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Sample records for anthracite

  1. Electrolytic oxidation of anthracite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Patton, K.M.; Heard, I.

    1981-01-01

    An anthracite slurry can be oxidized only with difficulty by electrolytic methods in which aqueous electrolytes are used if the slurry is confined to the region of the anode by a porous pot or diaphragm. However, it can be easily oxidized if the anthracite itself is used as the anode. No porous pot or diaphragm is needed. Oxidative consumption of the coal to alkali-soluble compounds is found to proceed preferentially at the edges of the aromatic planes. An oxidation model is proposed in which the chief oxidants are molecular and radical species formed by the electrolytic decomposition of water at the coal surface-electrolyte interface. The oxidation reactions proposed account for the opening of the aromatic rings and the subsequent formation of carboxylic acids. The model also explains the observed anisotropic oxidation and the need for the porous pot or diaphragm used in previous studies of the oxidation of coal slurries. ?? 1981.

  2. Vietnam anthracite - current situation and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan van Kien [Vietnam National Coal Corporation (Vietnam)

    2004-07-01

    A resume is given of Vietnam's resources of anthracite, sub-bituminous coal, peat, coking coal and brown coal. Details are given of anthracite produced by the Vietnam National Coal Corporation (VINACOAL). Sales, coal quality and markets are discussed. Markets include the steel, non-ferrous metal and cement industries, power generation, water treatment and electrode and calcium carbide manufacture. VINACOAL is aiming to increase anthracite production especially for PCI, and is investing in coal mining and coal preparation plants and expansion of Cam Pha port. A series of eight slides/overheads accompanies the presentation (file Doan van Kien.pdf).

  3. Sodium reactivity with anthracitic carbons at 700{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechet, C.; Sarmeo, D.; Mermoux, M.; Touzain, P.; Bonnetain, L.; Dumas, D.; Allard, B.; Paulus, R. [Institut National Polytechnique, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    The reaction of sodium with an anthracite sample is studied at 700{degree}C for various sodium relative pressures and is compared to the simple ease of intercalation in a pitch coke. The behaviour of the anthracite samples is similar to that observed with non-graphitizing carbon - intercalation and capillary condensation take place simultaneously. The sodium intercalation is found to be very sensitive to the previous heat treatment temperature of the sample, which determines the extent of order, and perfection of the carbon layers.

  4. Inventory of federally-funded projects and programs related to anthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    This report is a compilation of descriptions of federal projects and programs that are concerned in some way with anthracite. It is the first inventory of its type to be prepared. Among the projects and programs described are those completed in the latter half of 1979, those that are currently active, and others that will start soon. Of the 43 projects described, 8 involve research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of technologies aimed at enhancing the use of anthracite or anthracite mining waste; 6 address environmental problems associated with anthracite mining or use; 9 provide information on the anthracite industry; 16 involve studies related to anthracite; and 4 are miscellaneous projects and programs. These projects and programs represent federal government expenditures of $27.1 million, excluding current military purchases of anthracite for use in European bases of $33.6 million, and US Bureau of Mines mined land demonstration and reclamation projects of $38.3 million.

  5. Constitutive Relation of Yunjialing Anthracite Under Medium Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wen-jiao; SHAN Ren-liang; WANG Gong-cheng; CHENG Rui-qiang

    2007-01-01

    By means of the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) testing system, this paper presents a dynamic constitutive relation of anthracite at a strain rate of ε =5-85s-1. Generally, the dynamic stress-strain curve for this kind of anthracite under uni-axial compression has the following four stages: a non-linear loading stage, a plastic yielding stage, a strain-strengthening stage and an unloading breakage stage. Correspondingly, the initial elastic modulus Eb, the yielding strength σs and the ultimate strength σb increase along with an increasing strain rate. The time-dependent elasticity was identified when we analyzed the mechanical properties of anthracite. Based on characteristics of measured dynamic stress-strain curves and an analysis of existing rock dynamic constitutive models, as well as a preparatory simulation, a new visco-elastic damage model has been introduced in this paper. A linear spring is put parallel to two Maxwell units with different relaxation times to express two distinct plastic flows. The damage D is equal to [Eb- E(εi)]/Eb, where Eb is the beginning modulus and the E(εi) is the slope of a connected line between the origin point and any other point on a tested stress-strain curve. In the new constitutive model, one Maxwell unit with low relaxation time (ψ)1 is used to describe the response of anthracite to a low strain rate, while the other, with a high relaxation time (ψ)2 describes the response of anthracite to a high strain rate. Simulated stress-strain curves from the new model are consistent with the measured curves.

  6. Stage-wise analysis of coalification from cellulose to anthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunavala, P.D.

    1991-09-01

    All plausible theories put forward for the mechanism of coalification are permutations and combinations of dehydration, decarboxylation and demethanation reactions. Accepting Horton's hypothesis of coalification by decarboxylation and demethanation, the author deduces the coalification Index, I{sub c} which expresses the rank of coal. All components of the primordial soup e.g. CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} have I{sub c} 0, as does carbohydrate. Wood, peat, lignite, bituminous coal and anthracite show increasing orders of I{sub c}. The metamorphosis of cellulose to coal can be represented by an equation. The author postulates that carbohydrate metamorphized to cellulose by dehydration, followed by metamorphosis of the cellulose to coal. Equations for these processes and a general equation for the stagewise metamorphosis of coal are presented. The yield of coal during any stage-wise metamorphosis can be calculated from the coalification Index of the starting material and product. The stage-wise analysis of coalification indicates that the evolution of gases by decarboxylation and demethanation is maximum during the early biochemical stage of formation from cellulose to lignite (I{sub c} .0741 - .4731) and minimum during the final geochemical stage of formation (I{sub c} .5620 - .8562). 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Effect of supercritical water treatment on porous structure, liquid-phase adsorption and regeneration characteristics of activated anthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanthapanichakoon, W.; Sittipraneed, S.; Japthong, P.; Charinpanitkul, T.; Boon-Amnuayvitaya, V.; Nakagawa, K.; Tamon, H. [National Nanotechnological Centre, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2006-06-15

    Microporous activated anthracite was produced from waste anthracite powders by the conventional steam activation. The activated anthracite was also treated by supercritical water reaction (SWR) by using distilled water and hydrogen peroxide solution as a liquid medium for SWR treatment. It was found that SWR treatment can improve the mesoporosity of the activated anthracite though the micropore volume was reduced by the treatment. In liquid-phase adsorption and supercritical water regeneration studies, phenol and organic dye RED 31 were selected as the representative adsorbates. The adsorption and regeneration characteristics of activated anthracite were compared with those of a commercial activated carbon. The results indicate that the activated anthracite prepared showed comparable phenol adsorption capacity but significantly lower dye adsorption capacity than the commercial one. However, supercritical water regeneration efficiency was remarkably high. The first/second regeneration efficiencies of commercial activated carbon and activated anthracite exhausted with phenol were 55/55 and 65/65%, respectively, and in the case of RED 31, 78/79 and 338/317%, respectively, with losses of activated carbon less than 4% per regeneration. Because of little loss of activated carbon during successive regenerations, this SWR regeneration method was suitable for regenerating spent activated carbon or anthracite.

  8. Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangling; Chen, Qiaozhen; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Ruan, Chongying

    2015-06-16

    A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anthracite substrates, the purification effects of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate were improved by various degrees, and the purification effect of the medium particle size anthracite is better than that of the large size one. The medium size anthracite modified by ZnCo-LDHs had optimal performance with average removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate reaching 95%, 95% and 98%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity on ZnCo-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs modified medium sizes anthracites were 65.79 (mg/kg) and 48.78 (mg/kg), respectively. In comparison, the small size anthracite is not suitable for LDHs modification.

  9. Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anthracite substrates, the purification effects of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate were improved by various degrees, and the purification effect of the medium particle size anthracite is better than that of the large size one. The medium size anthracite modified by ZnCo-LDHs had optimal performance with average removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate reaching 95%, 95% and 98%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity on ZnCo-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs modified medium sizes anthracites were 65.79 (mg/kg and 48.78 (mg/kg, respectively. In comparison, the small size anthracite is not suitable for LDHs modification.

  10. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials.

  11. Chemical oxidation of anthracite with hydrogen peroxide via the Fenton reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, I.; Senftle, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solutions of 30% H2O2 ranging from pH = 0 to pH = 11.5 have been used to oxidize anthracite at room temperature. The inorganic impurities, primarily pyrite, catalysed the oxidation and reduction of H2O2 (the Fenton reaction) to form the hydroxyl radical; the oxidation of the organic matter was minimal and was observed only in strong acidic solutions (pH activated carbon sites in the coal surface is used to explain the oxidation of the demineralized anthracite. ?? 1984.

  12. Electric conductivity and aggregation of anthracite and graphite particles in concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.A. Fanina; A.N. Lopanov [Belgorod State Technological University, Belgorod (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-15

    A statistical model of the electric conductivity of a heterogeneous system based on coal and a binding agent is presented. In this system, a conductive phase appears because of particle aggregation. The model was tested in the systems of anthracite and graphite in cement stone. The consistency between the experimental and calculated electric conductivities with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9 was found on a linear interpolation of model parameters. It was found that the presence of a surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride) and a high-molecular-weight compound (polyvinyl acetate) changed the number of particles in anthracite and graphite aggregates to affect the specific conductivity of the heterogeneous system. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM TWO CHINESE ANTHRACITES IN THE PRESENCE OF OXIDATIVE ADDITIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张双全; 何维军; 王祖讷

    1998-01-01

    This paper broke with the conventional ways of oxidizing and catalyzing. It researcheda new way to prepare activated carbon from anthracites which employed oxidative additives. Itinvestigated the effects of the additive on adsorption and activation rate of the resultant activatedcarbon. The results showed that the new additives not only improved the adsorptivity but alsoincreased the activation rate greatly, which is able to decrease the preparation cost.

  14. Comparison of quartz sand, anthracite, shale and biological ceramsite for adsorptive removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Liyue; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Kirumba, George

    2014-02-01

    The choice of substrates with high phosphorus adsorption capacity is vital for sustainable phosphorus removal from waste water in constructed wetlands. In this study, four substrates were used: quartz sand, anthracite, shale and biological ceramsite. These substrate samples were characterized by Xray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy studies for their mineral components (chemical components) and surface characteristics. The dynamic experimental results revealed the following ranking order for total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency: anthracite > biological ceramsite > shale > quartz sand. The adsorptive removal capacities for TP using anthracite, biological ceramsite, shale and quartz sand were 85.87, 81.44, 59.65, and 55.98 mg/kg, respectively. Phosphorus desorption was also studied to analyze the substrates' adsorption efficiency in wastewater treatment as well as the substrates' ability to be reused for treatment. It was noted that the removal performance for the different forms of phosphorus was dependent on the nature of the substrate and the adsorption mechanism. A comparative analysis showed that the removal of particulate phosphorus was much easier using shale. Whereas anthracite had the highest soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) adsorptive capacity, biological ceramsite had the highest dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) removal capacity. Phosphorus removal by shale and biological ceramsite was mainly through chemical adsorption, precipitation or biological adsorption. On the other hand, phosphorus removal through physical adsorption (electrostatic attraction or ion exchange) was dominant in anthracite and quartz sand.

  15. The effect of calcination on reactive milling of anthracite as potential precursor for graphite production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess-Clifford, Caroline E.; Van Essendelft, Dirk T. [The EMS Energy Institute, C211 Coal Utilization Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Narayanan, Deepa L. [Puget Sound Energy, 10885 NE 4th PSE-09S, Bellevue, WA 98004 (United States); Jain, Puja; Lueking, Angela D. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 120 Hosler, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sakti, Apurba [School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The effect of a pretreatment using reactive ball milling and calcination on the graphitizability of an anthracite coal is explored. A thermal anneal of Buck Mountain anthracite at 1400 C in argon increased the L{sub c} crystallite dimension (from 12 to 20 A) and led to an increase in the oxidation temperature of the product. Ball milling of the coal reduced particle size with a nominal effect on carbon order and the degree of graphitization after the 1400 C thermal anneal (L{sub c} from 18 to 29 A). Ball milling in cyclohexene led to a substantial increase in the graphitizability at 1400 C (L{sub c} from 12 to 50 A). The enhanced reactivity was due to both carbon structure and introduced metal. The products of the mechano-chemical pretreatment and thermal anneal consisted of nanographene ribbons and multi-walled nanopolyhedral particles. It oxidized at moderate temperatures and had a high (74.3%) degree of graphitization based on X-ray diffraction analysis; the derived material has potential as filler for production of graphite. (author)

  16. 77 FR 27108 - Order of Suspension of Trading; In the Matter of Anthracite Capital, Inc., Auto Data Network Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading; In the Matter of Anthracite Capital, Inc., Auto Data Network Inc... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Auto Data Network Inc. because...

  17. Influence of the degree of metamorphism and reduction of the anthracites of the Donbas on the properties of the products of their thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremin, I.V.; Ivanov, V.P.; Maloletnev, A.S.; Danilova, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the reported experiments, the influence of high-temperature treatment on the structure and properties of anthracites of the Donbas of different degrees of metamorphism and reduction has been studied. It has been shown that on thermal treatment up to 1250/degree/C feebly metamorphosed anthracites achieve structural orderedness to a considerable degree and their use in the electrode industry is possible. The predominating influence of the degree of metamorphism of the initial anthracites on the physicochemical properties of the products of their thermal treatment, as compared with that of the degree of reduction, has been established. 5 refs.

  18. Comparing potentials for gas outburst in a Chinese anthracite and an Australian bituminous coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guoqing; Saghafi Abouna

    2014-01-01

    Gas outbursts in underground mining occur under conditions of high gas desorption rate and gas content, combined with high stress regime, low coal strength and high Young’s modulus. This combination of gas and stress factors occurs more often in deep mining. Hence, as the depth of mining increases, the poten-tial for outburst increases. This study proposes a conceptual model to evaluate outburst potential in terms of an outburst indicator. The model was used to evaluate the potential for gas outburst in two mines, by comparing numerical simulations of gas flow behavior under typical stress regimes in an Australian gassy mine extracting a medium-volatile bituminous coal, and a Chinese gassy coal mine in Qinshui Basin (Shanxi province) extracting anthracite coal. We coupled the stress simulation program (FLAC3D) with the gas simulation program (SIMED II) to compute the stress and gas pressure and gas content distribution following development of a roadway into the targeted coal seams. The data from gas content and stress distribution were then used to quantify the intensity of energy release in the event of an outburst.

  19. Endotoxin release from biologically active bench-scale drinking water anthracite/sand filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, W.B.; Mayfield, C.I.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Endotoxin release from biologically active dual-media (anthracite/sand) bench-scale drinking water filters was investigated. The biological filters were typically net producers of endotoxin during normal operation with mean concentrations increasing from 6 endotoxin units (EU)/mL to 16 EU/mL in filter influent and effluent, respectively. The filter operating condition resulting in the greatest release of endotoxin occurred upon shutdown and subsequent restart, with the highest observed filter effluent endotoxin concentration being 745 EU/mL in the first pore volume following the return of flow through the filter. Effluent samples collected following filter shutdowns were chlorinated to determine the effect of bacterial cell death on endotoxin release. Chlorination did not induce immediate 'dumping' of endotoxin, nor did holding the chlorinated samples for 5 d result in an increase in aqueous endotoxin concentration. In addition to endotoxin, measurable quantities of potassium were detected in the interstitial water in the biofilter during shutdown periods. In order to reduce potential risk to dialysis patients and humidifier users, it is recommended that, following even short biofilter shutdowns, filters should be immediately backwashed or, failing this, the first five pore volumes of effluent water be discharged to waste to allow endotoxin levels to return to pre-shutdown values.

  20. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Effects of High-Content Limstone Addition on Combustion Characteristics of Taixi Anthracite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; LI Mei; SUN Min; WEI Xian-yong

    2004-01-01

    Combustion characteristics of Taixi anthracite admixed with high content of limestone addition were investigated with thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that limestone addition has a little promoting effect on the ignition of raw coals as a whole. The addition of limestone is found to significantly accelerate the combustion and burnout of raw coals. The higher the sample mass is, the more significant the effect will be. The results also show that the change of limestone proportion between 45%-80% has little effect on ignition temperatures of coal in the blended samples. Increasing limestone content lowers the temperature corresponding to the maximum weight loss. Although higher maximum mass loss rates are observed with higher limestone content, the effect is found not ascribed to changing limestone addition, but to the decrease of absolute coal mass in the sample. The change of limestone proportion has little effect on its burnout temperature. Mechanism analysis indicates that these phenomena result mainly from improved heat conduction due to limestone addition.

  1. Water quality of large discharges from mines in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, 99 of the 102 coal mines in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania that discharged 1.0 cubic foot per second or more when water-quality samples were collected in 1975 were revisited. Water was not discharging from 15 of these 99 mines in 1991. Discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, sulfate, iron, manganese, alkalinity, and acidity were measured in water samples collected at 84 mines to assess changes in water quality from 1975 to 1991. The pH increased in water samples of 64 of the 81 mines. However, acidity was essentially unchanged. Concentrations of iron decreased in water discharge samples from 57 of 82 mines, manganese concentrations decreased in samples from 23 of 26 mines, and sulfate concentrations decreased in samples from 62 of 77 mines. The median change in sulfate was a decrease of 139 milligrams per liter. Alkalinity increased in water discharge samples from 43 mines, remained the same at 22 mines, and decreased at 14 mines. In 1975, the samples were collected during high base flow in the spring; in 1991, samples were collected during lower-than-normal base flow in the fall. This may have affected the comparison. Many mine discharges have elevated concentrations of aluminum, calcium, cobalt, iron, lithium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, strontium, zinc, and sulfate.

  2. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  3. Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

    2010-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

  4. Bentonite and anthracite in alginate-based controlled release formulations to reduce leaching of chloridazon and metribuzin in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Céspedes, F; Pérez García, S; Villafranca Sánchez, M; Fernández Pérez, M

    2013-08-01

    The leaching of herbicides through soil can be minimized using controlled release formulations (CRFs). In this research, bentonite and anthracite have been used as modifying agents in alginate-based CRFs prepared with chloridazon and metribuzin. These CRFs have been evaluated in a calcareous soil. The Kf and Koc values obtained from sorption experiments in soil have demonstrated a high leaching potential for both herbicides, mainly for metribuzin. Release kinetics in soil have showed that the control of release rate of chloridazon and metribuzin was possible by using bentonite and anthracite in CRFs, being this effect greater when we use anthracite as modifying sorbent. Using an empirical equation, the time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released (T50(soil)) was calculated. T50 values ranged between 2.88 d for metribuzin-bentonite alginate-based granules and 14.37 d for chloridazon-anthracite alginate-based granules, being the release rate higher in metribuzin CRFs than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, a linear correlation between T50 values in water and soil was obtained. Mobility experiments carried out in a calcareous soil have shown that the use of CRFs reduces the presence of herbicides in the leachate compared to technical products, mainly for chloridazon. We found that one could design a right profile in the release rate of active ingredients from CRFs in each agro-environmental situation, and thus prevent the environmental pollution derived from the use of chloridazon and metribuzin.

  5. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of nano iron oxide/iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica, with arsenic adsorption studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was com...

  6. Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Nano Iron Oxide/Iron-Coated Activated Carbon, Anthracite, Cellulose Fiber, and Silica, with Arsenic Adsorption Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was completed within a few minutes. The method used no additional fuel and nitrate, which is present in the precursor itself, to drive the reaction. The obtained samples were then characterized with X-ray mapping, scanning...

  7. Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Nano Iron Oxide/Iron-Coated Activated Carbon, Anthracite, Cellulose Fiber, and Silica, with Arsenic Adsorption Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was completed within a few minutes. The method used no additional fuel and nitrate, which is present in the precursor itself, to drive the reaction. The obtained samples were then characterized with X-ray mapping, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS, selected area diffraction pattern (SAED, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectroscopy. The size of the iron oxide/iron nanoparticle-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were found to be in the nano range (50–400 nm. The iron oxide/iron nanoparticles mostly crystallized into cubic symmetry which was confirmed by SAED. The XRD pattern indicated that iron oxide/iron nano particles existed in four major phases. That is, γ-Fe2O3, α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe. These iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were tested for arsenic adsorption through batch experiments, revealing that few samples had significant arsenic adsorption.

  8. Underground Coal Mine Methane Displacement by Injecting Low-pressure Gas into the Meta-anthracite Seam: Laboratory and Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the strong adsorption capacity of meta-anthracite, the gas content of a meta-anthracite seam can be as high as 10 m3/t, with a gas pressure lower than 0.74 MPa; this results in low efficiency of gas extraction in underground mines. To enhance low-pressure methane extraction efficiency in meta-anthracite seams, a new approach – methane displacement by gas injection – has been developed, investigated in the laboratory, and then applied in the field in the Fuyanshan coal mine. Laboratory results show that when the gas content of the coal seam is high, methane displacement by nitrogen injection is difficult. The volume of methane displaced is directly related to the pressure difference between the coal seam gas pressure and the injection gas pressure. If the total gas pressure is greater than 0.5 MPa after nitrogen injection, then the methane displacement efficiency will be greatly enhanced. It is also confirmed that the displacement efficiency can be improved by injecting inert gas to change the partial pressure of the methane. Field test data show quite good methane displacement efficiency.

  9. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. The study resulted in optimized running parameters for the shearers, and the rotating patterns of the shearer drums was altered (one-way cutting was employed. Mining height and roof supporting intensity were reduced. Besides, loose presplitting millisecond blasting and mechanized mining were applied to upgrade the coal quantity and the lump coal production rate. Additionally, the coalface end transloading, coalface crush, transport systems, underground storage, and main shaft skip unloading processes were improved, and fragmentation-prevention techniques were used in the washing and railway wagon loading processes. As a result, the lump coal production rate was maintained at a high level and fragmentation was significantly reduced. Because of using the parameters and techniques determined in this research, high-quality coal production and increased profits were achieved. The research results could provide theoretical guidance and methodology for other anthracite production bases.

  10. 2000 t/d分解炉内无烟煤燃烧机理的数值模拟研究%Numerical study of anthracite combustion mechanism in a 2000 t/d precalciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆海建; 陈作炳; 黄继全

    2007-01-01

    For the sake of avoiding the engineering blindness of burning anthracite in cement production, mixture fraction method is adopted to study the anthracite combustion mechanism in the precalciner of an oversea 2000 t/d (ton/day) new type dry-process cement production line. Firstly, the anthracite combustion states are simulated according to the design parameters of the precalciner.Secondly, the anthracite combustion mechanism is studied by simulating the combustion processes based on different injection velocity of pulverized coal. Finally, the main combustion mechanism of anthracite in the precalciner is mix-diffusion rate control;however, the pulverized anthracite must be injected into the chamber at a high speed, which makes the high temperature combustion air current rapidly back flow into the pulverized anthracite injected subsequently.%为避免水泥生产焚烧无烟煤技术的工程盲目性,本文采用混合分数方法数值研究了中材建设有限公司国外-2000 t/d生产线分解炉内无烟煤的燃烧机理.首先,根据分解炉的设计参数,模拟了分解炉内无烟煤的燃烧过程.其次,为研究分解炉内无烟煤的燃烧机理,模拟研究了煤粉不同喷射速度条件下的无烟煤的燃烧过程.最后得出,分解炉无烟煤的主要燃烧机制为混合-扩散速率控制,但无烟煤必须以较高的速度喷入燃烧室,将燃烧后的高温气流迅速回流到刚喷入煤粉中.

  11. A Study on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Characteristics from Anthracite Circulating Fluidized Bed Power Plant in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seehyung Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to tackle climate change effectively, the greenhouse gas emissions produced in Korea should be assessed precisely. To do so, the nation needs to accumulate country-specific data reflecting the specific circumstances surrounding Korea’s emissions. This paper analyzed element contents of domestic anthracite, calorific value, and concentration of methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O in the exhaust gases from circulating fluidized bed plant. The findings showed the concentration of CH4 and N2O in the flue gas to be 1.85 and 3.25 ppm, respectively, and emission factors were 0.486 and 2.198 kg/TJ, respectively. The CH4 emission factor in this paper was 52% lower than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. The N2O emission factor was estimated to be 46% higher than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. This discrepancy can be attributable to the different methods and conditions of combustion because the default emission factors suggested by IPCC take only fuel characteristics into consideration without combustion technologies. Therefore, Korea needs to facilitate research on a legion of fuel and energy consumption facilities to develop country-specific emission factors so that the nation can have a competitive edge in the international climate change convention in the years to come.

  12. A study on methane and nitrous oxide emissions characteristics from anthracite circulating fluidized bed power plant in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Jinsu; Lee, Jeongwoo; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2012-01-01

    In order to tackle climate change effectively, the greenhouse gas emissions produced in Korea should be assessed precisely. To do so, the nation needs to accumulate country-specific data reflecting the specific circumstances surrounding Korea's emissions. This paper analyzed element contents of domestic anthracite, calorific value, and concentration of methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) in the exhaust gases from circulating fluidized bed plant. The findings showed the concentration of CH₄ and N₂O in the flue gas to be 1.85 and 3.25 ppm, respectively, and emission factors were 0.486 and 2.198 kg/TJ, respectively. The CH₄ emission factor in this paper was 52% lower than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. The N₂O emission factor was estimated to be 46% higher than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. This discrepancy can be attributable to the different methods and conditions of combustion because the default emission factors suggested by IPCC take only fuel characteristics into consideration without combustion technologies. Therefore, Korea needs to facilitate research on a legion of fuel and energy consumption facilities to develop country-specific emission factors so that the nation can have a competitive edge in the international climate change convention in the years to come.

  13. Interaction of molten salts with a semi-anthracite char at 743 K. Influence on the gasification in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Serrano, V.; Alfaro-Dominguez, M.; Higes-Rolando, F.J. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica; Martin-Aranda, M.; Rojas-Cervantes, M.L.; Lopez-Peinado, A.J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    1997-12-31

    The treatments of a semi-anthracite char (AC) with molten salts followed by washing of the intermediate products with distilled water as a rule produce an increase in the surface area of micropores (S{sub mi}) and in the mean equivalent pore diameter (MEPD), which is greater for AC-MgO. The variation of MEPD is only slight for AC-CaO and AC-CoO. The reactivity of the carbon in air at 823 K enhances for a number of samples but especially for AC-CaO and AC-MgO. Washing with HCl generally results in a small increase in S{sub mi} and in a more uniform MEPD. The reactivity of the carbon decreases for most samples including AN and AC. This suggests that mineral components of the starting materials and chemical species present in distilled waterwashed samples (i.e. metal oxides in excess and reaction products of molten salts with the mineral fraction of AC) are catalytically active and that their removal from such samples occurs by washing with HCl. The presence of catalytic species seems to be greater for AC-MgO and AC-CaO than for the other samples. (orig.)

  14. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  15. Anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cameán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials that were prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes by high temperature treatment was investigated by galvanostatic cycling of lithium test cells. Some of the materials prepared have provided reversible capacities up to ~ 310 mA h g-1 after 50 discharge/ charge cycles. These values are similar to those of oil-derived graphite (petroleum coke being the main precursor which is currently used as anodic material in commercial lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Design, construction, operation and evaluation of a prototype anthracite culm combustion boiler unit. Facility test plan: startup and shakedown, parametric studies and long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This proposed performance study is to be performed in the anthracite culm prototype boiler located at Paxinos, Pennsylvania. The boiler is designed to produce 23,400 lb/hr of steam of 200 psig. Effects of operating variables on combustion efficiency, sulfur retention, erosion and corrosion will be analyzed during the runs. The boiler will be operated to determine its technical, economic and environmental performance and to project the viability of it for commercial operation. After the initial testing, the boiler performance will be evaluated over the long term operation.

  17. Select on anthracite washing and processing technology in Nuodong mine%糯东矿无烟煤分选工艺的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉英华; 张振红

    2014-01-01

    为提高无烟煤分选效果,分析了糯东矿煤质特性、粒度组成和可选性,确定原煤属低中灰~中灰、中高硫~高硫、低磷、特低抗破碎强度无烟煤,煤中硫以无机硫化铁硫形式为主;煤中细粒级含量较高,需加强细粒煤分选,粗煤泥可单独分选,产品易脱水;原煤可选性为中等可选。结合原煤性质,确定糯东选煤厂产品定位为:17煤分选中、小块煤用于化工用煤,末精煤用于高炉喷吹用煤;20煤分选中、小块煤用于化工用煤,混煤用于动力用煤。通过对比分析常用选煤方法及工艺的特点,确定糯东选煤厂无烟煤分选方案为:选前+100(80)mm检查性手选、-100(80)mm混合跳汰入选、粗煤泥干扰床分选机( TBS)分选、细煤泥浮选、尾煤浓缩压滤的联合工艺流程。%To improve the separation effects of anthracite,taking Nuodong mine as research object,analyze the coal quality characteristics, size composition,washability and floatability.The results show that the raw coal is low and low-medium ash,high-medium and high sulfur, low phosphorus,extra-low anti-breaking strength anthracite,the sulfur in coal is in the form of inorganic iron sulfide.Higher fine coal de-termines that its separation needs to be strengthened,the coarse slime can be individually sorted,the products are easy to dehydrate,the coal washability is medium optional.Combined with the properties of raw coal,determine the product positioning of Nuodong coal prepara-tion plant is that,the seventeenth coal separation lump coal is used in coal chemical industry,clean coal is used in blast furnace blowing. The twentieth coal separation lump coal is used in coal chemical industry,clean coal is used in pulverized coal injection into blast furnace. Through analyzing the features of the common preparation methods and process,determine the anthracite sorting scheme in Nuodong coal preparation plant.Before separation,treat the

  18. Extensive FE-SEM/EDS, HR-TEM/EDS and ToF-SIMS studies of micron- to nano-particles in anthracite fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Joana [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); DaBoit, Kátia [Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Flores, Deolinda [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2013-05-01

    The generation of anthropogenic carbonaceous matter and mixed crystalline/amorphous mineral ultrafine/nano-particles in the 1 to 100 nm size range by worldwide coal power plants represents serious environmental problems due to their potential hazards. Coal fly ash (CFA) that resulted from anthracite combustion in a Portuguese thermal power plant was studied in this work. The physico-chemical characterization of ultrafine/nano-particles present in the CFA samples and their interaction with environment are the aim of this study. The methodologies applied for this work were field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (HR-TEM/EDS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Some hazardous volatile elements, C, N, S and Hg contents were also determined in the studied samples. Generally, the CFA samples comprise carbonaceous, glassy and metallic solid spheres with some containing mixed amorphous/crystalline phases. The EDS analysis coupled with the FE-SEM and HR-TEM observations of the fly ash particles with 100 to 0.1 nm demonstrates that these materials contain a small but significant proportion of encapsulated HVEs. In addition, the presence of abundant multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amorphous carbon particles, both containing hazardous volatile elements (HVEs), was also evidenced by the FE-SEM/EDS and HR-TEM/EDS analysis. A wide range of organic and inorganic compounds was determined by chemical maps obtained in ToF-SIMS analysis. - Highlights: ► We examine changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles of coal mining. ► Increasing geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Electron bean and Tof-SIMS increase area information.

  19. 高原环境3500t/d熟料线100%燃无烟煤生产的系统设计%Design of 3500t/d clinker production line burning anthracite only

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾金土

    2013-01-01

      在1420 m海拔的贵州毕节江天水泥100%燃无烟煤工程设计中,对当地产无烟煤取样进行了燃烧特性研究分析,确定窑用无烟煤细度(R0.08mm)控制≤3%,分解炉用无烟煤细度(R0.08mm)控制≤2%。并重点对分解炉的形式与结构进行调整,控制分解炉系统煤粉停留时间约31.84 s;同时采用专用四通道窑头燃烧器、高效篦冷机和大窑门罩等措施,确保煤粉在窑炉内的快速完全燃烧。投产后,该生产线系统稳定,实现了优质高产运行。%  In design of Guizhou Bijie Jiangtian Cement burning anthracite project at the altitude of 1 420 m, combustion characteristic of local anthracite samples was studied, and the fineness of anthracite for kiln should be controlled at R0.08mm≤3%,and for precalciner at R0.08mm≤2%. The shape and structure of precalciner was adjusted to control residence time of coal powder about 31.84s. Measures as ap⁃plying special four-tunnel burner, high efficiency grate cooler and large kiln hood were adopted to ensure quick and complete combus⁃tion of coal powder. Since the production line was put into production,the whole system has been stable, realizing high quality and out⁃put.

  20. Anthracite combustion adaptability analysis on two main type W flame boiler%两种W火焰锅炉对燃烧无烟煤适应性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we first show a more detailed description of two main type W flame boilers,then through the analysis of its burner structure,combustion mode,adjustment means and other technical characteristics,as well as author's research results in other domestic power plants,summed up what furnace is more able to adapt to low-quality anthracite combustion.Hope for could be as a reference for boiler type selection,in particular the ultra-low grade volatile anthracite boiler Selection.%本文较为详细地介绍了目前国内的两种主要流派W火焰锅炉,通过分析其燃烧器结构、配风方式、运行调整手段等技术特点,以及根据作者在国内电厂的调研结果,总结出何种炉型更能够适应燃烧劣质无烟煤,以供锅炉选型尤其是燃用超低挥发份劣质无烟煤锅炉的选型作为参考。

  1. Biomass Compounded Coal and Anthracite for Tobacco Curing%生物质型煤与无烟散煤在烟叶烘烤中的应用效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐成龙; 贺帆; 孙建锋; 武圣江; 杨少杰; 杨晓东; 宫长荣

    2011-01-01

    2010年在云南曲靖进行了生物质型煤与无烟散煤的对比研究,通过试验分析了不同类型燃料的燃烧效率、添加次数与耗煤量,以及对烤后烟叶质量、烘烤经济效益的影响.研究结果表明:生物质型煤升温均衡,主要表现在烘烤定色阶段和干筋阶段;生物质型煤稳温效果好,主要表现在变黄期关键温度点38℃和定色期47℃,但总体耗煤量大、加煤频繁;燃料燃烧效率比无烟散煤平均高出4.0个百分点;烤后烟叶油分足、色度好;在提高中上等烟比例的同时,每100 kg干烟净利润增收95元,比使用无烟散煤增值9.8个百分点.生物质型煤采用静态渗透式扩散燃烧方式,利用生物质与煤的互补燃烧,具有高效的燃烧特性.%For curing tobacco, the biomass compounded coal (BCC) and anthracite were compared in Qujing, Yunnan in 2010. Effect of the different materials on burning efficiency, coal refill frequency and fuel consumption, as well as quality of the cured tobacco and curing benefits were examined. The results showed that BCC raised temperature steadily, exhibiting the effect mainly during the color-fixing and drying stages. It could maintain the curing temperature evenly, which was critical mainly during the yellowing at 38℃ and color-fixation at 47℃. But, the coal quantity needed was greater and the requirement for coal refill more frequent than anthracite. The burning efficiency of BCC was 4. 0 percent higher than the anthracite. The tobacco cured by using the former retained enough oil and sustained an attractive color. Hence, there was an increased proportion of high quality tobacco with an improved profit margin by 95 yuan/100 kg cured tobacco, which was 9. 8 percent higher, of the product cured by using BCC than anthracite. Furthermore, BCC applied the static immersion diffusion combustion mode to complement biomass and coal resulting in a highly efficient combustion. Therefore, BCC could potentially

  2. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  3. 不同类型 LDHs 对垂直流人工湿地无烟煤基质的覆膜改性及其脱氮效果研究%Coating Modification of Anthracite Substrates in Vertical-flow Constructed Wetlands by LDHs Synthesized from Different Metal Compounds and the Nitrogen Removal Efficiencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔凌; 郭露; 陈俊杰; 刘小婷; 徐璐; 陈巧珍; 王晓晓

    2014-01-01

    As one kind of vertical-flow constructed wetlands substrates, anthracite was selected in this experiment. LDHs( layered double hydroxides) were synthesized in alkaline conditions by co-precipitation of different kinds of metal compounds, such as CaCl2 , ZnCl2 , MgCl2 , FeCl3 , AlCl3 , CoCl3 . The synthesized LDHs were in-situ coated onto the surface of anthracite substrate to achieve the aim of modification. Simulated test columns were constructed to study the nitrogen removal efficiency of the urban sewage using the original anthracite substrates and 9 kinds of modified anthracite substrates. The results showed that: LDHs synthesized by all the 9 different kinds of methods could effectively modify the anthracite substrate by in-situ coating. With Mg2 ﹢ involved in the synthesis of modified substrates, good TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were observed. The modified anthracite substrates coated with MgCo-LDHs had the optimal performance with average TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies of higher than 80% and 85% , respectively. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by the modified anthracite substrates coated by LDHs reacted with Mg2 ﹢ and Fe3 ﹢ were also high. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by modified anthracite substrates coated with CaFe-LDHs and MgFe-LDHs were higher than 85% .%选取垂直流人工湿地无烟煤基质,采用不同类型金属化合物(CaCl2、 ZnCl2、 MgCl2、 FeCl3、 AlCl3、 CoCl3)两两组合方式,在碱性环境下共沉淀生成9种不同类型的层状双金属氢氧化物 LDHs 并覆膜于基质表面;构建基质试验柱,分别对未改性及9种 LDHs 覆膜改性无烟煤基质进行模拟垂直流人工湿地脱氮效果研究。结果表明,9种不同组合方式生成的 LDHs 均能有效地进行无烟煤基质覆膜改性;Mg2﹢参与合成的改性基质对 TN 和氨氮均有很好的去除效果,其中 MgCo-LDHs 改性基质对TN 的平均去除率超过80%,对氨

  4. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-11-23

    Axylus group is used to include the five genera Axylus Stål, 1877, Anthracites Redtenbacher, 1891 sensu stricto, Eucoptaspis Willemse, 1966, Eulobaspis gen. nov., and Heminicsara Karny, 1912. It is mainly based on a combination of the characters shape of pronotum, spiniform meso- and metasternal lobes, and similar basic ground plans of the male cerci, titillators and female subgenital plates. The five genera together with two superficially similar genera Euanthracites gen. nov. and Sulasara gen. nov. are fully revised. Papuacites gen. nov. is proposed for two New Guinean species formerly included in Anthracites. Nicsara Walker, 1869 is restricted to Australian species; Spinisternum Willemse, 1942 is synonymised with Heminicsara Karny, 1912; Odontocoryphus Karny, 1907 based on two nymphs is synonymised with Macroxiphus Pictet, 1888; Pseudoliara Karny, 1907 described after one nymph is regarded incertae sedis. 40 new combination of species are proposed: Axylus bimaculatus (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., A. inferior (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. inflatus (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. loboensis (De Haan, 1842) comb. nov., A. minutus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., A. nigrifrons (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. philippinus (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., A, taylori (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., and A. thoracicus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov. (all from Nicsara); Euanthracites apoensis (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., E. femoralis (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., E. rufus (Ingrisch, 1998) comb. nov., and E. tibialis (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Eucoptaspis inexpectatus (Willemse, 1953) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus Karny, 1907); Eulobaspis dehaani (Karny, 1920) comb. nov., E. emarginata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. moluccana (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., E. personata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. quadrimaculata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. rotundata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., and E. strigatipes (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Eulobaspis lobaspoides (Karny, 1907) comb. nov

  5. Ratio of Anthracite to Ilmenite of Titanium Slag Smelted by 30 MVA DC Arc Furnace%30MVA直流电弧炉冶炼钛渣配碳比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丰霞; 雷霆; 周林; 黄世弘; 吕改改

    2012-01-01

    工业生产中,为生产出合格的钛渣必须加入适量的碳作为还原剂,将高价氧化物还原为低价氧化物.云南某公司30 MVA大型密闭直漉电弧炉(DC炉)生产运行过程中,通过控制无烟煤用量与钛精矿用量之比——配碳比(ratio of anthracite to ilmenite,简称AIR),使生产在输入能量一定、钛精矿成分稳定的条件下力求获得良好的产品品质.生产通过中空石墨电极将钛精矿和无烟煤加入DC炉内,熔炼温度控制为1973 ~2023 K;熔炼输入功率为15 MVA;入炉钛精矿粒度为0.1~0.33 mm;入炉无烟煤粒径为5~25mm的比例大于85%.理论上熔炼还原1t钛精矿,将会产出526 kg渣和368 kg金属铁,O/I比率约为89.4%,理论配碳比约为7.895%.通过生产物料衡算得出,一定熔炼周期内的AIR平均值为12.228%,O/I比率平均值为81.317%.在配碳量不足的情况下,钛精矿中的FeO易于离解出氧并与碳结合,使FeO还原反应优先于TiO2等氧化物,碳最大可能的消耗在FeO的还原上;配碳量越高,则碳将用于还原难还原的氧化物(如MgO,CaO),MnO等)上,使FeO的还原受到抑制.配碳比还会影响DC电炉熔渣流动性和挂渣层.试生产熔炼周期内,通过调整AIR,实现了钛渣中TiO2品质的提高,其含量可从82%提高到89%以上.%Hie adequate carbon should be fed as reductant in order to achieve qualified titanium slag, and deoxidized the highoxide to lowoxide. The domestic first 30 MVA DC arc furnace of a company in Yunnan province obtained the favorable slag by controlling the ratio of anthracite to ilmenite (AIR) , in the case of certain energy input and stable component of ilmenite. The ilmenite and anthracite were put into DC furnace through hollow graphite electrode, meanwhile it was needed to control temperature between 1973 K and 2023 K, IS MVA of input power, 0. 1 ~0. 33 mm of partical size of ilmenite, the ratio of anthracite partical size range of 5 ~ 25 mm were more

  6. Research of supercapacitor electrode material preparation with Dafeng mine anthracite%大峰矿无烟煤制备超级电容器电极材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利娜; 杜美利; 郭明; 王水利

    2016-01-01

    以大峰矿无烟煤制备超级电容器电极材料,采用低温氮吸附法和X射线衍射法对最佳条件下制备的活性炭进行分析。结果表明:最佳条件下制备的活性炭电极材料在6 mol/L的KOH电解液中比电容为344.976 F/g。制备的活性炭呈无定型结构,主要以微孔为主,还有一定比例的中孔,孔径分布合理。电极材料电容性能良好、可逆性好,以双电层储能为主,循环性能良好,电容保持率在90%以上。%Dafeng mine anthracite was used to prepare supercapacitor electrode material, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption and X-ray diffraction were applied to analyze the preparation of activated carbon under optimal conditions. The results showed that the specific capacitance in 6mol/L KOH electrolyte of activated carbon electrode material prepared under optimal conditions is 344. 976F/g. The activated carbon was in amorphous structure with reasonable pore size distribution, mainly comprised of micropores, and a certain percentage of mesopores. The electrode material has favorable capacitive performance, reversibility and cycle performance with double electrode layer energy storage, and the capacitance retention rate is over 90%.

  7. Catalytic Activity of the Black Liquor and Calcium Mixture in CO2 Gasification of Fujian Anthracite%福建无烟煤CO2气化过程纸浆黑液和钙混合物的催化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    CO2 gasification of Fuijian high-metamorphous anthracite with black liquor (BL) and/or mixture of BL and calcium stuff (BL+Ca) as catalyst was studied by using a thermogravimetry under 750-950 ℃ at ambient pressure. When the coal was impregnated with an appropriate quantity of Ca and BL mixture, the catalytic activity of CO2 gasification was enhanced obviously. With a loading of 8%Na-BL+2%Ca, the carbon conversion of three coal samples tested reaches up to 92.9%-99.3% at 950℃ within 30min. The continuous formation of alkali surface compounds such as ([-COM], [-CO2M]) and the presence of exchanged Ca, such as calcium phenolate and calcium carboxylates (COO)2Ca, contribute to the increase in catalytic efficiency, and using BL+Ca is more efficient than that adding BL only. The homogeneous model and shrinking-core model were applied to correlate the data of conversion with time and to estimate the reaction rate constants under different temperature. The corresponding reaction activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor of three anthracites were estimated. It is found that Ea is in the range from 73.6 to 121.4kJ·mol-1 in the case of BL+Ca, and 74.3 to 104.2kJ·mol-1 when only BL was used as the catalyst, both of which are much less than that from 143.5 to 181.4kJ·mol-1 if no catalyst used. It is clearly demonstrated that both of BL+Ca mixture and BL could be the source of cheap and effective catalyst for coal gasification.

  8. Investigation on Steam Gasification of High-metamorphous Anthracite Using Mixed Black Liquor and Calcium Catalyst%纸浆黑液和钙混合催化剂进行高变质无烟煤水蒸气气化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gul-e-Rana JAFFRI; 张济宇

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic effects of single and mixed catalysts,i.e.single 3%Ca and 5%Na-BL(black liquorl catalysts and mixed 3%Ca+5%Na-BL catalyst,on carbon conversion,gasification reaction rate constant and activation energy'relative amount of harrntUJ pollutant like sulphur contatning gases have been investigated by thermogravimetry in steam gasification under temperature 750℃ to 950℃ at ambient pressure for three high-metamorphous anthracites (Longyan.Fenghai and Youxia coals in Fujian Province).The mixed catalyst of 3%Ca+5%Na-BL increases greatly the carbon conversion and gasification rate constant by acceleratmg the gasilicaUon reaction C+H2O→CO+H2due tO presence of alkali surface compounds [COM],[CO2M] and exchanged calcium phenolate and calcium carboxylate(--COO)2.By adding CaCO3 into BL catalyst in gasification,in addition to improving the catalyst function and enhancing the carbon conversion,the effective desulphurization is also achieved,but the better operating temperature should be below 900℃.The homogenous and shrinking core models can be successfully emoloyed to correlate the relations between the conversion and the gasification time and to estimate the reaction rate constant.The reaction activation energy and pre-exponential factor are estimated and the actlvatiOn energY tor mixed catalyst is in a range of 98.72-166.92 kJ·mol-1.much less than 177.50-196.46 kJ·mol-1 for non.catalytic steam gasification for three experimental coals.

  9. 电煅煤骨料表面生长碳纳米管对高炉炭砖性能的影响%Effect of electrically calcined anthracite aggregates anchored with carbon nanotubes on properties of carbon block for blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同生; 桑绍柏; 李亚伟

    2016-01-01

    利用电煅煤骨料负载催化剂硝酸镍,通过化学气相沉积(CVD)方法在电煅煤骨料表面成功催化生长出碳纳米管(CNTs)。以预处理过的电煅煤骨料为原料制备炭砖试样,借助 X 射线衍射分析、扫描电子隧道显微镜、压汞仪和激光导热仪分析了预处理电煅煤骨料的引入对炭砖在埋碳气氛下经1000℃和1400℃烧后的显微结构和性能的影响。结果表明,将预处理的电煅煤骨料引入到炭砖中,由于促进了试样中β-SiC、AlN 及β-Sialon 相的大量生成,炭砖试样的耐压强度和导热系数得到提高,其微孔特性得到改善。%Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)were successfully synthesized on the surface of electrically cal-cined anthracite (ECA)by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)method with Ni(NO 3 )2 ·6 H 2 O as cata-lyzer.The carbon block samples were prepared subsequently by using those ECA aggregates as the raw material.The effects of pre-treated ECA aggregates on microstructures and properties of carbon block samples heated in coke bed at 1000 ℃ and 1400 ℃ were investigated by XRD,SEM,EDS,mer-cury porosimetry and laser thermal conductivity meter.The results show that when ECA aggregates treated by CVD method are introduced into carbon blocks,the formation of AlN,β-SiC and β-Sialon ceramic phases in great quantities are promoted.As a result,the cold crushing strength,thermal con-ductivity as well as micro-pore properties of carbonized samples can be improved.

  10. 福建无烟煤Na2CO3催化气化过程的比表面变化特性%Variation of specific surface area in catalytic gasification process of Fujian anthracite with Na2CO3 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦; 张济宇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the steam gasification experiments of "Fujian Jianxin" anthracite with different catalyst loadings of Na2CO3 in the thermal balance at 85O℃ , decomposition of Na2CO3 itself and mass loss arising from the reaction of Na2CO3 with carbon in coal were examined. Also, the change of adsorption-desorption isotherms of coal samples at different conversions were measured with the specific surface area analyzer. Type I adsorption-desorption of a narrow slit micropore configuration with a close end was mainly shown at a lower Na2CO3 loading and lower conversions, while type II adsorption-desorption of open mesopores and macropores with two-end opening holes was formed at a higher Na2CO3 loading and higher conversions. H4-type hysteresis loop with slit and ink-bottle pore surface appeared at and beyond the catalyst saturation loading of 12% Na2CO3. The specific surface area and pore-size distribution at different Na2CO3 loadings and conversions were calculated using BET equation and T-plot model. These calculation indicated that all of specific surface area appeared to be increasing at first then decreasing with increasing conversion extent of coal. The split and crosslinking of more micropores and the reduction of micropore specific surface area were the result of the increase of active sites of carbon and gasification rate due to the loading and dispersing of Na2CO3 catalyst. The change of specific surface area with increasing at first then decreasing became more smooth with more loading of Na2CO3. At the catalyst saturation loading of 12% Na2CO3, the sufficient filling and uniform dispersion of catalyst led to increase of active sites on micro-crystalline structure surface of more inert carbon and the split and crosslinking expansion of more micropores in the gasification process. However, at the termination gasification reaction with deep conversion, all of specific surface area were close to zero, clearly showing maximum conversion of coal and uniform

  11. The Influence Of Calcite On The Ash Flow Temperature For Semi-Anthracite Coal From Donbas District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čarnogurská Mária

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research focused on the lowering of ash flow temperature at semianthracite coal from Donbas district by means of additive (calcite dosing. Ash fusion temperatures were set for two coal samples (A, B and for five various states (samples of ash without any additives, with 1%, with 3%, with 5% and with 7% of the additive in total. The macroscopicphotographic method was used for identifying all specific temperatures. Obtained outputs prove that A type coal has a lower value of sphere temperature than B type coal in the whole scope of percentage representation of the additive. The flow temperature dropped in total from 1489 °C to 1280 °C, i.e. by 14% during the test of coal of type A with 7% of the additive; while it was near 10% for coal of type B (from 1450 °C to 1308 °C. Numerical simulations of the process showed that it is not effective to add an additive with a grain size lower than 280 μm by means of wastevapour burners.

  12. Study on physico - chemical properties of Korean anthracite for utilization development - application to filtering materials for waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites. The selected Jangseong coal for filtering material has low Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI : 38.38) and crushed two granule size. One is 1-2 mm size (effective size : 0.77 mm, uniformity coefficient : 1.70) and the other is 2-4 mm size (2.04 mm, 1.37) First, we had application test to find out the possibility of 2-4 mm sample for using water filtering material instead of silica sand in Sandflo filter. The result were unsuitable for treatment efficiency and micron size granule. But it will be solution with control of granule size and washing of coal. For feasibility study, the small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment plant of Lotte-chilsung beverage Co. to use the precipitated water during filtration test processed by purifying system. Measurement items are filtration rate, temperature of waste water, Electric Conductivity (EC), pH, turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrogen Nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N), Organophosphorus and trace elements content (Zn, Al, Fe, Mg, K) of the supplied water and filtered water were carried out to find the filtration capacity of coal. The results indicated decreasing degree in turbidity (1-2 mm : 15.08 %, 2-4 mm : 11.58 %), COD (1-2 mm : 5.76 %, 2-4 mm : 5.49 %) and increasing degree in DO (1-2 mm : 11.25 %, 2-4 mm : 10 %). Trace elements removal degree of filtered waste water were about 30 % for Fe and 5 % for K. (author). 32 refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Applied investigation on the interaction of hazardous elements binding on ultrafine and nanoparticles in Chinese anthracite-derived fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: lfsoliveira@univates.br [Centro Universitario Univates, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento, Rua Avelino Tallini, 171, Universitario, 95900-000 Lajeado, RS (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Jasper, Andre [Centro Universitario Univates, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento, Rua Avelino Tallini, 171, Universitario, 95900-000 Lajeado, RS (Brazil); Andrade, Maria L. [Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Sampaio, Carlos H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dai, Shifeng; Li, Xiao; Li, Tian; Chen, Weimei; Wang, Xibo; Liu, Huidong; Zhao, Lixin [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Hopps, Shelley G.; Jewell, Robert F. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Hower, James C., E-mail: james.hower@uky.edu [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    A multifaceted instrumental approach was employed to determine the chemistry and mineralogy of pulverized-coal-combustion fly ashes from two Chinese power plants. Techniques included traditional optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis along with a variety of electron beam methods. The aim is to demonstrate and bring together the wide variety of procedures dealing with F as the key element of concern, and determining its location in the mineral nanoparticles. The Hg content of the Anwen (Songzao coalfield) fly ashes is higher than that of the Diandong (East Yunnan) fly ashes, possibly owing to the greater C and Cl in the Anwen fly ashes. Both fly ash sources contain a variety of amorphous and nano-crystalline trace-element-bearing particles, both associated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and as particles independent of carbons.

  14. Treatment to incrustation in rotary kiln using anthracite as fuels%以无烟煤为燃料的回转窑结后圈的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谷丰

    2008-01-01

    我厂2号熟料生产线于2004年12月投产以来一直运行正常,熟料产量稳定在2500-2600t/d之间,主要设备见表1。2008年3月窑运行1个月后首次出现了结后圈的问题,经过10天的处理,后结圈消失,处理取得了成功,现将结圈的情况和处理过程介绍如下,供各位同行参考。

  15. A synchrotron-based local computed tomography combined with data-constrained modelling approach for quantitative analysis of anthracite coal microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Hao; Yang, Sam Y S; Xiao, Ti Qiao; Mayo, Sherry C; Wang, Yu Dan; Wang, Hai Peng

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying three-dimensional spatial distributions of pores and material compositions in samples is a key materials characterization challenge, particularly in samples where compositions are distributed across a range of length scales, and where such compositions have similar X-ray absorption properties, such as in coal. Consequently, obtaining detailed information within sub-regions of a multi-length-scale sample by conventional approaches may not provide the resolution and level of detail one might desire. Herein, an approach for quantitative high-definition determination of material compositions from X-ray local computed tomography combined with a data-constrained modelling method is proposed. The approach is capable of dramatically improving the spatial resolution and enabling finer details within a region of interest of a sample larger than the field of view to be revealed than by using conventional techniques. A coal sample containing distributions of porosity and several mineral compositions is employed to demonstrate the approach. The optimal experimental parameters are pre-analyzed. The quantitative results demonstrated that the approach can reveal significantly finer details of compositional distributions in the sample region of interest. The elevated spatial resolution is crucial for coal-bed methane reservoir evaluation and understanding the transformation of the minerals during coal processing. The method is generic and can be applied for three-dimensional compositional characterization of other materials.

  16. Meditation on the construction of exemplar plant for briquetted coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Kuiyi [China National Coal Industry Import and Export Corporation, Beijing (China)

    1997-12-31

    China uses a considerable amount of anthracite, but the fines from anthracite mining are not sufficiently used. This project involved the construction of a plant for the manufacture of anthracite briquettes under high pressure, for use in gasification plants. The characteristics of the coals used and the types of briquette formed are described. 2 tabs.

  17. Key Technonlogy of the Steady Combustion of Anthracite in Cement Rotary Furnaces%无烟煤在水泥回转窑中稳定燃烧的关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾东和; 熊立红

    2004-01-01

    本文通过分析煤粉气流着火特性和计算煤粉燃烧所需要的时间,指出了影响无烟煤着火和稳定燃烧的主要因素,提出了采用多风道燃烧器、降低煤粉细度和提高二次风温等关键技术,以实现无烟煤在水泥回转窑中稳定燃烧.

  18. 无烟煤在预分解窑系统的燃烧机理与应用%Anthracite's combustion mechanism and the practice in rotary kiln with precalciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永生

    2005-01-01

    随着新型干法水泥生产技术的飞速发展和以无烟煤作为燃料在我国东南地区的迅速推广,研究分析无烟煤的燃烧和选用,对充分有效利用紧缺的煤炭资源,降低生产成本具有重大意义.

  19. Comparison of Enhanced Filtration Effect between Bio-ceramic Filter and Anthracite Filter%陶粒生物滤池与无烟煤滤池强化过滤效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓岚; 唐升卿; 李涛; 温东辉

    2007-01-01

    以北京某自来水厂处理密云水库蓄水的出水(混凝沉后水)为试验用水,通过中试对比研究了陶粒生物滤池与无烟煤滤池的过滤效果.结果表明,陶粒生物滤池与无烟煤滤池对水中颗粒物的去除效果接近;对于水中的浊度,无烟煤滤层对其去除效果较好,而陶粒滤层的过滤效果则较差,需要依靠石英砂的截污作用来降低浊度;陶粒对有机物的过滤效果优于无烟煤的,陶粒生物滤池对TOC的去除率为14.9%~30.2%,对CODMn的去除率为13.1%~38.5%;与无烟煤滤池相比,陶粒生物滤池具有水头损失增长快、周期较短、初滤水中颗粒物较多等缺点.

  20. Application Research on the Integrated Development Model of Coal Mining and Gas Extraction in Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group%晋煤集团采煤采气一体化综合开发模式应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊威

    2008-01-01

    本文首先介绍了煤层气开发模式的种类及适用性,阐述并探讨了采煤采气一体化的开发模式,并以晋域煤业集团为例对实现采煤采气一体化的开发模式详细论述,对今后煤炭开采与煤层气开发的紧密结合提出了建议.

  1. Design, construction, operation and evaluation of a prototype culm combustion boiler/heater unit. Final design of prototype unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A final design of a prototype anthracite culm combustion boiler has been accomplished under Phase I of DOE Contract ET-78-C-01-3269. The prototype boiler has been designed to generate 20,000 pounds per hour of 150 psig saturated steam using low Btu (4000 Btu per pound) anthracite culm as a fuel. This boiler will be located at the industrial park of the Shamokin Area Industrial Corporation (SAIC). This program is directed at demonstrating the commercial viability of anthracite culm fueled FBC steam generation systems.

  2. Physical properties of shungite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinska, Barbara [Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environment Protection, University of Science and Technology-AGH, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pusz, Slawomira; Krzesinska, Marta; Pilawa, Barbara [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Science, ul. Sowinskiego 5, 44-121 Gliwice (Poland)

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents the results of physical parameters such as bulk porosity, true density, optical reflectance, dynamic elastic moduli, X-ray diffractograms and EPR spectra, determined for shungite. All shungite samples studied are considerably denser materials than anthracite - high rank coal with similar carbon content. Bright shungites were porous with the very dense matrix, while the dull shungite is compact, almost non-porous material. Elastic moduli of the dull shungite are generally higher than those of bright shungites and anthracite. All shungites studied (including anthracite) exhibit the directional dependence of elasticity. The maximum reflectance values of bright shungites are higher than those for dull shungite and anthracite. That corresponds with the denser matrix of these samples and suggests the greatest ordering of graphene layers in the case of bright shungites and also suggests some similarity to meta-anthracite from Paleozoic basins. Reflectance anisotropy of shungites studied are generally lower than that of anthracite. Ordering of graphene layers in bright shungite, as a high rank coal variety, is obvious, but lower anisotropy than that of anthracite is a surprise. X-ray studies confirm a high density of bright shungite. Interplanar distances d{sub hkl} of the shungite (d{sub 002} = 3.48 Aa) are closer to those of anthracite (d{sub 002} = 3.52 Aa) than to those of graphite (d{sub 002} = 3.35 Aa). All results described here show the differences in molecular structure and degree of graphitisation of carbonaceous matter in bright, semi-bright and dull varieties of shungite. Our data could play a key role in production of materials composed of carbon nanoparticles. (author)

  3. Effects of surface chemistry on the porous structure of coal. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Radovic, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Selective presaturation and saturation transfer {sup 129}Xe NMR experiments were performed on a high volatile C bituminous coal and an anthracite. The experiments detect the movement of xenon atoms among different regions of the internal surface, and to the external surface of the coal particles. The results indicate that adsorbed xenon atoms can move to the external surface of the bituminous coal significantly faster than in the anthracite. The results are interpreted in terms of the porous structure of the coals.

  4. [Study on optimization gradation of substrates in vertical flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-mei; Zhang, Xiang-ling; Wang, Rong; Xu, Dong; He, Feng; Wu, Zhen-bin

    2010-05-01

    Bio-ceramic, anthracite, zeolite, steel slag and vermiculite were used as substrate according to different kinds of gradation to treat wastewater in vertical-flow constructed wetlands simulation systems. The results show that the removal ability of COD by graded substrates according to particle size are better than single substrates, and average removal efficiency by graded bio-ceramic is up to 72.91%. The removal rate of TN by graded zeolite, which reaches 91.23%, is higher than single zeolite. No significant difference (p nitrogen removal between single and combined use of bio-ceramic and zeolite. The pH values in effluents of all columns filled with steel slag and anthracite are within normal limits, but phosphorus removal of all columns filled with steel slag and anthracite are lower than that filled with single substrates, except for the column filled with anthracite, vermiculite and steel slag from up to down. No difference between planted and unplanted systems can be observed. The present results probably provide a basis for vertical-flow constructed wetland design, among which based on the characteristic of wastewater proper selection of high-efficiency graded substrates, e.g., graded bio-ceramic, graded zeolite, graded anthracite, combined use of bio-ceramic, zeolite and anthracite, is a guarantee of better performance at a high hydraulic loading rate.

  5. Shungites: origin and classification of a new carbon mineral resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankin, P.F.; Galdobina, L.P.; Kalinin, Yu.K.

    1987-10-01

    The discovery of a new mineral resource in Karelia-shungite- and the confirmation of the finding in the geological literature have a long history. In 1876, local peasants found black stones near the village of Shun'ga, which were taken to be coal and called Olenets anthracite. A discussion began on the nature of this strange anthracite, which did not burn in furnaces. The found of the Karelian geological school, A.A. Inostrantsev, was the first to doubt that Olenets anthracite was really coal, and he named it shungite. Shungites, very unusual, barely combustible high-carbon rocks, have a variety of potential uses. Although details remain obscure, the authors propose a metasomatic origin involving migration and reduction of carbonaceous compounds driven by igneous intrusions. 10 references.

  6. United States-Vietnam Relations 1945-1967. Book 8 of 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-09-20

    DANIEL, Virginia G. V. (SONNY) MONTGOMERY, Mississippi MICHAEL J. HARRINGTON, Massachusetts HAROLD RUNNELS, New Mexico LES ASPIN, Wisconsin LESLIE C...Minerals The pro vinos of Tonkin and Laos ore rich in minerals, the latter largely uncxploitod. high quality.anthracite coal deposits arc found north of

  7. Graphite Deposits from Mt. Psunj in Slavonia (Eastern Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Šinkovec, B.; Krkalo, E.

    1994-01-01

    In the area of Mt. Psunj graphite occurrences and mineral deposits are found in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks. The graphite occurrences and mineral deposits originated by the regional metamorphism of coal. Graphite belongs to anthracite and graphite d2, respectively, as determined by X-ray and thermal analyses.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  9. Sterile soil from Antarctica: organic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, N H; Bauman, A J; Cameron, R E; Geiger, P J; Hubbard, J S; Shulman, G P; Simmonds, P G; Westberg, K

    1969-05-30

    Soils from the dry-valley region of Antarctica can be sterile by the usual microbiological criteria and yet contain significant amounts of organic carbon. Examination of one such soil shows that the organic material is finely divided anthracite coal. These findings have significant implications for the biological exploration of Mars.

  10. Exploratory drilling methods for bituminous coal in Appalachia, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, L.; Michota, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using boreholes as an example, exploratory drilling methods near anthracite mines are demonstrated. The borehole designs are described in detail and their primary diameters are given together with the drilling equipment used and the organization of labor. The results obtained are also given.

  11. 49 CFR 1248.101 - Commodity codes required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Manganese Ores. 107 Tungsten Ores. 108 Chromium Ores. 109 Miscellaneous Metal Ores. 11 Coal. 111 Anthracite... Nonferrous Metal Basic Shapes. 3351 Copper, brass or bronze and other copper base alloy basic shapes. 3352... castings. 2262 Brass, bronze, copper, and copper base alloy castings. 339 Miscellaneous Primary...

  12. 77 FR 14438 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    .... Individuals may inspect copies of the petitions and comments during normal business hours at the address... petitioner states that: (1) Due to the steep pitch encountered in mining anthracite coal veins, contours... to the pitch of the vein and rock separation. (6) Additionally, the mine workings above and below...

  13. A breakthrough in coal gasification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Tearning up with engineers of the Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group in north China's Shanxi Province, CAS researchers have successfully carried out a 1.0MPa, long-period (up to 72 hours) high-pressure test on a semi- industrial platform of pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized bed (AFB) coal gasification.

  14. Geologic controls on thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in the Appalachian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H. [U.S. Geological Survey, National Center, MS 956, Reston, Virginia 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40511 (United States); Levine, Jeffrey R. [Geological Consultant, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Grady, William C. [West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin were determined by compiling and contouring published and unpublished vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements. VR isograd values range from 0.6% in eastern Ohio and eastern Kentucky (western side of the East Kentucky coal field) to greater than 5.5% in eastern Pennsylvania (Southern Anthracite field, Schuylkill County), corresponding to ASTM coal rank classes of high volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite. VR isograds show that thermal maturity of Pennsylvanian coals generally increases from west to east across the basin. The isograds patterns, which are indicative of maximum temperatures during burial, can be explained by variations in paleodepth of burial, paleogeothermal gradient, or a combination of both. However, there are at least four areas of unusually high-rank coal in the Appalachian basin that depart from the regional trends and are difficult to explain by depth of burial alone: 1) a west-northwestward salient centered in southwestern Pennsylvania; 2) an elliptically-shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; 3) the eastern part of Black Warrior coal field, Alabama; and 4) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, in eastern Pennsylvania. High-rank excursions in southwest Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland, associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to higher heat flow from fluids, the Pennsylvania Anthracite region also experienced greater depth of burial. The high-rank excursion in southwest Virginia was probably primarily controlled by overburden thickness, but may also have been influenced by higher geothermal gradients. (author)

  15. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  16. Influence of nitrogen hetero-substitution on the electrochemical performance of coal-based activated carbons measured in non-aqueous electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuan-xiang; DUAN Yu-ling; XING Bao-lin; ZHAN Liang; QIAO Wen-ming; LING Li-cheng

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing carbons were prepared by modification of activated carbons. The modified carbons were used as electrode materials with improved electrochemical performance. Precursor anthracite was activated by KOH (KOH: anthracite= 1:1), modified by melamine or urea and then treated at 1173 K to obtain the modified carbons. The porous structure, the chemical composition and the electrochemical characteristics of the carbons were investigated by nitrogen sorption, XPS and electrochemical methods respectively. Electrochemical experiments were performed in an organic electrolytic solution of 1 M (C2H5)4NBF4/PC.The samples modified by the different methods showed differences in chemical composition that introduced varying degrees of electrochemical performance enhancement. The presence of nitrogen enhanced the electron donor properties and the surface wettability of the activated carbons: this ensured a sufficient utilization of the exposed surface for charge storage.

  17. Study of oxidative desulphurization process of coal with different metamorphism degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SPYSH'YEV; V GUNKA; YPRYSIAZHNYI; K SHEVCHUK; A PATTEK-JANCZYK

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative desulphurization process of coal with different metamorphism degrees treated by an air-steam mixture has been studied.It has been shown that the pyrite present in black coal and anthracite is oxidized with the sulphur dioxide formation,and the process chemical mechanism does not depend on the quality of organic matter.The medium-metamorphized coal,capable of turning into a plastic state and cake in the range of investigated temperatures ( 350 ~ 450 ℃ ),is desulphurized with the greatest difficulty.The chemical mechanism dealing with the transformations of pyritic sulphur present in brown coal differs from similar processes taking place in black coal and anthracite,because FeS2 is converted with hydrogen sulphide formation at desulphurization.

  18. Characterization of nickel laterite reduction from Pomalaa, Sulawesi Tenggara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhamdani, Ahmad Rizky; Petrus, Himawan T. B. M., E-mail: bayu.petrus@ugm.ac.id; Fahrurrozi, Moh. [Material and Mineral Processing Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika 2 Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The effect of using different reductors in the reduction process of nickel laterite was investigated. In this work, the author conducted the reduction of nickel laterite ores by anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, in air and CO{sub 2} atmosphere, within the temperature ranged from 800°C and 1000°C. The results indicate that at higher temperatures, the reduction reactions proceed more complete. According to the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, the type of carbon used greatly influence the rate of the reduction of nickel laterite. The order of reactivity is anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, respectively. The reduction atmospheric condition also greatly influences the reduction process. The reduction process in CO{sub 2} atmospheric condition gives a lot of significant decrease in hematite and magnetite presence, means that the reduction reactions proceed more complete compared to the reduction process in the air atmospheric condition.

  19. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  20. Treatment of a colored groundwater by ozone-biofiltration: pilot studies and modeling interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittmann, B.E.; Stilwell, D.; Garside, J.C.; Amy, G.L.; Spangenberg, C.; Kalinsky, A.; Akiyoshi, E. [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineers

    2002-07-01

    Pilot studies investigated the fates of color, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) by the tandem of ozone plus biofiltration for treating a source water having significant color (50 cu) and DOC (3.2 mg/l). Transferred ozone doses were from 1.0 to 1.8 g O{sub 3}/g C. Rapid biofilters used sand, anthracite, or granular activated carbon as media with empty-bed contact time (EBCT) up to 9 min. The pilot studies demonstrated that ozonation plus biofiltration removed most color and substantial DOC, and increasing the transferred ozone dose enhanced the removals. Compared to sand and anthracite biofilters, the GAC biofilter gave the best performance for color and DOC removal, but some of this enhanced performance was caused by adsorption, since the GAC was virgin at the beginning of the pilot studies.

  1. Combustion studies of coal-derived solid fuels. Part IV. Correlation of ignition temperatures from thermogravimetry and free-floating experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of TG as an efficient and practical method to characterize the combustion properties of fuels used in large-scale combustors is of considerable interest. Relative ignition temperatures of a lignite, an anthracite, a bituminous coal and three chars derived from this coal were measured by a free-floating technique. These temperatures were correlated with those estimated from TG burning profiles of the fuels. ?? 1992.

  2. The properties and structure of the carburizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations of the carburizers for foundry industry were presented in the article. The commonly used carburizers were selected for the experiments (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke of various grades, cupola coke and charcoal as well. The experiments consist of bulk and standard density, screen analysis (on the basis of it the equivalent diameter was calculated and the microstructure of the carburizers measurements. The chemical composition and basic properties of carburizers were described too.

  3. The properties and structure of the carburizers

    OpenAIRE

    K. Janerka; J. Jezierski; M. Pawlyta

    2010-01-01

    The results of examinations of the carburizers for foundry industry were presented in the article. The commonly used carburizers were selected for the experiments (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke of various grades), cupola coke and charcoal as well. The experiments consist of bulk and standard density, screen analysis (on the basis of it the equivalent diameter was calculated) and the microstructure of the carburizers measurements. The chemical composition and basic...

  4. Carburizer particle dissolution in liquid cast iron – computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bartocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper issue of dissolution of carburizing materials (anthracite, petroleum coke and graphite particle in liquid metal and its computer simulation are presented. Relative movement rate of particle and liquid metal and thermophsical properties of carburizing materials (thermal conductivity coefficient, specific heat, thermal diffusivity, density are taken into consideration in calculations. Calculations have been carried out in aspect of metal bath carburization in metallurgical furnaces.

  5. Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, J.

    2009-07-15

    During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and the Anthracite Region Independent Power Producers Association. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection directs and coordinates environmental projects. 5 photos.

  6. Chemical composition analysis of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the analysis of the chemical compositions of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland. The iron ore sintering process is the largest source of emissions of dust and gas pollution in the iron and steel industry. Hematite ores, magnetite concentrates, admixtures (dolomite, limestone and burnt lime, fuels (coke breeze, anthracite and by-products are used in Poland to produce the sinter mixture.

  7. Computer simulation of carburizers particles heating in liquid metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are introduced the problems of computer simulation of carburizers particles heating (anthracite, graphite and petroleum coke, which are present in liquid metal. The diameter of particles, their quantity, relative velocity of particles and liquid metal and the thermophysical properties of materials (thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity have been taken into account in calculations. The analysis has been carried out in the aspect of liquid metal carburization in metallurgical furnaces.

  8. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  9. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  10. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide; Rhode Island Supplement, Revised March 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    drying by tumbling in an airstream. The facility includes, but is not limited to, any washer, dryer , filter, and purification system; waste disposal...solvent added to any degreaser or dryer at a facility during the previous calendar year (CRIR 12 031 022(22.1.8)). Anthracite - a hard, black lustrous...Azeotropic Device - an air pollution control device wherein the dryer exhaust from a dry cleaning machine is routed to a tank where the perchloroethylene

  11. Preventing rock bursts at Ibbenbueren mine. Experience and trends; Gasausbruchsverhuetung auf dem Bergwerk Ibbenbueren. Erfahrungen und Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicke, C. [RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbueren GmbH, Ibbenbueren (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    At Ibbenbueren, anthracite is produced at a depth between 1000 and 1500 m. The seams have a high desorbable gas content of about 20 m{sup 3} CH4 (methane) per t of coal, and there is a high danger of rock bursts. This phenomenon has been known for more than 30 years. In total, 235 gas/coal bursts occurred so far. During the past 10 years, there was an average incidence of one per year. (orig.)

  12. Fast seam development as illustrated by Seam 65/68, Bauhoehe 6/7 Westen; Schnellentwicklung eines Strebes am Beispiel der Bauhoehe 6/7 Westen, Floez 65/68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beimdieck, J.; Stoettner, M.T. [DSK Anthrazit Ibbenbueren GmbH, Ibbenbueren (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Rock-mechanical analyses of floors and roofs as well as experience gained in the neighbouring level resulted in a plan that envisaged working through the fault at 1220 m and further construction of Strecke 7 Westen roadway up to 1600 m. This way, only 400 m of roadway must be constructed for access to a further anthracite coal volume of more than 120000 tvF. (orig.)

  13. Framework Guidance Manual for In Situ Wetland Restoration Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    used include coconut shell , coal (lignite, bituminous or anthracite), or wood. Treatment increases the specific surface area greatly (generally in...Ignatowicz, K., (2011). A mass transfer model for the adsorption of pesticide on coconut shell based activated carbon, International Journal of Heat and...solutions by banana stalks activated carbon, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 176(1-3):814-819. Satapanajaru, T., P. Anurakpongsatorn, P

  14. Selective detachment process in column flotation froth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Ozsever, A.V.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-05-15

    The selectivity in flotation columns involving the separation of particles of varying degrees of floatability is based on differential flotation rates in the collection zone, reflux action between the froth and collection zones, and differential detachment rates in the froth zone. Using well-known theoretical models describing the separation process and experimental data, froth zone and overall flotation recovery values were quantified for particles in an anthracite coal that have a wide range of floatability potential. For highly floatable particles, froth recovery had a very minimal impact on overall recovery while the recovery of weakly floatable material was decreased substantially by reductions in froth recovery values. In addition, under carrying-capacity limiting conditions, selectivity was enhanced by the preferential detachment of the weakly floatable material. Based on this concept, highly floatable material was added directly into the froth zone when treating the anthracite coal. The enriched froth phase reduced the product ash content of the anthracite product by five absolute percentage points while maintaining a constant recovery value.

  15. Structural changes during pitch-based carbon granular composites carbonisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A.; Santamaria, R.; Granda, M.; Menendez, R. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    This article deals with the study of carbon composites behavior during their carbonization. Composites were prepared using four granular carbons (graphite, anthracite, green petroleum coke, and foundry coke) and four pitches (a commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch, an air-blown and two thermally treated pitches). The evolution of the optical microstructure, porosity, volume, and weight of carbon composites was monitored at different intermediate carbonization temperatures (350, 500, 700, and finally 1000{sup o}C). The porosity of composites increases with carbonization due to volume changes and weight loss of pitches. Weight loss of carbon composites during their carbonization mainly depends on the pitch characteristics and it was slightly influenced by the presence of granular carbon. On the other hand, carbon composites with the commercial coal-tar pitch and foundry coke, anthracite, or graphite deform in the initial stages of carbonization (<350{sup o}C) probably due to the lower porosity of the green pellets and the high amount of low-molecular weight compounds of the pitch. Carbon composites with green petroleum coke underwent important dimensional changes during their carbonization, expanding initially and then shrinking at temperatures above 700{sup o}C. The type of granular carbon strongly influenced the microstructure of the final carbon composite, as a result of its effect on the development of mesophase. Graphite, anthracite and foundry coke delays mesophase development, whereas green petroleum coke accelerates mesophase formation.

  16. Polar polycyclic aromatic compounds from different coal types show varying mutagenic potential, EROD induction and bioavailability depending on coal rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wiebke; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Hollert, Henner; Achten, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Investigations of the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) have rarely considered the heterogeneity of coals and the impact of more polar PAC besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Earlier, we investigated the toxicity of eight heterogeneous coals and their extracts. In the present study, the hazard potential with respect to mechanism-specific toxicity of polar fractions of dichloromethane extracts from coals was studied. Polar extract fractions of all coal types except for anthracite induced EROD activity (determined in RTL-W1 cells), independent of coal type (Bio-TEQs between 23 ± 16 and 52 ± 22 ng/g). The polar fractions of all bituminous coal extracts revealed mutagenic activity (determined using the Ames Fluctuation test). No significant mutation induction was detected for the polar extract fractions from the lignite, sub-bituminous coal and anthracite samples, which indicates a higher dependency on coal type for polar PAC here. Additionally, information on bioavailability was derived from a bioaccumulation test using the deposit-feeding oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus which was exposed for 28 days to ground coal samples. Despite the high toxic potential of most coal extracts and a reduced biomass of Lumbriculus in bituminous coal samples, bioaccumulation of PAH and mortality after 28 days were found to be low. Limited bioaccumulation of PAH (up to 3.6 ± 3.8 mg/kg EPA-PAH) and polar PAC were observed for all coal samples. A significant reduction of Lumbriculus biomass was observed in the treatments containing bituminous coals (from 0.019 ± 0.004 g to 0.046 ± 0.011 g compared to 0.080 ± 0.025 g per replicate in control treatments). We conclude that bioavailability of native PAC from coals including polar PAC is low for all investigated coal types. In comparison to lignite, sub-bituminous coals and anthracite, the bioavailability of PAC from bituminous coals is slightly increased.

  17. Novel approaches in advanced combustion characterization of fuels for advanced pressurized combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J. [VTT Energy (Finland); Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This project is a part of the EU Joule 2 (extension) programme. The objective of the research of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) is to produce experimental results of the effects of pressure and other important parameters on the combustion of pulverized coals and their char derivates. The results can be utilized in modelling of pressurized combustion and in planning pilot-scale reactors. The coals to be studied are Polish hvb coal, French lignite (Gardanne), German anthracite (Niederberg) and German (Goettelbom) hvb coal. The samples are combusted in an electrically heated, pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR), where the experimental conditions are controlled with a high precision. The particle size of the fuel can vary between 100 and 300 {mu}m. The studied things are combustion rates, temperatures and sizes of burning single coal and char particles. The latter measurements are performed with a method developed by Tampere University of Technology, Finland. In some of the experiments, mass loss and elemental composition of the char residue are studied in more details as the function of time to find out the combustion mechanism. Combustion rate of pulverized (140-180 {mu}m) Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite were measured and compared with the data obtained earlier with Polish hvb coal at various pressures, gas temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in the second working period. In addition, particle temperatures were measured with anthracite. The experimental results were treated with multivariable partial least squares (PLS) method to find regression equation between the measured things and the experimental variables. (author)

  18. Removal of micropollutants during tertiary wastewater treatment by biofiltration: Role of nitrifiers and removal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattier, M; Reungoat, J; Keller, J; Gernjak, W

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which a suite of organic micropollutants (MPs) can be removed by biological filtration and the role of bioavailability and ammonia oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) in the biodegradation process. During approximately one year, laboratory-scale columns with 8 min empty bed contact time (EBCT) and packed with anthracite as filter media were used for treating a tertiary effluent spiked with a broad range of MPs at a target concentration of 2 μg L(-1). In parallel columns, aerobic biomass growth was inhibited by using either the biocide sodium azide (500 mg L(-1) NaN3) or allylthiourea (5 mg L(-1) ATU), specifically inhibiting nitrifying bacteria. Once the biomass had colonized the media, around 15% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contained in the untreated tertiary effluent was removed by non-inhibited columns. The removal of several MPs increased over time indicating the relevance of biological activity for the removal of MPs, while the negative control, the NaN3 inhibited column, showed no significant removal. Out of 33 MPs, 19 were recalcitrant (nitrification inhibitor. A relationship between the qualitative assessment of sorption of MPs on granular activated carbon (GAC) and their removal efficiency by biodegradation on anthracite was observed. This result suggested that the affinity of the MPs for GAC media could be a useful indicator of the bioavailability of compounds during biofiltration on anthracite.

  19. Coal and oil shale of Early Carboniferous age in northern Canada - significance for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic interpretations. [Canada - Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, A.R.; Goodarzi, F.; Potter, J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) coal beds and oil shale occur at several locations in northern Canada. In the northern Yukon Territory coal of semi-anthracite/anthracite rank occurs in the Kayak Formation in the British Mountains and at Hoidahl Dome near the headwaters of Blow River. Farther south in the Liard Basin, Northwest Territories, coals of high volatile bituminous rank occur in the Mattson Formation. In the Arctic Islands thicker beds of the Emma Fiord Formation, the oldest unit in the Sverdrup Basin, contain thin coal seams and oil shale on Devon Island, near the southern edge of the basin and on Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere islands on the north side of the basin. Organic matter in the Devon Island section is at a low maturity level (R[sub o, max] % 0.26-0.50), whereas that from Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg has reached the level of meta-anthracite. Depositional environments for these carbonaceous sediments were different. The coal-bearing Kayak strata accumulated in a coastal plain setting overlain transgressively by younger marine beds. The Mattson coal beds appear to have formed in a prograding delta, but coal and oil shale in the Emma Ford were deposited in lacustrine environments in a rift basin. These Canadian occurrences resemble penecontemporaneous deposits in Svalbard and elsewhere, adjacent to the present-day Arctic Ocean. They formed at low latitudes where conditions were favourable for the preservation of carbonaceous matter. Prior to the opening of the Arctic Ocean basin in Mesozoic times, sites on the mainland were undoubtedly closer to sites in the Arctic Islands than they are today.

  20. Investigation of pressurized combustion and characterization of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of the research of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) was to produce results of the effects of pressure and other important parameters on the combustion of pulverized coals using both experimental and theoretical methods. The results can be utilized to model pressurized combustion and to plan pilot-scale reactors. The studied coals were Polish hvb coal, French lignite (Gardanne), German anthracite (Niederberg) and German (Goettelborn) hvb coal. In was originally planned to study also a char of one of these coals. However, anthracite was selected instead of char, because the theoretical studies predicted maximum pressure effect to be found for antracite-type coals (with low reactivity and low content of volatiles). The pulverized coal samples were combusted in an electrically heated, pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR), where the experimental conditions were controlled with a high precision. The studied particle size fractions were 100-125 Em and 140-180 Am for anthracite and 140-180 {mu}m for the other coals. The studied things were combustion rates and temperatures of burning particles. Two types of sets of experiments were carried out. In the first case, experimental planning was done and the results were handled with multivariable partial least squares (PLS) method. Gas temperature varied from 1073K to 1473K and pressure from 0.2 MPa to 0.8 MPa. The other variables were PO2 and PCO{sub 2}. Some of the experiments were carried out at conditions prevailing during flue gas recirculation (CO{sub 2} concentration was > 20 vol%). In the second case, oxygen concentration was kept constant ( 10 vol%) and pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 0.8 MPa with an interval of 0.1 MPa

  1. SAXS from particle and disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajak, L.; Bierska-Piech, B.; Mrowiec-Bialon, J.; Jarzebski, A.B.; Diduszko, R. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland)

    2005-01-15

    SAXS studies were performed on different porous, disordered materials such as silica and zirconia aerogels, silica xerogels and carbonaceous materials (anthracite and shungite coals, coke, electrode material and activated carbon). These materials feature a variety of nanostructures. The relation between the profiles of the SAXS curves and the nanostructure of the materials was analysed. Fractal geometry proved to be very useful in this analysis. All types of fractality (mass, pore and surface fractality) were found in the materials studied. Porod plots appeared to be very sensitive to the structural details of the scattering objects.

  2. Terminology of carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, G.N.; Nagornyi, V.G.; Ostrovskii, V.S.

    1986-07-01

    The need is discussed to standardize definition of carbonaceous material. Terms related to carbonaceous materials and their products are selected and analyzed. Diagramatic representation is given of relationships between carbonaceous materials. Carbon has two forms of structure, cubic and hexagonal, characterized by sp/sup 3/-hybrid groups of atoms forming spatial system of tetrahedral bonds. Hexagonal form of carbon is represented by natural materials such as graphite, shungite, anthracite and a number of artificial materials obtained during thermal treatment of organic substances at temperatures above carbonization temperature. 4 references.

  3. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  4. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

  5. Quality of carburizers and its influence on carburization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the papers issue of production the synthetic cast iron obtaining on the basis of only steel scrap and carburizing materials are presented. Natural graphite, synthetic graphite, anthracite, petroleum coke, foundry coke and charcoal were used to carburization. Examinations covered evaluation of used carburizers taking into account chemical composition; carbon, sulphur and nitrogen content have been analyzed. Obtained effectiveness of carburization with method of inserting carburizing material into charge in solid, were especially taken into considerations. The comparison between mechanical properties (tensile strength and hardness of produced synthetic cast iron and cast iron obtained on the basis of pig iron have been carried out.

  6. Wastes from the coal-enrichment process as alternative reducers for lead smelting from lead-acid accmulator scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lipart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of the study on a possible utilization of coal-enrichment wastes as alternative reducers for lead smelting from acid-lead accumulator scrap are presented. For the experiments, the following alternative carboniferous reducers were selected: coal slurry, anthracite dust and coal soot. The investigations included both laboratoryscale experiments and semi-industrial tests in a rotary furnace. The findings allowed for a review of the effects of a sample type (loose material or material post a preliminary agglomeration process, loaded into the furnace, on a final process yield.

  7. Primordia initiation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) strains on axenic casing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.; Fermor, T.R.; Lincoln, S.; Dobrovin-Pennington, A.; Evered, C.; Mead, A.; Li, R. [Hort Research International, Wellesbourne (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    The mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has a requirement for a 'casing layer' that has specific physical, chemical and microbiological properties which stimulate and promote the initiation of primordia. Some of these primordia then may develop further into sporophores, involving differentiation of tissue. Wild and commercial strains of A. bisporus were cultured in axenic and nonaxenic microcosms, using a rye grain substrate covered by a range of organic and inorganic casing materials. In axenic culture, A. bisporus (commercial strain A15) was capable of producing primordia and mature sporophores on charcoal (wood and activated), anthracite coal, lignite and zeolite, but not on bark, coir, peat, rockwool, silica or vermiculite.

  8. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J. [Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia). Dept. of Environmental & Chemical Technology

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  9. Control of Oxygen Concentration by Using a Carbonaceous Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Jadan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of oxygen concentration in gas flow may be used in chemical industry, heat power engineering, ecology, automobile construction and other industrial branches. This control is realized over a broad range of oxygen concentrations. The control of the oxygen concentration is based on passing of gas flow through a measuring cavity of radio spectrometer and measurement of a magnetic resonance signal. A change in the magnetic resonance signal of a dispersed carbonaceous substance, placed into the cavity, indicates to the changes in oxygen concentrations. The dispersed anthracite and thermal treatment cellulose substance in the oxygen-free medium are proposed to use as a carbonaceous substance.

  10. Ignition and combustion features of biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Silin, V. E.; Bogatova, T. F.; Nadir, S. M.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of the ignition and combustion of plant biofuels (wood particles, date stones) and products of their mechanical and thermal treatment (pellets, charcoal) at temperatures typical of the burning process in nonforced furnaces and fixed-bed and fluidized-bed gas producers. The influence of the furnace heat treatment of a fuel on its inflammation and combustion has been revealed. The results have been compared with the known data on the burning of pellets, brown coals, and anthracites and with the calculation by the classical diffusion-kinetic model.

  11. Treatment and re-use of urban sewage by means of aerated submerged biological filters and tertiary treatment; Depuracion y reutilizacion de las aguas residuales urbanas mediante filtros biologicos sumergidos aireados con tratamiento terciario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujal, F. J.

    2000-07-01

    The installations required for treating and re-using urban waste waters are reviewed. The treatment system put forward is called AERATED SURMERGED BIOLOGICAL FILTER AQUA PROCESS (S.B.F.). In this system, once that water has been clarified, it is treated biologically in an aerated reactor containing porous ceramic balls. After this it is filtered with silica+anthracite as a tertiary treatment. This technique minimize energy consumption and achieve optimum treatment performance at low running costs, as it requires little maintenance. Once the waste water has been treated in this way, the effluent is suitable for re-use to irrigate crops or infiltrate into underground aquifers. (Author)

  12. Coal facies studies in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [INCAR (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080, Oviedo (Spain); Jimenez, Amalia [Geology, University of Oviedo, 33005, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work is a synthesis of the distribution of the main coal basins and sub-basins in Spain as well as the research carried out on their coal facies. The coal fields are distributed through the Paleozoic (mainly Pennsylvanian), Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic times. Peats also exist in the southeast Spain (Granada area), although these types of deposits are not included in this review. Spanish coal basins are both of a paralic and intramontane type and the coal rank is highly variable, from lignite in the case of the younger coal seams to anthracite for those of Carboniferous age.

  13. Interaction between biomass and different rank coals during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Effects of biomass on the pyrolytic decomposition of different rank coals were investigated by non-isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method from ambient to 900 C with a heating rate of 40 C/min under nitrogen. Hazelnut shell (HS) which is a woody biomass species was added as much as 10 wt% to coals such as peat, lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite to obtain coal/biomass blends for co-pyrolysis runs. Effects of HS present in the blends were evaluated regarding the apparent decomposition rates and the char yields. It was found that the addition of thermally reactive HS led to some increases in the volatilization rates of coals especially at temperatures below 500 C. Besides, the char yields revealed unexpected variations in case of low rank coals. Although, HS addition did not play significant role on the char yields of bituminous coal and anthracite, considerable deviations from the theoretical char yields were detected in the case of peat and lignites. The presence of HS led to increasing char weight for peat, while the char weights for lignites decreased seriously. These variations were interpreted, and it can be concluded that these variations cannot be explained by simple additive behavior, and the existence of synergistic interactions should be taken into account. (author)

  14. Coal char oxidation kinetics in air medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh Alexander G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of oxidation kinetics for three types of coal char with different carbon content in air is presented. The coal char powders of anthracite, bituminous T-grade coal and 2B-grade lignite with particle size less than 80 μm were tested. The coal char oxidation was researched by isothermal method via simultaneous TG-DSC analyzer Netzsch STA 449 Jupiter F3 in the temperature range of 1000–1200 °C. Measurements were carried out at ambient pressure. Volumetric flow rate of oxidizing medium into analyser chamber was 250 ml/min. Flow consisted of air and argon with volumetric ratio 24/1. Carbon average rate of oxidation reaction at each temperature were defined based on experimental results. Kinetic constants (the frequency factor and activation energy were defined for Arrhenius equation modified with three submodels: volumetric model, shrinking core model and random pore model. The activation energy values for anthracite are 1,6-1,7 times higher than for chars of bituminous coal and lignite.

  15. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  16. Effect of coal slurry on the corrosion of coal-mine equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi; Xie Jingxuan; Zhao Wei; Bai Shasha; Zhong Shiteng; Chu Zhenfeng

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion of coal mine equipment immersed in coal slurry is addressed.The corrosion of low carbon steel samples immersed in coal slurries of different concentrations (80,130,and 180g/L) prepared from coals of different rank (long-flame coal,meager lean coal,and anthracite) and different granularity (0.25-0.5 mm,0.074-0.25 mm,and less than 0.074 mm particle size) was studied by the electrochemical method of polarization curve measurement,controlled potential sweeping,and continuous scanning.The results show that the corrosion rate in an anthracite slurry,where the coal has high coalification,is far greater than corrosion in a long-flame or a meager lean coal slurry.Furthermore the corrosion current,polarization current,and corrosion rate of low carbon steel become larger,and the polarizability becomes smaller,as the coal particle size decreases.The same trend is seen as the concentration of the coal slurry increases.

  17. Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from domestic coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chunmei; Chen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoyang; Ren, Lihong; Yin, Baohui; Liu, Xiaoyu; Bai, Zhipeng

    2014-01-01

    Domestic coal stove is widely used in China, especially for countryside during heating period of winter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important in flue gas of the stove. By using dilution tunnel system, samples of both gaseous and particulate phases from domestic coal combustion were collected and 18 PAH species were analyzed by GC-MS. The average emission factors of total 18 PAH species was 171.73 mg/kg, ranging from 140.75 to 229.11 mg/kg for bituminous coals, while was 93.98 mg/kg, ranging from 58.48 to 129.47 mg/kg for anthracite coals. PAHs in gaseous phases occupied 95% of the total of PAHs emission of coal combustion. In particulate phase, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were the main components, accounting for 80% of the total particulate PAHs. The total toxicity potency evaluated by benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power, sum of 7 carcinogenic PAH components and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin had a similar tendency. And as a result, the toxic potential of bituminous coal was higher than that of anthracite coal. Efficient emission control should be conducted to reduce PAH emissions in order to protect ecosystem and human health.

  18. Microstructure and properties of pitch-based carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco; Santamaria; Bermejo; Bonhomme; Menendez

    1999-11-01

    Pitches prepared in the laboratory by thermal treatment and air-blowing of a commercial coal-tar pitch were used as matrix precursors of carbon composites using granular petroleum coke, foundry coke, amorphous graphite and anthracite. Pitches were characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, softening point, solubility tests and carbon yield) and light microscopy (mesophase content). Pitch pyrolysis behaviour was monitored by thermogravimetric analysis and from the optical texture of cokes. Pitch wettability to the different carbons, at different temperatures, was also studied. Experimental conditions selected for the preparation of composites were based on pitch composition and properties. The main microstructural features of composites were determined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Composite properties were described in terms of their density, porosity and compressive strength, and related to composite microstructure and the characteristics of the precursors. Thermal treatment and air-blowing of pitch improved carbon composite structure and properties. The lowest porosities and best mechanical properties were observed in those composites obtained with the thermally treated pitches combined with foundry coke and anthracite.

  19. Comprehensive fractal description of porosity of coal of different ranks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangang; Zhang, Guocheng; Song, Zhimin; Liu, Gaofeng; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    We selected, as the objects of our research, lignite from the Beizao Mine, gas coal from the Caiyuan Mine, coking coal from the Xiqu Mine, and anthracite from the Guhanshan Mine. We used the mercury intrusion method and the low-temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption method to analyze the structure and shape of the coal pores and calculated the fractal dimensions of different aperture segments in the coal. The experimental results show that the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of lignite, gas coal, and coking coal with an aperture of greater than or equal to 10 nm, as well as the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of anthracite with an aperture of greater than or equal to 100 nm, can be calculated using the mercury intrusion method; the fractal dimension of the coal pore, with an aperture range between 2.03 nm and 361.14 nm, can be calculated using the liquid nitrogen adsorption method, of which the fractal dimensions bounded by apertures of 10 nm and 100 nm are different. Based on these findings, we defined and calculated the comprehensive fractal dimensions of the coal pores and achieved the unity of fractal dimensions for full apertures of coal pores, thereby facilitating, overall characterization for the heterogeneity of the coal pore structure.

  20. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by coal dust and tobacco snuff extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J.D.; Ong, T.

    1985-01-01

    The organic solvent extracts of sub-bituminous coal dust and tobacco snuff, both together and separately, were tested for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results indicate that these extracts induced SCEs, and that when tested together synergistically induced SCEs in two of three donors. Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs. Similar experiments conducted with water extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal. To determine whether individuals differed in their SCE responses to coal dust extracts, lymphocytes from five donors were tested with organic solvent extracts of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. An analysis of variance indicates that the SCE response was significantly influenced by the donor and each of the two coal extracts. The findings presented here suggest that coal dust, with or without tobacco snuff, may play a role in the elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners. Because water extracts of some ranks of coal induced SCEs, there exists the possibility of adverse environmental effects due to coal leachates.

  1. Modifying sorbents in controlled release formulations to prevent herbicides pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cespedes, F.F.; Sanchez, M.V.; Garcia, S.P.; Perez, M.F. [University of Almeria, Almeria (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-10-15

    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release properties. In this research the effect of incorporation of sorbents such as bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon in alginate basic formulation were not only studied on encapsulation efficiency but also on the release rate of herbicides which was studied using water release kinetic tests. In addition, sorption studies of herbicides with bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon were made. The kinetic experiments of chloridazon and metribuzin release in water have shown that the release rate is higher in metribuzin systems than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, it can be deduced that the use of sorbents reduces the release rate of the chloridazon and metribuzin in comparison to the technical product and to the alginate formulation without sorbents. The highest decrease in release rate corresponds to the formulations prepared with activated carbon as a sorbent. The water uptake, permeability, and time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, were calculated to compare the formulations. On the basis of a parameter of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, the release of chloridazon and metribuzin from the various formulations into water is controlled by a diffusion mechanism.

  2. Thermal maturity assessment of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic Nampo Group, mid-west Korea: Reconstruction of thermal history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egawa, K.; Il Lee, Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Republic of Korea). School of Earth & Environmental Science

    2008-03-15

    Thermal maturity of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic Nampo Group, a sediment-fill of the Chungnam Basin located in the central western part of South Korea, was assessed by illite crystallinity measurement and sandstone microtexture analysis. The Nampo Group consists of a fluvio-lacustrine deposit bearing meta-anthracitic coals and was over-thrusted by the basement rocks. Sandstones are characterized by down sequence increasing illite crystallinity, from anchizone to epizone, which is strongly suggestive of burial heating. Deep-burial diagenesis and deformation are evidenced by well-developed pressure solution textures, whose intensity tends to increase down sequence, and by ductile deformation in the lowermost strata. On the basis of the result of illite crystallinity measurement, the maximum paleo-temperature and total burial depth of the Nampo Group are estimated to be ca 340{sup o}C and 10 km, respectively; these conditions are in good agreement with the observed ductile deformation features. The absence of strata younger than the Nampo Group in and around the Chungnam Basin suggests that deep burial of the Nampo Group was caused by tectonic crustal loading. The tectonic overload was because of basement over-thrusting that occurred during the Jurassic Daebo orogeny, which is closely related to the orthogonal subduction of the Izanagi Plate beneath the East Asian continent. Subsequent hydrothermal alteration disturbed the thermal maturity pattern, resulting in anomalously high illite crystallinity and meta-anthracitization.

  3. Carburizer Effect on Cast Iron Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janerka, Krzysztof; Kondracki, Marcin; Jezierski, Jan; Szajnar, Jan; Stawarz, Marcin

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the effect of carburizing materials on cast iron solidification and crystallization. The studies consisted of cast iron preparation from steel scrap and different carburizers. For a comparison, pig iron was exclusively used in a solid charge. Crystallization analysis revealed the influence of the carburizer material on the crystallization curves as well as differences in the solidification paths of cast iron prepared with the use of different charge materials. The carburizers' influence on undercooling during the eutectic crystallization process was analyzed. The lowest undercooling rate was recorded for the melt with pig iron, then for synthetic graphite, natural graphite, anthracite, and petroleum coke (the highest undercooling rate). So a hypothesis was formulated that eutectic cells are created most effectively with the presence of carbon from pig iron (the highest nucleation potential), and then for the graphite materials (crystallographic similarity with the carbon precipitation in the cast iron). The most difficult eutectic crystallization is for anthracite and petroleum coke (higher undercooling is necessary). This knowledge can be crucial when the foundry plant is going to change the solid charge composition replacing the pig iron by steel scrap and the recarburization process.

  4. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Factors affecting the removal of geosmin and MIB in drinking water biofilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhadi, S.L.N.; Huck, P.M.; Slawson, R.M. [Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. for Biology

    2006-08-15

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted using four parallel dual-media filter columns containing biologically active anthracite or granular activated carbon media and sand. The factors under investigation were low-(8{sup o}C) and high-(20{sup o}C) temperature operations, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) concentration, media type, and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) level. Source water consisted of dechlorinated tap water to which geosmin and MIB were added, as well as a cocktail of easily biodegradable organic matter (i.e., typical ozonation by-products). Phase 1 experiments used a high BOM level (280 {mu} g/L carbon) to simulate water that had been subjected to ozonation before filtration. Phase 2 experiments used a low BOM level (28 {mu} g/L C) to simulate nonozonated water. Factorial design experiments showed that all four main factors (temperature, concentration, media, and BOM level) were important to both geosmin and MIB removal. Temperature and media interaction and concentration and BOM level interaction were significant for geosmin removal only. Temperature and BOM level interaction as well as media and BOM level interaction were significant for the removal of both geosmin and MIB. Overall, removals of geosmin and MIB were lower in phase 2 (low BOM level), in particular in the anthracite media filters. Biomass levels in the filters appeared to have a significant effect upon the removal efficiencies of both odor compounds.

  6. Study on washability of microcrystal graphite using float-sink tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongqiang; Feng Qiming; Ou Leming; Long Sisi; Cui Mengmeng; Weng Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    This article presented an experimental research on washability of microcrystal graphite using float-sink tests. Chemical and X-ray analyses showed that graphite, semi-graphite, meta-anthracite, and anthracite existed together in this microcrystal graphite sample;and the intergrowth relationship between micro-crystal graphite and gangues was very complicated based on optical mineralogy research. The results of float-sink tests revealed that:for the -25+0.5 mm size fraction, about 68%(by weight) of microcrystal graphite was obtained at the density of 2.0 g/cm3, and the float product met the standard of commercial grade W65; for the -0.5 mm size fraction, 58% (by weight) of microcrystal graphite was floated at the density of 2.0 g/cm3, which met the standard of commercial grade W70. It can be concluded that micro-crystal graphite may be upgraded by dense media separation (DMS) providing a float product using as the raw materials of casting or refractories.

  7. Recovery of iron and calcium aluminate slag from high-ferrous bauxite by high-temperature reduction and smelting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-yi Zhang; Wei L; Yuan-hong Qi; Zong-shu Zou

    2016-01-01

    A high-temperature reduction and smelting process was used to recover iron and calcium aluminate slag from high-ferrous bauxite. The effects of w(CaO)/w(SiO2) ratio, anthracite ratio, and reduction temperature and time on the recovery and size of iron nuggets and on the Al2O3 grade of the calcium aluminate slag were investigated through thermodynamic calculations and experiments. The optimized process conditions were the bauxite/anthracite/slaked lime weight ratio of 100:16.17:59.37, reduction temperature of 1450°C and reduction time of 20 min. Under these conditions, high-quality iron nuggets and calcium aluminate slag were obtained. The largest size and the highest recov-ery rate of iron nuggets were 11.42 mm and 92.79wt%, respectively. The calcium aluminate slag mainly comprised Ca2SiO4 and Ca12Al14O33, with small amounts of FeAl2O4, CaAl2O4, and Ca2Al2SiO7.

  8. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  9. Investigation on Pulverized Coal Combustion Behavior by Non-Isothermic Integral Thermogravimetry Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Cheng-lin; ZHANG Jian-liang; LIN Xiang-hai; LIU Qin-yuan; WANG Xiao-liu

    2011-01-01

    The combustion process of pulverized coal was investigated by non-isothermic integral thermogravimetry. The thermogravimetry curves were fitted by the Coats-Redferm approximation function, and kinetic parameters and characteristic temperatures were obtained. The optimal mixing ratio and particle size can be ascertained. The characteristic temperature of pulverized coal can be obtained from the thermogravimetry curve, and the combustion of coal can be divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous combustion according to the differential thermal analysis curve. The activation energy of a single type of coal ranking from low to high is as follows: bituminous coal, meager-lean coal, and anthracite. In the first mixing method, with more low-price meager-lean coal B replacing high price anthracite A, the activation energy slightly decreases; with more bituminous coal replacing meager-lean coal, total tendency makes a declining of activation. In the later mixing method, with an increase in particle size, a declining activation energy can be seen in total tendency.

  10. Evaluation of the force rum flotation result by the ion exchange using the rubidium; Rubijiumu wo mochiita ion kokan ni yoru karamu fusen kekka no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Jun' ichi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, Hidekazu; Matsukata, Masahiko

    1999-05-05

    The following are contained: Hydroxyl group and carbonyl, functional oxygen group and mineral like the carboxyl group in which the coal is the hydrophilic component. The column flotation result is greatly different, since existence proportion of these components is different by the coal type. We regarded it as whether it could not simply evaluate the force rum flotation result of the coal at area proportion of the syneresis site on the coal particle exterior. In this study, the force rum flotation was carried out using balance wheel (bituminous coal), mountain west (anthracite), bituminous coal, and Illinois (lignit) charcoal it is almost same (bituminous coal). The ladder of carbon material recovery rate was the balance wheel > Kawanishi > almost same > Illinois charcoal. Next, area proportion ({alpha}{sub ex-OH}, {alpha}{sub in-OH} respectively) of the hydrophilic site in coal particle exterior and particle inside {alpha}{sub ex-OH} was obtained. In case of the almost same charcoal, was bigger than {alpha}{sub in-OH}. It seems to slightly oxidize the particle surface the almost same charcoal. In 3 kinds of bituminous coal, the ladder of carbon material recovery rate and {alpha}{sub in-OH} agreed. However, it is necessary to consider not only area proportion but also wettability of the hydrophobic site of the hydrophilic site for the planktonic of mountain west charcoal which is the anthracite. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Comprehensive Fractal Description of Porosity of Coal of Different Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We selected, as the objects of our research, lignite from the Beizao Mine, gas coal from the Caiyuan Mine, coking coal from the Xiqu Mine, and anthracite from the Guhanshan Mine. We used the mercury intrusion method and the low-temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption method to analyze the structure and shape of the coal pores and calculated the fractal dimensions of different aperture segments in the coal. The experimental results show that the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of lignite, gas coal, and coking coal with an aperture of greater than or equal to 10 nm, as well as the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of anthracite with an aperture of greater than or equal to 100 nm, can be calculated using the mercury intrusion method; the fractal dimension of the coal pore, with an aperture range between 2.03 nm and 361.14 nm, can be calculated using the liquid nitrogen adsorption method, of which the fractal dimensions bounded by apertures of 10 nm and 100 nm are different. Based on these findings, we defined and calculated the comprehensive fractal dimensions of the coal pores and achieved the unity of fractal dimensions for full apertures of coal pores, thereby facilitating, overall characterization for the heterogeneity of the coal pore structure.

  12. Geochemical investigation of the potential for mobilizing non-methane hydrocarbons during carbon dioxide storage in deep coal beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, J.J.; Burruss, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Coal samples of different rank (lignite to anthracite) were extracted in the laboratory with supercritical CO2 (40 ??C; 10 MPa) to evaluate the potential for mobilizing non-methane hydrocarbons during CO2 storage (sequestration) or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from deep (???1-km depth) coal beds. The total measured alkane concentrations mobilized from the coal samples ranged from 3.0 to 64 g tonne-1 of dry coal. The highest alkane concentration was measured in the lignite sample extract; the lowest was measured in the anthracite sample extract. Substantial concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also mobilized from these samples: 3.1 - 91 g tonne-1 of dry coal. The greatest amounts of PAHs were mobilized from the high-volatile bituminous coal samples. The distributions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons mobilized from the coal samples also varied with rank. In general, these variations mimicked the chemical changes that occur with increasing degrees of coalification and thermal maturation. For example, the amount of PAHs mobilized from coal samples paralleled the general trend of bitumen formation with increasing coal rank. The coal samples yielded hydrocarbons during consecutive extractions with supercritical CO2, although the amount of hydrocarbons mobilized declined with each successive extraction. These results demonstrate that the potential for supercritical CO2 to mobilize non-methane hydrocarbons from coal beds, and the effect of coal rank on this process, are important to consider when evaluating deep coal beds for CO2 storage.

  13. M(o)ssbauer spectroscopic studies the characterization of three China coal and the corresponding fly-ashes and bottom ashes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Duo-xi; ZHI Xia-chen

    2006-01-01

    Three fresh China coals (lignitie, bituminite and anthracite) from different geological origin and the corresponding fly and bottom ashes were studied by room temperature(RT) M(o)ssbauer spectroscopy(MS). The iron-bearing minerals were characterized to was found in bituminite and anthracite coal.The M(o)ssbauer spectra of the fly and bottom ashes as a result of pulverised coal combustion(PCC) in Xiaolongtan,Shuicheng and Luohuang Power Plants are comprised of superimposed sextets and doulets of oxides includes maghemite(γ-Fe2O3), magnitite(Fe3O4), haematite(α-Fe2O3), magnesioferite (MgFe2O4), Fe3+/Fe2+-mullite, Fe3+-glass silicate andmetallic iron. The studies also show that iron-bearing minerals in coals are largely dependant on geological regions and coal rank, the composition of the corresponding fly and bottom ashes will not only depend on the type and mineralogy of the feed coal but also on the local nature of combustion.

  14. Short description of the Peruvian coal basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrascal-Miranda, Eitel R. [UNI, Lima (Peru); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work synthesizes the main general characteristics of the Peruvian Coal Basins in relation to age, coal facies and coal rank. Peruvian coals are located in a series of coal basins from the Paleozoic to the Cenozoic age. Paleozoic coal seams are mainly of Mississippian age (Carboniferous). They are of continental origin and their reduced thickness and ash content are their main characteristics. Mesozoic coal seams (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) are located in the so-called Peruvian Western Basin and in the depressions close to the 'Maranon Geoanticline'. They were originated in deltaic facies under the influence of brackish and fresh waters. Some of these coal basins (those distributed in the central and northern parts of Peru) are relatively well known because they are of economic importance. Finally, Cenozoic coal seams (Tertiary) are found in both paralic and limnic basins and their reserves are limited. All the Peruvian coals are of humic character and are vitrinite-rich. Their rank is highly variable and normally related with the different orogenic events which strongly affected this region. Thus, Paleozoic and Mesozoic coals are of bituminous to anthracite/meta-anthracite coal rank while peats, lignite and subbituminous coals are found in Cenozoic basins.

  15. Experimental Study of the Influence of the Concentration of Organic Water-Coal Fuel Components on the Integral Ignition Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershinina, K. Yu.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    To enlarge the power raw material base, the processes of stable initiation of combustion of drops of organic watercoal fuels have been investigated. For the main components, we used filter cakes (coal processing waste), anthracite, bituminous and brown coals of brands D and B2, water, and spent machine, turbine, and transformer oils. We have established the influence of concentrations of components on the minimum (limiting) ignition temperatures of organic water-coal fuels and the ignition delay times of drops of fuel components with initial sizes of 0.25-1.5 mm. Investigations were carried out for oxidizer temperatures of 600-1100 K and its velocities of 0.5-5 m/s characteristic of units, aggregates, and large and small power plants. We have determined the characteristic differences of organic water-coal fuel from water-coal fuel and the close laws of the investigated processes for these fuels.

  16. Simulation of thermal and sodium expansion stress in aluminum reduction cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Yu-yun; LAI Yan-qing; LIU Wei; WANG Zhi-gang; LIU Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Two finite element(FE) models were built up for analysis of stress field in the lining of aluminum electrolysis cells. Distribution of sodium concentration in cathode carbon blocks was calculated by one FE model of a cathode block. Thermal stress field was calculated by the other slice model of the cell at the end of the heating-up. Then stresses coupling thermal and sodium expansion were considered after 30 d start-up. The results indicate that sodium penetrates to the bottom of the cathode block after 30 d start-up. The semi-graphitic carbon block has the largest stress at the thermal stage. After 30 d start-up the anthracitic carbon has the greatest sodium expansion stress and the graphitized carbon has the lowest sodium expansion stress. Sodium penetration can cause larger deformation and stress in the cathode carbon block than thermal expansion.

  17. Removal of nano and microparticles by granular filter media coated with nanoporous aluminium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, B.L.T.; Harrington, G.W.; Anderson, M.A.; Tejedor, I. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Conventional filtration was designed to achieve high levels of particle and pathogen removal. Previous studies have examined the possibility of modifying filtration media to improve their ability to remove microorganisms and viruses. Although these studies have evaluated filter media coatings for this purpose, none have evaluated nanoscale particle suspensions as coating materials. The overall goal of this paper is to describe the preliminary test results of nanoporous aluminium oxide coated media that can be used to enhance filtration of nano and microparticles. Filtration tests were carried out using columns packed with uncoated and coated forms of granular anthracite or granular activated carbon. A positive correlation between isoelectric pH of filter media and particle removal was observed. The modified filter media with a higher isoelectric pH facilitated better removal of bacteriophage MS2 and 3 {mu}m latex microspheres, possibly due to increased favorable electrostatic interactions.

  18. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF WETTING HEAT ON COAL SLURRYABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书全; 付晓恒; 刘昀; 王祖讷; 李颖

    1997-01-01

    Wetting Heat of various ranks of coals in water was measured by using SETARAM C80D Calorimeter. The data were correlated to coals' slurryability which is characterized by the solid load at the viscosity of 1 Pa·s and 25℃. The results showed that the heat of wetting by water decreases as coal rank increases in the range of brawn coal to bituminous coal with carbon content of 89%~90% (daf), and then, increases a little for anthracite. This trend fitted well to the relationship of slurryability to coal rank. The heat of wetting was also correlated to the inherent moisture content and the oxygen content of coal, which are commonly considered as slurryability indication parameters. Hence, the wetting heat is another measure of coal's slurryability.

  19. Concentration, Distribution, and Occurrence of REEs in Coals from Chongqing, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The concentration, distribution, and occurrence of rare earth elements (REEs) in coals as well as stone coals in different geological periods from Chongqing were studied. The results show that the REE content in coals from Chongqing is much higher than that of the ordinary Chinese coals, the Late Paleozoic coals from North China, US coals, and the world coals. Although the concentration of light rare earth elements (LREE) is higher than that of heavy rare earth elements (HREE), the ratio of LREE to HREE is as low as 5.11. The REE content decreases with the coal-formation periods from old to new. The REE content in the Sinian stone coal is the highest, but it is the lowest in Early Jurassic coals. The similar REE contents in bituminous coals and anthracite show that the metamorphism has a little influence on REE content in coal. In addition, silicate association dominates the occurrence mode of REEs in coals from Chongqing.

  20. Characteristics of Telemagmatic Metamorphism of the Ceshui Formation Coal in Lianyuan Coal Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕华; 彭格林

    1998-01-01

    The Ceshui Formation coal is mostly anthracite and its metamorphism has been less documented.By analyzing systematically the reflectance of vitrinite and the results of X-ray diffraction of the Ceshui Formation cola in the Lianyuan coal basin,the spatial variation characteristics of coal ranks,coal metamorphic regions,the extension of coal metamorphic belts.coal metamorphic gradients,coal chemical structure and the effect on the degree of metamorphism of heat-production and -storge conditions,buried depth of the Indosinian-Yenshanian granites at the margins of the Lianyuan coal basin are discussed.The research results in conjunction of the features of regional hydrothermal alterations,endogenetic deposits with the Ceshui Formation coal measures,and the development of secondary vesicles indicate that the telemagmatic metamorphism is the main factor leading to the metamorphism of the Ceshui Formation coal in the region studied.

  1. Modeling the burnout of solid polydisperse fuel under the conditions of external heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorik, I. A.; Goldobin, Yu. M.; Tolmachev, E. M.; Gal'perin, L. G.

    2013-11-01

    A self-similar burnout mode of solid polydisperse fuel is considered taking into consideration heat transfer between fuel particles, gases, and combustion chamber walls. A polydisperse composition of fuel is taken into account by introducing particle distribution functions by radiuses obtained for the kinetic and diffusion combustion modes. Equations for calculating the temperatures of particles and gases are presented, which are written for particles average with respect to their distribution functions by radiuses taking into account the fuel burnout ratio. The proposed equations take into consideration the influence of fuel composition, air excess factor, and gas recirculation ratio. Calculated graphs depicting the variation of particle and gas temperatures, and the fuel burnout ratio are presented for an anthracite-fired boiler.

  2. Thermal properties of different rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman; Hanzade Haykiri-Acma [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Thermal properties of various coal samples which have different rank and petrography were investigated under both inert and oxidizing conditions up to 900{sup o}C in a thermal analysis system. Peat, anthracite, and bituminous coal samples from different countries and various lignites from Turkey such as Askale, Soma, and Elbistan were used. DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) techniques were applied. DTG (Derivative Thermogravimetric) curves were derived and interpreted considering the physical and chemical properties, and the rank of coals. Pyrolytic chars obtained from the inert atmosphere experiments were examined applying SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry) techniques. It was found that the thermal reactivity and the apparent thermal properties of different rank coals differ considerably under both conditions. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  4. Ukraine's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Ulyanich [Ukrenergy Coal (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The paper discusses Ukraine's coal mining industry. Ukraine has the 8th place in the world's coal reserves and 10th by volume of production. The industry has declined in recent years - production fell from 135.6 million tons in 1991 to 80.151 million tons in 2004. The Donetsk coal basin is the main producer of Ukraine's power station coal, coking coal and anthracite, mostly of high sulphur content. Coal exports in 2004 amounted to 420 thousand tons. Coal is imported mainly from Russia and Kazakhistan. Ukraine has 13 by-product coke plants, utilizing damp coke quenching technology. The article gives figures for coal transshipment of coal and coke through its ports in 2004. The text of the presentation is accompanied by a file of 34 slides/overviews. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effect of circulating ash from CFB boilers on NO and N20 emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangsong HOU; Shi YANG; Junfu LU; Hai ZHANG; Guangxi YUE

    2009-01-01

    NO and N2O emissions from circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers are determined by their formation and destruction rates in the furnace. The effect of circulating ash from a CFB boiler on NO and N2O emissions were investigated in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor. The results show that the residue char in circulating ash and the CO generated from the char play an important role in NO reduction and N2O formation; however, active components of circulating ash such as CaO, Fe2O3 accelerate the decomposition of N2O. Experiment was also conducted on a 75 t/h CFB boiler fueled with the mixture of anthracite and biomass. The lower residue carbon content of circulating ash in this experiment is lower; therefore, the reacting rate of NO deoxidize is limited. This result verified the conclusion of laboratory research.

  6. Co-pyrolysis of different type coals with hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzade Haykiri-Acma; Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the co-pyrolysis characteristics of different rank coals such as peat, lignite, and anthracite in the presence of hybrid poplar. For this purpose, non-isothermal thermogravimetry technique was applied up to 900{sup o}C with a heating rate of 40{sup o}C/min under dynamic nitrogen flow of 40 mL/min. Hybrid poplar was added into each coal as much as 10 wt % of the coal sample and the experiments were repeated. Pyrolytic properties such as the char yields, gasification rates, and reactivity of the original samples and the blends were compared from the thermal analysis data, and interpreted. Addition of hybrid poplar to coal had some influences on the pyrolytic properties of coals that might be explained by the synergistic interaction approach. 15 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Removal of nano and microparticles by granular filter media coated with nanoporous aluminium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, B L T; Harrington, G W; Anderson, M A; Tejedor, I

    2004-01-01

    Conventional filtration was designed to achieve high levels of particle and pathogen removal. Previous studies have examined the possibility of modifying filtration media to improve their ability to remove microorganisms and viruses. Although these studies have evaluated filter media coatings for this purpose, none have evaluated nanoscale particle suspensions as coating materials. The overall goal of this paper is to describe the preliminary test results of nanoporous aluminium oxide coated media that can be used to enhance filtration of nano and microparticles. Filtration tests were carried out using columns packed with uncoated and coated forms of granular anthracite or granular activated carbon. A positive correlation between isoelectric pH of filter media and particle removal was observed. The modified filter media with a higher isoelectric pH facilitated better removal of bacteriophage MS2 and 3 microm latex microspheres, possibly due to increased favorable electrostatic interactions.

  8. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  9. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  10. Simulation of the interaction of methane, carbon dioxide and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Baisheng; Wang Longkang; Li Xiangchun; Wang Chao; Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Gas adsorption has an important influence on gas flow in a coal body. Research on the characteristics of coal and gas adsorption is the theoretical basis for studying gas flow in coal. In this paper, the interaction between methane, carbon dioxide and surface molecules of anthracite was simulated using the quantum chemistry method. Adsorption energy and adsorption configurations of different quantities of gas mole-cules absorbed on the coal surface were calculated. The results show that adsorption between coal and the two kinds of gas molecules is a physical adsorption process and there is an optimal configuration. Gas molecules are more easily adsorbed in the hydroxyl-containing side chain, while it is difficult for them to be adsorbed at the position of the benzene ring. Besides, carbon dioxide molecules are more readily adsorbed on the coal surface than methane molecules. The findings have an important signifi-cance in revealing the nature of gas adsorption in coal.

  11. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  12. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and bulk organic geochemistry of black shales from the Proterozoic Vindhyan Supergroup (central India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee; S Dutta; S Paikaray; U Mann

    2006-02-01

    Four organic-rich shale units of the Proterozoic Vindhyan sedimentary succession have been scanned to reveal their origin and hydrocarbon potential.The wavy-crinkly nature of the carbonaceous laminae is suggestive of a microbial mat origin of the shales.These shales are thus different from Phanerozoic black shales which typically exhibit planar laminae.The hydrocarbon potential of the black shale units has been evaluated by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.Total organic carbon content of many of the shales exceeds 1%.The mean _max for the black shales translate to a vitrinite re flectance range of 2.05 –2.40%Rm based on standard conversion techniques.These shales have reached the catagenetic stage near the beginning of anthracite formation.

  13. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  14. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Keith B.C. Brady,

    2015-01-01

    Clean sampling and analysis procedures were used to quantify more than 70 inorganic constituents, including 35 potentially toxic or hazardous constituents, organic carbon, and other characteristics of untreated (influent) and treated (effluent) coal-mine discharges (CMD) at 38 permitted coal-mining or coal-processing facilities in the bituminous coalfield and 4 facilities in the anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania. Of the 42 facilities sampled during 2011, 26 were surface mines, 11 were underground mines, and 5 were coal refuse disposal operations. Treatment of CMD with caustic soda (NaOH), lime (CaO or Ca(OH)2), flocculent, or limestone was ongoing at 21%, 40%, 6%, and 4% of the facilities, respectively; no chemicals were added at the remaining facilities. All facilities with CMD treatment incorporated structures for active or passive aeration and settling of metal-rich precipitate.

  15. Influence of buoyant media on particle layer dynamics in microfiltration membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, R.K.; Vigneswaran, S.; Kandasamy, J. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology

    2010-07-01

    This study forms a part of the physical study of the membrane bioreactor in presence of buoyancy media. Kaolin clay suspension with buoyancy media (anthracite) was used as a suspension and the particle layer development on membrane surface with evolution of time was studied. Presence of buoyancy media reduced the pressure development by almost two folds compared to in absence of the media. The particles deposition on membrane surface was size selective. The mean particle diameter (0.45 {mu} m) deposited on the membrane surface remained almost similar in presence of the media after 7 hrs run where as in its absence the mean diameter finer particles deposition occurred at the beginning followed by coarser particles.

  16. Influence of buoyant media on particle layer dynamics in microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, R K; Vigneswaran, S; Kandasamy, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    This study forms a part of the physical study of the membrane bioreactor in presence of buoyancy media. Kaolin clay suspension with buoyancy media (anthracite) was used as a suspension and the particle layer development on membrane surface with evolution of time was studied. Presence of buoyancy media reduced the pressure development by almost two folds compared to in absence of the media. The particles deposition on membrane surface was size selective. The mean particle diameter (0.45 mum) deposited on the membrane surface remained almost similar in presence of the media after 7 hrs run where as in its absence the mean diameter finer particles deposition occurred at the beginning followed by coarser particles.

  17. “W”火焰锅炉燃烧系统改造在300MW机组的应用%Application of W - type flame boilers combustion system reform in 300MW unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段泽洋

    2012-01-01

    W- shape flame boilers is one of suitable for anthracite combustion way,which are already extensively adopted by our country. Separated double cyclone pulverized coal burners is the largest. Combined the basic knowledge of combustion theory with practice experiences summarization,W- type flame boilers combustion system reform are analyzed and actually discussed.%结合燃烧理论的基础知识和现场改造工作的实践经验总结,对“W”型火焰锅炉燃烧系统的改造进行分析和实际探讨,这对于提高锅炉效率有一定的现实意义。

  18. Manganese extraction from high-iron-content manganese oxide ores by selective reduction roasting-acid leaching process using black charcoal as reductant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元波; 赵熠; 游志雄; 段道显; 李光辉; 姜涛

    2015-01-01

    Reduction roasting-acid leaching process was utilized to process high-iron-content manganese oxide ore using black charcoal as reductant. The results indicate that, compared with the traditional reductant of anthracite, higher manganese extraction efficiency is achieved at lower roasting temperature and shorter residence time. The effects of roasting parameters on the leaching efficiency of Mn and Fe were studied, and the optimal parameters are determined as follows: roasting temperature is 650 °C, residence time is 40 min, and black charcoal dosage is 10% (mass fraction). Under these conditions, the leaching efficiency of Mn reaches 82.37% while that of Fe is controlled below 7%. XRD results show that a majority of MnO2 and Fe2O3in the raw ore are reduced to MnO and Fe3O4, respectively.

  19. Simultaneous carbonation and sulfation of CaO in Oxy-Fuel CFB combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding City, Hebei Province (China); Jia, L.; Tan, Y. [CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1M1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    For anthracites and petroleum cokes, the typical combustion temperature in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) is > 900 C. At CO{sub 2} concentrations of 80-85 % (typical of oxy-fuel CFBC conditions), limestone still calcines. When the ash which includes unreacted CaO cools to the calcination temperature, carbonation of fly ash deposited on cool surfaces may occur. At the same time, indirect and direct sulfation of limestone also will occur, possibly leading to more deposition. In this study, CaO was carbonated and sulfated simultaneously in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under conditions expected in an oxy-fuel CFBC. It was found that temperature, and concentrations of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and especially H{sub 2}O are important factors in determining the carbonation/sulfation reactions of CaO. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Experimental study on effects of CBM temperature-rising desorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-min; LIN Ya-bing

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of CBM (coal bed methane) temperature-rising desorption,isothermal adsorption/desorption experiments on three ranks (anthracite,coking coal and lignite) of coal at different temperatures were designed based on the traditional CBM decompression desorption.The experimental results indicate that temperature-rising desorption is more effective in high-rank coal,and ever-increasing temperature of high-rank coal reservoir can reduce the negative effects of coal matrix shrinkage in the process of production and improve the permeability of the coal reservoir as well.It is also revealed that the technique of temperature-rising desorption applied in higher-rank coal reservoir can enhance CBM recovery ratio.This study provided theoretical support for the application of temperature-rising desorption technique in practical discharging and mining projects,which can effectively tackle the gas production bottleneck problem.

  1. Expert system for optimisation of drivages by blasting with combined supports, type A; Expertensystem zur Optimierung von Sprengvortrieben mit Kombiausbau Typ A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beimdieck, J. [DSK Anthrazit Ibbenbueren GmbH, Ibbenbueren (Germany). Bereich Bergbau

    2007-04-19

    An expert system, which permits the finding of optimum solutions with variation of the important technical organisational and management parameters, was developed at the Ibbenbuehren mine to add momentum to the increase in performance and reduction of costs in road drivages. Because of the large number of parameters, which affect the productivity and costs of a road drivage, and their complex interactions the expert system was divided into modules, which represent the operating processes of a drivage. The contribution describes the structure of the expert system and the many possible applications, which are illustrated by realistic data of a typical gate road drivage at the colliery. By systematic application of this expert system the Ibbenbueren anthracite colliery was able to develop the most efficient and most economical drivages by blasting in the German coal mining industry in the last ten years despite use of the expensive combined support system, type A. (orig.)

  2. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Modifying sorbents in controlled release formulations to prevent herbicides pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Céspedes, F; Villafranca Sánchez, M; Pérez García, S; Fernández Pérez, M

    2007-10-01

    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release properties. In this research the effect of incorporation of sorbents such as bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon in alginate basic formulation were not only studied on encapsulation efficiency but also on the release rate of herbicides which was studied using water release kinetic tests. In addition, sorption studies of herbicides with bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon were made. The kinetic experiments of chloridazon and metribuzin release in water have shown that the release rate is higher in metribuzin systems than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, it can be deduced that the use of sorbents reduces the release rate of the chloridazon and metribuzin in comparison to the technical product and to the alginate formulation without sorbents. The highest decrease in release rate corresponds to the formulations prepared with activated carbon as a sorbent. The water uptake, permeability, and time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, T(50), were calculated to compare the formulations. On the basis of a parameter of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, the release of chloridazon and metribuzin from the various formulations into water is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. Sorption capacity of the sorbents for chloridazon and metribuzin, ranging from 0.53mgkg(-1) for the metribuzin sorption on bentonite to 2.03x10(5)mgkg(-1) for the sorption of chloridazon on the activated carbon, was the most important factor modulating the herbicide release.

  4. Temporal geochemical variations in above- and below-drainage coal mine discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Jill E.; Peters, Stephen C.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality data collected in 2012 for 10 above- and 14 below-drainage coal mine discharges (CMDs), classified by mining or excavation method, in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania, USA, are compared with data for 1975, 1991, and 1999 to evaluate long-term (37 year) changes in pH, SO42−, and Fe concentrations related to geochemistry, hydrology, and natural attenuation processes. We hypothesized that CMD quality will improve over time because of diminishing quantities of unweathered pyrite, decreased access of O2 to the subsurface after mine closure, decreased rates of acid production, and relatively constant influx of alkalinity from groundwater. Discharges from shafts, slopes, and boreholes, which are vertical or steeply sloping excavations, are classified as below-drainage; these receive groundwater inputs with low dissolved O2, resulting in limited pyrite oxidation, dilution, and gradual improvement of CMD water quality. In contrast, discharges from drifts and tunnels, which are nearly horizontal excavations into hillsides, are classified as above-drainage; these would exhibit less improvement in water quality over time because the rock surfaces continue to be exposed to air, which facilitates sustained pyrite oxidation, acid production, and alkalinity consumption. Nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pair signed rank tests between 1975 and 2012 samples indicate decreases in Fe and SO42− concentrations were highly significant (p geochemical changes in CMDs in the anthracite field and the effect of the hydrologic setting on water quality presented in this paper can help prioritize CMD remediation and facilitate selection and design of the most appropriate treatment systems.

  5. The Donets Basin (Ukraine/Russia). Coalification and thermal history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Rainer, T.; Shymanovskyy, V.A. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Privalov, V.A. [Donetsk State Technical University, Artem str., UA-84000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Zhykalyak, M.V. [Donetsk State Regional Geological Survey, Sybirtseva str. 17, UA-84500 Artemovsk (Ukraine); Bueker, C. [Institute of Geology, and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen (Germany); Panova, E.A. [UkrNIMI, Tchelyuskintsev str. 291, UA-83121 Donetsk (Ukraine); Stephenson, R. [Research School of Sedimentary Geology, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-02-01

    The Donets Basin (Donbas) is one of the major late Paleozoic coal basins in the world. The Donbas Foldbelt is an inverted part of the Donets Basin characterized by WNW-ESE-trending folds and faults. The age of basin inversion is under discussion. Large parts of the Donets Basin host anthracite and meta-anthracite. Low-rank coals are restricted to the western and northern basin margins. Vitrinite reflectance patterns along the Gorlovka Anticline indicate syn-deformational coalification. Vitrinite reflectance isolines are displaced along thrusts, clear evidence that main coalification predates late faulting. 1-D and 2-D numerical models were applied to elucidate the factors that control coalification in the western Donets Basin (Krasnoarmeisk Monocline, Kalmius-Torets Depression, South Syncline). The models indicate that the depth of the seams and the heat flow during maximum (Permian) burial are the most important parameters. The thickness of late Carboniferous and Permian rocks increased from the southwestern basin margin towards the basin center. Permian erosion along the Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and in the Kalmius-Torets Depression was on the order of 2-3 km. More rocks were eroded southeast of the Donetsk-Kadievka Fault Zone (4-5 km). Heat flow during maximum burial was in the range of 40-75 mW/m{sup 2}. Heat flow in the Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and the Kalmius-Torets Depression increased in a northeastward direction from 40 to 55 mW/m{sup 2}. Heat flow at the eastern edge of the Kalmius-Torets Depression and in the South Syncline was in the range of 60-75 mW/m{sup 2} and increased towards the southeast. The resulting coalification pattern in this area was overprinted by thermal events in the northern Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and the South Syncline. These are probably related to (Permian?) magmatic intrusions. Coked coal occurs at the contact to presumed Permian sills and dikes southwest of Donetsk.

  6. Removal of Mn{sup 2+} from water by 'aged' biofilter media: The role of catalytic oxides layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahabi, D.M.; Takeda, M.; Suzuki, I.; Koizurni, J. [Yokohama National University, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Chemical & Energy Engineering

    2009-02-15

    The present work was aimed at evaluating the surface coatings characteristics and autocatalytic manganese oxidation potentials of two groups of 'aged' biofilter media. This refers to the anthracite filter media of a biological water treatment plant on which metal oxides and a biofilm have deposited on the surface of the filter media over long time of filtration. Duplicate samples of anthracite filter media were collected from each of the six filter wells in the plant and classified into two groups, based on their duration of operation, as 3-years filter media and 15-years filter media. Batch experiments showed that the 15-years filter media exhibited very high manganese sorption capacity and were less dependent on the microbial activity than the 3-years filter media. Results of the surface coatings analyses indicated that the biofilter materials is predominantly composed of variable layers of manganese and iron oxides, with microbial biomass contributing only about 3.5 and 1.4% of the dry weight of the surface coatings on the 3- and 15-years filter media respectively. Investigations onto the Mn{sup 2+} sorption by the lyophilized biofilter media showed that, the sorption kinetics on the catalytic oxides layers followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model, thus suggesting chemisorption as the dominant mechanism of Mn{sup 2+} removal. This implied that manganese removal by these biofilters is mainly by adsorption of Mn{sup 2+} onto the iron and manganese (catalytic) oxides layers and autocatalytic oxidation. The present study has clearly linked MN{sub 2}+ oxidation to the catalytic oxides layers on the aged biofilter media.

  7. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Vietnam's energy economy is largely served by traditional biofuels and oil products. Within the power generating sector, hydropower and gas-fired power dominate. However, Vietnam still maintains a 40 Mt/y coal industry, parts of which have recently undergone a long overdue programme of renovation and expansion. Vietnam has been a successful exporter of anthracite, with more than half of the country's production being shipped or barged to steel mills in Japan or power stations in southern China, as well as most other Far Eastern coal importers. The industry is due to take a different form. Opencast mining has recently accounted for around 60% of production but this mining method could be phased out as reserves become more difficult and costly to extract. A shift to underground mining is expected, with a greater emphasis on more modern and mechanised production techniques. Coal is located mainly in the coalfields in Quang Ninh in the north easternmost province of Vietnam. The lower rank reserves located within the Red River coalfields, close to the existing anthracite operations, may yield many more millions of tonnes of coal for exploitation. Underground coal gasification could possibly be exploited in the deeper reserves of the Red River Basin. While coal production could rapidly change in future years, the power generation sector is also transforming with the country's 12,000 MWe development programme for new coal-fired power capacity. The economy suffers from a threat of power shortages due to a lack of generating and transmission capacity, while inefficiencies blight both energy production and end-users. Delivering power to the regions of growth remains difficult as the economy and the demand for power outpaces power generation. While hydroelectric power is being pursued, coal is therefore becoming a growing factor in the future prosperity of the Vietnamese economy. 111 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Inhalation exposure and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among the rural population adopting wood gasifier stoves compared to different fuel-stove users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Tianbo; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatica hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with carcinogenic potentials and residential solid fuel combustion is one major source of PAHs in most developing countries. Replacement of traditional stoves with improved ones is believed to be a practical approach to reduce pollutant emissions, however, field assessments on the performance and consequent impacts on air quality and human health after adopting improved stoves are rare. The study is the first time to quantify inhalation exposure to PAHs among the residents who adopted wood gasifier stoves. The results were compared to those still burning coals in the region and compared to exposure levels for different fuel/stove users in literature. The results showed that the PAHs exposure levels for the wood gasifier stove users were significantly lower than the values for those using traditional wood stoves reported in literature, and the daily exposure concentrations of BaPeq (Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) can be reduced by 48%-91% if traditional wood stoves were replaced by wood gasifier stoves. The corresponding Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) decreased approximately four times from 1.94 × 10-4 to 5.17 × 10-5. The average concentration of the total 26 PAHs for the wood users was 1091 ± 722 ng/m3, which was comparable to 1060 ± 927 ng/m3 for those using anthracite coals, but the composition profiles were considerably different. The average BaPeq were 116 and 25.8 ng/m3 for the wood and coal users, respectively, and the corresponding ILCR of the anthracite coal users was 1.69 × 10-5, which was nearly one third of those using the wood gasifier stoves. The wood users exposed to not only high levels of high molecular weight PAHs, but relatively high fractions of particulate phase PAHs in small particles compared to the coal users, resulting in high exposure risks.

  9. Transport and abatement of fluorescent silica nanoparticle (SiO2 NP) in granular filtration: effect of porous media and ionic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2017-03-01

    The extensive production and application of engineered silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. Granular media filtration, a widely used process in water and wastewater treatment plants, has the potential for NP abatement. In this work, laboratory-scale column experiments were performed to study the transport and retention of SiO2 NPs on three widely used porous materials, i.e., sand, anthracite, and granular activated carbon (GAC). Synthetic fluorescent core-shell SiO2 NPs (83 nm) were used to facilitate NP detection. Sand showed very low capacity for SiO2 filtration as this material had a surface with limited surface area and a high concentration of negative charge. Also, we found that the stability and transport of SiO2 NP were strongly dependent on the ionic strength of the solution. Increasing ionic strength led to NP agglomeration and facilitated SiO2 NP retention, while low ionic strength resulted in release of captured NPs from the sand bed. Compared to sand, anthracite and GAC showed higher affinity for SiO2 NP capture. The superior capacity of GAC was primarily due to its porous structure and high surface area. A process model was developed to simulate NP capture in the packed bed columns and determine fundamental filtration parameters. This model provided an excellent fit to the experimental data. Taken together, the results obtained indicate that GAC is an interesting material for SiO2 NP filtration.

  10. Astronomical relevance of materials from Earth and space: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Kani Mustafa

    The present study used scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-Visible and fluorescence) to examine terrestrial materials of possible astronomical significance (Oedogonium sp., Enteromopha intestinalis, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus vesiculosus, Bacillus cereus, Staphyllococcus aureus, poppy seed, chlorophylls 'a' and 'b', Panicum maximum, anthracite, bituminous coal, naphthalene), the Tagish lake and Carancas meteorites, a Kerala red rain sample and stratospheric air particles collected at altitudes of 38-41 km. The study was designed to determine if any of the terrestrial samples could be proposed as an effective model for the interpretation of astronomical spectroscopic observations. The study also set out to search for evidence to shed light on the origin of these meteorites, red rain and stratospheric air particles. The spectra of all the terrestrial samples (including the meteorites) exhibited absorptions in the Mid-IR region, similar to astronomical features displayed by a variety of galactic sources. Algae (Odeogonium sp.) in particular produced the largest number of absorption peaks, most of which matched those of the astronomical emission spectra of PPNe and also the UIBs. Based on these observations, algae could be defended as a biological model for the interpretation of UIBs and PPNe, and a potential candidate for interstellar material. Coal and semi anthracite, that can be regarded as steps in the degradation of biomaterial, preserve the UIB-PPNe spectral features to varying degrees. The results are consistent with the panspermia theory of Hoyle and Wickramasinghe. UV-Visible studies were also conducted on all these materials. The main absorption feature was one close to 217.5 nm (2175 A). The normalized (averaged) spectrum of the whole sequence of biological materials and their degradation products absorption feature at 217.5 nm (2175 A) further support the contention that

  11. Dynamics of heterogeneous separation on fine clean coal dewatering by filter press%浮选细精煤压滤脱水非均相分离动力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩冠群; 谢广元; 张英杰; 沙杰; 刘均章; 张秀峰; 陈宣辰; 董玉蛟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the dewatering theory and analysis of heterogeneous separation of fine clean coal dewatering, the heterogeneous separation process on fine clean coal dewatering of Yongcheng anthracite was investigated. A theoretical model on fine coal dewatering and its heterogeneous separation dynamic equations were proposed. The results show that the pressure filtration of flotation fine clean coal has the characteristic of heterogeneous separation of fluid dynamics. Fine coal dewatering rate is the function of driving force of operation, filter media,filter cake properties, coal slurry property and effective area coefficient of compaction. Pressure filtration process is comprised of filtration and pressure dewatering. The dewatering dynamic equation of flotation fine clean coal of Yongcheng anthracite was proposed. The compressibility index of cake s is 0. 855 9, the material properties constant k is 0. 237 1.%基于脱水理论及非均相分离特点分析,研究了永城无烟煤浮选细精煤脱水非均相分离过程,提出了细精煤脱水理论模型和动力学简化方程.结果表明:浮选细精煤压滤脱水具备非均相分离流体动力学作用特点,脱水速度是操作推动力、过滤介质、滤饼特性、煤浆属性及有效压密面积系数的函数,压滤过程分为过滤及压榨脱水,给出了永城无烟煤浮选细精煤过滤方程,滤饼压缩性指数s值为0.855 9,物料特性常数k为0.237 1.

  12. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    A fibre-optic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurised reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverised coal particles at the pressurised entrained flow reactor of VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made in order to study the effects of oxygen concentration (3-30 vol%) and pressure (0.2-1.0 MPa) on the particle temperature. The fuels used in the experiments were Westerholt, Polish and Goettelborn hvb coals, Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite. The initial nominal fuel particle size varied in the experiments from 70 to 250 ,{mu}m and the gas temperature was typically 1173 K. For the anthracite also the effects of gas temperature (1073-1423K) and CO{sub 2} concentration (6-80 vol%) were studied. In Orleans a fibreoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor of CNRS and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. The fuel in the experiments was pulverised Goettelborn char. The reliability of optical temperature measurement in this particular application was analysed. In Essen a fibre-optic pyrometric technique that is capable to measure bed and fuel particle temperatures was applied to an atmospheric fluidised bed reactor of DMT. The effects of oxygen concentration (3-8 vol%) and bed temperature (1123-1193 K) on the fuel particle temperature were studied. The fuels in these were Westerholt coal and char and EBV-coal. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belonged to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme (contract JOU2-CT93-0331). (orig.)

  13. Formation of HCN and NH3 during the Rapid Pyrolysis of Coal and Model Compounds%煤及其模型化合物快速热解过程中HCN和NH3逸出规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 袁帅; 梁钦锋; 周志杰; 王辅臣

    2011-01-01

    利用高频热解装置对褐煤、烟煤和无烟煤三种不同煤阶的煤及模型化合物吡咯、吡啶进行了热解实验,分别考察了煤热解终温为1200℃,平均升温速率为2.7,8.0,11.9,17.1,22.9℃·s-1和不同热解终温(600~1200℃)下煤及吡咯、吡啶快速热解过程中HCN和NH3的生成规律,并且对煤热解过程中HCN和NH3逸出的影响因素进行了分析.结果表明:褐煤、烟煤的HCN转化率随升温速率增加而降低,无烟煤的HCN转化率随升温速率增加先增加后基本保持不变;褐煤、烟煤的NH3转化率随升温速率增加而增加,无烟煤的NH3转化率随升温速率增加降低.褐煤和烟煤的HCN转化率随温度升高而降低,无烟煤的HCN转化率随温度升高而增加;褐煤、烟煤、无烟煤的NH3转化率随温度升高均先增加后降低;在不同升温速率热解条件下总氮的转化率:褐煤>烟煤>无烟煤,在不同温度下快速热解时总氮的转化率:烟煤>褐煤>无烟煤.模型化合物吡咯快速热解时,NH3为主要的含氮产物,吡啶快速热解时,HCN为主要的含氮产物.%The rules and the influencing factors of HCN and NH3 formation during the pyrolyses of lignite,bituminous, anthracite, pyrrole and pyridine at different heating rates and different temperatures in a high frequency furnace were investigated. The experiments were conducted with target temperature of 1200℃ and average heating rates of 2.7, 8.0, 11.9, 17.1 and 22.9℃.s-1, respectively, for pyrolyses of above coals, and with rapid heating to different reaction temperatures of 600~1200℃ for pyrolyses of above coals and model compounds of pyrrole and pyridine. The results indicate that the yields of HCN during pyrolyses lignite and bituminous decrease with increasing heat rate or temperature, while the HCN yield of anthracite pyrolysis increases with the increase of temperature and it also increases with the increase of heating rate at first and then turns to be

  14. Ignition and Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Biomass under Different Oxy-fuel O2/N2 and O2/CO2 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami Firoozabadi, Seyed Reza

    This work studied the ignition and combustion of burning pulverized coals and biomasses particles under either conventional combustion in air or oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Oxy-fuel combustion is a 'clean-coal' process that takes place in O2/CO2 environments, which are achieved by removing nitrogen from the intake gases and recirculating large amounts of flue gases to the boiler. Removal of nitrogen from the combustion gases generates a high CO2-content, sequestration-ready gas at the boiler effluent. Flue gas recirculation moderates the high temperatures caused by the elevated oxygen partial pressure in the boiler. In this study, combustion of the fuels took place in a laboratory laminar-flow drop-tube furnace (DTF), electrically-heated to 1400 K, in environments containing various mole fractions of oxygen in either nitrogen or carbon-dioxide background gases. The experiments were conducted at two different gas conditions inside the furnace: (a) quiescent gas condition (i.e., no flow or inactive flow) and, (b) an active gas flow condition in both the injector and furnace. Eight coals from different ranks (anthracite, semi-snthracite, three bituminous, subbituminous and two lignites) and four biomasses from different sources were utilized in this work to study the ignition and combustion characteristics of solid fuels in O2/N2 or O2/CO2 environments. The main objective is to study the effect of replacing background N2 with CO2, increasing O2 mole fraction and fuel type and rank on a number of qualitative and quantitative parameters such as ignition/combustion mode, ignition temperature, ignition delay time, combustion temperatures, burnout times and envelope flame soot volume fractions. Regarding ignition, in the quiescent gas condition, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal particles experienced homogeneous ignition in both O2/N 2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, while in the active gas flow condition, heterogeneous ignition was evident in O2/CO 2. Anthracite, semi-anthracite

  15. Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, John Dinh Chuong

    In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very significant need to increase generation capacity. This thesis addresses improving thermal power plant efficiency through an improved planning process that emphasizes integrated design. With the integration of planning and design considerations of key components in thermal electrical generation, along with the selection of appropriate up-to-date technologies, greater efficiency and reduction of emissions could be achieved. The major barriers to the integration of overall power plant optimization are the practice of individual island tendering packages, and the lack of coordinating efforts between major original equipment manufacturers (OEM). This thesis assesses both operational and design aspects of thermal power plants to identify opportunities for energy saving and the associated reduction of CO2 emissions. To demonstrate the potential of the integrated planning design approach, three advanced thermal power plants, using anthracite coal, oil and gas as their respective fuel, were developed as a case study. The three plant formulations and simulations were performed with the cooperation of several leading companies in the power industry including Babcock & Wilcox, Siemens KWU, Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation, Hitachi, Alstom Air Preheater, TLT-Covent, and ABB Flakt. The first plant is a conventional W-Flame anthracite coal-fired unit for base load operation. The second is a supercritical oil-fired plant with advanced steam condition, for two shifting and cycling operations. The third plant is a gas-fired combined cycle unit employing a modern steam-cooled gas

  16. The plasma characteristics of different kinds of coal particles flow%不同煤种煤粉颗粒流的等离子体特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世和; 陆继东; 李军; 潘凤萍; 董璇; 张曦; 姚顺春; 罗嘉

    2013-01-01

    The spectroscopy induced by laser can reflect the characteristics of the sample,In order to apply laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the direct detection of coal particles flow, this work presents the experimental analysis on the coal particle flow with the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technology. Three kinds of coal samples (anthracite bituminous and lignite) were chosen to explore the plasma characteristics of coal particle flow. The relationships between the characteristics of plasma signal and the sample itself are analyzed.The characteristics of those coal samples are quite different and they are widly used in coal-fire power plant. Samples were ablated by 1 064 nm pulse laser in atmosphere. Based on the analysis of the plasma signal collected by the spectroscopy,the relations between coal particle flow and the relative line intensity of silicon and aluminum, plasma temperature and electron density are concluded. The analysis results show that the relative line intensity of silicon and aluminum is related to the ash content of the coals and its relative line intensity increases with the increasing of ash content in the coal particle flows. For the plasma temperatures and electron densities of the three kinds of coal samples,the results from large to samll order are achieved:anthracite,bituminous,lignite.%将激光诱导击穿光谱(LIBS)技术应用于煤粉颗粒流的检测.选用无烟煤、烟煤和褐煤3种燃用特性差异较大的煤样为研究对象,具体分析了不同煤种煤粉颗粒流的等离子体特性.在大气环境下,使用1 064 nm脉冲激光击穿煤粉颗粒流,并用光谱仪收集等离子信号.通过对等离子体信号的分析,得出煤样颗粒流的Si、Al相对强度、等离子体温度以及电子密度与煤种的关系.实验研究表明,煤粉颗粒流的Si、Al相对强度随灰分含量的增大而增大;各煤种的煤粉颗粒流的等离子体温度和电子密度从大到小排列依次为无烟煤>烟煤>褐煤.

  17. Variations in coal maceral chemistry with rank advance in the German Creek and Moranbah Coal Measures of the Bowen Basin, Australia, using electron microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Colin R.; Li, Zhongsheng; Gurba, Lila W. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 (Australia)

    2005-07-20

    Variations in the elemental composition of individual macerals in seams from the Permian German Creek and Moranbah Coal Measures in the Bowen Basin of Queensland have been studied over a wide range of coal ranks, using light-element electron microprobe techniques, to establish the coalification tracks of key macerals in a single coal-bearing interval from subbituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. Vitrinite reflectance (Rv{sub max}) in the seams studied increases from 0.39% in the western part of the basin to over 3.5% in the east, apparently due to increases in burial depth. The study extends significantly the rank range covered by previous work on elemental analysis of individual macerals in the Gunnedah Basin, and provides a more useful basis than whole-coal analysis to evaluate the performance of coals in different utilisation processes. The microprobe results show that the carbon content of the telocollinite increases dramatically from 66% to 90% as the vitrinite reflectance of the coals (Rv{sub max}) increases from 0.39% to around 1.75%, but increases only slightly, from 90% to 91%, as Rv{sub max} increases from 1.75% to 3.52%. Oxygen decreases from around 26% to approximately 5% as Rv{sub max} increases from 0.39% to around 1.75%, and then decreases only very slightly into the anthracite range. The nitrogen content of the telocollinite in these coals also appears to decrease slightly with rank advance, and appears moreover to display a relatively abrupt drop at around 2% Rv{sub max}. This may be associated with the development of ammonium illite in the mineral matter. Organic sulphur in the telocollinite, on the other hand, seems to remain essentially constant with rank advance, at least in this particular succession. In contrast to vitrinite, fusinite and inertodetrinite have significantly higher but somewhat more constant carbon contents, varying only from around 81% to 93% C over the rank range studied. Oxygen in these macerals decreases from

  18. Metamorphism of mineral matter in coal from the Bukit Asam deposit, south Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilawati, Rita; Ward, Colin R.

    2006-10-02

    The coal of the Miocene Bukit Asam deposit in south Sumatra is mostly sub-bituminous in rank, consistent with regional trends due to burial processes. However, effects associated with Plio-Pleistocene igneous intrusions have produced coal with vitrinite reflectance up to at least 4.17% (anthracite) in different parts of the deposit. The un-metamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed coals, with Rv{sub max} values of 0.45-0.65%, contain a mineral assemblage made up almost entirely of well-ordered kaolinite and quartz. The more strongly heat-affected coals, with Rv{sub max} values of more than 1.0%, are dominated by irregularly and regularly interstratified illite/smectite, poorly crystallized kaolinite and paragonite (Na mica), with chlorite in some of the anthracite materials. Kaolinite is abundant in the partings of the lower-rank coals, but is absent from the partings in the higher-rank areas, even at similar horizons in the same coal seam. Regularly interstratified illite/smectite, which is totally absent from the partings in the lower-rank coals, dominates the mineralogy in the partings associated with the higher-rank coal beds. A number of reactions involving the alteration of silicate minerals appear to have occurred in both the coal and the associated non-coal lithologies during the thermal metamorphism generated by the intrusions. The most prominent involve the disappearance of kaolinite, the appearance of irregularly interstratified illite/smectite, and the formation of regular I/S, paragonite and chlorite. Although regular I/S is identified in all of the non-coal partings associated with the higher-rank coals, illite/smectite with an ordered structure is only recognised in the coal samples collected from near the bases of the seams. The I/S in the coal samples adjacent to the floor of the highest rank seam also appears to have a greater proportion of illitic components. The availability of sodium and other non-mineral inorganic elements in the original coal

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Tol, Johan van [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Ye, Ruquan [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tour, James M., E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-11-23

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn{sup 2+} ({sup 6}S{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 5}) (signal width = 61 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023, A{sub iso} = 93(10{sup −4} T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu{sup 2+} ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 9}) (g{sub ⊥} = 2.048 and g{sub ‖} = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn{sup 2+} and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu{sup 2+} signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  20. The Republic of the Philippines coalbed methane assessment: based on seventeen high pressure methane adsorption isotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Papasin, Ramon F.; Pendon, Ronaldo R.; del Rosario, Rogelio A.; Malapitan, Ruel T.; Pastor, Michael S.; Altomea, Elmer A.; Cuaresma, Federico; Malapitan, Armando S.; Mortos, Benjamin R.; Tilos, Elizabeth N.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Republic of the Philippines has some 19 coal districts that contain coal deposits ranging from Eocene to Pleistocene in age. These coal districts include: (1) Catanduanes (Eocene); (2) Cebu, Zamboanga Sibuguey, Bukidnon, Maguindanao, Sarangani, and Surigao (Oligocene to Miocene); (3) Batan Island, Masbate, Semirara (including Mindoro), and Quezon-Polilio (lower-upper Miocene); (4) Davao, Negros, and Sorsogon (middle-upper Miocene); (5) Cotabato (lower Miocene-lower Pliocene), Cagayan-Isabella, and Quirino (upper Miocene-Pliocene); (6) Sultan Kudarat (upper Miocene-Pleistocene); and (7) Samar-Leyte (lower Pliocene-Pleistocene). In general, coal rank is directly related to the age of the deposits - for example, the Eocene coal is semi-anthracite and the Pliocene-Pleistocene coal is lignite. Total coal resources in these 19 coal districts, which are compiled by the Geothermal and Coal Resources Development Division (GCRDD) of the Department of Energy of the Philippines, are estimated at a minimum of 2,268.4 million metric tonnes (MMT) (approximately 2.3 billion metric tones). The largest resource (550 MMT) is the subbituminous coal in the Semirara (including Mindoro) coal district, and the smallest (0.7 MMT) is the lignite-subbituminous coal in the Quirino coal district. The combined lignite and subbituminous coal resources, using the classification by GCRDD and including Semirara and Surigao coal districts, are about 1,899.2 MMT, which make up about 84 percent of the total coal resources of the Philippines. The remaining resources are composed of bituminous and semi-anthracite coal. The subbituminous coal of Semirara Island in the Mindoro- Semirara coal district (fig. 2) is known to contain coalbed methane (CBM), with the coal being comparable in gas content and adsorption isotherms to the coal of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming, USA (Flores and others, 2005). As a consequence, the presence of CBM in the

  1. Explosions of coal powder in pressured process; Explosiones de Polvo de Carbon en Procesos a Presion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    As continuation of the previous introductory work about explosions of coal under hyperbaric conditions and considering the higher risk of explosions repercution with pressure; it was decided to develop this ambitious project, taking into account the more extensive range of type of coals: since subbituminous coals through hard coal to anthracite. It has been considered also several type of sorbents as limestones and others. The main objective of the project is to define, by experimental way, the utilization conditions for a safety coal handling. Many variables have been analyzed: Coal characteristics and origin, type of limestones, oxygen. moisture, temperature, and pressure. Due the great project complexity it was necessary to build one especial installation for trails under high pressure, where it was possible to use all the big number of variable combinations. The main research result has been the development of a model which has the possibility to simulate and analyze the foreseeable performance of coals and sorbent blends, in order to avoid the exploitations using specific handling methods. (Author)

  2. Investigation into the Flow Properties of Coarse Solid Fuels for Use in Industrial Feed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Craven

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Material feeding and handling systems have been cited as one of the most common causes of process downtime where thermochemical conversion processes are concerned. New and emerging fuels come in a variety of forms, and if such fuels are to be deployed widely it is imperative that material feeding and handling systems are designed appropriately. This study proposes an approach for designing material feeding and handling systems for use with coarse solid fuels. The data obtained from this study indicates particle size to be one of the key issues affecting the flowability of bulk solids further to the uniformity in particle shape. Coarse bulk solid samples were shown to flow more freely than their milled and pulverised counterparts, generating higher degrees of flowability. The results from this study were also applied to a new feed system used for feeding solid fuels to high pressure processes named the Hydraulic Lock Hopper. In this study the Hydraulic Lock Hopper demonstrated the feeding of wood pellets, torrefied spruce pellets, and ground anthracite coal grains against a pressure of 25 barg in two modes of operation. Energy savings compared to conventional lock hopper systems were recorded in the region of 80%.

  3. IHI-FW circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Omata, K.; Ishimoto, R.; Asai, M. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    The technology and application of the circulating fluidized bed boiler (IHI-FW) are outlined. Circulating fluidized bed boilers have various features as compared with bubbling fluidized bed boilers as follows; a high combustion efficiency, efficient use of limestone for desulfurization, low NOx emission, adaptability to various fuels and capability to cope with load change. The IHI-FW boiler is furthermore featured by water-wall furnace of all-welded structure, water-cooled/steam cooled cyclone, and simple circulating system. The 30 t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler was introduced into the Tsu Works, Omikenshi Co., Ltd., Japan for private power generation. The boiler equipped with a backup heavy oil burner mainly uses semi-anthracite coal, and besides sulfur capture and NOx reduction functions of a bed, a bag filter with a high dust collecting efficiency is installed in an exhaust gas system. The installation period was reduced to 2.5 months, a half of conventional ones, by more assembly in a factory followed by less field works. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Research and Industrial Application of a Process for Direct Reduction of Molten High-Lead Smelting Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Zhan, Jing; Fan, Yanqing; Wei, Chang; Zhang, Chuanfu; Hwang, Jiann-Yang

    2017-01-01

    A pyrometallurgical process for the direct reduction of molten high-lead smelting slag obtained by the Shuikoushan (SKS) method was reported in this article using solid anthracite as the fuel and reductant. The chemical composition, the lead phase composition, and the physical properties of the molten high-lead slag were examined. The effects of the process parameters on the recovery rate of valued metals were investigated in the laboratory. According to the experimental results, a new efficient bottom blow reduction furnace was employed in the pilot-scale test for high-lead slag reduction. The results showed the average recovery rate of lead was more than 96.0% with lower Pb and high Zn content of the reducing slag under the condition of reduction temperature 1100-1200°C, coal ratio 5.5-7.5%, reduction time 90-150 min, CaO/SiO2 ratio 0.35-0.45, and FeO/SiO2 ratio 1.4-1.55. Moreover, nearly 250 kg of standard coal per ton of crude Pb output was reduced compared with the blast furnace reduction process.

  5. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  6. Research of the refilling use in order to reduce the subsidence effects in the surface; Investigacion del Empleo de Relleno Consolidado para Reducir los Efectos de la Subsidencia en Superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The development of the research has been performed with a practical immediate purpose in the works of the Company Coto Minero de Narcea, S. A., a producer of anthracite in Asturias West Bassin. This is due to the fact that the work mining of the 2, 3 and 6 seams, essential to continue the production activities, is at present almost in vertical coincidence with surface installations of the mine making it necessary to use a filling material specially selected and layed in the works to minimize the subsidence effects. The prediction of these effects in order to reduce them to admissible bounds has been made through the application of the computer program SUBSIMCO, developed on the basis of the empirical calculation methods and the experience collected by the VNIMI Institute of Leningrad. The results controlled up to now, through accurate measuring, show a satisfactory coincidence with the predictions of theoretical calculations, proving at the same time the effectiveness of the filling process designed and the correct adaptation of the calculus method.

  7. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  8. Organic emissions in coal combustion in relation to coal structure and combustion temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, O.S.L.; Verhagen, E.J.H.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1985-10-01

    The pulsed combustion of coal has been studied in a small fluidized-bed reactor. The effect of combustion temperature and coal rank on the organic composition of the off-gas was investigated. Results are presented for the combustion of an anthracite, a medium-volatile bituminous coal and a high-volatile bituminous coal at 700, 800 and 900 C. The analytical techniques used include on-line FT-IR, O2 monitoring, FID and off-line GC-MS using Tenax as adsorbent. About 120 hydrocarbons were found, of which over 80% have been identified. Overall combustion characteristics such as oxygen consumption, total amount of unburned hydrocarbons and swelling properties of the coal have been related to the composition of the organic substances in the off-gas. The distribution of the polycyclic aromatics, from benzene to chrysene, and of alkylated derivatives is discussed in detail. Oxygen-containing compounds have also been analysed, although detailed discussion would be premature. 20 references.

  9. Search for extractable fullerenes in clays from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary of the Woodside Creek and Flaxbourne River sites, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.; Wolbach, W. S.; Chibante, L. P. F.; Brooks, R. R.; Smalley, R. E.

    1994-08-01

    When fullerenes were first discovered to form spontaneously in condensing carbon vapors ( KROTO et al., 1985), it was suggested that they might be widely distributed in the Universe. Searches for fullerenes in meteorites (see DEVRIES et al., 1993) were unsuccessful, but C 60 and C 70 were reported to occur on Earth in samples of shungite, a meta-anthracite from a deposit near Shunga, Russia ( BUSECK et al., 1992), and in "fulgurite", a substance formed when lightning strikes certain soils or rocks ( DALY et al., 1993). The occurrence of fullerenes in shungite is particularly surprising since fullerene synthesis in the laboratory has always involved gas phase chemistry at temperatures over 1000°C. Such conditions may be attained during lightning strikes, but shungite is believed to have formed from carbonaceous material creeping into fissures of a Precambrian rock which metamorphosed under extreme pressures. If the original carbonaceous material did not already contain fullerenes perhaps from wildfires, they must have formed during the metamorphism by as yet unknown solid- or liquid-phase mechanisms.

  10. Search for extractable fullerenes in clays from the cretaceous/tertiary boundary of the Woodsite Creek and Flaxbourne River sites, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Chibante, L.P.F.; Smalley, R.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)); Wolbach, W.S. (Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, IL (United States)); Brooks, R.R. (Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand))

    1994-08-01

    When fullerenes were first discovered to form spontaneously in condensing carbon vapors, it was suggested that they might be widely distributed in the Universe. Searchers for fullerenes in meteorites were unsuccessful, but C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] were reported to occur on Earth in samples of shungite, a meta-anthracite from a deposit near Shunga, Russia, and in [open quotes]fulgurite[close quotes], a substance formed when lightning strikes certain soils or rocks. The occurrence of fullerenes in shungite is particularly surprising since fullerene synthesis in the laboratory has always involved gas phase chemistry at temperatures over 1000[degrees]C. Such conditions may be attained during lightning strikes, but shungite is believed to have formed from carbonaceous material creeping into fissures of a Precambrian rock which metamorphosed under extreme pressures. If the original carbonaceous material did not already contain fullerenes perhaps from wildfires, they must have formed during the metamorphism by as yet unknown solid- or liquid-phase mechanisms.

  11. Geological occurrence of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buseck, P.R.; Tsipursky, S.J.; Wang, S. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)); Hettich, R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Using HRTEM imaging, the authors found C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fullerenes in shungite, a Precambrian carbon-rich rock from Karelia, Russia. Compositionally, shungite represents coals of the meta-anthracite rank, characterized by low ash and sulfur contents, low volatile yields, and high carbon contents. The shungite occurs within metamorphosed sediments. The overlying rocks consist of gray dolomitized sandstones and poorly sorted silts and clays; the underlying rocks are not exposed. The shungite consists of masses containing up to 99% carbon. Diabase is interstratified with shungite-bearing rocks, and the shungite concentration increases with proximity to the diabase. Their sample comes from inclusions in the diabase. In the HRTEM images the fullerenes appear round (presumably roughly spherical in three dimensions), with white rims and black centers, almost identical to images of synthetic C[sub 60] molecules. Following the HRTEM observations, the fullerene identities were confirmed, first by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and then by more precise laser ablation, laser desorption, and thermal desorption ionization plus Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometry. These measurements verified that the fullerenes were not generated by the laser ionization event. HRTEM images show that locally they occur in ordered arrays that resemble crystals of synthetic C[sub 60]. FT mass spectra show that the C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios for C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fall within the normal range of terrestrial isotopic values.

  12. Influence of different types of coals and stoves on the emissions of parent and oxygenated PAHs from residential coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yue; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Feng, Yanli; Chen, Tian; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of coal property and stove efficiency on the emissions of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) during the combustion, fifteen coal/stove combinations were tested in this study, including five coals of different geological maturities in briquette and chunk forms burned in two residential stoves. The emission factors (EFs) of pPAHs and oPAHs were in the range of 0.129-16.7 mg/kg and 0.059-0.882 mg/kg, respectively. The geological maturity of coal significantly affected the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs with the lower maturity coals yielding the higher emissions. The chunk-to-briquette transformation of coal dramatically increased the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs during the combustion of anthracite, whereas this transformation only elevated the emissions of high molecular weight PAHs for bituminous coals. The influence of stove type on the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs was also geological-maturity-dependent. High efficiency stove significantly reduced the emissions of PAHs from those relatively high-maturity coals, but its influences on low-maturity coals were inconstant.

  13. Evolution of Submicrometer Organic Aerosols during a Complete Residential Coal Combustion Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

    2016-07-19

    In the absence of particulate matter (PM) control devices, residential coal combustion contributes significantly to ambient PM pollution. Characterizing PM emissions from residential coal combustion with high time resolution is beneficial for developing control policies and evaluating the environmental impact of PM. This study reports the evolution of submicrometer organic aerosols (OA) during a complete residential coal combustion process, that is, from fire start to fire extinction. Three commonly used coal types (bituminous, anthracite, and semicoke coals) were evaluated in a typical residential stove in China. For all three types of coal, the OA emission exhibited distinct characteristics in the four stages, that is, ignition, fierce combustion, relatively stable combustion, and ember combustion. OA emissions during the ignition stage accounted for 58.2-85.4% of the total OA emission of a complete combustion process. The OA concentration decreased rapidly during the fierce combustion stage and remained low during the relatively stable combustion stage. During these two stages, a significant ion peak of m/z 73 from organic acids were observed. The degree of oxidation of the OA increased from the first stage to the last stage. Implications for ambient OA source-apportionment and residential PM emission characterization and control are discussed.

  14. [Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian

    2013-07-01

    As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).

  15. Pore structure development of in-situ pyrolyzed coals for pollution prevention in iron foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, He; Cannon, Fred S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Yujue [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Bejing, 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A protocol was devised for preparing pyrolyzed coals that could be made in-situ at foundries to capture volatile organic compound (VOC) emission. This pyrolysis created extensive micropore volume in lignite over a broad range of temperature and time; and could use waste heat from cupola exhaust gases by a heat-exchange tube. For foundry application, moderate porous carbon with relatively uniform pores over wide ranges of temperature and time would be more practical than highly porous activated carbon (AC) that requires narrowly-controlled operations. This pyrolysis protocol was developed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a small tube furnace, while using lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. The lignite yielded the most pore volume; and this was relatively uniform (0.1-0.13 mL/g of pores) while temperatures were 600-900 C, and times were 0-60 min. Smaller grain sizes yielded improved porosity; and this corresponded to more release of phenols and naphthalenes from smaller grains, as discerned by TGA-mass spectroscopy (MS). TGA-MS also revealed that improved pore development between 600-800 C corresponded to the release of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; and concurrently higher slurry pH linked to less oxygenated functionality. Adsorption of benzene was compared between the in-situ porous carbon and a commercial AC. (author)

  16. Far infrared (terahertz) spectroscopy of a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and application to structure interpretation of asphaltenes and related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, Arturo

    2013-07-01

    A series of 33 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied by far infrared spectroscopy (terahertz spectroscopy) in the spectral range comprised between 600 and 50 cm-1. In addition to common PAHs like naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, picene, pyrene, benzo[α]pyrene, and perylene, also quite unusual PAHs were studied like tetracene, pentacene, acenaphtene, acenaphtylene, triphenylene, and decacyclene. A series of alkylated naphthalenes and anthracenes were studied as well as methypyrene. Partially or totally hydrogenated PAHs were also object of the present investigation, ranging from tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) to decahydronaphthalene (decalin), 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, hexahydropyrene, and dodecahydrotriphenylene. Finally, the large and quite rare PAHs coronene, quaterrylene, hexabenzocoronene, and dicoronylene were studied by far infrared spectroscopy. The resulting reference spectra were used in the interpretation of the chemical structure of asphaltenes (as extracted from a heavy petroleum fraction and from bitumen), the chemical structures of other petroleum fractions known as DAE (distillate aromatic extract) and RAE (residual aromatic extract), and a possible interpretation of components of the chemical structure of anthracite coal. Asphaltenes, heavy petroleum fractions, and coal were proposed as model compounds for the interpretation of the emission spectra of certain proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) with a good matching in the mid infrared between the band pattern of the PPNe emission spectra and the spectra of these oil fractions or coal. Although this study was finalized in an astrochemical context, it may find application also in the petroleum and coal chemistry.

  17. A geochemical investigation into the effect of coal rank on the potential environmental effects of CO2 sequestration in deep coal beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Coal samples of different rank were extracted in the laboratory with supercritical CO2 to evaluate the potential for mobilizing hydrocarbons during CO2 sequestration or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from deep coal beds. The concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons mobilized from the subbituminous C, high-volatile C bituminous, and anthracite coal samples were 41.2, 43.1, and 3.11 ?g g-1 dry coal, respectively. Substantial, but lower, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were mobilized from these samples: 2.19, 10.1, and 1.44 ?g g-1 dry coal, respectively. The hydrocarbon distributions within the aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from each coal sample also varied with coal rank and reflected changes to the coal matrix associated with increasing degree of coalification. Bitumen present within the coal matrix may affect hydrocarbon partitioning between coal and supercritical CO2. The coal samples continued to yield hydrocarbons during consecutive extractions with supercritical CO2. The amount of hydrocarbons mobilized declined with each successive extraction, and the relative proportion of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons increased during successive extractions. These results demonstrate that the potential for mobilizing hydrocarbons from coal beds, and the effect of coal rank on this process, are important to consider when evaluating coal beds for CO2 storage.

  18. A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Analysis Study on Oxidation of Coal with Different Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy and nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements have been reported for different rank coals (lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite and the relationship between the measurements was examined. It was found that the Raman spectra parameters can be used to characterize structure changes in the different rank coals, such as the band area ratios based on the curve-fitted results. Higher ranked coal was found to have higher values of IGR/IAll and IG+GR/IAll but lower values of ID/I(G+GR, IDL/I(G+GR, IS+SL/I(G+GR, and I(GL+GL'/I(G+GR. The oxidation properties of the coal samples were characterized by the reactivity indexes Tig, T20%, and Tmax from TGA data which were found to correlate well with the band area ratios of IGR/IAll, IG+GR/IAll, and IS+SL/I(G+GR. Based on these correlations, the Raman band area ratios were found to correlate with the oxidation activity of coal providing additional structural information which can be used to understand the changes in the TGA measurements.

  19. The effect of the reinforcing carbon on the microstructure of pitch-based granular composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, A; Santamaría, R; Granda, M; Menéndez, R

    2003-02-01

    Carbon composites were prepared with four pitches (a commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch, two thermally treated pitches and an air-blown pitch) and four granular carbons (anthracite, graphite, green petroleum coke and foundry coke). Granular carbon/pitch proportions were optimized for each composite and differed in the characteristics of the single components. Interactions of the pitch with the granular carbons during pyrolysis and their subsequent effects on the microstructure of the final composite were monitored by light microscopy. The results show that the light texture of the matrix and the porosity of the composite depend not only on the chemical composition of the pitch but also on the specific granular carbon used as reinforcing material. The same pitch may generate different light textures depending on the characteristics of the carbon. Composites from thermally treated pitches and graphite show highly ordered matrices orientated in the direction of graphite planes. Graphite particles seem to exert a huge influence on mesophase development during the pyrolysis of the treated pitches, affecting not only the orientation of the mesophase, but also reducing the rate of mesophase formation. On the other hand, when green petroleum coke is used with the thermally treated pitches, matrices show a small size light texture, due to the high reactivity of the pitch in the presence of this granular carbon. The porosity of the composites is controlled by both the pitch and the granular carbon.

  20. Research on the Coal Blend Additive for Coking%煤种适应性及配煤炼焦探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢树新

    2012-01-01

    The factors which impact the coal coking process have been probed into, and the actual practice of using medium temperature pitch, tar residue, waste plastics, anthracite or coke powder as additive for coal blend has been introduced. Proper coal blend can lead to a sensible and effective utilization of the coal resource, and the study results have important theory significance and practical value for the commercial production in the coking industry.%讨论了原料煤及煤中显微组分对煤的成焦过程的影响;分析了中温沥青、焦油渣、废塑料、无烟煤、焦粉作为添加剂进行配煤炼焦时的实际情况.选用合适的添加剂进行配煤炼焦,能更好地实现煤炭资源合理有效利用,对工业生产具有重要的理论意义和实用价值.

  1. Effects of external atmosphere on the metallization phenomenology of composite pellets containing fines of iron ore and coal; Estudo do efeito da atmosfera gasosa na fenomenologia da metalizacao de pelotas auto-redutoras de minerio de ferro e carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Abreu, Jose C.; Oliveira, Luiz M.R. de [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1996-12-31

    This work presents the effects of temperature, time and CO/CO{sub 2} ratio on metallization and morphology of metallic iron produced by reduction of composite pellets containing fines of iron and anthracite coal. The experiments were conducted in a temperature range of 950 - 1250 deg C, and maximum time of 60 minutes. On the other hand, mixtures of CO/CO{sub 2}, from 100% CO{sub 2} up to 100% CO, were used in the experiments, conducted in an appropriate electrically heated furnace apparatus. In order to fulfill the objectives, the reduced pellets were chemically analyzed before observed in optical and scanning electronic microscopes and the results presented in graphics of percentage metallization versus . The following main results may be drawn from this work: (a) the type of external atmosphere exert a major influence on the reduction rates and metallization of the composite pellets: (i) when CO is raised in the mixture, there is an increase in metallization and reaction rate and the metallization continue unchanged; (ii) and uniform internal reduction mechanism occurs. (b) when CO is decreased in CO-CO{sub 2} mixture, the reduction led to a superficial metallic layer, the metallization, initially high, drops and a topochemical mechanism of re-oxidation occurs. (c) the scanning electronic microscopy allowed to observe that calcium is always present in the root of whiskers. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. The sort of carburization and the quality of obtained cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the production of cast iron, the pig iron’s amount in charge material is more and more often limited, and replaced by steel scrap. That extorts the necessity of know-how the carburization and one is looking for carburizers, which ensure obtaining big carbon increment as quickly as possible with the high repeatability and the ones which ensure getting the adequate quality of cast iron. The object of presented research was definition of the influence of charge materials’ sort on the structure, course of solidification, and the effectiveness of process. The cast iron melts, which are presented below, are made only on the basis of steel scrap with portion of graphitoidal, coke and anthracite carburizers, which were added to the charge in solid. In the article one compared the carburizers in respect of their structure, chemical constitution and the effectiveness obtained during the carburization of liquid metal. The melting of cast iron, based on the special pig iron, was carried out as well. The course of melts, chemical constitution of obtained cast iron and its structure were presented. The comparison between quality distribution and the volume fraction of graphite in classes of size for the individual melts were achieved and the TDA curves were inserted.

  3. The rate and effectiveness of carburization to the sort of carburizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of demanded carbon contents during melting the cast iron with bounded pig iron’s portion is important problem for many foundries. There are searched the effective methods and carburizers, which would ensure obtaining of big carbon increases with great repeatability as quick as possible. The aim of presented researches was definition of influence of essential factors characterized the carburization and the sort of carburizer on the rate and effectiveness of process. The cast iron melts are presented only on the basis of steel scrap with the portion of graphitoidal, coke and anthracite carburizers. Two methods of carburization are taken into consideration during the experiments were carried out: the addition of carburizer to charge in solid in the initial period of melting and addition of carburizer on surface of liquid metal . The obtained researches results and their analyze allow to choose the corresponding method and the sort of carburizer. One can state, that the best carburizer is synthetic graphite, if the rate and effectiveness of process is considerate and the best method of carburization in the electric inductive furnace is addition of carburizer to charge in solid. In the subsequent part of researches the analyze of influence of carburizer on the structure of grey cast iron and ductile cast iron. The initial researches has showed the differences in obtained structures of synthetic cast iron melted only on the basis of steel scrap and defined kind of carburizer.

  4. Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 184 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Central Region of the United States. This is the second of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Central Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Effect of an electrostatic field on gas adsorption and diffusion in tectonic coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Kuo; Lei Dongji; Fu Xuehai; Zhang Yugui; Li Hengle

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of adsorption, desorption, and diffusion of gas in tectonic coal are important for the prediction of coal and gas outbursts. Three types of coal samples, of which both metamorphic grade and degree of damage is different, were selected from Tongchun, Qilin, and Pingdingshan mines. Using a series of experiments in an electrostatic field, we analyzed the characteristics of gas adsorption and diffusion in tectonic coal. We found that gas adsorption in coal conforms to the Langmuir equation in an electrostatic field. Both the depth of the adsorption potential well and the coal molecular electroneg-ativity increases under the action of an electrostatic field. A Joule heating effect was caused by changing the coal–gas system conductivity in an electrostatic field. The quantity of gas adsorbed and DP result from competition between the depth of the adsorption potential well, the coal molecular electronegativ-ity, and the Joule heating effect. DP peaks when the three factors control behavior equally. Compared with anthracite, the impact of the electrostatic field on the gas diffusion capacity of middle and high rank coals is greater. Compared with the original coal, the gas adsorption quantity, DP, and the gas diffusion capacity of tectonic coal are greater in an electrostatic field. In addition, the smaller the particle size of tectonic coal, the larger the DP.

  6. Distribution of thermogenic methane in Carboniferous coal seams of the Donets Basin (Ukraine): ''Applications to exploitation of methane and forecast of mining hazards''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsaab, D.; Elie, M.; Izart, A.; Martinez, L. [G2R, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, CREGU, BP 239, 54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Sachsenhofer, R.F. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Privalov, V.A. [Donetsk National Technical University, Artem str., 58, UA-83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Suarez-Ruiz, I. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon - (INCAR) - CSIC. Ap. Co., 73, 33080-Oviedo (Spain); Panova, E.A. [UkrNIMI, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Tchelyuskintsev str. 291, UA-83121 Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2009-03-01

    The main purpose of this contribution is to estimate methane production and to define its migration paths and storage in the Donets Basin formations for exploitation of methane and forecast of mining hazards. In order to study methane migration and storage, maps of production calculated by 2D modelling, adsorption capacity of methane in coal, and present-day methane contents were constructed for an altitude of - 300 m (close to 500 m depth) in this basin. The results show that three principal factors influenced the methane migration and accumulation in Donets Basin: 1) faults that acted as migration pathways, 2) a replacement of thermogenic methane by endogenic CO{sub 2} in the central and SE parts, and 3) the occurrence of magmatic events in some areas in this basin. Finally, in Donbas, the areas with the highest methane potential and the maximum risk of outburst are not the areas with anthracite that produce the highest volume of methane, but areas with volatile bituminous coals where an impermeable cover preserved the accumulated gas until the Cenozoic and where dextral shear belts facilitated its migration. (author)

  7. Ukraine biosolids incineration project generates electricity while solving disposal problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosanke, J. [Quality Recycling Ltd., Henderson, NC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    This article described an innovative Waste-to-Energy (WtE) system that is currently being installed in the city of Odessa in the Ukraine. The city has a population of 1 million and is a major seaport on the Black Sea. Sewage sludge will be used as a biomass fuel to power an electrical generation plant. The system includes a clean-burning rotary cascading bed combustor (RCBC) linked to a boiler and an electricity-generating steam turbine. The RCBC spins in order to keep fuel cascading for maximum combustion, and is expected to burn over 50,000 tons of dewatered sewage sludge per year while generating 33,507,000 kWh of electricity per individual location. Eleven systems will be installed at major sewage processing modules in the Ukraine. A pilot program is also being conducted to test and monitor the system under United States emissions and operational standards. The RCBC is also being used to combust fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a site in Kansas. Other fuels that can be cleanly burned using the RCBC system included high sulfur bituminous coal; anthracite coal waste; carpet and carpet scrap, and tires and rubber wastes. Studies have demonstrated that some toxic wastes can be removed using the RCBC system. It was concluded that burning negative value fuels can allow some power plants to earn revenues from disposal fees. 3 figs.

  8. Local structure, paramagnetic properties, and porosity of natural coals: Spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchits, A. A.; Shanina, B. D.; Valakh, M. Ya.; Yanchuk, I. B.; Yukhymchuk, V. O.; Alexeev, A. D.; Vasilenko, T. A.; Molchanov, A. N.; Kirillov, A. K.

    2012-08-01

    Using methods of the scanning electron microscopy, Raman scattering of light(RS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), consistent research of the local structure and magnetic features of different types of raw coal samples from Donetsk basin is carried out. It is established that the ratio of the main peak intensities of RS spectrum D and G is inversely related to the volatile substance amount Vdaf in the coal samples. The study of the kinetic behavior of the EPR line width in hydrogen, oxygen, and methane sorption-desorption processes in each coal sample helped determine that the diffusion coefficient value for hydrogen in coal at room temperature is equal to DН = (2 ÷ 7) × 10-5 cm2/s. It is demonstrated that the oxygen diffusion occurs with time according to two different exponential laws with diffusion coefficients DO,1 = 5 × 10-6 cm2/s and DO,2 = 5.5 × 10-7 cm2/s, respectively. The smaller coefficient corresponds to the diffusion caused by the hopping process. Finally, it is established that the anthracite is a unique type of coal which does not possess the ability "to conserve" the significant EPR line width after oxygen pumping out from the samples.

  9. Projects for introduction of coal-water fuel technique in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papayani, F.A.; Switly, Y.G.; Vlasov, Y.F.; Titov, Y.V.; Khilko, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    Dramatic reduction in oil and gas supplies to Ukraine and the lack of its own developed oil production industry considerably raise the significance of coal in the fuel and energy complex of the country. Higher consumption of coal and simultaneous deterioration of its quality, however, come into conflict with environmental regulations, which is most strongly pronounced in such industrial-developed, densely-populated areas as the Donbas. Combustion problems with gas and candle coals are associated with the combustion efficiency and ecology, whereas in the case of brown and lean coals as well as anthracites, a combustion technique is the primary concern, which accounts for quite a limited application of the above coals for power generation. The abundant resources of brown, lean and hard coals in Ukraine create favorable conditions for wide introduction of coal-water fuel (CWF) produced primarily from the above ranks into the national heat and power industry. On the other hand, these coals are the least investigated in terms of a CWF technique. Small studies have been undertaken, but larger studies on a pilot scale are, for the present, economically impossible given the current situation in the Ukraine coal industry.

  10. The Donets Basin leads the way in Russian coal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    ''Despite more than a century of exploitation, the Donets Basin will serve people for many decades,'' says Nikolai Pogrebnov, Doctor of Geology, head of the AllUnion Coal Prospecting Institute. The Donets Basin (Donbas) is the oldest and most productive coal field in the USSR. A total of 204 million tons of coal were produced there in 1980 and production of 210 million tons is planned for 1985. The Donbas mines yield about half of all coking coal and almost all anthracite of the USSR. Though the cost of Donbas coal is higher than in all other Soviet coal fields with the exception of the Moscow region, its high quality and location near the main consumers allows the Donets Basin to preserve its position as the leading Soviet manufacturer of solid fuel. The total reserves of coal in the basin are estimated at 128 billion tons. There are more than 150 coal seams. Between 1995 and 2000, 285 new seams are expected to be commissioned on the western part of the Donets Basin alone.

  11. Variations in dissolved organic nitrogen concentration in biofilters with different media during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huining; Zhang, Kefeng; Jin, Huixia; Gu, Li; Yu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is potential precursor of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), especially nitrogenous DBPs. In this study, we investigated the impact of biofilters on DON concentration changes in a drinking water plant. A small pilot plant was constructed next to a sedimentation tank in a drinking water plant and included activated carbon, quartz sand, anthracite, and ceramsite biofilters. As the biofilter layer depth increased, the DON concentration first decreased and then increased, and the variation in DON concentration differed among the biofilters. In the activated carbon biofilter, the DON concentration was reduced by the largest amount in the first part of the column and increased by the largest amount in the second part of the column. The biomass in the activated carbon filter was less than that in the quartz sand filter in the upper column. The heterotrophic bacterial proportion among bacterial flora in the activated carbon biofilter was the largest, which might be due to the significant reduction in DON in the first part of the column. Overall, the results indicate that the DON concentration in biofiltered water can be controlled via the selection of appropriate biofilter media. We propose that a two-layer biofilter with activated carbon in the upper layer and another media type in the lower layer could best reduce the DON concentration.

  12. Morphological forms of carbon and their utilizations at formation of iron casting surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jelínek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Model pyrolysis made possible to identify three solid products of carbonaceous additives. Lustrous carbon is the most important form of the pyrolysis carbon. With its structure and physical and chemical properties it comes near to graphite. Amorphous carbon with turbo-stratic lattice, higher oxireactivity, and lower protective function against liquid metal comes near to carbon black. Semicoke also plays a non-negligible role. All forms of carbon have an important representation in oolitized quartz grain also during forming the casting surface. While amorphous carbon is formed directly from the gaseous phase by homogeneous nucleation, lustrous carbon, with regard to similarity of lattices with quartz, is formed by heterogeneous nucleation on grains. High covering power and low oxireactivity give its highest protecting power of the mould face. New experimental equipment made possible to check a possibility of use of new composite bentonite binders containing „process carbon“(graphite, anthracite, amorphous carbon. The BTEX content in exhalations and in waste sands too was considerably decreased with high smoothness of castings.

  13. Improved analytic methods for coal surface area and pore size distribution determination using 77 K nitrogen adsorption experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gongda; Wang Kai; Ren Tingxiang

    2014-01-01

    77 K nitrogen adsorption was the most widely used technique for determining surface area and pore size distribution of coal. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model are com-monly used analytic methods for adsorption/desorption isotherm. A Chinese anthracite coal is tested in this study using an improved experimental method and adsorption isotherm analyzed by three adsorp-tion mechanisms at different relative pressure stages. The result shows that the micropore filling adsorp-tion predominates at the relative pressure stage from 6.8E?7 to 9E?3. Theoretically, BET and BJH model are not appropriate for analyzing coal samples which contain micropores. Two new analytic procedures for coal surface area and pore size distribution calculation are developed in this work. The results show that BET model underestimates surface area, and micropores smaller than 1.751 nm account for 35.5%of the total pore volume and 74.2%of the total surface area. The investigation of surface area and pore size distribution by incorporating the influence of micropore is significant for understanding adsorption mechanism of methane and carbon dioxide in coal.

  14. Anatomic composition of plant tissues of highly metamorphosed coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizil' shtein, L.Ya.; Shpitsgluz, A.L.

    1985-09-01

    Method is described to improve microscopic study of highly metamorphosed coals (anthracite). Study of such coals with aid of reflected polarized light is enhanced by means of ionic etching of surface of slides that enables observation not only of structures of basic microcomponents but also of finest structural details of individual cells by reflected non-polarized light. Figures illustrate results of studying many samples by ionic etching (bombing a polished surface in a vacuum with ions and pulverizing material of microcomponents to reveal heterogeneity of crystal chemistry of surface) which reveals great variety of structures of plant tissues and their component cells. Pictures of 35 slides depict gelified coal-forming plants of Donbass and central Ural coal fields; fusainized coal-forming plants of Donetsk, Gorlovsk and Tungus basins; organs of Donbass plants; structure of cells and organs of plants of Donbass. Method of ionic etching opens new perspectives for studying anatomy and histology in area of classical paleobotany by making available a large number of samples of plant material and components of highly metamorphosed coals compared with the rare samples obtained by using the polarized light method. 14 references.

  15. Development of Semi—Graphite Carbon—Silicon Carbide Brick and Its Application in Slag Forming Zone of Large—sized Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOYun-zhong; CHENQian-wan

    1994-01-01

    Based on the damage mechanism of the lining at the slag forming zone of the blast furnace and the charactieristics of various refractory ma-terials,the methods to increase the service life of the lining at the slag forming zone have been found:(1) to improve the capacity of the blast furnace brick lining subjet to heat impact;(2) to reduce the working side temperature of the brick lining.On this basis,the semi-graphitized ,high temperature electrically calcined anthracite and silicon carbide etc ,were used as the main raw materials,Through a lot of experiments the proper raw material mix and grain size compo-sition were determined,In addition ,a suitable amount of additives and binders was added.After high pressur forming,high temperature firing and grinding ,the semi-graphitic carbon-silicon carbide bricks with close dimension tler-ances and ideal physical and chemical properties have been made.They have been applied in some blast furnaces,such as No.11(2580 m3) and No.6(1050 m3) blast furnaces etc.at Anshan Iron and Steel Company,and the problem of short service life at slag forming zone of blast furnace has been solved.

  16. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregudov, V.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  17. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  18. Clean fuels from coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, A M

    1974-04-19

    The quickest way to establish a visible new margin against energy demand is the historic producer serving small industry and gasifying Pennsylvania anthracite. In 2 years many producers could be in operation. The quickest way to obtain significant supplies of "new" gas or oil is to retrofit existing electricity and industrial boilers for power or industrial gas. Important results could be achieved in 6 years. Table 3 identifies development activities deserving high priority to speed the capture of gas and oil now burned in boilers, and to speed realization the advantages of combined-cycle equipment running on coal (8). Obviously, these activities are not enough. Many exciting and worthwhile concepts at various stages of development can furnish improved techniques for converting coal to pipeline gas and liquid fuels for the long run. Reviews of these concepts are available (6, 32, 35). I have neglected them in this article not to deny their importance but to stress the earlier opportunities from technology that is ready now, or nearly ready. The oil and gas industries might well consider the historical progression from Wells Fargo to Western Union to American Telephone and Telegraph to Radio Corporation of America. These industries will miss the boat if they regard themselves simply as purveyors of their historical fuels and not as purveyors of clean energy. The gas industry especially will be in trouble if it lets its major industrial customers, such as steel and electricity, provide their own supplies of power and industrial gas.

  19. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  20. Change in pore structure of coals by activation with KOH; KOH fukatsushita sekitan no saiko kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, K.; Yoshizawa, N.; Ishikawa, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Toda, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Shiraishi, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Three typical Japanese coals of non-coking coal, coking coal and anthracite were heat-treated with KOH, and change in their pore structure was examined by absorption of N2, X-ray diffraction and TEM observation. In addition, the relation between a coal rank and pore structure was also studied by absorption experiment of N2. In experiment, the mixture of coal and KOH in a nickel holder was heat-treated in N2 gas flow at heating rate of 2{degree}C/min, and held at a fixed temperature for one hour. To clarify the pore structure, N2 absorption isotherms were measured at -196{degree}C under nearly 76cmHg using a commercially available full-automatic absorption measurement equipment. Based on the X-ray diffraction and TEM observation results on activated coals, the relation between the N2 absorption and pore structure was studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The yield and absorption ability of coals increase with a coal rank, (2) The specific surface area of coals reaches its peak at 800{degree}C in activation temperature regardless of a coal rank, and (3) The activation behavior of coals is dependent on a coal rank. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature; Netsushorishita sekitan char no gas ka tokusei ni taisuru tanshu oyobi kobutsushitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takei, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In the wide range from brown coal to anthracite, an investigation was made of effects of heat treatment on physical/chemical properties and of coal rank dependence. For the experiment, 12 kinds of coal samples were used, and for heat treatment, the fluidized bed heated by the electric furnace and the infrared-ray gold image furnace were used. To examine characteristics of the heat-treated coal char, conducted were oxygen gasification, TPD measurement, XRD measurement, alkali metal measurement, and pore distribution measurement. The following were obtained from the experiment. The gasification reaction rate of the char heat-treated in the temperature range between 900{degree}C to 1700{degree}C decreases with a rise of the temperature of heat treatment, and the degree of decrease in the rate depends on coal rank. The order of gasification rate between coal ranks depends on the temperature of heat treatment, and the lower the heat treatment temperature is, the more largely the gasification rate is influenced by catalysis of mineral matters included in the coal. As causes of the decrease in gasification rate associated with the rise in temperature of heat treatment, indicated were release of alkali metal having catalysis and decrease of active sites by carbonaceous crystallinity. 6 figs.

  2. Removal of particle-associated bacteriophages by dual-media filtration at different filter cycle stages and impacts on subsequent UV disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, M.R.; Andrews, R.C.; Hofmann, R. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-06-15

    This bench-scale study investigated the passage of particle-associated bacteriophage through a dual-media (anthracite-sand) filter over a complete filter cycle and the effect on subsequent ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Two model viruses, bacteriophages MS2 and T4, were considered. The water matrix was de-chlorinated tap water with either kaolin or Aldrich humic acid (AHA) added and coagulated with alum to form floc before filtration. Filter effluent samples were collected for phage enumeration during three filter cycle stages: (I) filter ripening; (ii) stable operation; and (iii) end of filter cycle. Influent and filter effluent samples were subsequently exposed to UV light (254 nm) at 40 mJ/cm{sup 2} using a low pressure UV collimated beam. The study found statistically significant differences ({alpha} = 0.05) in the quantity of particle-associated phage present in the filter effluent during the three stages of filtration. There was reduced UV disinfection efficiency due to the presence of particle- associated phage in the filter effluent in trials with bacteriophage MS2 and humic acid floc. Unfiltered influent water samples also resulted in reduced UV inactivation of phage relative to particle-free control conditions for both phages. Trends in filter effluent turbidity corresponded with breakthrough of particle-associated phage in the filter effluent. The results therefore suggest that maintenance of optimum filtration conditions upstream of UV disinfection is a critical barrier to particle-associated viruses.

  3. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Improving reducibility of iron ore pellets by optimization of physical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducibility of iron bearing material is an important property which represents its suitability of reduction in iron making furnaces. It has direct influence on improving productivity and lowering energy consumption in iron making process. The reducibility of iron ore pellets of a specific chemistry can be improved by the optimization of physical parameters such as induration temperature, improving size distribution of fines, improving apparent porosity etc. In this study, the reference pellet is prepared in a typical plant condition and the properties of the reference pellet are considered as base value to improve reducibility index (RI maintaining other properties at the acceptable limit without altering pellet chemistry. Optimization of induration temperature at the 1250-1275ºC shows around 74 % RI, which is 5 points more than the base value of 69.5 %. Furthermore, on optimizing additives size, such as limestone fines and anthracite coal fines at -350 mesh and induration temperature of 1250-1275ºC, RI is improved to 77 %, i.e., 8 points improvement is achieved with respect to the base value.

  5. Effect of combustion catalyst on the operation efficiency of steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustyanskii, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The state of the energy market of the Ukraine is analyzed. The priority of using local, low-grade solid fuel according to its flame combustion in power boilers of thermal power plants and heat and power plants in the short-term perspective is proven. Data of expert tests of boilers of TPP-210A, BKZ-160-100, BKZ-210-140, Ep-670-140, and TGM-84 models with the investigation of the effect of the addition of combustion catalyst into primary air duct on their operation efficiency are represented. Positive results are attained by burning the anthracite culm or its mixture with lean coal in all range of operating loads of boilers investigated. The possibility to eliminate the consumption of "backlighting" high-reactive fuel (natural gas or fuel oil) and to operate at steam loads below the technical minimum in the case of burning nonproject coal is given. Problems of the normalization of liquid slag run-out without closing the boiler taphole are solved.

  6. Application of Mine Explosion-proof Rubber-tyred Vehicle Scheduling Management System in Baijigou Well%矿用防爆胶轮车调度管理系统在白芨沟井的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟昆志

    2015-01-01

    The auxiliary transportation system of Baijigou Well of Rujigou Anthracite Branch, Shenhua Ningx⁃ia Coal Industry Group is given priority to explosion-proof trackless rubber-tyred vehicle. This thesis mainly introduces to the dispatching management system, which is constructed for explosion-proof rubber-tyred vehi⁃cle transportation in Baijigou Well, and its main function and conceives of improvement for mine vehicle management, driver management and assignment of vehicle tasks and tracking.%神华宁煤集团汝箕沟无烟煤分公司白芨沟井辅助运输系统以防爆无轨胶轮车为主。本文主要介绍白芨沟井为防爆胶轮车运输而建设的调度管理系统,及其为矿井的车辆管理、司机管理和出车任务分派与跟踪发挥的主要作用和改进设想。

  7. Valoración de impacto ambiental en el Puerto Moa-Holguín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Pérez Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The operations of unloading ships the reception and distribution of products derivate of oil crude in the storage area, the movement of raw materials like coal anthracite, ammonia and sulphur, the load of lots of minerals as well as the maintenance of ships, direct leads to the appearance of hydrocarbons that affects the different ecosystems which he meets in once the contaminating source in the municipal Moa. It is present the characterization of ecosystems affected with oil's hydrocarbons, attending to environmental impacts identified by the expert group and the prior characterization of the area using assessment tools expert judgment using Delphi methodology. The environmental impact study was realized of qualitative form through matrix of cause-effect, valuation and importance of impact. The environmental factors of resulting surface/groundwater and health and hygiene the most attacked while impacts were more aggressive emissions (throwing to the ground hydrocarbons/ liberation to the midway air of gases, noises and materials in particles, throwing and contamination of the source for dragging of sediments, hydrocarbons and chemical substances and accumulation waste (creation of drains industrials.

  8. 一类状态依赖时滞能源价格模型的动力学分析%Dynamic Analysis for a Kind of State-dependent Time-delayed Energy Price Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛婷婷; 刘文斌; 常治国; 张宁; 史小艺

    2012-01-01

    研究了一类状态依赖时滞能源价格模型的动力学行为,通过使用一些新的分析技巧,获得该模型周期解的先验估计,利用重合度理论中的延拓定理,得到该模型正周期解存在的充分性条件,最后以我国近年来无烟煤出厂价格实例验证了该模型实际意义的合理性.%Dynamic behavior for a kind of state-dependent time-delayed energy price model is discussed in this paper. Through the use of some new analysis techniques, the prior estimate of the model's periodic solutions is obtained, and by using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, the sufficient condition of the existence of the model's positive periodic solutions is obtained. Finally, anthracite prices in recent years are taken as the example to verify the reasonableness of the model's practical significance.

  9. Re-Building Coal Country: A Church/University Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Milofsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a developing partnership between a church-based service learning center and a university initiative to build a field station in a low-income community in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania. It is a case study of how secular and religious institutions have been collaborating to achieve the shared goal of improving social conditions in specific communities. The theoretical focus of the paper is on how a change from a “glass is half empty” to a “glass is half full” perception of the community opens new possibilities for change. This paper concentrates on the story of one partnership as a case study demonstrating current trends in service learning both within universities and within the Catholic Church in America. Analysis centers on the basic question of why the project had symbolic power for both partners and on the institutional processes within both organizations that helped the partnership grow. We use the framework of Assets-Based Community Development (ABCD, also known as the “strengths perspective”, to conceptualize the contrast.

  10. Far infrared (terahertz) spectroscopy of a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and application to structure interpretation of asphaltenes and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; García-Hernández, D Aníbal; Manchado, Arturo

    2013-07-01

    A series of 33 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied by far infrared spectroscopy (terahertz spectroscopy) in the spectral range comprised between 600 and 50 cm(-1). In addition to common PAHs like naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, picene, pyrene, benzo[α]pyrene, and perylene, also quite unusual PAHs were studied like tetracene, pentacene, acenaphtene, acenaphtylene, triphenylene, and decacyclene. A series of alkylated naphthalenes and anthracenes were studied as well as methypyrene. Partially or totally hydrogenated PAHs were also object of the present investigation, ranging from tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) to decahydronaphthalene (decalin), 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, hexahydropyrene, and dodecahydrotriphenylene. Finally, the large and quite rare PAHs coronene, quaterrylene, hexabenzocoronene, and dicoronylene were studied by far infrared spectroscopy. The resulting reference spectra were used in the interpretation of the chemical structure of asphaltenes (as extracted from a heavy petroleum fraction and from bitumen), the chemical structures of other petroleum fractions known as DAE (distillate aromatic extract) and RAE (residual aromatic extract), and a possible interpretation of components of the chemical structure of anthracite coal. Asphaltenes, heavy petroleum fractions, and coal were proposed as model compounds for the interpretation of the emission spectra of certain proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) with a good matching in the mid infrared between the band pattern of the PPNe emission spectra and the spectra of these oil fractions or coal. Although this study was finalized in an astrochemical context, it may find application also in the petroleum and coal chemistry.

  11. 回转水泥窑燃烧段混煤燃烧数值研究%Numerical Simulation on Combustion of Ble nded Coal in the Burning Region of Revolving Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凌云; 张拥军; 傅维标

    2001-01-01

    For the blended coal composed of 70% anthracite and 30% bitumite,thi s paper si mulates the combustion processes inside the revolving cement kiln with a pulveri zed coal fired burner using a jet with velocity difference.A multiflui d mo del is used for two-phase turbulent flow.and a reaction and general model is u sed for combustio n processes of coal.The results show that the burner used in the revolving cemen t kiln can intensify combustion,furthermore,both the present burner and central high speed jet can restrain the expansion of pulverized coal and make flame not reach the slagging layer of the kiln.%对有反应湍流气粒两相流动采用双流体模型,对 煤粉燃烧过程采 用通用模型,首次针对70%无烟煤+30%烟煤的混煤燃料,将回转水泥窑筒体配有速差射 流煤粉燃烧器的燃烧过程进行了数值研究。结果表明,回转水泥窑中采用该型燃烧器能强化 燃烧,同时使煤粉的扩散受到约束,从而保证了火焰不致烧到窑皮。

  12. Techniques to determine ignition, flame stability and burnout of blended coals in p.f. power station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Pohl, J.H.; Holcombe, D.; Hart, J.A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The blending of coals has become popular to improve the performance of coals, to meet specifications of power plants and to reduce the cost of coals. This article reviews the results and provides new information on ignition, flame stability, and carbon burnout studies of blended coals. The reviewed studies were conducted in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale facilities. The new information was taken in pilot-scale studies. The results generally show that blending a high-volatile coal with a low-volatile coal or anthracite can improve the ignition, flame stability and burnout of the blends. This paper discusses two general methods to predict the performance of blended coals: (1) experiment; and (2) indices. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests, at least, provide a relative ranking of the combustion performance of coal/blends in power station boilers. Several indices, volatile matter content, heating value and a maceral index, can be used to predict the relative ranking of ignitability and flame stability of coals and blends. The maceral index, fuel ratio, and vitrinite reflectance can also be used to predict the absolute carbon burnout of coal and blends within limits. 59 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China:a review of studies in Xuanwei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jie Seow; Cuiju Wen; Nathaniel Rothman; Qing Lan; Wei Hu; Roel Vermeulen; HDean Hosgood III; George SDownward; Robert SChapman; Xingzhou He; Bryan ABassig; Christopher Kim

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the world’s population is exposed to household air polution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air polution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especialy in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas stil use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air polution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantialy between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The instalation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overal, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventualy move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity.

  14. Effect of filtration rate on coal-sand dual-media filter performances for microalgae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiri, Nour-Eddine; Monnier, Elodie; Raimbault, Virginie; Massé, Anthony; Séchet, Véronique; Jaouen, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    This study tested the efficiency of granular filtration using a bilayer sand filter for microalgae removal from culture dilutions ranging from 10,000 to 17,000 cells/mL. The objective is to evaluate the removal capacity of the filter without chemical coagulation. Two filter media, sand and anthracite, with mean grain sizes of 0.395 and 1.2 mm, respectively, were used in constant-flow-rate experiments (down-flow mode) with suspensions containing Heterocapsa triquetra microalga. The conventional rapid filtration which usually operates at a constant rate of approximately 5 m(3)/m(2) h is compared to high-rate filtration. Two filtration velocities (5 and 10 m/h) were investigated with bed depth of 1100 mm. Average microalgal cell removal rates were 90% at 5 m/h and 68% at 10 m/h. Turbidity removal was more than 71% at 5 m/h but just 57% at 10 m/h. Head losses did not increase significantly, and values measured at process end were 32 mbar at 5 m/h and 78 mbar at 10 m/h. Retention probabilities were calculated from experimental data. A theoretical model was used to evaluate the contributions of the different drivers of microalgae removal. Hypotheses are developed on the understanding of change in the mechanisms of retention as a function of filtration velocity.

  15. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl sorption isotherms for soot and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, A.P.K.; Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O. [University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sorption isotherms (pg-ng/L) were measured for 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of varying molecular planarity from aqueous solution to two carbonaceous geosorbents, anthracite coal and traffic soot. All isotherms were reasonably log-log-linear, but smooth for traffic soot and staircase-shaped for coal, to which sorption was stronger and more nonlinear. The isotherms were modeled using seven sorption models, including Freundlich, (dual) Langmuir, and Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes (PDM). PDM provided the best combination of reliability and mechanistically-interpretable parameters. The PDM normalizing factor Z appeared to correlate negatively with sorbate molecular volume, dependent on the degree of molecular planarity. The modeling results supported the hypothesis that maximum adsorption capacities (Q{sub max}) correlate positively with the sorbent's specific surface area. Q{sub max} did not decrease with increasing sorbate molecular size, and adsorption affinities clearly differed between the sorbents. Sorption was consistently stronger but not less linear for planar than for nonplanar PCBs, suggesting surface rather than pore sorption.

  16. Studying the specific features pertinent to combustion of chars obtained from coals having different degrees of metamorphism and biomass chars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestsennyi, I. V.; Shchudlo, T. S.; Dunaevskaya, N. I.; Topal, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Better conditions for igniting low-reaction coal (anthracite) can be obtained, higher fuel burnout ratio can be achieved, and the problem of shortage of a certain grade of coal can be solved by firing coal mixtures and by combusting coal jointly with solid biomass in coal-fired boilers. Results from studying the synergetic effect that had been revealed previously during the combustion of coal mixtures in flames are presented. A similar effect was also obtained during joint combustion of coal and wood in a flame. The kinetics pertinent to combustion of char mixtures obtained from coals characterized by different degrees of metamorphism and the kinetics pertinent to combustion of wood chars were studied on the RSK-1D laboratory setup. It was found from the experiments that the combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having close degrees of metamorphism is equal to the value determined as a weighted mean rate with respect to the content of carbon. The combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having essentially different degrees of metamorphism is close to the combustion rate of more reactive coal initially in the process and to the combustion rate of less reactive coal at the end of the process. A dependence of the specific burnout rate of carbon contained in the char of two wood fractions on reciprocal temperature in the range 663—833 K is obtained. The combustion mode of an experimental sample is determined together with the reaction rate constant and activation energy.

  17. Analysis of the Rheological Behaviour of Selected Semi-Solid Slag Systems in Blast Furnace Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migas P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid systems of slag and hot metal in a blast furnace are extremely important from the perspective of their dripping in the unit. The rheological nature and the values of the dynamic viscosity coefficient of liquid and semi-solid phases - slag and hot metal - determine the permeability of the zones in which those systems exist. The modelling of dripping processes and e.g. static and dynamic holding/retention of liquid in the bed, requires an accurate description of the rheological behaviour of slag and iron systems. Determining the liquid flow through the lump bed of the blast furnace is based on the assumption that liquids in the unit in the whole range of their occurrence are similar to a Newtonian ideal liquid. This study presents an analysis of the findings of high-temperature rheometric measurements of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO systems, liquid, semi-solid slags of the blast furnace type doped with TiO2 and solids in the form of TiN. The tests were performed within a temperature range of 1310-1490°C. Also measurement results for glycerol solutions with concentrations of 86% and 100% at the ambient temperature, simulating blast furnace slags with various contents of solids - PC, anthracite - are presented.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of selected carbonaceous samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinska, Barbara [University of Science and Technology-AGH, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Krakow (Poland); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain); Paluszkiewicz, Czeslawa [University of Science and Technology-AGH, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Rodriques, Sandra [Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Dept. de Geologia (Portugal)

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the results of Raman spectra measured on carbonaceous materials ranging from greenschist facies to granulite-facies graphite (Anchimetamorphism and Epimetamorphism zones). Raman spectroscopy has come to be regarded as a more appropriate tool than X-ray diffraction for study of highly ordered carbon materials, including chondritic matter, soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and evolved coal samples. This work demonstrates the usefulness of the Raman spectroscopy analysis in determining internal crystallographic structure (disordered lattice, heterogeneity). Moreover, this methodology permits the detection of differences within the meta-anthracite rank, semi-graphite and graphite stages for the samples included in this study. In the first order Raman spectra, the bands located near to c.a. 1350 cm{sup -1} (defects and disorder mode A{sub 1g}) and 1580 cm{sup -1} (in plane E{sub 2g} zone - centre mode) contribute to the characterization and determination of the degree of structural evolution and graphitization of the carbonaceous samples. The data from Raman spectroscopy were compared with parameters obtained by means of structural, chemical and optical microscopic analysis carried out on the same carbonaceous samples. The results revealed some positive and significant relationships, although the use of reflectance as a parameter for following the increase in structural order in natural graphitized samples was subject to limitations. (author)

  19. Age of the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale in the Appalachian and Michigan basins, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Wallace

    1970-01-01

    The suggestion by Sanford (1967, p. 994) that the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale of the Michigan basin are of Late Devonian age because these strata contain Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo is invalid for these formations in the Appalachian basin, the area of their type localities. Endosporites lacunosus Winslow, a synonym of Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo, occurs in upper Chautauqua (Upper Devonian) rocks through much of the Kinderhook (Lower Mississippian) strata in Ohio. The Sunbury Shale, the Sunbury Member of the Orangeville Shale in part of northern Ohio, contains a Siplionodella fauna which clearly demonstrates the Kinderhook age of the unit. The basal strata of the Bedford Shale contain Spathoffnathodus anteposlcornis which suggests a very Late Devonian or very Early Mississippian age for this part of the Bedford. Except for the basal fossil zone, most of the Bedford Shale and the younger Berea Sandstone overlie the Murrysville sand, which along the Allegheny Front in central Pennsylvania contains an Adiantites flora of Early Mississippian (Kinderhook) age. The presence of Adiantites in the Murrysville sand indicates that most of the Bedford Shale and all the Berea Sandstone are of Early Mississippian age. Lithostratigraphic evidence suggests that the Berea Sandstone of Ohio may be a temporal equivalent of the basal Beckville Member of the Pocono Formation of the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania. The clearly demonstrable Kinderhook age of the Sunbury, Berea, and most of the Bedford in the Appalachian basin strongly indicates a similar age for the same units in the Michigan basin.

  20. Role of Ni(NO3)2 in the preparation of a magnetic coal-based activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun; Xie Qiang; Liu Juan; Yang Mingshun; Yao Xing

    2011-01-01

    The role of Ni(NO3)2 in the preparation of a magnetic activated carbon is reported in this paper.Magnetic coal-based activated carbons (MCAC) were prepared from Taixi anthracite with low ash content in the presence of Ni(NO3)2.The MCAC materials were characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM),X-ray diffraction (XRD),a scanning electric microscope (SEM),and by N2 adsorption.The cylindrical precursors and derived char were also subjected to thermogravimetric analysis to compare their behavior of weight losses during carbonization.The results show that MCAC has a larger surface area (1074 m2/g) and a higher pore volume (0.5792 cm3/g) with enhanced mesopore ratio (by about 10%).It also has a high saturation magnetization (1.6749 emu/g) and low coercivity (43.26 Oe),which allows the material to be magnetically separated.The MCAC is easily magnetized because the nickel salt is converted into Ni during carbonization and activation.Metallic Ni has a strong magnetism on account of electrostatic interaction.Added Ni(NO3)2 catalyzes the carbonization and activation process by accelerating burn off of the carbon,which contributes to the development of mesopores and macropores in the activated carbon.

  1. Upgrading of the Mono Media Filters in Water Treatment Plants by Changing Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackground and Objectives:Dual media filters have two different layer beds consist of sand and Anthracite. Advantage of dual media filters is longer run duration and more filtration rate. The purpose of this study was to achieve a performable model to improve single media Filters in water treatment plants."nMaterials and Methods: in this cross-sectional study, two pilots; mono and dual media were made and in a 5 month period samples taking were done. Total samples taken from input and output of each pilot, was 40. The samples then introduced for the measurment of turbidity and total organic carbon. Meanwhile the filters head loss also quantified in 40 times head loss measurement was done."nResults: Average turbidity removal in mono and two layer pilots were 63 and 65 percent respectively. Average removal of Total Organic Carbon in mono and two media pilots were 40 and 66 percent respectively. Head loss in dual and single media pilots were 0 .68 and 1.15 m respectively."nConclusion: Although average torbidity removal disparity between two pilots was not significant the amount of total organic carbon removed was considerable. Average head loss in single media pilot was more than dual media type. Ratio of UFRV in dual media to mono media filter was 51:30 it shows that filtration rate capacity will be improved up to70 percent by changing media type.

  2. Development of standards and a cost model for coal agglomeration and related studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Paulin, M.O.

    1982-02-26

    Several topics concerning coal agglomeration and fixed-bed coal gasification, as they relate to an agglomeration-process development program presently being performed for the Department of Energy, are discussed in this report. Specific topics include an examination of the performance of coals in fixed-bed gasifiers, the development of properties' standards by which agglomerates produced in the program may be compared, the development of a cost model to judge the economic feasibility of coal agglomeration for potential users and the maximum binder levels to be considered in the program, the definition of a suitable briquette size for coal gasification, and a study of upgrading methods at the mines to improve agglomeration. Extensive property data and the results of a number of special tests on six coals (Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Wyoming Bighorn subbituminous coal, Montana Rosebud No. 14 subbituminous coal, North Dakota Indian Head lignite and Pennsylvania Nanoth anthracite coal) and on FMC formcoke and Simplex briquettes are reported.

  3. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  4. Effect of char preparation temperature on the evolution of nitrogen-containing species during char oxidation at fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, W.; Lu, J.; Yue, G. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuel Engineering; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Fluidized bed combustion is gaining popularity as a means to burn coal and waste fuels because the low temperatures of fluidized bed combustors generally result in low thermal nitric oxide (NO) production. However, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions can be relativity high and strategies must be developed to reduce emissions of this greenhouse gas. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study that examined the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the conversion of char-N to N{sub 2}O, NO and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in fluidized bed combustion. When anthracite coal was used, an increase in the pyrolysis temperature resulted in reduced conversion of char-N to N{sub 2}O and HCN. However, the conversion to NO increased. This observation may be due to the lower hydrogen content of the chars produced at higher temperature and their lower reactivity. Other possibilities may be that the lower char reactivity for chars produced at high pyrolysis temperature may affect the reactions occurring in the boundary layer. Chars of lower reactivity in particular, may react at lower particle temperature and under high transient oxygen concentrations. A simplified char combustion representation was used to examine the effect of temperature and equivalence ratio on HCN oxidation. A reduction of equivalence ratio could explain some of the observed variations in product distribution with increased pyrolysis temperature. 19 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  5. Study of the interrelationships among chemical and petrographic variables of United States coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, C.; Davis, A.; Spackman, W.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1978-03-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques are used in a study of the interrelationships among various coal properties. The properties chosen for study are the components of the ultimate analysis (carbon, hydrogen, organic sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen); moisture; volatile matter; calorific value; maximum reflectance of the vitrinite-group macerals; and the relative proportions of the vitrinite-, liptinite-, and inertinite-group macerals. The coals included in the study are from four coal provinces (Eastern, Interior, Rocky Mountain, and Northern Great Plains) and range in rank from lignite to anthracite. A coal's characteristics, properties, and utilization behavior are determined by the maceral and mineral materials composing the coal. The level of coalification achieved by the maceral materials is of critical importance in fixing the properties. A factor analysis performed on all data together indicates that most variation in the data set is correlated with changes in rank (variables which vary with rank include carbon, oxygen, calorific value, moisture, volatile matter, and reflectance). The maceral groups account for the next greatest amount of variation. Nitrogen and sulfur are each independent of all other variables. A cluster analysis indicates that the data set represents a continuum with no distinct groups; however, the data set may be dissected into four groups distinguished from each other on the basis of rank, on the relative proportions of the maceral groups, and on the organic sulfur content. Factor analyses of the individual groups provide insights into coalification at various stages of rank.

  6. Methane adsorption-induced coal swelling measured with an optical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Shuheng; Wan Yi; Duan Lijiang; Xia Zhaohui; Zhang Songhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of matrix shrinkage on reservoir permeability during coalbed methane production, coal samples from Huozhou, Changzhi and Jincheng areas in Shanxi province (classified as high-volatile bituminous coal, low-volatile bituminous coal and anthracite, respectively) were collected, and adsorption-induced coal swelling in methane were determined by an optical method at 40 ?C and pressure up to 12 MPa. All three coals showed similar behavior-that swelling increased as a function of pressure up to about 10 MPa but thereafter no further increase in swelling was observed. Swelling in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane is greater than that parallel to the bedding plane, and the differences are about 7.77–8.33%. The maximum volumetric swelling ranges from 2.73% to 3.21%-increasing with increasing coal rank. The swelling data can be described by a modified DR model. In addition, swelling increases with the amount of adsorption. However, the increase shows a relatively slower stage followed by a relatively faster stage instead of a linear increase. Based on the assumption that sorption-induced swelling/shrinkage of coal in methane is reversible, the permeability increases induced by coal shrinkage during methane desorption was analyzed, and the results indicate that the permeability change is larger for higher rank coal in the same unit of pressure depletion.

  7. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  8. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China: a review of studies in Xuanwei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Vermeulen, Roel; Hosgood Iii, H Dean; Downward, George S; Chapman, Robert S; He, Xingzhou; Bassig, Bryan A; Kim, Christopher; Wen, Cuiju; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Over half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air pollution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especially in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas still use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air pollution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantially between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The installation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overall, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventually move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity.

  9. Combined hydrogen production and storage with subsequent carbon crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela D; Gutierrez, Humberto R; Fonseca, Dania A; Narayanan, Deepa L; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Jain, Puja; Clifford, Caroline E B

    2006-06-21

    We provide evidence of low-temperature hydrogen evolution and possible hydrogen trapping in an anthracite coal derivative, formed via reactive ball milling with cyclohexene. No molecular hydrogen is added to the process. Raman-active molecular hydrogen vibrations are apparent in samples at atmospheric conditions (300 K, 1 bar) for samples prepared 1 year previously and stored in ambient air. Hydrogen evolves slowly at room temperature and is accelerated upon sample heating, with a first increase in hydrogen evolution occurring at approximately 60 degrees C. Subsequent chemical modification leads to the observation of crystalline carbons, including nanocrystalline diamond surrounded by graphene ribbons, other sp2-sp3 transition regions, purely graphitic regions, and a previously unidentified crystalline carbon form surrounded by amorphous carbon. The combined evidence for hydrogen trapping and carbon crystallization suggests hydrogen-induced crystallization of the amorphous carbon materials, as metastable hydrogenated carbons formed via the high-energy milling process rearrange into more thermodynamically stable carbon forms and molecular hydrogen.

  10. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  11. Key parameters influencing the NOx reduction process by low-cost char pellets: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Soriano-Mora; A. Bueno-Lopez; A. Garcia-Garcia; R. Perry; C.E. Snape [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    High potassium content char briquettes prepared from a bituminous coal have shown to be remarkably selective towards NOx reduction by the carbon contained within them. For the present work, it was decided to pursue the preparation of a number of pelletised formulations as well as testing reaction temperatures and lifetime tests. Low-cost carbon feedstocks were selected for pellet preparation (a metallurgical coke breeze, petroleum coke fines and a medium temperature domestic coke), two coals (an anthracite and a high volatile bituminous coal), a scrap tyre pyrolysis char and a carbon concentrate from PFA. Pellets were prepared from a solid mixture containing 65% of air-dried carbon, 30% potassium hydroxide and 5% of cashew nut shell liquid as binder. The results show that good and constant values of NOx reduction are kept after 2 hours of reaction as well as satisfactory selectivity factors (up to 0.45). This parameter is highly dependent on potassium content of the samples and on reaction temperature. The most efficient pellets in terms of high selectivity and high amount of NOx reduced were analysed under lifetime tests at 400{sup o}C. Very encouraging results were obtained showing that high values of NOx conversions (well above O{sub 2} conversions), long lifetimes, no uncontrolled increase in sample temperature and very low CO emissions, (leading to an optimum sample efficiency) were observed throughout lifetime tests. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes

    CERN Document Server

    Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

    2012-01-01

    The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

  13. Modification of pore size in activated carbon by benzene deposition and its effects on CH4/N2 separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-hua; CHE Yong-fang; LI Lan-ting; BAO Peng-cheng

    2011-01-01

    Anthracite coal was used as raw material to prepare activated carbons as the carbon support in the carbonization-activation process.Modification of the pore size of the activated carbon by chemical vapor deposition of carbon from benzene was examined.These samples were characterized by adsorption of N2 at 77 K and CH4 and N2 at 303 K.The microporosity of these samples was evaluated by the Dubinin-Astakhov Equation.The pore size distribution was obtained by the DFT method applied to the N2 adsorption data at 77 K.The separation selectivity was obtained by the Langmuir Equation.The surface morphology was characterized by an environmental scanning electron microscope.It was observed that all samples of carbon molecular sieves studied were microporous carbonaceous materials.CMS-2 prepared in the present study has a better N2/CH4 separation performance; it can satisfy the requirements of the pressure swing adsorption for concentrating CH4 from the N2/CH4 mixture gas.

  14. Influence of coal preoxidation on the porosity of the activated carbons with steam activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuwen; Gao, Jihui; Sun, Fei; Li, Yang; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Activated carbons have been prepared from a low ash content anthracite preoxidized in air to different degrees. Steam has been used as activating agent to prepare different burn-off samples. The preoxidation effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting chars and activated carbons were comparatively studied. The surface area and porosity of sample was studied by N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 0A0;K. The results show that introduced oxygen in coal structure had a great influence on the carbonization and subsequent activation process. The carbonization of oxidized coal exhibited a broader volatile evolution with respect to temperature, and the resulting chars had a larger microporosity. The porosity of the char is a primary foundation to develop more microporosity upon activation. Activation of char from oxidized coal facilitated development of small scale micropore, however, the micropore widening was also observed at high burn-offs. Compared with development of supermicropore, the evolution of mesoporosity is hindered strongly by preoxidation treatment. The quantity of basic surface sites in activated carbons increased with an increase in oxidation degree, while the quantity of acidic sites appeared equivalent. It seemed that the amount of surface groups and the microporosity mainly developed in a parallel way.

  15. Unburned Carbon Loss in Fly Ash of CFB Boilers Burning Hard Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junfu(吕俊复); WANG Qimin(王启民); LI Yong(黎永); YUE Guangxi(岳光溪); Yam Y.Lee; Baldur Eliasson; SHEN Jiezhong(沈解忠); YU Long(于龙)

    2003-01-01

    The unburned carbon loss in fly ash of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, most of which are burning active fuels such as lignite or peat, is normally very low. However, most CFB boilers in China usually burn hard coals such as anthracite and bituminous coal and coal wastes, so the carbon content in the fly ash from these boilers is higher than expected. This paper investigates the source of unburned carbon in the fly ash of CFB boilers burning hard coal through a series of field tests and laboratory investigations. The char behavior during combustion, including fragmentation and deactivation, which is related to the parent coal, has an important impact on the carbon burnout in CFB boilers. The research shows that char deactivation occurs during char burnout in fluidized bed combustion, especially for large particles of low rank coal. The uneven mixing of solids and air in the core region of the furnace also causes poor burnout of carbon in CFB fly ash. An index describing the volatile content (as dry ash free basis) over the heating value is proposed to present the coal rank. The coal combustion efficiency is shown to be strongly connected with this coal index. Several changes in the CFB boiler design are suggested to reduce the unburned carbon loss in the fly ash.

  16. A study on briquetting technology for Vietnamese coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pil Chong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Cho, Ken Joon; Choi, Yeon Ho; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Sang Bae; Bae, Kwang Hyun [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Vietnam reserves abundant, high quality anthracite resources. Nevertheless, Vietnam is facing with serious problem of deforestation, because most of the people use wood and agricultural waste for the family cooking purpose. In order to improve the problem, Vietnam government has established the National Project (KD-03) for enlargement of utilization of Vietnamese coal and also assigned the Institute of Research on Mining Technology(IRMT) to develop the briquetting technology for the use of Vietnamese coal. In accordance, IRMT prepared a Memorandum of Understanding on development of briquetting technology for Vietnamese coal with KIGAM, which preserve sufficient technical know-how on coal briquetting technology. The objective of this project is to develop briquetting technology of Vietnamese coal for cooking purpose and transfer the developed technology to related industrial sector. Eventually it expects to enlarge utilization of Vietnamese coal, reduce deforestation and increase labour employment. This project studied following items on development of coal briquetting technology for Vietnamese cooking purpose: (1) study on properties of Vietnamese coal, (2) study on briquetting technology of Vietnamese coal, (3) study on combustion of Vietnamese coal briquette, (4) preliminary investigation of coal briquette market for industrial use. Besides cooking purpose of Vietnamese coal briquette, Vietnamese coal is also identified to be utilized for small scale industrial use by preliminary investigation. (author). 9 refs., 30 tabs.

  17. The Reasearch of Use of Activated Sludge to Produce Methanol, Ammonia Synthesis Technology%利用污水处理厂活性污泥生产甲醇、合成氨技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承信; 任崇桂; 杨传海

    2012-01-01

    A scheme of methanol and ammonia production process with active sludge instead of brown coal and anthracite coal was proposed.The optimum ratio of production materials is: humic acid 600 kg,sodium hydrate 50 kg,active sludge 1200~1800 kg and powder coal 18~20 tons.The gasification of materials in the furnace and the conversion rate of methanol and ammonia showed that the generated gas composition meet the technological requirements,the product yield is stable.%文章提出了利用污水处理厂活性污泥代替褐煤和无烟粉煤混合制造型煤,用于生产甲醇及合成氨的方案,得到了各原料的最佳配比为:腐植酸600 kg,烧碱50 kg,活性污泥加入量1200-1800 kg,粉煤加入量1-20 t。从入炉原料气化和甲醇、合成氨的产品转化看,生成的合成气成份符合工艺要求,产品产量稳定。

  18. Enhancement in dehydriding performance of magnesium hydride by iron incorporation: A combined experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haipeng; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Bogu; Liu, Pei; Zhou, Xinpei; Han, Zongying; Zhou, Shixue

    2016-08-01

    Structural change and dehydriding mechanism of MgH2 with atomic Fe incorporation from reactive ball milling are characterized and simulated by first-principles calculation. Two kinds of hydrides β- and γ-MgH2 are formed from Mg powders under hydrogen atmosphere by 3.0 h of milling with pretreated anthracite as milling aid. Experimental studies suggest that the atomic Fe can be incorporated onto MgH2 surface by the shearing effect of Fe-based milling balls on Mg/MgH2 particles. The incorporated Fe has a high dispersity on MgH2 surface and can form atomic clusters FeH4/FeH2 by combining with H anions. The dehydriding reaction of the Fe-incorporated MgH2 begins at hydride surface and shows an enhanced performance with apparent activation energy of 110.3 kJ mol-1. Theoretical studies suggest that the incorporated Fe can act as a bridge that contributes to electron transfer from H anion to Mg cation before H2 molecule formation. The intrinsic reason of atomic Fe in catalyzing dehydriding reaction of MgH2 lies in its moderate strength of electron attraction.

  19. Influence of aluminum location on hydrogen sorption kinetics of magnesium-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shixue; Zhang, Tonghuan; Wang, Naifei; Li, Tao; Niu, Haili; Yu, Hao; Liu, Di

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogen storage materials from Mg-Al alloy and Mg+Al mixture were prepared by reactive milling under H2 atmosphere with carbonized anthracite as milling aid. The crystal structure of the materials and influence of Al location on hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics were investigated. Results show that Mg partly got hydrided into β-MgH2 and γ-MgH2 during reactive milling. The average crystallite sizes of β-MgH2 in the as-milled Mg-Al alloy and Mg+Al mixture were calculated by Scherrer equation to be 10 nm and 17 nm, respectively. In the process of hydrogen desorption, the catalytic ability of Al in Mg crystal lattice was not as effective as that on particle surface. The apparent activation energies for hydrogen desorption of the two materials were estimated by Kissinger equation to be 112.2 kJ/mol and 63.7 kJ/mol, respectively. Mg17Al12 reacted with H2 to convert into MgH2 and elemental Al during static hydrogenation at 300°C. For the hydrogenated Mg+Al mixture, the obvious increase of crystallite size resulted in a low rate of hydrogen absorption and a high temperature for hydrogen desorption.

  20. Formations of solid and gas phase products during rapid pyrolysis of coal%煤快速热解固相和气相产物生成规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁帅; 陈雪莉; 李军; 代正华; 周志杰; 王辅臣

    2011-01-01

    利用能有效避免二次转化反应的高频炉热解装置对3种不同变质程度的煤进行了600~1200℃条件下的快速热解,考察了在煤热解最初阶段焦产率、焦-C产率、热解气产率,热解气4种主要组分H、CO、CH和CO的比例以及热解气热值随煤阶和热解温度的变化规律.结果表明,焦的产率和焦一C的产率均随煤阶的升高而升高,热解气的产率随煤阶的升高而降低;热解温度的提高能显著降低煤焦和焦一C的产率并提高热解气的产率.热解气组分以H和CO为主,CH和CO的含量较低;随着温度的升高,H和CO的含量升高,CH和CO的含量下降.热解气中H+CO的含量以及H/CO的比值均随着温度的升高而升高.烟煤和无烟煤热解气热值均随着温度的升高而降低,褐煤热解气热值则先上升后下降.%The rapid pyrolysis of 3 different ranks of coals, including lignite from Inner Mongolia,bituminous from Shenfu coalfield, and anthracite from Guizhou, has been carried out in a high-frequency furnace which could sharply reduce the secondary reactions. The pyrolysis temperatures were ranged from 600℃ to 1200℃ with an interval of 100℃. The effects of coal rank and temperature on the yields of char,char-C, and pyrolysis gas, as well as the percentages of H2, CO, CH4, and CO2 in the pyrolysis gas produced from the primary stage of pyrolysis were investigated. Results show that both of the yields of char and char-C increase, while the yield of pyrolysis gas decreases as the coal rank increases. The yields of char and char-C decrease, and the yield of pyrolysis gas increases with the increasing temperature. The char-C yield of lignite can reach a level lower than 50% at the temperature of 1200℃. H2 and CO are the main components of the pyrolysis gas, while the contents of CH4 and CO2 are much lower. As the temperature increases, the contents of H2 and CO increase, and the contents of CH4 and CO2 decrease. The contents of H2 +CO

  1. Spatially Resolved, In Situ Carbon Isotope Analysis of Archean Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Kenneth H.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; Lepot, Kevin; Hallmann, Christian; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Summons, Roger E.; Valley, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) preserves information about the evolution of the biosphere and of the exogenic carbon cycle as a whole. Primary compositions, and imprints of the post-depositional processes that obscure them, exist at the scale of individual sedimentary grains (mm to micron). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) (1) enables analysis at these scales and in petrographic context, (2) permits morphological and compositional characterization of the analyte and associated minerals prior to isotopic analysis, and (3) reveals patterns of variability homogenized by bulk techniques. Here we present new methods for in situ organic carbon isotope analysis with sub-permil precision and spatial resolution to 1 micron using SIMS, as well as new data acquired from a suite of Archean rocks. Three analytical protocols were developed for the CAMECA ims1280 at WiscSIMS to analyze domains of varying size and carbon concentration. Average reproducibility (at 2SD) using a 6 micron spot size with two Faraday cup detectors was 0.4 %, and 0.8 % for analyses using 1 micron and 3 micron spot sizes with a Faraday cup (for C-12) and an electron multiplier (for C-13). Eight coals, two ambers, a shungite, and a graphite were evaluated for micron-scale isotopic heterogeneity, and LCNN anthracite (delta C-13 = -23.56 +/- 0.1 %, 2SD) was chosen as the working standard. Correlation between instrumental bias and H/C was observed and calibrated for each analytical session using organic materials with H/C between 0.1 and 1.5 (atomic), allowing a correction based upon a C-13H/C-13 measurement included in every analysis. Matrix effects of variable C/SiO2 were evaluated by measuring mm to sub-micron graphite domains in quartzite from Bogala mine, Sri Lanka. Apparent instrumental bias and C-12 count rate are correlated in this case, but this may be related to a crystal orientation effect in graphite. Analyses of amorphous

  2. In situ carbon isotope analysis of Archean organic matter with SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, K. H.; Ushikubo, T.; Lepot, K.; Hallmann, C.; Spicuzza, M. J.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Summons, R. E.; Valley, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) preserves information about the evolution of the biosphere and of the exogenic carbon cycle as a whole. Primary compositions, and imprints of the post-depositional processes that obscure them, exist at the scale of individual sedimentary grains (mm to μm). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) (1) enables analysis at these scales and in petrographic context, (2) permits morphological and compositional characterization of the analyte and associated minerals prior to isotopic analysis, and (3) reveals patterns of variability homogenized by bulk techniques. Here we present new methods for in situ organic carbon isotope analysis with sub-permil precision and spatial resolution to 1 μm using SIMS, as well as new data acquired from a suite of Archean rocks. Three analytical protocols were developed for the CAMECA ims1280 at WiscSIMS to analyze domains of varying size and carbon concentration. Average reproducibility (at 2SD) using a 6 μm spot size with two Faraday cup detectors was 0.4%, and 0.8% for analyses using 1 μm and 3 μm spot sizes with a Faraday cup (for 12C) and an electron multiplier (for 13C). Eight coals, two ambers, a shungite, and a graphite were evaluated for μm-scale isotopic heterogeneity, and LCNN anthracite (δ13C = -23.56 ± 0.1%, 2SD) was chosen as the working standard. Correlation between instrumental bias and H/C was observed and calibrated for each analytical session using organic materials with H/C between 0.1 and 1.5 (atomic), allowing a correction based upon a 13CH/13C measurement included in every analysis and a 12CH measurement made immediately after every analysis. The total range of the H/C effect observed for the Archean samples analyzed was < 3%. Analyses of Archean OM domains for which 12C count rate varies with the proportions of organic carbon, carbonate carbon, and quartz suggest that instrumental bias is consistent for 12C count

  3. 云南洛旺煤矿区上二叠统主采煤层煤质特征及其影响因素%Coal Quality Characteristics and Impacting Factors of Upper Permian Main Mineable Coal Seam in Luowang Coalmine Area, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙顺新

    2014-01-01

    The Luowang coalmine area is an important coal production area in Yunnan. Coal rank in the area is mainly meager coal, lo-cally anthracite. Based on geological exploration and coal quality tested data, systematically analyzed coal quality characteristics of main mineable coal seam C5 and varying pattern, discussed its impacting geological factors. The result has shown:sulfur content of coal C5 in the area is gradually increasing from southwest to northeast, ash content deceasing from east to west. This is due to sedimentary environment variation of limnic basin to paralic basin from west to east. Horizontally, coal rank in the middle part is anthracite III, grad-ually changed into meager coal toward both east and west ends. Analysis thinks that the hypozonal metamorphism is the main causa-tion, while coal seam buried depth in middle part is deeper than both east and west ends, thus degree of metamorphism is relatively high. Speculation based on structural conditions, the paulopost dynamic metamorphism has made for middle part degree of metamor-phism deepening a certain extent.%洛旺煤矿区是云南重要的煤产地,煤类以贫煤为主,局部为无烟煤。根据地质勘查成果及煤质测试资料,系统分析了该区主采煤层C5煤层的煤质特征及其变化规律,探讨了影响煤质变化的地质因素。结果表明:区内C5煤层硫分由西南向东北逐渐增大,灰分产率自东向西逐渐降低,这一规律主要受自西向东陆相到海陆交互相沉积环境变化的控制。在平面上煤类表现为煤矿区中部为无烟煤三号,东西两端逐渐变为贫煤,分析认为深成变质作用是造成煤类变化的主要原因。矿区中部煤层埋深较东、西两端大,煤变质程度相对高,根据构造条件推测,后期的动力变质作用对矿区中部煤变质程度的加深起了一定的促进作用。

  4. The wettability of water treatment filter media measured by dynamic osmotic pressure%基于动态渗透压力法的水处理滤料的润湿性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董会平; 何应东

    2012-01-01

    Filtration is a typical tertiary treatment method for oil-bearing water, The kinds of filter media and its surface nature have an important influence on treatment result in the filtration unit operation. The wettability of filter media is the most important influence factor. The lipophilic and hydrophilic properties of anthracite, activated zeolite, bauxite ceramic, magnetite and zeolite were studied by using dynamic osmotic Pressure method, which is based on the principle of Washburn equation. When filter media size distribution are 20~ 30 meshes and 30 40 meshes, using dynamic osmotic pressure method to study wettability of the filter media is feasible and the experiment results is precise and credible. When the particle size distribution are between 20meshes and 30 meshes, the LHR values of anthracite, activated zeolite, bauxite ceramic, magnetite and zeolite are 2.51,1.77,1.75,1.32 and 1.26 respectively, when the particle size distribution are between 30meshes and 40 meshes, the LHR values of activated zeolite, bauxite ceramic and magnetite are 2.28,2.27 and 0.86 respectively.%过滤是一种常用的含油废水深度处理方法,在过滤单元操作中,滤料的品种对处理效果有重要影响,其中滤料的润湿性是最重要的影响因素之一。本论文以Washburn方程为原理,用动态渗透压力法研究了无烟煤、活化沸石、铝矾土陶瓷、磁铁矿及沸石5中滤料的亲油亲水润湿性,当滤料粒径范围分别在20~30目和30~40目之间时,实验结果较为准确可靠。结果表明粒径范围在20~30目时,用动态渗透压力法测得的无烟煤、活化沸石、铝矾土陶瓷、磁铁矿及沸石滤料的LHR值依次为2.21、1.77、1.75、1.32和1.26;粒径范围在30~40目时,用动态渗透压力法测得的活化沸石、铝矾土陶瓷及磁铁矿滤料的LHR值依次为2.28、2.27和0.86。

  5. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data

  6. Solubilisation du charbon en milieu organique Solubilizing Coal in an Organic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahaye Ph.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La solubilisation du charbon en milieu organique constitue une des voies préconisées pour la valorisation des houilles sous forme de combustibles liquides. Dans le cas d'extractions simples, conduites à des températures inférieures à 150-200' C, on obtient des rendements pondéraux en extrait qui varient, pour un même solvant, dans une large mesure selon les conditions opératoires du traitement et la nature du charbon utilisé. C'est ainsi que le rendement en extrait augmente, d'une part, avec le temps d'extraction, pour atteindre après 48 h une valeur maximale dans les conditions opératoires retenues, et, d'autre part, avec la température d'extraction. De plus, ce même rendement diminue plus ou moins régulièrement depuis les charbons gras jusqu'aux anthracites avec le degré de carbonisation des houilles. Par ailleurs, la nature physico-chimique des solvants d'extraction influe fortement sur les rendements pondéraux en extrait obtenus, dans des conditions opératoires identiques, à partir d'un même charbon. En règle générale, à température d'extraction comparable, le rendement en extrait s'avère d'autant plus important que la basicité du solvant est plus marquée. A cet égard, les composés azotés basiques apparaissent comme des solvants de grande efficacité. En outre, les mélanges binaires de composés basiques manifestent le plus souvent un pouvoir solvant supérieur à celui de leurs constituants engagés à l'état pur. Les principales conclusions dégagées de l'étude des charbons sont susceptibles d'être généralisées à l'extraction de la matière organique contenue dans les roches sédimentaires. Cool solubilisation in an organic environment is one of the recommended ways of upgrading cool in the form of liquid fuels. For simple extractions performed at temperatures lower thon 150-200° C, the weighted extract yields obtained with the same solvent vary to a large extent, depending on the operating

  7. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  8. Study of molded proportion for peanut hull pellet fuel based on orthogonal design%基于正交设计的花生壳颗粒燃料成型配比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐苏; 严滨; 陶永贵; 廖文超; 陈惠萍

    2013-01-01

    通过正交设计方法对花生壳颗粒燃料的成型配比进行了研究.根据L9(34)正交表进行试验,以水分含量及两种添加物的比例为主要影响因素,以花生壳颗粒的热值、抗碎率、灰分、密度和外观为考察指标.经过直观分析,得到花生壳颗粒燃料最优配比:花生壳79%、水11%、甘油棕榈酸酯5%、无烟煤5%.通过试验验证,最优配比颗粒的热值≥17.5 MJ/kg,抗碎率≥98%,密度≥650 kg/m3,已达到欧洲生物质颗粒燃料的行业标准.%This study investigated of the molded proportion for peanut hull pellet fuel based on orthogonal design method. Adopt the L9 (34) orthogonal test, with the water content and the proportion of 2 additives as the main influence factors, heat value, smash-resistance、ash content、forming density and appearance as detecting indexes. The optimal molded proportion for peanut hull pellets fuel was carried out by the intuitive analysis of the experiment results : peanut hull 79%+water content 11%+palmitin 5%+anthracite 5%.and verified by experiments that the pellets fuel heat value ≥17.5 MJ/kg, smash-resistance ≥98%, forming density ≥650 kg/m3,this pellets fuel has reached the European biomass pellet fuel industry standard.

  9. Characterization of fine and carbonaceous particles emissions from pelletized biomass-coal blends combustion: Implications on residential crop residue utilization in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Feng, Yanli; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-09-01

    Bulk biofuel, biomass pellets and pelletized biomass-coal blends were combusted in a typical rural conventional household stove and a high-efficiency stove. Reductions in PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) emissions were evaluated by comparing emission factors (EFs) among 19 combinations of biofuel/residential stove types measured using a dilution sampling system. In the low-efficiency stove, the average EFs of PM2.5, OC, and EC of biomass pellets were 2.64 ± 1.56, 0.42 ± 0.36, and 0.30 ± 0.11 g/kg, respectively, significantly lower than those burned in bulk form. EFPM2.5 and EFOC of pelletized biomass combustion in the high-efficiency stove were lower than those of the same biofuel burned in the low-efficiency stove. Furthermore, pelletized corn residue and coal blends burned in the high-efficiency stove could significantly decrease emissions. Compared with the bulk material burned in the low-efficiency stove, the reduction rates of PM2.5, OC and EC from pelletized blends in the high-efficiency stove can reach 84%, 96% and 93%, respectively. If the annually produced corn residues in 2010 had been blended with 10% anthracite coal powder and burnt as pellets, it would have reduced about 82% of PM2.5, 90-96% of OC and 81-92% of EC emission in comparison with burning raw materials in conventional household stoves. Given the low cost, high health benefit and reduction effect on atmospheric pollutants, pelletized blends could be a promising alternative to fossil fuel resources or traditional bulk biofuel.

  10. Characteristics of particulate carbon emissions from real-world Chinese coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James Jay; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yuan; Shao, Min

    2008-07-15

    Particulate matter emissions from a series of different Chinese coal combustion systems were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), and molecular markers. Emissions from both industrial boilers and residential stoves were investigated. The coal used in this study included anthracite, bituminite, and brown coal, as well as commonly used coal briquettes produced in China for residential coal combustion. Results show significant differences in the contribution of carbonaceous species to particulate mass emissions. Industrial boilers had much higher burn out of carbon yielding particulate matter emissions with much lower levels of OC, EC, and speciated organic compounds, while residential stoves had significantly higher emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter with emission rates of approximately 100 times higher than that of industrial boilers. Quantified organic compounds emitted from industrial boilers were dominated by oxygenated compounds, of which 46-68% were organic acids, whereas the dominate species quantified in the emissions from residential stoves were PAHs (38%) and n-alkanes (20%). An important observation was the fact that emission factors of PAHs and the distribution of hopanoids were different among the emissions from industrial and residential coal combustion even using the same coal for combustion. Although particulate matter emissions from industrial and residential combustion were different in many regards, picene was detected in all samples with detectable OC mass concentrations, which supports the use of this organic tracer for OC from all types of coal combustion. 17alpha(H),21beta(H)-29-norhopane was the predominant hopanoid in coal combustion emissions, which is different from mobile source emissions and may be used to distinguish emissions from these different fossil fuel sources.

  11. Reburning Characteristics of Residual Carbon in Fly Ash from CFB Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. H.; Luo, H. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Wang, X. H.

    The content of residual carbon in fly ash of CFB boilers is a litter high especially when low-grade coal, such as lean coal, anthracite coal, gangue, etc. is in service, which greatly influences the efficiency of boilers and fly ash further disposal. Reburn of fly ash through collection, recirculation in CFB furnace or external combustor is a possibly effective strategy to decrease the carbon content, mainly depending on the residual carbon reactivity. In this work, the combustion properties of residual carbon in fly ash and corresponding original coal from large commercial CFB boilers (Kaifeng (440t/h), and Fenyi (410t/h), all in china) are comparably investigated through experiments. The residual carbon involved was firstly extracted and enriched from fly ash by means of floating elutriation to mitigate the influence of ash and minerals on the combustion behavior of residual carbon. Then, the combustion characteristic of two residual carbons and the original coal particles was analyzed with thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, STA409C from Nestch, Germany). It was observed that the ignition temperature of the residual carbon is much higher than that of original coal sample, and the combustion reactivity of residual carbon is not only dependent on the original coal property, but also the operating conditions. The influence of oxygen content and heating rate was also studied in TGA. The O2 concentration is set as 20%, 30%, 40% and 70% respectively in O2/N2 gas mixture with the flow rate of 100ml/min. It was found that higher oxygen content is favor for decreasing ignition temperature, accelerating the combustion rate of residual carbon. And about 40% of oxygen concentration is experimentally suggested as an optimal value when oxygen-enriched combustion is put into practice for decreasing residual carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers.

  12. High pressure gas flow, storage, and displacement in fractured rock—Experimental setup development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Mosleh, M.; Turner, M.; Sedighi, M.; Vardon, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development, and application of a laboratory setup for the experimental investigations of gas flow and reactions in a fractured rock. The laboratory facility comprises (i) a high pressure manometric sorption apparatus, where equilibrium and kinetic phenomena of adsorption and desorption can be examined, (ii) a high pressure triaxial core flooding system where the chemical reactive transport properties or processes can be explored, and (iii) an ancillary system including pure and mixed gas supply and analysis units. Underground conditions, in terms of pore pressure, confining pressure, and temperature, can be replicated using the triaxial core flooding system developed for depths up to 2 km. Core flooding experiments can be conducted under a range of gas injection pressures up to 20 MPa and temperatures up to 338 K. Details of the design considerations and the specification for the critical measuring instruments are described. The newly developed laboratory facility has been applied to study the adsorption of N2, CH4, and CO2 relevant to applications in carbon sequestration in coal and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Under a wide range of pressures, the flow of helium in a core sample was studied and the evolution of absolute permeability at different effective stress conditions has been investigated. A comprehensive set of high resolution data has been produced on anthracite coal samples from the South Wales coalfield, using the developed apparatus. The results of the applications provide improved insight into the high pressure flow and reaction of various gas species in the coal samples from the South Wales coalfield.

  13. Crawler mud pump truck for drill rig used in coal mine and application%煤矿坑道钻机用履带式泥浆泵车及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋; 姚克; 张占强; 方鹏; 许超

    2016-01-01

    Underground rig is the main equipment for gas extraction in coal mine, mud pump is a necessity for drill rig. The research and manufacture of the crawler mud pump truck BLY 260/9 will make the underground drill rig relocate conveniently and operate safely, and also make the corollary equipment highly integrated. This kind of mud pump truck adopts crawler structure and integrates accessory devices on a platform which features the independent power to guarantee the walking. The field tests in Chengzhuang mine and Sihe mine of Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group show that the matching of mud pump truck and tunnel drilling rig, especially for directional drilling, has dvanced and reliable technology solutions, good effect in drilling gas drainage borehole, can provide an effective solution for drilling equipment configuration.%为实现煤矿坑道钻机钻进时搬迁便捷、作业安全、配套设备高度集成化,研制了煤矿坑道钻机用BLY 260/9型履带式泥浆泵车。泵车采用整体履带式结构,将钻机配套用附属装置集成到有动力、可自主行走的履带平台上。在晋煤集团成庄矿和寺河矿的现场试验表明,泥浆泵车配套坑道钻机尤其是定向钻机,技术方案先进可靠,瓦斯抽采钻孔施工效果良好,为煤矿坑道钻机的设备配置提供了一种有效的解决方法。

  14. Comparison of hydrocarbon gases (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}) production from Carboniferous Donets (Ukraine) and Cretaceous Sabinas (Mexico) coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsaab, D.; Elie, M.; Izart, A.; Martinez, L. [G2R, Nancy - Universite, CNRS, CREGU, BP-239, 54506 Vandoeuvres-les-Nancy (France); Sachsenhofer, R.F. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Privalov, V.A. [Donetsk National Technical University, Artem str., 58, UA-83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Suarez-Ruiz, I. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon - (INCAR) - CSIC. Ap.Co., 73, 33080-Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-04-03

    The main purpose of this contribution is to compare the ability of Carboniferous coals from the Donets Basin of the Ukraine and Cretaceous coal from the Sabinas Basin of the Mexico to generate hydrocarbon gases (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}). Two bituminous coals from the Donets Basin (2c10YD and 1l1Dim; 0.55 and 0.65%R{sub r} respectively) and one bituminous coal from the Sabinas Basin (Olmos, 0.92%R{sub r}) were studied using heating experiments in a confined-pyrolysis system. The highest rank reached during the heating experiments corresponds to the anthracite stage (2.78 and 2.57%R{sub r}) for the 2c10YD and 1l1Dim coals and (2.65%R{sub r}) for the Olmos coal. The composition of the generated (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}) gases was evaluated using a thermodesorption-multidimensional gas chromatography. The results show that the Carboniferous Donets coals produced more wet gas and methane during pyrolysis than the Cretaceous Olmos coal. This is probably due to their higher liptinite (6-20%) and collodetrinite content and to the loss of a major part of the petroleum potential of the Olmos coal during natural coalification. C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} compounds are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons. Ethane is the most stable compound and formed from the cracking of higher hydrocarbon component. Large amounts of methane (up to 81 mg/g coal for the Donets coals and 50 mg/g coal for the Sabinas coal) were formed at high temperatures by cracking of previously formed heavier hydrocarbons and by dealkylation of the coal matrix. A linear relationship was observed between methane generation and the maturity level of both coal types. (author)

  15. Geochemistry and Microbial Communities in Iron- and Manganese-Enriched Cold Groundwater Biofiltration Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W.; Dangeti, S.; Roshani, B.; McBeth, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Exploring how to enhance the microbially mediated oxidization of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in natural and engineered environments in cold climates requires an understanding of the interactive relationships between the geochemistry of cold groundwater and Fe- and Mn-oxidizing bacteria. This study precisely measured geochemical and microbial communities in a scaled-up biofiltration system using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) analyses coupled with next-generation sequencing (Illumina Miseq). Two pilot-scale biofiltration columns for Fe (Filter 1) and Mn (Filter 2) were connected in series and installed at the Langham Water Treatment Plant in Saskatoon, Canada. The groundwater temperature ranged from 4 to 8 °C. The pilot-scale study showed that successful treatment (99% removal) of both Fe and Mn was achieved in the biofilters. However, the Mn removal was significantly retarded for four months, likely due to the slow growth of Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) in Filter 2. The removal of Mn was accelerated once the redox potential in Filter 2 exceeded +300 mV. At that point, the XANES analyses showed that the oxidization states of Mn in Filter 2 were mainly +3 and +4, confirming that Mn oxidization had occurred. Geochemical analyses (PHREEQCi) also indicated changed geochemical conditions that favoured the formation of Mn-oxides during biofiltration. Next-generation sequencing analyses indicated the enrichment of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), including Gallionella sp. and Sideroxydans sp., in Filter 1. There were high read numbers for MnOB relatives, including Pseudomonas sp., Hydrogenophaga sp., Bdellovibrio sp., and Leptothrix sp., in Filter 2. Furthermore, the addition of anthracite (coal-based filter media) positively affected the growth MnOB and enhanced Mn oxidization. The evidence obtained in this study provides insight into how Mn oxidization can be accelerated in cold groundwater treatment systems.

  16. UCAR炭砖在鞍钢高炉应用分析%Analysis on Application of UCAR Carbon Bricks in Blast Furnace of Angang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭天永; 车玉满; 谢明辉; 孙鹏; 姚硕; 姜喆

    2015-01-01

    介绍了UCAR炭砖在鞍钢高炉炉缸的应用状况,根据炉缸结构、冷却系统,结合炭砖理化检验结果,分析讨论了鞍钢UCAR炭砖炉缸异常侵蚀原因,认为炉缸炭砖必须使用电煅无烟煤生产工艺,不能使用过量填加石墨的生产工艺,炉缸炭砖不能片面追求导热系数指标,必须综合考虑平均孔径、小于1μm容积比、抗氧化性、抗碱性、抗渣侵蚀和铁水溶蚀率。%The current situation of application of UCAR carbon bricks in building the BF hearth of Angang is introduced. The causes leading to the abnormal erosion of UCAR carbon bricks in Angang are analyzed and discussed with regard to the structure of the hearth, the cooling system and inspection results by physical and chemical means. According to the analytical results it is believed that carbon bricks for building the hearth have to be made of electrically calcined anthracite coal, but not made of those with adding excessive graphite, for the excessive pursuit of the thermal conductivity index of carbon bricks for building the BF hearth should not be done, instead all these factors such as average pore size, volumetric ratio less than 1 μm, oxidation resistance, alkalinity resistance, rate of resistance to slag erosion and dissolution rate of hot metal must be considered comprehensively.

  17. Evaluation of operating characteristics for a chabazite zeolite system for treatment of process wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.; Perona, J.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing were performed for development and design of a chabazite zeolite ion-exchange system to replace existing treatment systems at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process wastewater treatment systems at ORNL need upgrading to improve efficiency, reduce waste generation, and remove greater quantities of contaminants from the wastewater. Previous study indicated that replacement of the existing PWTP systems with an ion-exchange system using chabazite zeolite will satisfy these upgrade objectives. Pilot-scale testing of the zeolite system was performed using a commercially available ion-exchange system to evaluate physical operating characteristics and to validate smaller-scale column test results. Results of this test program indicate that (1) spent zeolite can be sluiced easily and completely from a commercially designed vessel, (2) clarification followed by granular anthracite prefilters is adequate pretreatment for the zeolite system, and (3) the length of the mass transfer zone was comparable with that obtained in smaller-scale column tests. Laboratory studies were performed to determine the loading capacity of the zeolite for selected heavy metals. These test results indicated fairly effective removal of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc from simple water solutions. Heavy-metals data collected during pilot-scale testing of actual wastewater indicated marginal removal of iron, copper, and zinc. Reduced effectiveness for other heavy metals during pilot testing can be attributed to the presence of interfering cations and the relatively short zeolite/wastewater contact time. Flocculating agents (polyelectrolytes) were tested for pretreatment of wastewater prior to the zeolite flow-through column system. Several commercially available polyelectrolytes were effective in flocculation and settling of suspended solids in process wastewater.

  18. THE COMPLEX USE OF LOCAL TYPES OF FUEL IN THE POROUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Voronova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comprehensive low-waste technology is the use of local fuels, which can be used in the technology of some porous building materials. Also provides new methods of preparation of porous building materials based on aggloporite using local fuels and waste energy on the basis of milled peat, fuel briquettes and wood chips allow to replace expensive imported components that comprise the raw mixtures (coal, anthracite.On the basis of mathematical modeling of cooling in reheat furnaces pusher drive developed a method of engineering calculation mode batch hardening in agglomeration. Submitted constructive solution for the development of the cooling charge with thermophysical rational justification cooling modes. A study of the temperature distribution within the charge depending on the different speeds of the belt sintering machine, and hence on the cooling time.The characteristics of the raw material deposits "Fanipol" and the optimal composition of the charge which includes loam, coal, milled peat. In industrial research obtained aggloporite this formulation has shown positive results in strength and density. Established that by decreasing the particle size of the fuel increases the redox potential of the combustion products, which reduces the height of the oxidizing zone and the speed of the sintering raw mix. These processes increase the productivity of sinter machine.Technology is implemented on the "Minsk factory of building materials". The tests analyzed production technology porous construction materials using milled peat with the addition of sawdust. The study results recommend further use of sapropel, which cost significantly lower raw material mixture of submissions and in their physical and mechanical properties much closer to the properties of milled peat.

  19. Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications. Final technical report, January 1, 1981-May 29, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala, N.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1985-03-01

    In-depth fundamental information was obtained from a two-inch inner diameter laminar flow reactor referred to as the Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). This information consists of the following: (1) pyrolysis kinetic characteristics of four coals of various rank (Texas lignite, Montana subbituminous, Alabama high volatile bituminous, and Pennsylvania anthracite); and (2) combustion kinetic studies of chars produced from the foregoing parent coals. A number of standard ASTM and special in-house bench scale tests were also performed on the coals and chars prepared therefrom to characterize their physicochemical properties. The pilot scale (500,000 Btu/hr) Controlled Mixing History Furnace (CMHF) was used to determine the effect of staged combustion on NO/sub x/ emissions control from an overall combustion performance of the Alabama high volatile bituminous coal. The quantitative fundamental data developed from this study indicate significant differences in coal/char chemical, physical, and reactivity characteristics, which should be useful to those interested in modeling coal combustion and pyrolysis processes. These results underscore the fact that coal selection is one of the keys governing a successful coal conversion/utilization process. The combustion kinetic information obtained on the high volatile bituminous coal has been used in conjunction with combustion engineering's proprietary mathematical models to predict the combustion performance of this coal in the Controlled Mixing History Furnace. Comparison of the predicted data with the experimental results shows a virtually one-to-one scale-up from the DTFS to the CMHF. These data should provide vital information to designers in the area of carbon burnout and NO/sub x/ reduction for large scale coal utilization applications. 31 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Combustion and NOx Emission Behavior of Chinese Coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHonggang; XIEKechang

    2002-01-01

    Seven Chinese coals ranking from anthracite to sub-bituminous from the Shanxi province were selected for study to forecast the combustion and NOx emission behavior.Three UK,one Indonesia and one South Africa coal was included in the study for reference.A flat flame-turbulent jet apparatus was employed to assess flame stability,ignition performance and NOx emission behavior for the initial stage of devolatilization and combustion. This apparatus can simulate particle heating rates,maximum temperatures and the influence of the turbulent fluid interactionson the fate of volatiles.To simulate processes occurring over longer residence time, additional devolatilization experiments were performed in a drop tube furnace.Char reactivity was studied through thermogravimetric analysis.Finally,fouling propensity was studied with the aid of a purpose-built laboratory combustor that enabled the characteristics of the ash deposit to be assessed empirically.The results show that Chinese coals do not appear to possess unusual features in respect of NOx formation,flame stability and ignition,char burnout and ash slagging.The range of coals available in China appears sufficiently broad that suits all requirements.In particular,Shenfu coal,with its initial fast devolatilization and nitrogen release rates and its low initial nitrogen content and high char reactivity,will perform well when fired in industrial boilers as far as NOx emission,flame stability and combustion efficiency are concerned.Pingshuo coal exhibits high char reactivity and an attractive slagging performance suggesting that this fuel represents a good compromise between NOx emission and overall plant efficiency.

  1. Quality criteria for blast-furnace injection coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, L.W.Jr.; Serrano, E.J. [United States Steel Corp., Munhall, PA (United States). Research and Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed the history of coal injection at United States Steel Corporation. Currently, pulverized coal (PC) is injected on 10 blast furnaces at the company's facilities at 5 different plants in the United States, Canada and Slovakia. Although low-volatile bituminous coal was used extensively at several sites in the past, all the furnaces now inject high-volatile bituminous coal. The choice of coal injection depends on cost, physical and chemical properties an intended application. Any type of coal can be used for low injection levels. As injection rates increase however, the choice of coal or coal blends depend on more complex characteristics such as combustibility, char reactivity and flow characteristics. Although low-volatile, higher rank bituminous coals usually provide higher coke replacement ratios, they can be more difficult to convey and burn. In contrast, high-volatile, lower rank coals are typically more reactive and easier to convey, but offer lower coke replacement ratios and could even contribute to furnace instability. This paper presented lessons learned with various types of injection coal. It also reviewed existing and emerging standards for choosing injection coals. The parameters that must be considered when choosing from a set of coals include moisture and hardness; carbon and hydrogen content; oxygen content; impurities; coal value; coal rank; conveying properties; reactivity; and coal type and injection rate. Coals with less ash, sulphur and alkali are usually preferred. For ironmaking, coals ranging in rank from anthracite to high-volatile bituminous coal are suitable for low to moderate injection rates. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  2. The study of PAH's in aerosols produced from combustion processes of coal and other fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald J. Pugmire; Mark S. Solum; Y.J. Jiang; S. Yan; A.F. Sarofim; Randy Winans [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Institute for Combustion and Energy Sciences

    2005-07-01

    In combustion systems PAH formation plays a key role not only in environmental and health related affects but also in heat transfer processes. The latter is particularly important with regard to the optical constants of the gas phase PAHs that not only control the radiative heat transfer but also produce spectral signatures that are integral to certain types of weapons systems. A resurgence of interest in polyarenes has been stimulated by growing awareness that compounds of this class, including a number of relatively potent carcinogens, are prevalent in the human environment and may play an important role in the causation of cancer. Research interest has focused on the polyarenes because of their widespread environmental prevalence and the high carcinogenic potency of some members of this class. Polyarenes are formed as products of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic matter. Over the past five years we have studied the source and formation mechanisms of PAH's from various fossil fuels. Various types of data obtained on selected coal samples were instrumental in the analysis both structure and pyrolysis. Utilizing NMR, ESR and mass spectroscopy data, the reaction mechanisms for PAH formation have been formulated as well as the amount of stable free radicals that are ever present in combustion products. Conductivity measurements in anthracite coals as well as combustion aerosol samples have proven to be an interesting factor in determining the extend of turbostratic structure present in soot structures. The details of these experiments and the body of data will be summarized. (Abstract only)

  3. Toughness increase of self compacting concrete reinforced with polypropylene short fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melián, G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in bending tests by the addition of low volume fractions of Polypropylene (PP Short Fibers PP. These toughness increases are similar to those attained by Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC referred elsewhere as Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC, having some ductility and strain hardening in direct tensile and flexural tests. Concretes mixtures were manufactured using natural pozzolanic blended Portland cement, volcanic crushed coarse aggregates and fine sand from Sahara desert dunes (0-1 mm from Canary Islands quarries and sand reservoirs, respectively, besides ordinary siliceous sand (0-4 mm and fly ash from an anthracite-coal heat generator.

    Se presentan en este artículo hormigones autocompactables que, mediante la adición de pequeñas fracciones volumétricas de fibras cortas de polipropileno, consiguen incrementos importantes de tenacidad en su comportamiento mecánico a flexión. Estos aumentos de tenacidad son semejantes a los que presentan un grupo de hormigones reforzados con fibras, denominados ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites, que muestran también alguna ductilidad y endurecimiento por deformación en ensayos de tracción directa y flexión. Los hormigones se dosificaron empleando cemento Pórtland con Puzolana natural, áridos volcánicos de machaqueo y arena fina procedente de dunas del desierto del Sáhara (0-1 mm, de canteras y depósitos de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias, respectivamente, además de arena silícea ordinaria (0-4 mm y cenizas volantes de una central térmica de combustible antracita.

  4. Combustion kinetics of coal used in cement kiln%水泥窑用煤燃烧动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世杰; 吕源; 黄陈杰; 秦瑾; 刘瑞芝; 胡芝娟

    2011-01-01

    The combustion kinetics of Nanning anthracite with or without additives was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis experiment. The results show that the catalysts used in the experiments have different degrees of catalytic effects and different influence mechanisms. The catalysts can change the combustion process and accelerate the rate of coal combustion. It can also reduce combustion reac-tive activation energy, and as a result, the ignition temperature of coal combustion can be reduced. The catalytic effects of these catalysts are:Na2Cr2O7>NaClO4>ZnO>Fe2O3>MnO2.%采用热重分析法对南宁无烟煤在加入催化剂ZnO、NaClO4、Na2Cr2O7、Fe2Os和MnO2前后的燃烧动力学特性进行研究.结果表明,添加的5种催化剂都具有催化效果,但对煤燃烧动力学特性影响程度有所不同;催化剂Na2Cr2O7能改变燃烧反应机理,提高煤的燃烧速率,更有利于煤的完全燃烧;催化剂能够不同程度地降低煤燃烧的表现活化能,使煤的着火点降低;5种催化剂的催化效果依次为:Na2Cr2O7>NaClO4>ZnO> Fe2O3> MnO2.

  5. A Critical Review of Methane Trapping Mechanism to Optimize CBM Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Qadir Tunio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing Coal Bed Methane (CBM production depends on the trapping mechanism of methane in the micro pores of coal bed. Methane is trapped in coal beds by adsorption on the free surface. The free surface is mainly available as the micro pores and partly as different cleats. The average percentage of micro pores (1.2x10-7 cm diameter in a coal increases with rank and ranges from 19.3% in lignites to 75% in anthracites. The effective molecular diameter of adsorbed methane is 4.1x10-8 cm suggesting a maximum of three molecules can be accommodated in a unit micro pore. The commitment of optimized production of methane depends on the amount adsorbed on the coal surface. Methane in the micro pore can be accommodated either by solution in pore water or adsorption or as free gas under pressure. If it is dissolved in water, then for CBM production it is not useful because the dissolved gas will be expelled during dewatering phase of the well completion. It is only the free gas and the adsorbed gas that need to be evaluated for optimized production. Langmuir assumed a mono-layer of adsorption in selective locales on the adsorbent whereas many of the present day models assumed multi-layers of adsorbates (BET: Stephen Brunauer, Paul Emmett and Edward Teller. Problem arises with the concept of layering during adsorption process whereby it is difficult to think of adsorption of methane over a methane layer. With higher pressure methane can be accommodated as free gas but will not be adsorbed on any methane surface. It is therefore necessary to understand how methane molecule is trapped in the micro pores of the coal bed in order to optimize the CBM production.

  6. 采动影响下煤层气地面井的经济和安全效益分析%Analysis on Economic and Safety Benefits of Surface Coal-bed Methane Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦海滨; 付军辉; 孙海涛

    2014-01-01

    This PaPer described the calculation method for the economic indicators such as the investment cost of the surface coal-bed methane wells( the wells under the mining influence),the sales revenues and so on,and analyzed the safety benefits of this Project. By taking Sihe Mine of Jincheng Anthracite Mining GrouP Co. ,Ltd. ,as an examPle,the PaPer gave a systematical analysis on the economic and safety benefits of the surface coal-bed methane wells under the mining influence,and the results showed that the direct annual economic return rate of the surface coal-bed methane wells under the mining influence can reach 3. 87% after gas extraction,and the indirect economic benefits and safety benefits after gas extraction were more substantial. The analysis results can Provide a basis for the coal-bed methane develoPment by surface wells.%介绍了采动影响下的煤层气地面井(采动影响井)投资成本、销售收入等经济指标的计算方法,并对该项目的安全效益进行了分析。以晋煤集团寺河矿为实例,对其采动影响井的经济效益、安全效益进行了系统分析,结果表明:采动影响井抽采后直接经济年收益率可达3.87%,且抽采后间接的经济、安全效益均较为可观。分析结果可为采动区地面井煤层气开发提供依据。

  7. Gasification of the char derived from distillation of granulated scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén; López-Delgado, Aurora; Fermoso, Javier

    2012-04-01

    This work reports the effect of pressure on the steam/oxygen gasification at 1000°C of the char derived from low temperature-pressure distillation of granulated scrap tyres (GST). The study was based on the analysis of gas production, carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency and the high heating value (HHV) of the product. For comparison, similar analyses were carried out for the gasification of coals with different rank. In spite of the relatively high ash (≈12 wt.%) and sulphur (≈3 wt.%) contents, the char produced in GST distillation can be regarded as a reasonable solid fuel with a calorific value of 34MJkg(-1). The combustion properties of the char (E(A)≈50 kJ mol(-1)), its temperature of self-heating (≈264°C), ignition temperature (≈459°C) and burn-out temperature (≈676°C) were found to be similar to those of a semi-anthracite. It is observed that the yield, H(2) and CO contents and HHV of the syngas produced from char gasification increase with pressure. At 0.1 MPa, 4.6 Nm(3)kg(char)(-1) of syngas was produced, containing 28%v/v of H(2) and CO and with a HHV around 3.7 MJ Nm(-3). At 1.5 MPa, the syngas yield achieved 4.9N m(3)kg(char)(-1) with 30%v/v of H(2)-CO and HHV of 4.1 MJ Nm(-3). Carbon conversion significantly increased from 87% at 0.1 MPa to 98% at 1.5 MPa. It is shown that the char derived from distillation of granulated scrap tyres can be further gasified to render a gas of considerable heating value, especially when gasification proceeds at high pressure.

  8. Structural ordering of coal char during heat treatment and its impact on reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, B.; Bhatia, S.K.; Barry, J.C.

    2002-07-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the structure of an Australian semi-anthracite char was studied between 850-1150{sup o}C using XRD, HRTEM, and electrical resistivity techniques. It was found that the carbon crystallite size in the char does not change during heat treatment, for both the raw coal and its ash-free derivative obtained by acid treatment. However, the fraction of the organized carbon in the raw coal chars, determined by XRD, increased with increase of heat treatment time and temperature, while that for the ash-free coal chars remained unchanged. This suggests the occurrence of catalytic ordering during heat treatment. Electrical resistivity of the raw coal chars decreased with heat treatment, while that of the ash-free coal chars did not vary. High resolution transmission electron micrographs depicted well-organized carbon layers surrounding iron particles. The fraction of organized carbon attains an apparent equilibrium value that increases with increase in temperature. Good temperature-independent correlation was found between the electrical resistivity and the organized carbon fraction, indicating that electrical resistivity is structure sensitive. These results suggest that the thermal deactivation is the result of a crystallite-perfecting process, which is effectively catalyzed by the inorganic matter in the coal char. It is concluded that the process is diffusion controlled, most likely involving transport of iron in the inter-crystallite nanospaces in the temperature range studied. The activation energy of this transport process is found to be low, which is corroborated by model-free correlation of the temporal variation of organized carbon fraction as well as electrical resistivity data using the superposition method, and is suggestive of surface transport of iron.

  9. Low-cost carbon pellets for NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Soriano-Mora; A. Bueno-Lopez; A. Garcia-Garcia; R. Perry; C.E. Snape [University of Alicante (Spain). Department of Inorganic Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    Carbonaceous materials have been proposed as potential inexpensive reducing agents for NOx reduction under suitable operating conditions. Potassium has been found to be an effective catalyst in the C-NOx reaction at sufficiently high concentration. In the current work it was decided to explore low-cost carbon precursors for their suitability for NOx reduction, and to incorporate them in pellets rather than briquettes. The much greater surface area afforded by pellets should allow them to be used to better effect in removing NOx from flue gases passing through a fixed bed. The feedstocks selected included bituminous coal, high- and medium-temperature cokes, petroleum coke, anthracite, scrap tyre pyrolysis char and power station PFA. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was used as a binder, as it can be heat-cured per se at ca. 275{sup o}C, with little loss in volatile matter. To test their propensity to reduce NOx in flue gas, 10g samples of pellets were heated in a reactor at 325 - 350{sup o}C in a 2 dm{sup 3}/min flow of gas comprising 2000 ppmv NO, 5% oxygen with nitrogen as the balance. A selectivity factor was then calculated for each pellet sample and test condition, which defines the proportion of carbon consumed in reducing NOx relative to its combustion with oxygen. The results show that constant levels of NOx reduction are kept after 2 hours of reaction, being the consumption of O{sub 2} hardly appreciable, leading to satisfactory values of selectivity factor. This parameter is highly dependent on potassium content of the samples following all stages of heat treatment. The highest selectivity of ca. 0.4 was obtained for the carbonised bituminous coal and this was comparable to that achieved for briquettes from earlier studies. (Abstract only).

  10. Low-cost carbon pellets for NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano-Mora, J.M.; Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Perry, R.; Snape, C.E. [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Various low-cost carbon precursors were examined for their suitability and selectivity towards NOx reduction. The carbon feedstocks selected included bituminous coal, high- and medium-temperature cokes, petroleum coke, anthracite, scrap tyre pyrolysis char and power station PFA. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was the binder. Pellets were prepared from a solid mixture containing 65 mass % of air-dried carbon feedstock crushed to {lt} 0.5 mm, 30% potassium hydroxide milled to {lt}0.2 mm and 5% CNSL. To test their propensity to reduce NOx in flue gas, 10 g samples of pellets were heated in a reactor at 325-350{sup o}C in a 2 dm{sup 3}/min flow of gas comprising 2000 ppmv NO, 5% oxygen with nitrogen as the balance. The reduction in NOx and O{sub 2} conversion were measured on-line together with CO{sub 2} and CO evolution. A selectivity factor was then calculated for each pellet sample and test condition, which defines the proportion of carbon consumed in reducing NOx relative to its combustion with oxygen. The results show that constant values of NOx reduction are kept after 2 hours of reaction leading to satisfactory values of selectivity factor. This parameter is highly dependent on potassium content of the samples following all stages of heat treatment. Final potassium content is itself obviously dependent on the loss in mass experienced by the pellets during heat treatment, but measured potassium contents were without exception higher than those attributable to volatile losses alone, suggesting that there was alkali-induced activation occurring resulting in some of the carbon being consumed during carbonisation. The highest selectivity of around 0.4 was obtained for the carbonised bituminous coal. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Pilot study on arsenic removal from groundwater using a small-scale reverse osmosis system-Towards sustainable drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan-André; Gukelberger, Ephraim; Hermann, Mario; Fiedler, Florian; Großmann, Benjamin; Hoinkis, Jan; Ghosh, Ashok; Chatterjee, Debashis; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2016-11-15

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is posing a serious challenge to drinking water supplies on a global scale. In India and Bangladesh, arsenic has caused the most serious public health issue in the world for nearly two decades. The aim of this work was to study an arsenic removal system based on reverse osmosis at pilot scale treating two different water sources from two different locations in the State of Bihar, India. For this purpose two villages, Bind Toli and Ramnagar in the Patna District were selected, both located very close to the river Ganga. The trials were conducted with aerated and non-aerated groundwater. It is the first time that the arsenic removal efficiency for aerated and non-aerated groundwater by reverse osmosis technology in combination with an energy-saving recovery system have been studied. As the principle of reverse osmosis requires a relatively high pressure, its energy demand is naturally high. By using an energy recovery system, this demand can be lowered, leading to an energy demand per liter permeate of 3-4Wh/L only. Due to high iron levels in the groundwater and as a consequence the precipitation of ferric (hydr)oxides, it was necessary to develop a granular media filter for the trials under aeration in order to protect the membrane from clogging. Two different materials, first locally available sand, and second commercially available anthracite were tested in the granular media filter. For the trials with aerated groundwater, total arsenic removal efficiency at both locations was around 99% and the arsenic concentration in permeate was in compliance with the WHO and National Indian Standard of 10μg/L. However, trials under anoxic conditions with non-aerated groundwater could not comply with this standard. Additionally a possible safe discharge of the reverse osmosis concentrate into an abandoned well was studied. It was observed that re-injection of reject water underground may offer a safe disposal option. However, long

  12. Effect of solution acidity on adsorption capacity and magnetic performances of magnetic activated carbon%溶液酸度对磁性活性炭吸附性能和磁性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 解强; 唐瀚滢; 姚鑫; 刘娟; 宫国卓

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic activated carbons (MACs) were prepared from Taixi anthracite in the pres- ence of Fe3O4. The MACs were soaked in hydrochloric acid solution with different concentra- tions. The iodine number and methylene blue value of MACs samples before and after acid so- lution soaking were determined, and X-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer were exploited to characterize the Fe-containing components and magnetic performances of MACs, respectively. The results show that the adsorption capacity and magnetic property of MACs are strongly influenced by solution acidity. When the MACs was soaked by hydrochloric acid solution of 1 tool/L, the iodine number is increased by 7. 9% and the maximum iodine number is up to 732.49 mg/g, meanwhile its specific susceptibility reduces from 259 × 10^-7 to 7. 16× 10^-7m^3/kg. But it is still effective for magnetic sorting recycling. MACs thoroughly losses its magnetism when the concentration of the soaking acid solution is 2 mol/L.%以太西无烟煤为原料、Fe3O4为添加剂制备煤基磁性活性炭,用不同浓度的盐酸溶液浸泡,测定酸液浸泡前后活性炭的碘值和亚甲蓝值,采用X射线衍射仪和振动样品磁强计分别测定、表征活性炭中含铁化合物的组成和磁性能.结果表明,溶液酸度对磁性活性炭的吸附性能和磁性能均有影响,当溶液酸浓度达到1mol/L时,磁性活性炭浸泡后的碘值提高了7.9%、达732.49mg/g,比磁化系数从259×10-7 m3/kg降低到7.16×10-7 m3/kg,但仍能采用磁场分选回收;当溶液酸浓度达到2mol/L时,磁性活性炭完全失磁.

  13. Combustion and NOx emission characteristics with respect to staged-air damper opening in a 600 MWe down-fired pulverized-coal furnace under deep-air-staging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Wang, Zhihua; Jing, Xinjing; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi; Ling, Zhongqian

    2014-01-01

    Deep-air-staging combustion conditions, widely used in tangential-fired and wall-arranged furnaces to significantly reduce NOx emissions, are premature up to now in down-fired furnaces that are designed especially for industry firing low-volatile coals such as anthracite and lean coal. To uncover combustion and NOx emission characteristics under deep-air-staging conditions within a newly operated 600 MWe down-fired furnace and simultaneously understand the staged-air effect on the furnace performance, full-load industrial-size measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the furnace, CO and NOx emissions in flue gas, and carbon in fly ash were performed at various staged-air damper openings of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50%. Increasing the staged-air damper opening, gas temperatures along the flame travel (before the flame penetrating the staged-air zone) increased initially but then decreased, while those in the staged-air zone and the upper part of the hopper continuously decreased and increased, respectively. On opening the staged-air damper to further deepen the air-staging conditions, O2 content initially decreased but then increased in both two near-wall regions affected by secondary air and staged air, respectively, whereas CO content in both two regions initially increased but then decreased. In contrast to the conventional understanding about the effects of deep-air-staging conditions, here increasing the staged-air damper opening to deepen the air-staging conditions essentially decreased the exhaust gas temperature and carbon in fly ash and simultaneously increased both NOx emissions and boiler efficiency. In light of apparently low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash (i.e., 696-878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 9.81-13.05%, respectively) developing in the down-fired furnace under the present deep-air-staging conditions, further adjustments such as enlarging the staged-air declination angle to prolong pulverized-coal residence times in the

  14. Structural diagenesis in Upper Carboniferous tight gas sandstones. Lessons learned from the Piesberg analog study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorf, P.; Hoehne, M.; Becker, S.; Hilgers, C. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR); Koehrer, B. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Barnstorf (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Upper Carboniferous tight gas sandstone reservoirs in NW-Germany consist of thick successions of cyclothems. Our focus is the Westphalian D of the Piesberg quarry near Osnabrueck, which exposes cemented, faulted and jointed third-order coarse- to fine-grained sandstone cycles separated by anthracite coal seams. We characterize the rocks and the lateral variation of rock properties such as porosity to better constrain input data for reservoir modelling. Three cycles are exposed, each approximately 50 m thick. Rock types can be clearly distinguished by spectral gamma ray in the quarry. Sandstones are intensely compacted and cemented with quartz and generally characterized by low porosities < 8 % (Hepycnometry on plugs and cuttings). Porosities are secondary and mainly related to detrital carbonate dissolution. Around faults dissolution is higher and the porosities can increase to up to 25%. The normal faults show different throws in the quarry and bands of shale and coal have smeared into the fault at juxtaposed beds, which may result in compartments. They dominantly strike W-E and NNW-SSE, but subordinate NE-SW striking fault patterns are also present. Joints were analyzed in a 50 x 50 m section of the quarry wall using Lidar (Light detection and ranging) laser scanning, which allows the characterization of the lithology and quantitative measurement of bedding and fracture orientation data in inaccessible areas. NNE-SSW and W-E joint sets are accompanied by northeasterly and northwesterly striking sets. Around faults, fault planes and fractures are cemented with quartz veins, showing localized mass transport. Due to the intense cementation, the sandstones can reach uniaxial strengths of more than 100 MPa normal to bedding, and approximately 50 MPa parallel to bedding. Sandstone beds within and close to faults are leached by fluids, and their uniaxial strength is reduced by a factor of more than two. Our high resolution field data enables a better understanding of

  15. Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions and asphaltenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franco; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, Arturo

    2013-03-01

    The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e. aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified infrared emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g. coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely `distillate aromatic extract', `Residual Aromatic Extract', heavy aromatic fraction (BQ-1) and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.66 μm) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.66-200 μm), and the infrared bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-aliphatic C-H stretching bands of certain PPNe, a result which is not achieved neither by the coal model nor by the other petroleum fractions considered here. This study shows that a new interesting molecular model of the emission features of PPNe is asphaltene molecules which are composed by an aromatic core containing three to four condensed aromatic rings surrounded by cycloaliphatic (naphtenic) and aliphatic alkyl chains. Instead, the weakness of the model involving a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for modelling the aromatic infrared emission bands (AIBs) is shown. The laboratory spectra of these complex organic compounds represent a unique data set of high value for the astronomical community, e.g. they may be compared with the Herschel Space Observatory spectra (˜51-220 μm) of several astrophysical environments such as (proto-) planetary nebulae, H

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur coal, Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan, China: Evidence for a volcanic ash component and influence by submarine exhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, Xudong

    2008-01-01

    The mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur (SHOS) coal of Late Permian age from the Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a sequential chemical extraction procedure, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The M9 Coal from the Yanshan Coalfield is a SHOS coal that has a total sulfur content of 10.12%-11.30% and an organic sulfur content of 8.77%-10.30%. The minerals in the coal consist mainly of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite, illite, pyrite, and trace amounts of kaolinite, plagioclase, akermanite, rutile, and dawsonite. As compared with ordinary worldwide (bituminous coals and anthracite) and Chinese coals, the M9 Coal is remarkably enriched in B (268????g/g), F (841????g/g), V (567????g/g), Cr (329????g/g), Ni (73.9????g/g), Mo (204????g/g), and U (153????g/g). In addition, elements including Se (25.2????g/g), Zr (262????g/g), Nb (20.1????g/g), Cd (2.07????g/g), and Tl (2.03????g/g) are also enriched in the coal. Occurrence of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, muscovite, and illite in the M9 Coal is evidence that there is a volcanic ash component in the coal that was derived from acid volcanic ashes fallen into the swamp during peat accumulation. Occurrence of albite and dawsonite in the coal and strong enrichment of some elements, including F, S, V, Cr, Ni, Mo and U, are attributed to the influence by submarine exhalation which invaded along with seawater into the anoxic peat swamp. Abundances of lithophile elements, including rare earth elements, Nb, Y, Zr, and TiO2, indicate that the silicate minerals in the coal were derived from the northern Vietnam Upland to the south of the basin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of MnO2/coal-based graphene composites for supercapacitors%MnO2/煤基石墨烯纳米复合材料的制备及其电化学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚婷; 李景凯; 刘国阳; 蔡江涛; 周安宁; 邱介山

    2016-01-01

    以纯化的太西无烟煤粉为原料,采用催化石墨化及改良Hummers氧化技术制备煤基氧化石墨烯前驱体,将该前驱体与MnO2进行原位复合并利用等离子体技术还原制备MnO2/煤基石墨烯纳米复合材料。采用红外光谱、X射线衍射、扫描电镜和透射电镜等技术对煤基石墨烯及其复合材料进行表征,采用循环伏安法及恒流充放电法测试MnO2/煤基石墨烯纳米复合材料的电化学性能。结果表明,与煤基石墨烯相比,MnO2/煤基石墨烯纳米复合材料的比电容有显著提升,在1 A/g电流密度下可达281.8 F/g,是煤基石墨烯比电容的3.48倍。%The low-cost production of high performance functional materials based on graphene remains a challenging task. One of the options for tackling this problem is to develop new processes based on cheap starting materials such as coal. Coal-based gra-phene precursors were prepared from purified Taixi anthracite by catalytic graphitization combined with an improved Hummers meth-od. These were mixed with MnO2 and reduced by a low temperature plasma to make MnO2/coal-based graphene nanocomposites. The composites were studied by FT-IR, XRD, TEM and SEM. Their electrochemical performance was evaluated using cyclic volta-mmetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge. Results show that MnO2 has been even lydeposited on the graphene surface and the spe-cific capacitance of the composite as an electrode in a supercapacitor is much higher than that of coal-based graphene without MnO2 . The highest capacitance is 281. 1 F/g, which is 261. 2% of the value for coal-based graphene.

  18. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.S.; Schobert, H.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world`s annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world`s 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century.

  19. 高铁锰氨氮伴生地下水生物深度净化的工程实践%Practical engineering of advanced removal of high iron and manganese ammonia accompanying underground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬; 曾辉平; 张杰

    2011-01-01

    对高铁锰氨氮伴生的地下水采用传统接触氧化工艺处理时,水厂滤池出水锰严重超标,经模拟滤柱试验发现,滤层结构和溶解氧不足是高浓度Fe2+、Mn2+、NH3-N同池生物净化失败的原因.根据滤柱试验结果,提出了强化曝气溶氧,无烟煤锰砂双层滤料一级生物过滤的工艺流程,实现了寒区高铁锰氨氮伴生的潜流地下水的同池深度净化.并用研究成果改造了哈尔滨市松北区前进水厂一期净水系统.出厂水总铁小于0.2 mg/L,锰小于0.05 mg/L,氨氮小于0.2 mg/L,满足国标要求,且长期高效、稳定运行,由此,创建了寒区高铁锰氨氮伴生地下水生物深度净化示范工程.%The effluent manganese concentration was found excessive limitation seriously when the underground water accompanying by high iron and manganese ammonia was treated by traditional contact oxidation process. Filtration column experiments showed that layer structure and lack of dissolved oxygen were the reasons for failure of removal of iron, manganese and ammonia in single biofilter. According to the filtration column experiment results, the enhanced aeration and anthracite - manganese sand dual - media first - grade filter were brought forward, and the simultaneous advanced removal of the high iron and manganese accompanying underground water in cold region was realized. The research results were applied in the reconstruction of the first stage water processing system in Qianjin Water Treatment Plant in the Songbei District of Harbin City. The total iron concentration in effluent was below 0. 2 mg/L, manganese was below 0. 05 mg/L and ammonia was below 0. 2 mg/L, which met the national standards. The operation of the water treatment plant was highly - efficient and stable, which set up a demon stration project for the simultaneous advanced removal of the high I-ron and manganese accompanying underground water in cold region.

  20. Burning of coal waste piles from Douro Coalfield (Portugal): Petrological, geochemical and mineralogical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; Flores, D. [Departamento and Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); da Silva, E. Ferreira [GeoBioTec, GeoBiosciences, Geotechnologies and Geoenginering Research Center, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-04-01

    In the Douro Coalfield anthracites were exploited for decades (1795-1994). Besides many small mines Douro Coalfield had two principal mining areas (S. Pedro da Cova and Pejao). Coal mining activities cause several impacts on the environment, one of which is the amount of discard or waste which was disposed of all over Douro Coalfield resulting in one of the most significant and severe impacts on the environment. Over 20 waste piles exist in the old mining areas, geographically dispersed, and three of them are presently burning. Their ignition was caused by forest fires during the summer of 2005. Samples from the burning and unburned zones of the waste piles were studied as were the gas from vents and the minerals resulting after combustion. Geochemical processes and mineralogical transformations in the burning coal waste pile were investigated. Microscopic analyses of the samples identified some particular aspects related with combustion: oxidation of pyrite, the presence of iron oxides, organic particles with cracks and rims with lowered (suppressed) Rr, devolatilization vacuoles and some char structures. The occurrence of vitreous (glassy) material as well as Fe-Al spinels in the burning coal waste provide evidences that the combustion temperature could have reached values above 1000 C. Due to combustion, and as expected, the samples studied reported high ash yields. Samples taken from the burning zones reported an increase of As, Cr, Li, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr and LREE concentrations and a decrease in Zr and HREE concentrations. Enrichment in Cs, Li and Rb was noted when comparing with the geochemical composition of black shales and world coals composition that is related with the contribution of granitic rocks in the sediments that originated the main lithologies of the Douro Coalfield (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenites). Cluster analyses (R-type and Q-type) were performed to understand the trend between the unburned and burning samples and it seems that some

  1. Petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Serrinha coal waste pile (Douro Coalfield, Portugal) and the potential environmental impacts on soil, sediments and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, E. [GeoBioTec, Geobiosciences, Geotechnologies and Geoengineering Research Center, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Li, Z.; Ward, C. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Flores, D. [Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-09-01

    Serrinha is the largest coal waste pile resulting from mining activities in the Douro Coalfield, Portugal. The exploitation of anthracite in tens of small mines caused some environmental impacts, as is the case of the coal waste piles that exist in old mines and adjacent areas. The Serrinha waste pile is essentially made up of 2 million tonnes of shales and carbonaceous shales, deposited in a topographical depression over about 30 years. Despite the environmental restoration accomplished in the Serrinha waste pile, some environmental problems seem to persist. In this study a petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization was done in order to recognize and understand these problems. The materials studied were coal waste, sediments and waters from the drainage system and decanting basins, soils from the surrounding areas, leachates from waste material and neoformed minerals formed at the bottom of the waste pile. The main lithologies (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenite) and coal from the Douro Coalfield were also analyzed. Petrographic analysis shows some evidence of weathering (on organic and inorganic matter) related to the time of exposure to the weathering agents and the easy access of air within the waste pile (due to both the poor compaction and the heterogeneity of the material). Mineralogically, the composition of coal waste material has contributions from both the coal and the associated lithologies. R-type cluster analysis of the waste pile material allows two distinct clusters to be identified. In the first cluster a sulfide fraction is represented by the association of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, while Fe clustered with Al, Co, and Ti indicates that some of the Fe and the other elements are likely associated with silicate minerals such as clays. The second cluster, represented by Cr, V, Zr, Rb, REE, Mn, Li and Ba, probably represent a silicate fraction, perhaps detrital accessory minerals. The waste pile material, leachates, soils

  2. Optimization and modification of non-caking coal blending for conventional coking%不黏煤改性及配煤炼焦优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱子宗; 徐军; 李硕; 宋楠

    2012-01-01

    A new type of coal modifying additive(ZBS)was developed to modify the non-coking coal, so it can be used for coking. A series of 40 kg coking-oven experiments were performed and the results show that the quality of the coke deteriorates with the addition of 4% of anthracite and 6% of Long Flame Coal,while it is improved significantly with the ZBS modifying additive. The best improvement is achieved when 0.08 % of ZBS is mixed with the non-coking coal,which causes coke properties such as the anti-broken strength of coke(M40 ) to increase by 5.94% ,wear resist- ance strength (M~0) to decrease by 7.12%, coke reactivity index(CRI) to reduce by 4.61% and strength after reac- tion(CSR) to increase by If. 42%. The quality of the coke obtained is very close to the production index of coking coal and the production requirements can be met.%利用自主研发的煤粉改性剂对非炼焦煤进行改性后配煤炼焦,可以达到有效利用非炼焦煤的目的。通过40 kg焦炉试验研究表明:直接加入4%的无烟煤和6%的长焰煤后,焦炭质量变差,然而,加入煤粉改性剂对其改性后炼焦,焦炭质量改善;当煤粉改性剂量低于或高于配合煤质量的0.08%时,焦炭质量改善幅度较小;当煤粉改性剂量达到0.08%时,焦炭质量改善明显,其M40提高5.94%,M10降低7.12%,CRI降低4.61%,CSR提高11.42%,接近原配合煤的炼焦指标,符合生产要求。

  3. 低挥发分煤粉燃烧新技术发展与应用%Development and application of low volatile pulverized coal combustion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建明

    2011-01-01

    Introduce the development and application of low volatile pulverized coal combustion technique. The representative burners and framework of boilers were demonstrated and the key techniques, including strengthening hot gas back flow,keeping adopting pulverized coal concentration,and extending length of flame,were also analyzed and these techniques can help pulverized coal ignite quickly and keep stable ignition. The suitable combustion system should be strictly chosen for low volatilization pulverized coal, such as tangentially firing, opposed firing, W-shape flame, and CUF firing and so on. Meanwhile, being the superior stability in anthracite combustion to tangential firing and opposed firing,W-shape boilers are mainly used. Having the strongpoint of stable combustion, high combustion efficiency, stepped firing in recirculation and low NO, emission, the high-temperature combustion technique for low volatilization coal will have wide application foreground.%介绍了国内外低挥发分煤粉燃烧技术及发展.对具有代表性的燃烧器及炉膛结构进行简要分析,说明热回流、煤粉浓缩、延长火焰长度等关键技术在实现低挥发分难燃煤粉快速着火、稳定燃烧中的应用.指出尽管燃烧器在应用中取得一定的效果,但仍然存在一些问题,因而对于低挥发分煤种还需要同时选择合理的燃烧方式,如切向燃烧、对冲燃烧、W型火焰燃烧及CUF火焰燃烧等技术.其中,W型火焰燃烧方式对难燃无烟煤的燃烧稳定性优于四角和对冲燃烧方式,是目前主要采用的燃烧结构.高温空气燃烧技术对低挥发分煤具有火焰稳定、热效率高、再循环分级燃烧,低NOx排放等优点,将成为更有前景的燃烧技术.

  4. AMS radiocarbon dating of pollen concentrates in a karstic lake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, William; Zielhofer, Christoph; Mischke, Steffen; Campbell, Jennifer; Bryant, Charlotte; Fink, David; Xu, Xiaomei

    2016-04-01

    In lake sediments where terrestrial macrofossils are rare or absent, AMS radiocarbon dating of pollen concentrates represents an important alternative solution for developing a robust and high resolution chronology suitable for Bayesian modelling of age-depth relationships. Here we report an application of the dense media separation approach (Vandergoes and Prior, Radiocarbon 45:479-492, 2003) to Holocene lake sediments from karstic Lake Sidi Ali, Morocco (33° 03'N, 05° 00'W; 2,080 m a.s.l.). Paired dates on terrestrial (macrofossil) and aquatic (ostracod) samples, and dating of bulk sediment surface material at the site indicate varying reservoir effects of up to 900 yr and highlight the need to date terrestrial carbon sources. Dating of pollen concentrates is a viable approach at Lake Sidi Ali, as pollen concentrations are high (~200,000 grains/cc), and pollen assemblages typically contain only minor percentages (standards (anthracite, IAEA C5 wood) were prepared and dated following the heavy liquid (sodium polytungstate, SPT) density separation protocol. A series of SPT solutions of progressively decreasing density (1.9-1.15 s.g.) were used to divide the samples into several fractions. The pollen purity of these fractions was evaluated by microscopic analysis of smear slides, and the richest fraction(s) were selected for dating. Sieving at 10 μm and at 50/125 μm (depending on the size of predominant pollen grains) was used to further concentrate the pollen grains, and the samples were freeze dried to determine the dry weight of material. The results show that the highest purity of pollen is sample dependent and may typically be achieved in the fractions precipitating at 1.4-1.2 s.g. With sieving, terrestrial pollen purity of ~50-80% can be achieved, offering a considerable improvement in terms of terrestrial carbon content over bulk sediment. These values reflect the challenge in some samples of fully separating pollen grains from common aquatic algae, e

  5. A Discussion on Coal Seam Methane Carbon Isotope Distribution Features and Gas Genetic Classification in China%我国煤层甲烷碳同位素分布特征与瓦斯成因类型划分探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙四清; 李贵红; 安鸿涛

    2012-01-01

    Based on 170 plus sets of coal seam methane carbon isotope measured results, analyzed 513Ci value distribution features of Chinese coal seam gas, discussed its genetic classification. The studied results have demonstrated that: the distribution range of SaCi value is within - 73.3%e-27.3%e, the value increasing along with the degree of coal metamorphism. After the anthracite stage, the value variations tend to be stable, fluctuating about -35%o or so. According to varying relations between coal seam methane carbon isotope and coal ranks, taking maximum reflectance of vitrinite as indicator, classified Chinese coal seam gas genesis into 3 major types: secondary biogenetic, mixing origin and thermogenetic gases, and pointed out gas genetic types of part coal mining areas in China.%以170余组煤层甲烷碳同位素测定结果为依据,分析了我国煤层瓦斯的δ13C1值分布特征,探讨了瓦斯成因类型划分,研究结果显示:δ13C1值分布范围为-73.3‰~-27.3‰,δ13C1值随煤的变质程度的增加总体增大,无烟煤阶段以后,δ13C1的变化趋于平稳,在-35‰上下波动;根据煤层甲烷碳同位素与煤级之间的变化关系,以煤的最大镜质体反射率作为指标,将我国煤层瓦斯成因分为次生生物成因气、混合成因气和热成因气三大类,并指出了我国部分煤矿区的瓦斯成因类型.

  6. COAL COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY IN CFB BOILER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hairui Yang; Guangxi Yue

    2005-01-01

    The carbon content in the fly ash from most Chinese circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is much higher than expected, thus directly influencing the combustion efficiency. In the present paper, carbon burnout was investigated both in field tests and laboratory experiments. The effect of coal property, operation condition, gas-solid mixing, char deactivation,residence time and cyclone performance are analyzed seriatim based on large amount of experimental results.A coal index is proposed to describe the coal rank, defined by the ratio of the volatile content to the coal heat value, is a useful parameter to analyze the char burnout. The carbon content in the fly ash depends on the coal rank strongly. CFB boilers burning anthracite, which has low coal index, usually have high carbon content in the fly ash. On the contrary, the CFB boilers burning brown coal, which has high coal index, normally have low carbon content.Poor gas-solid mixing in the furnace is another important reason of the higher carbon content in the fly ash. Increasing the velocity and rigidity of the secondary air could extend the penetration depth and induce more oxygen into the furnace center. Better gas solid mixing will decrease the lean oxygen core area and increase char combustion efficiency.The fine char particles could be divided into two groups according to their reactivity. One group is "fresh" char particles with high reactivity and certain amount of volatile content. The other group of char particles has experienced sufficient combustion time both in the furnace and in the cyclone, with nearly no volatile. These "old" chars in the fly ash will be deactivated during combustion of large coal particles and have very low carbon reactivity. The generated fine inert char particles by attrition of large coal particles could not easily burn out even with the fly ash recirculation. The fraction of large coal particles in coal feed should be reduced during fuel preparation process.The cyclone

  7. 煤焦与生物质焦共气化反应特性研究%Co-gasification properties of coal char and biomass char

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海君; 张永奇; 房倚天; 王洋

    2012-01-01

    以晋城无烟煤和生物质(肉骨粉Meat and Bone Meal∶MBM)为原料,在固定床上采用快速热解法制备了煤和生物质焦样.采用扫描电子显微镜结合X射线能谱分析仪(SEM-EDX)分析了煤焦和MBM焦的表面形态和组成;在热天平上采用等温热重法进行了煤焦/MBM焦混合物的水蒸气气化研究.实验结果表明,煤/MBM焦混合物的共气化实验碳转化率高于两者不存在协同作用时的计算值,这是由于MBM焦含有较多的Na、Ca等元素,这些物质对煤焦气化起到了催化作用.当对MBM焦进行脱灰处理后,其气化反应性显著下降.混合物中MBM焦的质量分数在20%~80%时,随着MBM焦含量的增加,混合物中的煤焦反应性相应提高.%An experimental study on the co-gasification property of coal char and biomass char with steam was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The coal tested was Jincheng anthracite (JC) , and the biomass was meat and bone meal ( MBM). The chars were prepared by fast pyrolysis of coal and MBM individually. The morphology and composition of chars were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). The results show that the co-gasification rate of JC/ MBM chars mixture is higher than that of results expected from independent behavior. The high content of Ca and Na in MBM char plays a catalytic effect during co-gasification. After washing with acid, the reactivity of MBM char declines markedly. The gasification rate of coal char in JC/MBM chars mixture increases with increasing MBM char content in rang of 20% ~ 80%.

  8. Integration and demonstration of the pre-treatment process and improved conventional treatment process for seasonally polluted raw water%季节性污染原水预处理和常规处理工艺强化技术集成与示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓健; 张锡辉; 陆少鸣; 王建平; 盛德洋; 田家宇

    2012-01-01

    针对珠江下游普遍存在的水源季节性氨氮和有机物污染问题,采用原水生物预处理和强化常规处理工艺技术路线,开发了三种主要的集成工艺技术,包括高速生物过滤强化常规工艺、高锰酸钾与粉末活性炭、纯氧曝气及活性无烟煤联合强化常规工艺、以平板陶瓷膜为主的集成工艺等,建立了中试基地和示范工程,有效处理氨氮浓度为3~5 mg/L的原水,出水水质达到GB 5749-2006标准,经济有效,稳定可靠,为常规工艺升级改造提供了多样化技术选择.%According to common seasonal ammonia and organic pollution in water resource in downstream river basin of Zhujiang River, the upgrading technology route of biological pre-treatment and improved conventional treatment process was used in this research. In this paper, three main integrated technologies were developed, including the improved conventional treatment process by high-speed biological filter, the improved conventional treatment process with the combination of potassium permanganate, powdered activated carbon, pure oxygen aeration and activated anthracite, and the panel ceramic membrane technology. The pilot experiment basement and example project were built up. It was shown that the project could treat the raw water with the ammonia concentration of 3~5 mg/L effectively, and the effluent could meet the GB 5749-2006 standards. This project was economical, stable, and offered multiple technology choices for the conventional treatment process upgrading reconstruction.

  9. Design on Static VAR Generator of Beam Type Water Pump Applied to Coalbed Methane Mining%煤层气开采用游梁式抽水机静止无功发生器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白利军; 王振翀; 庄园; 王聪

    2014-01-01

    According to the power supply quality problems caused by the low power factor and high harmonic content of power distribution network for the beam type water pump applied to the coalbed methane mining area,a study on three level static VAR compensation technol-ogy was conducted.With an analysis on the causes of VAR and harmonics occurred in the power distribution network,based on diode-clamped three-level inverter,a topological structure of the static VAR generator and the voltage and current double-loop control tactics were designed and the three-level space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM)tactics were simplified.Meanwhile,test prototype was built and applied to a production site of Lanyan Coal Bed Methane Company,Shanxi Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group.The production practice results showed that three level static VAR generator designed could effectively improve the power factor of power distribution net-work for beam type water pump applied to the coalbed methane mining and could effectively reduce the current harmonic content of the power distribution network,which could improve the power supply quality of the power distribution network.%针对应用于煤层气开采领域的游梁式抽水机配电网功率因数偏低且谐波含量较大导致的供电质量问题,进行了三电平静止无功补偿技术的研究。在分析了配电网无功、谐波产生原因的基础上,设计了基于二极管箝位型三电平逆变器的静止无功发生器拓扑结构和电压电流双闭环控制策略,简化了三电平空间矢量脉宽调制( SVPWM)策略,同时搭建了试验样机并应用于山西晋煤集团蓝焰煤层气公司生产现场。实践结果表明,电网平均功率因素提高到0.99,所设计的三电平静止无功发生器可有效提高游梁式抽水机配电网功率因数,同时有效降低配电网电流谐波含量,从而提高了配电网的供电质量。

  10. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDRA B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine of Jerada is located in north east of Morocco,in horst zone, in the productive geological formation of Westphalian C. The mining activity has generated along 65 years (1936-2001, 15 to 20 millions tons of washery waste rocks, cumulated principally in urban center. The groundwater (n=30 and waste rock (n=7 sampling was led in the middle of May 2008, which presents in local climatic context the end of rainy season and the beginning of sec season. Waste rocks are exhaustively black schist, with a paucity in pyrite (anthracite debris contain between 2 to 5% of synergic pyrite and predominance of calcareous minerals essentially as dolomite. Consequently, the majority of waste rock samples are not acid generators. The pyrite oxidation produces sulphuric acid, which will be quickly neutralized by carbonates. The alkaline tendency of pH classifies Jerada abandoned coal mine in circum neutral mining drainage type (NMD. The leaching through unsaturated and saturated zone will be facilitated due to a big pore size and a breakingtectonic having fractured Jerada coal basin. The deformed black schist alternative to sandstone permits a good water circulation. The massive product of mining drainage and the major pollutant of groundwater is undoubtedly S-SO4 (27/30 exceed WHO guideline. The spatial correlation between S-total and salinity illustrates the deterioration of groundwater quality due to pyrite oxidation. The alteration of schist and halite dissolution contribute to

  11. Development Status of Mineral Resources in Five Countries of the Indochina Peninsula and Investment Preferences for China%中南半岛五国矿产资源开发现状及中国的投资取向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程新; 沈镭; 高天明

    2011-01-01

    The Indochina Peninsula includes Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand. This paper first outlines resource situations in the Indochina Peninsula, analyzes the distribution of advantageous mineral resources and their development situations in the five countries. Thailand is abundant in antimony, potassium, and tin resources. The reserve of Thai antimony was more than 420 thousand tons in 2009, accounting for 20% of the world’s total reserve. It is mainly distributed in northern Thailand, such as LamPang, Phrae, and Chiang Mai Provinces. Its production in 2008 was 422 ton. Potassium is also rich in Thailand, and has not been mined at large scales. Tin and iron ore were not well exploited, either. Their productions mainly rely on imports. Coal, phosphate, and bauxite are rich in Vietnam. Coal is primarily anthracite and lignite; anthracite is distributed in C?m Ph?, thành ph? H? Long, Qu?ng Ninh Provinces, northeast Vietnam. Lignite is distributed in the Red River basin; the coal reserve in the area is more than 200 billion ton. Bauxite is Vietnam’s dominant mineral, and its reserve is huge. The reserve of phosphate is more than 1.4 billion ton. Due to backward mining technology, its mineral resources were not effectively developed and utilized. Potassium is abundant in the Vientiane plain, and its prospective reserve is more than 10 billion ton. Copper, bauxite, and tin reserves are more than other mining resources in Laos. Cambodia and Myanmar are rich in oil, non-ferrous metals, and gem. The degree of mineral resources development in these five counties is very low, even ranking one of the most undeveloped areas in the world. We discussed their mining investment environment in this region. All the counties have special departments for mining management, enact related laws to protect the interests of the owner, and provide some preferential policies to attract mining investment. We suggest that every country should optimize their mining

  12. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  13. 不同种类生物质对工业硅球团性能影响的研究%Research on Effect of Different Biomass on Performances of Industrial Silicon Pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨妮; 谢刚; 李荣兴; 俞小花; 和晓才; 姚云; 包崇军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,anthracite fine,petroleum coke powders,charcoal powders,silica fume as raw materi-als and rice husk,corn straw,wheat straw or rice straw as binder are used to prepare industrial silicon pellets as carbonaceous reducing agent.The effects of different biomass on compressive strength of fresh pellets and air dried pellets,the heat intensity,the shatter strength,and porosity of pellets are then researched.The perform-ances of four kinds pellets are compared with pellets made from R binder purchased from the market.The results show that:when rice straw is used as biomass,the performances of the pellets are as follows:compressive strength of fresh pellets and air dried pellets are 1 215.6 N and 5 230.8 N respectively,the shatter strength is 80.36%,the heat intensity 94.40%,and porosity 24.39%.Compared with those of pellets made from R bind-er,compressive strength of fresh pelletizing is increased by 74.47%,compressive strength of air dried pellets and the shatter strength drop by 25.11% and 13.32% respectively,while the heat intensity and porosity are in-creased by 39.15% and 9.20%.The pellets using biomass and lignin sulfonate or different kinds of starch to-gether as compound binder could be considered in the actual production.%实验以洗精煤、木炭粉、石油焦、微硅粉为原料,并与改性后的稻壳、玉米秸秆、小麦秸秆或水稻秸秆混合,制备生物质工业硅球团.研究了不同种类生物质含量对湿球抗压强度、干球抗压强度、抗碎率、热强度与孔隙率的影响,并与市购的 R 粘结剂制备的球团性能进行比较.实验结果表明:当以水稻秸秆为生物质时,制备的生物质球团湿球抗压强度为1215.6 N,干球抗压强度为5230.8 N,抗碎率为80.36%,热强度为94.40%,孔隙率为24.39%.与 R 制备的球团相比,湿球抗压强度提高74.47%,干球抗压强度降低25.11%,抗碎率降低13.32%,热强度提高39

  14. Validation of spectral gas radiation models under oxyfuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Johann Valentin

    2013-05-15

    validation of simplified CFD models. In the second results section, spectral measurements (2.4 - 5.4 {mu}m) of a 70 kW turbulent natural gas ame in air blown combustion and in wet and dry oxyfuel combustion were compared with simulated spectra based on measured gas atmospheres. The line-by-line database HITEMP2010 and the two statistical-narrow-band models EM2C and RADCAL were used for the numerical simulation. The measured spectra showed large fluctuations due to turbulence. The averaged experimental intensity was found to be up to 75% higher than the simulated intensity, thus demonstrating the importance of the effect of turbulence-radiation-interaction in combustion simulations. Finally, total emissivities were calculated with the most common spectral models and compared with benchmark calculations by the detailed spectral line-by-line model HITEMP2010. The models were compared at path lengths ranging from 0.001m to 100m and at temperatures from 800 C to 1800 C for atmospheres of pure gases and of various combustion processes (air blown and oxyfuel combustion with wet and dry recirculation) as well as with different fuels (natural gas, brown coal and anthracite). The statistical-narrow-band models RADCAL and EM2C, the exponential-wide-band model and the statistical-line-width model were chosen as models, which are valid for oxyfuel combustion without modifications. A number of weighted-sum-of-grey-gases models from different authors were chosen as computationally efficient models especially developed for oxyfuel combustion. The statistical-narrow-band model EM2C had the highest accuracy with maximum deviations of up to 12%. The weighted-sum-of-grey-gases model from Johansson et al. [64] proved to be the most valid and versatile model for computationally efficient simulations of spectral gas properties with an overall accuracy of 21% or better.

  15. Notes on the origin of copromacrinite based on nitrogen functionalities and δ13C and δ15N determined on samples from the Peach Orchard coal bed, southern Magoffin County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, Bruno; Algarra, Manuel; Guedes, Alexandra; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Hower, James C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to show, by means other than just petrographic ones, that one type of macrinite, herein designated copromacrinite, may result from macrofauna feces. For that purpose a combination of coal petrography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elemental-analysis continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry methods were used to determine nitrogen functionalities and δ13C andδ15N compositions in 1) vitrinite-rich, 2) fusinite + semifusinite-rich, and 3) macrinite-rich (with a possible coprolitic origin) samples of the high volatile A bituminous Peach Orchard coal (Bolsovian; Middle Pennsylvanian) from Magoffin County, Kentucky. There were no significant differences between pyridinic-N and quaternary-N abundance in the three samples, however, pyrrolic-N was higher (~ 54%) in the macrinite-rich sample than in the other two samples (~ 38%). The data suggest that pyridinic-N and quaternary-N are independent of maceral group composition and that pyrrolic-N is dependent on maceral composition (fusinite + semifusinite versus macrinite). δ13C values obtained for bulk and demineralized coal of the vitrinite- and fusinite + semifusinite-rich samples are similar with δ13C values of − 24.80 ± 0.01‰ VPDB and − 24.61 ± 0.09‰ VPDB for bulk samples and − 24.81 ± 0.07‰ VPDB and − 24.52 ± 0.04‰ VPDB for demineralized samples. These values are within the expected range for vitrinite-rich samples and the slightly higher δ13C value of the fusinite + semifusinite-rich sample is expected as δ13C values for inertinite are higher than for vitrinite. However, there was a significant shift to a lower δ13C value (− 26.80 ± 0.01‰ VPDB for the bulk sample value) for the macrinite-rich sample. Because the samples are basically isorank, and δ13C (and δ15N) shifts do not occur during maturation until anthracite rank, the difference may be related to the presence or composition of the macrinite

  16. Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 ˚ C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the

  17. Properties, origin and nomenclature of rodlets of the inertinite maceral group in coals of the central Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Resin rodlets, sclerenchyma strands and woody splinters, which are collectively called rodlets, were studied by chemical, optical petrographic, and scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. A study was made of such rodlets from the bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin (Pennsylvanian; Upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Comparisons were made with rodlets from coal beds of the Illinois basin, the Southern Anthracite Field of Pennsylvania, the St. Rose coal field of Nova Scotia, and European and other coal fields. In order to determine their physical and chemical properties, a detailed study was made of the rodlets from the Pomeroy coal bed (high volatile A bituminous coal; Monongahela Formation; Upper Pennsylvanian) of Kanawha County, West Virginia. The origin of the rodlets was determined by a comparative analysis of a medullosan (seed fern) stem from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (high volatile C bituminous coal; Carbondale Formation) from Washington County, Illinois. Rodlets are commonly concentrated in fusain or carbominerite layers or lenses in bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin. Most of the rodlets examined in our study were probably derived from medullosan seed ferns. The three types of rodlets are distinguished on the basis of cellularity, morphology and fracture. The resin rodlets studied by us are noncellular and appear to be similar in properties and origin to those found in coal beds of the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian of the Illinois basin. The resin rodlets extracted from the Pomeroy coal bed exhibit high relief and high reflectance when polished and viewed in reflected light; they are opaque in transmitted light. In cross section, the resin rodlets are oval to round and have diameters ranging from 60 to 450 ??m. Many are solid, but some have vesicles, canals or cavities, which are commonly filled with clay, probably kaolinite. Typically, they have distinct fracture patterns ("kerfs") in longitudinal and

  18. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  19. 龙山选煤厂提高块煤产率的方法%Improvement of lump coal yield in Longshan coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋景玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the lump coal yield in Longshan coal preparation plant,analyze the raw coal properties.The results show that,the raw coal is medium and high ash,extra low sulfur No.2 anthracite.There is less primary slime and the gangue is harder which is difficult to crush and grind.There is obvious degradation phenomenon.When lump coal ash is above 12%,the raw coal is easy to wash.The analysis of the process flow of coal preparation plant show that,low screening efficiency,frequent collision and high drop distance lead to low lump coal yield.To resolve these problems,replace the drum screen with linear vibrating screen,the raw coal bunker or lump coal point install spiral chute and take other measures to reduce coal breakage.After transformation,the lump coal yield increase by 1. 74%,the medi-um-sized lump coal increase by 0.51%,the small lump coal increase by 1.23%,the plant creates benefits 2.3868×106 yuan per year.%为提高龙山选煤厂块煤产率,分析了原煤性质,说明原煤属中高灰、特低硫的2号无烟煤;原生煤泥较少,矸石较硬,不易破碎解离,有明显泥化现象;块精煤灰分大于12%时,原煤可选性为易选。通过分析选煤厂工艺流程,说明滚筒筛筛分效率低,产品运输转载过程中碰撞溜槽,块煤入仓时摔碎,块煤落煤点较高等是造成选煤厂块煤产率低的主要原因。通过将滚筒筛更换为直线振动筛,在胶带机落煤溜槽内增加防破碎装置或缓冲闸板,在原煤仓内或块煤落煤点安装螺旋溜槽等措施减少块煤破碎。改造后选煤厂块煤产率提高了1.74%,其中精中块提高0.51%,精小块提高1.23%,每年增加经济效益238.68万元。

  20. Production of activated carbon from TCR char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Heberlein, Markus; Klinner, Tobias; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of char for adsorptive purposes is known since the 18th century. At that time the char was made of wood or bones and used for decoloration of fluids. In the 20th century the production of activated carbon in an industrial scale was started. The today's raw materials for activated carbon production are hard coal, peat, wood or coconut shells. All these materials entail costs especially the latter. Thus, the utilization of carbon rich residues (biomass) is an interesting economic opportunity because it is available for no costs or even can create income. The char is produced by thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR®). This process is a combination of an intermediate pyrolysis and subsequently a reforming step. During the pyrolysis step the material is decomposed in a vapor and a solid carbon enriched phase. In the second step the vapor and the solid phase get in an intensive contact and the quality of both materials is improved via the reforming process. Subsequently, the condensables are precipitated from the vapor phase and a permanent gas as well as oil is obtained. Both are suitable for heat and power production which is a clear advantage of the TCR® process. The obtained biochar from the TCR® process has special properties. This material has a very low hydrogen and oxygen content. Its stability is comparable to hard coal or anthracite. Therefore it consists almost only of carbon and ash. The latter depends from input material. Furthermore the surface structure and area can be influenced during the reforming step. Depending from temperature and residence time the number of micro pores and the surface area can be increased. Preliminary investigations with methylene blue solution have shown that a TCR® char made of digestate from anaerobic digestion has adsorptive properties. The decoloration of the solution was achieved. A further influencing factor of the adsorption performance is the particle size. Based on the results of the preliminary tests a

  1. Isothermal adsorption characteristics of coal reservoir and its gas content prediction in Qinnan-Xiadian block of Qinshui basin%沁南-夏店区块煤储层等温吸附特征及含气量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆忠; 孟召平; 黄平; 何旭龙; 杨延辉; 张永平

    2016-01-01

    煤的吸附能力是决定煤层含气量大小和煤层气开发潜力的重要储层参数。通过对沁南–夏店区块二叠系山西组3号煤层72个煤样进行等温吸附实验,剖析了3号煤层煤的吸附性能,建立了基于 Langmuir方程的煤层含气量预测方法,揭示了研究区3号煤层煤的吸附性能及含气量分布。研究结果表明,沁南–夏店区块3号煤层主要为贫煤和无烟煤,煤的空气干燥基 Langmuir 体积为18.15~34.75 m3/t,平均29.36 m3/t;Langmuir 压力为1.47~2.71 MPa,平均2.03 MPa;煤储层压力梯度0.11~1.06 MPa/hm,平均0.49 MPa/hm,煤储层压力随着煤层埋藏深度的增加而增高;煤层含气饱和度整体呈欠饱和状态。通过预测模型预测研究区3号煤层含气量2.87~24.63 m3/t,平均13.78 m3/t,且随着埋藏深度的增加而增高,其含气量相对沁水盆地南部偏低。煤储层含气量分布主要受控于本区煤层生气、储气和保存等因素。%Adsorption capacity of coal is a significant parameter for gas-bearing measurement and development potential of coal reservoir.the content prediction method of coal bed methane (CBM) based on Langmuir equation was established, Ad-sorption capacity and gas content distribution in coal seam No.3 reservoir in the study area was revealed. It is shown that the main coal type of No.3 coal seam in target area are meagre coal and anthracite coal. The Langmuir volume of air dried coal samples is between 18.15 m3/t and 34.75m3/t, with a mean value of 29.36 m3/t; Langmuir pressure is between 1.47 MPa and 2.71MPa, with a 2.03 MPa mean value. The pressure gradient of coal reservoir is between 0.11MPa/100 m and 1.06 MPa/100 m, with a mean value of 0.49 MPa/100 m. The pressure of coal reservoir increase with burial deepth; and gas saturation of coalbed is under-saturation. According to Langmuir equation, the content prediction method of coal bed meth-ane (CBM) was established, and the gas

  2. [The preparation and characterization of fine dusts carried out in the Clinica del Lavoro di Milano in support of experimental studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occella, E; Maddalon, G; Peruzzo, G F; Foà, V

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate the conditions selected at the Clinica del Lavoro of the University of Milan to prepare and analyze a large number of fine dust samples produced over a period of about 50 years, that were initially used for studies within the Clinic performed in its own facilities, and since 1956 were sent to other Italian and overseas laboratories (Luxembourg, UK, Germany, Norway, Sweden, South Korea, USA). The total quantity of material distributed (with maximum size 7-10 microns) was about 2 kg and consisted of the following mineral and artificial compounds: quartz, HF-treated quartz, tridymite, HF-treated tridymite, cristobalite, chromite, anthracite, quartz sand for foundry moulds, sand from the Lybian desert, vitreous silica, pumice, cement, as well small quantities of metallic oxides, organic resins, chrysotile, crocidolite, fibres (vitreous, cotton and polyamidic). About half of the entire quantity of dusts produced consisted of partially HF-treated tridymite. Initially, research on the etiology of silicosis used quartz dust samples, simply sieved or ventilated (consisting of classes finer than 0.04 mm, containing a 15-20% respirable fraction). From 1956 to 1960 the dusts were produced by manual grinding in an agate mortar, below about 10 microns, starting from quartz from Quincinetto (near Ivrea, Province of Turin), containing about 99.5% quartz: particle size and composition were checked using an optical-petrographic technique, with identification of the free and total silica content. Subsequently, the dusts used for biological research were obtained by grinding coarse material with a cast iron pestle and planetary mills, agate and corundum jars. The grinding products were sized by means of centrifugal classification, using the selector developed by N. Zurlo, ensuring control of dust size both optically and by means of wet levigators and hydraulic classifiers (in cooperation with the Institute of Mines of Turin Polytechnic School). After 1990

  3. Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mineral Bio-leaching Valuable Metals from Multimetallic Nodules in the Deep Sea Bed Haoran Li, Yali Feng, Hong Shi, Wengming Zhang Abstract: The feasibility of bio-leaching valuable metals from mutimetallic nodules in the deep sea bed by using thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T.f.) bacteria was tested. The conditions of bio-leaching valuable metals Co and Ni from multimetallic nodules,for example: the mass ratio of culture medium and nodules, leaching pH value, inoculation value and leaching temperature have been studied. In the process, the T.f. was tamed. These tests proved it was feasible that: using leathen culture, adding pyrite as the nourishment substance and reductant, under general temperature, acid condition, the nodules were not dried and ground, while the bio-leaching would be carried out effectively,leaching time was nine days,leaching rate was as follows:copper 45.21%, cobalt 98.22%,nickel 95.12%, manganese 97.54%, iron 12.89% (in the leaching solution). Key words: multimetallic nodules in the deep sea bed; thiobacillus ferrooxidans; bio-leaching [J. Univ. Sci. & Tech. Beijing (in Chinese), 22 (2000). p. 489.] Production of Metallurgical Cleans from Waste Anthracite Culm Jun Hu, Jingtian Liu, Liqiang Ma, Yongtian Wang Abstract:The recovery of anthracite sludge in Fenghuangshan Mine by flotation column broke through the tradition that flotation does not fit to anthraciye. The application of flotation column as a new technology in the recovery of waste anthracite did not only bring benefits to the Min by full untilization of the sludge, but also reduced the environmental pollution of the sludge discharge. Key words: flotation column; coal sludge; coal preparation; waste recovery [J. Univ. Sci. & Tech. Beijing (in Chinese), 22 (2000). p. 493.] Mining Project Evaluation Model Based on Options Pricing Theory Chaoma Liu, Dongmei Liu, Meifeng Cai Abstract: Discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques are widely used for valuing project investment. But this convention DCF

  4. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  5. Application of cogeneration technology of gas-liquid-solid products pyrolyzed from crop straw%农作物秸秆热解多联产技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘标; 陈应泉; 何涛; 杨海平; 王贤华; 陈汉平

    2013-01-01

    straw briquettes degraded rapidly, and a large amount of volatiles generated which would be removed from the retort equipment to a condensation and purification system. Simultaneously, charcoal was formed and the residue volume was only 30% to 40% of the original briquette because of the released volatiles. At the last 2-3 hours, the retort was retained at 600℃, then the charcoal would be further upgraded and a small amount of liquid product and gaseous products would be generated. The temperature of fresh volatiles out of the retort was up to 450℃, and then these fresh volatiles would cool down to room temperature by condensation and purification. The bio-oil and fuel gas were separated from the volatiles, and the bio-oil was further separated into wood tar and wood vinegar that was stored in the liquid tanks. The fuel gas was stored in a gas storage tank and transferred to users by pipeline. Charcoal was naturally cooled to 60-80℃in a retort and then collected to package and place in storage. For biomass-polygeneration technology, 1 ton agricultural straws can produce 230-310 m3 of fuel gas, 250-300kg of charcoal, 50 kg of wood tar, and 250 kg of wood vinegar. The main components of fuel gas are CO, CO2, H2, CH4, and other incondensable light hydrocarbons, such as C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and so on, and its heat value (LHV) reaches to 12 MJ/m3 due to the volume fraction of hydrogen and methane being up to 25%and 18%, respectively. The characteristics of charcoal are similar to anthracite, which has a small volatile content and high fixed carbon, and the heat value (LHV) is around 28 MJ/kg. The porosity of charcoal is well developed, and can be used as an industrial adsorbent and soil conditioner. The yield of wood tar is generally from 4.5% to 7%, and wood tar is composed of a large amount of macromolecules, such as anthracene, naphthalene, and some 10 carbon aliphatic chain hydrocarbon. Wood vinegar has high water content, more than 85%, and the organic component is

  6. Reaction kinetics of solid fuels during entrained flow gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremel, Alexander

    2012-10-24

    Despite the application of entrained flow gasification on larger scales, the reaction rates in the hot conversion zone are almost unknown. But the knowledge of the rates of the gasification reactions at high temperature and high pressure is crucial for the detailed design and optimisation of these gasifiers. This dissertation provides measurements of fuel conversion under operation conditions relevant to industrial gasifiers and aims at the transfer of the data to larger scale applications. A novel pilot-scale research reactor is developed that enables the study of gasification reactions at high temperature, high pressure and under entrained flow conditions. The Pressurised High Temperature Entrained Flow Reactor (PiTER) is operated at up to 1600 C and 4.0 MPa in pyrolysis and gasification experiments. The data set is extended by measurements in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor and a pressurised wire mesh reactor. Devolatilisation and gasification behaviour of a wide range of fuels is analysed including anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite, biocoal (from hydrothermal carbonisation), and biomass; however, Rhenish lignite is used in most of the experiments. The pyrolysis data enable the validation of a simple first order reaction model that describes the influence of pressure, temperature, and residence time on volatile yield. Char samples collected from the three reactors are analysed using laboratory procedures and bench-scale setups. Specific char surface area is measured by CO{sub 2} adsorption at 273 K, and is found to be significantly influenced by char conversion, reaction temperature, and devolatilisation pressure. The surface data are described by an extension of the Random Pore Model. Intrinsic char reactivity is measured in a pressurised thermogravimetric analyser and the influence of reactant partial pressure and temperature on the char-CO{sub 2} and char-H{sub 2}O reaction is studied. The intrinsic reaction rate is described by nth order and

  7. 山东省煤炭资源与赋煤规律研究%Research Coal Distributions and Coal-accumulation Regularities in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增奇; 梁吉坡; 李增学; 张义江; 孙斌; 程伟; 冯婷婷; 陈军

    2015-01-01

    The Shandong is rich coal resources,with the cumulative known coal reserves go to 31.23 billion tons and the coal resours to mainly 27.41 billion tons.The coal type is bituminous with minor of the lignite, anthracite coal and natural coke.The main coal accumulating periods in Shandong are Carboniferous-Permian,Fangzi period of middle Jurassic and the Wutu period of Paleogene with the Carboniferous-Permian being the most important coal accumulating period.The coal seams of Taiyuan Formation formed in the lagoon and tidal delta distal part and local areas can reach minable thickness.The fluvial-dominated shallow water delta of Shanxi Formation developed rapidly in large scale,forming the main mineable coal seams of large thickness and wide distribution area.The coal accumulating effect of Fangzi Formation and Lijiaya Formation occurred in the early period of basin water expansion-contraction,coal accumulating extended from the fan delta plain and front to the basin edge.Coal occurrence has suffered varying degrees of erosion a series of tectonic movement after coal accumulating stages.We can conclude from the research that the coal occurrence regularity of Shandong is characterized by “tilted-type structure,faulting in the north and overlapping in the south”,and the tectonic style by “the concave block alternate with convex block”.The coal seams with economic significance occur in “the edge and concave of block,horst of the latent sag,the graben of bump”,pointing out that the coal exploration direction of Shandong is “the base in concave,and the graben in convex”.The Shandong uplift zone is a rifted basin with lgcal at edge of graben basin.According to our research results,we found the Shanxian coalfield and Caoxian coalfield. On this basis,we have forecast the coal target areas in Shandong,and optimized six coal surveying target areas in Heze,Liaocheng,Jinan,Jining,Dezhou and parts of central area in Shangdon.%山东煤炭资源丰富,已