

  10. SIMULTANEOUS REACTION AND LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION IN THE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShuxiangLǖ; LiWang; ZhentaoMi; YaquanWang

    2004-01-01

    The gas-liquid-liquid reactive extraction system for preparing hydrogen peroxide via anthraquinone was investigated. The oxidation reaction of hydrogenated working solution was combined with the extraction of hydrogen peroxide from working solution in a sieve plate column. The reaction of 2-ethylanthrahydroquionone with oxygen and the liquid-liquid extraction of hydrogen peroxide take place simultaneously. The oxygen was introduced with hydrogenated working solution through a nozzle in the bottom of the column, which worked as agitated air as well as oxidation reagent. The results showed the oxidation and extraction do not hamper each other, on the contrary, the presence of oxidation gas in the column can promote the transfer of hydrogen peroxide fi'om organic phase to aqueous phase, thus the reaction efficiency and extraction efficiency increased with increasing gas superficial velocity. Furthermore, the oxidation efficiency is almost 100% and the extraction efficiency is higher than 90% in this process.

  11. Synthesis of biological active thiosemicarbazone and characterization of the interaction with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wangshu; Shi, Lei; Hui, Guangquan [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Cui, Fengling, E-mail: fenglingcui@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The synthesis of a new biological active reagent, 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone) aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS), was designed. The interaction between DHAQTS and HSA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling under simulation of physiological conditions. According to the results of fluorescence measurements, the quenching mechanism was suggested to be static. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions are the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. The number of binding sites (n) was calculated. Through the site marker competitive experiment, DHAQTS was confirmed to be located in site I of HSA. The binding distance r=2.83 nm between the donor HSA and acceptor DHAQTS was obtained according to Foerster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results showed the conformation and microenvironment of HSA changed in the presence of DHAQTS. The effects of common ions on the binding of DHAQTS to HSA were also evaluated. The experimental results were in agreement with the results obtained via a molecular docking study. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone)aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DHAQTS can quench the fluorescence of human serum albumin (HSA) by static quenching mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophobic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The competitive experiment was carried out to identify the DHAQTS binding site on HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional spectra confirmed DHAQTS caused the conformational change of HSA.

  12. Synthesis of biological active thiosemicarbazone and characterization of the interaction with human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of a new biological active reagent, 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone) aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS), was designed. The interaction between DHAQTS and HSA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling under simulation of physiological conditions. According to the results of fluorescence measurements, the quenching mechanism was suggested to be static. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions are the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. The number of binding sites (n) was calculated. Through the site marker competitive experiment, DHAQTS was confirmed to be located in site I of HSA. The binding distance r=2.83 nm between the donor HSA and acceptor DHAQTS was obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results showed the conformation and microenvironment of HSA changed in the presence of DHAQTS. The effects of common ions on the binding of DHAQTS to HSA were also evaluated. The experimental results were in agreement with the results obtained via a molecular docking study. - Highlights: ► 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone)aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS) was synthesized. ► DHAQTS can quench the fluorescence of human serum albumin (HSA) by static quenching mechanism. ► Hydrophobic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces. ► The competitive experiment was carried out to identify the DHAQTS binding site on HSA. ► Three-dimensional spectra confirmed DHAQTS caused the conformational change of HSA.

  13. Functional characterization of a veA-dependent polyketide synthase gene in Aspergillus flavus necessary for the synthesis of asparasone, a sclerotium-specific pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Jeffrey W; Harris-Coward, Pamela Y; Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Di Mavungu, José Diana; Malysheva, Svetlana V; De Saeger, Sarah; Dowd, Patrick F; Shantappa, Sourabha; Martens, Stacey L; Calvo, Ana M

    2014-03-01

    The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus flavus, produces the toxic and carcinogenic, polyketide synthase (PKS)-derived family of secondary metabolites termed aflatoxins. While analysis of the A. flavus genome has identified many other PKSs capable of producing secondary metabolites, to date, only a few other metabolites have been identified. In the process of studying how the developmental regulator, VeA, affects A. flavus secondary metabolism we discovered that mutation of veA caused a dramatic down-regulation of transcription of a polyketide synthase gene belonging to cluster 27 and the loss of the ability of the fungi to produce sclerotia. Inactivation of the cluster 27 pks (pks27) resulted in formation of greyish-yellow sclerotia rather than the dark brown sclerotia normally produced by A. flavus while conidial pigmentation was unaffected. One metabolite produced by Pks27 was identified by thin layer chromatography and mass spectral analysis as the known anthraquinone, asparasone A. Sclerotia produced by pks27 mutants were significantly less resistant to insect predation than were the sclerotia produced by the wild-type and more susceptible to the deleterious effects of ultraviolet light and heat. Normal sclerotia were previously thought to be resistant to damage because of a process of melanization similar to that known for pigmentation of conidia. Our results show that the dark brown pigments in sclerotia derive from anthraquinones produced by Pks27 rather than from the typical tetrahydronapthalene melanin production pathway. To our knowledge this is the first report on the genes involved in the biosynthesis of pigments important for sclerotial survival. PMID:24412484

  14. The senna drug and its chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, G

    1993-10-01

    Senna consists of the dried leaflets or fruits of Cassia senna (C. acutifolia) known in commerce as Alexandrian senna and of Cassia angustifolia commonly known as Tinnevelly senna. The senna plants are small shrubs of Leguminosae cultivated either in Somalia, the Arabian peninsula and near the Nile river. Tinnevelly senna is obtained from cultivated plants mainly in South India and Pakistan. Owing to the careful way in which the plant is harvested, the leaflets of the drug are usually little broken. Damaged leaves and lower quality products are often used for making galenicals. The senna pods (fruits) are collected during the same period as the leaves, then dried and separated into various qualities. The active principle of Senna was first isolated and characterized by Stoll in 1941. The first two glycosides were identified and attributed to the anthraquinone family. These were found to be dimeric products of aloe emodin and/or rhein which were named sennoside A and sennoside B. They both hydrolyze to give the aglycones sennidin A and B and two molecules of glucose. Later work confirmed these findings and further demonstrated the presence of sennosides C and D. Small quantities of monomeric glycosides and free anthraquinones seem to be present as well. The active constituents of the pods are similar to those of the leaves but present in larger quantities. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxymusicin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside. Both compounds can be utilized to distinguish between the Alexandrian senna and the India senna, since tinnevellin glucoside is only found in the latter and the first only in the C. senna.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Integrated comparative metabolite profiling via MS and NMR techniques for Senna drug quality control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Porzel, Andrea; Mahrous, Engy A; El-Massry, Mo'men M; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-03-01

    Senna alexandrina Mill (Cassia acutifolia and Cassia angustifolia) are used for the laxative medicine Senna. Leaves and pods from two geographically different sources were distinguished from each other via proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis. Under optimized conditions, we were able to simultaneously quantify and identify 107 metabolites including 21 anthraquinones, 24 bianthrones (including sennosides), 5 acetophenones, 25 C/O-flavonoid conjugates, 5 xanthones, 3 naphthalenes, 2 further phenolics, and 9 fatty acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were used to define both similarities and differences among samples. For sample classification based on tissue type (leaf and pod), both UPLC-MS and NMR were found to be more effective in separation than on geographical origin. Results reveal that the amounts of the major classes of bioactives in Senna, i.e., flavonoids and sennosides, varied significantly among organs. Leaves contained more flavonoids and ω-3 fatty acids but fewer benzophenone derivatives than pods. In contrast, pods were more enriched in bianthrones (sennosides). PCA analysis was found to be equally effective in predicting the origin of the commercial Senna preparation using NMR and/or UPLC-MS datasets. Furthermore, a selection of six so far uninvestigated Senna species were analyzed by UPLC-MS. Results revealed that the Senna alata leaf in terms of secondary metabolite composition is the most closely related species to S. alexandrina Mill, showing the highest levels of the anthraquinone "rhein" and flavonoid conjugates. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first approach utilizing both UPLC-MS and NMR to reveal secondary metabolite compositional differences among Senna species.

  16. Basidiomycete DyPs: Genomic diversity, structural-functional aspects, reaction mechanism and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Dolores; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Guallar, Victor; Hammel, Kenneth E; Pogni, Rebecca; Martínez, Angel T

    2015-05-15

    The first enzyme with dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) activity was described in 1999 from an arthroconidial culture of the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. However, the first DyP sequence had been deposited three years before, as a peroxidase gene from a culture of an unidentified fungus of the family Polyporaceae (probably Irpex lacteus). Since the first description, fewer than ten basidiomycete DyPs have been purified and characterized, but a large number of sequences are available from genomes. DyPs share a general fold and heme location with chlorite dismutases and other DyP-type related proteins (such as Escherichia coli EfeB), forming the CDE superfamily. Taking into account the lack of an evolutionary relationship with the catalase-peroxidase superfamily, the observed heme pocket similarities must be considered as a convergent type of evolution to provide similar reactivity to the enzyme cofactor. Studies on the Auricularia auricula-judae DyP showed that high-turnover oxidation of anthraquinone type and other DyP substrates occurs via long-range electron transfer from an exposed tryptophan (Trp377, conserved in most basidiomycete DyPs), whose catalytic radical was identified in the H2O2-activated enzyme. The existence of accessory oxidation sites in DyP is suggested by the residual activity observed after site-directed mutagenesis of the above tryptophan. DyP degradation of substituted anthraquinone dyes (such as Reactive Blue 5) most probably proceeds via typical one-electron peroxidase oxidations and product breakdown without a DyP-catalyzed hydrolase reaction. Although various DyPs are able to break down phenolic lignin model dimers, and basidiomycete DyPs also present marginal activity on nonphenolic dimers, a significant contribution to lignin degradation is unlikely because of the low activity on high redox-potential substrates. PMID:25637654

  17. The correlation between bioactive components of Fallopia multiflora root and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han-Jing; Fang, Zhi-Jian; Fu, Jun; Yu, Shi-Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Harald, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used in treating dizziness. In this study, the samples of F. multiflora from ten different locations were collected, and five bioactive components (2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside, emodin, emodin-8-O-beta-D-glucoside, physcion and physcion-8-O-beta-D-glucoside) were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The correlations between 17 environmental factors and 5 bioactive components were analyzed. The results showed that the highest contents of bioactive components were in samples from Deqing, and the lowest in samples from Tianyang, which indicated that the quality of F. multiflora grown in Deqing was superior, while that grown in Tianyang was inferior. Emodin content was negatively correlated with the average temperature in January (p < 0.01) and the accumulated temperature (p < 0.01). Physician content was also negatively correlated with the average temperature in January (P < 0.01), the accumulated temperature (p < 0.05) and the organic matter (p < 0.05). However, emodin was positively correlated with the soil available K (p < 0.05) and Zn (p < 0.01). The results of stepwise regression showed that the accumulated temperature was the main factor influencing the contents of emodin and physcion. However, none of the environmental factors had significant correlation with 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside, emodin-8- O-beta-D-glucoside and physcion-8-O-beta-D-glucoside. In conclusion, some environmental factors have significant influence on the content of dissociated anthraquinones, while some have no influence on that of combined anthraquinones. PMID:20503466

  18. In vitro antibacterial efficacy of crude ethanolic leaf extract and alkaloidal fractions of phyllanthus amarus on URO-pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Joseph Akinjogunla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemistry and in vitro antibacterial efficacy of crude ethanolic leaf extract and alkaloidal fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on the Gram positive (Streptococcus sp, Staphylococcus aureus; Coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp and Enterococcus faecalis and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sp.; Serratia marcescens; Klebsiella sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from mid stream urine were carried out using standard microbiological and disc diffusion techniques. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic leaf extracts of P. amarus revealed the presence of phyto-constituents such as alkaloids (+++, tannins (+++, saponins (++, flavonoids (++, cardiac glycoside (+, free anthraquinones (++, deoxy-Sugar test (+ and phlobatanins (+, while combined anthraquinones was not detected. The results showed that P. amarus extracts exhibited varying degrees of inhibitory effects against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated from urine samples. Highest mean zones of inhibition (14.3+1.0 mm and activity index (0.97 were obtained at 40.0mgml-1 among the Gram positive bacteria, while the highest mean zones of inhibition (14.5 + 0.5mm and activity index (1.12 at 40.0mgml-1 were obtained among the Gram negative. The results also showed that Coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp (CS03 was not sensitive to both 20.0mg/ml-1 of crude extracts of P. amarus and alkaloidal fractions. Among the Gram negative, Enterobacter sp (ES03 was not sensitive to 20.0mg/ml-1 of crude extracts of P. amarus, alkaloidal fractions and Streptomycin. Therefore, there is a need to consider the use of this potent ethanolic leaf extracts and the alkaloids for developing synthetic drugs against uro-pathogens.

  19. An Inexpensive Aqueous Flow Battery for Large-Scale Electrical Energy Storage Based on Water-Soluble Organic Redox Couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B; Hoober-Burkhardt, L; Wang, F; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-05-21

    We introduce a novel Organic Redox Flow Battery (ORBAT), for Meeting the demanding requirements of cost, eco-friendliness, and durability for large-scale energy storage. ORBAT employs two different water-soluble organic redox couples on the positive and negative side of a flow battery. Redox couples such as quinones are particularly attractive for this application. No precious metal catalyst is needed because of the fast proton-coupled electron transfer processes. Furthermore, in acid media, the quinones exhibit good chemical stability. These properties render quinone-based redox couples very attractive for high-efficiency metal-free rechargeable batteries. We demonstrate the rechargeability of ORBAT with anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid on the negative side, and 1,2-dihydrobenzoquinone- 3,5-disulfonic acid on the positive side. The ORBAT cell uses a membrane-electrode assembly configuration similar to that used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Such a battery can be charged and discharged multiple times at high faradaic efficiency without any noticeable degradation of performance. We show that solubility and mass transport properties of the reactants and products are paramount to achieving high current densities and high efficiency. The ORBAT configuration presents a unique opportunity for developing an inexpensive and sustainable metal-free rechargeable battery for large-scale electrical energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.orgilicenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA-mediated oxidation of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kathryn N; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2014-06-01

    Transcription factor p53 is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer. As a redox-active protein in direct contact with DNA, p53 can directly sense oxidative stress through DNA-mediated charge transport. Electron hole transport occurs over long distances through the π-stacked bases and leads to the oxidative dissociation of p53. The extent of protein dissociation depends upon the redox potential of the DNA in direct contact with each p53 monomer. The DNA sequence dependence of p53 oxidative dissociation was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays using oligonucleotides containing both synthetic and human p53 consensus sequences with an appended photooxidant, anthraquinone. Greater p53 dissociation is observed from sequences containing low-redox potential purine regions, particularly guanine triplets. Using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of irradiated anthraquinone-modified DNA, the DNA damage sites corresponding to sites of preferred electron hole localization were determined. The resulting DNA damage preferentially localizes to guanine doublets and triplets. Oxidative DNA damage is inhibited in the presence of p53, but only at sites in direct contact with p53. From these data, predictions about the sensitivity of human p53-binding sites to oxidative stress as well as possible biological implications have been made. On the basis of our data, the guanine pattern within the purine region of each p53-binding site determines the response of p53 to DNA oxidation, yielding for some sequences the oxidative dissociation of p53 from a distance and thereby providing another potential role for DNA charge transport chemistry within the cell. PMID:24853816

  1. [Anaerobic reduction of humus/Fe (III) and electron transport mechanism of Fontibacter sp. SgZ-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen; Yang, Gui-qin; Lu, Qin; Zhou, Shun-gui

    2014-09-01

    Humus and Fe(III) respiration are important extracellular respiration metabolism. Electron transport pathway is the key issue of extracellular respiration. To understand the electron transport properties and the environmental behavior of a novel Fe(III)- reducing bacterium, Fontibacter sp. SgZ-2, capacities of anaerobic humus/Fe(III) reduction and electron transport mechanisms with four electron acceptors were investigated in this study. The results of anaerobic batch experiments indicated that strain SgZ-2 had the ability to reduce humus analog [ 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS)], humic acids (HA), soluble Fe(III) (Fe-EDTA and Fe-citrate) and Fe(III) oxides [hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)]. Fermentative sugars (glucose and sucrose) were the most effective electron donors in the humus/Fe(III) reduction by strain SgZ-2. Additionally, differences of electron carrier participating in the process of electron transport with different electron acceptors (i. e. , oxygen, AQS, Fe-EDTA and HFO) were investigated using respiratory inhibitors. The results suggested that similar respiratory chain components were involved in the reducing process of oxygen and Fe-EDTA, including dehydrogenase, quinones and cytochromes b-c. In comparison, only dehydrogenase was found to participate in the reduction of AQS and HFO. In conclusion, different electron transport pathways may be employed by strain SgZ-2 between insoluble and soluble electron acceptors or among soluble electron acceptors. Preliminary models of electron transport pathway with four electron acceptors were proposed for strain SgZ-2, and the study of electron transport mechanism was explored to the genus Fontibacter. All the results from this study are expected to help understand the electron transport properties and the environmental behavior of the genus Fontibacter.

  2. Review on the Research of the Components, Pharmacological Actions and Toxicity of Polygonum Multiflorum Thunb(Heshouwu)%何首乌成分、药理及毒副作用相关的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼招欢; 吕圭源; 俞静静

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] To sum up researches on components, pharmacological actions and toxicity of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb(Heshouwu). [Method] The research reference about Heshouwu in CNKI, VIP and PUBMAD database is col ected and calssified to three aspects on components, pharmacological actions and toxicity.[Result]①On components:Heshouwu contains stilbene, lecithin, anthraquinone, flavonoids, tannin and trace elements. The stilbene and anthraquinone are the mainly active components. Producing area, growth years, harvest time and processing methods are factors affecting the content of the components such as TSG in Heshouwu; Macroporous adsorption resin is the main separation method for preconcentration of TSG and anthraquinone constituents; ② On pharmacological actions and toxicity: Heshouwu has effects of hypolipidemic and liver protection, antioxidative, anti-osteoporosi, hpyerglycemic, antidepressive and antibiosis, the hypolipidemic and liver protection are the main effects which have been studied more. A reversible liver injury which displays as abnormal liver function parameter and bile metabolic disorder would be induced if the Heshouwu is administrated with a large dosage for long term. The possible components which would induce the toxicity in Heshouwu are tannin and anthraquinone, and the anthraquinone is the component with double effects of toxicity and therapy which should be considered in clinical application. [Conclusion]Reducing lipid and protecting liver is the main pharmaceutical function of the herb. As a commonly used Chinese herb for liver protection, the studies on alcoholic hepatic injury protection of Heshouwu may be a point for the researchers to focus on. The comparison studies on hypolipidemic and liver protection between Hesouwu and its processing products, and the correlations between components and pharmacological actions are worth study further.%[目的]总结何首乌在成分、药理和毒副作用方面的研究情况。[方法]查

  3. 荞麦七提取物对肺癌A549细胞增殖及凋亡的影响%Effects of Fagopyrum cymosum extracts on proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cell line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 王晓梅; 杨春娟; 刘帆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Fagopyrum cymosum extracts on proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer cell line A549. Methods A549 lung cancer cells were processed with aqueous extracts and anthraquinone of Fagopyrum cymosum. Cell viability was detected by trypan blue staining. The inhibition rate of cell proliferation was detected by MTT. The protein expression levels of Csapase 9 and P53 were detected by immunohis-tochemical method. Results The inhibition effects of Fagopyrum cymosum aqueous extracts on lung cancer cell line A549 increased along with higher concentration of the extracts. The inhibition rate at 72 h was significantly higher than the rates at 24 h and 48 h, while there were no significant differences in inhibition rates among the three con-centrations of Fagopyrum cymosum anthraquinone. The induction on Csapase 9 and inhibition on P53 by both extracts were enhanced with the increase of concentration. Conclusion The aqueous extracts and anthraquinone of Fagopy-rum cymosum can inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer cell line A549 and induce their apoptosis, with the underlying mechanism possibly related to the up-regulation of Caspase 9 and down-regulation of P53.%目的:研究荞麦七提取物对人肺癌A549细胞增殖及凋亡的影响。方法应用荞麦七水提物及荞麦七蒽醌处理肺癌A549细胞,锥虫蓝染色法检测细胞存活率,MTT法检测细胞增殖抑制率,免疫细胞化学法检测Caspase 9和P53蛋白表达水平。结果荞麦七水提取物对肺癌A549细胞增殖的抑制作用随浓度而增强,72 h的抑制率明显较24 h及48 h强,荞麦七蒽醌3种浓度的抑制率之间差异不大。2种提取物对Caspase 9的诱导作用均随着浓度的增大而增强,对P53的抑制作用也随着浓度的增大而增强。结论荞麦七水提物及蒽醌能抑制人肺癌A549细胞的增殖,并诱导其凋亡,其机制可能与上调Caspase 9的表达及下调P53的表达有关。

  4. Secondary Metabolites of Marine-derived Fungus Penicillium oxalicum SCSGAF 0023 and Their Antifouling and Enzyme-inhibitory Activities%海洋真菌Penicillium oxalicum SCSGAF 0023的次生代谢产物及其抗污损和酶抑制活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉林; 陈茵; 徐新亚; 张晓勇; 郑智慧; 农旭华; 鲍洁; 漆淑华

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen compounds were isolated from marine-derived fungus Penicillium oxalicum SCSGAF 0023 strain. They were identified to be n-butyl isobutyl terephthalate (1) , dibutyl terephthalate (2) , 1, 3,7-trihydroxy-6-methylanthra-quinone(3), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-anthraquinone (4), isorhodoptilometrin (5), citreorosein (6), emodin (7) , methyl-3,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-9- oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (8) , pinselin (9) , secalonic acid D (10) , quinolactacin C,(11) , quinolactacin C2(12) , quinolactacin A1 (13) , quinolactacin A2 (14) , quinolactacin B1 (15) , and 3-methyl-lH-indole-2-carboxylic acid (16) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literatures. Compound 1 was a new natural product. Compounds 5 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity with EC50 values of 3. 8 and 6. 0 μg/ml, respectively. Compound 10 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against PTPIB with IC50 value of 24.0 μM, and 15 showed moderate inhibitory activity against cathepsin B with IC50 value of 16.0 μM.%利用pTLC、硅胶、Sephadex LH-20及半制备HPLC等柱色谱手段,从海洋真菌Penicillium oxalicum SCSGAF 0023的次生代谢产物中分离得到16个化合物,波谱学数据分析鉴定为n-butyl isobutyl terephthalate(1),dibutyl terephthalate(2),1,3,7-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone(3),1,6,7-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-anthraquinone (4),isorhodoptilometrin (5),citreorosein (6),emodin (7),methyl-3,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (8),pinselin (9),secalonic acid D(10),quinolactacin C1(11),quinolactacin C2(12),quinolactacin A1 (13),quinolactacin A2 (14),quinolactacin B1(15),3-methyl-IH-indole-2-carboxylic acid (16).其中,化合物1为新天然产物,化合物5和7表现出强的抗草苔虫幼虫附着活性,EC50值分别为3.8和6.0 μ.g/mL;化合物10和15分别对PTPIB和cathepsin B显示中等的酶抑制活性,IC50值分别为24.0和16.0 μM.

  5. Relationship between therapeutic efficacy of arterial infusion chemotherapy and expression of P-glycoprotein and p53 protein in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahide Akimoto; Masaharu Yoshikawa; Masaaki Ebara; Tsunenobu Sato; Hiroyuki Fukuda; Fukuo Kondo; Hiromitsu Saisho

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the chemotherapeutic drug efficacy and the expression of P-glycoprotein (PGP) and p53 protein in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: The study was conducted on 41 patients with advanced HCC who were treated by repeated arterial infusion chemotherapy. Biopsy specimens from the tumor were collected before the start of treatment in all the patients, and the specimens were stored frozen until immunohistochemical staining, which was performed after the start of treatment, to detect PGP and p53 protein expressions. Twenty of the fortyone patients were treated with an anthracycline drug (epirubicin hydrochloride; anthracycline group), and the remaining 21 were treated with a non-anthracycline drug (mitoxantrone hydrochloride in 11 patients and carboplatin in 10 patients; non-anthracycline group). The relationship between the chemotherapeutic efficacy and the results of immunostaining were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: Before the start of the treatment, PGPpositive rate was 90.2% (strongly-positive, 36.6%) and p53 protein-positive rate was 34.1% (strongly-positive,19.5%). In the anthracycline group, the response rate was 40.0%. The number of patients showing poor response to the treatment was significantly larger in the patients with strongly positive PGP expression (P= 0.005),and their prognoses were poor (P=0.001). In the nonanthracycline group, the response rate was 42.9%,and there was no significant relationship between the chemotherapeutic drug efficacy and the PGP or p53protein expression. When only the data from the 11patients treated with anthraquinone drug, mitoxantrone,were analyzed, however, the number of patients who showed poor response to treatment was significantly higher among the p53-positive patients (P=0.012),irrespective of the survival outcome.CONCLUSION: The chemotherapeutic efficacy with an anthracycline drug for advanced HCC can be predicted by immunohistochemical analysis of PGP

  6. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Liang Cui; Sheng Zhang; Zhao-Tao Tian; Zhao-Fen Lin; De-Chang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background:Intact endothelial structure and function are critical for maintaining microcirculatory homeostasis.Dysfunction of the latter is an underlying cause of various organ pathologies.In a previous study,we showed that rhubarb,a traditional Chinese medicine,protected intestinal mucosal microvascular endothelial cells in rats with metastasizing septicemia.In this study,we investigated the effects and mechanisms of rhubarb on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)-induced vascular endothelial (VE) permeability.Methods:Rhubarb monomers were extracted and purified by a series of chromatography approaches.The identity of these monomers was analyzed by hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),carbon-13 NMR,and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy.We established a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer on a Transwell insert.We measured the HUVEC permeability,proliferation,and the secretion of VE-cadherin into culture medium using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay,3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,respectively,in response to treatment with MMP9 and/or rhubarb monomers.Results:A total of 21 rhubarb monomers were extracted and identified.MMP9 significantly increased the permeability of the HUVEC monolayer,which was significantly reduced by five individual rhubarb monomer (emodin,3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid,1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose,daucosterol linoleate,and rhein) or a combination of all five monomers (1 μmol/L for each monomer).Mechanistically,the five-monomer mixture at 1 μmol/L promoted HUVEC proliferation.In addition,MMP9 stimulated the secretion of VE-cadherin into the culture medium,which was significantly inhibited by the five-monomer mixture.Conclusions:The rhubarb mixture of emodin,3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid,1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl

  7. Composition analysis of solid residues from p-xylene low-temperature oxidation process%对二甲苯低温氧化工艺的固体残渣成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭革; 郭霞; 成有为; 李希

    2011-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱、气相色谱、气质联用仪与紫外分光光度计对低温氧化工艺的固体残渣的成分进行了定性和定量分析.结果表明:过滤残渣中约90%为对苯二甲酸,脱色后即可回收利用;萃取残渣中主要是苯甲酸、对甲基苯甲酸、间苯二甲酸.2种残渣中可回收的对苯二甲酸占75%左右.有色杂质的主要成分是芴酮酸、二苯环羧酸和蒽醌酸类,对产品色度影响最大的是蒽醌酸,其次是芴酮酸和二苯环羧酸.按照芴酮4-羧酸的吸光度计算的过滤残渣中有色杂质总浓度为10-3量级.%The composition of solid residues from p -xylene low-temperature oxidation was anlayzed qualitatively and quantitatively by high-efficiency liquid-phase chromatography, gas-phase chromatography, gas-phase chromatography and gas chromatog-raphy-mass spectrography. The results showed that terephthalic acid accounted for about 90% in the-filtration residue, which can be recycled after decoloration; and the extraction residue dominantly comprised benzoic acid, p -toluic acid and isophthalic acid. About 75% of these two residues was the recoverable terephthalic acid. The coloured residues dominantly included anthraquinone dicarboxylic acid, flurenone dicarboxylic acid and dibenzyl carboxylic acid, among which anthraquinone dicarboxylic acid offered the most remarkable effect on the product color index and flurenone dicarboxylic acid and dibenzyl carboxylic acid took the second place. The concentration of coloured impurities in the filtration residue reached a magnitude of 10 ~3 , characterized by flurenone-4-carboxylic acid spectrophotometry absorbance.

  8. 基于氧硫功能团载体的铅离子电位传感器的研究与进展%Development of Potentiometric Lead Ion Sensors Based on Ionophores Bearing Oxygen/Sulfur Functional Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄美荣; 谷国利; 施凤英; 李新贵

    2012-01-01

    系统总结归纳了基于氧硫功能团载体的铅离子电位传感器,具体涉及到蒽醌、芳羧酸、羧酸酯、磷酸酯和含酰胺、硫酰胺大环化合物等.蒽醌类载体普遍具有较快的铅离子响应速度,响应时间为2s.含硫芳香羧酸对铅离子的传感普遍较为敏感,构建不对称膜后,探检出限改善至6.0× 10-10 mol/L.磷酸酯则具有很强的抗干扰能力,大部分金属离子选择系数logK均小于-3.0.而含酰胺基团的大环化合物载体已构建成微型传感器,从而可探测受限于3 μL测量池的样品,检出限达2.7×10-9 mol/L.%Potentiometric Pb(Ⅱ) sensors based on oxygen/sulfur functional groups-bearing ionophores, including anthraquinone, aromatic carboxylic acid, carboxylate, phosphate and macrocyclic compounds containing amide or thioamide groups, are systematically summarized. Anthraquinone is found to be quickly responsive ionophores to lead ions with the shortest response time of down to 2 s. Aromatic carboxylic acid with sulfur atom as an ionophore in an asymmetric membrane sensitively responds to lead ions with detection limit of 6. 0 X 10 -10 mol/L. Phosphate has advantage of better anti-interference ability with the selective coefficient logK of smaller than 3. 0. The macrocyclic amide compound as ionophore has been assembled into microelectrode for sensing confined sample in a 3-μL measuring cell with a superior lower detection limit of 2. 7X10-9 mol/L.

  9. A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskinson, Brian; Marshak, Michael P.; Suh, Changwon; Er, Süleyman; Gerhardt, Michael R.; Galvin, Cooper J.; Chen, Xudong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Gordon, Roy G.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    As the fraction of electricity generation from intermittent renewable sources--such as solar or wind--grows, the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy is of increasing importance. Solid-electrode batteries maintain discharge at peak power for far too short a time to fully regulate wind or solar power output. In contrast, flow batteries can independently scale the power (electrode area) and energy (arbitrarily large storage volume) components of the system by maintaining all of the electro-active species in fluid form. Wide-scale utilization of flow batteries is, however, limited by the abundance and cost of these materials, particularly those using redox-active metals and precious-metal electrocatalysts. Here we describe a class of energy storage materials that exploits the favourable chemical and electrochemical properties of a family of molecules known as quinones. The example we demonstrate is a metal-free flow battery based on the redox chemistry of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid (AQDS). AQDS undergoes extremely rapid and reversible two-electron two-proton reduction on a glassy carbon electrode in sulphuric acid. An aqueous flow battery with inexpensive carbon electrodes, combining the quinone/hydroquinone couple with the Br2/Br- redox couple, yields a peak galvanic power density exceeding 0.6Wcm-2 at 1.3Acm-2. Cycling of this quinone-bromide flow battery showed >99 per cent storage capacity retention per cycle. The organic anthraquinone species can be synthesized from inexpensive commodity chemicals. This organic approach permits tuning of important properties such as the reduction potential and solubility by adding functional groups: for example, we demonstrate that the addition of two hydroxy groups to AQDS increases the open circuit potential of the cell by 11% and we describe a pathway for further increases in cell voltage. The use of π-aromatic redox-active organic molecules instead of redox-active metals represents a new and

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ALOE VERA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariappan V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was made to attempt the antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of Aloe vera L (babosa. The antimicrobial activity method was using Muller and Hinton agar Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO was used. The Overnight incubated bacterial culture, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebshiella sp, Salmonella sp, Shigella sonie, S. spidermiods. In phytochemical studies, the leaf extract were analysed for the flavonoids, pholabatannis, glycosides, phenols, catachol, resins, saponins, lipids and fats, tannis, acidic compounds, terpenoids, reducing sugars, anthraquinone, carbohydrates, steroids, and sterols etc. In analysis of Tannin compounds brownish green colour developed to indicate the presence of Tannin. In this screening process Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoids and Terpenoids compounds revealed positive resultsAntibacterial activity of A.vera was analysed against E.coli, Enterobacter aerogens, Staphylococcus sp, Proteus mirabilus, Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sonie, Salmonella sp, S. spidermiods, Klebshiella sp. Among the three bacterial organisms maximum growth suppression was observed in Staphylococcus sp, Enterobacter aerogens and Klebsiella sp. Anti bacterial activity of A.vera was analysed against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. A.vera leaf gel can inhibit the growth of two gram positive bacteria Shigella flexneri and Streptococcus pyogenes. Specific plant compounds such as anthroquinones and dihydroxy anthroquinones as well as Saponins have been proposed to have direct antimicrobial activity.The antioxidant activity of A.vera leaf and gel extract by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay method. The antioxyactivity of A.vera leaf and gel aqueous extract was determined at the concentration (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 µg/ml and IC 50 was calculated. In, DNA protective activity of A.vera on blood DNA against free

  11. Antibacterial activities and structure-activity relationships of a panel of 48 compounds from Kenyan plants against multidrug resistant phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omosa, Leonidah K; Midiwo, Jacob O; Mbaveng, Armelle T; Tankeo, Simplice B; Seukep, Jackson A; Voukeng, Igor K; Dzotam, Joachim K; Isemeki, John; Derese, Solomon; Omolle, Ruth A; Efferth, Thomas; Kuete, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In the current study forty eight compounds belonging to anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, benzoquinones, flavonoids (chalcones and polymethoxylated flavones) and diterpenoids (clerodanes and kauranes) were explored for their antimicrobial potential against a panel of sensitive and multi-drug resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations on the tested bacteria were conducted using modified rapid INT colorimetric assay. To evaluate the role of efflux pumps in the susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria to the most active compounds, they were tested in the presence of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN) (at 30 µg/mL) against selected multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria. The anthraquinone, emodin, naphthaquinone, plumbagin and the benzoquinone, rapanone were active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of bacteria with MIC values ranging from 2 to 128 μg/mL. The structure activity relationships of benzoquinones against the MDR Gram-negative phenotype showed antibacterial activities increasing with increase in side chain length. In the chalcone series the presence of a hydroxyl group at C3' together with a methoxy group and a second hydroxyl group in meta orientation in ring B of the chalcone skeleton appeared to be necessary for minimal activities against MRSA. In most cases, the optimal potential of the active compounds were not attained as they were extruded by bacterial efflux pumps. However, the presence of the PAβN significantly increased the antibacterial activities of emodin against Gram-negative MDR E. coli AG102, 100ATet; K. pneumoniae KP55 and KP63 by >4-64 g/mL. The antibacterial activities were substantially enhanced and were higher than those of the standard drug, chloramphenicol. These data clearly demonstrate that the active compounds, having the necessary pharmacophores for antibacterial activities, including some quinones and chalcones are

  12. 壮药土甘草化学成分预试研究%Preliminary Study on Chemical Components of Derris eriocarpa How

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田辉; 崔健; 蒋嫦月; 杨志丽

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过预试实验,对壮药土甘草的化学成分进行初步研究.方法:采用化学反应鉴别法,对壮药土甘草的水提液、乙醇提取液进行化学成分研究.结果:通过预实验,氨基酸、多肽、蛋白质、糖、多糖、苷类、皂苷、有机酸、黄酮、蒽醌、强心苷、植物甾醇、三萜、酚类均产生正反应现象,其余产生负反应现象.结论:实验结果表明,土甘草含有氨基酸、多肽、蛋白质、糖、多糖、苷类、皂苷、有机酸、黄酮、蒽醌、强心苷、植物甾醇、三萜、酚类等化学成分.为土甘草活性成分进一步研究提供了理论基础.%Objective: To study the chemical constituents of Derris eriocarpa How.by preliminary test. Methods: The mixtures were extracted from Derris eriocarpa How. with purified water,95% ethanol by chemical reaction identification method. Results: Through preliminary test, the chemical components of amino acids, polypeptide, protein, saceharide, polysaccharide, glycoside, saponin, organic acid, flavone, anthraquinone, cardiac glycoside, phytosterin, triterpene and phenols were positive reactions and others were negative reactions. Conclusion: The preliminary test indicate that Derris eriocarpa How.may contain effective components such as amino acids, polypeptide, protein, saceharide, polysaccharide, glycoside, saponin, organic acid, flavone, anthraquinone, cardiac glycoside, phytosterin, triterpene and phenols. The research provides foundation for further study of the chemical compositions and biological activities of Derris eriocarpa How.

  13. 氨基蒽醌衍生物的合成及其用作锂电池正极材料的电化学性能%Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of Aminoanthraquinone Derivative as Cathode Materials in Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 王安邦; 王维坤; 余仲宝; 陈实; 杨裕生

    2012-01-01

    合成了两种新型的有机正极材料——5-氨基-2,3-二氢-1,4-二羟基蒽醌(ADDAQ)和5-氨基-1,4-二羟基蒽醌(ADAQ),用核磁氢谱(1H-NMR)、质谱(MS)、元素分析(EA)、傅里叶红外(FTIR)光谱、紫外-可见(UV-Vis)光谱等方法对材料进行了表征,应用恒流充放电(GD/C)、循环伏安法(CV)、交流阻抗(EIS)等测试手段对材料的电化学性能进行了测试.实验结果表明:相比ADDAQ,ADAQ首次放电容量和循环性能都有显著提高.ADAQ的首次放电比容量为185 mAh· g-1,50次循环之后容量为93 mAh·g-1.并讨论了ADDAQ和ADAQ电化学性能差异的原因.%Two novel organic compounds, 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone (ADDAQ) and 5-amino-1,4-dyhydroxy anthraquinone (ADAQ), were synthesized as cathode materials for lithium batteries. The compounds were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS), elemental analysis (EA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of the compounds was investigated by galvanostatic discharge/charge (GD/C) measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). Compared with ADDAQ, the initial discharge specific capacity and cycle performance of ADAQ were effectively improved. The initial discharge specific capacity of ADAQ was 185 mAh·g-1, after 50 cycles, the specific capacity was maintained at 93 mAh·g-1. A reason for this improvement is discussed.

  14. An in vitro and in vivo toxicologic evaluation of a stabilized aloe vera gel supplement drink in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-05-01

    Aloe vera gel is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of a stabilized aloe vera gel derived from the inner gel fillet and marketed as a drink. The gel juice was assessed through assays of genotoxicity in vivo and acute and subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. Aloe vera did not increase the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli and at 1× and 0.25× it did not increase mutagenesis of Salmonella TA100 resulting in histidine biosynthesis. At 3 and 14days following acute exposure, male and female mice gavaged with the stabilized aloe gel had daily appearances, total body weight gain, selected organ weights, necropsy and hematology tests similar to control mice gavaged with water. After a 13-week aloe gel feed study, male and female mice evaluated by the same criteria as the acute study plus feed consumption and serum chemistry tests were found to be equivalent to control groups. These data indicate that a commercial stabilized aloe gel consumed as a beverage was not genotoxic or toxic in vivo. These results contrast with those obtained using preparations containing aloe latex phenolic compounds such as anthraquinones.

  15. Progress of the basic Research and Application Research of the Aloe Leaves%芦荟属植物叶基础与应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶胜明

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the research progress of aloe from the structure of aloe vera leaves,its chemical composition,function and application research.The main chemical components of aloe is anthraquinones and their derivatives,etc.Its main function is that it can make people more beautiful and healthier,inhibit bacterial breeding,reduce people's blood fat,and resist tumors.Now the products of aloe can be divided into three categories: health food,medicines and cosmetics.%从芦荟叶片的结构、化学成分、功效、应用性研空四个方面来阐述芦荟的研究进展。芦荟的主要活性成分为蒽醌类及其衍生物等,其主要的功效包括美容、保健、抑菌、降血脂、抗肿瘤等,目前芦荟开发出来的产品可分为三大类,分别是保健食品类、药品类和化妆品类。

  16. Developing an Absorption-Based Quality Control Method for Hu-Gan-Kang-Yuan Capsules by UFLC-QTOF-MS/MS Screening and HPLC-DAD Quantitative Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fenghuan; Chen, Minting; Luo, Chaohua; Chen, Feilong; Shen, Qun; Mo, Zhixian

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparations (TCMPs) contain massive numbers of ingredients responsible for their multiple efficacies. An absorption-based quality control method for complicated TCMPs using Hu-gan-kang-yuan Capsule (HGKYC) as an example was developed. To select proper chemical markers for quality control of HGKYC, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-off light mass spectrometry (UFLC-QTOF-MS/MS) method was used for the rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in the HGKYC extract and the rat serum after oral administration of HGKYC. As a result, one hundred and seven prototype constituents including flavonoids, organic acid, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, saponins, alkaloids, terpenes, phenols and amino acids in HGKYC extract, and 43 compounds found in rat serum after oral administration of HGKYC were unambiguously identified or tentatively characterized by comparing retention times and MS information with those of authentic standards or available literature references. Finally, a simple, low-cost and effective method of simultaneous determination for baicalein, wogonin, paeonol and emodin in HGKYC was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector. In conclusion, an absorption-based quality control pattern was developed and successfully used for evaluating HGKYC. PMID:27213308

  17. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses. PMID:23652639

  18. Phytochemicals with radioprotection and radio-sensitizing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA damage and are harmful to mankind. They act through free radical generation, which target the double bonds of all cellular macromolecules. The radiation damage may be classified as probabilistic or deterministic, depending on the dose of radiation exposure. Since radiation affects multiple organs so those drugs which protect many organs, would be more beneficial. In this process herbal extracts, which are cocktail of several phyto-chemicals, would be more promising. Initially sulphur containing bio-molecules were identified as radio-protector, but now many secondary metabolites from plant kingdom, have been reported to be radio-protective. They have different mechanism of action, but most of them either prevent the FR induced DNA damage or accelerate the DNA repair process. Aminofostine, WR-2721, 159243, 2926 are some of the examples. However they have limited use because of associated cytotoxicity. Eicosanoids, topoisornerase inhibitors (e.g. camptothecin, topotecan), and the hypoxia-activated anthraquinone AQ4N have shown radioprotecting potential. Several plant products, derived from Tulsi, Vinca alkaloids, taxans, turmeric, Rubia cordifolia, Semecarpus anacardium and several plants rich in polyphenols and flavones have shown hemotherapeutic potential. Similarly, Hippophae, rhodiola imbricata, Podophyllum hexandrum, Ocimum sancturn, Plumbago zeylanica etc have shown radioprotection. Rubia cordifolia has shown both chemotherapeutic and radioprotective property in rats and A-431 cells. Similarly Semecarpus anacardium extract has shown cell cycle arrest in DU-145 cells. (author)

  19. Structural analysis of radiolysis products of sennoside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun Pa; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze the structural changes of gamma irradiated sennoside B (prodrug) and to provide the possibility for application of irradiation to induce structural changes of the prodrugs for enhanced bioavailability. Sennoside B (200 ppm) in 70% methanol solution with or without the use of hydrogen peroxide or nitrous oxide gas was irradiated with 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy by gamma ray. The radiolysis products of gamma irradiated sennoside B solution were identified and determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS. The sennoside B quantity decreased when irradiation dose increased and completely degraded at 10 kGy of irradiation. There was a linear relationship between the production of the radiolysis compounds and the absorbed dose of the gamma ray irradiated sennoside B. Radiolysis products yields increased on the addition of nitrous oxide gas into the sennoside B solution. No anthraquinone compounds were formed after irradiation of sennosie B. Scission of the O-glycoside bond and consequently formation of aglycone of sennoside B was observed

  20. Photocatalytic Degradation of Anthracene in Closed System Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiq F. Karam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs represent a large class of persistent organic pollutants in an environment of special concern because they have carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. In this paper, we focus on and discuss the effect of different parameters, for instance, initial concentration of Anthracene, temperature, and light intensity, on the degradation rate. These parameters were adjusted at pH 6.8 in the presence of the semiconductor materials (TiO2 as photocatalysts over UV light. The main product of Anthracene photodegradation is 9,10-Anthraquinone which isidentified and compared with the standard compound by GC-MS. Our results indicate that the optimum conditions for the best rate of degradation are 25 ppm concentration of Anthracene, regulating the reaction vessel at 308.15 K and 2.5 mW/cm2 of light intensity at 175 mg/100 mL of titanium dioxide (P25.

  1. A LARCH BIOREFINERY: INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND PS CHARGE ON PRE-EXTRACTION PSAQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna S. Hörhammer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a biorefinery concept based on larch wood. Wood chips of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. were treated with water before pulping at the optimal pre-extraction (PE condition of 150 °C and 90 minutes. Through PE, about 12.4% of the wood mass is dissolved, mainly from the arabinogalactan hemicellulose component. Fermentation of the hemicellulose-rich larch extract with Bacillus coagulans resulted in consumption of all C6 and C5 sugars and produced lactic acid in high yield. PE before pulping resulted in lower (4 to 5% pulp yield than for control kraft pulps. However, the pulp yield loss may be reduced by addition of polysulfide (PS and anthraquinone (AQ. The present study focuses on the effect of the degree of washing of the extracted chips and that of the PS charge in PSAQ pulping on the final properties of the pulp. Three different levels of washing and three different PS charges were tested. The characteristics of the extract, wash water, pulp, and black liquor samples were determined. The amount of sugars in the combined stream of collected extract and wash water obtained by mild washing was 10.2% on o.d. wood.

  2. Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50=10.9±1.1 μg/mL in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active (IC50=5.3±0.2 μg/mL against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0±0.1 μg/mL. All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 >100 in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.

  3. The Marine Metabolite SZ-685C Induces Apoptosis in Primary Human Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Cells by Inhibition of the Akt Pathway in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403 which is found in the South China Sea. Recent research has shown that SZ-685C possesses anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay to investigate the different effect of the marine compound SZ-685C on the proliferation of primary human NFPA cells, rat normal pituitary cells (RPCs and rat prolactinoma MMQ cell lines. Hoechst 33342 dye/propidium iodide (PI double staining and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V/PI (Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis assays detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis in cells treated with SZ-685C. Enhanced expression levels of caspase 3 and phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN were determined by Western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of Akt were decreased when the primary human NFPA cells were treated with SZ-685C. Here, we show that SZ-685C induces apoptosis of human NFPA cells through inhibition of the Akt pathway in vitro. The understanding of apoptosis has provided the basis for novel targeted therapies that can induce death in cancer cells or sensitize them to established cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy.

  4. Interactive enhancements of ascorbic acid and iron in hydroxyl radical generation in quinone redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Tong; Zhao, Jincai; Xu, Bingye

    2012-09-18

    Quinones are toxicological substances in inhalable particulate matter (PM). The mechanisms by which quinones cause hazardous effects can be complex. Quinones are highly active redox molecules that can go through a redox cycle with their semiquinone radicals, leading to formation of reactive oxygen species. Electron spin resonance spectra have been reported for semiquinone radicals in PM, indicating the importance of ascorbic acid and iron in quinone redox cycling. However, these findings are insufficient for understanding the toxicity associated with quinone exposure. Herein, we investigated the interactions among anthraquinone (AQ), ascorbic acid, and iron in hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation through the AQ redox cycling process in a physiological buffer. We measured ·OH concentration and analyzed the free radical process. Our results showed that AQ, ascorbic acid, and iron have synergistic effects on ·OH generation in quinone redox cycling; i.e., ascorbyl radical oxidized AQ to semiquinone radical and started the redox cycling, iron accelerated this oxidation and enhanced ·OH generation through Fenton reactions, while ascorbic acid and AQ could help iron to release from quartz surface and enhance its bioavailability. Our findings provide direct evidence for the redox cycling hypothesis about airborne particle surface quinone in lung fluid. PMID:22891791

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Chinese Medical Preparation Lianhua-Qingwen Capsule by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC is a commonly used Chinese medical preparation to treat viral influenza and especially played a very important role in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2002-2003 in China. In this paper, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of LQC. A total of 61 compounds including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, triterpenoids, iridoids, and other types of compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing the retention times and accurate mass measurement with reference compounds or literature data. Among them, twelve representative compounds were further quantified as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including salidroside, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside E, cryptochlorogenic acid, amygdalin, sweroside, hyperin, rutin, forsythoside A, phillyrin, rhein, and glycyrrhizic acid. The UPLC-DAD method was evaluated with linearity, limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, precision, stability, repeatability, and recovery tests. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for the quality control of LQC.

  6. Facile Synthesis of N-Doped Carbon Dots as a New Matrix for Detection of Hydroxy-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Negative-Ion Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjing; Li, Yong; Li, Ruijin; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-05-25

    N-doping carbon dots (N-CDs) were prepared by microwave-assisted pyrolysis of dl-malic acid and ethanolamine as precursors. The material served as an excellent matrix for the detection of the environmental pollutants hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in negative ion mode. The obtained N-CDs exhibited good UV absorption capacity and favorable solubility. The use of the N-CDs matrix exhibited low matrix background interference and was beneficial to improve the signal response due to the specific π-conjugated polyaromatic structure and the doping of nitrogen atoms. The developed method was found to have good reproducibility and sensitivity. The N-CDs as a new matrix also were employed for the detection of OH-PAHs in real PM2.5 samples. The mass concentrations of Σ-hydroxy-pyrene, Σ-dihydroxy-anthraquinone, and Σ-dihydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene on the collected PM2.5 samples ranged from 0.125 to 0.136 ng/m(3), 0.039 to 0.052 ng/m(3), and 0.053 to 0.072 ng/m(3), respectively. This work extends the application field of N-CDs and provides a good candidate of matrix for MALDI-TOF MS detection of environmental pollutants. PMID:27180617

  7. Removal of Reactive Blue 29 Dye from Water by Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahangiri rad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Anthraquinone dyes such as reactive blue29 in water resources and industrial wastewater effluents are one of the most environmental setbacks in many countries. Various methods have been considered to remove these dyes One of which is adsorption."nMaterials and Methods: All adsorption experiments were conducted in different pHs and various concentrations of adsorbents. The initial concentration of reactive blue 29 chosen in this study was 30mg/L.Adsorption isotherms were determined and correlated with Longmuir, Freundlich and BET models."nResults: The maximum adsorption capacity of reactive blue 29 onto single wall carbon nanotubes was 496mg/g.Results showed that the best pH for adsorption was 5 followed by pH3 and 8. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 to SWCNT is 4 hr."nConclusion:According to the results obtained BET isotherm fitted well the experiment. It shows the adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto single wall carbon nanotubes is multilayers and the mechanism of SWCNTs adsorption toward RB29 is based on weak van der waals forces.

  8. Toxicity of Acanthus ilicifolius (L Fractions Against Pratylechus spp. on Maize (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUWATOYIN ADENIKE FABIYI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollution problems associated with the control of plant parasitic nematodes, necessitated research into alternative nematode management methods. The roots of Acanthus ilicifolius were evaluated for its phytochemical constituents and nematicidal activity. Methanol and n-hexane extracts of A. ilicifolius roots were chromatographed on silica gel column (100-120μm mesh grades. Six fractions were tested on Pratylenchus spp infecting maize in the field. Generally enhanced plant development was observed in the treated plants. The polar fractions were significantly (P<0.05 more effective and compared well with a commercial nematicide (Mocap. Maize treated with the polar fractions tasselled earlier, with significantly higher yield. In the laboratory the polar fractions produced significantly higher mortality than non polar fractions with 48.07% mortality at three hours of exposure, while the non polar fractions recorded 15.22% mortality. Results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and anthraquinone, while friedlan-3-one, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol, lupeol, quercetin, 3,3- dimethyl hexanone, and octadecanoic acid,2-hydroxyl-1,3-propanediyl ester are the bioactive compounds identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The bioactivity of the fractions from A. ilicifolius is attributed to the presence of the above named compounds. Bio compounds from plants will go a long way in the management of plant parasitic nematodes.

  9. Effect of electron mediators on current generation and fermentation in a microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, C.J.; McMasters, S.; Crittenden, S.R.; Sumner, J.J. [Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, Adelphi, MD (United States). US Army Research Laboratory; Harrell, L.E. [US Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2007-09-15

    Effects of select electron mediators [9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid disodium salt (AQDS), safranine O, resazurin, methylene blue, and humic acids] on metabolic end-products and current production from cellulose digestion by Clostridium cellulolyticum in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were studied using capillary electrophoresis and traditional electrochemical techniques. Addition of the mediator resazurin greatly enhanced current production but did not appear to alter the examined fermentation end-products compared to MFCs with no mediator. Assays for lactate, acetate, and ethanol indicate that the presence of safranine O, methylene blue, and humic acids alters metabolite production in the MFC: safranine O decreased the examined metabolites, methylene blue increased lactate formation, and humic acids increased the examined metabolites. Mediator standard redox potentials (E{sub 0}) reported in the literature do not coincide with redox potentials in MFCs due presumably to the electrolytic complexity of media that supports bacterial survival and growth. Current production in MFCs: (1) can be effected by the mediator redox potential while in the media, which may be significantly shifted from E{sub 0}, and (2) depended on the ability of the mediator to access the bacterial electron source, which may be cytoplasmic. In addition, some electron mediators had significant effects on metabolic end-products and therefore the metabolism of the organism itself.

  10. Efficient production of nanoparticle-loaded orodispersible films by process integration in a stirred media mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Denise; Finke, Jan Henrik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-25

    Orodispersible films possess a great potential as a versatile platform for nanoparticle-loaded oral dosage forms. In this case, poorly water-soluble organic materials were ground in a stirred media mill and embedded into a polymer matrix. The aim of this study was the shortening of this manufacturing process by the integration of several process steps into a stirred media mill without facing disadvantages regarding the film quality. Furthermore, this process integration is time conserving due to the high stress intensities provided in the mill and applicable for high solids contents and high suspension viscosities. Two organic materials, the model compound Anthraquinone and the active pharmaceutical ingredient Naproxen were investigated in this study. Besides the impact of the film processing on the crystallinity of the particles in the orodispersible film, a particle load of up to 50% was investigated with the new developed processing route. Additionally, a disintegration test was developed, combining an appropriate amount of saliva substitute and a clear endpoint determination. In summary, high nanoparticle loads in orodispersible films with good particle size preservation after film redispersion in water as well as a manufacturing of the film casting mass within a few minutes in a stirred media mill was achieved.

  11. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Albejo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: The genus Vernonia is one of the largest groups in the family Compositae constituting more than 500 species distributed widely in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and America. Traditionally the genus is used for the treatment of schistosomiasis, amoebic dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, malaria, venereal diseases, wounds, hepatitis, and diabetes. Vernonia auriculifera Hiern is used for healing wounds as ointment around the injured areas. Aims: To investigate the phytochemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern. Methods: Phytochemical screening tests were conducted to identify the class of compounds present in the leaves extracts of V. auriculifera. Silica gel column chromatographic technique was applied to separate the constituents of the extracts. Various spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135, COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC were applied to determine the structures of isolated compounds. Results: Phytochemical screening of the methanol leaf extract revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and absence of anthraquinones, steroids, and alkaloids. Silica gel column chromatography of the methanol leaves extract yielded one compound. The hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. The methanol and water extracts showed promising growth suppression at minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 mg/mL. Conclusions: The polar extracts of the leaves of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern possess antimicrobial activity.

  12. Chromatographic finger print analysis of Naringi crenulata by HPTLC technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Sampathkumar; Ramakrishnan N

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To establish the fingerprint profile of Naringi crenulata (N. crenulata) (Roxb.) Nicols. using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC studies were carried out. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software was used. Results: The results of preliminary phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, phenol, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenoid, alkaloid, anthraquinone and quinone. HPTLC finger printing of ethanolic extract of stem revealed 10 spots with Rf values in the range of 0.08 to 0.65;bark showed 8 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.07 to 0.63 and the ethanol extract of leaf revealed 8 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.09 to 0.49, respectively. The purity of sample was confirmed by comparing the absorption spectra at start, middle and end position of the band. Conclusions:It can be concluded that HPTLC finger printing of N. crenulata may be useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and act as a biochemical marker for this medicinally important plant in the pharmaceutical industry and plant systematic studies.

  13. Secondary Metabolites and Bioactivity of Hyophila involuta (Hook Jaeg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos M. MAKINDE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical screening of Hyophila involuta collected from the Biological Garden of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was carried out to investigate the presence or absence of some secondary metabolites and its antibiotic potentials, using different extracts (with acetone and ethanol on selected organisms. The extracts obtained were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatanins, saponins, steroids, tannins, triterpenes and xanthoproteins. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. Only acetone extract tested positive for the presence of flavonoids, while alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were detected present in both the acetone and ethanolic extracts. Flavonoids were detected present only in the acetone extract. Saponins were detected present only in the ethanolic extract. The extracts (acetone and ethanolic showed significant activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus flavus. The results obtained from this study indicated that H. involuta has medicinally important compounds, having therapeutic potential from which effective antimicrobial medicine can be sourced.

  14. Bioactivity guided isolation of the antifungal components in sawdust extracts of Piptadeniatrum africanum, and Terminalia ivorensis

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    Olajuyigbe A.O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antifungal activities of extracts from fresh sawdust of Piptadeniatrum africanum,and Terminalia ivorensis was determined using the agar well diffusion method. Aqueous, methanol, chloroform,and n-hexane extracts obtained from the sawdust samples were tested against fungi isolated from some decayed wood samples.Methodology and Results: Fungal isolates included: Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. flavus, Aspergillus. fumigates, Aspergillus. wentii, Aspergillus. tamari, and Penicillium. chrysogenum (please write the microorganisms’ name in full when first time introducing them. Results of inhibitory activities showed that the chloroform extracts showed the highest inhibitory abilities with zones of inhibition ranging from 14 mm-24 mm for P. africanum, and 11 mm-15 mm for T. ivorensis. However, the aqueous extracts exhibited the least antifungal activity with zones of inhibition ranging between 10 mm-13 mm and 8 mm-11 mm respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The major secondary plant metabolites identified are alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthraglycosides, arbutin, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, coumarins and valepotriates. The antifungal components in P. africanum were identified to be 3, 7, 8, 3'–Tetramethoxy-6–C-methyl-5, 4'–dihydroxyflavone and 3–methoxy–6–C–methyl–3',4',5,7,8–pentahydroxyflavone while Terminalia ivorensis contained 5,7,8-Trihydroxy-2′5′-methoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavanone as the bioactive component.

  15. Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid

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    Olatunde Owoeye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors.

  16. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF ANTIGONON LEPTOPUS HOOK. AND ARN.: A PROMISING MEDICINAL CLIMBER

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    Rahaman Chowdhury Habibur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of quality and purity of crude drugs by means of various parameters is the most important aspect of pharmacognosy. The present study deals with pharmacognostic characterization of Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn. of the family Polygonaceae. The tubers of it are used by the tribal people as tonic and nutritious food. The parameters like micromorphological, anatomical, phytochemical and physical constants have been employed for the pharmacognostical evaluation of different parts of this plant. The stomata are of anisocytic type and amphistomatic. Stomatal indices are 11.08 and 12.13 in upper and lower surfaces respectively. Palisade ratio is 5.5. Trichomes are of both nonglandular and glandular types. Methanolic extracts of leaf indicate presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthraquinone, etc. Ash value and moisture content of the leaves were found to be 20.68% and 76% respectively. This study will provide some diagnostic features by which the crude drug of this plant can easily be identified.

  17. A novel BH3 mimetic efficiently induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through direct binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, including phosphorylated Mcl-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yubo; Xie, Mingzhou; Song, Ting; Sheng, Hongkun; Yu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhichao

    2015-03-01

    The Bcl-2 family modulates sensitivity to chemotherapy in many cancers, including melanoma, in which the RAS/BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway is constitutively activated. Mcl-1, a major anti-apoptotic protein in the Bcl-2 family, is extensively expressed in melanoma and contributes to melanoma's well-documented chemoresistance. Here, we provide the first evidence that Mcl-1 phosphorylation at T163 by ERK1/2 and JNK is associated with the resistance of melanoma cell lines to the existing BH3 mimetics gossypol, S1 and ABT-737, and a novel anti-apoptotic mechanism of phosphorylated Mcl-1 (pMcl-1) is revealed. pMcl-1 antagonized the known BH3 mimetics by sequestering pro-apoptotic proteins that were released from Bcl-2/Mcl-1. Furthermore, an anthraquinone BH3 mimetic, compound 6, was identified to be the first small molecule to that induces endogenous apoptosis in melanoma cells by directly binding Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and pMcl-1 and disrupting the heterodimers of these proteins. Although compound 6 induced upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa, its apoptotic induction was independent of Noxa. These data reveal the promising therapeutic potential of targeting pMcl-1 to treat melanoma. Compound 6 is therefore a potent drug that targets pMcl-1 in melanoma.

  18. Emodin potentiates the antiproliferative effect of interferon α/β by activation of JAK/STAT pathway signaling through inhibition of the 26S proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yujiao; Huang, Junmei; Wang, Ping; Shen, Xiaofei; Li, Sheng; Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Wanli; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Zhang, Guolin; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-26

    The 26S proteasome is a negative regulator of type I interferon (IFN-α/β) signaling. Inhibition of the 26S proteasome by small molecules may be a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of type I IFNs and reduce their side effects. Using cell-based screening assay for new 26S proteasome inhibitors, we found that emodin, a natural anthraquinone, was a potent inhibitor of the human 26S proteasome. Emodin preferably inhibited the caspase-like and chymotrypsin-like activities of the human 26S proteasome and increased the ubiquitination of endogenous proteins in cells. Computational modeling showed that emodin exhibited an orientation/conformation favorable to nucleophilic attack in the active pocket of the β1, β2, and β5 subunits of the 26S proteasome. Emodin increased phosphorylation of STAT1, decreased phosphorylation of STAT3 and increased endogenous gene expression stimulated by IFN-α. Emodin inhibited IFN-α-stimulated ubiquitination and degradation of type I interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Emodin also sensitized the antiproliferative effect of IFN-α in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and reduced tumor growth in Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mice. These results suggest that emodin potentiates the antiproliferative effect of IFN-α by activation of JAK/STAT pathway signaling through inhibition of 26S proteasome-stimulated IFNAR1 degradation. Therefore, emodin warrants further investigation as a new means to enhance the efficacy of IFN-α/β. PMID:26683360

  19. Phytoconstituents and diuretic activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaf infusions in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher Ekpenyong; Nyebuk Daniel; Ernest Akpan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diuretic activity of infusions prepared from Cymbopogon citratus (C.citratus ) leaves in healthy volunteers. Methods: One hundred and five subjects (55 men and 50 women) aged 18 to 35 years were randomly assigned to groups set to orally receive infusions prepared from 2, 4, or 8 g of C. citratus leaf powder, once daily for 30 d. Urine volume, frequency of urination, urine specific gravity, and plasma and urinary levels of electrolytes were assessed 1 day before (baseline), and at 10 and 30 d after initiation of treatment. Computed diuretic indices were compared between experimental and baseline values.Results:positive for saponins, tannins, flavaniods, phenols, anthraquinones, alkaloids, and deoxy-sugar exhibited a significant increase in indices of diuresis including urine volume, urination frequency, diuretic action, natriuretic and saliuretic indices and renal fractional excretion of electrolytes and metabolic acidosis. A non-significant change in urine specific gravity was observed in all groups. eGFR showed a non-significant increase at Day 10, but decreased significantly (P<0.05) at Day 30. Thiazide and aldosterone secretion indices decreased at Day 10, whereas carbonic anhydrase index increased significantly (P<0.05) at both Days 10 and 30. Subjects treated with infusions prepared from C. citratus leaf powder which tested Conclusions: These results indicate a loop active diuretic action of C. citratus infusion.

  20. Dyeing PET Textile with C.I. Disperse Red 60 and C.I. Disperse Orange 25 in Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-yi; MENG Ting-yu; LIU Xue-wu; XIA Yuan-jing; HU Da-peng

    2008-01-01

    For a better understanding of the feasibility of supercritical fluid dyeing(SFD)and more available information for the process development,the experiments of dyeing PET textile with C.I.disperse red 60(anthraquinone type)and C.I.disperse orange 25(azo type)in supercritical CO2 were carried out with a high-pressure dyeing apparatus at temperatures from 80 to 130℃ and pressure up to 31 MPa.The effect of operating conditions on color yield(K/S)was investigated in SFD experiment,and the optimum operating conditions for the above two disperse dyes were obtained as follows:the temperature 120℃,the pressure 25 MPa and the dyeing time 100 min.As compared with SFD,the conventional water dyeing(CWD)was carded out with the same dyes and textile.The results show that the better fastness,IeveIness and apparent color can be achieved in SFD and the SFD process has many significant advantages over the CWD process.

  1. DDT and detonation waves in dust-air mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Grönig, H.; van de Ven, A.

    This paper summarizes the studies of DDT and stable detonation waves in dust-air mixtures at the Stosswellenlabor of RWTH Aachen. The DDT process and propagation mechanism for stable heterogeneous dust detonations in air are essentially the same as in the oxygen environment studied previously. The dust DDT process in tubes is composed of a reaction compression stage followed by a reaction shock stage as the pre-detonation process. The transverse waves that couple the shock wave and the chemical energy release are responsible for the propagation of a stable dust-air detonation. However, the transverse wave spacing of dust-air mixtures is much larger. Therefore, DDT and propagation of a stable detonation in most industrial and agricultural, combustible dust-air mixtures require a tube that has a large diameter between 0.1 m and 1 m and a sufficient length-diameter ratio beyond 100, when an appropriately strong initiation energy is used. Two dust detonation tubes, 0.14 m and 0.3 m in diameter, were used for observation of the above-mentioned results in cornstarch, anthraquinone and aluminum dust suspended in air. Smoked-foil technique was also used to measure the cellular structure of dust detonations in the 0.3 m detonation tube.

  2. CYTOTOXICITY, ANTIMICROBIAL AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PISTIA STRATIOTES L.

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    Khan Md. Ahad Ali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of Pistia stratiotes L. aerial part anthraquinone glycosides, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, carbohydrates were found to be present. The LC50 and LC90 were 1.8µg/ml & 2.07µg/ml respectively in brine shrimp lethality assay. It was to have produced significant zones of inhibition against gram positive Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and yeast Candida albicans and Rhodotorula rubra, which were comparable with standard antimicrobial drugs tetracycline, vancomicin and nystatin. In acute-toxicity test in mice LD50 was 850mg/kg body weight (i.p. In CNS depressant tests; hole cross, open field, beam walking and thiopental sodium induced sedative test in mice it significantly (p<0.005, p<0.001 decreased the locomotor activity in mice. The extract showed significant (p<0.005, p<0.001 antinociceptive activity when subjected to hot plate, tail immersion and acetic acid-induced writhing tests in mice.

  3. 含水量与包装方法对大黄品质的影响%Effect of Moisture Content and Packaging Method on Quality of Rhubarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 晋小军; 张秀玲; 张丹

    2013-01-01

    The change of the appearance and quality of Rhubarb on different water content and packing conditions were observed in order to searching for an economical and practical packaging storage method. The results showed that when water content reach in 16%~18%, using vacuum packing is the optimal packing method to Rhubarb. In this condition, it did not go moldy, the qualitye reduce 2.79 g, anthraquinone content reaches 1.89%, and extract content reaches 31.50%.%通过观察比较不同含水量和包装方法下大黄的外观及品质变化,探寻一种经济实用的大黄包装储藏方法。结果表明,大黄最佳包装条件为含水量16%~18%时采用抽真空包装。该条件下大黄未发生霉变,质量损耗为2.79 g;蒽醌含量可达1.89%,浸出物含量可达31.50%。

  4. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS determination of bioactive constituents from methanol leaf extract of Senna occidentalis

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    Aisha Mohammad Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the active ingredients presented in methanol extract of Senna occidentalis (S. occidentalis. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of S. occidentalis were extracted with methanol by Soxhlet extraction and the extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by using standard procedure and methods. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS analysis was performed by comprising a GC-MS (model: QP2010 Plus Shimadzu, Japan comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and gas-chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer. Results: The phytochemical study revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, anthraquinones and phlobatannins while cardiac glycoside was not detected. GC-MS chromatogram showed nine peaks. A total of 31 compounds were identified when the mass spectra of the constituents was compared with the National Institute Standard and Technology library. The first compounds identified with less retention time (15.929 s were n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid while decanoic acid, decyl ester, ether, octadecyl vinyl, oleic acid, hexyl ester, stearic acid, octadecyl ester and decyl fluoride took the longest retention time (20.600 s for identification. Conclusions: The presence of these compounds in the plant extract may at least be responsible for one of the pharmacological properties of S. occidentalis and thus could be of considerable interest to the development of new drugs.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS FOR DECOLORIZATION AND DEGRADATION OF C.I.REACTIVE BLUE 29 BY OZONE

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    A. R. Mesdaghinia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Because conventional wastewater treatment of effluent containing anthraquinone dye causes notable environmental problems, it is important to find effective alternative methods for dye removal. This study evaluated the efficacy of ozonation for dye removal and Chemical Oxygen Demand reduction and identified optimal operational conditions for parameters such as pH, contact time and concentration of C.I. Reactive Blue 29 dye in a semi-batch reactor. Values of pH between 3 and 11 and contact times between 15 and 120 minutes were investigated. Dye concentrations were based on the American Dye Manufacture Institute standards and ranged from 1000 to 5000. Although results showed that Chemical Oxygen Demand removal by ozone alone was not very efficient (58%, ozonation proved to be an efficient method for decolorizing Reactive Blue 29 (96%. pH was found to significantly influence the effectiveness of Chemical Oxygen Demand removal, and optimal pH conditions (95% confidence interval were between 9 and 11. For decolorization, pH adjustment was not necessary. Degradation and decolorization of dye were found to be strongly influenced by the contact time, optimal conditions (95% confidence interval for degradation and decolorization were 60 and 30 minutes, respectively. The optimal dye concentration was 1000 American Dye Manufacture Institute.

  6. The marine metabolite SZ-685C induces apoptosis in primary human nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma cells by inhibition of the Akt pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Tan, Ting; Mao, Zhi-Gang; Lei, Ni; Wang, Zong-Ming; Hu, Bin; Chen, Zhi-Yong; She, Zhi-Gang; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) which is found in the South China Sea. Recent research has shown that SZ-685C possesses anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) to investigate the different effect of the marine compound SZ-685C on the proliferation of primary human NFPA cells, rat normal pituitary cells (RPCs) and rat prolactinoma MMQ cell lines. Hoechst 33342 dye/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V/PI (Annexin V-FITC/PI) apoptosis assays detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis in cells treated with SZ-685C. Enhanced expression levels of caspase 3 and phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN) were determined by Western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of Akt were decreased when the primary human NFPA cells were treated with SZ-685C. Here, we show that SZ-685C induces apoptosis of human NFPA cells through inhibition of the Akt pathway in vitro. The understanding of apoptosis has provided the basis for novel targeted therapies that can induce death in cancer cells or sensitize them to established cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:25806467

  7. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5α was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters.

  8. Development of Dyes Decolorization Mechanism of Bacteria%细菌染料脱色机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江莹; 蔡亚君

    2015-01-01

    Treatments against the textile printing and dyeing wastewater, one kind of hard-degradation industrial wastewater, have been given priority to the biological treatment combining with the physical and chemical treatment. In the biological treatment, the use of bacteria for dye decolorization is one of the emphasis which removes colors by adsorption or degradation dyes. By summarizing the decolorizing bacteria for azo dyes, anthraquinone dyes and triphenylmethane dyes, and their decoloring enzyme and dye degradation product, the possible decolorizing mechanism for three dyes by using bacteria was discussed.%纺织印染废水属于难处理工业废水,对其处理一直以生物处理为主、物理化学处理为辅。在进行生物处理时,利用细菌对其中的染料进行脱色是其中的重点。细菌对染料的脱色包括吸附脱色和降解脱色。本文通过总结对偶氮染料、蒽醌染料和三苯甲烷染料三种应用最广泛的染料具有脱色作用的细菌及其染料脱色的相关酶、降解产物,探讨了细菌对这三种染料可能的脱色机理。

  9. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

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    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes versicolor (Tv fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1 of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3. High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04 for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  10. Fungal laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, and chemical mediators: combined actions for the decolorization of different classes of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullini, Ilaria; Tilli, Silvia; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    Dyes belonging to the mono-, di-, tri- and poly-azo as well as anthraquinonic and mono-azo Cr-complexed classes, chosen among the most utilized in textile applications, were employed for a comparative enzymatic decolorization study using the extracellular crude culture extracts from the white rot fungus Funalia (Trametes) trogii grown on different culture media and activators able to trigger different levels of expression of oxidizing enzymes: laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase. Laccase containing extracts were capable to decolorize some dyes from all the different classes analyzed, whereas the recalcitrant dyes were subjected to the combined action of laccase and the chemical mediator HBT, or laccase plus cellobiose dehydrogenase. Correlations among the decolorization degree of the various dyes and their electronic and structural diversities were rationalized and discussed. The utilization of cellobiose dehydrogenase in support to the activity of laccase for the decolorization of azo textile dyes resulted in substantial increases in decolorization for all the refractory dyes proving to be a valid alternative to more expensive and less environmentally friendly chemical treatments of textile dyes wastes.

  11. Differential decolorization of textile dyes in mixtures and the joint effect of laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase activities present in extracellular extracts from Funalia trogii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilli, Silvia; Ciullini, Ilaria; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2011-10-10

    The largest part of the bio-decolorization investigations have been performed to date on a single dye without exploring the behavior in complex mixtures as the real dyeing baths. Therefore, mixtures of dyes belonging to azo and anthraquinonic classes, chosen among the most utilized in textile wool dyeing, were employed for comparative enzymatic decolorization studies using the extracellular extracts from the white rot fungus Funalia trogii, to understand how the concomitant presence of more than one dye could influence their degradation course and yield. Fungal extracts containing laccase activity only were capable to partially decolorize dyes mixtures from the different classes analyzed. The deconvolution of the decolorization with time allowed to monitor the degradation of the single dyes in the mixtures evidencing a time dependent differential decolorization not observed for the singles alone. Some dyes in the blend were in fact decolorized only when the most easily converted dyes were largely transformed. These experiments would allow to help the dyeing factories in the selection of the most readily degraded dyes. Since F. trogii grown on different media and activators shows diverse levels of expression of the redox enzymes laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), the dyes mixtures recalcitrant to decolorization by laccase activity alone, were subjected to the combined action of extracts containing laccase and CDH. The use of CDH, in support to the activity of laccase, resulted in substantial decolorization increases (>84%) for all the refractory dyes mixtures.

  12. The antimicrobial activities of Ethanolic extracts of Basella alba on selected microorganisms

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    Oluwafemi Adebayo Oyewole

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Basella alba against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albican was determined using the agar cup plate method. The phytochemical components of the ethanolic extracts of the leaf and stem of B. alba showed the presence of tannin, terpene, steroid, saponin, anthraquinone, and with carbohydrate only in the stem extracts. The result of this study showed that all the organisms except Candida albican. were susceptible to 60mg/ml and 100mg/ml. of extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were also determined. The result obtained showed that the MIC and MBC for the ethanolic extract of the leaf and stem of P. aeruginosa, E. coli was 50mg/ml, while the MIC and MBC of S. aureus was 100mg/ml for the ethanolic extract of the leaf and stem of B. alba. The result of this study suggests that the ethanolic extracts of B. alba could be suitable for the treatment of diseases caused by S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

  13. THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA ON SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

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    Oyewole OA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agar cup plate method was used to determine the antimicrobial effects of Basella alba against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albican. Ethanolic extracts of the leaf and stem of B. alba revealed the presence of tannin, terpene, steroid, saponin, anthraquinone, and with carbohydrate present only in the stem extracts. The result of this study showed that S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli were susceptible to 60mg/ml and 100mg/ml of the extract while Candida albican was resistant. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for the ethanolic extract of the leaf and stem were also determined. The MIC and the MBC for the leaf and stem extract of P. aeruginosa and E. coli was 50mg/ml while the MIC and the MBC for the leaf and stem extract of S. aureus was 100mg/ml. The result of this study suggests that the ethanolic extracts of B. alba was not suitable for the treatment of disease caused by Candida albican but could be suitable for the treatment of diseases caused by S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

  14. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Mumammad Aliyu; Abdullahi Ismail Musa; Muhammad Jaafar Kamal; Magaji Garba Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods:The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P Conclusions:These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy.

  15. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. T. Yakubu; M. A. Akanji; A. T. Oladiji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the aphrodisiac potential of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Rubiaceae) stem in male albino rats. Methods: The aqueous stem extract of the plant was screened for phytochemical constituents. Male rats were orally dosed with 18 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight,respectively, of the extract at 24 h intervals and their sexual behavior parameters and serum testosterone concentration were evaluated at days 1, 3 and 5. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while anthraquinones and flavonoids are weakly present. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and significantly prolonged the ejaculatory latency (P < 0.05) and reduced mount and intromission latency (P < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in serum testosterone concentrations in all the groups in a manner suggestive of dose-dependence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the blood testosterone concentrations and this may be the mechanism responsible for its aphrodisiac effects and various masculine behaviors. It may be used to modify impaired sexual functions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia.

  16. Polycarbonyl(quinonyl) organic compounds as cathode materials for sustainable lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quinonyl compounds containing –OH groups are reported as cathode of sustainable Li-ion battery. • Lithiation potential of these compounds is positively correlated to -OH group number on them. • These compounds exhibit a discharge plateau of 3 V and deliver a capacity of over 180 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1. - Abstract: Suitably designed organic compounds are promising renewable electrode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with minimal environmental impacts and no CO2 release. Herein we report a series of polycarbonyl organic compounds with different number of hydroxyl groups, which can be obtained from renewable plants, as cathode materials for LIBs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the natural bond orbital (NBO) reveal a positive correlation between the reduction potentials and the number of hydroxyl groups, which is borne out experimentally. Anthraquinone (AQ) with three or four -OH groups has the structural advantages for improving the discharge plateaus. Mechanistic studies show that AQ containing neighbouring carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups facilitates the formation of six or five-membered rings with lithium ion. Charge/discharge tests show that AQ, 1,5-DHAQ, 1,2,7-THAQ, and 1,2,5,8-THAQ can achieve initial discharge capacities of 215, 190, 186 and 180 mAh g-1 at a current density of 20 mA g-1, corresponding to 84%, 85%, 89% and 91% of their theoretical capacities, respectively

  17. A novel compound NSC745885 exerts an anti-tumor effect on tongue cancer SAS cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Wu Chen

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is a prevalent cancer, especially in developing countries. Anthracyclines and their anthraquinone derivatives, such as doxorubicin, exhibit a cell growth inhibitory effect and have been used as anti-cancer drugs for many years. However, the cardiotoxicity of anthracycline antibiotics is a major concern in their clinical application. NSC745885 is a novel compound synthesized from 1,2-diaminoanthraquinone, which subsequently reacts with thionyl chloride and triethylamine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oral cancer potential and the safety of NSC745885.We investigated the anti-cancer potential of NSC745885 in oral squamous carcinoma cell lines and in an in vivo oral cancer xenograft mouse model. The expression of apoptotic related genes were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and western bloting, and the in vivo assessment of apoptotic marker were measured by immunohistochemical staining. The anti-tumor efficiency and safety between doxorubicin and NSC745885 were also compared.Our results demonstrated that NSC745885 exhibits anti-oral cancer activity through the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and in tumor-bearing mice, and this treatment did not induce marked toxicity in experimental mice. This compound also exhibits a comparable anti-tumor efficiency and a higher safety in experimental mice when compared to doxorubicin.The data of this study provide evidence for NSC745885 as a potential novel therapeutic drug for the treatment of human OSCC.

  18. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on a spike-moss Selaginella inaequalifolia (hook. & grev.) Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varaprasadham Irudayaraj; Janaky M; Marimuthu Johnson; Nallayan Selvan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-cancer spike-mosses for the presence of various bioactivities and to identify the important bioactive chemicals present in Selaginella inaequalifolia (S.inaequalifolia ) (Hook. & Grev.) Spring. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done by following the method of Brindha et al. Antimicrobial study was carried out by disc diffusion method. Results: Results of preliminary phytochemical screening on five different extracts (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and distilled water) of the spike-mossS. inaequalifolia show the presence steroids, triterpenes, phenolic group, tannin, sugars and catechin. Alkaloids, amino acids, anthraquinone and reducing sugar did not show any positive result. Among the five different extracts, ethanol and chloroform extracts show the presence of maximum number (4 each) of compounds. The results on antimicrobial studies show that all the three microbes [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans(C. albicans) ] tested are resistant to the ethanol extract and susceptible to petroleum ether extract. The petroleum ether extract shows maximum inhibition with 45 mm of inhibition zone in C. albicans. The inhibition zone in S. aureus and E. coli are 26 mm and 22 mm respectively. Conclusions: The present study shows S. inaequalifolia having potent antibacterial and anticandidal activities.

  19. Streamlined Total Synthesis of Uncialamycin and Its Application to the Synthesis of Designed Analogues for Biological Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Wang, Yanping; Lu, Min; Mandal, Debashis; Pattanayak, Manas R; Yu, Ruocheng; Shah, Akshay A; Chen, Jason S; Zhang, Hongjun; Crawford, James J; Pasunoori, Laxman; Poudel, Yam B; Chowdari, Naidu S; Pan, Chin; Nazeer, Ayesha; Gangwar, Sanjeev; Vite, Gregory; Pitsinos, Emmanuel N

    2016-07-01

    From the enediyne class of antitumor antibiotics, uncialamycin is among the rarest and most potent, yet one of the structurally simpler, making it attractive for chemical synthesis and potential applications in biology and medicine. In this article we describe a streamlined and practical enantioselective total synthesis of uncialamycin that is amenable to the synthesis of novel analogues and renders the natural product readily available for biological and drug development studies. Starting from hydroxy- or methoxyisatin, the synthesis features a Noyori enantioselective reduction, a Yamaguchi acetylide-pyridinium coupling, a stereoselective acetylide-aldehyde cyclization, and a newly developed annulation reaction that allows efficient coupling of a cyanophthalide and a p-methoxy semiquinone aminal to forge the anthraquinone moiety of the molecule. Overall, the developed streamlined synthesis proceeds in 22 linear steps (14 chromatographic separations) and 11% overall yield. The developed synthetic strategies and technologies were applied to the synthesis of a series of designed uncialamycin analogues equipped with suitable functional groups for conjugation to antibodies and other delivery systems. Biological evaluation of a select number of these analogues led to the identification of compounds with low picomolar potencies against certain cancer cell lines. These compounds and others like them may serve as powerful payloads for the development of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) intended for personalized targeted cancer therapy. PMID:27266267

  20. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: gbuitronm@ii.unam.mx [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.