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Sample records for anthracite

  1. Crushing anthracite refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenlee, J.K.; Spicer, T.S.

    1971-07-30

    Approximately 910 million tons of anthracite refuse has accumulated in the anthracite region of northeastern Pennsylvania since the middle 1800's. The culm banks have become more objectionable with the increased social awareness of the United States population. In the late 1960's, the most extensive search to date was begun by Operation Anthracite Refuse at the Pennsylvania State University to find methods to remove and/or use the refuse. The refuse which is a mixture of anthracite, sandstone, and shale occurs in sizes from less than one inch to over three feet in maximum dimension. The uses which have been suggested for the refuse require top sizes from three inches to less than 16 mesh. Crushing will be required in most reclaiming operations. The objective of this study is to determine the cost of crushing anthracite refuse. A literature search was initiated to find case studies of crushing operations and literature on crushing equipment. This study indicated that with four different crusher types and several sizes of each and with the varied material sizes required, no meaningful guidelines could be established. The case studies showed a crushing cost range from 0.6 cents per ton to 16 cents per ton. Since no guidelines could be established, it will be necessary to complete a separate analysis for each crusher installation. An algorithm was developed to facilitate this analysis. The algorithm uses the total crushing cost at the throughput and type of operation to be used as the common basis for comparison.

  2. Investigating porosity of anthracites during thermoprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A.S.; Gilyazov, U.Sh.; Samoilov, V.S.; Mel' nichenko, V.M.; Kovalevskii, N.N.

    1983-07-01

    Changes in the porous structure of anthracite during thermoprocessing up to 3000 C, and the effect of mineral impurities on the materials were studied. A mercury porometer and an electron scanning microscope were used to study Donbass anthracites. A wider spectrum of pore volume distribution was observed for high rank anthracites than for lower rank anthracites. It was established that the specific pore volume in thermographite with an apparent density of more than one unit is three times less than in thermographite with an apparent density of less than one unit. The porosity of thermoanthracite increases sharply in comparison with the starting anthracite. Anthracites are suitable for graphitization after thermoprocessing at 2800-3000 C. The porosity of thermoanthracites depends on the presence and distribution of mineral impurities in the starting anthracite. 4 references.

  3. Health status of anthracite surface coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled

  4. Organo-clay/anthracite filtration for oil removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advantage of organo-clay compared to other sorbents is that it can selectively remove organic pollutants from contaminated waters. An investigation was conducted to determine the potential of an organo-clay/anthracite mixture as a filter media for the removal of oil from synthetic and real oily waters. Also included in the study were column filtration studies using synthetic and real waste waters to determine the sorptive capacity of the material. In general, oil removal efficiencies in a 300 mm organo-clay/anthracite bed decreased with an increase in flow rates. Results of eight hour studies indicated that the depth of an organo-clay/anthracite bed has a direct effect on oil removal efficiency. The Thomas equation provides a reasonable fit of the data based on breakthrough studies. The model can be used to determine the parameters needed to design full-scale filtration columns. The uptake of oil by an organo-clay/anthracite mixture is well described by an equation including time such as the Weber or Moris model. The maximum solid-phase concentration of the solute values obtained from the Thomas equation were comparable to the values found by a mass balance approach. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Constitutive Relation of Yunjialing Anthracite Under Medium Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wen-jiao; SHAN Ren-liang; WANG Gong-cheng; CHENG Rui-qiang

    2007-01-01

    By means of the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) testing system, this paper presents a dynamic constitutive relation of anthracite at a strain rate of ε =5-85s-1. Generally, the dynamic stress-strain curve for this kind of anthracite under uni-axial compression has the following four stages: a non-linear loading stage, a plastic yielding stage, a strain-strengthening stage and an unloading breakage stage. Correspondingly, the initial elastic modulus Eb, the yielding strength σs and the ultimate strength σb increase along with an increasing strain rate. The time-dependent elasticity was identified when we analyzed the mechanical properties of anthracite. Based on characteristics of measured dynamic stress-strain curves and an analysis of existing rock dynamic constitutive models, as well as a preparatory simulation, a new visco-elastic damage model has been introduced in this paper. A linear spring is put parallel to two Maxwell units with different relaxation times to express two distinct plastic flows. The damage D is equal to [Eb- E(εi)]/Eb, where Eb is the beginning modulus and the E(εi) is the slope of a connected line between the origin point and any other point on a tested stress-strain curve. In the new constitutive model, one Maxwell unit with low relaxation time (ψ)1 is used to describe the response of anthracite to a low strain rate, while the other, with a high relaxation time (ψ)2 describes the response of anthracite to a high strain rate. Simulated stress-strain curves from the new model are consistent with the measured curves.

  6. Influence of the dispersity of anthracite on the rearrangement of its structure during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A.S.; Chuparova, L.D.; Abramov, A.V.; Kirilin, N.S.; Yurkovskii, I.M.; Suslina, V.I.; Semenov, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out on the effect of the degree of dispersion of anthracite on its structural transformation and its adsorption properties with respect to a binder. It was shown that a composition based on highly ordered anthracite can be obtained from a powder having a specific surface area in the range 14-20 m/sup 2//g. (9 refs.)

  7. Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae-Sung

    Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in the commercial scale Tonghae CFB Power Plant. As the feeding ratio of the RDF to the anthracites increased to 5%, temperature and pressure were not changed in comparison with firing only anthracites. The amount of the required air was reduced due to high O2 content in RDF relative to the anthracites. The emissions of NOx, SOx, HCl and Dioxin were also measured. According to higher mixing ratio of the RDF to the anthracites, SOx, NOx emissions slightly decreased and HCl emissions increased, because RDF has relatively smaller S, N and higher CI than the anthracites. Heavy metals of the fly ash and bottom ash and the dioxin emissions were far below Korean maximum permissible concentration level at incinerator. The results showed that it is of great use and technically possible to co-combustion of RDF with the anthracites by 5% in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in commercial scale CFB boiler.

  8. Effects of the dispersity of anthracite on the rearrangement of its structure during thermal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A.S.; Chuparova, L.D.; Abramov, A.V.; Kirilin, N.S.; Yurkovskii, I.M.; Suslina, V.I.; Semenov, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of the fineness of anthracite on the reorganization of its structure and on the adsorption of the binder is studied. The adsorption properties of Donetsk anthracite milled to a specific surface of 1.8 m/sup 2//g, 4.5 m/sup 2//g and 18.0 m/sup 2//g were measured. It was demonstrated that in order to obtain a composition based on anthracite with a highly ordered structure, the starting material should be ground to a specific surface area of 14 m/sup 2//g. Anthracite ground to a fineness of more than 20 m/sup 2//g proved to be less structured during transformation into thermographite. (9 refs.)

  9. An investigation of the porosity of anthracites during their heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A.S.; Gilyazov, U.Sh.; Kovalevskii, N.N.; Mel' nichenko, V.M.; Samoilov, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the change in the porosity as a function of the amount of mineral impurities and the degree of metamorphism of anthracites on heat treatment has been studied by mercury porosimetry and electron microscopy.

  10. Influence of the dispersity of anthracite on the rearrangement of its structure during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A.S.; Abramov, A.V.; Chuparova, L.D.; Kirilin, N.S.; Semenov, M.V.; Suslina, V.I.; Yurkovskii, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of the dispersity of anthracite on the rearrangement of its structure and its absorption capacity with respect to a binder has been investigated. It has been shown that a composition based on anthracite with a high degree of ordering of the structure can be obtained if the specific surface of the powder is not less than 14 m/sup 2//g but not more than 20 m/sup 2//g.

  11. Single particle ignition and combustion of anthracite, semi-anthracite and bituminous coals in air and simulated oxy-fuel conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Riaza Benito, Juan; Khatami, Reza; Levendis, Yiannis A.; Álvarez González, Lucía; Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Pevida García, Covadonga; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pis Martínez, José Juan

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental investigation has been conducted on the combustion behavior of single particles (75–150 μm) of four coals of different ranks: anthracite, semi-anthracite, medium-volatile bituminous and high-volatile bituminous. A laboratory-scale transparent laminar-flow drop-tube furnace, electrically-heated to 1400 K, was used to burn the coals. The experiments were performed in different combustion atmospheres: air (21%O2/79%N2) and four simulated dry oxy-fuel conditions: 21%O2/79%CO2, 30%O2...

  12. Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangling Zhang; Qiaozhen Chen; Lu Guo; Hualing Huang; Chongying Ruan

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anth...

  13. Chemical oxidation of anthracite with hydrogen peroxide via the Fenton reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, I.; Senftle, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solutions of 30% H2O2 ranging from pH = 0 to pH = 11.5 have been used to oxidize anthracite at room temperature. The inorganic impurities, primarily pyrite, catalysed the oxidation and reduction of H2O2 (the Fenton reaction) to form the hydroxyl radical; the oxidation of the organic matter was minimal and was observed only in strong acidic solutions (pH reactions were completed in a much shorter time, the oxidation mechanism must have been of a different nature than that for the untreated anthracite. A qualitative model based on the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 by activated carbon sites in the coal surface is used to explain the oxidation of the demineralized anthracite. ?? 1984.

  14. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials. PMID:27135862

  15. Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangling; Chen, Qiaozhen; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Ruan, Chongying

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anthracite substrates, the purification effects of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate were improved by various degrees, and the purification effect of the medium particle size anthracite is better than that of the large size one. The medium size anthracite modified by ZnCo-LDHs had optimal performance with average removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate reaching 95%, 95% and 98%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity on ZnCo-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs modified medium sizes anthracites were 65.79 (mg/kg) and 48.78 (mg/kg), respectively. In comparison, the small size anthracite is not suitable for LDHs modification. PMID:26086702

  16. Binding waste anthracite fines with Si-containing materials as an alternative fuel for foundry cupola furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Fox, John T; Cannon, Fred S; Komarneni, Sridhar; Kulik, Joseph; Furness, Jim

    2011-04-01

    An alternative fuel to replace foundry coke in cupolas was developed from waste anthracite fines. Waste anthracite fines were briquetted with Si-containing materials and treated in carbothermal (combination of heat and carbon) conditions that simulated the cupola preheat zone to form silicon carbide nanowires (SCNWs). SCNWs can provide hot crushing strengths, which are important in cupola operations. Lab-scale experiments confirmed that the redox level of the Si-source significantly affected the formation of SiC. With zerovalent silicon, SCNWs were formed within the anthracite pellets. Although amorphous Si (+4) plus anthracite formed SiC, these conditions did not transform the SiC into nanowires. Moreover, under the test conditions, SiC was not formed between crystallized Si (+4) and anthracite. In a full-scale demonstration, bricks made from anthracite fines and zerovalent silicon successfully replaced a part of the foundry coke in a full-scale cupola. In addition to saving in fuel cost, replacing coke by waste anthracite fines can reduce energy consumption and CO2 and other pollution associated with conventional coking. PMID:21366305

  17. Kinetics and compensation effects during steam gasification of Fujian anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Ju; Zhang Ji-yu; Zhong Xue-qing [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-08-15

    Catalytic steam gasification kinetics of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst was investigated in an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer under ambient pressure. Coal conversions versus reaction time with different viscose liquor concentrations (0-12% NaOH) were measured at the temperature range from 850 to 950{sup o}C. The research shows that the viscose liquor can greatly improve the gasification rate and carbon conversion. The Loading Saturation Level (LSL) of the viscose liquor within the experimental conditions was also determined. The catalytic steam gasification reaction can be well fitted by a shrinking-core model (SCM) and the reaction rate constants are obtained. The kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic gasification exhibits a prominent compensation effect between the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The kinetic equation including the compensation effects for the catalytic steam gasification of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst is presented. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Practical applications of Organoclay and Organoclay/Anthracite mixture for oil removal from industrial wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' The presence of oil in the environment is of major concern because of its toxicity and threat to human life and the environment. Due to the increased environmental concerns, industrial effluent discharge regulations for the discharge of oily wastewaters are becoming more stringent. In this study, the potential of Organoclay and Organoclay/Anthracite mixture in the powdered and granular forms were evaluated in the removal of oil from five representative synthetic (standard mineral oil, SMO; kutwell45, KUT45; valcool, VAL) and actual (refinery effluent, RE; produced water, PW) emulsions by a series of batch and column tests. The batch adsorption systems are limited to small industries. By applying the relevant adsorption isotherm, it is possible to calculate the powdered Organoclay required to reduce the oil in the oily water to a desired concentration. The details of such a design based on an oil removal efficiencies of 61 to 97% for a daily flow rate of 150 m3/d and using obtained design parameters are presented in the study. For medium and big industries, Organoclay/Anthracite filters can be designed for use on a continuous basis. The design of Organoclay/Anthracite filter can be carried out using the kinetic rate constants derived in the study. In addition to Thomas kinetic model, a design based on Scale-up approach can also be performed. The details of such design for a daily oily water flow of 150 m3/d using both approaches are presented. The used Organoclay (both powdered and mixture) can be landfilled or incinerated. Due to the high calorific value of spent Organoclay/Anthracite mixture, its use as a secondary fuel for heating purposes appears to be an appropriate option. Also, the spent Organoclay can be used as a component of asphalt. A number of cement and lime manufacturers may accept spent Organoclay. (author)

  19. Comparison of quartz sand, anthracite, shale and biological ceramsite for adsorptive removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Liyue; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Kirumba, George

    2014-02-01

    The choice of substrates with high phosphorus adsorption capacity is vital for sustainable phosphorus removal from waste water in constructed wetlands. In this study, four substrates were used: quartz sand, anthracite, shale and biological ceramsite. These substrate samples were characterized by Xray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy studies for their mineral components (chemical components) and surface characteristics. The dynamic experimental results revealed the following ranking order for total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency: anthracite > biological ceramsite > shale > quartz sand. The adsorptive removal capacities for TP using anthracite, biological ceramsite, shale and quartz sand were 85.87, 81.44, 59.65, and 55.98 mg/kg, respectively. Phosphorus desorption was also studied to analyze the substrates' adsorption efficiency in wastewater treatment as well as the substrates' ability to be reused for treatment. It was noted that the removal performance for the different forms of phosphorus was dependent on the nature of the substrate and the adsorption mechanism. A comparative analysis showed that the removal of particulate phosphorus was much easier using shale. Whereas anthracite had the highest soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) adsorptive capacity, biological ceramsite had the highest dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) removal capacity. Phosphorus removal by shale and biological ceramsite was mainly through chemical adsorption, precipitation or biological adsorption. On the other hand, phosphorus removal through physical adsorption (electrostatic attraction or ion exchange) was dominant in anthracite and quartz sand. PMID:25076539

  20. Structural ordering of Pennsylvania anthracites on heat treatment to 2000-2900{sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.V. Atria; F. Rusinko Jr.; H.H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

    2002-12-01

    Three Pennsylvania anthracites from the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were heat-treated to temperatures to 2900{sup o}C. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction. These anthracites clearly differ in the extent to which they transform to a graphitic structure by heat treatment at ambient pressure. Graphitizability, based on approach of interlayer spacing to the ideal value for graphite and development of crystallite height, is in the order DECS 21 {gt} PSOC 1461 {gt} PSOC 1468. By 2700{sup o}C the interlayer spacing is largely established, since improvements by increasing graphitization temperature to 2900{sup o}C are small. The crystallite stacking continues to develop; significant changes are achieved at 2900 vs 2700{sup o}C. The structural changes can be related to composition via two factors. In heat treatment to 2000{sup o}C, the structural ordering may be impeded by a 'locking' of aromatic sheets in place by cross-linkers, such as oxygen atoms. At the higher temperatures, i.e., 2700 and 2900{sup o}C, the ease of rearrangement of aromatic sheets, which is related to their size, is the dominant issue. The relative sizes of aromatic sheets can be approximated from the net hydrogen content of the anthracites. DECS-21, which has both the highest oxygen content and the highest net hydrogen value, shows the least order after heat treatment to 2000{sup o}C, but the best structural development after reaction at 2700 or 2900{sup o}C. 38 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School of Mechanical & Power Engineering

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. [Coating modification of anthracite substrates in vertical-flow constructed wetlands by LDHs synthesized from different metal compounds and the nitrogen removal efficiencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Ling; Guo, Lu; Chen, Jun-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Xu, Lu; Chen, Qiao-Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Xiao

    2014-08-01

    As one kind of vertical-flow constructed wetlands substrates, anthracite was selected in this experiment. LDHs (layered double hydroxides) were synthesized in alkaline conditions by co-precipitation of different kinds of metal compounds, such as CaCl2, ZnCl2, MgCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3, CoCl3. The synthesized LDHs were in-situ coated onto the surface of anthracite substrate to achieve the aim of modification. Simulated test columns were constructed to study the nitrogen removal efficiency of the urban sewage using the original anthracite substrates and 9 kinds of modified anthracite substrates. The results showed that: LDHs synthesized by all the 9 different kinds of methods could effectively modify the anthracite substrate by in-situ coating. With Mg2+ involved in the synthesis of modified substrates, good TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were observed. The modified anthracite substrates coated with MgCo-LDHs had the optimal performance with average TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies of higher than 80% and 85%, respectively. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by the modified anthracite substrates coated by LDHs reacted with Mg2+ and Fe3+ were also high. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by modified anthracite substrates coated with CaFe-LDHs and MgFe-LDHs were higher than 85%. PMID:25340214

  3. 77 FR 27108 - Order of Suspension of Trading; In the Matter of Anthracite Capital, Inc., Auto Data Network Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading; In the Matter of Anthracite Capital, Inc., Auto Data Network Inc... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Auto Data Network Inc. because...

  4. A study on reduction of copper slag from the flash furnace with the use of anthracite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siwiec

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of a study on reduction of blister copper flash smelting slag with the use of anthracite dust are presented. The material, following proper preparation, can be used for slag processing as a substitute for currently applied coke breeze.

  5. Thermal degradation of cold cured anthracite/coke breeze briquettes prepared from a coal tar acid resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, L.J.; Snape, C.E.; Taylor, D.; Mullens, J.; Mullens, S. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry

    1999-07-01

    Phenolic resoles were synthesised using a coal tar acid fraction of the oil from a low temperature carbonisation process. Anthracite/coke breeze briquettes were prepared using the tar acid resoles. Thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry of products and combustion of briquettes are described. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Examination and comparision of structure: lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal. [10 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R.E.; Hayatsu, R.; Scott, R.G.; Moore, L.P.; Studier, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Coal can be described as an amorphous mixture of macromolecules each made up of a complex array of organic molecules chemically linked together. Methods for breaking up these macromolecules in order to characterize the aromatic structural types have been explored. Pyrolysis is a common method for depolymerizing coal, but under the conditions necessary for pyrolysis much structural rearrangement occurs making a comparison of the products to the initial structural groups in coal difficult if not impossible. One approach has been to use a variety of selective oxidation methods. Aqueous sodium dichromate, aqueous air oxidation with uv light, and hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid have been used. Initial results of some of these studies have been published. This work has been extended to include characterization and comparison of a lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. Besides the oxidation products, the monomeric organic molecules trapped within the macromolecules are examined and the results interpreted in relation to coal structure and the coalification process.

  7. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    , Wei Zhang; Dongsheng Zhang; Hongzhi Wang; Jixin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. T...

  8. Comparation of Mono Layer Filter (Sand) Dual Media Filter (Anthracite and Leca) and Performance in Removal of Organic Matter and Turbidity

    OpenAIRE

    A Takdastan; M. Ahmadi Moghadam; N Delbazi; N Jaafarzade haghighi Fard

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Objectives: Improvement of water quality standards and inability of mono layer filters in producing such quality caused researchers attended to multi layer filters. Due to specific characteristics of anthracite and leca can improve removal of organic materials and Surface over flow rate. The aim of this research was evaluation performance of dual media filters (anthracite/leca) in removing of organic materials and turbidity from Ahvaz Water treatment plant.Materials and Method...

  9. Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, Mhlwazi S.

    2011-12-01

    Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged by collision with fast neutrons. Graphite's resistance to this damage determines its lifetime in the reactor. On neutron irradiation, isotropic or near-isotropic graphite experiences less structural damage than anisotropic graphite. The degree of anisotropy in a graphite artifact is dependent on the structure of its precursor coke. Currently, there exist concerns over a short supply of traditional precursor coke, primarily due to a steadily increasing price of petroleum. The main goal of this study was to study the anisotropic and isotropic properties of graphitized co-cokes and anthracites as a way of investigating the possibility of synthesizing isotropic or near-isotropic graphite from co-cokes and anthracites. Demonstrating the ability to form isotropic or near-isotropic graphite would mean that co-cokes and anthracites have a potential use as filler material in the synthesis of nuclear graphite. The approach used to control the co-coke structure was to vary the reaction conditions. Co-cokes were produced by coking 4:1 blends of vacuum resid/coal and decant oil/coal at temperatures of 465 and 500 °C for reaction times of 12 and 18 hours under autogenous pressure. Co-cokes obtained were calcined at 1420 °C and graphitized at 3000 °C for 24 hours. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed oxidation and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that higher reaction temperature (500 °C) or shorter reaction time (12 hours) leads to an increase in co-coke structural disorder and an increase in the amount of mosaic carbon at the expense of textural components that are necessary for the formation of anisotropic structure, namely, domains and flow domains. Characterization of graphitized co-cokes showed that the quality, as expressed by the degree of

  10. Thermogravimetric analysis of anthracite and waste plastics by iso-conversional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Co-combustion kinetic analysis of solid fuels was made by iso-conversional method. • Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of combustion for blends were determined. • WP can improve the combustion characteristic of high ash anthracite. • Reasonable utilization the energy of WP is important for industrial production. - Abstract: Combustion mechanisms and kinetics of plastics-coal blends with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 100% waste plastics (WP) are studied separately by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) from ambient temperature to 900 °C in air atmosphere. These blends are combusted at different heating rates. The results indicate that, with the increase of waste plastics content, the combustion processes of blends could be divided into one stage, two stages, three stages and one stage. Meanwhile, the ignition and final temperatures of them both decrease. The maximum weight loss rate of WP is much higher than that of other samples. The iso-conversional method is used for the kinetic analysis of the non-isothermal thermogravimetric data and results indicate that, when the waste plastics content varied from 0% to 40%, the values of activation energy increase from 113.3 kJ mol−1 to 156.0 kJ mol−1, and the value of activation energy for pure WP is 278.8 kJ mol−1

  11. Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A., III; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

    2010-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

  12. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  13. Effects of consumer subsidy on household fuel switching from coal to cleaner fuels: a case study for anthracites in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojeong Park; Hyucksoo Kwon [Korea University, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Food and Resource Economics

    2011-03-15

    The Korean coal industry is in a transition under low carbon policy through the steady reduction of coal production. Since consumer subsidy for the consumption of anthracites briquette in low-income households caused a distortion in domestic coal market, the so-called coupon program will be the first target in energy reform policy in order to induce fuel switching from anthracites to alternative clean energy. This paper tries to identify various factors that influence households' fuel switching decision. Disutility from briquette consumption is also considered as an important factor. Using the 2007 census data on briquette-consuming households, it is found that the coupon program provides an adverse effect to switching fuels to clean energy while the disutility of briquettes is positively associated with the probability of fuel switching. However, the empirical finding suggests that the policy alone attempting to remove coupon program may fail to switch fuels unless the cost of boiler changes is substantially reduced through the provision of accessible networks to alternative energy sources. It indicates that reform policy for consumer subsidy must be understood in line with more comprehensive regional energy plans to resolve energy poverty issue. 8 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Effects of consumer subsidy on household fuel switching from coal to cleaner fuels: A case study for anthracites in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korean coal industry is in a transition under low carbon policy through the steady reduction of coal production. Since consumer subsidy for the consumption of anthracites briquette in low-income households caused a distortion in domestic coal market, the so-called coupon program will be the first target in energy reform policy in order to induce fuel switching from anthracites to alternative clean energy. This paper tries to identify various factors that influence households' fuel switching decision. Disutility from briquette consumption is also considered as an important factor. Using the 2007 census data on briquette-consuming households, it is found that the coupon program provides an adverse effect to switching fuels to clean energy while the disutility of briquettes is positively associated with the probability of fuel switching. However, the empirical finding suggests that the policy alone attempting to remove coupon program may fail to switch fuels unless the cost of boiler changes is substantially reduced through the provision of accessible networks to alternative energy sources. It indicates that reform policy for consumer subsidy must be understood in line with more comprehensive regional energy plans to resolve energy poverty issue. - Research highlights: → Various factors are identified for low income households' fuel switching from coal to clean energy. → Coupon program and accessibility to alternative energy sources are considered; Result shows that accessible network to alternative clean energy sources is essential for low income group. → More comprehensive regional energy plans are required to resolve energy poverty issue.

  15. Effects of consumer subsidy on household fuel switching from coal to cleaner fuels: A case study for anthracites in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hojeong, E-mail: hjeongpark@korea.ac.k [Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyucksoo [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Naeson 2-Dong, Euiwang-si, Kyonggi-do, 437-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The Korean coal industry is in a transition under low carbon policy through the steady reduction of coal production. Since consumer subsidy for the consumption of anthracites briquette in low-income households caused a distortion in domestic coal market, the so-called coupon program will be the first target in energy reform policy in order to induce fuel switching from anthracites to alternative clean energy. This paper tries to identify various factors that influence households' fuel switching decision. Disutility from briquette consumption is also considered as an important factor. Using the 2007 census data on briquette-consuming households, it is found that the coupon program provides an adverse effect to switching fuels to clean energy while the disutility of briquettes is positively associated with the probability of fuel switching. However, the empirical finding suggests that the policy alone attempting to remove coupon program may fail to switch fuels unless the cost of boiler changes is substantially reduced through the provision of accessible networks to alternative energy sources. It indicates that reform policy for consumer subsidy must be understood in line with more comprehensive regional energy plans to resolve energy poverty issue. - Research highlights: {yields} Various factors are identified for low income households' fuel switching from coal to clean energy. {yields} Coupon program and accessibility to alternative energy sources are considered; Result shows that accessible network to alternative clean energy sources is essential for low income group. {yields} More comprehensive regional energy plans are required to resolve energy poverty issue.

  16. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of nano iron oxide/iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica, with arsenic adsorption studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was com...

  17. The impact of episodic coal mine drainage pollution on benthic macroinvertebrates in streams in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Episodic coal mine drainage, caused by fluctuations in mine discharges relative to stream flow, has devastating effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Seven stream reaches in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania were identified as chronically, episodically or not impaired by mine drainage, and sampled seasonally for 1 year to determine the effect of episodic mine drainage on macroinvertebrates. Specific conductance fluctuated seasonally in episodic sites; it was lower in winter when discharge increased and higher in summer when discharges decreased and mine drainage made up a larger proportion of stream flow. Although we hypothesized that episodic streams would have higher macroinvertebrate richness than chronic streams, comparisons showed no differences in richness between treatments. Episodic pollution may result from undersized or poorly maintained passive treatment systems; therefore, intensive macroinvertebrate monitoring may be needed to identify streams being affected by episodic mine drainage because macroinvertebrate richness may be sensitive to water quality fluctuations. - Episodic coal mine pollution decreases benthic macroinvertebrate richness and density

  18. Removal of microcystin-LR from spiked water using either activated carbon or anthracite as filter material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogui, Patrick; Daghrir, Rimeh; Simard, Marie-Christine; Sauvageau, Christine; Blais, Jean François

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins (blue-green algae) in drinking water sources is a big concern for human health. Removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) from drinking water was evaluated at the laboratory pilot scale using either granular activated carbon (GAC) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and compared with the treatment using anthracite as filter material. Virgin GAC was more effective at removing MC-LR (initial concentration ranging from 9 to 47 microg L(-1)) to reach the World Health Organization recommended level (1.0 microg L(-1)). When the GAC filter was colonized by bacteria, the filter became less effective at removing MC-LR owing to competitive reactions occurring between protein adsorption (released by bacteria) and MC-LR adsorption. Using PAC, the concentration of MC-LR decreased from 22 to 3 microg L(-1) (removal of 86% of MC-LR) by the addition of 100 mg PAC L(-1). PMID:22629609

  19. Removal of oxygen demand and nitrogen using different particle-sizes of anthracite coated with nine kinds of LDHs for wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangling; Guo, Lu; Wang, Yafen; Ruan, Congying

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the application of anthracite particles of different sizes and coated with nine kinds of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) varying in MII-MIII cations, as alternative substrates in the simulated vertical-flow constructed wetland columns. Effects of LDHs-coating and particle size of modified anthracites were examined to evaluate their abilities in removing oxygen demand and nitrogen from sewage wastewater. Results showed that LDHs modification effectively enhanced the removal of nitrogen and organics. The removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) , ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were best improved by 28.5%, 11.9% and 4.1% for the medium particle size (1-3 mm), followed by 9.2%, 5.5% and 13.6% for the large size (3-5 mm), respectively. Only TN removal was improved up to 16.6% for the small particle size (0.5-1 mm). Nitrate tended to accumulate and fluctuate greatly across all the treatments, probably due to the dominancy of aerobic condition in the vertical-flow columns. Overall, MgFe-LDHs was selected as the best-modified coating for anthracite. The results suggested LDHs modification would be one of the promising strategies to provide new-types of highly efficient and lasting wetland substrates.

  20. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. The study resulted in optimized running parameters for the shearers, and the rotating patterns of the shearer drums was altered (one-way cutting was employed. Mining height and roof supporting intensity were reduced. Besides, loose presplitting millisecond blasting and mechanized mining were applied to upgrade the coal quantity and the lump coal production rate. Additionally, the coalface end transloading, coalface crush, transport systems, underground storage, and main shaft skip unloading processes were improved, and fragmentation-prevention techniques were used in the washing and railway wagon loading processes. As a result, the lump coal production rate was maintained at a high level and fragmentation was significantly reduced. Because of using the parameters and techniques determined in this research, high-quality coal production and increased profits were achieved. The research results could provide theoretical guidance and methodology for other anthracite production bases.

  1. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A., III

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  2. The mechanism of coking pressure generation I: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and plastic coal layer permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Merrick Mahoney; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; Sid McGuire [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and restrain the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure tends to lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanism of coking pressure generation, the permeability of the plastic coal layer and the coking pressure for the same single coal and the same blended coal were measured and the relationship between them was investigated. Then the 'inert' (pressure modifier) effect of organic additives such as high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze was studied. The coking pressure peak for box charging with more uniform bulk density distribution was higher than that for top charging. It was found that the coking pressure peaks measured at different institutions (NSC and BHPBilliton) by box charging are nearly the same. The addition of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze to a low volatile matter, high coking pressure coal greatly increased the plastic layer permeability in laboratory experiments and correspondingly decreased the coking pressure. It was found that, high volatile matter coking coal decreases the coking pressure more than semi-anthracite at the same plastic coal layer permeability, which indicates that the coking pressure depends not only on plastic coal layer permeability but also on other factors. Coking pressure is also affected by the contraction behavior of the coke layer near the oven walls and a large contraction decreases the coal bulk density in the oven center and hence the internal gas pressure in the plastic layer. The effect of contraction on coking pressure needs to be investigated further. 33 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cameán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials that were prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes by high temperature treatment was investigated by galvanostatic cycling of lithium test cells. Some of the materials prepared have provided reversible capacities up to ~ 310 mA h g-1 after 50 discharge/ charge cycles. These values are similar to those of oil-derived graphite (petroleum coke being the main precursor which is currently used as anodic material in commercial lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Passive aerobic treatment of net-alkaline, iron-laden drainage from a flooded underground anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A., III

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the results of a continuous 4.5-day laboratory aeration experiment and the first year of passive, aerobic treatment of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) from a typical flooded underground anthracite mine in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. During 1991-2006, the AMD source, locally known as the Otto Discharge, had flows from 20 to 270 L/s (median 92 L/s) and water quality that was consistently suboxic (median 0.9 mg/L O2) and circumneutral (pH ??? 6.0; net alkalinity >10) with moderate concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese and low concentrations of dissolved aluminum (medians of 11, 2.2, and alkalinity; the initial Fe2+ concentration of 16.4 mg/L decreased to less than 0.5 mg/L within 24 h; pH values increased rapidly from 5.8 to 7.2, ultimately attaining a steady-state value of 7.5. The increased pH coincided with a rapid decrease in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) from an initial value of 10 -1.1atm to a steady-state value of 10-3.1atm. From these results, a staged aerobic treatment system was conceptualized consisting of a 2 m deep pond with innovative aeration and recirculation to promote rapid oxidation of Fe2+, two 0.3 m deep wetlands to facilitate iron solids removal, and a supplemental oxic limestone drain for dissolved manganese and trace-metal removal. The system was constructed, but without the aeration mechanism, and began operation in June 2005. During the first 12 months of operation, estimated detention times in the treatment system ranged from 9 to 38 h. However, in contrast with 80-100% removal of Fe2+ over similar elapsed times during the laboratory aeration experiment, the treatment system typically removed less than 35% of the influent Fe2+. Although concentrations of dissolved CO2 decreased progressively within the treatment system, the PCO2 values for treated effluent remained elevated (10-2.4 to 10-1.7atm). The elevated PCO 2 maintained the pH within the system at values less than 7 and hence slowed the rate

  5. The mechanism of coking pressure generation II: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrick Mahoney; Seiji Nomura; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; David R. Jenkins; Sid McGuire [BHP Billiton Technology, Shortland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and limit the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure can lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Following on from a previous paper on plastic layer permeability we have studied the effect of contraction of semi-coke on coking pressure and the effect of organic additives on contraction. A link between contraction (or simulated contraction) outside the plastic layer and coking pressure was demonstrated. The interaction between this contraction, local bulk density around the plastic layer and the dependence of the permeability of the plastic layer on bulk density was discussed as possible mechanisms for the generation of coking pressure. The effect of blending either a high volatile matter coal or one of two semi-anthracites with low volatile matter, high coking pressure coals on the coking pressure of the binary blends has been explained using this mechanism. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a decadal scale to indicate the expected decreases in the mass of limestone and associated alkalinities resulting from the long-term reaction of

  7. Extensive FE-SEM/EDS, HR-TEM/EDS and ToF-SIMS studies of micron- to nano-particles in anthracite fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of anthropogenic carbonaceous matter and mixed crystalline/amorphous mineral ultrafine/nano-particles in the 1 to 100 nm size range by worldwide coal power plants represents serious environmental problems due to their potential hazards. Coal fly ash (CFA) that resulted from anthracite combustion in a Portuguese thermal power plant was studied in this work. The physico-chemical characterization of ultrafine/nano-particles present in the CFA samples and their interaction with environment are the aim of this study. The methodologies applied for this work were field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (HR-TEM/EDS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Some hazardous volatile elements, C, N, S and Hg contents were also determined in the studied samples. Generally, the CFA samples comprise carbonaceous, glassy and metallic solid spheres with some containing mixed amorphous/crystalline phases. The EDS analysis coupled with the FE-SEM and HR-TEM observations of the fly ash particles with 100 to 0.1 nm demonstrates that these materials contain a small but significant proportion of encapsulated HVEs. In addition, the presence of abundant multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amorphous carbon particles, both containing hazardous volatile elements (HVEs), was also evidenced by the FE-SEM/EDS and HR-TEM/EDS analysis. A wide range of organic and inorganic compounds was determined by chemical maps obtained in ToF-SIMS analysis. - Highlights: ► We examine changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles of coal mining. ► Increasing geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Electron bean and Tof-SIMS increase area information

  8. Extensive FE-SEM/EDS, HR-TEM/EDS and ToF-SIMS studies of micron- to nano-particles in anthracite fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Joana [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); DaBoit, Kátia [Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Flores, Deolinda [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2013-05-01

    The generation of anthropogenic carbonaceous matter and mixed crystalline/amorphous mineral ultrafine/nano-particles in the 1 to 100 nm size range by worldwide coal power plants represents serious environmental problems due to their potential hazards. Coal fly ash (CFA) that resulted from anthracite combustion in a Portuguese thermal power plant was studied in this work. The physico-chemical characterization of ultrafine/nano-particles present in the CFA samples and their interaction with environment are the aim of this study. The methodologies applied for this work were field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (HR-TEM/EDS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Some hazardous volatile elements, C, N, S and Hg contents were also determined in the studied samples. Generally, the CFA samples comprise carbonaceous, glassy and metallic solid spheres with some containing mixed amorphous/crystalline phases. The EDS analysis coupled with the FE-SEM and HR-TEM observations of the fly ash particles with 100 to 0.1 nm demonstrates that these materials contain a small but significant proportion of encapsulated HVEs. In addition, the presence of abundant multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amorphous carbon particles, both containing hazardous volatile elements (HVEs), was also evidenced by the FE-SEM/EDS and HR-TEM/EDS analysis. A wide range of organic and inorganic compounds was determined by chemical maps obtained in ToF-SIMS analysis. - Highlights: ► We examine changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles of coal mining. ► Increasing geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Electron bean and Tof-SIMS increase area information.

  9. Emission characteristics of anthracite co-fired with biomass%无烟煤掺烧生物质燃烧产物排放特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 鲁光武

    2014-01-01

    为了研究无烟煤掺烧生物质燃烧产物的排放特性,应用卧式单脚炉燃烧试验系统对燃烧产物排放特性进行了研究,分析了炉温、混合比例等参数对污染物排放特性的影响.结果表明:全木屑燃烧速度最快,火焰最高温度位置提前;增加木屑掺烧比例,可以促进混合燃料的着火,但会使炉膛整体燃烧温度降低;当过量空气系数由1.2降至0.9且煤与木屑掺烧比例为9∶1时,炉膛整体燃烧温度上升,火焰高温区靠近燃烧器附近;混合燃料易燃性增强,降低了燃烧中的CO含量;木屑的加入使燃料燃烧特性增强,氧气耗量增大,从而会形成弱还原气氛,有助于降低燃烧中N Ox 的生成.%The horizontal single foot furnace combustion test system was employed to carry out emission characteristics study on combustion and co-combustion of biomass and anthracite.The effect of furnace temperature and mixing ratio on emissions characteristics was investigated.The results show that:the wood had the fastest burning rate,its peak flame temperature moved in advance;increasing the sawdust proportion can promote ignition of the mixture but reduce the overall combustion temperature;when the excess air coefficient decreased from 1.2 to 0.9,the overall combustion temperature increased and the flame temperature zone moved in advance.The flammability of the mixed fuel enhanced,which reduced the CO content during combustion;addition of the sawdust enhanced the combustion,consumed a large amount of oxygen,thus to form a weak reducing atmosphere to help reduce the formation of NOx.

  10. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  11. 不同类型 LDHs 对垂直流人工湿地无烟煤基质的覆膜改性及其脱氮效果研究%Coating Modification of Anthracite Substrates in Vertical-flow Constructed Wetlands by LDHs Synthesized from Different Metal Compounds and the Nitrogen Removal Efficiencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔凌; 郭露; 陈俊杰; 刘小婷; 徐璐; 陈巧珍; 王晓晓

    2014-01-01

    As one kind of vertical-flow constructed wetlands substrates, anthracite was selected in this experiment. LDHs( layered double hydroxides) were synthesized in alkaline conditions by co-precipitation of different kinds of metal compounds, such as CaCl2 , ZnCl2 , MgCl2 , FeCl3 , AlCl3 , CoCl3 . The synthesized LDHs were in-situ coated onto the surface of anthracite substrate to achieve the aim of modification. Simulated test columns were constructed to study the nitrogen removal efficiency of the urban sewage using the original anthracite substrates and 9 kinds of modified anthracite substrates. The results showed that: LDHs synthesized by all the 9 different kinds of methods could effectively modify the anthracite substrate by in-situ coating. With Mg2 ﹢ involved in the synthesis of modified substrates, good TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were observed. The modified anthracite substrates coated with MgCo-LDHs had the optimal performance with average TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies of higher than 80% and 85% , respectively. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by the modified anthracite substrates coated by LDHs reacted with Mg2 ﹢ and Fe3 ﹢ were also high. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by modified anthracite substrates coated with CaFe-LDHs and MgFe-LDHs were higher than 85% .%选取垂直流人工湿地无烟煤基质,采用不同类型金属化合物(CaCl2、 ZnCl2、 MgCl2、 FeCl3、 AlCl3、 CoCl3)两两组合方式,在碱性环境下共沉淀生成9种不同类型的层状双金属氢氧化物 LDHs 并覆膜于基质表面;构建基质试验柱,分别对未改性及9种 LDHs 覆膜改性无烟煤基质进行模拟垂直流人工湿地脱氮效果研究。结果表明,9种不同组合方式生成的 LDHs 均能有效地进行无烟煤基质覆膜改性;Mg2﹢参与合成的改性基质对 TN 和氨氮均有很好的去除效果,其中 MgCo-LDHs 改性基质对TN 的平均去除率超过80%,对氨

  12. Disease spectrum in patients discharged from Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group General Hospital, 2009-2013%晋煤集团总医院2009-2013年出院患者疾病谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏星; 张潇雅; 杨大明; 刘桂芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changing trend and the distribution characteristics of the disease spec-trum in a staff hospital for coal industry in recent years, and to further understand the major diseases that affect the coal industry workers and the residents in the area of Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group, so as to provide evidence for hospital management and health reform. Methods We reviewed the diagnosis, treatment, and demographics includ-ing gender, age and profession, in 43 143 patients discharged from Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group General Hospi-tal between 2009 and 2013. The classification of diseases were validated with ICD-10 classification standard and the distribution characteristics by categories were analyzed with SPSS17.0. Results The number of hospitalization was increasing year by year from 2009 to 2013. The top five most diagnosed diseases were similar in the five years, where injury and poisoning ranked always the first, cardiovascular diseases and tumors had moved upward slightly in the se-quence, respiratory diseases had shifted downward in the lastest recent two years, and digestive system diseases basi-cally remained unchanged. Respiratory diseases were the most common diseases in children and teenagers, as were cardiovascular diseases in elderly population, and injuries and poisoning in young and middle-aged adults. Male gen-der was prevalent in hospitalized patients with all categories of diseases. Conclusion The distribution characteristics of diseases in this hospital shows an evident pattern related to age. Injury and poisoning has become the major health issue to the staff and the residents in this area during the recent years.%目的:为掌握近年煤业职工医院出院患者疾病谱的变动趋势及其分布特点;进一步了解影响煤业集团职工与周边居民健康状况的主要疾患,为医院管理与卫生体制改革提供参考。方法收集2009—2013年晋煤集团总医院43143例出院患者的出

  13. Applied investigation on the interaction of hazardous elements binding on ultrafine and nanoparticles in Chinese anthracite-derived fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: lfsoliveira@univates.br [Centro Universitario Univates, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento, Rua Avelino Tallini, 171, Universitario, 95900-000 Lajeado, RS (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Jasper, Andre [Centro Universitario Univates, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento, Rua Avelino Tallini, 171, Universitario, 95900-000 Lajeado, RS (Brazil); Andrade, Maria L. [Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Sampaio, Carlos H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dai, Shifeng; Li, Xiao; Li, Tian; Chen, Weimei; Wang, Xibo; Liu, Huidong; Zhao, Lixin [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Hopps, Shelley G.; Jewell, Robert F. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Hower, James C., E-mail: james.hower@uky.edu [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    A multifaceted instrumental approach was employed to determine the chemistry and mineralogy of pulverized-coal-combustion fly ashes from two Chinese power plants. Techniques included traditional optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis along with a variety of electron beam methods. The aim is to demonstrate and bring together the wide variety of procedures dealing with F as the key element of concern, and determining its location in the mineral nanoparticles. The Hg content of the Anwen (Songzao coalfield) fly ashes is higher than that of the Diandong (East Yunnan) fly ashes, possibly owing to the greater C and Cl in the Anwen fly ashes. Both fly ash sources contain a variety of amorphous and nano-crystalline trace-element-bearing particles, both associated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and as particles independent of carbons.

  14. The Influence Of Calcite On The Ash Flow Temperature For Semi-Anthracite Coal From Donbas District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čarnogurská Mária

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research focused on the lowering of ash flow temperature at semianthracite coal from Donbas district by means of additive (calcite dosing. Ash fusion temperatures were set for two coal samples (A, B and for five various states (samples of ash without any additives, with 1%, with 3%, with 5% and with 7% of the additive in total. The macroscopicphotographic method was used for identifying all specific temperatures. Obtained outputs prove that A type coal has a lower value of sphere temperature than B type coal in the whole scope of percentage representation of the additive. The flow temperature dropped in total from 1489 °C to 1280 °C, i.e. by 14% during the test of coal of type A with 7% of the additive; while it was near 10% for coal of type B (from 1450 °C to 1308 °C. Numerical simulations of the process showed that it is not effective to add an additive with a grain size lower than 280 μm by means of wastevapour burners.

  15. Study on physico - chemical properties of Korean anthracite for utilization development - application to filtering materials for waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites. The selected Jangseong coal for filtering material has low Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI : 38.38) and crushed two granule size. One is 1-2 mm size (effective size : 0.77 mm, uniformity coefficient : 1.70) and the other is 2-4 mm size (2.04 mm, 1.37) First, we had application test to find out the possibility of 2-4 mm sample for using water filtering material instead of silica sand in Sandflo filter. The result were unsuitable for treatment efficiency and micron size granule. But it will be solution with control of granule size and washing of coal. For feasibility study, the small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment plant of Lotte-chilsung beverage Co. to use the precipitated water during filtration test processed by purifying system. Measurement items are filtration rate, temperature of waste water, Electric Conductivity (EC), pH, turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrogen Nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N), Organophosphorus and trace elements content (Zn, Al, Fe, Mg, K) of the supplied water and filtered water were carried out to find the filtration capacity of coal. The results indicated decreasing degree in turbidity (1-2 mm : 15.08 %, 2-4 mm : 11.58 %), COD (1-2 mm : 5.76 %, 2-4 mm : 5.49 %) and increasing degree in DO (1-2 mm : 11.25 %, 2-4 mm : 10 %). Trace elements removal degree of filtered waste water were about 30 % for Fe and 5 % for K. (author). 32 refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Coal miners and the American republic: trade union ideology in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania, 1875-1902

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis examines and attempts to explain the changing ideology of coal miners' unionism in the late nineteenth century. In the 1870s and '80s, miners adhered to a republican critique of industrial society, one which questioned the legitimacy of corporate enterprise, concentrated wealth and power, and wage-labor dependency. By 1900, however, miners accepted the prevailing social order and focused their aspirations upon narrower, job-related goals. Personal papers, state and federal investigations, and newspapers are used to examine the process of change. Chapter I defines the origins of the miners' persistent quest to organize unions. Chapters II and III show how corporate behavior during strikes violated the miners' faith in the Great Republic. Chapter IV examines the ideology of the Knights of Labor. Chapter V explains why the miners' critique of industrial America decined in the 1890s, and argues that two factors, the ethnic recomposition of the labor force and the miners' heritage of defeat on the industrial battlefield, accounted for the outcome. Chapter VI focuses upon the ideology of the United Mine Workers of America and explains how the union established a permanent foothold in the industry.

  17. Physical characteristics of cold cured anthracite/coke breeze briquettes prepared from a coal tar acid resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, L.J.; Snape, C.E.; Taylor, D. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Phenolic resins were synthesised using the whole coal tar acid fraction of the oil from a low temperature carbonisation process. A series of briquettes were prepared using a number of coal tar acid concentrations, cured at ambient temperature with various concentrations of sulphuric acid and were subjected to a variety of physical tests. Excellent briquettes, in terms of mechanical strength, water-proofing characteristics and thermal degradation, were produced with both nominally 10 and 9% w/w resole solution and acid concentrations down to 1.8 M, corresponding to sulphur addition in the briquettes of ca. 0.2% w/w. Briquettes bound with 8% w/w resole solution, however, required stronger acid concentrations to satisfy the test conditions. When the briquettes were combusted up to 850{degree}C, they retained their core shape after 70% weight loss. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. 掺配煤在燃烧无烟煤电厂中的应用%Application of Mixed Coal in Anthracite Coal Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨强

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of the coal-fired power plants, the actual coal fired and design differences, a de-tailed analysis and design of the plant source of coal combustion boiler causes the problem, proposes the application of tech-nology to solve problems doped blending method safe and stable operation with a boiler and reduce electricity costs, improve economic efficiency and other advantages. For the same power plant to provide references.%简要介绍了该电厂燃煤情况、实际燃煤与设计煤种的差别,详细分析了由于电厂煤源和设计原因引起的锅炉燃烧问题,提出应用掺配煤技术解决问题的方法,该方法具有锅炉安全稳定运行、降低发电成本、提高经济效益等优点,为同类电厂提供借鉴和参考。

  19. Anthracite deposits in the Lias of the Eastern Pontides in Turkey. Die Anthrazitvorkommen im Lias der oestlichen Pontiden in der Tuerkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yersel, H.G.

    1983-07-08

    Coal deposits which are classified to the Lias were found in the eastern Pontides in Turkey having a very high degree of carbonification in some regions. It is reported about the stratigraphical, tectronical and paleogeographical situation of the coal deposits and the degree of carbonification. The coal has to be regarded uneconomic due to its high ash content of 90-95%.

  20. A synchrotron-based local computed tomography combined with data-constrained modelling approach for quantitative analysis of anthracite coal microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative local computed tomography combined with data-constrained modelling has been developed. The method could improve distinctly the spatial resolution and the composition resolution in a sample larger than the field of view, for quantitative characterization of three-dimensional distributions of material compositions and void. Quantifying three-dimensional spatial distributions of pores and material compositions in samples is a key materials characterization challenge, particularly in samples where compositions are distributed across a range of length scales, and where such compositions have similar X-ray absorption properties, such as in coal. Consequently, obtaining detailed information within sub-regions of a multi-length-scale sample by conventional approaches may not provide the resolution and level of detail one might desire. Herein, an approach for quantitative high-definition determination of material compositions from X-ray local computed tomography combined with a data-constrained modelling method is proposed. The approach is capable of dramatically improving the spatial resolution and enabling finer details within a region of interest of a sample larger than the field of view to be revealed than by using conventional techniques. A coal sample containing distributions of porosity and several mineral compositions is employed to demonstrate the approach. The optimal experimental parameters are pre-analyzed. The quantitative results demonstrated that the approach can reveal significantly finer details of compositional distributions in the sample region of interest. The elevated spatial resolution is crucial for coal-bed methane reservoir evaluation and understanding the transformation of the minerals during coal processing. The method is generic and can be applied for three-dimensional compositional characterization of other materials

  1. Meditation on the construction of exemplar plant for briquetted coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Kuiyi [China National Coal Industry Import and Export Corporation, Beijing (China)

    1997-12-31

    China uses a considerable amount of anthracite, but the fines from anthracite mining are not sufficiently used. This project involved the construction of a plant for the manufacture of anthracite briquettes under high pressure, for use in gasification plants. The characteristics of the coals used and the types of briquette formed are described. 2 tabs.

  2. Experiment research on making biomass anthracite briquette at Chengjiao Coal Preparation Plant%城郊选煤厂无烟煤制作生物质型煤的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝春建

    2007-01-01

    采用城郊选煤厂生产的无烟煤,外加玉米秸秆以及一定量的粘结剂制备生物质型煤,通过测量该型煤的抗压强度、跌落强度、防水性能和热稳定性,找出了适于用作锅炉型煤的最佳配方.

  3. Metallurgical Coke Produced in the Stamping Coke Oven with Anthracite as Major Coal for Coke- making%以无烟煤为主在捣固焦炉中生产冶金焦

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平

    2006-01-01

    清洁型热回收捣固炼焦技术在扩大炼焦煤资源、提高焦炭质量及保护环境等方面具有显著的效果.文中介绍了以无烟煤为主要炼焦煤,在清洁型热回收捣固焦炉中生产一级冶金焦的过程.同时还就清洁型热回收捣固焦炉的炼焦工艺、炉体结构、焦炉铁件和机械配置等方面作了介绍.

  4. Study on Relations between the Heat Productivity of Yangquan Anthracite Coal with Carbon and Hydrogen Data%阳泉无烟煤发热量与碳、氢关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2004-01-01

    介绍了阳泉无烟煤发热量的计算方法,建立了阳泉无烟煤与碳、氢数据的二元线性回归方程,提出了相关关系模型并进行了相关性检验.可利用回归方程估算发热量和检查测定结果的准确性.

  5. 77 FR 810 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... hand-loading method. (8) Belt conveyor haulage is not used in this underground mine for section/main... haulage slope of this anthracite mine is typical of those in the anthracite region, with a relatively high angle and frequently changing pitches. (2) A functional safety catch capable of working in slopes...

  6. DOWNFLOW GRANULAR FILTRATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of downflow granular filters subjected to effluents from activated sludge processes was investigated at the EPA-DC Pilot Plant in Washington, D.C. Several media combinations were investigated, including both single anthracite and dual anthracite-sand configuration...

  7. Detection of reactive free radicals in fresh coal mine dust and their implication for pulmonary injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, N S; Suryan, M M; Vallyathan, V; Green, F H; Jafari, B; Wheeler, R

    1989-01-01

    Freshly ground and aged anthracite and bituminous coal samples were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to detect the presence, concentration and reactivity of free radicals. Freshly ground anthracite coal produced greater concentration of free radicals than the bituminous coal, and the radical reactivity was also greater for the anthracite. The reactivity of the newly produced free radicals in the anthracite dust correlated with the dust's toxicity. Furthermore, similar coal-based free radicals were detected in the lung tissue of autopsied coal miners, suggestive of persistent reactivity by the embedded coal dust leading to the progressive disease process. Results of the studies on the severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and free radical concentration in lung tissue support this hypothesis. PMID:2705696

  8. Physical properties of shungite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinska, Barbara [Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environment Protection, University of Science and Technology-AGH, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pusz, Slawomira; Krzesinska, Marta; Pilawa, Barbara [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Science, ul. Sowinskiego 5, 44-121 Gliwice (Poland)

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents the results of physical parameters such as bulk porosity, true density, optical reflectance, dynamic elastic moduli, X-ray diffractograms and EPR spectra, determined for shungite. All shungite samples studied are considerably denser materials than anthracite - high rank coal with similar carbon content. Bright shungites were porous with the very dense matrix, while the dull shungite is compact, almost non-porous material. Elastic moduli of the dull shungite are generally higher than those of bright shungites and anthracite. All shungites studied (including anthracite) exhibit the directional dependence of elasticity. The maximum reflectance values of bright shungites are higher than those for dull shungite and anthracite. That corresponds with the denser matrix of these samples and suggests the greatest ordering of graphene layers in the case of bright shungites and also suggests some similarity to meta-anthracite from Paleozoic basins. Reflectance anisotropy of shungites studied are generally lower than that of anthracite. Ordering of graphene layers in bright shungite, as a high rank coal variety, is obvious, but lower anisotropy than that of anthracite is a surprise. X-ray studies confirm a high density of bright shungite. Interplanar distances d{sub hkl} of the shungite (d{sub 002} = 3.48 Aa) are closer to those of anthracite (d{sub 002} = 3.52 Aa) than to those of graphite (d{sub 002} = 3.35 Aa). All results described here show the differences in molecular structure and degree of graphitisation of carbonaceous matter in bright, semi-bright and dull varieties of shungite. Our data could play a key role in production of materials composed of carbon nanoparticles. (author)

  9. Study of Pilot-scale Filtration at Minneapolis Water Works

    OpenAIRE

    Seip, Nils Darre

    2014-01-01

    Minneapolis Water Works (MWW) in Minnesota, United States, have experienced occasional taste and odor episodes with their river water source. This thesis investigates the potential benefits of installing granular activated carbon (GAC) filters at MWW, replacing existing anthracite medium filters and eliminating the need for powdered activated carbon as taste and odor protection. Pilot scale filters of GAC and anthracite media have been studied and batch reactor tests have been performed –...

  10. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, L.; Kang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 ??g/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism. ?? 2007 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Shungites: origin and classification of a new carbon mineral resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankin, P.F.; Galdobina, L.P.; Kalinin, Yu.K.

    1987-10-01

    The discovery of a new mineral resource in Karelia-shungite- and the confirmation of the finding in the geological literature have a long history. In 1876, local peasants found black stones near the village of Shun'ga, which were taken to be coal and called Olenets anthracite. A discussion began on the nature of this strange anthracite, which did not burn in furnaces. The found of the Karelian geological school, A.A. Inostrantsev, was the first to doubt that Olenets anthracite was really coal, and he named it shungite. Shungites, very unusual, barely combustible high-carbon rocks, have a variety of potential uses. Although details remain obscure, the authors propose a metasomatic origin involving migration and reduction of carbonaceous compounds driven by igneous intrusions. 10 references.

  12. X-ray diffraction study of atomic structure features of amorphous carbon containing materials of nature and synthetic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic structure of amorphous carbon-containing materials such as carbon glass, spectroscopically pure carbon, schungite and anthracite is investigated using X ray diffraction analysis and computerized simulation. In computerized simulation of model gratings packing into packets an interlayer distance and a number of layer in a packet varied and a gratings turn is predetermined randomly. The quantity of gratings in a packet is shown to vary between four for anthracite and six for spectroscopically pure coal. The interlayer distance for all amorphous carbonaceous materials is above 3.35 A which is typical for graphite

  13. Summary of the Research Progress Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakerling, R.K.

    1948-04-08

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: (1) some new isotopes in the rare earth region; (2) remarks on a new alpha series; (3) solid counters; (4) naphthalene crystals have been replaced with anthracite in one of the experimental counters and some excellent results are obtained; and (5) biological experiments with the deuteron bean of the 184-inch cyclotron.

  14. 77 FR 14438 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    .... Individuals may inspect copies of the petitions and comments during normal business hours at the address... petitioner states that: (1) Due to the steep pitch encountered in mining anthracite coal veins, contours... to the pitch of the vein and rock separation. (6) Additionally, the mine workings above and below...

  15. Folk Recordings Selected from the Archive of Folk Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Div.

    This catalog of sound recordings covers the broad range of folk music and folk tales in the United States, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Morocco. Among the recordings in the catalog are recordings of Afro-Bahain religious songs from Brazil, songs and ballads of the anthracite miners (Pennsylvania), Anglo-American ballads, songs of…

  16. The effect of additive chemicals on the viscosity of coal-petroleum coke-water slurry fuel for a gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S.J.; Choi, Y.C.; Lee, J.G. [Korean Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Republic of Korea)

    2009-09-15

    As a preliminary study for the gasification of an anthracite and petroleum coke mixture, viscosity was measured at various temperatures (20-50{sup o}C, slurry concentrations (60-70 wt%) and additive amounts (0-0.8 wt%) by using an LV-II type viscometer. In addition, four types of different additives, sodium naphthalene sulfonate, poly(methyl methacrylate), polypropylene and a polypropylene glycol based additive, were applied to Korean anthracite, petroleum coke and mixtures of these materials, and the viscosity data were compared. Viscosity dependency values for coal, anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, were compared, and it was found that a high content of moisture and particularly ash increases CWS viscosity. The four types of additives tested in this research can effectively diminish the viscosity of coal and especially petroleum coke-water slurry by more than 70% to 95%, respectively. Moreover, the sodium naphthalene sulfonate-based additive reduced the viscosity of coal and petroleum coke-water slurry best, especially at concentrations in excess of 65 wt%. Based on these results, highly loaded slurry created by mixing anthracite and petroleum coke with additives was achieved.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  18. Nontraditional carbon reducing agents in smelting FMn78B ferromanganese and valuable manganese slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Kravchenko; O.N. Sezonenko; O.L. Bespalov; S.N. Kornienko; S.D. Belikov; M.I. Gasik [OAO Zaporozhskii Zavod Ferrosplavov, Zaporozh' e (Ukraine)

    2008-09-15

    The smelting of FeMn78B ferromanganese (0.7% P) by a flux-free method, with the production of valuable slag (36-38% Mn), is considered in the case where some of the coke nuts are replaced by anthracite and sometimes by long-flame coal.

  19. ENUMERATION, TRANSPORT AND SURVIVAL OF BACTERIA ATTACHED TO GRANULAR ACTIVITATED CARBON IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surfaces of granular activated carbon (GAC), sand, and anthracite particles were found to be populated to the same levels with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria. GAC supported a greater number of Klebsiella oxytoca than the other two filter media. In a study of operati...

  20. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  1. Characterization of nickel laterite reduction from Pomalaa, Sulawesi Tenggara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhamdani, Ahmad Rizky; Petrus, Himawan T. B. M., E-mail: bayu.petrus@ugm.ac.id; Fahrurrozi, Moh. [Material and Mineral Processing Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika 2 Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The effect of using different reductors in the reduction process of nickel laterite was investigated. In this work, the author conducted the reduction of nickel laterite ores by anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, in air and CO{sub 2} atmosphere, within the temperature ranged from 800°C and 1000°C. The results indicate that at higher temperatures, the reduction reactions proceed more complete. According to the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, the type of carbon used greatly influence the rate of the reduction of nickel laterite. The order of reactivity is anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, respectively. The reduction atmospheric condition also greatly influences the reduction process. The reduction process in CO{sub 2} atmospheric condition gives a lot of significant decrease in hematite and magnetite presence, means that the reduction reactions proceed more complete compared to the reduction process in the air atmospheric condition.

  2. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  3. Characterization of nickel laterite reduction from Pomalaa, Sulawesi Tenggara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of using different reductors in the reduction process of nickel laterite was investigated. In this work, the author conducted the reduction of nickel laterite ores by anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, in air and CO2 atmosphere, within the temperature ranged from 800°C and 1000°C. The results indicate that at higher temperatures, the reduction reactions proceed more complete. According to the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, the type of carbon used greatly influence the rate of the reduction of nickel laterite. The order of reactivity is anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, respectively. The reduction atmospheric condition also greatly influences the reduction process. The reduction process in CO2 atmospheric condition gives a lot of significant decrease in hematite and magnetite presence, means that the reduction reactions proceed more complete compared to the reduction process in the air atmospheric condition

  4. Sodium expansion and creep of cathode carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Hop, Jørund Gimmestad

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus to measure compressive creep in carbon materials has been developed. Using the final experimental set-up five material properties could be measured in each electrolysis experiment. Creep, sodium expansion, compressive strength and E-modulus were measured for 3 commercial cathode materials at 25 and 980 °C with and without electrolysis. The sodium diffusion coefficient (D) was calculated from the sodium expansion results.Filler materials for cathode blocks, i.e., certain anthracit...

  5. Technical solutions on retrofitting TPP-210A boilers for firing low-grade coals with low reaction capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, G. I.; Ivanenko, V. V.; Zhukov, K. G.; Fedotov, P. N.

    2013-06-01

    Results from development of a conceptual project for retrofitting TPP-210A boilers worked out by specialists of EMAlliance are described. Operation of the TPP-210A boilers installed at the Tripolskaya thermal power station is subjected to a comprehensive analysis. The existing difficulties connected with firing anthracite culm are considered. Two boiler retrofitting versions involving the use of a regenerative or tubular air heater are proposed. The advantages of the retrofitting version involving installation of a tubular air heater are described.

  6. Proceedings - Fourth annual fluidized bed conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 14 papers which deal with the following topics: anthracite culm combustion for process heat and cogeneration; case histories describing the performance of circulating fluidized bed combustors (CFBC); design and economics of CFBC; pulverizers for coal and sorbent preparation; ash removal systems; and the status of independent power generation and the Clean Coal Technology Program. Appendices contain manufacturers' installation lists with details of customers, fuels, steam conditions, and applications. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. β-Sialon Produced by Carbon Thermal Nitriding Reaction of Bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    β-Sialon was produced by carbon thermal nitriding reaction in N2 gas atmosphere when the mixtures of bauxite and anthracite were put into vertical furnace. According to the mass loss of raw materials and the result of X-ray diffration (XRD) of products, the influences of the process parameters on the compositions and relative contents of products, such as the fixed carbon content, the flow of N2, the soaking time and the temperature, were researched.

  8. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Li; Xinghua Li; Jingkun Jiang; Lei Duan; Su Ge; Qi Zhang; Jianguo Deng; Shuxiao Wang; Jiming Hao

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residenti...

  9. Correlation of mineral dust-induced changes in the composition of a fraction enriched in lung surfactant with pulmonary histologic lesions in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schengrund, C.-L.; Griffith, J.W.; Wilson, R.P.; Xiaoli Chi [Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    1996-07-01

    In previous work the composition of surfactant isolated from cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage (CF-BAL) from the right lungs of monkeys instilled with 500 mg of either generic bituminous, anthracite, quartz, or titanium dioxide dust was compared with that of surfactant isolated from CF-BAL from control left lungs. Exposure to quartz, anthracite, or titanium dioxide induced a significant increase in the amount of protein recovered, which was evident throughout most of the time period (1 year) studied. Exposure to quartz also induced a significant decrease in the total amount of lipid-associated phosphorus. To determine whether dust-induced changes in surfactant composition paralleled changes in lung morphology, consecutive studies were carried out in rats. Rats were instilled with 50 mg of either quartz or anthracite dust/kilogram body weight. One milligram of bituminous dust was intilled with every 5 mg of quartz dust as a marker to indicate dust location. Histologic evaluation of quartz dust-exposed lungs showed alveolitis, including microgranulomas, which were associated with clusters of dust-containing macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells which were localized within alveoli and interstitium surrounding small bronchioles. The anthracite dust-exposed lungs contained similar cell types localized around small bronchioles, which did not form microgranulomas. Surfactant protein A was found within alveolar type II cells and macrophages of both rat and primate lungs, but not within macrophages markedly distended with dust particles. The number of alveolar type II cells appeared to increase in response to the length of time of exposure to dust, as did the total amount of protein recovered in the surfactant-enriched fractions prepared from CF-BAL from dust-instilled lungs relative to that in surfactant-enriched fractions isolated from CF-BAL from control lungs. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. [Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

    2010-07-01

    A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions. PMID:20825011

  11. Comparison of carbonaceous particulate matter emission factors among different solid fuels burned in residential stoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Haisuo; Ding, Aijun; Tao, Shu

    2014-06-01

    Uncertainty in the emission factor (EF) usually contributes largely to the overall uncertainty in the emission inventory. In the present study, the locally measured EFs of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) for solid fuels burned in the residential sector are compiled and compared. These fuels are classified into seven sub-groups of anthracite briquette, anthracite chunk, bituminous briquette, bituminous chunk, crop residue, fuel wood log, and brushwood/branches. The EFs of carbonaceous particles for these fuels vary significantly, generally in the order of anthracite (briquette and chunk) briquette and chunk), with an exception that the brushwood/branches have a relatively high EF of EC. The ratio of EC/OC varies significantly among different fuels, and is generally higher for biomass fuel than that for coal because of the intense flaming conditions formed during the biomass burning process in improved stoves. Distinct ratios calls for a future study on the potential health and climate impacts of carbonaceous PM from the residential combustions of different fuels. A narrow classification of these fuels significantly reduces the variations in the EFs of PM, OC, and EC, and the temporal and geographical distributions of the emissions could be better characterized.

  12. Annotated list of Ensifera (Orthoptera) and further records on Caelifera (Orthoptera) of Mt Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    A list of the Tettigoniidae and Gryllacrididae (Orthoptera: Ensifera) of Mt Kilimanjaro is presented. A total number of 63 Ensifera was recorded for this mountain, of which 25 species belonged to Phaneropterinae, 18 to Conocephalinae, 6 to Hetrodinae and three to Pseudophyllinae. The subfamily Meconematinae contributed two species while only one species of the subfamilies Hexacentrinae, Mecopodinae and Saginae was found. Gryllacrididae contributed six species. Three species recorded in literature were not found again during the research period. 15 species are newly recorded for Mt Kilimanjaro in this study and one species of Agraeciini newly described. Two new genera, Afroanthracites Hemp & Ingrisch n. gen. (type species: Anthracites montium Sjöstedt, 1910) and Afroagraecia Ingrisch & Hemp n. gen. (type species: Agraecia sansibara Redtenbacher, 1891), are erected on African Agraeciini (Conocephalinae). Anthracites kilimandjaricus Sjöstedt, 1910 is snonymized with A. montium Sjöstedt, 1910. Agraecia sansibara (Redtenbacher, 1891), Anthracites bloyeti Brongniart, 1897 and Anelytra panteli Karny are transferred to Afroagraecia. Aethiomerus stenorhinus Saussure, 1899 is synonymised with Afroagraecia sansibara (Redtenbacher, 1891). In Caelifera two Catantopinae (Acrididae) species are newly recorded for Mt Kilimanjaro and one pyrgomorphid species, Maura lurida (Fabricius, 1781), recovered again for the area. PMID:24698921

  13. Disinfection byproduct formation during biofiltration cycle: Implications for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatolla, R; Séguin, C; Springthorpe, S; Gorman, E; Campbell, A; Douglas, I

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of biofiltration to reduce the formation potential of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Particularly, the work investigates the effect of the duration of the filter cycle on the formation potential of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five species of haloacetic acids (HAA5), dissolved oxygen (DO), organic carbon, nitrogen and total phosphorous concentrations along with biofilm coverage of the filter media and biomass viability of the attached cells. The study was conducted on a full-scale biologically active filter, with anthracite and sand media, at the Britannia water treatment plant (WTP), located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The formation potential of both TTHMs and HAA5s decreased due to biofiltration. However the lowest formation potentials for both groups of DBPs and or their precursors were observed immediately following a backwash event. Hence, the highest percent removal of DBPs was observed during the early stages of the biofiltration cycle, which suggests that a higher frequency of backwashing will reduce the formation of DBPs. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM) analysis shows that biofilm coverage of anthracite and sand media increases as the filtration cycle progressed, while biomass viability analysis demonstrates that the percentage of cells attached to the anthracite and sand media also increases as the filtration cycle progresses. These results suggest that the development and growth of biofilm on the filters increases the DPB formation potential. PMID:26002158

  14. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis in this paper is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the United States. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades are investigated. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce resources during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian Stock Scarcity and Malthusian Flow Scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce resources during the decade of the 1980s than they had been during the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the decade of the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has taken place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. (author)

  15. Caracterisation du composite titanium diboride-carbone avec l'aluminium liquide et le bain cryolithique des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Martin

    It is the aluminum industry which is most interested in titanium diboride (TiB2) and TiB2-carbon composites (TCC). The interesting properties of TiB2 were recognized as early as the 50s. In this study, both raw materials (anthracite, pitch and TiB2 powder) and TiB2-carbon composite were characterized. Results on a comparative microscopic evaluation between TiB2-carbon composites and conventional anthracite-based carbon cathode samples after laboratory immersion and electrolysis tests are presented. Inclusions of alumino-silicate and iron oxide types were found in the anthracite aggregates. XRD analysis allowed to differentiate between two types of aggregates: stratified (Lc = 44 nm) and non-stratified (L c = 15 nm). The principal impurity found in the TiB2 powder was TiCN and surface analysis of the particles revealed the presence of a contaminant layer composed of C, N, O and Ti; the thickness of this layer varied from 5 nm to 15 nm. Although pure molten aluminum wets TiB2 after a latent period and penetrates the composite to a depth of about 100 to 200 mum, the TiB 2 shows no evidence of dissolution. Liquid aluminum, in direct contact with carbon, reacts readily to form Al4C3; the carbon from baked pitch is more reactive than the coarser anthracite particles. Molten bath dissolved TiB2 grains preferentially along specific atomic planes. The extent of liquid bath penetration is very low for the anthracite carbon cathode, compared to the composite material which is completely impregnated within minutes. In the case of the composite, a ≈500 mum thick coherent layer of TiB2/Al4C3 composite is formed, the carbon being almost completely reacted in this zone. Following the electrolysis tests, a film of electrolyte containing aluminum nodules and filaments covers the surface of the conventional carbon cathode. In the case of the TiB2-carbon composite, a continuous film of aluminum metal is observed, wetting the surface of the sample. The penetrating aluminum reacts

  16. Variations in AOC and microbial diversity in an advanced water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B. M.; Liu, J. K.; Chien, C. C.; Surampalli, R. Y.; Kao, C. M.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe objective of this study was to evaluate the variations in assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbial diversities in an advanced water treatment plant. The efficiency of biofiltration on AOC removal using anthracite and granular activated carbon (GAC) as the media was also evaluated through a pilot-scale column experiment. Effects of hydrological factors (seasonal effects and river flow) on AOC concentrations in raw water samples and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biofiltration on AOC treatment were also evaluated. Results show that AOC concentrations in raw water and clear water of the plant were about 138 and 27 μg acetate-C/L, respectively. Higher AOC concentrations were observed in wet seasons probably due to the resuspension of organic-contained sediments and discharges of non-point source (NPS) pollutants from the upper catchment. This reveals that seasonal effect played an important role in the variations in influent AOC concentrations. Approximately 82% and 70% of AOC removal efficiencies were observed in GAC and anthracite columns, respectively. Results from column experiment reveal that the applied treatment processes in the plant and biofiltration system were able to remove AOC effectively. Microbial colonization on GAC and anthracite were detected via the observation of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. Results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and nucleotide sequence analysis reveal significant decrease in microbial diversities after the ozonation process. Higher HRT caused higher microbial contact time, and thus, more microbial colonies and higher microbial diversity were observed in the latter part of the biofilters. Some of the dominant microbial species in the biofiltration columns belonged to the beta- proteobacterium, which might contribute to the AOC degradation. Results of this study provide us insight into the variations in AOC and microbial diversity in the advanced

  17. Application of biofiltration system on AOC removal: column and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C C; Kao, C M; Chen, C W; Dong, C D; Wu, C Y

    2008-04-01

    The Cheng-Ching Lake Water Treatment Plant (CCLWTP) is the main supplier of domestic water for the Greater Kaohsiung area, the second largest metropolis in Taiwan. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration is one of the major treatment processes in CCLWTP. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of BAC filtration on water treatment in the studied advanced water treatment plant and its capability on pollutants [e.g., AOC (assimilable organic carbon), bromide, bromate, iron] removal. In this study, water samples from each treatment process of CCLWTP were collected and analyzed periodically to assess the variations in concentrations of AOC and other water quality indicators after each treatment unit. Moreover, the efficiency of biofiltration process using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anthracite as the fillers was also evaluated through a column experiment. Results show that the removal efficiencies for AOC, bromide, bromate, and iron are 86% 100%, 17%, and 30% after the BAC filter bed, respectively. This indicates that BAC filtration plays an important role in pollutant removal. Results also show that AOC concentrations in raw water and effluent of the CCLWTP are approximately 143 and 16 microg acetate-Cl(-1), respectively. This reveals that the treatment processes applied in CCLWTP is able to remove AOC effectively. Results of column study show that the AOC removal efficiencies in the GAC and anthracite columns are 60% and 17%, respectively. Microbial colonization on GAC and anthracite were detected via the observation of scanning electron microscopic images. The observed microorganisms included bacteria (rods, cocci, and filamentous bacteria), fungi, and protozoa. Results from this study provide us insight into the mechanisms of AOC removal by advanced water treatment processes. These findings would be helpful in designing a modified water treatment system for AOC removal and water quality improvement. PMID:18294674

  18. Fungal-transformation of surrogate sulphides and carbonaceous matter in refractory gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refractory gold ores contain metal sulphides that encapsulate gold and prevent its dissolution by cyanide, and carbonaceous matter (CM) that adsorbs (or pregrob) gold cyanide complex during cyanidation. Pretreatment is therefore a necessary step to decompose the sulphides and liberate gold before cyanidation, and to deactivate CM and prevent it from adsorbing dissolved gold. To contribute to the pool of knowledge on the development of microbial-treatment techniques for refractory gold ores, this paper presents an overview of on-going research aimed at assessing the capability of the fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, to degrade sulphides and CM. Pure pyrite and arsenopyrite, with initial sulphide sulphur content of 52% and 20% respectively, were used as surrogate for metal sulphides, whereas lignite, bituminous and anthracite coals were used to model the behavior of CM in refractory gold ores. The extent of biotransformation was primarily monitored by measuring sulphide sulphur in the residual sulphidic materials, and by determining the preg-robbing effect of the treated CM. Within 21 days of treatment, there was 18% and 39% oxidation of sulphide sulphur in pyrite and arsenopyrite respectively. During the same period, preg-robbing effect of CM reduced by 70-95% in the order of lignite < bituminous < anthracite. Partial characterization of the treated anthracite using XRD confirmed reduction in the graphitic structure of carbon, whereas in the case of pyrite, there was a decline in the major sulphide peak after microbial pretreatment. The results indicate that the fungus biotransforms mainly by increasing the amorphous nature of the substrates through destruction of the ordered structure, followed by introduction of oxygen groups. The findings suggest a novel and technically viable alternative method for oxidative pretreatment of refractory gold ores. (au)

  19. Novel approaches in advanced combustion characterization of fuels for advanced pressurized combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J. [VTT Energy (Finland); Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This project is a part of the EU Joule 2 (extension) programme. The objective of the research of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) is to produce experimental results of the effects of pressure and other important parameters on the combustion of pulverized coals and their char derivates. The results can be utilized in modelling of pressurized combustion and in planning pilot-scale reactors. The coals to be studied are Polish hvb coal, French lignite (Gardanne), German anthracite (Niederberg) and German (Goettelbom) hvb coal. The samples are combusted in an electrically heated, pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR), where the experimental conditions are controlled with a high precision. The particle size of the fuel can vary between 100 and 300 {mu}m. The studied things are combustion rates, temperatures and sizes of burning single coal and char particles. The latter measurements are performed with a method developed by Tampere University of Technology, Finland. In some of the experiments, mass loss and elemental composition of the char residue are studied in more details as the function of time to find out the combustion mechanism. Combustion rate of pulverized (140-180 {mu}m) Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite were measured and compared with the data obtained earlier with Polish hvb coal at various pressures, gas temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in the second working period. In addition, particle temperatures were measured with anthracite. The experimental results were treated with multivariable partial least squares (PLS) method to find regression equation between the measured things and the experimental variables. (author)

  20. Characteristic of coal combustion in oxygen/carbon dioxide atmosphere and nitric oxide release during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion characteristic of a bituminous coal and an anthracite coal in oxygen/carbon dioxide (O2/CO2) atmosphere is investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The characteristic parameters, which are deduced from the TG-DTG (differential thermogravimetric) curves, show that the coal combustion process is basically kept consistent in O2/CO2 and O2/N2 atmosphere at the O2 concentration of 20%. The Coats-Redfern method with the reaction order of 1.25 could perfectly describe the combustion process in these two different atmospheres through the calculation of the kinetic parameters for the two coals. Nitric oxide (NO) release is concentrated in a narrower time period in O2/CO2 atmosphere compared with the one in O2/N2 atmosphere during the coal combustion process. Though the high value of the NO release rate peak, the total conversion of the fuel-N to NO is strongly depressed in O2/CO2 atmosphere, and at 1473 K, the conversion is reduced by 28.99% for the bituminous coal and 22.54% for the anthracite coal, respectively. When O2 concentration is increased from 20% to 40% in O2/CO2 atmosphere, the coal combustion property is obviously improved with the shift of the whole process into the lower temperature zone and the more intensive of the reaction occurrence in a narrower temperature range. However, the total fuel-N to NO conversion is increased accordingly. For bituminous coal the increase is 17.22% at 1073 K and 20.51% at 1173 K, and for anthracite coal the increase is 15.73% at 1073 K and 16.19% at 1173 K.

  1. Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of different residential coals in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wen X. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.cn; Dou Han; Wei, Zhi C.; Chang Biao; Qiu, Wei X.; Liu Yuan; Tao Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Emission properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion of six residential coals in North China were investigated. The results indicated that, the total emission factors (EFs) for 15 PAH species in gaseous and particulate phases ranged from 52.8 to 1434.8 mg/kg with a decreasing sequence of local bituminous coals and anthracite coals, and honeycomb briquettes were largely dependent on the raw coals used to produce them. Particulate phase, dominated by median or high molecular weight components, made a major contribution (68.8% - 76.5%) to the total EFs for bituminous coals, while gaseous phase with principal low molecular weight species accounted for most (86.3% - 97.9%) of the total EFs for anthracite coals. The phase partitioning of PAH emission for honeycomb briquettes was similarly dependent on the crude coals. The total EFs, phase partitioning and component profiles of emitted PAHs were mainly influenced by the inner components of the studied coals. Burning mode and flue number on household coal-stoves also affected the emission characteristics by means of the oxygen supply. A sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP)-equivalent carcinogenic power and total toxicity potency expressed in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin(TCDD) toxic equivalence exhibited that bituminous coals and produced honeycomb briquettes had remarkably elevated values. Fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene from anthracite coals showed higher levels of BaP-based toxic equivalent factor, though the other toxicity indices were rather low for this type of coal.

  2. Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of different residential coals in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion of six residential coals in North China were investigated. The results indicated that, the total emission factors (EFs) for 15 PAH species in gaseous and particulate phases ranged from 52.8 to 1434.8 mg/kg with a decreasing sequence of local bituminous coals and anthracite coals, and honeycomb briquettes were largely dependent on the raw coals used to produce them. Particulate phase, dominated by median or high molecular weight components, made a major contribution (68.8% - 76.5%) to the total EFs for bituminous coals, while gaseous phase with principal low molecular weight species accounted for most (86.3% - 97.9%) of the total EFs for anthracite coals. The phase partitioning of PAH emission for honeycomb briquettes was similarly dependent on the crude coals. The total EFs, phase partitioning and component profiles of emitted PAHs were mainly influenced by the inner components of the studied coals. Burning mode and flue number on household coal-stoves also affected the emission characteristics by means of the oxygen supply. A sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP)-equivalent carcinogenic power and total toxicity potency expressed in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin(TCDD) toxic equivalence exhibited that bituminous coals and produced honeycomb briquettes had remarkably elevated values. Fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene from anthracite coals showed higher levels of BaP-based toxic equivalent factor, though the other toxicity indices were rather low for this type of coal

  3. Emission factors for carbonaceous particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjun; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Feng, Yanli; Mai, Bixian; Fu, Jiamo

    2005-03-15

    Emission factors of carbonaceous particles, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for five coals, which ranged in maturity from sub-bituminous to anthracite. They were burned in the form of honeycomb briquettes in a residential coalstove, one of the most common fuel/stove combinations in China. Smoke samples were taken through dilution sampling equipment, with a high volume sampler that could simultaneously collect emissions in both particulate and gaseous phases, and a cascade impactor that could segregate particles into six fractions. Particulate BC and OC were analyzed by a thermal-optical method, and PAHs in emissions of both phases were analyzed by GC-MS. Burning of bituminous coals produced the highest emission factors of particulate matter (12.91 g/kg), BC (0.28 g/kg), OC (7.82 g/kg), and 20 PAHs (210.6 mg/kg) on the basis of burned dry ash-free (daf) coal, while the anthracite honeycomb-briquette was the cleanest household coal fuel. The size-segregated results show that more than 94% of the particles were submicron, and calculated mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of all particles were under 0.3 microm. Based on the coal consumption in the residential sector of China, 290.24 Gg (gigagrams) of particulate matter, 5.36 Gg of BC, 170.33 Gg of OC, and 4.72 Gg of 20 PAHs mass were emitted annually from household honeycomb-briquette burning during 2000. Anthracite coal should be selected preferentially and more advanced burning conditions should be applied in domestic combustion, from the viewpoint of both climate change and adverse health effects. PMID:15819248

  4. Investigation of pressurized combustion and characterization of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of the research of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) was to produce results of the effects of pressure and other important parameters on the combustion of pulverized coals using both experimental and theoretical methods. The results can be utilized to model pressurized combustion and to plan pilot-scale reactors. The studied coals were Polish hvb coal, French lignite (Gardanne), German anthracite (Niederberg) and German (Goettelborn) hvb coal. In was originally planned to study also a char of one of these coals. However, anthracite was selected instead of char, because the theoretical studies predicted maximum pressure effect to be found for antracite-type coals (with low reactivity and low content of volatiles). The pulverized coal samples were combusted in an electrically heated, pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR), where the experimental conditions were controlled with a high precision. The studied particle size fractions were 100-125 Em and 140-180 Am for anthracite and 140-180 {mu}m for the other coals. The studied things were combustion rates and temperatures of burning particles. Two types of sets of experiments were carried out. In the first case, experimental planning was done and the results were handled with multivariable partial least squares (PLS) method. Gas temperature varied from 1073K to 1473K and pressure from 0.2 MPa to 0.8 MPa. The other variables were PO2 and PCO{sub 2}. Some of the experiments were carried out at conditions prevailing during flue gas recirculation (CO{sub 2} concentration was > 20 vol%). In the second case, oxygen concentration was kept constant ( 10 vol%) and pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 0.8 MPa with an interval of 0.1 MPa

  5. A reconsideration of effect of energy scarcity on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the U.S. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing measures of scarcity (unit costs and relative energy price), changes in the trend in resource scarcity for NG, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades are investigated. Each of the energy resources became a significantly scarcer resource during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian Stock Scarcity and Malthusian Flow Scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for NG and crude oil but not for bituminous and anthracite coals. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. NG, bituminous and anthracite coals, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce resources during the decade of the 1980s than they had been during the 1970s, i.e. the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the decade of the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for NG and crude oil demonstrate similar patterns. Given that change has taken place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing resource scarcity trends, an objective effort is made to identify a long run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the U.S. over the period 1889-1992. (author)

  6. Reprint of “Experiences in sulphur capture in a 30 MWth Circulating Fluidized Bed boiler under oxy-combustion conditions”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 and SO2 from fossil fuel combustion are contributors to greenhouse effect and acid rain respectively. Oxy-combustion technology produces a highly concentrated CO2 stream almost ready for capture. Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology allows in-situ injection of calcium-based sorbents for efficient SO2 capture. CIUDEN's 30 MWth CFB boiler, supplied by Foster Wheeler and located at the Technology Development Centre for CO2 Capture and Transport (es.CO2) in Spain, is the first of its kind for executing test runs at large pilot scale under both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions. In this work, SO2 emissions under different scenarios have been evaluated. Variables such as limestone composition, Ca/S molar ratio and bed temperature among others have been considered along different test runs in both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions to analyse its influence on SO2 abatement. Fly and bottom ash, together with flue gas analysis have been carried-out. Desulphurization performance tests results are presented. - Highlights: • Sulphur capture efficiency (%) was higher in oxy-combustion compared to air-combustion in a 30 MW thermal CFB boiler using anthracite and limestone as sulphur sorbent. • For a Ca/S molar ratio higher than 2.6 there was barely any improvement on sulphur capture efficiency for both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions in a 30 MW thermal CFB boiler using anthracite and limestone as sulphur sorbent. • Optimum temperature for sulphur capture at a fixed Ca/S molar ratio is around 880–890 °C under oxy-combustion conditions and for anthracite coal with limestone as sorbent in a 30 MW thermal CFB boiler

  7. Experiences in sulphur capture in a 30 MWth Circulating Fluidized Bed boiler under oxy-combustion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 and SO2 from fossil fuel combustion are contributors to greenhouse effect and acid rain respectively. Oxy-combustion technology produces a highly concentrated CO2 stream almost ready for capture. Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology allows in-situ injection of calcium-based sorbents for efficient SO2 capture. CIUDEN's 30 MWth CFB boiler, supplied by Foster Wheeler and located at the Technology Development Centre for CO2 Capture and Transport (es.CO2) in Spain, is the first of its kind for executing test runs at large pilot scale under both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions. In this work, SO2 emissions under different scenarios have been evaluated. Variables such as limestone composition, Ca/S molar ratio and bed temperature among others have been considered along different test runs in both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions to analyse its influence on SO2 abatement. Fly and bottom ash, together with flue gas analysis have been carried-out. Desulphurization performance tests results are presented. - Highlights: •Sulphur capture efficiency (%) was higher in oxy-combustion compared to air-combustion in a 30 MW thermal CFB boiler using anthracite and limestone as sulphur sorbent. •For a Ca/S molar ratio higher than 2.6 there was barely any improvement on sulphur capture efficiency for both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions in a 30 MW thermal CFB boiler using anthracite and limestone as sulphur sorbent. •Optimum temperature for sulphur capture at a fixed Ca/S molar ratio is around 880–890 °C under oxy-combustion conditions and for anthracite coal with limestone as sorbent in a 30 MW thermal CFB boiler

  8. Carbonaceous solids as a model for adsorption by dispersion forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, E.M.; Hutchinson, B.J.; Healy, M.H.

    1988-08-03

    Heats of adsorption of many liquids of widely varying structure are reported on several carbonaceous solids: graphite, anthracite coal, Ambersorb XE-348, and two graphitized carbon blacks, Carbopack B and F. Heats of adsorption on the two graphitized carbon black samples correlate closely with the polarizabilities of the adsorbate and the number of main group atoms in the molecules as might be expected for dispersion force interactions; there is no relationship to the basicities of the adsorbates. Except for the two graphitized carbon black samples, Carbopack B and F, correlation between the various type of carbonaceous solids is poor. 39 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Direct filtration of water from Altinapa Dam by dual media filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdurlu, Y.; Aydin, M.E. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    1999-05-01

    In this research three laboratory scale model filters were employed to evaluate the performance of dual media filters. The model filters had sand, anthracite coal over sand and granular activated carbon over sand as filter media. Water samples from influent and filtrate of each filter column were analyzed to determine the performance of filters. Turbidity, color, organic matters and bacteria count analyses of water samples were carried out. According to the results of this research dual media filters performed better compared to the single media filter in terms of head loss development and hence were able to operate longer.

  10. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Asep K. Permana; Ward, C. R.; L. W. Gurba

    2014-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax) of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite), are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI) market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quar...

  11. Upgrading of the Mono Media Filters in Water Treatment Plants by Changing Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    L Rezaei; V Alipour

    2011-01-01

    "n "n "nBackground and Objectives:Dual media filters have two different layer beds consist of sand and Anthracite. Advantage of dual media filters is longer run duration and more filtration rate. The purpose of this study was to achieve a performable model to improve single media Filters in water treatment plants."nMaterials and Methods: in this cross-sectional study, two pilots; mono and dual media were made and in a 5 month period samples taking were done. Total samples taken from input and...

  12. Microbial coal desulfurization in an airlift bioreactor by sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferooxidans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, H.W.; Chang, Y.K.; Kim, S.D. (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center)

    1993-12-01

    Microbial desulfurization of a domestic anthracite coal by using an acidophilic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] has been studied in an airlift slurry reactor of 12 L volume. Effects of coal slurry density and CO[sub 2] supplement on microbial pyrite removal have been evaluated. High sulfur removal rates have been obtained even for very high coal slurry densities (up to 70% w/v). About 90-95% of the sulfur in the coal could be removed in 15-20 days. The efficiency of microbial desulfurization was significantly improved with CO[sub 2] enriched air supply for high coal slurry densities. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  13. The effect of coal rank on the wettability behavior of wet coal system with injection of carbon dioxide and flue gas

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaikaveh, N.; Rudolph, E.S.J.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Ashrafizadeh, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) or flue gas into coal layers enhances the coal bed methane production (ECBM) and is also an option for CO2-storage. The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is a function of coal rank, ash content, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. Two coal samples have been used for this study representing different ranks: hvBb and semi-anthracite rank. The wettability behaviour of the wet coal sampl...

  14. Terminology of carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, G.N.; Nagornyi, V.G.; Ostrovskii, V.S.

    1986-07-01

    The need is discussed to standardize definition of carbonaceous material. Terms related to carbonaceous materials and their products are selected and analyzed. Diagramatic representation is given of relationships between carbonaceous materials. Carbon has two forms of structure, cubic and hexagonal, characterized by sp/sup 3/-hybrid groups of atoms forming spatial system of tetrahedral bonds. Hexagonal form of carbon is represented by natural materials such as graphite, shungite, anthracite and a number of artificial materials obtained during thermal treatment of organic substances at temperatures above carbonization temperature. 4 references.

  15. SAXS from particle and disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajak, L.; Bierska-Piech, B.; Mrowiec-Bialon, J.; Jarzebski, A.B.; Diduszko, R. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland)

    2005-01-15

    SAXS studies were performed on different porous, disordered materials such as silica and zirconia aerogels, silica xerogels and carbonaceous materials (anthracite and shungite coals, coke, electrode material and activated carbon). These materials feature a variety of nanostructures. The relation between the profiles of the SAXS curves and the nanostructure of the materials was analysed. Fractal geometry proved to be very useful in this analysis. All types of fractality (mass, pore and surface fractality) were found in the materials studied. Porod plots appeared to be very sensitive to the structural details of the scattering objects.

  16. Primordia initiation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) strains on axenic casing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.; Fermor, T.R.; Lincoln, S.; Dobrovin-Pennington, A.; Evered, C.; Mead, A.; Li, R. [Hort Research International, Wellesbourne (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    The mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has a requirement for a 'casing layer' that has specific physical, chemical and microbiological properties which stimulate and promote the initiation of primordia. Some of these primordia then may develop further into sporophores, involving differentiation of tissue. Wild and commercial strains of A. bisporus were cultured in axenic and nonaxenic microcosms, using a rye grain substrate covered by a range of organic and inorganic casing materials. In axenic culture, A. bisporus (commercial strain A15) was capable of producing primordia and mature sporophores on charcoal (wood and activated), anthracite coal, lignite and zeolite, but not on bark, coir, peat, rockwool, silica or vermiculite.

  17. Fluorine in Asturian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Suarez-Fernandez, G.P.; Cardin, J.M. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain))

    1994-07-01

    Concentrations of fluorine in Asturian bituminous coals and anthracites have been determined. Fluorine analysis has been carried out by comparing oxygen bomb combustion and pyrohydrolysis methods. Pyrohydrolysis revealed higher values in samples whose ash contents were greater than 25 wt%, which in turn was related to fluorine contents higher than 100 ppm. Good correlation between fluorine and ash content suggests that fluorine is present in these coals in mineral species, and is not probably associated with organic matter. The association of fluorine with phosphorus is also discussed. An excess of fluorine concentration versus phosphorus, corresponding to fluorapatite, has been found. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. NO emissions in oxy-coal combustion with the addition of steam in an entrained flow reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez González, Lucía; Riaza Benito, Juan; Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Pevida García, Covadonga; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Rubiera González, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The NO emissions of a semi-anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal were studied under oxy-fuel combustion conditions in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The results obtained under oxy-fuel atmospheres (21%O2–79%CO2, 30%O2–70%CO2 and 35%O2–65%CO2), were compared with those produced in air. The replacement of CO2 by 5, 10, and 20% of steam in the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres was also evaluated in order to study the wet recirculation of flue gas. The NO emissions during oxy-fuel combus...

  19. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass blends

    OpenAIRE

    Riaza Benito, Juan; Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Álvarez González, Lucía; Pevida García, Covadonga; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Rubiera González, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The ignition temperature, burnout and NO emissions of blends of a semi-anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal with 10 and 20 wt.% of olive waste were studied under oxy-fuel combustion conditions in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The results obtained under several oxy-fuel atmospheres (21%O2–79%CO2, 30%O2–70%CO2 and 35%O2–65%CO2) were compared with those attained in air. The results indicated that replacing N2 by CO2 in the combustion atmosphere with 21% of O2 caused an increase in t...

  20. Thermodynamic Characteristics of Adsorption-Desorption of Methane in 3# Coal Seam of Sihe

    OpenAIRE

    Dongmin Ma; Jianchang Zhang; Jianping Bai; Hui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A series of methane adsorption-desorption isotherm experiments on anthracite of No. 3 Sihe coal mine were conducted at 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C respectively. Based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation, isosteric heat of adsorption and maximum heat of adsorption has been calculated. These calculations indicate that the maximum heat of adsorption in process of elevated pressure (adsorption) and lowered stress (desorption) is 23.31 KJ/mol and 24.02 KJ/mol, so it belongs to physical adsorption. ...

  1. Oxy-combustion of high rank coals

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Borrego, Ángeles; Álvarez Rodríguez, Diego; Fernández Domínguez, Isabel; Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Menéndez López, Rosa M.ª

    2007-01-01

    One of the ways to face the abatement of CO2 emissions in power plants is the combustion of coal using oxy-fuel technology. In this case coal would be burned in a O2/CO2 atmosphere and the flue gas would consist mainly of CO2 which after condensation of water could be quasy-ready for storage. Most of the work related to oxy-fuel combustion has been applied to high volatile coals. In this study run of mine and single seam coals ranging in rank from low volatile bituminous to meta-anthracite ha...

  2. Low volatile coal combustion under oxy-fuel atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Borrego, Ángeles; Álvarez Rodríguez, Diego; Fernández Domínguez, Isabel; Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Menéndez López, Rosa M.ª

    2007-01-01

    One of the ways to face the abatement of CO2 emissions in power plants is the combustion of coal using oxy-fuel technology. In this case coal would be burned in a O2/CO2 atmosphere and the flue gas would consist mainly of CO2 which could be more easily confined. Most of the work related to oxyfuel combustion has been applied to high volatile coals. In this study run of mine and single seam coals ranging in the anthracite rank interval have been burned under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. ...

  3. Redsmelt - an environmentally friendly ironmaking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degel, R.; Metelmann, O. [SMS Demag, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)

    2000-03-01

    The Redsmelt process can treat most iron bearing materials such as iron ore fines, iron and steel mill solid and liquid wastes. Reduction takes place in a rotary hearth furnace which can use a variety of carbon containing materials such as anthracite, pet coke and ground electrodes as reductant to produce DRI for recycling or smelting in a submerged arc furnace. The article describes the history of the Redsmelt process, discusses environmental aspects of treatment of wastes by this method, and outlines some applications. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode processes investigated using a 3-electrode half-cell setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Arenillas, A.; Menendez, J.A.;

    2015-01-01

    anthracite and bituminous coals, as well as carbon black, were tested, revealing similar open circuit potential and activation energies in mixed 96-4vol% N2-CO2 and 50-50vol% CO-CO2 environments between 700 and 800°C. Bituminous coal showed the highest activity, likely associated to a high O/C ratio...... and hydrogen content. Based on acquired data, a reaction scheme was proposed for processes at the working electrode, including the role of bubble formation in the vicinity of the electrochemically active solid/molten medium interface....

  5. STUDY ON REGULATIONS OF.SULFUR OCCURRENCE AND PYRITE MAGNETISM OF LATE PERMIAN COALS IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任德贻; 唐跃刚; 雷加锦

    1994-01-01

    The Permian coal In southwest China contains highest sulfur among the Chinese coal. Compositional variations of sulfur in coal are mainly controlled by paiaogeographicai environments during peat accumulation. High organic sulfur coal is formed in peat swamp developing in tidal flat of limited carbonate platform, and it is provided with especial petrological and geochemical characteristics, and its organosuLfur-containing compounds are mainly thiophene series. The macroscopical and microscopical shapes or types of pyrites in Late Permian coal are diversified. Bituminous coal and anthracite are diamagnetic, but the pyrites are paramagnetic. The magnetic susceptibility of the pyrites is depended on the content of paramagnatic elements associated with pyrites.

  6. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  7. A study on the carbon-based sorbents injection for gas phase mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Rhim, Y.; Kim, S.; Park, Y. (and others) [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejoen (Republic of Korea). Clean Energy Research Department

    2003-07-01

    To develop carbon-based sorbents to be used in gas-phase mercury removal, the performance of virgin activated carbons (AC) and that of chemically treated activated carbons were compared. Virgin activated carbons (ACs) were made of bituminous coal, lignite, anthracite and NSH4X10. Chemical treated ACs used were those impregnated with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, 1% sulfur, and with mixed sulphuric and nitric acid. Pre-oxidation of activated carbons with acids was also investigated and adsorption performances were compared. Injection of activated carbons has been investigated and the influential factors such as temperature, carbon dose were also discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. European inter-laboratory comparison of high pressure CO{sub 2} sorption isotherms II: Natural coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensterblum, Y. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Van Hemert, P. [TU Delft, Department of Geotechnology, Stevinweg 1, NL-2628 CN Delft (Netherlands); Billemont, P. [U MONS University of Mons, Faculte Polytechnique, Service de Thermodynamique et Physique Mathematique, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Battistutta, E. [TU Delft, Department of Geotechnology, Stevinweg 1, NL-2628 CN Delft (Netherlands); Busch, A. [Shell International Exploration and Production, Kessler Park 1, 2288 GS Rijswijk (Netherlands); Krooss, B.M. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany); De Weireld, G. [U MONS University of Mons, Faculte Polytechnique, Service de Thermodynamique et Physique Mathematique, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Wolf, K.-H.A.A. [TU Delft, Department of Geotechnology, Stevinweg 1, NL-2628 CN Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-11-01

    In order to assess and improve the quality of high-pressure sorption isotherms of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on coals, an inter-laboratory study (Round Robin) has been conducted among three European research laboratories. Excess sorption isotherms, determined in a first round of measurements, on Filtrasorb 400 (F400) activated carbon showed excellent agreement. In the second round of this study, excess sorption isotherms were determined on three coals at 318 K using the manometric (TU Delft, Netherlands and RWTH Aachen University, Germany) and the gravimetric (University Mons, Belgium) methods up to 16 MPa. The CO{sub 2} excess sorption isotherms for the three coal samples, a lignite, a bituminous coal and a semi-anthracite, exhibited maximum values of 1.77 {+-} 0.07, 1.37 {+-} 0.01 and 1.37 {+-} 0.05 mol kg{sup -1} respectively. The pressure ranges for the observed maximum excess sorption capacities decreased with increasing maturities from 6.89 {+-} 0.5 MPa for the lignite, to 6.68 {+-} 0.4 MPa for the bituminous coal and to 5.89 {+-} 0.6 MPa for the semi-anthracite. The results show that high-pressure CO{sub 2} excess sorption isotherms on natural coals in the supercritical range can be determined accurately with both gravimetric and manometric equipment. (author)

  9. M(o)ssbauer spectroscopic studies the characterization of three China coal and the corresponding fly-ashes and bottom ashes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Duo-xi; ZHI Xia-chen

    2006-01-01

    Three fresh China coals (lignitie, bituminite and anthracite) from different geological origin and the corresponding fly and bottom ashes were studied by room temperature(RT) M(o)ssbauer spectroscopy(MS). The iron-bearing minerals were characterized to was found in bituminite and anthracite coal.The M(o)ssbauer spectra of the fly and bottom ashes as a result of pulverised coal combustion(PCC) in Xiaolongtan,Shuicheng and Luohuang Power Plants are comprised of superimposed sextets and doulets of oxides includes maghemite(γ-Fe2O3), magnitite(Fe3O4), haematite(α-Fe2O3), magnesioferite (MgFe2O4), Fe3+/Fe2+-mullite, Fe3+-glass silicate andmetallic iron. The studies also show that iron-bearing minerals in coals are largely dependant on geological regions and coal rank, the composition of the corresponding fly and bottom ashes will not only depend on the type and mineralogy of the feed coal but also on the local nature of combustion.

  10. Electrical properties of coal at microwave frequencies for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, Constantine A.

    1981-02-01

    The development of electromagnetic systems to detect and monitor coal-related processes requires a thorough knowledge of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and conductivity) of coal. Using a two-path interferometer at microwave frequencies (?9 GHz), samples of solid eastern bituminous and eastern anthracite coals were tested as a function of polarization and direction of travel of the electromagnetic wave. Temperature moisture, and pyrite distribution tests were performed on eastern bituminous coal samples. In general there were slight decreases in the values of the dielectric constant and conductivity as a function of temperature, from ambient to 700° F, and as the moisture content decreased through drying. Pyrite layers along the bedding planes cause a general increase in the conductivity. The anthracites (higher rank coals) have larger values of conductivity (about a factor of 10) and permittivity (about a layer of 2 and 3) than bituminous (lower rank) coals. No distinct relationship was found between the direction of propagation and the electrical properties. Recommendations are made for orienting electromagnetic radiators to improve efficiencies of systems which are designed for coal-related detection, monitoring and mapping applications.

  11. Experiments on the interaction between steel melts and concrete. Concrete crucible tests with thermite melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asbestos-cement tubes did not rupture in any of the tests. By contrast, the concrete crubibles broke up irregularly at several points. The crack width on the external surface of the crucible was 2 mm at the maximum. All the upper faces as well as the inner wall of the crucibles were covered with solidified material which had been ejected. The surface of this layer mainly contained oxide superimposed at some points by well visible metallic splashes. The line of interfaces was measured between the regulus, the molten up anthracite colored layer, the dehydrated grey layer, the partly dehydrated yellow-brownish layer, and the uncolored concrete. The irregular shrinking behavior gave rise to the formation of an approximately 5 mm wide gap between the metal regulus and the concrete. The interface between the metal melt and the concrete was formed by a 2 - 3 mm thick molten up, glassy layer of anthracite color. The dehydrated layer was not strong mechanically and crumbled at contact. Its axial thickness was 25 to 60 mm, whilst the radial thickness amounted to 70 mm. By its color the partly dehydrated layer differed clearly from the dehydrated layer and from the rest of concrete. Its axial thickness was 30 to 132 mm, its radial thickness more than 35 mm. (orig.)

  12. Development prospects of the Eastern Donbass. [USSR - Ukrainian SSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denshchikov, N.A. (Rostovgiproshakht (USSR))

    1990-09-01

    Reviews the production situation of coal mines in the Rostov region (Zhukovugol' and Rostovugol' associations). In 1989 fourteen mines noted a production shortfall of 2.2 Mt anthracite in respect to production targets. Six mines are planned to be shut down by 2000 in conjuncion with exhausted coal reserves, production costs have risen from 12.8 to 24.8 rubles/t and productivity has fallen from 49.2 to 38.4 t/miner shift. Industrial reserves of 1,300 Mt anthracite were explored and made available in the Nesvetaevo-Shakhtinsk, Sulino-Sadkinsk and other regions where 9 mines with a capacity of 14 Mt/a can be constructed. However, it is still necessary to build four mines with a production capacity of 9 Mt/a each to reach the 32-33 Mt/a level (as in 1975). Design features of the Oktyabr'skaya-Yuzhnaya and Obukhovskaya mines are described. Mining-geological conditions and economic aspects of several other mines planned to be constructed or reconstructed by 2005 are discussed.

  13. Atlas of the Colombian coal, Potential map and rank: Map 5-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the presentation of the Atlas of Coal to scale 1:500.000, it is sought to show to big features the location of the different areas with coal in Colombia, associating with the geologic units, the potential and the range. In the Map 5-09, the formations that include the coal are defined as Umir, Guaduas, Limbo, (Los Cuervos), San Fernando, (Carbonera), defined as Kst, Ksgt and Pgt. For the potential an arbitrary scale settled down, in the following way: in the first place bigger to 1000 million tons; between 1000 and 100; between 100 and 10 and lastly smaller to 10 million tons. These figures are represented in the map by triangles with colors that they are equal before to the figures mentioned. Keeping in mind the scale, it was opted to report the potential in the category of the hypothetical resources; when the resources or reserves are established, they are also reported. As for the range, in the map it is indicated by means of symbols that should be taken as a domain or tendency of the coal in each area in general. The the coal rank understood as the transformation that has reached along the geologic evolution is what is mentioned as anthracitic coal, semi-anthracitic, bituminous low in volatile, bituminous middle in volatile, bituminous high in volatile A, B and C, sub-bituminous and lastly the lignite. For each map are mentioned that there are determined

  14. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  15. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  16. Possible applications of granular media (filtration, coalescence) in circuits of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium recovery from phosphoric acid poses two more specific problems: the necessity of a good clarification of the phosphoric acid before the extraction by an organic solvent; the necessity of an efficient recovery of the residual solvent in the phosphoric acid, freed from uranium, and if necessary, in the wash water. To solve these problems, the application of granular media can furnish a simple and economical solution, by: filtrating through sand and/or anthracite on the first case; coalescence through sand in the second case. The tests which were carried out on pilot circuits have given the following results: 1) Filtration tests on green acid: the best results were obtained with a maximum filtration speed of 7,5 m/h over a height of 1 m min of anthracite from 1.2 to 2.4 mm, with a lagging which permits the prevention of a temperature drop leading to the precipitation of gypsum; 2) Coalescence applied to green acid, free from uranium: to achieve a residual content of less than 5 mg/l, it is necessary to apply a double coalescence, the first functioning without any chemical reagent, and the second with an injection of a specific cationic polymer; 3) Coalescence applied to the wash solution: washing of the solvent effected in water before the re-extration of the uranium; the treated solution contains from 10 to 20 mg/l of residual solvent on an average and can be re-used practically without any complementary treatment

  17. Effect of coal slurry on the corrosion of coal-mine equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi; Xie Jingxuan; Zhao Wei; Bai Shasha; Zhong Shiteng; Chu Zhenfeng

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion of coal mine equipment immersed in coal slurry is addressed.The corrosion of low carbon steel samples immersed in coal slurries of different concentrations (80,130,and 180g/L) prepared from coals of different rank (long-flame coal,meager lean coal,and anthracite) and different granularity (0.25-0.5 mm,0.074-0.25 mm,and less than 0.074 mm particle size) was studied by the electrochemical method of polarization curve measurement,controlled potential sweeping,and continuous scanning.The results show that the corrosion rate in an anthracite slurry,where the coal has high coalification,is far greater than corrosion in a long-flame or a meager lean coal slurry.Furthermore the corrosion current,polarization current,and corrosion rate of low carbon steel become larger,and the polarizability becomes smaller,as the coal particle size decreases.The same trend is seen as the concentration of the coal slurry increases.

  18. Genesis and rank distribution of Upper Carboniferous coal basins in the Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero, Juan Ramon; Barba, Pedro; Llorens, Teresa [Department of Geology, Salamanca University, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC). Ap. Co, 73. 33080-Oviedo (Spain); Fernandez-Suarez, Javier [Department of Petrology and Geochemistry, Complutense University, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-03

    The Cantabrian Mountains located in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula constitute the most important coal-mining district of Spain. Anthracitic and bituminous coals (high and medium rank coals) have been mined in the area since the end of the nineteenth century and they currently account for about 70% of the total coal resources of the country. The region forms part of the Cantabrian and West Asturian-Leonese Zones of the Iberian Variscan Fold Belt and is strongly deformed by a set of imbricate thrusts, coeval folds and high-angle faults. Coal-bearing successions are Westphalian and Stephanian (Pennsylvanian) in age and are exposed in numerous coalfields of variable size arranged roughly parallel to the tectonic structures. Coal rank varies from medium-rank bituminous D coals (Rr {>=} 0.5%) to high-rank anthracites A coals (Rr < 6.0%). The regional rank distribution can be correlated with the increase in the thermal effect observed from Westphalian to the Stephanian coals, and from the Cantabrian Zone to the West Asturian-Leonese Zone. These rank variations are related to the thermal processes caused by the emplacement of some major faults, and granitoids and mafic rocks in upper crustal levels and the subsequent development of the regional methamorphic contact aureoles. (author)

  19. Economical Comporison PC and CFB Boilers for Retrofit and New Power Plants in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, G. A.

    According to the investment programmes of Russian electricity generating companies increased attention is paid to reconstruction and building new coal TPP. The typical projects are 225, 330 and 600 MW blocks for combustion of different domestic coals. VTI had made technical and economical comparison of CFB and PC boilers for existing and perspective (European) standards of particles, NOx and SOx emissions, according to the data of the prehminary designs and investments in new power plants of 225 and 330 MW. As the basis for technical and economical evaluations was used comparison data of metal-capacity of PC and boilers, emissions-control systems and material-handling systems, with paying attention to the exact suggestions of the boiler producers. The results of the comparisons (capital costs and O&M costs) are discussed in the paper. The most perspective fuels for combustion in CFB boilers are: anthracite culm, coals of the Pechora area, lean coals of Kuznetsk, brown coals of near Moscow, brown coals of Urals and Far East, and also the wastes of coal preparations, peat, shells and biomass. A good composition could be made from Kuznetsk coals and coals of Pechora area. Brown coals are combusted very good in suitable conditions for firing biomass and peat. Also allowed co-combustion with the wastes of coal preparations for the low reactivity fuels such as anthracite culm and lean coals. The diversification of the fuel supply is an essential advantage of CFB boilers. The CFB boiler installations are rather new for the conditions of Russian Federation. For decreasing the technical risks, first installations should be supplied by engineering or license of leading foreign companies with rather big part of their participation. One of important tasks is development of the typical projects, which would allow decreasing not only capital costs, but also decrease time of project realization. The project of the new Block #9 330MW with OTU boiler of Novocherkassk TPP is the

  20. co-Pyrolysis characteristics of torrefied rice husk with different coalification degree coals%烘焙稻壳与不同煤化程度的煤共热解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕杰; 应浩; 孙云娟; 江俊飞; 余维金; 许玉

    2014-01-01

    Rice husk was torrefied at the condition of 250 ℃/30 min,then blended it with anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite at different ratios,which had different coalification degrees. The mixtures were analyzed by Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and co-pyrolysis experiments. The results showed that torrefied rice husk had the advantage of raising conversion of the anthracite and bituminous coal by analyzing the TG curves,the increased rates were no more than 5%,but the torrefied rice husk had a negative effect on the conversion of lignite. In the experiments of co-pyrolysis,with the increase of torrefied rice husk in anthracite and bituminous coal,the solid products of the mixtures were lowered and the the gaseous products were increased,but the torrefied rice husk had an inhibitive effect on lignite. The addition of torrefied rice husk in the blends had the effect of accruing the content of H2 and reducing the content of CO2. So changing the percentage of torrefied rice husk in the mixtures had the effect of regulating the component of syngas.%稻壳在250℃/30 min条件下烘焙后,与无烟煤、烟煤和褐煤3种不同煤化程度煤进行不同比例的混合,混合物分别进行热重分析和高温共热解特性研究。结果表明:热重分析中,添加烘焙稻壳有利于提高无烟煤和烟煤的转化率,其提高率低于5%,但是不利于提高褐煤的转化率;高温共热解实验中,随着烘焙稻壳添加比例的提高,无烟煤和烟煤与烘焙稻壳共热解固体产物减少,气体产物增加,而褐煤与烘焙稻壳共热解固体产量增加,气体产量略有下降;烘焙稻壳的添加有利于共热解产气中H2组分的增加和CO2组分的减少,通过改变烘焙稻壳在混合物中的比例可以对共热解气体组分进行调节。

  1. Coalification history of the Yangshan coal-bearing formation in the eastern Dabieshan tectonic zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, W. [China National Administration of Coal Geology, Handan (China)

    1999-06-01

    The metamorphism history of the coals in the Lower Carboniferous Yangshan coal-bearing formation is investigated comprehensively using the methods of geological history analysis and EASY%R{sub 0} numerical modelling. It is shown that the coalification of the Yangshan coals was completed during two geological history stages, i.e., the middle Hercynian tectonic cycle and the middle late Yanshanian cycle. The rank of coking coal was achieved at the end of the first stage under the deep burial coalification derived from the lower paleo-geothermal current, and the meta-anthracite was acquired at the end of the secondary stage through the thermal metamorphism led by the higher paleo-geothermal current. In the northern Daibeishan tectonic zone, a cooling basin seemed to have occurred during the middle of Hercynian cycle and a heating basin might have developed during the middle-late Yanshanian cycle. 9 refs., 2 figs.,

  2. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  3. Granular filters for water treatment: heterogeneity and diagnostic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose

    filters in a proactive manner. They can also be used to optimize the filtration process. However, further research is necessary to relate the information obtained through the tools to specific causes. New tools such as the total dissolved gas probe, salt tracers and ammonium profiles are presented...... achieve constant and reliable filter performance, and water quality compliance. A salt tracer tool is developed to be used in full-scale filters to investigate the heterogeneity of the filter bed. The tool allows the pore velocity to be estimated in different locations of the filter bed during the......Rapid granular filters are the most commonly used filters in drinking water treatment plants and are the focus of this PhD study. They are usually constructed with sand, anthracite, activated carbon, garnet sand, and ilmenite and have filtration rates ranging from 3 to 15 m/h. Filters are often the...

  4. Simulation of thermal and sodium expansion stress in aluminum reduction cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Yu-yun; LAI Yan-qing; LIU Wei; WANG Zhi-gang; LIU Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Two finite element(FE) models were built up for analysis of stress field in the lining of aluminum electrolysis cells. Distribution of sodium concentration in cathode carbon blocks was calculated by one FE model of a cathode block. Thermal stress field was calculated by the other slice model of the cell at the end of the heating-up. Then stresses coupling thermal and sodium expansion were considered after 30 d start-up. The results indicate that sodium penetrates to the bottom of the cathode block after 30 d start-up. The semi-graphitic carbon block has the largest stress at the thermal stage. After 30 d start-up the anthracitic carbon has the greatest sodium expansion stress and the graphitized carbon has the lowest sodium expansion stress. Sodium penetration can cause larger deformation and stress in the cathode carbon block than thermal expansion.

  5. Experimental study on effects of CBM temperature-rising desorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-min; LIN Ya-bing

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of CBM (coal bed methane) temperature-rising desorption,isothermal adsorption/desorption experiments on three ranks (anthracite,coking coal and lignite) of coal at different temperatures were designed based on the traditional CBM decompression desorption.The experimental results indicate that temperature-rising desorption is more effective in high-rank coal,and ever-increasing temperature of high-rank coal reservoir can reduce the negative effects of coal matrix shrinkage in the process of production and improve the permeability of the coal reservoir as well.It is also revealed that the technique of temperature-rising desorption applied in higher-rank coal reservoir can enhance CBM recovery ratio.This study provided theoretical support for the application of temperature-rising desorption technique in practical discharging and mining projects,which can effectively tackle the gas production bottleneck problem.

  6. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  7. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and bulk organic geochemistry of black shales from the Proterozoic Vindhyan Supergroup (central India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee; S Dutta; S Paikaray; U Mann

    2006-02-01

    Four organic-rich shale units of the Proterozoic Vindhyan sedimentary succession have been scanned to reveal their origin and hydrocarbon potential.The wavy-crinkly nature of the carbonaceous laminae is suggestive of a microbial mat origin of the shales.These shales are thus different from Phanerozoic black shales which typically exhibit planar laminae.The hydrocarbon potential of the black shale units has been evaluated by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.Total organic carbon content of many of the shales exceeds 1%.The mean _max for the black shales translate to a vitrinite re flectance range of 2.05 –2.40%Rm based on standard conversion techniques.These shales have reached the catagenetic stage near the beginning of anthracite formation.

  8. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles; Keith B.C. Brady

    2015-01-01

    Clean sampling and analysis procedures were used to quantify more than 70 inorganic constituents, including 35 potentially toxic or hazardous constituents, organic carbon, and other characteristics of untreated (influent) and treated (effluent) coal-mine discharges (CMD) at 38 permitted coal-mining or coal-processing facilities in the bituminous coalfield and 4 facilities in the anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania. Of the 42 facilities sampled during 2011, 26 were surface mines, 11 were underground mines, and 5 were coal refuse disposal operations. Treatment of CMD with caustic soda (NaOH), lime (CaO or Ca(OH)2), flocculent, or limestone was ongoing at 21%, 40%, 6%, and 4% of the facilities, respectively; no chemicals were added at the remaining facilities. All facilities with CMD treatment incorporated structures for active or passive aeration and settling of metal-rich precipitate.

  9. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  10. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  11. Influence of buoyant media on particle layer dynamics in microfiltration membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, R.K.; Vigneswaran, S.; Kandasamy, J. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology

    2010-07-01

    This study forms a part of the physical study of the membrane bioreactor in presence of buoyancy media. Kaolin clay suspension with buoyancy media (anthracite) was used as a suspension and the particle layer development on membrane surface with evolution of time was studied. Presence of buoyancy media reduced the pressure development by almost two folds compared to in absence of the media. The particles deposition on membrane surface was size selective. The mean particle diameter (0.45 {mu} m) deposited on the membrane surface remained almost similar in presence of the media after 7 hrs run where as in its absence the mean diameter finer particles deposition occurred at the beginning followed by coarser particles.

  12. Removal of Hg (II) from aqueous solution on powdered coal-based activated carbon: experiemental design of microwave assisted preparation, equilibrium and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of activated carbon from anthracite through microwave-assisted activation was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The satisfactory conditions were obtained as follows: 693 W of microwave power, 10 min of irradiation time and 1:1 of the ratio of KOH to coal, and the corresponding adsorbance of iodine and methylene blue (MB) were of 799.32 and 132.03 mg/g, respectively. The production was characterized using nitrogen adsorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The resultant powdered activated carbons were applied for removing Hg(II) from aqueous solution at different dosage of activated carbon, concentrations of Hg(II), adsorption temperature and pH. The Langmuir isotherm was excellently correlated to equilibrium data of Hg(II) adsorption, showing Langmuir adsorption capacities of Hg(II) was 145.41 mg/g. (author)

  13. Mine-fire diagnostics applied to the Carbondale, Pennsylvania mine-fire site. Rept. of Investigations/1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines applied its mine fire diagnostic method to an abandoned anthracite mine fire site in Carbondale, Lackawanna County, PA. The technique to locate fires in abandoned coal mines and coal refuse piles includes the determination of hydrocarbon concentrations in mine gases, the imposition of an underground gas flow direction, and use of a surface mapping method, to define heated and cold zones in underground coal strata. The heated zones at Carbondale were characterized by elevated methane concentrations. The results of 25 communication tests were analyzed to define 2 large (approximately 100 by 250 ft) and 5 small, isolated heated zones. An approximate correlation existed between the location of the heated zones and areas of anomalous snow melt. The correlation between the results of the diagnostic test and subsurface temperatures was not significant

  14. A method to mitigate acid-mine drainage in the Shamokin area, Pennsylvania, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania occur in large synclinal basins surrounded by sandstone hogback ridges. The streams draining the coal regions are heavily contaminated by sulfuric acid due to the weathering of pyrite in the abandoned mines and culm. Dams could be built in the water gaps of the streams leaving the basins, forming huge reservoirs. For example, in the western part of the Middle Coal Field (Shamokin-Mt. Carmel area), the construction of four dams would form a reservoir that would inundate practically all the culm banks, abandoned mines, and environmentally abused lands in this coal field. The reservoir would be approximately 140 sq km in area and could be the source of water for pumped-storage hydroelectricity generation. The water should have moderately good quality and could serve the recreational needs of a vast population of the Middle Atlantic states

  15. Circulating fluidized bed combustion in the turbulent regime: modelling of carbon combustion efficiency and sulphur retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adanez, J.; Gayan, P.; Grasa, G.; de Diego, L.F.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A. [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    2001-08-10

    A model has been developed considering the hydrodynamic behaviour of a turbulent circulating fluidized bed, the kinetics of coal combustion and sulphur retention in the riser. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the turbulent fluidization regime were integrated together with the kinetic submodels of char combustion and sulphur retention by limestone. From the combustion of a lignite and an anthracite with limestone addition in a hot CBF pilot plant of 20 cm internal diameter and 6.5 m high, the effect of operating conditions such as temperature, excess air, air velocity, Ca/S molar ratio, coal and limestone particle size distributions on carbon combustion efficiency and sulphur retention were studied. The experimental results were compared with those predicted by the model and a good correlation was found for all the conditions used. 56 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Simultaneous carbonation and sulfation of CaO in Oxy-Fuel CFB combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding City, Hebei Province (China); Jia, L.; Tan, Y. [CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1M1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    For anthracites and petroleum cokes, the typical combustion temperature in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) is > 900 C. At CO{sub 2} concentrations of 80-85 % (typical of oxy-fuel CFBC conditions), limestone still calcines. When the ash which includes unreacted CaO cools to the calcination temperature, carbonation of fly ash deposited on cool surfaces may occur. At the same time, indirect and direct sulfation of limestone also will occur, possibly leading to more deposition. In this study, CaO was carbonated and sulfated simultaneously in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under conditions expected in an oxy-fuel CFBC. It was found that temperature, and concentrations of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and especially H{sub 2}O are important factors in determining the carbonation/sulfation reactions of CaO. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Concentration, Distribution, and Occurrence of REEs in Coals from Chongqing, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The concentration, distribution, and occurrence of rare earth elements (REEs) in coals as well as stone coals in different geological periods from Chongqing were studied. The results show that the REE content in coals from Chongqing is much higher than that of the ordinary Chinese coals, the Late Paleozoic coals from North China, US coals, and the world coals. Although the concentration of light rare earth elements (LREE) is higher than that of heavy rare earth elements (HREE), the ratio of LREE to HREE is as low as 5.11. The REE content decreases with the coal-formation periods from old to new. The REE content in the Sinian stone coal is the highest, but it is the lowest in Early Jurassic coals. The similar REE contents in bituminous coals and anthracite show that the metamorphism has a little influence on REE content in coal. In addition, silicate association dominates the occurrence mode of REEs in coals from Chongqing.

  18. Characteristics of Telemagmatic Metamorphism of the Ceshui Formation Coal in Lianyuan Coal Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕华; 彭格林

    1998-01-01

    The Ceshui Formation coal is mostly anthracite and its metamorphism has been less documented.By analyzing systematically the reflectance of vitrinite and the results of X-ray diffraction of the Ceshui Formation cola in the Lianyuan coal basin,the spatial variation characteristics of coal ranks,coal metamorphic regions,the extension of coal metamorphic belts.coal metamorphic gradients,coal chemical structure and the effect on the degree of metamorphism of heat-production and -storge conditions,buried depth of the Indosinian-Yenshanian granites at the margins of the Lianyuan coal basin are discussed.The research results in conjunction of the features of regional hydrothermal alterations,endogenetic deposits with the Ceshui Formation coal measures,and the development of secondary vesicles indicate that the telemagmatic metamorphism is the main factor leading to the metamorphism of the Ceshui Formation coal in the region studied.

  19. Evaluating emission levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from organic materials by analytical pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Daniele; Vassura, Ivano [Laboratory of Chemistry, C.I.R.S.A., University of Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, I-48100 Ravenna (Italy)

    2006-03-01

    A procedure in off-line analytical pyrolysis was investigated for the rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) evolved from thermal degradation of organic materials. Samples spiked with perdeuterated PAHs were pyrolysed at 1000{sup o}C for 60s by means of a resistively heated filament pyrolyser inserted into a glass chamber connected to a cartridge with a sorbent (XAD-2 resin). PAHs trapped onto the resin were extracted with dichloromethane and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical performance of the overall procedure (precision, recovery, effect of experimental parameters) was evaluated by pyrolysing a bituminous coal certified reference material (CRM). Emission levels of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphtylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene were determined for bituminous and anthracite coals, tyre, and cellulose. Despite some limitations, the method was adequate to the purpose of quantitatively measuring the tendency of various materials to release volatile PAHs upon heating. (author)

  20. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF WETTING HEAT ON COAL SLURRYABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书全; 付晓恒; 刘昀; 王祖讷; 李颖

    1997-01-01

    Wetting Heat of various ranks of coals in water was measured by using SETARAM C80D Calorimeter. The data were correlated to coals' slurryability which is characterized by the solid load at the viscosity of 1 Pa·s and 25℃. The results showed that the heat of wetting by water decreases as coal rank increases in the range of brawn coal to bituminous coal with carbon content of 89%~90% (daf), and then, increases a little for anthracite. This trend fitted well to the relationship of slurryability to coal rank. The heat of wetting was also correlated to the inherent moisture content and the oxygen content of coal, which are commonly considered as slurryability indication parameters. Hence, the wetting heat is another measure of coal's slurryability.

  1. Fluorine in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, X.Y.; Li, S.H.; Wang, B.B.; Wang, M.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-05-01

    Three hundred and five coal samples were taken from the main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China. The method of pyrohydrolysis was applied to measure the fluorine content in the samples, which exhibit logarithmic normal frequency distributions. The range of fluorine content in dry coal varies from 26 to 1230 mg/kg with a geometric mean of 136 mg/kg. The fluorine content decreases gradually from sub-bituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. However, such varying tendency of fluorine content is not due to the presence of organic fluorine in coal. The geological age also apparently has no effect on the fluorine content. Even though the fluorine content of most coals in China is not high, much more attention should be given to the fluoride pollution caused by improper (unvented) coal-burning and the widespread household use of high-fluoride coal-clay.

  2. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  3. Interdisciplinary applications and interpretations of ERTS data within the Susquehanna River Basin (resource inventory, land use, and pollution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An interdisciplinary group at Penn State University is analyzing ERTS-1 data. The geographical area of interest is that of the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania. The objectives of the work have been to ascertain the usefulness of ERTS-1 data in the areas of natural resources and land use inventory, geology and hydrology, and environmental quality. Specific results include a study of land use in the Harrisburg area, discrimination between types of forest resources and vegetation, detection of previously unknown geologic faults and correlation of these with known mineral deposits and ground water, mapping of mine spoils in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania, and mapping of strip mines and acid mine drainage in central Pennsylvania. Both photointerpretive techniques and automatic computer processing methods have been developed and used, separately and in a combined approach.

  4. Application of JFDI-3048 Flip-flop Screen Dry Sieving in Coal Preparation Plant%JFDI-3048弛张筛干法筛分在选煤厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永平; 张旭亮

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem of poor comprehensive performance of wet sieving in Sihe Coal Preparation Plant of Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group, this paper analyzed coal washing process, and decided to take dry sieving to solve the problem. The practice shows that the comprehensive performance of JFDI-3048 flip-flop screen dry sieving is improved significantly after transformation and the economic benefits are increased.%为解决晋煤集团寺河矿选煤厂湿法筛分出现的综合性能差的问题,对洗煤工艺进行分析研究,决定采取干法筛分来解决。实践表明,改造后使用JFDI-3048弛张筛进行干法筛分其综合性能明显提高,经济效益显著。

  5. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  6. Simulation of the interaction of methane, carbon dioxide and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Baisheng; Wang Longkang; Li Xiangchun; Wang Chao; Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Gas adsorption has an important influence on gas flow in a coal body. Research on the characteristics of coal and gas adsorption is the theoretical basis for studying gas flow in coal. In this paper, the interaction between methane, carbon dioxide and surface molecules of anthracite was simulated using the quantum chemistry method. Adsorption energy and adsorption configurations of different quantities of gas mole-cules absorbed on the coal surface were calculated. The results show that adsorption between coal and the two kinds of gas molecules is a physical adsorption process and there is an optimal configuration. Gas molecules are more easily adsorbed in the hydroxyl-containing side chain, while it is difficult for them to be adsorbed at the position of the benzene ring. Besides, carbon dioxide molecules are more readily adsorbed on the coal surface than methane molecules. The findings have an important signifi-cance in revealing the nature of gas adsorption in coal.

  7. Modeling the burnout of solid polydisperse fuel under the conditions of external heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorik, I. A.; Goldobin, Yu. M.; Tolmachev, E. M.; Gal'perin, L. G.

    2013-11-01

    A self-similar burnout mode of solid polydisperse fuel is considered taking into consideration heat transfer between fuel particles, gases, and combustion chamber walls. A polydisperse composition of fuel is taken into account by introducing particle distribution functions by radiuses obtained for the kinetic and diffusion combustion modes. Equations for calculating the temperatures of particles and gases are presented, which are written for particles average with respect to their distribution functions by radiuses taking into account the fuel burnout ratio. The proposed equations take into consideration the influence of fuel composition, air excess factor, and gas recirculation ratio. Calculated graphs depicting the variation of particle and gas temperatures, and the fuel burnout ratio are presented for an anthracite-fired boiler.

  8. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  9. Injury experience in coal mining, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This Mine and Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  10. Manganese extraction from high-iron-content manganese oxide ores by selective reduction roasting-acid leaching process using black charcoal as reductant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元波; 赵熠; 游志雄; 段道显; 李光辉; 姜涛

    2015-01-01

    Reduction roasting-acid leaching process was utilized to process high-iron-content manganese oxide ore using black charcoal as reductant. The results indicate that, compared with the traditional reductant of anthracite, higher manganese extraction efficiency is achieved at lower roasting temperature and shorter residence time. The effects of roasting parameters on the leaching efficiency of Mn and Fe were studied, and the optimal parameters are determined as follows: roasting temperature is 650 °C, residence time is 40 min, and black charcoal dosage is 10% (mass fraction). Under these conditions, the leaching efficiency of Mn reaches 82.37% while that of Fe is controlled below 7%. XRD results show that a majority of MnO2 and Fe2O3in the raw ore are reduced to MnO and Fe3O4, respectively.

  11. Bacteria-like bodies in coalified Carboniferous xylem-enigmatic microspheroids or possible evidence of microbial saprophytes in a vitrinite precursor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Possible fossil cocci, both solitary and diplococcus types, have been discovered in coalified tissue (xylem) from coal balls and bituminous coal of Carboniferous age. Most of the presumed bacteria are microspheroids 1-2.5 ??m in diameter and were found in partly degraded humic tissue (xylem) from a medullosan seed fern preserved in a coal ball (Herrin No. 6 coal bed, Westphalian D), an indication that they may have been saprotrophs (decay causing). The same kind of bodies were also found in coalified xylem from the Pittsburgh coal bed (early Stephanian). Whatever the origin of the bacteria-like bodies, they provide direct evidence of secondary organic components in tissue that gives rise to vitrinite and fusinite, major macerals of bituminous and anthracitic coals. ?? 1991.

  12. Isolation of Organic and Usakti Deep Well Water Turbidity Using Dual Media Direct Filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of direct filtration deep well water with permanganate organic content between using 15.3 -16.2 mg/l and turbidity after additional 210 mg/l alum, 12 - 14 Ntu, has been carried out. The type of media were used dual media consist of anthracite 60 cm height and silica sand 30 cm height. The variety of three media grains types have shown effectiveness not same. The effectiveness order of filtration on initial filtration were effective diameter of anthracite (d10a) 0.90 mm and effective diameter of silica sand (d10s) 0.38 mm > d10a 0.90 mm and d10s 0.55 mm > d10a 1.57 mm and d10s 0.55 mm; but then the effectiveness change after efluen turbidity greater than 0.38 turbidity of influent to be, d10a 0.90 mm and d10s 0.55 mm > d10a 1.57 mm and d10s 0.55 mm >, d10a 0.90 mm and d10s 0.38 mm. The breakthrough curves have been illustrated as correlation between efluen turbidity to water production per surface area per porosity of filter have two filtration constants, K and two proportional constants, λ0 respectively where before these constants had respectively one value in conventional single media filtrations. The equation of permanganate-organic efluen in filtration, Cet as water production, Π per surface area of filter, A per porosity, ε, and determination of organic based on specifically suspension organic content and specifically non soluble organic fraction, f, have shown the significant results with determinant coefficients, r2 = 0.8524 - 0.9216. The equation form was Cet = f. Co + Co (1 - f)/[1 + exp{-K.Π/A.ε + In (eλ0L -1)}]. C0 is influent organic total. (author)

  13. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ignition temperature, burnout and NO emissions of blends of a semi-anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal with 10 and 20 wt.% of olive waste were studied under oxy-fuel combustion conditions in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The results obtained under several oxy-fuel atmospheres (21%O2–79%CO2, 30%O2–70%CO2 and 35%O2–65%CO2) were compared with those attained in air. The results indicated that replacing N2 by CO2 in the combustion atmosphere with 21% of O2 caused an increase in the temperature of ignition and a decrease in the burnout value. When the O2 concentration was increased to 30 and 35%, the temperature of ignition was lower and the burnout value was higher than in air conditions. A significant reduction in ignition temperature and a slight increase in the burnout value was observed after the addition of biomass, this trend becoming more noticeable as the biomass concentration was increased. The emissions of NO during oxy-fuel combustion were lower than under air-firing. However, they remained similar under all the oxy-fuel atmospheres with increasing O2 concentrations. Emissions of NO were significantly reduced by the addition of biomass to the bituminous coal, although this effect was less noticeable in the case of the semi-anthracite. -- Highlights: ► Coal and biomass blends combustion behaviour evaluated under oxy-fuel conditions. ► Biomass addition had a greater effect on the ignition temperature than on burnout. ► Lower NO emissions by blending olive waste with a bituminous coal.

  14. Phase-mineral and chemical composition of coal fly ashes as a basis for their multicomponent utilization. 1. Characterization of feed coals and fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislav V. Vassilev; Rosa Menendez; Diego Alvarez; Mercedes Diaz-Somoano; M. Rosa Martinez-Tarazona [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography

    2003-10-01

    The phase-mineral and chemical composition of feed coals and their fly ashes (FAs) produced in four large Spanish thermo-electric power stations was characterized as a basis for multicomponent FA utilization. The feed fuels used are bituminous coals, semi-anthracites and anthracites with high detrital mineral abundance and mixed carbonate and sulphide sulphate authigenic mineral tendency. Their mineral composition includes quartz, kaolinite, illite muscovite, pyrite, chlorite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, gypsum, siderite, calcite, dolomite, marcasite, montmorillonite, jarosite, and ankerite. The FAs studied have aluminosilicate composition with higher concentrations of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides than Fe oxide. Elements such as Ag, As, Ba, Cr, Cs, Li, P, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Zn, and Zr are relatively enriched in these FAs in comparison with the respective mean values for bituminous coal ashes worldwide. The FAs consist basically of aluminosilicate glass, to a lesser extent of mineral matter (with high silicate abundance and dominant oxide tendency) and moderate char occurrence. The phase-mineral composition (in decreasing order of significance) of these FAs is normally glass, mullite, quartz, char, kaolinite metakaolinite, hematite, cristobalite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, melilite, anhydrite, wollastonite, magnetite and corundum plus 42 important accessory minerals or phases. A scheme of conventional separation procedures was applied to recover sequentially six initial and potentially useful and/or hazardous products from FAs, namely: (1) a ceramic cenosphere concentrate; (2) a water-soluble salt concentrate; (3) a magnetic concentrate; (4) a char concentrate; (5) a heavy concentrate; and finally (6) an improved FA residue. 29 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    A fibre-optic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurised reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverised coal particles at the pressurised entrained flow reactor of VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made in order to study the effects of oxygen concentration (3-30 vol%) and pressure (0.2-1.0 MPa) on the particle temperature. The fuels used in the experiments were Westerholt, Polish and Goettelborn hvb coals, Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite. The initial nominal fuel particle size varied in the experiments from 70 to 250 ,{mu}m and the gas temperature was typically 1173 K. For the anthracite also the effects of gas temperature (1073-1423K) and CO{sub 2} concentration (6-80 vol%) were studied. In Orleans a fibreoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor of CNRS and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. The fuel in the experiments was pulverised Goettelborn char. The reliability of optical temperature measurement in this particular application was analysed. In Essen a fibre-optic pyrometric technique that is capable to measure bed and fuel particle temperatures was applied to an atmospheric fluidised bed reactor of DMT. The effects of oxygen concentration (3-8 vol%) and bed temperature (1123-1193 K) on the fuel particle temperature were studied. The fuels in these were Westerholt coal and char and EBV-coal. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belonged to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme (contract JOU2-CT93-0331). (orig.)

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10−4 T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10−4 T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn2+ (6S5/2, 3d5) (signal width = 61 (10−4 T), g = 2.0023, Aiso = 93(10−4 T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu2+ (2D5/2, 3d9) (g⊥ = 2.048 and g‖ = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn2+ and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu2+ signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements

  17. Ignition and Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Biomass under Different Oxy-fuel O2/N2 and O2/CO2 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami Firoozabadi, Seyed Reza

    This work studied the ignition and combustion of burning pulverized coals and biomasses particles under either conventional combustion in air or oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Oxy-fuel combustion is a 'clean-coal' process that takes place in O2/CO2 environments, which are achieved by removing nitrogen from the intake gases and recirculating large amounts of flue gases to the boiler. Removal of nitrogen from the combustion gases generates a high CO2-content, sequestration-ready gas at the boiler effluent. Flue gas recirculation moderates the high temperatures caused by the elevated oxygen partial pressure in the boiler. In this study, combustion of the fuels took place in a laboratory laminar-flow drop-tube furnace (DTF), electrically-heated to 1400 K, in environments containing various mole fractions of oxygen in either nitrogen or carbon-dioxide background gases. The experiments were conducted at two different gas conditions inside the furnace: (a) quiescent gas condition (i.e., no flow or inactive flow) and, (b) an active gas flow condition in both the injector and furnace. Eight coals from different ranks (anthracite, semi-snthracite, three bituminous, subbituminous and two lignites) and four biomasses from different sources were utilized in this work to study the ignition and combustion characteristics of solid fuels in O2/N2 or O2/CO2 environments. The main objective is to study the effect of replacing background N2 with CO2, increasing O2 mole fraction and fuel type and rank on a number of qualitative and quantitative parameters such as ignition/combustion mode, ignition temperature, ignition delay time, combustion temperatures, burnout times and envelope flame soot volume fractions. Regarding ignition, in the quiescent gas condition, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal particles experienced homogeneous ignition in both O2/N 2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, while in the active gas flow condition, heterogeneous ignition was evident in O2/CO 2. Anthracite, semi-anthracite

  18. Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, John Dinh Chuong

    In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very significant need to increase generation capacity. This thesis addresses improving thermal power plant efficiency through an improved planning process that emphasizes integrated design. With the integration of planning and design considerations of key components in thermal electrical generation, along with the selection of appropriate up-to-date technologies, greater efficiency and reduction of emissions could be achieved. The major barriers to the integration of overall power plant optimization are the practice of individual island tendering packages, and the lack of coordinating efforts between major original equipment manufacturers (OEM). This thesis assesses both operational and design aspects of thermal power plants to identify opportunities for energy saving and the associated reduction of CO2 emissions. To demonstrate the potential of the integrated planning design approach, three advanced thermal power plants, using anthracite coal, oil and gas as their respective fuel, were developed as a case study. The three plant formulations and simulations were performed with the cooperation of several leading companies in the power industry including Babcock & Wilcox, Siemens KWU, Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation, Hitachi, Alstom Air Preheater, TLT-Covent, and ABB Flakt. The first plant is a conventional W-Flame anthracite coal-fired unit for base load operation. The second is a supercritical oil-fired plant with advanced steam condition, for two shifting and cycling operations. The third plant is a gas-fired combined cycle unit employing a modern steam-cooled gas

  19. Experimental study on preparation of biomass briquette fuel by sawdust%锯末制备生物质成型燃料的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 陈铁军; 饶发明; 丁春江; 李圣辉

    2012-01-01

    Biomass briquette fuel was prepared by sawdust in the techniques of cold briquetting and carbonized briquetting. The effects of material moisture content and forming pressure of cold briquetting technique on forming properties of the briquette fuel was studied- The results show that the product biomass briquette fuel' has a good forming properties when material moisture content was 12%~16% and forming pressure was 60 MPa, and the density was 0.94 g/cm3 and shatter strength was 99%. The effect of mix moisture content, anthracite ratio, addition of J binder and forming pressure of carbonized briquetting technique on forming properties of the briqiiette fuel was stuied. The experiments results show that the product superior biomass briquette fuel has a good forming properties when anthracite ratio was 50%, mix moisture content was 30%, addition of J binder was 8%, forming pressure was 45 MPa, and the density was 0.93 g/cm3 and shatter strength was 99.3%,%分别采用冷压成型和炭化成型工艺以锯末制备生物质成型燃料.冷压成型工艺主要考察原料水分、成型压力对燃料的成型性能影响.试验结果表明:原料水分为12%~16%,成型压力为60 MPa的条件下能够制得成型性能较好的生物质成型燃料,其密度与抗跌强度分别能够达到0.94 g/cm3和99%;炭化成型工艺主要考察混合料水分、无烟煤配比、J型粘结剂添加量、成型压力对燃料的成型性能影响.试验结果表明:无烟煤配比为50%、混合料水分为30%、J型粘结剂添加量为8%、成型压力为45 MPa的条件下能够制得成型性能较好的优质生物质成型燃料,其密度与抗跌强度分别为0.93 g/cm3和99.3%.

  20. Experimental investigation of high temperature and high pressure coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Gasification kinetics at temperature up to 1600 °C and pressure up to 0.5 MPa. ► Experimental investigation of pyrolysis under realistic conditions. ► Experiments in lab-scale using three different setups. ► Comparison of lab-scale data to experimental results from a pilot-scale gasifier. -- Abstract: Pyrolysis and gasification behavior is analyzed at operation conditions relevant to industrial scale entrained flow gasifiers. A wire mesh reactor and the Pressurized High Temperature Entrained Flow Reactor (PiTER) are used to measure volatile yield of Rhenish lignite, a bituminous coal and German anthracite at high temperature and high pressure. In the wire mesh reactor at 1000 °C a significant influence of pressure on volatile yield is observed. For lignite the volatile yield (daf) decreases from 57 wt% at atmospheric pressure to 53 wt% at 5.0 MPa. In the same pressure interval the volatile yield of the bituminous coal strongly decreases, whereas no significant influence of pressure on the volatile yield of anthracite is detected. In entrained flow experiments (PiTER) at higher temperature and 0.5 MPa an enhanced devolatilization of the lignite is observed. At 1200 °C, the maximum volatile yield is 62 wt% and it increases to 67 wt% at 1400 °C. In entrained flow gasification experiments with Rhenish lignite a high level of conversion is measured at atmospheric pressure and at 0.5 MPa. At both pressures, coal conversion increases with temperature and residence time. The highest conversion of 96 wt% is achieved at a particle residence time of 1.3 s, at a temperature of 1600 °C, and a pressure of 0.5 MPa. The experimental results show a large influence of operation parameters on pyrolysis and gasification behavior of Rhenish lignite. The volatile release in the pyrolysis stage and the high level of conversion after a short residence time indicate that Rhenish lignite is suitable for gasification in an entrained flow reactor. The reactivities

  1. Metamorphism of mineral matter in coal from the Bukit Asam deposit, south Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilawati, Rita; Ward, Colin R.

    2006-10-02

    The coal of the Miocene Bukit Asam deposit in south Sumatra is mostly sub-bituminous in rank, consistent with regional trends due to burial processes. However, effects associated with Plio-Pleistocene igneous intrusions have produced coal with vitrinite reflectance up to at least 4.17% (anthracite) in different parts of the deposit. The un-metamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed coals, with Rv{sub max} values of 0.45-0.65%, contain a mineral assemblage made up almost entirely of well-ordered kaolinite and quartz. The more strongly heat-affected coals, with Rv{sub max} values of more than 1.0%, are dominated by irregularly and regularly interstratified illite/smectite, poorly crystallized kaolinite and paragonite (Na mica), with chlorite in some of the anthracite materials. Kaolinite is abundant in the partings of the lower-rank coals, but is absent from the partings in the higher-rank areas, even at similar horizons in the same coal seam. Regularly interstratified illite/smectite, which is totally absent from the partings in the lower-rank coals, dominates the mineralogy in the partings associated with the higher-rank coal beds. A number of reactions involving the alteration of silicate minerals appear to have occurred in both the coal and the associated non-coal lithologies during the thermal metamorphism generated by the intrusions. The most prominent involve the disappearance of kaolinite, the appearance of irregularly interstratified illite/smectite, and the formation of regular I/S, paragonite and chlorite. Although regular I/S is identified in all of the non-coal partings associated with the higher-rank coals, illite/smectite with an ordered structure is only recognised in the coal samples collected from near the bases of the seams. The I/S in the coal samples adjacent to the floor of the highest rank seam also appears to have a greater proportion of illitic components. The availability of sodium and other non-mineral inorganic elements in the original coal

  2. Measurements of black and organic carbon emission factors for household coal combustion in China: implication for emission reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjun; Zhi, Guorui; Feng, Yanli; Liu, Dongyan; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2009-12-15

    Household coal combustion is considered as the greatest emission source for black carbon (BC) and an important source for organic carbon (OC) in China. However, measurements on BC and OC emission factors (EF(BC) and EF(OC)) are still scarce, which result in large uncertainties in emission estimates. In this study, a detailed data set of EF(BC) and EF(OC) for household coal burning was presented on the basis of 38 coal/stove combination experiments. These experiments included 13 coals with a wide coverage of geological maturity which were tested in honeycomb-coal-briquette and raw-coal-chunk forms in three typical coal stoves. Averaged values of EF(BC) are 0.004 and 0.007 g/kg for anthracite in briquette and chunk forms and 0.09 and 3.05 g/kg for bituminous coal, respectively; EF(OC) are 0.06 and 0.10 g/kg for anthracite and 3.74 and 5.50 g/kg for bituminous coal in both forms, respectively. Coal maturity was found to be the most important influencing factor relative to coal's burning forms and the stove's burning efficiency, and when medium-volatile bituminous coals (MVB) are excluded from use, averaged EF(BC) and EF(OC) for bituminous coal decrease by 50% and 30%, respectively. According to these EFs, China's BC and OC emissions from the household sector in 2000 were 94 and 244 gigagrams (Gg), respectively. Compared with previous BC emission estimates for this sector (e.g., 465 Gg by Ohara et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2007, 7, 4419-4444), a dramatic decrease was observed and was mainly attributed to the update of EFs. As suggested by this study, if MVB is prohibited as household fuel together with further promotion of briquettes, BC and OC emissions in this sector will be reduced by 80% and 34%, respectively, and then carbonaceous emissions can be controlled to a large extent in China. PMID:20000546

  3. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Tol, Johan van [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Ye, Ruquan [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tour, James M., E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-11-23

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn{sup 2+} ({sup 6}S{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 5}) (signal width = 61 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023, A{sub iso} = 93(10{sup −4} T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu{sup 2+} ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 9}) (g{sub ⊥} = 2.048 and g{sub ‖} = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn{sup 2+} and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu{sup 2+} signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  4. Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes

    CERN Document Server

    Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

    2012-01-01

    The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

  5. Far infrared (terahertz) spectroscopy of a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and application to structure interpretation of asphaltenes and related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, Arturo

    2013-07-01

    A series of 33 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied by far infrared spectroscopy (terahertz spectroscopy) in the spectral range comprised between 600 and 50 cm-1. In addition to common PAHs like naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, picene, pyrene, benzo[α]pyrene, and perylene, also quite unusual PAHs were studied like tetracene, pentacene, acenaphtene, acenaphtylene, triphenylene, and decacyclene. A series of alkylated naphthalenes and anthracenes were studied as well as methypyrene. Partially or totally hydrogenated PAHs were also object of the present investigation, ranging from tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) to decahydronaphthalene (decalin), 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, hexahydropyrene, and dodecahydrotriphenylene. Finally, the large and quite rare PAHs coronene, quaterrylene, hexabenzocoronene, and dicoronylene were studied by far infrared spectroscopy. The resulting reference spectra were used in the interpretation of the chemical structure of asphaltenes (as extracted from a heavy petroleum fraction and from bitumen), the chemical structures of other petroleum fractions known as DAE (distillate aromatic extract) and RAE (residual aromatic extract), and a possible interpretation of components of the chemical structure of anthracite coal. Asphaltenes, heavy petroleum fractions, and coal were proposed as model compounds for the interpretation of the emission spectra of certain proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) with a good matching in the mid infrared between the band pattern of the PPNe emission spectra and the spectra of these oil fractions or coal. Although this study was finalized in an astrochemical context, it may find application also in the petroleum and coal chemistry.

  6. Test with Rhein brown coal in 1-liter oven and fourth report on neutralization of coal and precipitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz

    1942-10-12

    A 1.5 liter sump oven, without stirrer, was used for preparation of Rhein coal with different grinding oils. Partial neutralization of the coal, by mixing sulfuric acid or sulfates with wet coal before drying, was sought. Oven precipitation was reduced by addition of street tar (high middle oil content) and Bruex tar (up to 350/sup 0/C) as well as by a mixture of Estonian slate tar oil and anthracitic tar oil in ratio of 80:20, but there was chalk-coke residue similar to caviar found when the oven was disassembled. Fifty percent neutralization of the coal by sulfuric acid as opposed to untreated coal gave some reduced vaporization and lower asphalt content. Iron sulfate catalyst also gave good results; magnesium sulfate, somewhat less. Though not unequivocally, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and FeSO/sub 4/ both apparently reduced precipitants. A mixture of magnesium sulfate with iron sulfate gave less favorable results over all. Untreated coal with the previous catalysts produced the undesirable caviar-precipitants. The results of the tests were questionable since exactness in components, viscosity, and other problems hindered reproducing the tests consistently. 2 tables.

  7. Alveolar macrophages modulate the epithelial cell response to coal dust in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y C; Rannels, D E

    1996-01-01

    The response of the alveolar epithelium to coal dust exposure is poorly understood. Coal or other dusts may act on the epithelium directly or indirectly through nearby alveolar macrophages (AM) that produce cytokines and other soluble products. AM and type II pneumocytes (T2P) were thus exposed to dust in coculture to evaluate their possible interactions. Anthracite coal dust PSOC 867 increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) components by T2P. AM alone did not produce ECM. Similarly, coculture of T2P with AM (3.75:1) had little effect on epithelial ECM synthesis. In contrast, coculture of T2P with AM significantly increased PSOC 867 effects on T2P rates of ECM synthesis, ECM fibronectin content, and T2P levels of fibronectin mRNA. AM-conditioned medium did not change the PSOC 867 effect on T2P. Neither control nor PSOC 867-treated AM on Falcon culture inserts (0.45-micron pore size) over T2P stimulated ECM synthesis by either untreated or dust-exposed epithelium. Thus AM-mediated changes in ECM synthesis by PSOC 867-treated T2P require close cell-cell interactions, suggesting a role for cell-cell contact or for short-lived soluble mediators of the AM effects. PMID:8772535

  8. Regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis by TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 in type II cells exposed to coal dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y C; Rannels, D E

    1998-10-01

    Type II pulmonary epithelial cells respond to anthracite coal dust PSOC 867 with increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Alveolar macrophages modulate this response by pathways that may involve soluble mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). The effects of TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) and/or TGF-beta1 (2 ng/ml) were thus investigated in dust-exposed primary type II cell cultures. In control day 1 or day 3 cultures, TNF-alpha and/or TGF-beta1 had little or no effect on the synthesis of type II cellular proteins, independent of whether the cells were exposed to dust. With PSOC 867 exposure, where ECM protein synthesis is elevated, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 further increased both the absolute and relative rates of ECM synthesis on day 3 but had little effect on day 1. Each mediator increased expression of fibronectin mRNA, as well as of ECM fibronectin content, in a manner qualitatively similar to their effects on synthesis. Thus TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 modulate both ECM synthesis and fibronectin content in coal dust-exposed type II cell cultures. PMID:9755095

  9. Change in pore structure of coals by activation with KOH; KOH fukatsushita sekitan no saiko kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, K.; Yoshizawa, N.; Ishikawa, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Toda, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Shiraishi, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Three typical Japanese coals of non-coking coal, coking coal and anthracite were heat-treated with KOH, and change in their pore structure was examined by absorption of N2, X-ray diffraction and TEM observation. In addition, the relation between a coal rank and pore structure was also studied by absorption experiment of N2. In experiment, the mixture of coal and KOH in a nickel holder was heat-treated in N2 gas flow at heating rate of 2{degree}C/min, and held at a fixed temperature for one hour. To clarify the pore structure, N2 absorption isotherms were measured at -196{degree}C under nearly 76cmHg using a commercially available full-automatic absorption measurement equipment. Based on the X-ray diffraction and TEM observation results on activated coals, the relation between the N2 absorption and pore structure was studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The yield and absorption ability of coals increase with a coal rank, (2) The specific surface area of coals reaches its peak at 800{degree}C in activation temperature regardless of a coal rank, and (3) The activation behavior of coals is dependent on a coal rank. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature; Netsushorishita sekitan char no gas ka tokusei ni taisuru tanshu oyobi kobutsushitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takei, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In the wide range from brown coal to anthracite, an investigation was made of effects of heat treatment on physical/chemical properties and of coal rank dependence. For the experiment, 12 kinds of coal samples were used, and for heat treatment, the fluidized bed heated by the electric furnace and the infrared-ray gold image furnace were used. To examine characteristics of the heat-treated coal char, conducted were oxygen gasification, TPD measurement, XRD measurement, alkali metal measurement, and pore distribution measurement. The following were obtained from the experiment. The gasification reaction rate of the char heat-treated in the temperature range between 900{degree}C to 1700{degree}C decreases with a rise of the temperature of heat treatment, and the degree of decrease in the rate depends on coal rank. The order of gasification rate between coal ranks depends on the temperature of heat treatment, and the lower the heat treatment temperature is, the more largely the gasification rate is influenced by catalysis of mineral matters included in the coal. As causes of the decrease in gasification rate associated with the rise in temperature of heat treatment, indicated were release of alkali metal having catalysis and decrease of active sites by carbonaceous crystallinity. 6 figs.

  11. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep K. Permana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite, are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quartz, and carbonates can be seen under the optical microscope. The mineral matter occurs in association with vitrinite and inertinite macerals as syngenetic and epigenetic mineral phases. The irregular pattern of the vitrinite reflectance profile from the top to the bottom of the seam may represent a response in the organic matter to an uneven heat distribution from such hydrothermal influence. Examination of the maceral and vitrinite reflectance characteristics suggest that the mineralogical variation within the coal seam at South Walker Creek may have been controlled by various geological processes, including sediment input into the peat swamp during deposition, mineralogical changes associated with the rank advance process or metamorphism, and/or hydrothermal effects due to post depositional fluid migration through the coal seam.

  12. Variations in dissolved organic nitrogen concentration in biofilters with different media during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huining; Zhang, Kefeng; Jin, Huixia; Gu, Li; Yu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is potential precursor of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), especially nitrogenous DBPs. In this study, we investigated the impact of biofilters on DON concentration changes in a drinking water plant. A small pilot plant was constructed next to a sedimentation tank in a drinking water plant and included activated carbon, quartz sand, anthracite, and ceramsite biofilters. As the biofilter layer depth increased, the DON concentration first decreased and then increased, and the variation in DON concentration differed among the biofilters. In the activated carbon biofilter, the DON concentration was reduced by the largest amount in the first part of the column and increased by the largest amount in the second part of the column. The biomass in the activated carbon filter was less than that in the quartz sand filter in the upper column. The heterotrophic bacterial proportion among bacterial flora in the activated carbon biofilter was the largest, which might be due to the significant reduction in DON in the first part of the column. Overall, the results indicate that the DON concentration in biofiltered water can be controlled via the selection of appropriate biofilter media. We propose that a two-layer biofilter with activated carbon in the upper layer and another media type in the lower layer could best reduce the DON concentration. PMID:25576130

  13. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  14. Presence of commercial coal in the Taimyr coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androsov, B.N.

    1980-05-01

    This article presents the results of a geologic expedition to the Far North of the USSR, where coal resources in the Taimyr Peninsula have been discovered. The surface of the basin is 80,000 square kilometers. Maps provide general information on the geological structure of the basin, location of coal deposits, and the richest seams. Geological structure of the basin, strata in which coal deposits are located, and properties of the coal are described (petrographic components, caking and coking properties, calorific value, ash content etc.). The so-called coefficient of coal content which ranges from 3% or below up to 11% is given for individual regions of the basin. The number of coal seams, their thickness and geological disturbances are described. Taimyr coals represent a full range of various ranks from gas coals to anthracite. The Taimyr coals have lower calorific value and lower nitrogen content than coals from the Donetsk basin. The majority of Taimyr coals have low ash and sulfur content. The best outlook for discovering rich seams of coking and fat coal are in the Taimyr-Ozerskii region of the basin particularly in Chernoyarskoe, Ugol'noe, Ozernoe, and Zayach'e. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. Investigation on energy conservation in thermoplastics production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of energy savings by means of minimizing fuel consumption in polyamide-6, i.e. nylon-6, production is investigated. Reducing energy consumption for processes with condensate and exhaust gases heat recovery in energy management studies presents a growth of process efficiency and contemporary decreasing of thermal pollution. The condensate heat recovery option results in fuel savings of 8.2%. At the same time, the thermal pollution is diminished by 89.3%. Using an economizer and condensate heat recovery for feed water preheating, the anthracite consumption is reduced by 16.91%, and the flue gases are cooled 132.8 deg. If an air preheater is applied for combustion air preheating together with condensate heat recovery, the fuel savings becomes 15.3%. Now, the flue gases temperature is reduced 170 deg. In the system, including boiler feed tank, economizer and air preheater, the total fuel savings reached 19.4%, while the flue gases exhaust temperature diminished 195 deg

  16. The Study of the Multilayer Filtration Process Efficiency on Giardia lamblia Elimination in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mosaviyan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Giardia lamblia is a waterborne highly infectious protozoan parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. The multilayer filtration is used in many applications such as turbidity removes from surface waters and Bacteria, Viruses and protozoan removes. This study was investigated in full-scale the efficiency of filtration process during water treatment that remove Giardia cyst in water at Isfahan province. Materials and methods: We used Information Collection Rule method (ICR. In this method the polypropylene yarn-wound cartridge filter for isolation of these parasites was examined and followed by elution, sample concentration, flotation by percoll-sucrose solution and immunofluorescence antibody (IFA staining to recognize them. Results: Result showed that three layer filtration had a maximum 2.3 log10 for remove Giardia cyst. Cysts removal in water filtration is likely to be comparable to the efficiency of turbidity. Efficiency removal was 99.5% for Giardia and 92.7% for turbidity in filtration stage. We detected 0.2 cyst per 100 liter and per 100 liter in filtered water. This observation is according to U.S.EPA standards. The number of cysts were more in high pH samples. Discussion and conclusion: Analysis of physical processes of treatment water in Isfahan plant configurations showed that granular filters (include sand, anthracite and garnet filter were more likely to have effluence in removal cysts than dual filters.

  17. Formation of heteroaromatic nitrogen after prolonged humification of vascular plant remains as revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, H; Hatcher, P G; González-Vila, F J

    2002-01-01

    In the search for the mechanisms involved in the immobilization of organic nitrogen in humified remains of vascular plants, the efforts of the present investigation were directed toward the examination of the transformation of nitrogenous compounds during the peat and coal stage by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. While accumulation of heteroaromatic-N is not detected in most of the studied peat layers, a clear shoulder in the chemical shift region of pyrrole- or indole-N is observed in the solid-state 15N NMR spectrum of material from the deepest (and thus oldest) peat layer underlying the sapropel from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda (10000 years). This points to the assumption that transformation of nitrogen occurs between an advanced stage of peatification and an early stage of coalification. The observed sudden alteration in nitrogen functionality indicates that continuous accumulation of newly synthesized or selectively preserved biogenic structures is not responsible for the presence of heteroaromatic-N in these fossilized deposits. It seems rather likely that abiotic conditions, occurring during advanced sediment maturation, have an effect on the observed N transformation. With increasing coalification, pyrrole-type-N becomes the dominant form in the macromolecular coal network. Pyridine-type-N was only detected in a coal of anthracite rank. PMID:11931432

  18. A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Analysis Study on Oxidation of Coal with Different Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy and nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements have been reported for different rank coals (lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite and the relationship between the measurements was examined. It was found that the Raman spectra parameters can be used to characterize structure changes in the different rank coals, such as the band area ratios based on the curve-fitted results. Higher ranked coal was found to have higher values of IGR/IAll and IG+GR/IAll but lower values of ID/I(G+GR, IDL/I(G+GR, IS+SL/I(G+GR, and I(GL+GL'/I(G+GR. The oxidation properties of the coal samples were characterized by the reactivity indexes Tig, T20%, and Tmax from TGA data which were found to correlate well with the band area ratios of IGR/IAll, IG+GR/IAll, and IS+SL/I(G+GR. Based on these correlations, the Raman band area ratios were found to correlate with the oxidation activity of coal providing additional structural information which can be used to understand the changes in the TGA measurements.

  19. Effect of combustion catalyst on the operation efficiency of steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustyanskii, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The state of the energy market of the Ukraine is analyzed. The priority of using local, low-grade solid fuel according to its flame combustion in power boilers of thermal power plants and heat and power plants in the short-term perspective is proven. Data of expert tests of boilers of TPP-210A, BKZ-160-100, BKZ-210-140, Ep-670-140, and TGM-84 models with the investigation of the effect of the addition of combustion catalyst into primary air duct on their operation efficiency are represented. Positive results are attained by burning the anthracite culm or its mixture with lean coal in all range of operating loads of boilers investigated. The possibility to eliminate the consumption of "backlighting" high-reactive fuel (natural gas or fuel oil) and to operate at steam loads below the technical minimum in the case of burning nonproject coal is given. Problems of the normalization of liquid slag run-out without closing the boiler taphole are solved.

  20. A critical analysis of the higher Pennsylvanian megafloras of the Appalachian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H.; Lyons, P.C. [Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)

    1997-01-01

    Published records of Stephanian megafloras in eastern North America are critically reviewed and the results of personal investigations in the Appalachian region are reported. The analysis despite incomplete megafloral records, allows the conclusion that the succession in the Appalachian area hides a large stratigraphic gap, at the base of the Upper Pennsylvanian Series. This gap is in the same position and of similar magnitude to that below the Rotliegend of northwestern Europe. Analysis of the floral records in the Southern Anthracite field shows evidence of a similar gap. Megafloral data from the Narragansett basin are analysed, but are found insufficient for determining if there is a stratigraphic gap. Published data from the Maritime Provinces of Canada are used to suggest that the same pre-Rotliegend gap exists in this area. Recognition of this important regional unconformity in eastern North America, which is similar to that in the British Isles and throughout northwestern Europe, strengthens the view that the Appalachian region and the paralic coal belt of northwestern Europe constitute a single, major palaeogeographic area.

  1. Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

  2. Method of predicting properties of coals in basins with intensive magmatic intrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, A.B.; Gavrilova, O.I.; Shishlov, S.B.

    1987-07-01

    Tungusskii coalfields, containing vast reserves of hard coal, manifest vulcanism and magmatic intrusions and are changeable in distribution of coal types. Transformation of coal substance from long-flame to anthracite in the region occurs in small and unchanging thickness and depth of subsidence of roof of coals. In contrast to Donbass and Karaganda mines where deep subsidence of coal mass indicates metamorphism and coal types, use of this criteria is excluded. In shallow platform regions, other methods are required for prediction. In northern Tungusski region, prediction of coal types is accomplished by 4 methods: 1. prediction of zonation by calculation of gradients of metamorphism: emission of volatile substances, carbon, density and reflective capacity of vitrinite; 2. prediction of zonation of metamorphism of coals by degree of postdiagenetic changes of enclosing rocks; 3. petrophysic and geophysic criteria of prediction, density, general porosity and magnetic sensitivity of rocks are indicators of metamorphism of enclosed coals; 4. quantitative evaluation of resources of coal not subjected to contact metamorphism near intrusions. Determine part of coal that preserved background composition and coalification and part subjected to contact action of intrusions. Proposed methods based on Tungusski coalfields are applicable to all similar fields with intensive magmatic intrusions. 7 refs.

  3. Investigation on SO{sub 2} emission from 410t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler burning petroleum coke and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lun-Bo Duan; Xiao-Ping Chen; Ying-Jie Li; Cai Liang; Chang-Sui Zhao [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

    2010-03-15

    Effects of operation parameters including bed temperature, Ca/S molar ratio, excess air coefficient, fly ash recirculation rate and limestone microstructure on SO{sub 2} emission were investigated on a 410t/h circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler burning petroleum coke and coal. Results show that for different fuels, SO{sub 2} emission is correspondingly related to the sulfur content in it under the same operation conditions. With increasing bed temperature, SO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas reduces first and then increases. There is an optimal desulfurization temperature. For burning bituminous coal (BC) only or 70% BC + 30% petroleum coke (PC), the optimal desulfurization temperature is about 850{sup o}C, while it is about 850-870{sup o}C for burning 50% anthracite (AN) + 50% PC. SO{sub 2} emission decreases with the increase in Ca/S ratio, excess air coefficient and fly ash recirculation rate. Microstructure of limestone has distinct effects on their SO{sub 2} retention capacity, and larger specific surface area and higher specific pore volume lead to stronger SO{sub 2} capture activities. The optimal temperature, Ca/S ratio and excess air coefficient for different fuels are recommended for industrial application.

  4. Fiscal 1993 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Survey of the general situation of Thai coal; 1993 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Thai sekitan sogo jijo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper reported the energy situation in Thailand, the present and future status of coal supply/demand, the present situation of environmental policy and air pollution prevention policy and problems concerning coal and the measures for solution, and a possibility of Japan`s cooperation. In Thailand, the total coal supply amount in 1992 is 16.079 million tons, which is 9.1% of all the primary energy supply amount. The country produces only a few amount of anthracite and subbituminous coal beside brown coal. The domestic coal equals brown coal, the production of which was 15.335 million tons in 1992, 13.9% of all the primary energy demand. Concerning brown coal, 79.7% of all the brown coal supply are for electric power use, and others for industrial use such as the cement industry. The remaining reserve in developed areas is 151.4 billion tons, and the proven reserve in undeveloped areas 756 million tons. The demand for import coal was 11.25 million tons in 1996, and is expected to be 201.73 million tons in 2000. The paper pointed out some problems arising from coal production and spread of coal utilization, and described measures to solve the problems and fields where there are possibilities of Japan`s cooperation. 36 refs., 44 figs., 73 tabs.

  5. Search for extractable fullerenes in clays from the cretaceous/tertiary boundary of the Woodsite Creek and Flaxbourne River sites, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Chibante, L.P.F.; Smalley, R.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)); Wolbach, W.S. (Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, IL (United States)); Brooks, R.R. (Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand))

    1994-08-01

    When fullerenes were first discovered to form spontaneously in condensing carbon vapors, it was suggested that they might be widely distributed in the Universe. Searchers for fullerenes in meteorites were unsuccessful, but C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] were reported to occur on Earth in samples of shungite, a meta-anthracite from a deposit near Shunga, Russia, and in [open quotes]fulgurite[close quotes], a substance formed when lightning strikes certain soils or rocks. The occurrence of fullerenes in shungite is particularly surprising since fullerene synthesis in the laboratory has always involved gas phase chemistry at temperatures over 1000[degrees]C. Such conditions may be attained during lightning strikes, but shungite is believed to have formed from carbonaceous material creeping into fissures of a Precambrian rock which metamorphosed under extreme pressures. If the original carbonaceous material did not already contain fullerenes perhaps from wildfires, they must have formed during the metamorphism by as yet unknown solid- or liquid-phase mechanisms.

  6. Geological occurrence of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buseck, P.R.; Tsipursky, S.J.; Wang, S. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)); Hettich, R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Using HRTEM imaging, the authors found C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fullerenes in shungite, a Precambrian carbon-rich rock from Karelia, Russia. Compositionally, shungite represents coals of the meta-anthracite rank, characterized by low ash and sulfur contents, low volatile yields, and high carbon contents. The shungite occurs within metamorphosed sediments. The overlying rocks consist of gray dolomitized sandstones and poorly sorted silts and clays; the underlying rocks are not exposed. The shungite consists of masses containing up to 99% carbon. Diabase is interstratified with shungite-bearing rocks, and the shungite concentration increases with proximity to the diabase. Their sample comes from inclusions in the diabase. In the HRTEM images the fullerenes appear round (presumably roughly spherical in three dimensions), with white rims and black centers, almost identical to images of synthetic C[sub 60] molecules. Following the HRTEM observations, the fullerene identities were confirmed, first by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and then by more precise laser ablation, laser desorption, and thermal desorption ionization plus Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometry. These measurements verified that the fullerenes were not generated by the laser ionization event. HRTEM images show that locally they occur in ordered arrays that resemble crystals of synthetic C[sub 60]. FT mass spectra show that the C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios for C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fall within the normal range of terrestrial isotopic values.

  7. Search for extractable fullerenes in clays from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary of the Woodside Creek and Flaxbourne River sites, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.; Wolbach, W. S.; Chibante, L. P. F.; Brooks, R. R.; Smalley, R. E.

    1994-08-01

    When fullerenes were first discovered to form spontaneously in condensing carbon vapors ( KROTO et al., 1985), it was suggested that they might be widely distributed in the Universe. Searches for fullerenes in meteorites (see DEVRIES et al., 1993) were unsuccessful, but C 60 and C 70 were reported to occur on Earth in samples of shungite, a meta-anthracite from a deposit near Shunga, Russia ( BUSECK et al., 1992), and in "fulgurite", a substance formed when lightning strikes certain soils or rocks ( DALY et al., 1993). The occurrence of fullerenes in shungite is particularly surprising since fullerene synthesis in the laboratory has always involved gas phase chemistry at temperatures over 1000°C. Such conditions may be attained during lightning strikes, but shungite is believed to have formed from carbonaceous material creeping into fissures of a Precambrian rock which metamorphosed under extreme pressures. If the original carbonaceous material did not already contain fullerenes perhaps from wildfires, they must have formed during the metamorphism by as yet unknown solid- or liquid-phase mechanisms.

  8. Treatment of Reverse Osmosis Concentrated Water in Refinery by Biological Activated Carbon Process%生物活性炭工艺处理炼油厂反渗透浓缩水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐传海; 魏新; 郦和生; 王岽

    2011-01-01

    The reverse osmosis concentrated water in refinery was treated by biological activated carbon process. Under the conditions of cracked-anthracite-made activated carbon size 2. 4 -5. 9 mm, influent pH 7. 5, empty bed residence time 30 min and average influent COD 100 mg/L, the system can keep stable running for 48 d, the average removal rates of COD and A2Si are 50% and 77% respectively, and the effluent COD is below 60 mg/L, which can meet the first grade discharge standard of GB8978 - 1996.%采用生物活性炭工艺处理炼油厂反渗透浓缩水.在无烟煤破碎炭粒径为2.4~5.9 mm、进水pH为7.5、空床停留时间为30 min、平均进水COD为100 mg/L的条件下,系统可稳定运行48 d,平均COD去除率为50%,平均A254(反渗透浓缩水在波长254 nm处的吸光度)降低率为77%,出水COD低于60 mg/L,达到GB8978-1996《污水综合排放标准》中的一级排放标准.

  9. Organic petrology and geochemistry of the Carboniferous coal seams from the Central Asturian Coal Basin (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, Noe; Martinez, Luis; Izart, Alain; Elie, Marcel [UMR G2R/7566, Geologie et Gestion des Ressources Minerales et Energetiques, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, BP-239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex 54506 (France); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), C/ Francisco Pintado Fe, 26, Ap. Co., 73, Oviedo 33011 (Spain); Keravis, Didier [Institut des Sciences de la Terre (ISTO), CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, Batiment Geosciences, BP 6759, Orleans 45067 (France)

    2004-03-23

    This paper presents for the first time a petrological and geochemical study of coals from the Central Asturian Coal Basin (North Spain) of Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian), mainly of Moscovian, age. A paleoenvironmental approach was used, taking into account both petrographic and organic geochemical studies. Vitrinite reflectance (R{sub r}) ranges from 0.5% to 2.5%, which indicates a high volatile bituminous to semianthracite and anthracite coal rank. The coal samples selected for paleoenvironmental reconstruction are located inside the oil-gas-prone phase, corresponding to the interval between the onset of oil generation and first gas generation and efficient expulsion of oil. This phase is represented by coals that have retained their hydrocarbon potential and also preserved biomarker information. Paleodepositional reconstruction based on maceral and petrographic indices points to a swamp environment with vitrinite-rich coal facies and variable mineral matter content. The gelification index (GI) and groundwater influence index (GWI) indicate strong gelification and wet conditions. The biomarkers exhibit a high pristane/phytane ratio, suggesting an increase in this ratio from diagenetic processes, and a high diterpanes ratio. This, in turn, would seem to indicate a high swamp water table and a humid climate. The maximum point of coal accumulation occurred during the regressive part of the Late Moscovian sequence and in the most humid climate described for this period of time in the well-known coal basins of Europe and North America.

  10. The sort of carburization and the quality of obtained cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the production of cast iron, the pig iron’s amount in charge material is more and more often limited, and replaced by steel scrap. That extorts the necessity of know-how the carburization and one is looking for carburizers, which ensure obtaining big carbon increment as quickly as possible with the high repeatability and the ones which ensure getting the adequate quality of cast iron. The object of presented research was definition of the influence of charge materials’ sort on the structure, course of solidification, and the effectiveness of process. The cast iron melts, which are presented below, are made only on the basis of steel scrap with portion of graphitoidal, coke and anthracite carburizers, which were added to the charge in solid. In the article one compared the carburizers in respect of their structure, chemical constitution and the effectiveness obtained during the carburization of liquid metal. The melting of cast iron, based on the special pig iron, was carried out as well. The course of melts, chemical constitution of obtained cast iron and its structure were presented. The comparison between quality distribution and the volume fraction of graphite in classes of size for the individual melts were achieved and the TDA curves were inserted.

  11. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  12. The UV signature of carbon in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Vilas, Faith; Li, Jian-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon compounds are ubiquitous in the solar system but are challenging to study using remote sensing due to the mostly bland spectral nature of these species in the traditional visible-near-infrared regime. In contrast, carbonaceous species are spectrally active in the ultraviolet (UV) but have largely not been considered for studies of solar system surfaces. We compile existing UV data of carbon compounds—well-studied in contemplation of the ISM extinction "bump"—to review trends in UV spectral behavior. Thermal and/or irradiation processing of carbon species results in the loss of H and ultimately graphitization. Graphitization is shown to produce distinct spectral features in the UV, which are predicted to be more readily detected in the inner solar system, whereas outer solar system bodies are expected to be more dominated by less-processed carbon compounds. Throughout the solar system, we can thus consider a "carbon continuum" where the more evolved carbons in the inner solar system exhibit a stronger UV absorption feature and associated far-UV rise. We compare carbon spectral models with spacecraft data of two bodies from different points in the carbon continuum, Ceres and Iapetus. We find that the apparent strong far-UV upturn in Ceres' spectrum (in the 150-200 nm range) can be explained by an anthracite-like species while Iapetus' spectrum features a reflectance peak consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We make generalized predictions for UV spectral characteristics in other regions of the solar system.

  13. Explosions of coal powder in pressured process; Explosiones de Polvo de Carbon en Procesos a Presion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    As continuation of the previous introductory work about explosions of coal under hyperbaric conditions and considering the higher risk of explosions repercution with pressure; it was decided to develop this ambitious project, taking into account the more extensive range of type of coals: since subbituminous coals through hard coal to anthracite. It has been considered also several type of sorbents as limestones and others. The main objective of the project is to define, by experimental way, the utilization conditions for a safety coal handling. Many variables have been analyzed: Coal characteristics and origin, type of limestones, oxygen. moisture, temperature, and pressure. Due the great project complexity it was necessary to build one especial installation for trails under high pressure, where it was possible to use all the big number of variable combinations. The main research result has been the development of a model which has the possibility to simulate and analyze the foreseeable performance of coals and sorbent blends, in order to avoid the exploitations using specific handling methods. (Author)

  14. Geochemical study of acid mine drainage of the Big Lick Tunnel area, Williamstown, PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine drainage in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania continues to be a significant environmental problem. This study examines the acid mine outflow from the Big Lick Tunnel, north of Williamstown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. The tunnel drains abandoned mines on the north side of the Big Lick Mountain. Mining ceased in the area circa 1940, and the tunnel has been in operation since that time. The water, soil and stream bed sediment geochemistry has been studied to determine their changes in chemistry over distance. The pH, TDS and metal concentrations were the primary focus. Metal concentrations were determined using an ICP unit. Data indicates the pH of the outflow to range between 6.7 and 7.3 Fe and Mn concentrations are as high as 9.7 ppb. Extensive metal precipitation (''yellow boy'') occurs within the tunnel and for several hundred meters from the mouth of the tunnel. The combination of near neutral pH and high metal concentration suggest that the drainage is in contact with highly alkaline materials prior to discharge from the tunnel. The geology of the area does not suggest bedrock as the possible source of alkaline material. One hypothesis is that the acidic water is reacting with the concrete tunnel and being neutralized. Data also suggests that the Fe precipitates much quicker than the Mn, resulting in a zonation between Fe-rich and Mn-rich sediments along the length of the drainage

  15. Trends in pneumoconiosis mortality and morbidity for the United States, 1968-2005, and relationship with indicators of extent of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This surveillance report examines trends in selected pneumoconioses in the U.S. for 1968-2005 and their relationship with past indicators of extent of exposure. Numbers of deaths with asbestosis, silicosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) were tabulated by time and age at death. Worker monitoring CWP prevalence data were tabulated by tenure group. Information on indicators of extent and intensity of exposure were obtained from various sources. Asbestosis deaths from 1968--2005 closely followed the historical trend in asbestos consumption, and appear to be declining in most age groups. Given appropriate exposure control, asbestosis could be eliminated by 2050. Silicosis deaths decreased substantially from 1968-2005, but levelled off after 1998 in all age groups, indicating a continuing occupational risk. In the anthracite coal region, CWP mortality has been declining rapidly. If there is no resurgence in the industry, CWP could disappear in that region by 2030. In the much larger bituminous region, deaths have declined over time but may be increasing among younger individuals. In addition, although CWP prevalence in working coal miners declined substantially from 1970 to 1994, it increased from 1995 to 2006. This indicates the need for increased vigilance in dust control in underground coal mining.

  16. Colloidal Alumina-bonded TiB2 Coating on Cathode Carbon Blocks in Aluminum Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) with reduction process was used to fabricate TiB2 powder from TiO2-B2O3-Mg system. The colloidal alumina-bonded TiB2 paste was prepared and coated on the cathode carbonblocks. Various properties of the baked paste such as the corrosive resistance, thermal expansion and wettability were tested. Experimental results showed that the colloidal alumina-bonded TiB2 coating could be well wetted by liquid alum inum; and the thermal expansion coefficient of the coated material was 5.8× 10 6 ℃ -1 at 20-1000℃, which was close to that of the traditional anthracite block cathode (4× 10 6 ℃ 1); the electrical resistivity was 8 μΩ·m at 900℃ when the con tent of alumina in the coated material was about 9% in mass fraction. In addition, some other good results such as sodium resistance were also reported.

  17. Air-steam gasification of different types of coals using fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, N.F. [TNB Research Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Inst. Penyelidikan, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Bosrooh, M.H.; Majid, K.A. [Tenaga National Univ., Selangor (Malaysia)

    2008-07-01

    Coal gasification has been touted as being the cleanest technology for producing energy from coal. The coal reserve in Malaysia is 1712 million tonnes of coal ranging from lignite to anthracite. Lignite and sub-bituminous coals have shown potential to be easily gasified and suitable for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation. This laboratory study investigated the gasification of Adaro, DEJ, Hunter Valley, Merit Pila and Mukah Balingian coals. The study made use of an atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air-steam as the fluidizing media. Gas chromatography was used to determination the producer gas compositions. The gasification experiments were conducted at a bed temperature of 600 degrees C. The influence of air and steam as the gasifying agents in the gasification process was studied, and the producer gas compositions were compared according to the type of gasifying agent. Air-steam gasification revealed a significant increase in carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen content in the producer gas compared with the air gasification. The study also showed that hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane were significantly higher in the sub-bituminous coal than in the bituminous coal. The quality of the producer gas improved, as steam was introduced as the gasifying agent. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration

  19. Air Laya coal deposit - South Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenberg, T. von

    1986-11-01

    In southern Sumatra geological coal reserves of about 6 billion tons were proven during the past twenty years. These reserves consist mainly of hard brown coals. Only locally is the coal of higher rank and reaches anthracitic quality in the immediate vicinity of andesite intrusions. The coals are of paralic origin and were deposited during the Miocene and Pliocene in a large foreland deep east of the Barisan Mountain range. From 1974 onwards extensive geological exploration programmes were carried out. In 1980 and 1982, two of these programmes were conducted by geologists of Rheinbraun-Consulting GmbH, Cologne, in order to obtain more detailed data on the geological structure of the deposit, the coal quality and geomechanical parameters. Parallel to this field work, numerous mining and equipment variants were investigated which finally led to the decision to install a modern system of bucket wheel excavator operation with belt conveyors and spreaders. The mineable coal reserves of the deposit amount to 112 Mt coal.

  20. Analysis of the Rheological Behaviour of Selected Semi-Solid Slag Systems in Blast Furnace Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migas P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid systems of slag and hot metal in a blast furnace are extremely important from the perspective of their dripping in the unit. The rheological nature and the values of the dynamic viscosity coefficient of liquid and semi-solid phases - slag and hot metal - determine the permeability of the zones in which those systems exist. The modelling of dripping processes and e.g. static and dynamic holding/retention of liquid in the bed, requires an accurate description of the rheological behaviour of slag and iron systems. Determining the liquid flow through the lump bed of the blast furnace is based on the assumption that liquids in the unit in the whole range of their occurrence are similar to a Newtonian ideal liquid. This study presents an analysis of the findings of high-temperature rheometric measurements of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO systems, liquid, semi-solid slags of the blast furnace type doped with TiO2 and solids in the form of TiN. The tests were performed within a temperature range of 1310-1490°C. Also measurement results for glycerol solutions with concentrations of 86% and 100% at the ambient temperature, simulating blast furnace slags with various contents of solids - PC, anthracite - are presented.

  1. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China:a review of studies in Xuanwei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jie Seow; Cuiju Wen; Nathaniel Rothman; Qing Lan; Wei Hu; Roel Vermeulen; HDean Hosgood III; George SDownward; Robert SChapman; Xingzhou He; Bryan ABassig; Christopher Kim

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the world’s population is exposed to household air polution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air polution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especialy in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas stil use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air polution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantialy between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The instalation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overal, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventualy move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity.

  2. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  3. Laboratory determination of signature criteria for locating and monitoring abandoned mine fires, 1991. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines mine fire diagnostic methodology to locate and monitor fires in abandoned mines and waste banks is based on the controlled sampling of the mine atmosphere to determine changes in the concentration of hydrocarbons desorbed from heated coal. To provide background data for the methodology, a laboratory study was conducted in which samples of coal and coal waste were heated under controlled conditions. Gas samples from the combustion furnace were analyzed for standard gases CO2 and CO and for the C1 to C5 hydrocarbons. In all tests, the concentration of desorbed hydrocarbons increased during heating and decreased during cooling. A dimensionless hydrocarbon ratio, R1, was developed as the signature for heated coal. For bituminous coals, the value of R1 increases during heating of coal samples and decreases during cooling of the same samples. Generally, R1 values of 100 or more indicate coal sample temperatures of at least 100 C. The emission of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons from anthracite samples was very low, resulting in relatively low R1 values at all temperatures. Data from field projects confirmed these results

  4. FT-i.r. and XRD analysis of sapropelitic coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodoev, N.V.; Guet, J.-M.; Gruber, R.; Dolgopolov, N.I.; Wilelm, J.-C.; Bazarova, O. [Institute of Carbon Materials Chemistry SB RAS, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    Sapropelitic coals (sapropelic coals + gyttja) of various coalification stages were examined using Ft-i.r. spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Fi-i.r. spectra showed that the main constituent of low-rank sapropelitic coals is aliphatic chains. The evolution of carbonyl groups is more likely to be related to rank changes from peat to anthracite than that of aliphatic groups. The XRD analysis showed great differences between the low-rank sapropelitic coals and humic coals, although bituminous coals have a structure similar to that of humic coals of the same degree of coalification. The method of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) was applied to low-rank sapropelitic coals. Maxima at 0.5 and 1 nm in the FRDA curves of these coals were established, indicating the parallel orientation of aliphatic chains in sapropelitic coals. The sapropelitic structure is probably determined by preservation of algal cell membranes, because it is known that the aliphatic parts of fatty acids of algal cell membranes have a parallel orientation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Development of Semi—Graphite Carbon—Silicon Carbide Brick and Its Application in Slag Forming Zone of Large—sized Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOYun-zhong; CHENQian-wan

    1994-01-01

    Based on the damage mechanism of the lining at the slag forming zone of the blast furnace and the charactieristics of various refractory ma-terials,the methods to increase the service life of the lining at the slag forming zone have been found:(1) to improve the capacity of the blast furnace brick lining subjet to heat impact;(2) to reduce the working side temperature of the brick lining.On this basis,the semi-graphitized ,high temperature electrically calcined anthracite and silicon carbide etc ,were used as the main raw materials,Through a lot of experiments the proper raw material mix and grain size compo-sition were determined,In addition ,a suitable amount of additives and binders was added.After high pressur forming,high temperature firing and grinding ,the semi-graphitic carbon-silicon carbide bricks with close dimension tler-ances and ideal physical and chemical properties have been made.They have been applied in some blast furnaces,such as No.11(2580 m3) and No.6(1050 m3) blast furnaces etc.at Anshan Iron and Steel Company,and the problem of short service life at slag forming zone of blast furnace has been solved.

  6. Experimental Study on Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Half Water Gas%半水煤气全组份气相色谱分析试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 郝建慧; 周莉

    2016-01-01

    半水煤气,是一种将水和煤作为气化物料进行气化的一种燃气,将空气和蒸汽与煤气混合,在发生炉中与无烟煤和焦炭发生作用,从而形成煤气。这种煤气是水煤气和发生炉煤气的混合,在煤化工行业有着广泛的应用。本文针对于半水煤气进行了分析,通过全组份气相色谱仪,对水煤气进行了分析,希望能够对相关工作者提供帮助。%semi water gas is a kind of gas, which can be used to make water and coal gasiifcation as the gasiifcation material. The mixture of air and steam and gas can be used to produce coal gas with the occurrence of anthracite and coke. This kind of gas is a mixture of water gas and producer gas, which is widely used in the coal chemical industry. In this paper, the semi water gas was analyzed, and the water gas was analyzed by using the whole set of gas chromatograph.

  7. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  8. NOM removal from drinking water by chitosan coagulation and filtration through lightweight expanded clay aggregate filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikebrokk, B.; Saltnes, T. [SINTEF, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Water & Wastewater, Applied Chemistry

    2002-09-01

    Recent innovations in Norway regarding coagulation-contact filtration for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) include chitosan as a natural and biodegradable coagulant, and filter media based on lightweight expanded clay aggregates (Filtralite). The main advantages associated with chitosan are: reduced solids production compared with conventional coagulants; and treatment and disposal of natural, biodegradable sludge, which does not contain metal hydroxides from metal-based coagulants. Filtralite can be produced with an inverse relationship between grain size thus allowing an approximation to the ideal situation of decreasing grain size and density, in the direction of flow. Traditionally, this important property of a filter bed is utilised in up-flow filters, or in dual or multimedia down-flow filters with combinations of two or more filter media. This paper presents experimental results from pilot-scale treatment of NOM-containing raw waters using chitosan for coagulation and expanded clay aggregates as filter media. A dual media anthracite-sand filter and alum coagulant was used as a reference for comparison with conventional process configurations.

  9. Iodine in Chinese coals and its geochemistry during coalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Deng, H.W.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, W.Y.; Tang, X.Y.; Xiao, H.Y. [Nanchang University, Nanchang (China)

    2008-08-15

    To determine the I distribution in Chinese coals, a nationwide survey was undertaken based on the distribution, periods of formation, rank and production yields of various coal deposits. A total of 305 coal samples were collected and their I contents were determined by catalytic spectrophotometry with pyrohydrolysis. The geochemistry of I during coalification (including both peat diagenesis and coal metamorphism) was assessed. It was found that the I contents of Chinese coals range from 0.04 mg kg{sup -1} to 39.5 mg kg{sup -1} and exhibit a lognormal distribution, with a geometric mean of 1.27 mg kg{sup -1} Statistical correlation analysis and the observation that I contents increase with coal rank indicate that coal 1 is chalcophile in nature, and not generally organically bound. When peat developed into lignite through diagenesis, 95-99.9% of the original I was lost. The composition and structure of clay minerals present in the coal were controlled by the original depositional environment. The higher the I content of coals, the more likely the original sediments were affected by a marine environment. Iodine contents increased front lignite through sub-bituminous and bituminous coals to anthracite. This indicates that coal absorbed excess I from hydrothermal fluids during metamorphism (including geothermal metamorphism and telemagmatic metamorphism). The telemagmatic metamorphism was caused by magmatic activities that depended on the specific geological structure of the region. In China, most high-rank coals were formed by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  10. Iodine in Chinese coals and its geochemistry during coalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Daishe [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Honggutan New Zone, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330031 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: dswu@ncu.edu.cn; Deng Haiwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Honggutan New Zone, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330031 (China); Zheng Baoshan [State Key Lab of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS, Guiyang 550002 (China); Wang Wuyi [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Tang Xiuyi [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Xiao Huayun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Honggutan New Zone, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330031 (China)

    2008-08-15

    To determine the I distribution in Chinese coals, a nationwide survey was undertaken based on the distribution, periods of formation, rank and production yields of various coal deposits. A total of 305 coal samples were collected and their I contents were determined by catalytic spectrophotometry with pyrohydrolysis. The geochemistry of I during coalification (including both peat diagenesis and coal metamorphism) was assessed. It was found that the I contents of Chinese coals range from 0.04 mg kg{sup -1} to 39.5 mg kg{sup -1} and exhibit a lognormal distribution, with a geometric mean of 1.27 mg kg{sup -1}. Statistical correlation analysis and the observation that I contents increase with coal rank indicate that coal I is chalcophile in nature, and not generally organically bound. When peat developed into lignite through diagenesis, 95-99.9% of the original I was lost. The composition and structure of clay minerals present in the coal were controlled by the original depositional environment. The higher the I content of coals, the more likely the original sediments were affected by a marine environment. Iodine contents increased from lignite through sub-bituminous and bituminous coals to anthracite. This indicates that coal absorbed excess I from hydrothermal fluids during metamorphism (including geothermal metamorphism and telemagmatic metamorphism). The telemagmatic metamorphism was caused by magmatic activities that depended on the specific geological structure of the region. In China, most high-rank coals were formed by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  11. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO2 emissions by more than 39%.

  12. Brazil's energy potential: a governance challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Except good quality anthracite, Brazil possesses all possible energy resources in large quantities: large natural gas and oil reserves, high hydroelectric capacities, but also high wind and solar capacities. Despite this potential, Brazil is often facing large electric power failures. After a first part which proposes an overview of characteristics of the hydrocarbon sector (overview of oil discoveries, evocation of the Petrobras monopoly, comments about shortfall in natural gas production, and about ethanol as adjustment variable in transports but insufficient to solve the external dependency of Brazil for oil-based products), the author tries to identify and understand the political management of this sector by the Workers Party since 2003 (law, local content and limits of oil at the service of the Brazilian economy, Petrobras as a state within the state, issues related to corruption). The author then focuses on electricity, tries to understand why, despite this high potential and constant investment in this sector, the country is still facing these power failures. In this respect, he notably comments the status and condition of electricity production, the reform of electricity pricing, and the lack of statistics on hydroelectricity, and outlines that improvements are long coming. He also highlights the role of politics in the management of this sector

  13. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  14. Circulating fluidized bed combustion in the turbulent regime: Modeling of carbon combustion efficiency and sulfur retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adanez, J.; Gayan, P.; Grasa, G.; Diego, L.F. de; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.

    1999-07-01

    In this work carbon combustion efficiencies and sulfur retentions in CFBC under the turbulent regime were studied. Experimental results were obtained from the combustion of a lignite and an anthracite with a limestone in a CBF pilot plant with 20 cm internal diameter and 6.5 m height. The effect of operating conditions such as coal and limestone particle size distributions, temperature, excess air, air velocity and Ca/S molar ratio on carbon combustion efficiency and sulfur retention was studied. On the other hand, a mathematical model for the carbon combustion efficiencies and sulfur retentions in circulating fluidized bed combustors operating under the turbulent regime was developed. The model has been developed considering the hydrodynamics behavior of a turbulent bed, the kinetics of carbon combustion and sulfur retention in the riser. The hydrodynamics characteristics of the turbulent regime were previously studied in a cold pilot plant and equations to determine the axial and radial voidage in the bed were proposed. A core-annulus structure in the dilute region of the bed was found in this regime. Carbon combustion and sulfur retention were modeled by modifying a model developed for fast beds and taking into account turbulent regime characteristics. The experimental results of carbon combustion efficiencies and sulfur retentions were compared with those predicted by the model and a good correlation was found for all the conditions used.

  15. Investigation of W-band dielectric constant of coals by free space method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cheng-yan; Fan, Wei; Hu, Wei; Yang, Chuan-fa; Liu, Ling-yu; Chang, Tian-ying; Cui, Hong-liang

    2015-11-01

    The dielectric constant of Shandong anthracite coals of China was studied in the frequency range of 75~110 GHz (W-band), using the free space method for the first time. The measurement system is based on the Vector Network Analyzer of Agilent Technology and a VDI extension module with frequency range from 75 GHz to 110GHz. The dielectric constants of coals were calculated from the scattering parameters by implementing an algorithm. Correctness of the test results is verified by measuring the dielectric constant of air and timber. The dielectric constant of each selected coal with different moisture contents is investigated. It is found that both the real and imaginary parts of selected coals exhibit an apparent increasing trend with increasing water content of coals. The real part of coals with different water content varies from 2.61 to 4.97, and the imaginary part from 0.06 to 0.41 at the frequency of 110 GHz. We also obtained the diversification of the dielectric constant by increasing the frequency at the W-band. The real part of coals with different frequency varies from 3.85 to 3.91, and the imaginary part from 0.32 to 0.37 at W-band.

  16. Pore structure development of in-situ pyrolyzed coals for pollution prevention in iron foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, He; Cannon, Fred S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Yujue [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Bejing, 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A protocol was devised for preparing pyrolyzed coals that could be made in-situ at foundries to capture volatile organic compound (VOC) emission. This pyrolysis created extensive micropore volume in lignite over a broad range of temperature and time; and could use waste heat from cupola exhaust gases by a heat-exchange tube. For foundry application, moderate porous carbon with relatively uniform pores over wide ranges of temperature and time would be more practical than highly porous activated carbon (AC) that requires narrowly-controlled operations. This pyrolysis protocol was developed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a small tube furnace, while using lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. The lignite yielded the most pore volume; and this was relatively uniform (0.1-0.13 mL/g of pores) while temperatures were 600-900 C, and times were 0-60 min. Smaller grain sizes yielded improved porosity; and this corresponded to more release of phenols and naphthalenes from smaller grains, as discerned by TGA-mass spectroscopy (MS). TGA-MS also revealed that improved pore development between 600-800 C corresponded to the release of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; and concurrently higher slurry pH linked to less oxygenated functionality. Adsorption of benzene was compared between the in-situ porous carbon and a commercial AC. (author)

  17. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  18. Influence of different types of coals and stoves on the emissions of parent and oxygenated PAHs from residential coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yue; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Feng, Yanli; Chen, Tian; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of coal property and stove efficiency on the emissions of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) during the combustion, fifteen coal/stove combinations were tested in this study, including five coals of different geological maturities in briquette and chunk forms burned in two residential stoves. The emission factors (EFs) of pPAHs and oPAHs were in the range of 0.129-16.7 mg/kg and 0.059-0.882 mg/kg, respectively. The geological maturity of coal significantly affected the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs with the lower maturity coals yielding the higher emissions. The chunk-to-briquette transformation of coal dramatically increased the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs during the combustion of anthracite, whereas this transformation only elevated the emissions of high molecular weight PAHs for bituminous coals. The influence of stove type on the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs was also geological-maturity-dependent. High efficiency stove significantly reduced the emissions of PAHs from those relatively high-maturity coals, but its influences on low-maturity coals were inconstant. PMID:26836959

  19. Application of nuclear techniques for analysis of Vietnamese coal and embedding rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the result of elemental analysis by Nuclear Techniques of Coal and Embedded rocks samples from Vietnamese Quang Ninh and Thai Nguyen basins were presented. Methods used were: Neutron activation Analysis at Dalat Reactor, low counting with HP-Ge and NaJ detectors and X-ray fluorescent analysis with planar Si (Si) detector. Mean concentrations of 19 elements in coal and 9 in rocks were determined. Correlation between concentrations of elements were found. It appears that the correlation between ash content and U, K, Th, concentrations was poor for Quang Ninh antracitecoal. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0,63 for ash range 0-40%. Content of Th in anthracite Quang Ninh coal was much higher than reported in literature for subbituminous, bituminous and lignite coals, while Thai Nguyen fat coal contains considerable amount of Cu, Pb, Zn. Obtained data were useful for evaluation of potential hazard for environment from using coal as fuel for coal fired power plants, for estimation of possibility of using nuclear technique in coal industry in Vietnam. They could be used also for geochemical investigations. The simple of-line coal ash gauge basing on attenuation of soft gamma radiation from Fe-55 was also described. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  20. Application of nuclear activation analysis (NAA) and low-level gamma counting to determine the radionuclide and trace element pollutant releases from coal-fired power plants in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported of the application of NAA using research reactors TRIGA II in Dalat, Vietnam, and Vienna, Austria (with pyrolysis separation for Hg, Se, and As before irradiation), to determine As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Co, Pb, Sn and Zn. Low-level gamma counting was used to measure Ra-226, Th-228 and K-40, released from coal-fired power plants in Vietnam. Results showed that: (1) the content of the air pollutants in the vicinity of the operating power plants (in 1991, the Phalai plant produced 1700 million kWh, and the Ninhbinh plant 100 million kWh) depends on the coal combustion which is used for their applied operation technology, both plants used Quangninh anthracite as fuel. The content of trace elements pollutants (TEP) in the environment of the Ninhbinh plant is higher than in the Phalai plant. (2) In the vicinity of both plants, rain water is highly polluted by trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Co, Cd, Se, U, Th and sulphuric acid. Therefore, this kind of water is not acceptable for human consumption. (3) The algae growing in the waterfield in the vicinity of the power plants can be used to monitor TEP. Four NAA methods, in combination with low-level gamma counting and AAS, can be successfully used to monitor TEP released from power plants

  1. Putting the Side first

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    SIDE Minerals is a relative newcomer to the South African mining industry. It combines coal and anthracite mining and has base and precious metal interests. Side Minerals has offices in Boksburg from where its mining operations in Delmas, Witbank and Carolina in the Eastern Transvaal, and Newcastle in Natal are controlled. Lakeside Colliery at Witbank -a mine with a life expectancy of 15 years - is both an underground and opencast operation with an annual production capacity of 1,2 Mt of high, medium and low grade coal. Opencast extraction there is by the strip mining method. This is done on contract by Concor Mining Opencast Division, a member of the Concor Holding Group. A high wall face provides entry to the underground operations. Eastside Colliery at Carolina, which has the capacity to produce 480 000 tons of coal a year, is currently an opencast operation with underground mining scheduled to begin during 1994. Westside Colliery near Delmas is on a care and maintenance basis, but it has the capacity to produce 600 000 tons of low grade phosphorous coal which is required by the ferro-alloy and steel industries. 2 figs.

  2. Formation of heteroaromatic nitrogen after prolonged humificiation of vascular plant remains as revealed by nuclear resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knicker, H.; Hatcher, P.G.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J. [Technical University of Munich, Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    In the search for the mechanisms involved in the immobilization of organic nitrogen in humidified remains of vascular plants, the efforts of the present investigation were directed toward the examination of the transformation of nitrogenous compounds during the peat and coal stage by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. While accumulation of heteroaromatic-N is not detected in most of the studied peat layers, a clear shoulder in the chemical shift region of pyrrole- or indole-N is observed in the solid-state N-15 NMR spectra of material from the deepest (and thus oldest) peat layer underlying the sapropel from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda (10,000 ears). This points to the assumption that transformation of nitrogen occurs between an advanced stage of peatification and an early stage of coalification. The observed sudden alteration in nitrogen functionality indicates that continuous accumulation of newly synthesized or selectively preserved biogenic structures is not responsible for the presence of heteroaromatic-N in these fossilized deposits. It seems rather that abiotic conditions, occurring during advanced sediment maturation, have an effect on the observed N transformation. With increasing coalification, pyrrole-type N becomes the dominant form in the macromolecular coal network. Pyridine-type-N was only detected in a coal of anthracite rank. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Composition of coal dusts and their cytotoxicity on alveolar macrophages. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.Y.; Lee, S.L.; Sheehan, C.E.; Wang, Y.

    1996-09-01

    Coal mine dust is produced from complex materials consisting of organic sedimentary strata, inorganic minerals, and trace elements. The dust varies in its chemical compositions and is capable of causing lung injury and damage when inhaled. The purpose of this study was to perform scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectrometry, wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction analyses of three coal dusts, and examine their effects on rat lung alveolar macrophages (AMs) in cell culture. The coal dusts were obtained from coal surfaces of anthracite, meager, and fat coal mines. The AMs were harvested in bronchoalveolar lavage from adult male Wistar rats and were cultured in Eagle`s medium at 37 deg C. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) released by cultured AMs were measured by radioimmunoassay and enzymatic methods, respectively, 24 hours after addition of coal dust. Cytotoxicity was evident in AM culture of all three coal dusts, which caused the release of LD and PGE2. The release was dose-dependent. In summary, our study shows that all three coal dusts exhibit cytotoxicity to AMs and suggests that the pathogenesis of coal associated with pulmonary disease may be linked to the elemental compositions and mineralogic components.

  4. Investigation into the Flow Properties of Coarse Solid Fuels for Use in Industrial Feed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Craven

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Material feeding and handling systems have been cited as one of the most common causes of process downtime where thermochemical conversion processes are concerned. New and emerging fuels come in a variety of forms, and if such fuels are to be deployed widely it is imperative that material feeding and handling systems are designed appropriately. This study proposes an approach for designing material feeding and handling systems for use with coarse solid fuels. The data obtained from this study indicates particle size to be one of the key issues affecting the flowability of bulk solids further to the uniformity in particle shape. Coarse bulk solid samples were shown to flow more freely than their milled and pulverised counterparts, generating higher degrees of flowability. The results from this study were also applied to a new feed system used for feeding solid fuels to high pressure processes named the Hydraulic Lock Hopper. In this study the Hydraulic Lock Hopper demonstrated the feeding of wood pellets, torrefied spruce pellets, and ground anthracite coal grains against a pressure of 25 barg in two modes of operation. Energy savings compared to conventional lock hopper systems were recorded in the region of 80%.

  5. Trends in pneumoconiosis mortality and morbidity for the United States, 1968-2005, and relationship with indicators of extent of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attfield, M D; Bang, K M; Petsonk, E L; Schleiff, P L; Mazurek, J M, E-mail: mda1@cdc.go [Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV, 26505 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This surveillance report examines trends in selected pneumoconioses in the U.S. for 1968-2005 and their relationship with past indicators of extent of exposure. Numbers of deaths with asbestosis, silicosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) were tabulated by time and age at death. Worker monitoring CWP prevalence data were tabulated by tenure group. Information on indicators of extent and intensity of exposure were obtained from various sources. Asbestosis deaths from 1968--2005 closely followed the historical trend in asbestos consumption, and appear to be declining in most age groups. Given appropriate exposure control, asbestosis could be eliminated by 2050. Silicosis deaths decreased substantially from 1968-2005, but levelled off after 1998 in all age groups, indicating a continuing occupational risk. In the anthracite coal region, CWP mortality has been declining rapidly. If there is no resurgence in the industry, CWP could disappear in that region by 2030. In the much larger bituminous region, deaths have declined over time but may be increasing among younger individuals. In addition, although CWP prevalence in working coal miners declined substantially from 1970 to 1994, it increased from 1995 to 2006. This indicates the need for increased vigilance in dust control in underground coal mining.

  6. Trends in pneumoconiosis mortality and morbidity for the United States, 1968-2005, and relationship with indicators of extent of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, M. D.; Bang, K. M.; Petsonk, E. L.; Schleiff, P. L.; Mazurek, J. M.

    2009-02-01

    This surveillance report examines trends in selected pneumoconioses in the U.S. for 1968--2005 and their relationship with past indicators of extent of exposure. Numbers of deaths with asbestosis, silicosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) were tabulated by time and age at death. Worker monitoring CWP prevalence data were tabulated by tenure group. Information on indicators of extent and intensity of exposure were obtained from various sources. Asbestosis deaths from 1968--2005 closely followed the historical trend in asbestos consumption, and appear to be declining in most age groups. Given appropriate exposure control, asbestosis could be eliminated by 2050. Silicosis deaths decreased substantially from 1968--2005, but levelled off after 1998 in all age groups, indicating a continuing occupational risk. In the anthracite coal region, CWP mortality has been declining rapidly. If there is no resurgence in the industry, CWP could disappear in that region by 2030. In the much larger bituminous region, deaths have declined over time but may be increasing among younger individuals. In addition, although CWP prevalence in working coal miners declined substantially from 1970 to 1994, it increased from 1995 to 2006. This indicates the need for increased vigilance in dust control in underground coal mining.

  7. Techniques to determine ignition, flame stability and burnout of blended coals in p.f. power station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Pohl, J.H.; Holcombe, D.; Hart, J.A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The blending of coals has become popular to improve the performance of coals, to meet specifications of power plants and to reduce the cost of coals. This article reviews the results and provides new information on ignition, flame stability, and carbon burnout studies of blended coals. The reviewed studies were conducted in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale facilities. The new information was taken in pilot-scale studies. The results generally show that blending a high-volatile coal with a low-volatile coal or anthracite can improve the ignition, flame stability and burnout of the blends. This paper discusses two general methods to predict the performance of blended coals: (1) experiment; and (2) indices. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests, at least, provide a relative ranking of the combustion performance of coal/blends in power station boilers. Several indices, volatile matter content, heating value and a maceral index, can be used to predict the relative ranking of ignitability and flame stability of coals and blends. The maceral index, fuel ratio, and vitrinite reflectance can also be used to predict the absolute carbon burnout of coal and blends within limits. 59 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  9. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, James C; Senior, Constance L; Suuberg, Eric M; Hurt, Robert H; Wilcox, Jennifer L; Olson, Edwin S

    2010-08-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  10. Research of the refilling use in order to reduce the subsidence effects in the surface; Investigacion del Empleo de Relleno Consolidado para Reducir los Efectos de la Subsidencia en Superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The development of the research has been performed with a practical immediate purpose in the works of the Company Coto Minero de Narcea, S. A., a producer of anthracite in Asturias West Bassin. This is due to the fact that the work mining of the 2, 3 and 6 seams, essential to continue the production activities, is at present almost in vertical coincidence with surface installations of the mine making it necessary to use a filling material specially selected and layed in the works to minimize the subsidence effects. The prediction of these effects in order to reduce them to admissible bounds has been made through the application of the computer program SUBSIMCO, developed on the basis of the empirical calculation methods and the experience collected by the VNIMI Institute of Leningrad. The results controlled up to now, through accurate measuring, show a satisfactory coincidence with the predictions of theoretical calculations, proving at the same time the effectiveness of the filling process designed and the correct adaptation of the calculus method.

  11. Treatment of municipal wastewater using a contact oxidation filtration separation integrated bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.H.; Yang, K.; Yang, X.J.; Li, L. [Wuhan University, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Municipal Engineering

    2010-05-15

    A new contact oxidation filtration separation integrated bioreactor (CFBR) was used to treat municipal wastewater. The CFBR was made up of a biofilm reactor (the upper part of the CFBR) and a gravitational filtration bed (the lower part of the CFBR). Polyacrylonitrile balls (50 mm diameter, 237 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3} specific surface, 90% porosity, and 50.2% packing rate) were filled into the biofilm reactor as biofilm attaching materials and anthracite coal (particle size 1-2 mm, packing density 0.947 g/cm{sup 3}, non-uniform coefficient (K-80 = d(80)/d(10)) < 2.0) was placed into the gravitational filtration bed as filter media. At an organic volumetric loading rate of 2.4 kg COD/(m{sup 3} d) and an initial filtration velocity of 5 m/h in the CFBR, the average removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and turbidity were 90.6%, 81.4%, 64.6% and 96.7% respectively, but the treatment process seemed not to be effective in phosphorus removal. The average removal efficiency of total phosphorus was 60.1%. Additionally, the power consumption of the CFBR was less than 0.15 kWh/m{sup 3} of wastewater treated, and less than 1.5 kWh/kg BOD5 removal.

  12. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  13. Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO2 emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO2 emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97,91.97,88.20, and 98.91 kg CO2/GJgross, respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO2 emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Effect of oxy-fuel combustion with steam addition on coal ignition and burnout in an entrained flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ignition temperature and burnout of a semi-anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal were studied under oxy-fuel combustion conditions in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The results obtained under oxy-fuel atmospheres (21%O2-79%CO2, 30%O2-70% O2 and 35%O2-65%CO2) were compared with those attained in air. The replacement of CO2 by 5, 10 and 20% of steam in the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres was also evaluated in order to study the wet recirculation of flue gas. For the 21%O2-79%CO2 atmosphere, the results indicated that the ignition temperature was higher and the coal burnout was lower than in air. However, when the O2 concentration was increased to 30 and 35% in the oxy-fuel combustion atmosphere, the ignition temperature was lower and coal burnout was improved in comparison with air conditions. On the other hand, an increase in ignition temperature and a worsening of the coal burnout was observed when steam was added to the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres though no relevant differences between the different steam concentrations were detected. -- Highlights: → The ignition temperature and the burnout of two thermal coals under oxy-fuel combustion conditions were determined. → The effect of the wet recirculation of flue gas on combustion behaviour was evaluated. → Addition of steam caused a worsening of the ignition temperature and coal burnout.

  15. Evaluation of the biological treatment for removal of color indigo textile industrial waste water by a microbial consortium in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water has been one of the most affected by industrialization and the development of the textile sector. Medellin is the fashion capital of Colombia and city daily use cleaners dedicated to clothing indigo dyeing. They are major consumers of ground and drinking water. Water is used with minimal consciousness, its increased raw material and which generates high monthly costs. This study was built (RLF) fluidized bed reactor. The anthracite was used as support material for investigating the efficiency removed of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), demand biochemical oxygen (BOD) and color of simulated textile wastewater. Following studies at laboratory scale were initially made to prepare the immobilization of microorganisms in the middle of solid support and periods of start-up and operation of the pilot plant testing: bioaugmentating and bioadaptacion seed taken from textile effluent and removal of color in discontinuous reactor. The results indicated that it is possible to achieve aerobic treatment of textile waste water after obtaining an inoculum adapted to sources of carbon of surfactants, and Indigo.

  16. Short history of steam generators in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first power stations appeared in Russia in the late 1880s. Early pioneers in generator design are mentioned. Lenin considered power production essential for rapid industrialization. In the early 1920s power stations were designed to make use of local fuels: peat, brown coal, and anthracite culm. The high-pressure, once-through boiler technology was introduced in the 1930s. At the same time cogeneration was a widely used technology, and efforts were being made to increase boiler capacity. In 1939, in line with prewar policies of dispersing Soviet industry to protect it from enemy attack, boiler capacity was limited to 25 tons/hr. Almost all of the multi-drum boilers were destroyed as a result of WWII. A novel method of salvaging the boilers by welding 2 or 3 units together to make a single unit was implemented after the war. Research organizations are mentioned along with their specific contributions. Modern steam generators use boiler turbines and supercritical once-through boilers. It was only in the late 1950s that economic planners discovered that oil and gas in power stations was cost effective. In 1954 a 5-MW graphite-water reactor became the world's first nuclear power plant. For the next 20 years, two types of nuclear reactors began production: pressurized water-cooled, water-moderated reactors in the 200-400 MW range; and channel-type graphite-moderated, water-cooled reactors in the 100-200 MW range

  17. Enhancement in dehydriding performance of magnesium hydride by iron incorporation: A combined experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haipeng; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Bogu; Liu, Pei; Zhou, Xinpei; Han, Zongying; Zhou, Shixue

    2016-08-01

    Structural change and dehydriding mechanism of MgH2 with atomic Fe incorporation from reactive ball milling are characterized and simulated by first-principles calculation. Two kinds of hydrides β- and γ-MgH2 are formed from Mg powders under hydrogen atmosphere by 3.0 h of milling with pretreated anthracite as milling aid. Experimental studies suggest that the atomic Fe can be incorporated onto MgH2 surface by the shearing effect of Fe-based milling balls on Mg/MgH2 particles. The incorporated Fe has a high dispersity on MgH2 surface and can form atomic clusters FeH4/FeH2 by combining with H anions. The dehydriding reaction of the Fe-incorporated MgH2 begins at hydride surface and shows an enhanced performance with apparent activation energy of 110.3 kJ mol-1. Theoretical studies suggest that the incorporated Fe can act as a bridge that contributes to electron transfer from H anion to Mg cation before H2 molecule formation. The intrinsic reason of atomic Fe in catalyzing dehydriding reaction of MgH2 lies in its moderate strength of electron attraction.

  18. In situ carbon isotope analysis of Archean organic matter with SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, K. H.; Ushikubo, T.; Lepot, K.; Hallmann, C.; Spicuzza, M. J.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Summons, R. E.; Valley, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) preserves information about the evolution of the biosphere and of the exogenic carbon cycle as a whole. Primary compositions, and imprints of the post-depositional processes that obscure them, exist at the scale of individual sedimentary grains (mm to μm). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) (1) enables analysis at these scales and in petrographic context, (2) permits morphological and compositional characterization of the analyte and associated minerals prior to isotopic analysis, and (3) reveals patterns of variability homogenized by bulk techniques. Here we present new methods for in situ organic carbon isotope analysis with sub-permil precision and spatial resolution to 1 μm using SIMS, as well as new data acquired from a suite of Archean rocks. Three analytical protocols were developed for the CAMECA ims1280 at WiscSIMS to analyze domains of varying size and carbon concentration. Average reproducibility (at 2SD) using a 6 μm spot size with two Faraday cup detectors was 0.4%, and 0.8% for analyses using 1 μm and 3 μm spot sizes with a Faraday cup (for 12C) and an electron multiplier (for 13C). Eight coals, two ambers, a shungite, and a graphite were evaluated for μm-scale isotopic heterogeneity, and LCNN anthracite (δ13C = -23.56 ± 0.1%, 2SD) was chosen as the working standard. Correlation between instrumental bias and H/C was observed and calibrated for each analytical session using organic materials with H/C between 0.1 and 1.5 (atomic), allowing a correction based upon a 13CH/13C measurement included in every analysis and a 12CH measurement made immediately after every analysis. The total range of the H/C effect observed for the Archean samples analyzed was < 3%. Analyses of Archean OM domains for which 12C count rate varies with the proportions of organic carbon, carbonate carbon, and quartz suggest that instrumental bias is consistent for 12C count

  19. Spatially Resolved, In Situ Carbon Isotope Analysis of Archean Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Kenneth H.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; Lepot, Kevin; Hallmann, Christian; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Summons, Roger E.; Valley, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) preserves information about the evolution of the biosphere and of the exogenic carbon cycle as a whole. Primary compositions, and imprints of the post-depositional processes that obscure them, exist at the scale of individual sedimentary grains (mm to micron). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) (1) enables analysis at these scales and in petrographic context, (2) permits morphological and compositional characterization of the analyte and associated minerals prior to isotopic analysis, and (3) reveals patterns of variability homogenized by bulk techniques. Here we present new methods for in situ organic carbon isotope analysis with sub-permil precision and spatial resolution to 1 micron using SIMS, as well as new data acquired from a suite of Archean rocks. Three analytical protocols were developed for the CAMECA ims1280 at WiscSIMS to analyze domains of varying size and carbon concentration. Average reproducibility (at 2SD) using a 6 micron spot size with two Faraday cup detectors was 0.4 %, and 0.8 % for analyses using 1 micron and 3 micron spot sizes with a Faraday cup (for C-12) and an electron multiplier (for C-13). Eight coals, two ambers, a shungite, and a graphite were evaluated for micron-scale isotopic heterogeneity, and LCNN anthracite (delta C-13 = -23.56 +/- 0.1 %, 2SD) was chosen as the working standard. Correlation between instrumental bias and H/C was observed and calibrated for each analytical session using organic materials with H/C between 0.1 and 1.5 (atomic), allowing a correction based upon a C-13H/C-13 measurement included in every analysis. Matrix effects of variable C/SiO2 were evaluated by measuring mm to sub-micron graphite domains in quartzite from Bogala mine, Sri Lanka. Apparent instrumental bias and C-12 count rate are correlated in this case, but this may be related to a crystal orientation effect in graphite. Analyses of amorphous

  20. 我国煤层气储层研究现状及发展趋势%A REVIEW ON STUDIES OF COALBED METHANE RESERVOIRS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔚远江; 杨起; 刘大锰; 黄文辉

    2001-01-01

    A systematical review is made on coalbed methane reservoir description and valuation,coal reservoir distribution and prediction as well as its estimation of target area,methods to study coal reservoirs and the experiment technique in this paper.Also the research on coal reservoir geological characteristics and techniques of geological estimation on target area of coal reservoirs techniques on coalbed methane reservoir engineering,software systems of coal reservoirs simulation in China have been basically seized and shaped.Studies on coalbed methane reservoirs have been made some breakthrough.However,tectonics of coal reservoir in China are very complicated:coalbed transfiguration is stronger,and has granulated as well as mylonitic structures;coal reservoirs are usually lean coal and anthracite,and have three lower and one higher physical properties——lower coal reservoir pressure,lower coal reservoir permeability,lower percentage of routine fissure under the strengthen measure of hydraulic fracturing,and higher adsorbability of coal reserirs.While the rank of coal reservoir metamorphism tends high,higher-coal-rank coal——lean coal—anthracite accounts for 49%,thus indicating a unique Chinese feature.Furthermore,8 scientific and technical points on research of coalbed methane reservoir have been summarized,which would need to be resolved urgently at present.Finally,7 developing trends on research of coalbed gas reservoirs in China at infancy of 21th century have been pointed out.%通过对煤层气储层描述及储层评价、煤储层分布、预测及选区评价、煤储层研究方法及实验技术等方面的系统评述后认为,我国目前已基本掌握了煤储层地质特征研究和地质评价选区技术、煤层气储层工程技术和储层模拟软件系统,并在煤层气储层研究方面有所突破。但我国煤储层的构造复杂,煤层多强烈变形、煤层结构常呈碎粒状及糜棱状等,煤储层多为贫

  1. Influence mechanism of different types of coal on selective nickle reduction in nickel laterite reduction roasting%煤种对红土镍矿中镍选择性还原的影响机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙体昌; 及亚娜; 蒋曼

    2011-01-01

    以某含镍1.86%(质量分数)、铁13.24%(质量分数)的红土镍矿为对象,分别采用石煤和无烟煤作为还原剂,考察了煤种对红土镍矿中镍的选择性还原的影响.结果表明,用石煤作为还原剂能够达到镍选择性还原的目的.X射线衍射及扫描电镜分析研究表明,还原过程中镍、铁先以镍纹石形式存在,随着煤用量增加,逐渐变为以铁纹石形式存在.同时随着煤用量的增加,焙烧后生成的含镍铁矿物中镍的比例逐渐递减,而铁的比例逐渐递增.石煤为还原剂时焙烧产物中主要以镍纹石的形式存在,同时金属铁的生成量比无烟煤作还原剂时低,因此采用石煤作还原剂比无烟煤作还原剂对镍还原具有更强的选择性,可以得到更高镍品位的镍铁精矿.%With a nickel laterite of 1.86% Ni and 13.24% Fe as a sample,the influence of different types of coal on selective nickel reduction in nickel laterite reduction roasting was studied with stone coal or anthracite as a reductant.It is indicated that nickel can be selectively reduced with stone coal as a reductant.The results obtained by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) show that taenite is the main form of nickel and iron in the roasted products when the dosage of coal is small,but the main mineral form changes into kamacite with the dosage of coal increasing.At the same time,with the dosage of coal increasing,the proportion of nickel decreases and the proportion of iron increases in Ni-Fe containing minerals produced after roasting.The roasted products are formed as taenite with stone coal as a reductant,the amount of gained Fe is lower but the selectivity for nickel is stronger than that with anthracite as a reductant,so Ni-Fe concentrate ores with high grade of nickel are obtained.

  2. Solubilisation du charbon en milieu organique Solubilizing Coal in an Organic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahaye Ph.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La solubilisation du charbon en milieu organique constitue une des voies préconisées pour la valorisation des houilles sous forme de combustibles liquides. Dans le cas d'extractions simples, conduites à des températures inférieures à 150-200' C, on obtient des rendements pondéraux en extrait qui varient, pour un même solvant, dans une large mesure selon les conditions opératoires du traitement et la nature du charbon utilisé. C'est ainsi que le rendement en extrait augmente, d'une part, avec le temps d'extraction, pour atteindre après 48 h une valeur maximale dans les conditions opératoires retenues, et, d'autre part, avec la température d'extraction. De plus, ce même rendement diminue plus ou moins régulièrement depuis les charbons gras jusqu'aux anthracites avec le degré de carbonisation des houilles. Par ailleurs, la nature physico-chimique des solvants d'extraction influe fortement sur les rendements pondéraux en extrait obtenus, dans des conditions opératoires identiques, à partir d'un même charbon. En règle générale, à température d'extraction comparable, le rendement en extrait s'avère d'autant plus important que la basicité du solvant est plus marquée. A cet égard, les composés azotés basiques apparaissent comme des solvants de grande efficacité. En outre, les mélanges binaires de composés basiques manifestent le plus souvent un pouvoir solvant supérieur à celui de leurs constituants engagés à l'état pur. Les principales conclusions dégagées de l'étude des charbons sont susceptibles d'être généralisées à l'extraction de la matière organique contenue dans les roches sédimentaires. Cool solubilisation in an organic environment is one of the recommended ways of upgrading cool in the form of liquid fuels. For simple extractions performed at temperatures lower thon 150-200° C, the weighted extract yields obtained with the same solvent vary to a large extent, depending on the operating

  3. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic investigations of aluminas and thermodynamic studies of other solid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation describes thermodynamic studies of the adsorption of a variety of liquid and gaseous bases on to a variety of solid acids, such as transition aluminas, a sulfonic acid resin (Dowex), graphite and anthracite coal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies were also conducted to identify the type, strength, and quantity of acid sites present on two transition aluminas, delta-theta and kappa. Heats of immersion of delta-theta and kappa aluminas into a variety of adsorbates of differing base strengths and geometries were obtained to quantify heterogeneous Lewis acid-base behavior. An in situ infrared spectroscopy investigation was conducted using four basic adsorbates to identify the acidic sites present on delta-theta and kappa aluminas. For two adsorbates, pyridine and 2,6-lutidine, adsorption studies were conducted between 298 and 983 K and at adsorbate pressures spanning from 1.33 Pascal (Pa) to 1.33 kPa. The adsorption of acetonitrile and n-butylamine was conducted at 298K using adsorbate pressures ranging from 0.66 Pa to 8.65 kPa. With all of the adsorbates a Lewis acid coordination site, designated as an outer or weaker site, and hydrogen-bonded complexes are identified. Broensted acid coordination is detected only when a strongly basic adsorbate, n-butylamine, is employed as the probe molecule. The strength of the sites, as quantified with pyridine is similar on both aluminas; however, with acetonitrile, a stronger coordination complex is formed on kappa alumina than on delta-theta alumina. The environment surrounding the acid site affects the adsorption of 2,6-lutidine; although it is a stronger base towards protonic acids than pyridine and might be expected to interact more strongly with alumina, only a weakly bound species is formed.

  4. 中国燃煤发电1993-2008年CO2减排研究%Study on CO2 Reduction by Chinese Coal-Fired Power Generation between 1993 and 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世昌

    2012-01-01

    对158种中国动力煤的CO2排放因子(CEF)进行了计算,给出了CEF随挥发分和发热量的分布规律.计算结果表明:中国无烟煤、贫煤、烟煤、褐煤的CEF平均值(1.0 MJ原煤发热量对应的CO2排放量)分别为0.102 8、0.096 8、0.097 8、0.099 7 kg/MJ,中国动力煤的CEF平均值是0.100 3 kg/MJ.根据1993-2008年中国燃煤发电量和供电煤耗数据,结合CEF的结果,计算得到1993-2008年中国燃煤发电累计减排的CO2量达到3.31亿t.%CO2 emission factors (CEF) of 158 Chinese power coals were calculated, and the distribution law of CEF with Vdaf and Qnear was obtained. The calculation results revealed that the CEF3 of Chinese anthracite, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal and lignite are 0.102 8, 0.096 8, 0.097 8, and 0.099 7 kg/MJ respectively. The average CEF3 of Chinese power coal is 0.100 3 kg/MJ. The electricity production and power supply coal consumption from 1993 to 2008 were studied, and combined with CEF3 calculation results, the calculation results revealed that from 1993 to 2008, the accumulative CO2 emission reduction of Chinese coal fired power plants reached 0.331 Gt.

  5. Environmental report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Report for 2002 of the Slovak Electric, plc (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.) is intended to provide information on the results achieved regarding the protection and creation of the environment over the course of the year and continue the communication process. A significant process, which began at SE, a. s., in 1998, was the construction and implementation of an environmental management system in accordance with the ISO 14 001:1996 standard. From August to September 2002, a pre-certification audit and certification audit was successfully undertaken at Mochovce nuclear power plant, and the certificate was awarded at a ceremony held on 11. 12. 2002 in Levice. The company plans that in the period 2003 to 2004 all the branch plants of SE, a. s., will undergo the certification process. After Mochovce nuclear power plant obtained the certificate the environmental management system became part of the overall management system. In accordance with our stated long-term and short-term environmental goals, the company is gradually redirecting its focus from atmospheric protection to water protection. Last year, a significant investment project in this area was the ecologisation of the external substation at the SE-VYZ branch plant. The main benefit of this project was a significant reduction of the risk of the contamination of the soil and groundwater by oil-based substances. At Vojany power plant, the test operation of units 5 and 6 of EVO I with an output of 2 x 110 MWe continued in 2002. These units were upgraded in past years to use the more environmentally friendly fluidized-bed combustion of semi-anthracite black coal. Thanks to their satisfactory test operation, the production of SO2 at SE-EVO fell to the lowest level in the plant's history - 6 041 tons, which represents a reduction in comparison with 2001 by 40 %. (author)

  6. Thermochemistry and kinetics of oxygen interaction with microporous chars. Technical report 12. [199 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, I M.K.; Walker, P L

    1979-01-01

    In processes involving the hydrogasification of coal, the coal is first exposed to hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures during which devolatilization and gasification of the more reactive parts of the coal occur. A microporous coal char, which is relatively unreactive, is also produced. The char, in turn, can be reacted with steam to generate the hydrogen needed in the first part of the process. Or the char, in part, can be used in a boiler to raise steam. In any case, characterization of coal chars and the relation of character to behavior during gasification and/or combustion is important. This report is primarily concerned with laying the experimental base for the measurement of the heat of interaction of a gas (oxygen in this case) with chars. Following the laying of this base, using a char produced from a reproducible polymer system, heats of interaction of oxygen with chars produced from American coals, ranging in rank from anthracite to lignite, were measured. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the exothermicity and kinetics of interaction between Saran chars and oxygen at selected isothermal temperatures in the range 75 to 850/sup 0/C. The combination of measuring heats of oxygen interaction with chars (using the DSC technique) and weight changes during the interaction opens up a valuable new technique to characterize coal chars. Heats of interaction at 100/sup 0/C are found to be related to rates of char gasification at higher temperatures. Both heats of interaction and gasification rates are, in turn, seen to increase sharply as the rank of coal from which the char is produced is decreased.

  7. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Lab-Scale Studies to Determine Heavy Metal Removal by Six Sorbents for Stormwater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Huber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For the development of decentralized treatment systems for road runoff, the determination of pollutant removal capacities is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of boundary conditions on the simultaneous removal of copper, nickel, and zinc by six sorbents used for urban stormwater treatment (i.e., granular activated alumina, anthracite, granular reactivated carbon, granular ferric hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and granular activated lignite. For batch experiments, capacities were determined at initial concentrations within the range of 2.5–180 mg/L with a rotary shaker. Further influences were investigated: the use of a horizontal shaker for concentrations of up to 1080 mg/L, a variation of the initial pH value (5 and 7, and the presence of a buffer. Furthermore, the influences of the filtration process on the capacities were studied. Kinetic experiments were conducted for contact times between 5 min and 120 min. Lab-scale column experiments with inflow concentrations of 2.5 mg/L (copper and nickel and 5.0 mg/L (zinc at an initial pH of 5 and a contact time of 11 min were performed for comparison. Selected experiments were subsequently carried out with changes in initial concentrations and contact time. One result is that it is essential to conduct batch experiments with the metals of interest. The capacities determined by column experiments deviated from batch experiments. Batch experiments under well-defined conditions can be used to evaluate different production batches. Column experiments give a more faithful capacity by considering realistic boundary conditions and should be preferred to determine efficiencies and service lives.

  8. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  9. Combustion and NOx Emission Behavior of Chinese Coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHonggang; XIEKechang

    2002-01-01

    Seven Chinese coals ranking from anthracite to sub-bituminous from the Shanxi province were selected for study to forecast the combustion and NOx emission behavior.Three UK,one Indonesia and one South Africa coal was included in the study for reference.A flat flame-turbulent jet apparatus was employed to assess flame stability,ignition performance and NOx emission behavior for the initial stage of devolatilization and combustion. This apparatus can simulate particle heating rates,maximum temperatures and the influence of the turbulent fluid interactionson the fate of volatiles.To simulate processes occurring over longer residence time, additional devolatilization experiments were performed in a drop tube furnace.Char reactivity was studied through thermogravimetric analysis.Finally,fouling propensity was studied with the aid of a purpose-built laboratory combustor that enabled the characteristics of the ash deposit to be assessed empirically.The results show that Chinese coals do not appear to possess unusual features in respect of NOx formation,flame stability and ignition,char burnout and ash slagging.The range of coals available in China appears sufficiently broad that suits all requirements.In particular,Shenfu coal,with its initial fast devolatilization and nitrogen release rates and its low initial nitrogen content and high char reactivity,will perform well when fired in industrial boilers as far as NOx emission,flame stability and combustion efficiency are concerned.Pingshuo coal exhibits high char reactivity and an attractive slagging performance suggesting that this fuel represents a good compromise between NOx emission and overall plant efficiency.

  10. Decomposition of benzene in the RF plasma environment - Part I. Formation of gaseous products and carbon depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study employed radio-frequency (RF) plasma for decomposing benzene (C6H6) gas, and examined both gaseous products and solid depositions after reaction. The reactants and products were analyzed mainly by using both an on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and a gas chromatography. The analyses for solid deposition included electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), element analysis and heat value analysis. The C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH4, CO2 and CO were detected and discussed. The analytical results demonstrate that in the C6H6/Ar plasma, C2H2 is the sole gaseous product being detected. The fraction of total carbon input converted into C2H2 (YC2H2) increased with increasing C6H6 feed concentration, but decreased with increasing input power. In the C6H6/H2/Ar system, besides C2H2, CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 were also detected, and their yields increased with increasing H2/C6H6 ratio. The above results indicated that the addition of H2 (auxiliary gas) achieves the benefit of creating hydrogen-rich species like CH4, C2H4 and C2H6. In the C6H6/O2/Ar system, C6H6 could be totally oxidized into CO2, CO and H2O, and no measurable phenol was found. Analyses of solid depositions revealed that the carbon depositions were similar to those of Anthracite. The carbon deposition has a heat value of 7000kcal/kg. Additionally, the possible reaction pathways were also built up and discussed

  11. Pressurised fluidised bed power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, S.A.; Anderson, L. [ABB Carbon AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    The combined experience from almost 75,000 hours of operation on widely different coals in Pressurised Fluidised bed Combined-cycle (PFBC) plants in Sweden, Spain, the US and Japan have demonstrated the viability of ABB`s PFBC technology and the general simplicity of the concept, as well as plant control principles and serviceability. This technology is now commercially offered world-wide and PFBC is being recognized as a competitive solution for power and for combined heat and power applications. The combined-cycle feature makes PFBC highly efficient for power generation. When compared with conventional power plants, and for the same steam conditions, a PFBC plant typically produces at least 10% more electricity from the same amount of coal. There is potential for future additional efficiency increases. The coals used so far in the existing PFBC power plants include bituminous coals with a wide range of sulphur and ash contents, and a sub-bituminous Spanish `black lignite` with extremely high and variable levels of sulphur, ash, and moisture. Brown coal from the eastern parts of Germany will be used as the fuel in a newly ordered PFBC plant in Cottbus, Germany. Oil shale, petcoke, anthracite, and different types of biomass mixed with coal are presently being considered for other PFBC projects under discussion. PFBC is suitable for greenfield plants, but a market also exists for PFBC repowering of older steam plants. Repowering provides an opportunity to convert older, low capacity factor units into assets that lower the system`s production costs as well as improving environmental performance. Ash utilisation also holds promise, elevating the ash from a disposable waste to a valuable resource. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. W(h)ither the coal industry? The long-term view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming--real or imaginary, friend or foe, carbon dioxide emissions a threat to the planet, benign, or good for agriculture--while the debate rages on, the debaters occasionally seem to pause long enough to agree on one point: coal is the bad guy. There is little doubt that coal combustion must continue as a major contributor to the energy economy for the near to mid-term future. It is likely, though, those environmental pressures on conventional processes for coal utilization will only intensify. This factor alone makes questionable the long-term future. Environmental issues also severely impact the metallurgical coke industry. The traditional coal industry and coal markets of the 20th century are under increasingly intense assault. But why waste coal by burning it? Steady progress is being made in two directions for using coal as a valuable hydrocarbon resource. On the one hand, continuous improvements in computer-based structural modeling, which now include the ability to calculate not only a molecular structure that is consistent with chemical facts, but also some of the physical properties and even the incorporation of water. The increasing reasonableness of such structures places one on the verge of being able to do rational organic chemistry on coals, that is, deliberately to select coals as starting materials for certain desired chemical transformations that will produce high-value chemical products in good yields. This opens a route to chemicals from coal that does not rely on by-product coal tars as the feedstock. On the other hand, excellent opportunities also exist for coals as precursors to high-value carbon materials. Anthracites in particular represent an under-exploited, and as yet poorly explored, opportunity for conversion to graphitic materials. Taking coal in both directions high-value chemicals and premium carbon products represent profitable opportunities for innovation, leadership, and new directions for the coal industry in the 21st

  13. Toughness increase of self compacting concrete reinforced with polypropylene short fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melián, G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in bending tests by the addition of low volume fractions of Polypropylene (PP Short Fibers PP. These toughness increases are similar to those attained by Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC referred elsewhere as Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC, having some ductility and strain hardening in direct tensile and flexural tests. Concretes mixtures were manufactured using natural pozzolanic blended Portland cement, volcanic crushed coarse aggregates and fine sand from Sahara desert dunes (0-1 mm from Canary Islands quarries and sand reservoirs, respectively, besides ordinary siliceous sand (0-4 mm and fly ash from an anthracite-coal heat generator.

    Se presentan en este artículo hormigones autocompactables que, mediante la adición de pequeñas fracciones volumétricas de fibras cortas de polipropileno, consiguen incrementos importantes de tenacidad en su comportamiento mecánico a flexión. Estos aumentos de tenacidad son semejantes a los que presentan un grupo de hormigones reforzados con fibras, denominados ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites, que muestran también alguna ductilidad y endurecimiento por deformación en ensayos de tracción directa y flexión. Los hormigones se dosificaron empleando cemento Pórtland con Puzolana natural, áridos volcánicos de machaqueo y arena fina procedente de dunas del desierto del Sáhara (0-1 mm, de canteras y depósitos de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias, respectivamente, además de arena silícea ordinaria (0-4 mm y cenizas volantes de una central térmica de combustible antracita.

  14. Geochemistry of beryllium in Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazy, Greta M. [Geology Department, University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Tzar Osvoboditel 15, Sofia 1504 (Bulgaria)

    2006-04-03

    The beryllium content of about 3000 samples (coal, coaly shales, partings, coal lithotypes, and isolated coalified woods) from 16 Bulgarian coal deposits was determined by atomic emission spectrography. Mean Be concentrations in coal show great variability: from 0.9 to 35 ppm for the deposits studied. There was no clear-cut relationship between Be content and rank. The following mean and confidence interval Be values were measured: lignites, 2.6+/-0.8 ppm; sub-bituminous coals, 8.2+/-3.3 ppm; bituminous coals, 3.0+/-1.2 ppm; and anthracites, 19+/-9.0 ppm. The Be contents in coal and coaly shales for all deposits correlated positively suggesting a common source of the element. Many samples of the coal lithotypes vitrain and xylain proved to be richer in Be than the hosting whole coal samples as compared on ash basis. Up to tenfold increase in Be levels was routinely recorded in fusain. The ash of all isolated coalified woods was found to contain 1.1 to 50 times higher Be content relative to its global median value for coal inclusions. Indirect evidence shows that Be occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. Beryllium is predominantly organically bound in deposits with enhanced Be content, whereas the inorganic form prevails in deposits whose Be concentration approximates Clarke values. The enrichment in Be exceeding the coal Clarke value 2.4 to 14.5 times in some of the Bulgarian deposits is attributed to subsynchronous at the time of coal deposition hydrothermal and volcanic activity. (author)

  15. Performance Evaluation of Different Filter Media in Turbidity Removal from Water by Application of Modified Qualitative Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Moalej

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water filtration units have been faced problems in water turbidity removal related to their media, which is determined by qualitative indices. Moreover, Current qualitative indices such as turbidity and escaping particle number could not precisely determine the efficiency of the media in water filtration, so defining new indices is essential. In this study, the efficiency of Anthracite-Silica and LECA-Silica media in turbidity removal were compared in different operating condition by using modified qualitative indices.Methods: The pilot consisted of a filter column (one meter depth which consisted of a layer of LECA (450 mm depth and a layer of Silica sand (350 mm depth. Turbidities of 10, 20, and 30 NTU, coagulant concentrations of 4, 8, and 12 ppm and filtration rates of 10, 15, and 20 m/h were considered as variables.Results: The LECA-Silica media is suitable media for water filtration. Averages of turbidity removal efficiencies in different condition for the LECA-Silica media were 85.8±5.37 percent in stable phase and 69.75±3.37 percent in whole operation phase, while the efficiency of total system were 98.31±0.63 and 94.49±2.97 percent, respectively.Conclusion: The LECA layer efficiency in turbidity removal was independent from filtration rates and due to its low head loss; LECA can be used as a proper medium for treatment plants. Results also showed that the particle index (PI was a suitable index as a substitute for turbidity and EPN indices.

  16. Application of fluidized bed combustor for use of low grade and waste fuels in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a span of less that 15 years, CFB combustion technology has progressed from a concept to a demonstrated capability of providing clean, reliable energy from low-cost, low-grade fuels. In fact, one of the major advantages of CFB technology is its ability to burn fuels with high moisture, high ash and high sulfur levels, allowing the users the option of using inexpensive open-quotes opportunityclose quotes fuels. CFB technology has demonstrated reliable operation while burning low-grade, easily available fuels which other combustion technologies, preclude or cannot easily accommodate (such as peat, waste coals, sludges, municipal wastes and lignite). The CFB units can be designed to burn a wide range of different fuels, alone or in combination. This capability allows the user to take advantage of various fuel supplies to lower operating costs while still complying with ever increasing environmental regulations. This paper will review the evolution and experience of CFB technology and discuss the operating history of the first culm-fired (anthracite mine tailings) power plant. The development of opportunity-fueled power plants has been associated with the establishment of the Independent Power Industry in the United States. Traditional utilities have relied on premium fuels (oil, natural gas, coal and nuclear) due to availability and the ability to pass fuel costs through to consumers. With the development of privatized power plants, more emphasis has been placed on fixing fuel costs over the life of the plant to minimize investor risk. An analogy can be drawn between the growth of the Independent Power Industry in the United States over the last ten years with the need for capacity in many Developing Countries today

  17. Design and Construction of a Prototype Household Water Purifier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is the general practice in Ogbomoso township, Oyo State, Nigeria, to construct hand-dug wells in residential plots of land to serve as reliable source of water supply. Most of these wells, due to constraints imposed by the size of the plots, are sited adjacent to septic tanks and soak-away pits inside or outside the compounds. The implication of this is that a sizable percentage of the indigent residents exposed to contaminated water are largely responsible for the prevalence of water-borne diseases in the township. To stemthis menace on the short run, a simple and affordable preliminary Household Water Purifier System (HWPS was designed and constructed. This purification system consists of composite filters (containing: sand, gravel and activated carbon, cartridges, as well as Ultra-Violet (UV Lamp. Raw water samples (well water were pumped into the system through Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC pipes. Water samples from both the source and the outlet (purified water were collected and then taken to the laboratory for physical, chemical and bacteriological analyses. The results from the tests were compared to Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS drinking water guidelines. It was observed that the HWPS was able to reduce to permissible levels physical contaminants, as well as most of the regularly checked chemical and bacteriological contaminants. It was observed that theHWPS filter media (aggregates, anthracite etc. turned to a culture medium for bacteria growth when left for few weeks of inactivity. Conclusively, a number of challenges were identified, and the need for further research work on the HWPS was discovered.

  18. Reburning Characteristics of Residual Carbon in Fly Ash from CFB Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. H.; Luo, H. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Wang, X. H.

    The content of residual carbon in fly ash of CFB boilers is a litter high especially when low-grade coal, such as lean coal, anthracite coal, gangue, etc. is in service, which greatly influences the efficiency of boilers and fly ash further disposal. Reburn of fly ash through collection, recirculation in CFB furnace or external combustor is a possibly effective strategy to decrease the carbon content, mainly depending on the residual carbon reactivity. In this work, the combustion properties of residual carbon in fly ash and corresponding original coal from large commercial CFB boilers (Kaifeng (440t/h), and Fenyi (410t/h), all in china) are comparably investigated through experiments. The residual carbon involved was firstly extracted and enriched from fly ash by means of floating elutriation to mitigate the influence of ash and minerals on the combustion behavior of residual carbon. Then, the combustion characteristic of two residual carbons and the original coal particles was analyzed with thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, STA409C from Nestch, Germany). It was observed that the ignition temperature of the residual carbon is much higher than that of original coal sample, and the combustion reactivity of residual carbon is not only dependent on the original coal property, but also the operating conditions. The influence of oxygen content and heating rate was also studied in TGA. The O2 concentration is set as 20%, 30%, 40% and 70% respectively in O2/N2 gas mixture with the flow rate of 100ml/min. It was found that higher oxygen content is favor for decreasing ignition temperature, accelerating the combustion rate of residual carbon. And about 40% of oxygen concentration is experimentally suggested as an optimal value when oxygen-enriched combustion is put into practice for decreasing residual carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers.

  19. Efficacy of alum and coal combustion by-products in stabilizing manure phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Z; Zhang, G Y; Stout, W L; Toth, J D; Ferguson, J D

    2003-01-01

    Animal manures contain large amounts of soluble phosphorus (P), which is prone to runoff losses when manure is surface-applied. Here we report the efficacy of alum and three coal combustion by-products in reducing P solubility when added to dairy, swine, or broiler litter manures in a laboratory incubation study. Compared with unamended controls, alum effectively reduced readily soluble P, determined in water extracts of moist manure samples with 1 h of shaking, for all three manures. The reduction ranged from 80 to 99% at treatment rates of 100 to 250 g alum kg(-1) manure dry matter. The fluidized bed combustion fly ash (FBC) reduced readily soluble P by 50 to 60% at a rate of 400 g kg(-1) for all three manures. Flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) reduced readily soluble P by nearly 80% when added to swine manure and broiler litter at 150 and 250 g kg(-1). Another by-product, anthracite refuse fly ash (ANT), was ineffective for all three manures. In all cases, reduction in readily soluble P is primarily associated with inorganic phosphorus (P(i)) with little change in organic phosphorus (P(o)). Sequential extraction results indicate that the by-product treatments shifted manure P from H2O-P into a less vulnerable fraction, NaHCO3 - P, while the alum treatment shifted the P into even more stable forms, mostly NaOH-P. Such shifts in P fractions would have little influence on P availability for crops over the long-term but would retard and reduce potential losses of P following manure applications. PMID:12931906

  20. Hydrogen production by water splitting with biomass and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study shall contribute to recognise the chemical and engineering research and development need for the future energy supply which besides the improvement of the energy efficiency will increasingly use renewable energies. As an introduction to the complex topic a summarised opinion of competent international experts about the development of energy requirements and its supply in the current century is put in front. An important role can be derived from this for the biomass. The use of the solar power accumulated in the biomass for water splitting to produce the low-emission fuel hydrogen could play a significant role to substitute oil and natural gas. Besides this, the coal which has today the largest foreseeable reserves of the fossil fuels probably will have to make an important contribution. Dominant for the use of coal is the efficiency improvement of the transformation processes and the reduction of the emissions / immissions, as well for electricity production as for synthetic fuel production. This aim should most likely be achieved by gasification and for the electricity production in connection with gas turbines (combined cycle) or also hydrogen fuel cells. The principles of the gasification for the different carbonaceous educts - from biomass up to anthracite - are the same. The differences in reactivity and in accompanying substances require both a better understanding of the chemical - physical fundamentals and technological progress, to guarantee the required high process efficiency and the restrictive purity specifications of gas turbines or fuel cells. The state of the art for the hydrogen production also with a view to the use of renewable energies is presented and discussed in detail. The process developments for the gasification of biomass are surprisingly little progressed in comparison with the expensive electrolysis using renewable electricity (photo voltaic, wind). After describing of R and D projects which build up on the principles of

  1. Historical changes and recent energy saving potential of residential heating in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residential heating method in Korea underwent various phases of development to reach the current system. The first phase was the traditional Ondol (the traditional under-floor heating system in Korea), where the floor was heated by the circulation of hot gas produced by a fire furnace (before the 1950s). The second phase involved the use of the modified anthracite coal Ondol, for which the fire furnace was modified for briquette use (from the early 1950s to the late 1970s). The third phase involved the use of hot water radiant floor heating with embedded tubes (from the late 1970s). This paper presents insights into the problem of current residential heating in Korea and the general aspects of heating energy savings by tracing the history of residential heating in Korea and analyzing related data. The results show that modern apartment buildings with hot water radiant floor heating (the third phase) yield less heat loss due to the tighter envelope, but also yield higher energy consumption than the traditional Ondol heating housing (the first phase). Because of an inefficient system and lack of thermal insulation of the traditional Ondol heating housing, Ondol heating was used to heat occupants sitting directly on the floor, keeping lower room temperature and higher floor surface temperature. So the range of comfortable floor temperature for Korean people is higher and this unique comfort sense is related to energy consumption in modern apartment housing. As a result, several energy saving methods were found such as reducing the total floor heating area or zoning the floor area, receiving continuous heat supply, and installing a delicate control system and metering devices. (author)

  2. Evaluation of operating characteristics for a chabazite zeolite system for treatment of process wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.; Perona, J.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing were performed for development and design of a chabazite zeolite ion-exchange system to replace existing treatment systems at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process wastewater treatment systems at ORNL need upgrading to improve efficiency, reduce waste generation, and remove greater quantities of contaminants from the wastewater. Previous study indicated that replacement of the existing PWTP systems with an ion-exchange system using chabazite zeolite will satisfy these upgrade objectives. Pilot-scale testing of the zeolite system was performed using a commercially available ion-exchange system to evaluate physical operating characteristics and to validate smaller-scale column test results. Results of this test program indicate that (1) spent zeolite can be sluiced easily and completely from a commercially designed vessel, (2) clarification followed by granular anthracite prefilters is adequate pretreatment for the zeolite system, and (3) the length of the mass transfer zone was comparable with that obtained in smaller-scale column tests. Laboratory studies were performed to determine the loading capacity of the zeolite for selected heavy metals. These test results indicated fairly effective removal of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc from simple water solutions. Heavy-metals data collected during pilot-scale testing of actual wastewater indicated marginal removal of iron, copper, and zinc. Reduced effectiveness for other heavy metals during pilot testing can be attributed to the presence of interfering cations and the relatively short zeolite/wastewater contact time. Flocculating agents (polyelectrolytes) were tested for pretreatment of wastewater prior to the zeolite flow-through column system. Several commercially available polyelectrolytes were effective in flocculation and settling of suspended solids in process wastewater.

  3. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Processors Management Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a cooperative agreement with the USDOE to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US that produces ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP will emphasize on reclaiming and gasifying low-cost coal waste and/or its mixture as the primary feedstocks. The project consists of three phases. Phase I objectives include conceptual development, technical assessment, feasibility design and economic evaluation of a Greenfield commercial co-production plant and a site specific demonstration EECP to be located adjacent to the existing WMPI Gilberton Power Station. There is very little foreseen design differences between the Greenfield commercial coproduction plant versus the EECP plant other than: The greenfield commercial plant will be a stand alone FT/power co-production plant, potentially larger in capacity to take full advantage of economy of scale, and to be located in either western Pennsylvania, West Virginia or Ohio, using bituminous coal waste (gob) and Pennsylvania No.8 coal or other comparable coal as the feedstock; The EECP plant, on the other hand, will be a nominal 5000 bpd plant, fully integrated into the Gilbertson Power Company's Cogeneration Plant to take advantage of the existing infrastructure to reduce cost and minimize project risk. The Gilberton EECP plant will be designed to use eastern Pennsylvania anthracite coal waste and/or its mixture as feedstock

  4. Small boiler uses waste coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  5. Preparation of coal water mixtures: effect of the nature of the coal and improvement of the quality of the suspensions by altering the particle properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elomrani, M.; Brunello, J.M.; Nomine, M.

    1989-04-01

    Since 1983, CERCHAR has been studying coal-water mixtures (CWM) with the objective of valorizing some waste and fine products from washing plants. It appeared through this study that the nature of coal is a decisive parameter in the formulation and preparation of coal-water suspensions. Indeed, in identical operatory conditions, the high-rank coals (bituminous and anthracite) give more concentrated suspensions than those realized from low-rank coals (lignite and high volatile bituminous). This difference in behaviour can be explained by properties related to rank such as ratio of oxygen/carbon (O/C), capacity of water absorption, state of surface and shape of particles. Diluted milling was the preparation mode used (50 to 55 wt.% of solids), followed by filtration and mixing with additives. With this procedure, the desired rheological properties were not obtained when using low-rank coals. Another procedure was devised in which the coal is wet milled in the presence of additives and at high coal concentration (about 70 wt.% of solids). The interest of this procedure is to simplify drastically the process flow sheet, but the control of the wet milling at a high concentration is much more difficult. CERCHAR succeeded in developing a two-stage, high-slurry concentration, wet-milling process allowing the preparation of better quality, high-concentration suspensions than those obtained from the classical procedure. This innovative process was patented. The quality improvement can be explained by the effect of this procedure on particle size distribution, state of surface and shape of particles.

  6. Retene emission from residential solid fuels in China and evaluation of retene as a unique marker for soft wood combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2012-04-17

    Retene (1-methyl-7-isopropylphenanthrene) is often used as a marker for softwood combustion and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) source apportionment. The emission factors of retene (EF(RET)s) from 11 crop residues, 27 firewood fuels, and 5 coals were measured using traditional rural Chinese stoves. Retene was measured in combustion emissions from all of the residential fuels tested and EF(RET)s varied significantly among the fuels due to the differences in fuel properties and combustion conditions. EF(RET)s for pine (0.34 ± 0.08 mg/kg) and larch (0.29 ± 0.22 mg/kg) were significantly higher than those of other wood types, including fir and cypress (0.081 ± 0.058 mg/kg). However, EF(RET)s for crop residues varied from 0.048 ± 0.008 to 0.37 ± 0.14 mg/kg and were not significantly lower than those for softwood (0.074 ± 0.026 to 0.34 ± 0.08 mg/kg). The EF(RET)s for coal were very high and ranged from 2.2 ± 1.5 (anthracite briquette) to 187 ± 113 mg/kg (raw bituminous chunk). EF(RET) was positively correlated with EFs of coemitted particulate matter (EF(PM)) and phenanthrene (EF(PHE)) for crop residue and coal, but not for wood. In addition, the ratios of EF(PHE)/EF(RET) and EF(PM)/EF(RET) for coals were much lower than those for crop residues and wood. These data suggest that retene is not a unique PAH marker for softwood combustion and that coal combustion, in particular, should be taken into account when retene is used for PAH source apportionment. PMID:22452486

  7. Measurements of emission factors of PM2.5, OC, EC, and BC for household stoves of coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Feng, Yanli; Zhi, Guorui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-05-01

    As follow-up efforts for measurements on emission factors (EFs) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its carbonaceous fractions for China's household coal stoves, a large-sized dilution sampling system was designed to test a total of 20 coal/stove combinations, which involve five coals with wide-ranged geological maturities and three stoves. Coal smoke was simultaneously collected onto quartz filter for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) analyses by thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) protocol and monitored online for optical black carbon (BC) by Aethalometer. The mean EFs based on burned fuel weight of PM2.5, OC, EC, and BC are 4.25 ± 2.45, 1.11 ± 0.72, 1.43 ± 1.17, and 0.60 ± 0.42 g/kg for bituminous coal, and 1.44 ± 0.67, 0.05 ± 0.02, 0.04 ± 0.02, and 0.01 ± 0.01 g/kg for anthracite, respectively. Significant differences are observed among the EFs for various coal/stove combinations, which are attributable to the differences of coal maturity, burning style and stove efficiency. Although the EFs of BC and EC are closely correlated (r = 0.97), the average BC/EC ratio is only 0.39, indicating a significant gap between the two methods; and the optical attenuation cross-section (σ) for fresh coal smoke can be deduced as 6.47 m2/g, much lower than the manufacturer's preset value of 16.6 m2/g for Aethalometer.

  8. Characterization of fine and carbonaceous particles emissions from pelletized biomass-coal blends combustion: Implications on residential crop residue utilization in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Feng, Yanli; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-09-01

    Bulk biofuel, biomass pellets and pelletized biomass-coal blends were combusted in a typical rural conventional household stove and a high-efficiency stove. Reductions in PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) emissions were evaluated by comparing emission factors (EFs) among 19 combinations of biofuel/residential stove types measured using a dilution sampling system. In the low-efficiency stove, the average EFs of PM2.5, OC, and EC of biomass pellets were 2.64 ± 1.56, 0.42 ± 0.36, and 0.30 ± 0.11 g/kg, respectively, significantly lower than those burned in bulk form. EFPM2.5 and EFOC of pelletized biomass combustion in the high-efficiency stove were lower than those of the same biofuel burned in the low-efficiency stove. Furthermore, pelletized corn residue and coal blends burned in the high-efficiency stove could significantly decrease emissions. Compared with the bulk material burned in the low-efficiency stove, the reduction rates of PM2.5, OC and EC from pelletized blends in the high-efficiency stove can reach 84%, 96% and 93%, respectively. If the annually produced corn residues in 2010 had been blended with 10% anthracite coal powder and burnt as pellets, it would have reduced about 82% of PM2.5, 90-96% of OC and 81-92% of EC emission in comparison with burning raw materials in conventional household stoves. Given the low cost, high health benefit and reduction effect on atmospheric pollutants, pelletized blends could be a promising alternative to fossil fuel resources or traditional bulk biofuel.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-07-01

    Waste Processors Management Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a cooperative agreement with the USDOE to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US that produces ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP will emphasize on reclaiming and gasifying low-cost coal waste and/or its mixture as the primary feedstocks. The project consists of three phases. Phase I objectives include conceptual development, technical assessment, feasibility design and economic evaluation of a Greenfield commercial co-production plant and a site specific demonstration EECP to be located adjacent to the existing WMPI Gilberton Power Station. There is very little foreseen design differences between the Greenfield commercial coproduction plant versus the EECP plant other than: The greenfield commercial plant will be a stand alone FT/power co-production plant, potentially larger in capacity to take full advantage of economy of scale, and to be located in either western Pennsylvania, West Virginia or Ohio, using bituminous coal waste (gob) and Pennsylvania No.8 coal or other comparable coal as the feedstock; The EECP plant, on the other hand, will be a nominal 5000 bpd plant, fully integrated into the Gilbertson Power Company's Cogeneration Plant to take advantage of the existing infrastructure to reduce cost and minimize project risk. The Gilberton EECP plant will be designed to use eastern Pennsylvania anthracite coal waste and/or its mixture as feedstock.

  10. Geochemistry of the late Permian No. 30 coal seam, Zhijin Coalfield of Southwest China: influence of a siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the influence of siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid on the elemental concentrations and mineralogical characteristics of the late Permian anthracitic (Ro,max=3.58%) coal seam (No. 30) from the Zhijin Coalfield in western Guizhou Province, SW China. Coal samples were examined using instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray, and isotope analysis. The modes of occurrence of elements were determined using a sequential chemical extraction procedure. The studies indicate that the No. 30 coal seam has a very high content of veined quartz (vol. 9.4%), whose isotope values of δ30Si and δ18O are 0.6 per mille and 15.4 per mille, respectively, indicating that the quartz originated from siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid (formation temperature 160-220 deg. C) rather than detrital material of terrigenous origin or magmatic hydrothermal inputs. Results of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray and sequential chemical extraction procedure show that the veined quartz is the dominant source of Fe, Cu, U, Pd, Pt and Ir, which are as high as 2.31%, 356, 8, 2.1, 2.43, and 0.006 μg/g in this coal seam, respectively. The studies have also found that elements, such as Fe and Cu are mainly in the veined quartz and they do not occur as sulfides in this coal seam, in sharp contrast to many other coal seams in China. The geochemical and mineralogical anomalies of the coal are attributed to the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid

  11. Origin of iron oxide spherules in the banded iron formation of the Bababudan Group, Dharwar Craton, Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orberger, Beate; Wagner, Christiane; Wirth, Richard; Quirico, Eric; Gallien, Jean Paul; Derré, Colette; Montagnac, Gilles; Noret, Aurélie; Jayananda, Mudlappa; Massault, Marc; Rouchon, Virgile

    2012-06-01

    The banded iron formation of the Bababudan Group (Western Dharwar Craton, India) is composed of millimetric to centimetric alternating quartz and grey to red Fe-oxide bands. Major phases are quartz and martite (hematized magnetite) with minor Fe-sulfides and Ca-Mg-Fe-carbonates. Micrometric Fe-oxide spherules fill cavities in discontinuous micrometric layers of Fe-oxides that occur in the massive quartz layers and at the interface of massive Fe-oxide and quartz layers. The spherules are composed of micrometric radial plates of hematite intergrown with nanometric magnetite. These spherules contain carbonaceous matter (CM) with nanometric Fe-particles and have low N contents (˜900 ppm; CM1). The spherule formation is attributed to a low temperature hydrothermal process (150-200 °C) at around 2.52 Ga, possibly favored by the presence of CM. These hydrothermal fluids dissolved diagenetic interstitial sulfides or carbonates creating cavities which, provided space for the spherule precipitation. Carbonaceous matter of semi-anthracite maturity is encapsulated in quartz grains adjacent to the Fe-oxide spherules (CM2) and it is thus concluded that CM1 and CM2 are most likely contemporaneous and of the same origin, either incorporated at the time of BIF formation or during the hydrothermal event at 2.52 Ga from the underlying phyllitised black shales. Carbonaceous matter (CM3) was also found around the Fe-oxide spherules and the martite grains. CM3 has much higher N contents (>5000 ppm), is of a lower maturity than CM1 and CM2, and is related to weathering, which is also indicated by the presence of goethite and kaolinite. The δ13C of all CMs varies from -19.4 to -24.7‰, similar to values measured in the underlying phyllitised black shales and likely reflect denitrifying microbial activity.

  12. THE COMPLEX USE OF LOCAL TYPES OF FUEL IN THE POROUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Voronova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comprehensive low-waste technology is the use of local fuels, which can be used in the technology of some porous building materials. Also provides new methods of preparation of porous building materials based on aggloporite using local fuels and waste energy on the basis of milled peat, fuel briquettes and wood chips allow to replace expensive imported components that comprise the raw mixtures (coal, anthracite.On the basis of mathematical modeling of cooling in reheat furnaces pusher drive developed a method of engineering calculation mode batch hardening in agglomeration. Submitted constructive solution for the development of the cooling charge with thermophysical rational justification cooling modes. A study of the temperature distribution within the charge depending on the different speeds of the belt sintering machine, and hence on the cooling time.The characteristics of the raw material deposits "Fanipol" and the optimal composition of the charge which includes loam, coal, milled peat. In industrial research obtained aggloporite this formulation has shown positive results in strength and density. Established that by decreasing the particle size of the fuel increases the redox potential of the combustion products, which reduces the height of the oxidizing zone and the speed of the sintering raw mix. These processes increase the productivity of sinter machine.Technology is implemented on the "Minsk factory of building materials". The tests analyzed production technology porous construction materials using milled peat with the addition of sawdust. The study results recommend further use of sapropel, which cost significantly lower raw material mixture of submissions and in their physical and mechanical properties much closer to the properties of milled peat.

  13. 含铌铁精矿煤基直接还原过程中铌的行为研究%Distribution Behavior of Niobium in Process of Coal-Based Direct Reduction Roasting of Nb-Bearing Iron Concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋曼; 孙体昌; 寇珏; 及亚娜; 许言

    2011-01-01

    A coal-based direct reduction process on Nb-bearing iron concentrates was proposed. The DRI (direct reduction iron) products were separated from the gangue by magnetic separation after roasting with coal. With different roasting temperatures, reduction agent dosages, fluxing agents, and taking the lignite and anthracite as reduction agent, it was investigated that different parameter affected the results of direct reduction roasting, and niobium respectively distributed in slag and metallic iron. The experimental results showed that 80% of the niobium mineral entered the tailings with the roasting temperature of 1200 t, while 90% entered DRI in 1300 t with adding fluxing agent TS2 10%.%以含铌铁精矿为研究对象,采用固态煤作还原剂还原焙烧,再经磁选得到还原铁产品.在不同焙烧温度、还原剂用量、助熔剂用量条件下,分别以褐煤和无烟煤为还原剂,研究了各因素对直接还原焙烧-磁选结果的影响,考察焙烧过程中铌分别在渣相和金属相中的分布.试验结果表明,1200℃时80%的铌矿物进入尾矿中;而1300℃时添加助熔剂TS2用量10%条件下,90%铌矿物在直接还原焙烧-磁选得到还原铁产品中富集.

  14. Analysis of the reusability of the energy of the exhaust gas from the calciner for the production of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calciner is used to produce carbon from anthracite coal. In its working process, a significant amount of energy is lost through its exhaust gas. How much energy can be recovered from the exhaust gas becomes important. To answer this question a method to determine the mass flow rate and the composition of the exhaust gas from a calciner is developed, and a combustion model based on well-stirred reactor is used to obtain the suitable combustor parameters and the amount of the chemical energy which can be released in combustion. As an example to verify the method and the model, the energy utilization ratio of a calciner with power of 1250 kW is investigated. The results show that the method can determine the mass flow rate and the composition of the exhaust gas, and the combustion model is suitable for obtaining reasonable results in determining the volume and the heat duty of the combustor, the air–fuel ratio, and the amount of the chemical energy released. For a calciner with power of 1250 kW, when the temperature of the tail gas after combustion reaches to 135 °C, the energy utilization ratio of the calciner is calculated to be around 77%. - Highlights: • A method obtaining the mass balance of exhaust gas from calciner is reported. • A combustion model obtaining combustion behavior of the exhaust gas is reported. • Determining the energy utilization ratio of a typical calciner is demonstrated. • The energy utilization ratio of a typical calciner is about 77%

  15. The energy requirements of the mining and metallurgical industry in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa depends to a considerable measure on the exploitation of mineral reserves and the processing of these minerals. One of the prime requirements for the mining and metallurgical industry to continue in this vital role is access to sufficient energy in a suitable form. About 26 per cent of the extractable reserves of coal would be required in the mining and processing of 50 per cent of South Africa's reserves. However, the reducing agents required exceed the extractable reserves but not the total estimates of mineable in situ resources of metallurgical coal and anthracitic coal. Even under the severe constraint that coal could become virtually the sole source of energy, only about three-quarters of the extractable reserves of coal would have been consumed by the year 2025. The reasonably assured resources of uranium metal that can be recovered at less than $80 per kilogram are considerable and, at current conversion efficiencies to electricity, are equivalent to one-fifth of the extractable reserves of coal. The rate of exportation of energy in the form of U3O8 was about five times that of coal in 1978. The price of energy has a direct effect on the competitiveness of metals, and, although constituting only a small proportion of the selling price of precious metals, it represents a significant proportion of the selling price of copper and metals recovered from oxide ores. Provided that alternative sources of energy can be converted to electrical energy, they can be applied to the mining and metallurgical industries. The decision as to which type of energy should be used in specific mining and metallurgical situations is complicated, and is likely to be subjected to closer scrutiny than in the past

  16. A large-scale field trial of thin-layer capping of PCDD/F-contaminated sediments: Sediment-to-water fluxes up to 5 years post-amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Schaanning, Morten; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Eek, Espen

    2016-04-01

    The longer-term effect (3-5 y) of thin-layer capping on in situ sediment-to-surface water fluxes was monitored in a large-scale field experiment in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandfjords, Norway (4 trial plots of 10,000 to 40,000 m(2) at 30 to 100 m water depth). Active caps (designed thickness 2.5 cm) were established in 2 fjords, consisting of dredged clean clay amended with powdered activated carbon (PAC) from anthracite. These active caps were compared to 2 nonactive caps in one of the fjords (designed thickness 5 cm) consisting of either clay only (i.e., without PAC) or crushed limestone. Sediment-to-water PCDD/F fluxes were measured in situ using diffusion chambers. An earlier study showed that during the first 2 years after thin-layer capping, flux reductions relative to noncapped reference fields were more extensive at the fields capped with nonactive caps (70%-90%) than at the ones with PAC-containing caps (50%-60%). However, the present work shows that between 3 and 5 years after thin-layer capping, this trend was reversed and cap effectiveness in reducing fluxes was increasing to 80% to 90% for the PAC caps, whereas cap effectiveness of the nonactive caps decreased to 20% to 60%. The increasing effectiveness over time of PAC-containing "active" caps is explained by a combination of slow sediment-to-PAC mass transfer of PCDD/Fs and bioturbation by benthic organisms. The decreasing effectiveness of "nonactive" limestone and clay caps is explained by deposition of contaminated particles on top of the caps. The present field data indicate that the capping efficiency of thin active caps (i.e., enriched with PAC) can improve over time as a result of slow diffusive PCDD/F transfer from sediment to PAC particles and better mixing of the PAC by bioturbation. PMID:26012529

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPORT-SUBSTITUTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BUILDING MATERIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on rational usage of mineral resources. In particular, it has shown the possibility to increase a period of raw material serviceability and its application for production of building products depending on chemical and mineralogical composition of the waste. Analysis of the executed investigations shows that import substitution of anthracite, lignite and black coal for local fuels (milled peat and its sub-standard product is possible in the production technology of porous building materials.A mathematical model for drying process has been developed in the paper. Technology for thermal performance of a sintering machine with calculation of its length at the given pallet speed has been proposed on the basis of the developed model. Once-through circulation of flue gases and heated materials is the main specific feature of belt sintering machines being used in production. In such a case the whole drying process can be divided into two periods: a period of constant drying rate and a period of falling drying rate. Calculations have shown that the drying rate depends on moisture content but it does not depend on heat exchange Bio-criteria, however, heating rate is a function of temperature and Biq. A mechanism of moisture transfer using various drying methods is the same as in an environment with constant temperature and so in an environment with variable temperature. Application of the mathematical model provides the possibility to save significantly power resources expended for drying process.The paper gives description of methodology for calculation of technologically important optimum parameters for sintering processes of agglomeration while using milled peat.

  18. Coming up for air: experts, employers, and workers in campaigns to compensate silicosis sufferers in Britain, 1918-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufton, Mark W; Melling, Joseph

    2005-04-01

    Government regulation of dangerous trades and the compensation of those injured by their work remains a matter of considerable debate among medical historians. Trade unions have frequently been criticized for pursuing financial awards for their members rather than demanding improvements in health and safety at the workplace. This article examines the neglected subject of silicosis injuries in Britain from the time when the first legislation was passed for compensation of those suffering from the harmful affects of silica dust in 1918 to the outbreak of war in 1939, when a major new study was under way which would transform the scientific understanding and the legal compensation of those who were diagnosed as being ill with pneumoconiosis. It is argued that in framing legislation from compensation, politicians and their civil servants sought to retain the legal framework created in 1897-1906 and developed a model of industrial insurance which depended to a large extent on a co-operative relationship with leading employers. Medical scientists identified silica as a uniquely hazardous agent in workers' lung disease, which emphasizing the specialist knowledge required for its diagnosis. One remarkable feature of the selective compensation schemes devised after 1918 was the reliance on geological rather than pathological evidence to prove compensation rights as well as strict employment limits on those eligible to claim. only the campaigning of labour organizations and persistent evidence of lung disease among anthracite coal miners led to a significant relaxation of compensation rules in 1934 and the fresh scientific investigation which transformed the medical understanding of respiratory illness among industrial workers. PMID:15981383

  19. Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mineral Bio-leaching Valuable Metals from Multimetallic Nodules in the Deep Sea Bed Haoran Li, Yali Feng, Hong Shi, Wengming Zhang Abstract: The feasibility of bio-leaching valuable metals from mutimetallic nodules in the deep sea bed by using thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T.f.) bacteria was tested. The conditions of bio-leaching valuable metals Co and Ni from multimetallic nodules,for example: the mass ratio of culture medium and nodules, leaching pH value, inoculation value and leaching temperature have been studied. In the process, the T.f. was tamed. These tests proved it was feasible that: using leathen culture, adding pyrite as the nourishment substance and reductant, under general temperature, acid condition, the nodules were not dried and ground, while the bio-leaching would be carried out effectively,leaching time was nine days,leaching rate was as follows:copper 45.21%, cobalt 98.22%,nickel 95.12%, manganese 97.54%, iron 12.89% (in the leaching solution). Key words: multimetallic nodules in the deep sea bed; thiobacillus ferrooxidans; bio-leaching [J. Univ. Sci. & Tech. Beijing (in Chinese), 22 (2000). p. 489.] Production of Metallurgical Cleans from Waste Anthracite Culm Jun Hu, Jingtian Liu, Liqiang Ma, Yongtian Wang Abstract:The recovery of anthracite sludge in Fenghuangshan Mine by flotation column broke through the tradition that flotation does not fit to anthraciye. The application of flotation column as a new technology in the recovery of waste anthracite did not only bring benefits to the Min by full untilization of the sludge, but also reduced the environmental pollution of the sludge discharge. Key words: flotation column; coal sludge; coal preparation; waste recovery [J. Univ. Sci. & Tech. Beijing (in Chinese), 22 (2000). p. 493.] Mining Project Evaluation Model Based on Options Pricing Theory Chaoma Liu, Dongmei Liu, Meifeng Cai Abstract: Discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques are widely used for valuing project investment. But this convention DCF

  20. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDRA B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine of Jerada is located in north east of Morocco,in horst zone, in the productive geological formation of Westphalian C. The mining activity has generated along 65 years (1936-2001, 15 to 20 millions tons of washery waste rocks, cumulated principally in urban center. The groundwater (n=30 and waste rock (n=7 sampling was led in the middle of May 2008, which presents in local climatic context the end of rainy season and the beginning of sec season. Waste rocks are exhaustively black schist, with a paucity in pyrite (anthracite debris contain between 2 to 5% of synergic pyrite and predominance of calcareous minerals essentially as dolomite. Consequently, the majority of waste rock samples are not acid generators. The pyrite oxidation produces sulphuric acid, which will be quickly neutralized by carbonates. The alkaline tendency of pH classifies Jerada abandoned coal mine in circum neutral mining drainage type (NMD. The leaching through unsaturated and saturated zone will be facilitated due to a big pore size and a breakingtectonic having fractured Jerada coal basin. The deformed black schist alternative to sandstone permits a good water circulation. The massive product of mining drainage and the major pollutant of groundwater is undoubtedly S-SO4 (27/30 exceed WHO guideline. The spatial correlation between S-total and salinity illustrates the deterioration of groundwater quality due to pyrite oxidation. The alteration of schist and halite dissolution contribute to

  1. Sub-Thermal Effects at the Radiation-Thermal Transformations of Organic Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The regularities of the radiation-thermal transformations of coals , anthracite, peat, heavy oil fractions (gasoil, fuel-oil, tar, bitumen) and oil-bituminous rocks are studied in the Institute of Radiation Problems for 1985-2012. As a radiation the gamma-rays of isotope sources Co-60, electron beam of electron accelerators of ELIT-1 and ELU-4 are used. Parameters of processes varied in following limits: dose rate 0.4-2000 Gy/s, absorbed dose 0.7- 800 kGy, temperature 40-700C. As products are identified: hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons C1-C7, high-molecular olefins, active carbon and liquid fuel. For studying physical and chemical processes at the radiation-thermal transformation of organic fuels are used methods: a chromatography, IR-spectroscopy, ESR- spectroscopy, derivatography, chemical methods of the liquid analysis, etc. Studying of kinetics and mechanism of proceeding processes was studied on an example model hydrocarbons- heptane and pentadecane. It is applied calculation methods for definition of chemical reactions rates on the basis of the offered kinetic model and are received satisfactory consent between calculation and experimental results. It has been shown that sub-thermal effect at the radiation-thermal decomposition of organic fuels is function of temperature and dose rate. In quantity of sub-thermal effect the certain contribution gives energy of activation of thermal decomposition of organic fuel and reaction of separation, and also constants of rate for radical recombination processes, etc. The dose rate and temperature are double influence on quantity of sub-thermal effects. On the one hand raising of rate of separation reactions (as a result of temperature rise) increases an yield of products, on other hand-raises of rate of pure thermal reactions of decomposition. Dose rate also doubly influences on sub-thermal effects. So, with increase of dose rate of radiation the concentration of active particles grows, at the same

  2. Structural diagenesis in Upper Carboniferous tight gas sandstones. Lessons learned from the Piesberg analog study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorf, P.; Hoehne, M.; Becker, S.; Hilgers, C. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR); Koehrer, B. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Barnstorf (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Upper Carboniferous tight gas sandstone reservoirs in NW-Germany consist of thick successions of cyclothems. Our focus is the Westphalian D of the Piesberg quarry near Osnabrueck, which exposes cemented, faulted and jointed third-order coarse- to fine-grained sandstone cycles separated by anthracite coal seams. We characterize the rocks and the lateral variation of rock properties such as porosity to better constrain input data for reservoir modelling. Three cycles are exposed, each approximately 50 m thick. Rock types can be clearly distinguished by spectral gamma ray in the quarry. Sandstones are intensely compacted and cemented with quartz and generally characterized by low porosities < 8 % (Hepycnometry on plugs and cuttings). Porosities are secondary and mainly related to detrital carbonate dissolution. Around faults dissolution is higher and the porosities can increase to up to 25%. The normal faults show different throws in the quarry and bands of shale and coal have smeared into the fault at juxtaposed beds, which may result in compartments. They dominantly strike W-E and NNW-SSE, but subordinate NE-SW striking fault patterns are also present. Joints were analyzed in a 50 x 50 m section of the quarry wall using Lidar (Light detection and ranging) laser scanning, which allows the characterization of the lithology and quantitative measurement of bedding and fracture orientation data in inaccessible areas. NNE-SSW and W-E joint sets are accompanied by northeasterly and northwesterly striking sets. Around faults, fault planes and fractures are cemented with quartz veins, showing localized mass transport. Due to the intense cementation, the sandstones can reach uniaxial strengths of more than 100 MPa normal to bedding, and approximately 50 MPa parallel to bedding. Sandstone beds within and close to faults are leached by fluids, and their uniaxial strength is reduced by a factor of more than two. Our high resolution field data enables a better understanding of

  3. Pilot study on arsenic removal from groundwater using a small-scale reverse osmosis system-Towards sustainable drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan-André; Gukelberger, Ephraim; Hermann, Mario; Fiedler, Florian; Großmann, Benjamin; Hoinkis, Jan; Ghosh, Ashok; Chatterjee, Debashis; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2016-11-15

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is posing a serious challenge to drinking water supplies on a global scale. In India and Bangladesh, arsenic has caused the most serious public health issue in the world for nearly two decades. The aim of this work was to study an arsenic removal system based on reverse osmosis at pilot scale treating two different water sources from two different locations in the State of Bihar, India. For this purpose two villages, Bind Toli and Ramnagar in the Patna District were selected, both located very close to the river Ganga. The trials were conducted with aerated and non-aerated groundwater. It is the first time that the arsenic removal efficiency for aerated and non-aerated groundwater by reverse osmosis technology in combination with an energy-saving recovery system have been studied. As the principle of reverse osmosis requires a relatively high pressure, its energy demand is naturally high. By using an energy recovery system, this demand can be lowered, leading to an energy demand per liter permeate of 3-4Wh/L only. Due to high iron levels in the groundwater and as a consequence the precipitation of ferric (hydr)oxides, it was necessary to develop a granular media filter for the trials under aeration in order to protect the membrane from clogging. Two different materials, first locally available sand, and second commercially available anthracite were tested in the granular media filter. For the trials with aerated groundwater, total arsenic removal efficiency at both locations was around 99% and the arsenic concentration in permeate was in compliance with the WHO and National Indian Standard of 10μg/L. However, trials under anoxic conditions with non-aerated groundwater could not comply with this standard. Additionally a possible safe discharge of the reverse osmosis concentrate into an abandoned well was studied. It was observed that re-injection of reject water underground may offer a safe disposal option. However, long

  4. Relationships between Organic Material and Thermal Maturity Derived from Coal and C-Shale Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis L. Tsai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize the relationship between organic material and thermal maturity during the process of evaluation of hydrocarbon potential. Samples studied include Miocene high volatile bituminous coal and coaly shale collected from outcrops and exploration wells in Hsinchu-Miaoli area, NW Taiwan, density centrifuge separated macerals, bituminous coal and anthracite from China, in addition toWoodford and Green River oil shale from the United States. Maceral composition analysis, elemental analysis, vitrinite reflectance measurement and Rock-Eval pyrolysis were performed for evaluation. The results of study show that: 1 coal samples from the Shiti Formation (middle Miocene exhibit more vitrinite and less mineral matter contents than samples from the Nanchuang Formation (upper Miocene; H is increased in exinite-enriched maceral mixtures with density < 1.25 g cm-3, after density centrifuge separation. 2 A positive linear correlation between Tmax and Ro illustrates both Rock-Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance can be used as indicators of thermal maturity. 3 From the plot of H/C ratio vs. vitrinite reflectance, even though the depositional environments were different in Taiwan and China, their organic micelles exhibit a similar trend in the process of thermal maturation. As a whole, the curve has a turning point at Ro = 0.5 and H/C = 0.1 (atomic ratio 1.2 in this study. 4 Arather good correlation between S2 and TOC of samples studied indicates the contribution of S2 from TOC. 5 The highest HI occurred in certain maturities (Tmax and Ro of samples studied, and not in the stages of less maturity or over-maturity. 6 Two different linear trends were observed in the cross plot of S1 vs. S2. Field outcropped shale or C-shale exhibits a steeper slope compared to that of coal samples which can be attributed to the compositional difference in their organic material. 7 Arather strong positive correlation for H vs. S2

  5. 低挥发分煤粉燃烧新技术发展与应用%Development and application of low volatile pulverized coal combustion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建明

    2011-01-01

    Introduce the development and application of low volatile pulverized coal combustion technique. The representative burners and framework of boilers were demonstrated and the key techniques, including strengthening hot gas back flow,keeping adopting pulverized coal concentration,and extending length of flame,were also analyzed and these techniques can help pulverized coal ignite quickly and keep stable ignition. The suitable combustion system should be strictly chosen for low volatilization pulverized coal, such as tangentially firing, opposed firing, W-shape flame, and CUF firing and so on. Meanwhile, being the superior stability in anthracite combustion to tangential firing and opposed firing,W-shape boilers are mainly used. Having the strongpoint of stable combustion, high combustion efficiency, stepped firing in recirculation and low NO, emission, the high-temperature combustion technique for low volatilization coal will have wide application foreground.%介绍了国内外低挥发分煤粉燃烧技术及发展.对具有代表性的燃烧器及炉膛结构进行简要分析,说明热回流、煤粉浓缩、延长火焰长度等关键技术在实现低挥发分难燃煤粉快速着火、稳定燃烧中的应用.指出尽管燃烧器在应用中取得一定的效果,但仍然存在一些问题,因而对于低挥发分煤种还需要同时选择合理的燃烧方式,如切向燃烧、对冲燃烧、W型火焰燃烧及CUF火焰燃烧等技术.其中,W型火焰燃烧方式对难燃无烟煤的燃烧稳定性优于四角和对冲燃烧方式,是目前主要采用的燃烧结构.高温空气燃烧技术对低挥发分煤具有火焰稳定、热效率高、再循环分级燃烧,低NOx排放等优点,将成为更有前景的燃烧技术.

  6. Problem and Solution of Low NOx Burner Modification in W Shaped Flame Boiler%W火焰锅炉低氮燃烧器改造问题与解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 祝云飞

    2015-01-01

    “W”火焰锅炉为了燃烧难燃无烟煤,通常采取高煤粉浓度、高温、高氧量集中送风、高停留时间方式组织燃烧,而高氧量集中送风是造成锅炉NOx排放浓度高达1200~2000 mg/m3的主要原因。某电厂300 MW机组采用“W火焰”燃烧方式, NOx排放浓度约600~1300 mg/m3。为了能够节能减排,通过燃烧器、分级配风、卫燃带这三个方面进行了低氮燃烧改造。改造后NOx排放浓度达到了预期改造效果,将脱硝入口NOx排放浓度降低到800 mg/m3以下。针对改造后产生的锅炉严重结渣问题,采用卫燃带改造的方法进行解决。%In order to combust hard anthracite, pulverized coal with high concentration, high temperature, central air supply with high oxygen content, high resident time to organize combustion were utilized in W shaped flame boiler. However, central air supply with high oxygen content is the main reason why boiler’ s NOx emission con⁃centration reaches 1 200 ~2 000 mg/m3 . A power plant with 300MW unit used “W shaped flame” combustion mode and NOx emission content was about 600~1 300 mg/m3 . In response to national policy of energy saving and emission reduction, low⁃nitrogen retrofit was conducted through burner, staged air distribution and refractory belt. The results show that NOx emission content reached expected goal and it was lower than 800mg/m3at the entrance of denitration facility after retrofit. And serious problem of slag bonding after retrofit was solved by refractory belt reconstruction.

  7. 高铁锰氨氮伴生地下水生物深度净化的工程实践%Practical engineering of advanced removal of high iron and manganese ammonia accompanying underground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬; 曾辉平; 张杰

    2011-01-01

    对高铁锰氨氮伴生的地下水采用传统接触氧化工艺处理时,水厂滤池出水锰严重超标,经模拟滤柱试验发现,滤层结构和溶解氧不足是高浓度Fe2+、Mn2+、NH3-N同池生物净化失败的原因.根据滤柱试验结果,提出了强化曝气溶氧,无烟煤锰砂双层滤料一级生物过滤的工艺流程,实现了寒区高铁锰氨氮伴生的潜流地下水的同池深度净化.并用研究成果改造了哈尔滨市松北区前进水厂一期净水系统.出厂水总铁小于0.2 mg/L,锰小于0.05 mg/L,氨氮小于0.2 mg/L,满足国标要求,且长期高效、稳定运行,由此,创建了寒区高铁锰氨氮伴生地下水生物深度净化示范工程.%The effluent manganese concentration was found excessive limitation seriously when the underground water accompanying by high iron and manganese ammonia was treated by traditional contact oxidation process. Filtration column experiments showed that layer structure and lack of dissolved oxygen were the reasons for failure of removal of iron, manganese and ammonia in single biofilter. According to the filtration column experiment results, the enhanced aeration and anthracite - manganese sand dual - media first - grade filter were brought forward, and the simultaneous advanced removal of the high iron and manganese accompanying underground water in cold region was realized. The research results were applied in the reconstruction of the first stage water processing system in Qianjin Water Treatment Plant in the Songbei District of Harbin City. The total iron concentration in effluent was below 0. 2 mg/L, manganese was below 0. 05 mg/L and ammonia was below 0. 2 mg/L, which met the national standards. The operation of the water treatment plant was highly - efficient and stable, which set up a demon stration project for the simultaneous advanced removal of the high I-ron and manganese accompanying underground water in cold region.

  8. COAL COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY IN CFB BOILER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hairui Yang; Guangxi Yue

    2005-01-01

    The carbon content in the fly ash from most Chinese circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is much higher than expected, thus directly influencing the combustion efficiency. In the present paper, carbon burnout was investigated both in field tests and laboratory experiments. The effect of coal property, operation condition, gas-solid mixing, char deactivation,residence time and cyclone performance are analyzed seriatim based on large amount of experimental results.A coal index is proposed to describe the coal rank, defined by the ratio of the volatile content to the coal heat value, is a useful parameter to analyze the char burnout. The carbon content in the fly ash depends on the coal rank strongly. CFB boilers burning anthracite, which has low coal index, usually have high carbon content in the fly ash. On the contrary, the CFB boilers burning brown coal, which has high coal index, normally have low carbon content.Poor gas-solid mixing in the furnace is another important reason of the higher carbon content in the fly ash. Increasing the velocity and rigidity of the secondary air could extend the penetration depth and induce more oxygen into the furnace center. Better gas solid mixing will decrease the lean oxygen core area and increase char combustion efficiency.The fine char particles could be divided into two groups according to their reactivity. One group is "fresh" char particles with high reactivity and certain amount of volatile content. The other group of char particles has experienced sufficient combustion time both in the furnace and in the cyclone, with nearly no volatile. These "old" chars in the fly ash will be deactivated during combustion of large coal particles and have very low carbon reactivity. The generated fine inert char particles by attrition of large coal particles could not easily burn out even with the fly ash recirculation. The fraction of large coal particles in coal feed should be reduced during fuel preparation process.The cyclone

  9. Determining estrogenic steroids in Taipei waters and removal in drinking water treatment using high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    increased dose of aluminum sulfate did not improve the performance. Despite the reactive phenolic moiety in the analytes, the steroids were decreased only 20-44% of the initial concentrations in pre- or post-chlorination. Rapid filtration, with crushed anthracite playing a major role, took out more than 84% of the estrogens. Except for E3, the whole procedure successfully removed most of the estrogens even if the initial concentration reached levels as high as 500 ng/L

  10. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the

  11. Changes in Adsorption Swelling Properties and Dynamic Permeability of Coals Under Triaxial Confining Pressure%三轴围压下煤岩吸附膨胀特性与渗透性动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松航; 唐书恒; 万毅; 舒广强

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic* changes of the porosity and permeability of coal reservoirs during the eoalbed methane (CBM) drainage is one of the hot topics in the research of CBM developmental geology. Stress and strain effects of an anthracite sample from the Jincheng area was investigated under triaxial stress conditions and the dynamic permeability of the sample was discussed. Results showed that the compressive strength of the sample increased significantly after methane adsorption under confining pressure. Correlation of the maximum radial strain to pore pressure of the sample can be described by the form of the Langmuir's function. Permeability of the sample has a negative exponential relationship with both the effective stress and adsorption-induced swelling, indicating that the impact of both adsorption-induced swelling and effective stress on the permeability is substantially the same. In other words, the pore and fracture gradually reduce or close under the stress. In addition, the Klingberg's effect should be considered under the condition of lower pore pressure. Upon examination, the dynamic coal permeability can be objectively predicted by the S~D model.%煤层气排采过程中煤储层孔隙度和渗透率的动态变化,是煤层气开发地质研究的热点之一.本文利用晋城无烟煤样,分析了三轴应力条件下煤岩的应力-应变效应,讨论了煤样渗透率的动态变化规律.结果表明,围限压力条件下,煤岩吸附甲烷后其抗压强度明显增大;煤样最大径向吸附应变与孔隙压力的关系,可用朗格缪尔方程形式予以描述;煤岩渗透性与有效应力、煤岩吸附膨胀量均呈负指数关系,说明两者对煤岩渗透性影响的实质相同,即煤岩孔隙、裂隙受到应力作用逐渐减小或闭合.同时,在较低孔隙压力条件下,需考虑克林伯格效应对煤层渗透性的影响.经检验,S-D模型能够较为客观地预测煤岩渗透性动态变化规律.

  12. The petrology of some Indians coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulay, Bukin; Cook, Alan C.

    Samples from coal seams from all of the major Indonesian coalfields, were examined using reflected white light and reflected flourescence mode microscopy techniques. The coals are rich in vitrinite and have variable, commonly high, contents of liptinite. Inertinite is rare to sparse, with the exception of a few (typically Neogene) coals. Overall, no major differences in coal type exist bewteen Paleogene and Neogene coals. Most of the coals are low in rank ( vitrinite reflectanceoverlineRvmax, 0.30% to 0.57% ). The Neogene coals are typically much lower in rank than the Paleogene coals, and this tendency is most clearly seen within the Kalimantan occurences ( PaleogeneoverlineRvmax 0.53% to 0.67%; Neogene 0.30% to 0.57% ). In Sumatera at Bukit Asam, contact alteration from intrusions causes a marked rise in overlineRv max from the range 0.30% to 0.53% overlineRv max to semi-anthracite (2.6%). Near the intrusions, very high lateral and vertical rank gradients are present. At Ombilin in central west Sumatera, regional rank is relatively high ( overlineRvmax 0.55% to 0.77% ), and similar effects from contact alteration ( overlineRvmax up to 4.6% ) can again be detected. The coals are suitable for power generation. Grindability characteristics should be generally favourable, but the rank of the coals is typically sufficiently low for spontaneous combusion to be a significant problem. The rank of the coals is generally too low for use as a single component charge in conventional coke ovens. Significant reverses exist of coals that could be added as a minor component to imported strongly coals to decrease the foreign exchange cost of coke. The rank and type indicate that yield characteristics should be good for most liquefaction and gasification processes. The coals, and to a lesser extent associated dispersed organic matter, form important source rocks for some of the major natural oil accumulations in Indonesians sedimentary basins.

  13. Mechanism and kinetic characteristics of pulverized coal combustion in two phase flow%两相流中煤粉的燃烧机理及动力学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振钢; 郭占成; 唐惠庆

    2013-01-01

    The combustion reaction mechanism and kinetic characteristics of pulverized anthracite coal in two phase flow were studied by micro fluidized bed kinetic analyzer, and compared with those by thermogravimetry method. The results show that the combustion reaction mechanism of pulverized coal and the composition of combustion gas product change when the temperature exceeds 850 ℃. When the flow rate exceeds 0. 10 m/s, the effect of gas diffusion is eliminated basically, and the combustion reaction rate of pulverized coal is mainly controlled by the interface reaction. The combustion reaction rate of pulverized coal increases in a power function form with oxygen partial pressure, and the influence of oxygen partial pressure on the static combustion is more remarkable. The apparent activation energy of pulverized coal combustion in two phase flow decreases by 49 kJ/mol compared with that of static combustion, and the interfacial chemical reaction resistance of pulverized coal combustion in two phase flow is also much smaller than the results by thermogravimetry method at the same temperature.%利用微型流化床动力学分析仪研究了两相流条件下无烟煤粉的燃烧反应机理和动力学特征,并与热重法所得结果进行比较分析.结果表明,当温度大于850℃时,煤粉燃烧机理发生了变化,燃烧气态产物的生成比例也随之改变;当气速大于0.10 m/s时,气体扩散限制基本被消除,煤粉燃烧反应速率主要受界面化学反应控制;煤粉燃烧反应速率随着氧气分压的增大呈幂函数形式增长,且氧气分压对煤粉静置燃烧的影响更加显著.煤氧两相流燃烧的表观活化能与静置燃烧相比降低了49 kJ/mol,相同温度条件下两相流燃烧的界面化学反应阻力也明显小于热重法测试结果.

  14. Petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Serrinha coal waste pile (Douro Coalfield, Portugal) and the potential environmental impacts on soil, sediments and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, E. [GeoBioTec, Geobiosciences, Geotechnologies and Geoengineering Research Center, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Li, Z.; Ward, C. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Flores, D. [Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-09-01

    Serrinha is the largest coal waste pile resulting from mining activities in the Douro Coalfield, Portugal. The exploitation of anthracite in tens of small mines caused some environmental impacts, as is the case of the coal waste piles that exist in old mines and adjacent areas. The Serrinha waste pile is essentially made up of 2 million tonnes of shales and carbonaceous shales, deposited in a topographical depression over about 30 years. Despite the environmental restoration accomplished in the Serrinha waste pile, some environmental problems seem to persist. In this study a petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization was done in order to recognize and understand these problems. The materials studied were coal waste, sediments and waters from the drainage system and decanting basins, soils from the surrounding areas, leachates from waste material and neoformed minerals formed at the bottom of the waste pile. The main lithologies (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenite) and coal from the Douro Coalfield were also analyzed. Petrographic analysis shows some evidence of weathering (on organic and inorganic matter) related to the time of exposure to the weathering agents and the easy access of air within the waste pile (due to both the poor compaction and the heterogeneity of the material). Mineralogically, the composition of coal waste material has contributions from both the coal and the associated lithologies. R-type cluster analysis of the waste pile material allows two distinct clusters to be identified. In the first cluster a sulfide fraction is represented by the association of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, while Fe clustered with Al, Co, and Ti indicates that some of the Fe and the other elements are likely associated with silicate minerals such as clays. The second cluster, represented by Cr, V, Zr, Rb, REE, Mn, Li and Ba, probably represent a silicate fraction, perhaps detrital accessory minerals. The waste pile material, leachates, soils

  15. The use of filter media to determine filter cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Staden, S. J.; Haarhoff, J.

    It is general believed that a sand filter starts its life with new, perfectly clean media, which becomes gradually clogged with each filtration cycle, eventually getting to a point where either head loss or filtrate quality starts to deteriorate. At this point the backwash cycle is initiated and, through the combined action of air and water, returns the media to its original perfectly clean state. Reality, however, dictates otherwise. Many treatment plants visited a decade or more after commissioning are found to have unacceptably dirty filter sand and backwash systems incapable of returning the filter media to a desired state of cleanliness. In some cases, these problems are common ones encountered in filtration plants but many reasons for media deterioration remain elusive, falling outside of these common problems. The South African conditions of highly eutrophic surface waters at high temperatures, however, exacerbate the problems with dirty filter media. Such conditions often lead to the formation of biofilm in the filter media, which is shown to inhibit the effective backwashing of sand and carbon filters. A systematic investigation into filter media cleanliness was therefore started in 2002, ending in 2005, at the University of Johannesburg (the then Rand Afrikaans University). This involved media from eight South African Water Treatment Plants, varying between sand and sand-anthracite combinations and raw water types from eutrophic through turbid to low-turbidity waters. Five states of cleanliness and four fractions of specific deposit were identified relating to in situ washing, column washing, cylinder inversion and acid-immersion techniques. These were measured and the results compared to acceptable limits for specific deposit, as determined in previous studies, though expressed in kg/m 3. These values were used to determine the state of the filters. In order to gain greater insight into the composition of the specific deposits stripped from the media, a

  16. [Determination of the content of sulfur of coal by the infrared absorption method with high acccuracy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Feng; Lu, Hai; Li, Jia; Sun, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jun; Dai, Xin-Hua

    2014-02-01

    The present paper reported the differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry curves and the infrared (IR) absorption spectrometry under the temperature program analyzed by the combined simultaneous thermal analysis-IR spectrometer. The gas products of coal were identified by the IR spectrometry. This paper emphasized on the combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method, a convenient and accurate method, which measures the content of sulfur in coal indirectly through the determination of the content of sulfur dioxide in the mixed gas products by IR absorption. It was demonstrated, when the instrument was calibrated by varied pure compounds containing sulfur and certified reference materials (CRMs) for coal, that there was a large deviation in the measured sulfur contents. It indicates that the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur between CRMs and the analyte results in a systematic error. The time-IR absorption curve was utilized to analyze the composition of sulfur at low temperatures and high temperatures and then the sulfur content of coal sample was determined by using a CRM for coal with a close composition of sulfur. Therefore, the systematic error due to the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur between the CRM and analyte was eliminated. On the other hand, in this combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method, the mass of CRM and analyte were adjusted to assure the sulfur mass equal and then the CRM and the analyte were measured alternately. This single-point calibration method reduced the effect of the drift of the IR detector and improved the repeatability of results, compared with the conventional multi-point calibration method using the calibration curves of signal intensity vs sulfur mass. The sulfur content results and their standard deviations of an anthracite coal and a bituminous coal with a low sulfur content determined by this modified method were 0.345% (0.004%) and 0.372% (0.008%), respectively. The uncertainty (U

  17. Emission characteristics of carbonaceous particles from various residential coal-stoves in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Guorui; Chen, Yingjun; Feng, Yanli; Xiong, Shengchun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2008-05-01

    China is thought to be the most important contributor to the global burden of carbonaceous aerosols, and residential coal combustion is the greatest emission source of black carbon (BC). In the present study, two high-efficiency household coal-stoves are tested together with honeycomb-coal-briquettes and raw-coal-chunks of nine different coals. Coal-burning emissions are collected onto quartz fiber filters (QFFs) and analyzed by a thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method. Emission factors (EFs) of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) are systematically measured, and the average EFs are calculated by taking into account our previous data. For bituminous coal-briquette and -chunk, EFs of PM, OC, and EC are 7.33, 4.16, and 0.08 g/kg and 14.8, 5.93, and 3.81 g/kg, respectively; and for anthracite-briquette and -chunk, they are 1.21, 0.06, and 0.004 g/kg and 1.08, 0.10, and 0.007 g/kg, respectively. Annual estimates for PM, OC, and EC emissions in China are calculated for the years of 2000 and 2005 according to the EFs and coal consumptions, and the results are consistent with our previous estimates. Bituminous coal-chunk contributes 68% and 99% of the total OC and EC emissions from household coal burning, respectively. Additionally, a new model of Aethalometer (AE90) is introduced into the sampling system to monitor the real-time BC concentrations. On one hand, AE90 provides a set of EFs for optical BC in parallel to thermal-optical EC, and these two data are generally comparable, although BC/EC ratios vary in different coal/stove combinations. On the other hand, AE90 offers a chance to observe the variation of BC concentrations during whole burning cycles, which demonstrates that almost all BC emits into the flue during the initial period of 15 min after coal addition into household stoves. PMID:18522111

  18. Correlation between gas permeability and pore structure of coal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, J.; Gao, F.; Li, Y.; Niu, H.; Gao, H.

    2012-04-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in unminable coal seams represents a promising option for CO2 geologic storage, because the injected CO2 may enhance coalbed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM), which could partly offset the costs of the storage process. The CO2-ECBM technology is based on the relative affinity of CO2 and CH4 to coals under given pressure and temperature conditions. The excess sorption capacity of coals for CO2 is generally higher than the sorption capacity for methane. The coal seams are characterized by a dual porosity structure including cleat and matrix pores. The cleats in the coal seams are considered as highways for gas and water flow, while the matrix is the storage location of gas by adsorption. The slow transport process of gas in coal matrix may constrain the efficiency of the displacement of CH4 by CO2 due to the compacted pore structure of the coal matrix. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the correlation between permeability of gas and pore structure in coal matrix is crucial for the CO2-ECBM processes. Yangquan coals originating from the Qingshui basin, which contains gas-rich coals in China, were selected for the tests in this study. Yangquan coals are classified as anthracite. In order to avoid the influence of coal cleats on fluid flow, small coal plugs (~6 mm in diameter, ~13 mm in length) were selected and fixed in the sample compartment by special glue. A test system for simultaneously measuring adsorption-porosity-permeability on the coal matrix blocks in its free state is constructed. The permeability of gas and porosity in coal plugs to He under different gas pressure and temperature conditions were simultaneously investigated. The permeability and excess sorption capacity of the coal plugs to He, N2, CH4 and CO2 were compared at a constant gas pressure and temperature. It is expected that gas break through a cleat-plug is much faster than that through a coal matrix-plug. Different sample plugs with the different pore structure results

  19. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment of CO2 storage in coal seams or enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM), the sorption properties of natural coals are important parameters. Since more and more laboratories worldwide are concerned with measurements of gas sorption on coal it is indispensable to establish quality standards for such experiments. The first two interlaboratory studies on CO2 sorption on coal (Goodman et al. 2004, 2007) revealed a poor agreement of sorption isotherms among the participating laboratories, particularly in the high-pressure range. During the MOVECBM (http://www.movecbm.eu/) project funded by the European Commission (6th framework), an interlaboratory comparison of CO2 sorption on selected coals and activated carbon was initiated. Measurements were performed on dry samples at 45° C using the manometric and the gravimetric method. up to a final pressure of 15 MPa. The first set of high-pressure sorption measurements was performed on a Filtrasorb 400 activated carbon sample in order to minimise heterogeneity effects and to optimize the experimental procedures for the individual (manometric or gravimetric) methods (Gensterblum et al. 2009). Since comparability for the activated carbon was excellent, the measurements were continued using natural coals of various rank (anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite) to study the influence of heterogeneities and varying starting conditions on the CO2 sorption properties (Gensterblum et al. 2010). Compared to the poor reproducibility observed in previous interlaboratory studies (Goodman et al., 2004, 2007) this European study showed excellent agreement (coals" IJCG, 2010, 84, 115-124 Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, D. Charriére, D. Li, B.M. Krooss, G. de Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter-laboratory comparison of high pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. I: Activated carbon" Carbon 47 ( 2009 ) 2958 -2969 Goodman, A.L., Busch, A., Duffy, G., Fitzgerald, J.E., Gasem, K

  20. Petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Serrinha coal waste pile (Douro Coalfield, Portugal) and the potential environmental impacts on soil, sediments and surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrinha is the largest coal waste pile resulting from mining activities in the Douro Coalfield, Portugal. The exploitation of anthracite in tens of small mines caused some environmental impacts, as is the case of the coal waste piles that exist in old mines and adjacent areas. The Serrinha waste pile is essentially made up of 2 million tonnes of shales and carbonaceous shales, deposited in a topographical depression over about 30 years. Despite the environmental restoration accomplished in the Serrinha waste pile, some environmental problems seem to persist. In this study a petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization was done in order to recognize and understand these problems. The materials studied were coal waste, sediments and waters from the drainage system and decanting basins, soils from the surrounding areas, leachates from waste material and neoformed minerals formed at the bottom of the waste pile. The main lithologies (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenite) and coal from the Douro Coalfield were also analyzed. Petrographic analysis shows some evidence of weathering (on organic and inorganic matter) related to the time of exposure to the weathering agents and the easy access of air within the waste pile (due to both the poor compaction and the heterogeneity of the material). Mineralogically, the composition of coal waste material has contributions from both the coal and the associated lithologies. R-type cluster analysis of the waste pile material allows two distinct clusters to be identified. In the first cluster a sulfide fraction is represented by the association of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, while Fe clustered with Al, Co, and Ti indicates that some of the Fe and the other elements are likely associated with silicate minerals such as clays. The second cluster, represented by Cr, V, Zr, Rb, REE, Mn, Li and Ba, probably represent a silicate fraction, perhaps detrital accessory minerals. The waste pile material, leachates, soils

  1. Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Pierre-Yves

    Cette these decrit l'etude effectuee sur les phenomenes d'insertion du sodium et de penetration du bain electrolytique dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium. L'etude fut effectuee a l'aide d'un montage permettant d'effectuer l'electrolyse en laboratoire. Trois types de revetement cathodiques furent etudies : des blocs semi-graphitique, des blocs graphitiques et des blocs graphitises. L'insertion du sodium dans les trois differents types de blocs fut etudiee a l'aide de la spectrometrie des photoelectrons X (XPS). L'analyse a permis de mettre en evidence deux formes de sodium dans l'anthracite et la phase liante des materiaux semi-graphitiques et graphitiques, indiquant qu'une fraction du sodium se retrouve sous forme adsorbee dans les micropores des materiaux alors que l'autre fraction est inseree dans la structure cristalline du carbone. Dans les phases graphitiques (materiaux graphitises et graphitiques), seuls les micropores sont occupes par le sodium Ce resultat explique la tendance observee selon laquelle l'ajout de graphite dans les blocs permet d'abaisser le gonflement sodique. Les mecanismes de penetration du bain dans le reseau poreux des materiaux furent etudies en microscopie electronique et en diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons apres differents temps d'electrolyses et en variant l'atmosphere (soit sous argon ou sous azote). Ces analyses ont permis d'identifier le mecanisme conduisant a la mouillabilite du bain sur le carbone en fonction de l'atmosphere entourant l'electrolyse. Ainsi, sous azote, la formation de NaCN dans les pores des materiaux par reactions entre le sodium et l'azote permet une mouillabilite accrue du bain alors qu'en absence d'azote (sous argon), le carbure d'aluminium, formes a la surface des pores, joue un role similaire. Dans ce dernier cas, la penetration du bain est moins rapide etant donnee la necessite de toujours amener des especes contenant de l'aluminium en tete du front de

  2. Study on Modes of Occurrence of Bromine in Coals Using Sequential Chemical Extraction Procedure%逐级化学提取法研究煤中溴的赋存状态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭炳先; 吴代赦; 李萍

    2011-01-01

    采用逐级化学提取法研究了煤中溴的赋存状态,用电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP—MS)测定了煤及各种提取状态中溴的含量.结果表明,来自四川和重庆的8个煤中溴主要以水溶态、离子交换态、碳酸盐结合态、铁锰结合态和有机态存在,平均总提取率为88.2%.对于烟煤和无烟煤,前者有机态溴的相对量大于后者,平均值分别为22.3%和20.0%;而碳酸盐结合态溴小于后者,相对量分别为14.0%和19.2%;两者水溶态溴和铁锰结合态溴的相对量几乎相等.煤中离子交换态溴可能以有机质吸附为主,溴的各种赋存形态的相对量与其成煤时沉积环境%Modes of occurrence of bromine in eight coals from Sichuan and Chongqing were studied using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry and sequential chemical extraction. The results showed that the bromine mainly occur the water-soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides and organic fraction in these coals, which average total extraction rate was 88.2%. In bituminous coal and anthracite, the mean relative amount was 22.3% and 20.0% for organic bromine, 14.0% and 19.2% for the bromine of carbonate bound and almost equal for the bromine from water soluble and Fe-Mn oxidizes. The ion exchangeable bromine may be mainly adsorbed to organic matter in these coals. The relative amount of bromine in various modes of occurrence may not be very closely related to its sedimentary environment during the formation of coal. Bromine in coals from Sichuan and Chongqing should be paid more attention because its potential leachable rate was 36. 62%-86. 80% and potential leachable content was 7. 092-20. 10 μg/g.

  3. An overview of coal preparation initiatives with application to coal conversion in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal has for many years been the most important energy resource in South Africa and has contributed to more than 70 % of South Africa's energy needs in 1998. The large in-situ coal deposits (in excess of 120 x 109 t) and relatively large recoverable reserves (about 33.5 x 109 t) will ensure that coal will for many a year still be South Africa's single biggest energy resource. Biomass burning consumes approximately 11 Mt/a of which 8 Mt/a is natural wood. This equals natural wood production. The use of firewood is considered to be unsustainable. Of the 225 Mt/a of coal extracted in South Africa in 1998, 67.0 Mt/a was exported. Of this, 62.9 Mt/a were exported as steam coal, 2.1 Mt/a as metallurgical coal, and the rest as anthracite. Current exports are conducted via the Richards Bay terminal (63.6 Mt/a), Durban (2.0 Mt/a) and a small amount via Maputo. The Richards Bay terminal is to be expanded to 72 Mt/a by 1999. It is also very important to note that most of the coal resources possess calorific values of below 25 MJ/kg, which limits its utilization to power generation (Eskom) and processes such as fixed bed dry bottom gasification (Sasol). A break-down of production and usage of coal by the various controlling groups in South Africa shows that Sasol (54.2 Mt/a) and Escom (91.0 Mt/a) are major consumers of coal. It has been proposed earlier by Horsfall (1993) that for power generation and coal conversion, the in-situ quality is generally regarded as satisfactory for use. All that is required in the way of processing is crushing to an appropriate top size and, for conversion, screening of the unwashed coal. Most other consumers require some degree of beneficiation, which generally entails the removal of stone/shale and low quality coal. More recently, the introduction of destoning plants at Duvha Colliery (Larcodems) and New Vaal Colliery (Drewboy washers) has significantly reduced the abrasiveness content of these local thermal coals, together with an increase in

  4. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world's annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world's 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century

  5. Hydrocarbons prospecting using an integrated approach of petrography, geochemistry and modeling of organic matter transformation. Analysis and reconstitution of the thermal history of the central carboniferous basins of Asturias (Spain) and of the Sabinas - Piedras Negras basin (Coahuila, Mexico); Prospection des hydrocarbures par une approche integree de petrographie, geochimie et modelisation de la transformation de la matiere organique. Analyse et reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des Bassins Carbonifere Central des Asturies (Espagne) et Sabinas - Piedras Negras (Coahuila, Mexique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, N.

    2004-09-01

    Solid knowledge of the transformation and evolution of organic matter during hydrocarbon generation in sedimentary basins serves to improve natural gas exploration. With this geological problem in mind, the thermal influence on organic matter was analyzed in two basins containing different characteristics (age, composition of organic matter, litho-stratigraphy, depth, thickness of the layers of rock, the maturation of organic matter, etc.) in order to understand the natural processes in generating oil and natural gas. With a view to studying this geological phenomenon, this work outlines the study of the chemical and macerals composition, the coal rank and geochemical characteristics of organic matter in these two sedimentary basins for the first time: The Asturian Central Carboniferous Basin (Spain) and Sabinas - Piedras Negras Basin (Mexico). Moreover, an approach to shed light on the thermal history and evolution of organic matter through 1D modeling in the two basins is developed. The Central Carboniferous Basin in Asturias is an important coal mining area where coal types range from bituminous carbons with high content in volatile matter to anthracite. The petrographical and geochemical study in this region has shown that at the moment of oil and gas exploration, the coals correspond to an efficient expulsion of oil and have been formed in an environment of swamp with a facies rich in vitrinite, low in sulfur and ash and varying in mineral content. As regards the paleo-environmental reconstruction, the bio-markers suggest a swamp with a relatively high water table and a humid climate. The coal type, the vitrinite reflectance and the volatile matter content in the basin show a N-S trend which could be correlated to the paleo-temperatures calculated in this study. These data point to the influence of two thermal gradients in the region: A normal thermal gradient of long duration and an oblique thermal gradient of short duration due to a pluton. The evolution of

  6. Notes on the origin of copromacrinite based on nitrogen functionalities and δ13C and δ15N determined on samples from the Peach Orchard coal bed, southern Magoffin County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, Bruno; Algarra, Manuel; Guedes, Alexandra; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Hower, James C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to show, by means other than just petrographic ones, that one type of macrinite, herein designated copromacrinite, may result from macrofauna feces. For that purpose a combination of coal petrography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elemental-analysis continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry methods were used to determine nitrogen functionalities and δ13C andδ15N compositions in 1) vitrinite-rich, 2) fusinite + semifusinite-rich, and 3) macrinite-rich (with a possible coprolitic origin) samples of the high volatile A bituminous Peach Orchard coal (Bolsovian; Middle Pennsylvanian) from Magoffin County, Kentucky. There were no significant differences between pyridinic-N and quaternary-N abundance in the three samples, however, pyrrolic-N was higher (~ 54%) in the macrinite-rich sample than in the other two samples (~ 38%). The data suggest that pyridinic-N and quaternary-N are independent of maceral group composition and that pyrrolic-N is dependent on maceral composition (fusinite + semifusinite versus macrinite). δ13C values obtained for bulk and demineralized coal of the vitrinite- and fusinite + semifusinite-rich samples are similar with δ13C values of − 24.80 ± 0.01‰ VPDB and − 24.61 ± 0.09‰ VPDB for bulk samples and − 24.81 ± 0.07‰ VPDB and − 24.52 ± 0.04‰ VPDB for demineralized samples. These values are within the expected range for vitrinite-rich samples and the slightly higher δ13C value of the fusinite + semifusinite-rich sample is expected as δ13C values for inertinite are higher than for vitrinite. However, there was a significant shift to a lower δ13C value (− 26.80 ± 0.01‰ VPDB for the bulk sample value) for the macrinite-rich sample. Because the samples are basically isorank, and δ13C (and δ15N) shifts do not occur during maturation until anthracite rank, the difference may be related to the presence or composition of the macrinite

  7. Validation of spectral gas radiation models under oxyfuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Johann Valentin

    2013-05-15

    validation of simplified CFD models. In the second results section, spectral measurements (2.4 - 5.4 {mu}m) of a 70 kW turbulent natural gas ame in air blown combustion and in wet and dry oxyfuel combustion were compared with simulated spectra based on measured gas atmospheres. The line-by-line database HITEMP2010 and the two statistical-narrow-band models EM2C and RADCAL were used for the numerical simulation. The measured spectra showed large fluctuations due to turbulence. The averaged experimental intensity was found to be up to 75% higher than the simulated intensity, thus demonstrating the importance of the effect of turbulence-radiation-interaction in combustion simulations. Finally, total emissivities were calculated with the most common spectral models and compared with benchmark calculations by the detailed spectral line-by-line model HITEMP2010. The models were compared at path lengths ranging from 0.001m to 100m and at temperatures from 800 C to 1800 C for atmospheres of pure gases and of various combustion processes (air blown and oxyfuel combustion with wet and dry recirculation) as well as with different fuels (natural gas, brown coal and anthracite). The statistical-narrow-band models RADCAL and EM2C, the exponential-wide-band model and the statistical-line-width model were chosen as models, which are valid for oxyfuel combustion without modifications. A number of weighted-sum-of-grey-gases models from different authors were chosen as computationally efficient models especially developed for oxyfuel combustion. The statistical-narrow-band model EM2C had the highest accuracy with maximum deviations of up to 12%. The weighted-sum-of-grey-gases model from Johansson et al. [64] proved to be the most valid and versatile model for computationally efficient simulations of spectral gas properties with an overall accuracy of 21% or better.

  8. Dating of two paleolithic human fossils from Romania by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . The first step concerns the extraction of 'collagen' from the bone structure. We use here the quotation signs to indicate that the collagen has undergone a degree of diagenesis. The next step is the transformation of the 'collagen' into pure carbon in an experimental setup. The pure carbon, placed in a copper holder is arranged in a wheel, together with two standards of oxalic acid and anthracite. The wheel with the samples and standards is put into the ion source of the accelerator. The central part of the Lund AMS system is a Pelletron tandem accelerator. The accelerator is run at a terminal voltage of 2.4 MV during AMS experiments. The particle identification and measuring system consists of a silicon surface barrier detector of 25 mm diameter. Each sample is measured 7 times. The precision of the measurements is around 1%. The following results were obtained: 30,150 ± 800 years for the fossil remains from Baia de Fier and 29,000 ± 700 years for the remains from Cioclovina cave. So, radiocarbon analyses of these fossil remains by means of the AMS technique have demonstrated that the remains are very old and could be assigned to the period of upper Paleolithic, the Aurignacian. On the basis of the dating of the fossil remains presented in this study, future cultural identification might be possible. In this way the fossil skulls from Baia de Fier and Cioclovina might be associated with other findings of the same type from the Central and Eastern Europe. (authors)

  9. Properties of thermally metamorphosed coal from Tanjung Enim Area, South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia with special reference to the coalification path of macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amijaya, Hendra; Littke, Ralf [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2006-04-03

    Thermally metamorphosed Tertiary age coals from Tanjung Enim in South Sumatra Basin have been investigated by means of petrographic, mineralogical and chemical analyses. These coals were influenced by heat from an andesitic igneous intrusion. The original coal outside the metamorphosed zone is characterized by high moisture content (4.13-11.25 wt.%) and volatile matter content (>40 wt.%, daf), as well as less than 80 wt.% (daf) carbon and low vitrinite reflectance (VR{sub max}=0.52-0.76%). Those coals are of subbituminous and high volatile bituminous rank. In contrast the thermally metamorphosed coals are of medium-volatile bituminous to meta-anthracite rank and characterized by low moisture content (only <3 wt.%) and volatile matter content (<24 wt.%, daf), as well as high carbon content (>80 wt.%, daf) and vitrinite reflectance (VR{sub max}=1.87-6.20%). All the studied coals have a low mineral matter content, except for those which are highly metamorphosed, due to the formation of new minerals. The coalification path of each maceral shows that vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite reflectance converge in a transition zone at VR{sub max} of around 1.5%. Significant decrease of volatile matter occurs in the zone between 0.5% and 2.0% VR{sub max}. A sharp bend occurs at VR{sub max} between 2.0% and 2.5%. Above 2.5%, the volatile matter decreases only very slightly. Between VR{sub r}=0.5% and 2.0%, the carbon content of the coals is ascending drastically. Above 2.5% VR{sub r}, the carbon content becomes relatively stable (around 95 wt.%, daf). Vitrinite is the most abundant maceral in low rank coal (69.6-86.2 vol.%). Liptinite and inertinite are minor constituents. In the high rank coal, the thermally altered vitrinite composes 82.4-93.8 vol.%. Mosaic structures can be recognized as groundmasss and crack fillings. The most common minerals found are carbonates, pyrite or marcasite and clay minerals. The latter consist of kaolinite in low rank coal and illite and

  10. Aeration to degas CO2, increase pH, and increase iron oxidation rates for efficient treatment of net alkaline mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive treatment systems for mine drainage use no energy other than gravity, but they require greater area than active treatment systems. Researchers are considering 'hybrid' systems that have passive and active components for increased efficiency, especially where space limitations render passive-only technology ineffective. Flow-through reactor field experiments were conducted at two large net-alkaline anthracite mine discharges in central Pennsylvania. Assuming an Fe removal rate of 20 g m-2 day-1 and Fe loading from field data, 3.6 x 103 and 3.0 x 104 m2 oxidation ponds would be required for the passive treatment of Site 21 and Packer 5 discharges, respectively. However, only a small area is available at each site. This paper demonstrates aeration to drive off CO2, increase pH, and increase Fe(II) oxidation rates, enabling treatment within a small area compared to passive treatment methods, and introduces a geochemical model to accurately predict these rates as well as semi-passive treatment system sizing parameters. Both net-alkaline discharges were suboxic with a pH of ∼5.7, Fe(II) concentration of ∼16 mg L-1, and low Mn and Al concentrations. Flow rates were ∼4000 L min-1 at Site 21 and 15,000 L min-1 at Packer 5. Three-h aeration experiments with flow rates scaled to a 14-L reactor resulted in pH increases from 5.7 to greater than 7, temperature increases from 12 to 22 deg. C, dissolved O2 increases to saturation with respect to the atmosphere, and Fe(II) concentration decreases from 16 to -1. A 17,000-L pilot-scale reactor at Site 21 produced similar results although aeration was not as complete as in the smaller reactor. Two non-aerated experiments at Site 21 with 13 and 25-h run times resulted in pH changes of ≤0.2 and Fe(II) concentration decreases of less than 3 mg L-1. An Fe(II) oxidation model written in a differential equation solver matched the field experiments very well using field-measured pH, temperature, dissolved O2, and initial Fe

  11. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 1: Constituent quantities and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete hydrochemical data are rarely reported for coal-mine discharges (CMD). This report summarizes major and trace-element concentrations and loadings for CMD at 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania. Clean-sampling and low-level analytical methods were used in 1999 to collect data that could be useful to determine potential environmental effects, remediation strategies, and quantities of valuable constituents. A subset of 10 sites was resampled in 2003 to analyze both the CMD and associated ochreous precipitates; the hydrochemical data were similar in 2003 and 1999. In 1999, the flow at the 140 CMD sites ranged from 0.028 to 2210 L s-1, with a median of 18.4 L s-1. The pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3; concentrations (range in mg/L) of dissolved (0.45-μm pore-size filter) SO4 (34-2000), Fe (0.046-512), Mn (0.019-74), and Al (0.007-108) varied widely. Predominant metalloid elements were Si (2.7-31.3 mg L-1), B (-1), Ge (-1), and As (-1). The most abundant trace metals, in order of median concentrations (range in μg/L), were Zn (0.6-10,000), Ni (2.6-3200), Co (0.27-3100), Ti (0.65-28), Cu (0.4-190), Cr (-1 in 97% of the samples, with a maximum of 0.0175 μg L-1. No samples had detectable concentrations of Hg, Os or Pt, and less than half of the samples had detectable Pd, Ag, Ru, Ta, Nb, Re or Sn. Predominant rare-earth elements, in order of median concentrations (range in μg/L), were Y (0.11-530), Ce (0.01-370), Sc (1.0-36), Nd (0.006-260), La (0.005-140), Gd (0.005-110), Dy (0.002-99) and Sm ( C > P = N = Se) were not elevated in the CMD samples compared to average river water or seawater. Compared to seawater, the CMD samples also were poor in halogens (Cl > Br > I > F), alkalies (Na > K > Li > Rb > Cs), most alkaline earths (Ca > Mg > Sr), and most metalloids but were enriched by two to four orders of magnitude with Fe, Al, Mn, Co, Be, Sc, Y and the lanthanide rare-earth elements, and one order of magnitude with Ni and Zn

  12. Analysis of pH Value During In-situ Remediation of Leachate-polluted Groundwater with PRB Technique%PRB修复垃圾渗滤液污染地下水过程中pH值变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海炜; 孙继朝; 王金翠; 张英; 陈玺; 向小平; 温吉利

    2011-01-01

    随着城市化的不断发展,生活垃圾产生量越来越多,因管理不善,导致垃圾渗滤液污染地下水的问题越来越突出,污染地下水的修复研究迫在眉睫.实验模拟地下环境,以被垃圾渗滤液污染地下水为研究对象,分别用沸石、无烟煤、陶粒、活性炭、炉渣、粉煤灰、零价铁作为反应介质,设计了6种地下可渗透反应墙(PRB),分别为反应器1、2、3、4、5和6.分3个阶段对PRB技术治理污染地下水中pH值影响和变化进行模拟研究,分析反应器pH值降低的原因并探讨pH值变化机理.实验结果表明,所有反应器pH值较进口降低,第三阶段出口pH值平均值较进口平均降低0.40;因水解酸化反应存在,产生一定量NH4+和有机酸,造成反应器出水pH值降低和复合填充材料NH4+相对去除率降低,说明PRB技术治理渗滤液污染地下水具有一定可行性,但技术方法有待继续深入研究.%With the continuous development of urbanization, generation of leachate from more and more domestic garbage led to groundwater pollution increasingly significant. So it became more and more extremely urgent to do research on remediation of polluted groundwater. With the purpose of simulating groundwater environment and studying the feasibility and the efficiency of the permeable reactive barrier (PRB)technique in the remediation of leachate-polluted groundwater, six kinds of reaction media, including zeolite, anthracite, ceramisite, activated carbon, slag, flyash and zero valent iron(ZVl), were used to design six styles of PRB, viz. reactors 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. Simulated experiment was conducted through three periods to research influence factors on pH value in sewage treatment by PRB. It was analyzed why pH value was decreased, and the change mechanism of pH was discussed. The experiment results indicated that pH values in all reactors were lower than that in the inlet, and the average value of pH in the outlet of

  13. Status of Korean nuclear industry and Romania-Korea cooperation in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status of electric power in Korea is characterized by the end of August 2004 by a total installed capacity of about 62,000 MW while the total electricity generation is about 342,000 GWh. The installed capacity of nuclear power is 17,716 MW, sharing 29% of total installed capacity and presenting 38% of total electricity generation in Korea. In accordance with the provisions of the Long Term Energy Plan during the past 40 years, the installed capacity in Korea has been drastically increased. In the 1960's, major sources of electricity generation were locally-mined anthracite coal and hydro, but in the 1970's it was the imported oil. However, through diversification policy the dependence of the imported oil has been rapidly reduced and the share of coal , gas and nuclear generation has been steadily increased. According to the long-term power development plan updated last year, which is extended to 2017, the installed capacity in the year 2017 will be about 88,000 MW. At that time nuclear power will become the largest, sharing 30% and the shares of coal and gas fired power will be steadily decreased. Concerning the Nuclear Power Projects, there are four different nuclear power sites along the coast of Korean peninsula, Yonggwang, Kori, Wolsong and Ulchin. In addition to the currently operating 20 nuclear power plants, there are 6 more nuclear power plants under construction at Shin-Wolsong and Shin-Kori sites. Our efforts to enhance the technology, economy and safety of the nuclear power plants will be continuously pursued. Wolsong unclear power units 1, 2, 3 and 4 are CANDU type reactors which are same type as Romanian Cernavoda nuclear power plants. Operational performance, in terms of capacity factor of NPPs, has remained well above the world average and recorded 91.4% last year. Also, last year, the frequency of unplanned trip was 0.6 time per reactor. In 2004, ten NPPs achieved OCTF, which stands for One Cycle Trouble Free in 2004. Wolsong unit 1

  14. Determining estrogenic steroids in Taipei waters and removal in drinking water treatment using high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-Y. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: dbms@ntu.edu.tw; Wen, T.-Y. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Wang, G.-S. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Cheng, H.-W. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-H. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Lien, G.-W. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-01

    , while only a single effluent sample contained E{sub 3}. The higher level in the river was likely caused by the discharge of untreated human and farming waste into the water. In the drinking water treatment simulations, coagulation removed 20-50% of the estrogens. An increased dose of aluminum sulfate did not improve the performance. Despite the reactive phenolic moiety in the analytes, the steroids were decreased only 20-44% of the initial concentrations in pre- or post-chlorination. Rapid filtration, with crushed anthracite playing a major role, took out more than 84% of the estrogens. Except for E{sub 3}, the whole procedure successfully removed most of the estrogens even if the initial concentration reached levels as high as 500 ng/L.

  15. Production of activated carbon from TCR char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Heberlein, Markus; Klinner, Tobias; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of char for adsorptive purposes is known since the 18th century. At that time the char was made of wood or bones and used for decoloration of fluids. In the 20th century the production of activated carbon in an industrial scale was started. The today's raw materials for activated carbon production are hard coal, peat, wood or coconut shells. All these materials entail costs especially the latter. Thus, the utilization of carbon rich residues (biomass) is an interesting economic opportunity because it is available for no costs or even can create income. The char is produced by thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR®). This process is a combination of an intermediate pyrolysis and subsequently a reforming step. During the pyrolysis step the material is decomposed in a vapor and a solid carbon enriched phase. In the second step the vapor and the solid phase get in an intensive contact and the quality of both materials is improved via the reforming process. Subsequently, the condensables are precipitated from the vapor phase and a permanent gas as well as oil is obtained. Both are suitable for heat and power production which is a clear advantage of the TCR® process. The obtained biochar from the TCR® process has special properties. This material has a very low hydrogen and oxygen content. Its stability is comparable to hard coal or anthracite. Therefore it consists almost only of carbon and ash. The latter depends from input material. Furthermore the surface structure and area can be influenced during the reforming step. Depending from temperature and residence time the number of micro pores and the surface area can be increased. Preliminary investigations with methylene blue solution have shown that a TCR® char made of digestate from anaerobic digestion has adsorptive properties. The decoloration of the solution was achieved. A further influencing factor of the adsorption performance is the particle size. Based on the results of the preliminary tests a

  16. 永夏煤田水文地质特征及开采技术条件评价%Evaluation of Yongxia Coalfield Hydrogeological Characteristics and Mining Technical Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连强

    2012-01-01

    全国六大优质无烟煤生产基地之一的永夏煤田,自20世纪70年代初,就陆续开展了煤炭资源的勘查工作,随着区内各矿区勘查阶段和勘查程度的逐步深入,部分矿区已相继建井开采.而针对整个煤田的水文地质及其开采技术条件的分析与评价,目前为止还没有一个完整的综合性成果.通过对区内各矿区、各勘查阶段成果及部分矿井开采资料的汇总和综合研究,认为区内的次级褶皱、断裂构造发育中等,构造复杂程度属中等;三煤组为砂岩裂隙水充水类型,水文地质条件属简单类型,二2煤层为底板砂岩裂隙充水和石炭系上统太原组灰岩裂隙岩溶水充水类型,水文地质条件属简单偏中等类型;煤层顶、底板总体属稳定-中等稳定;区内瓦斯普遍偏低,仅局部地段富集;除局部地段为二级高温区、地温增温异常外,其余大部为地温正常区和一级高温区.该研究为煤田或矿区的总体规划、矿井建设以及矿床开采中加强开采技术条件管理等方面,提供了基础性资料.%From early 1970s, the Yongxia coalfield, one of 6 large-sized high quality anthracite production bases in the country carried out coal resources exploration in succession. Along with progressively strike into deep-going mine area exploration and degree of exploration, part of the mining area is already mine constructed and mining one after the other. But in allusion to analysis and evaluation of the whole coalfield hydrogeological and mining technical conditions, still have not a comprehensive and integrated achievement. Through summarizing and comprehensive study of results of each mine area, each exploration stage and part of mining data, considered that secondary folds, faults are medium developed, medium structural complexity; the 3rd coal group belongs to sandstone fissure water filling type, hydrogeological condition simple category; coal seam III belongs to floor sandstone

  17. Numerical modelling of combustion processes at elevated pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anany, Mohammed Nabil

    2010-07-01

    SIMPLE counterpart. Furthermore, the applicability of the Allspeed methods to reactive flows has been tested showing the need of double-precision declaration of variables when working with Mach numbers approaching the limit of zero. The Allspeed method has proven to predict similar results as is its SIMPLE algorithm equivalent for low-speed flows. The method has not been tested (in this work) for combustion applications of high-speed flows, i.e. Mach numbers exceeding 0.3. Moreover, an implicit under-relaxation approach has been developed to stabilise the solution of the pressure-correction equations. This approach has proven to be successful at the initial stage of the iterative solution of the problem as it has shown a reduction of one order of magnitude in the pressure-correction residuals. The development of the elevated-pressure coal conversion model necessitated the introduction of an elevated pressure pyrolysis model. A single first order reaction kinetic rate has been adopted to predict devolatilisation of raw coal. The total volatile yield has been made achievable by creating a data base of 14 coals, on the van Krevelen (coalification) diagram, which range from anthracite to lignite coals, and whose total volatile yields are fixed by experiment. An interpolation technique was adopted afterwards to predict the total volatile yield of coals which are not directly obtainable from the data base. For tar yield predictions a correlational model was incorporated within the CFD code. The model correlates the tar yield to the elemental composition of the parent coal and to the system pressure applied. The mechanistic char burn-out model relies on a three-step char oxidation process in contrast to the well-known two-step chemisorption-desorption mechanism (Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics). The third reaction step represents a reaction between oxygen molecules and the already formed carbon-oxide complexes. The specific reaction rate of char oxidation has been modelled by

  18. Application of cogeneration technology of gas-liquid-solid products pyrolyzed from crop straw%农作物秸秆热解多联产技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘标; 陈应泉; 何涛; 杨海平; 王贤华; 陈汉平

    2013-01-01

    straw briquettes degraded rapidly, and a large amount of volatiles generated which would be removed from the retort equipment to a condensation and purification system. Simultaneously, charcoal was formed and the residue volume was only 30% to 40% of the original briquette because of the released volatiles. At the last 2-3 hours, the retort was retained at 600℃, then the charcoal would be further upgraded and a small amount of liquid product and gaseous products would be generated. The temperature of fresh volatiles out of the retort was up to 450℃, and then these fresh volatiles would cool down to room temperature by condensation and purification. The bio-oil and fuel gas were separated from the volatiles, and the bio-oil was further separated into wood tar and wood vinegar that was stored in the liquid tanks. The fuel gas was stored in a gas storage tank and transferred to users by pipeline. Charcoal was naturally cooled to 60-80℃in a retort and then collected to package and place in storage. For biomass-polygeneration technology, 1 ton agricultural straws can produce 230-310 m3 of fuel gas, 250-300kg of charcoal, 50 kg of wood tar, and 250 kg of wood vinegar. The main components of fuel gas are CO, CO2, H2, CH4, and other incondensable light hydrocarbons, such as C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and so on, and its heat value (LHV) reaches to 12 MJ/m3 due to the volume fraction of hydrogen and methane being up to 25%and 18%, respectively. The characteristics of charcoal are similar to anthracite, which has a small volatile content and high fixed carbon, and the heat value (LHV) is around 28 MJ/kg. The porosity of charcoal is well developed, and can be used as an industrial adsorbent and soil conditioner. The yield of wood tar is generally from 4.5% to 7%, and wood tar is composed of a large amount of macromolecules, such as anthracene, naphthalene, and some 10 carbon aliphatic chain hydrocarbon. Wood vinegar has high water content, more than 85%, and the organic component is

  19. Determination of the Content of Sulfur of Coal by the Infrared Absorption Method with High Acccuracy%红外吸收法准确测量低硫煤中硫元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海峰; 逯海; 李佳; 孙国华; 王军; 戴新华

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reported the differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry curves and the infrared (IR) ab-sorption spectrometry under the temperature program analyzed by the combined simultaneous thermal analysis-IR spectrometer . The gas products of coal were identified by the IR spectrometry .This paper emphasized on the combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method ,a convenient and accurate method ,which measures the content of sulfur in coal indirectly through the de-termination of the content of sulfur dioxide in the mixed gas products by IR absorption .It was demonstrated ,when the instru-ment was calibrated by varied pure compounds containing sulfur and certified reference materials (CRMs) for coal ,that there was a large deviation in the measured sulfur contents .It indicates that the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur between CRMs and the analyte results in a systematic error .The time-IR absorption curve was utilized to analyze the composition of sul-fur at low temperatures and high temperatures and then the sulfur content of coal sample was determined by using a CRM for coal with a close composition of sulfur .Therefore ,the systematic error due to the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur be-tween the CRM and analyte was eliminated .On the other hand ,in this combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method , the mass of CRM and analyte were adjusted to assure the sulfur mass equal and then the CRM and the analyte were measured al-ternately .This single-point calibration method reduced the effect of the drift of the IR detector and improved the repeatability of results ,compared with the conventional multi-point calibration method using the calibration curves of signal intensity vs sulfur mass .The sulfur content results and their standard deviations of an anthracite coal and a bituminous coal with a low sulfur con-tent determined by this modified method were 0.345% (0.004% ) and 0.372% (0.008% ) ,respectively .The

  20. Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of historical iron slag, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site in southeastern Pennsylvania, which features an Fe smelter that was operational in the 18th and 19th centuries, is dominated by three slag piles. Pile 1 slag, from the Hopewell Furnace, and pile 2 slag, likely from the nearby Cornwall Furnace, were both produced in cold-blast charcoal-fired smelters. In contrast, pile 3 slag was produced in an anthracite furnace. Ore samples from the nearby Jones and Hopewell mines that fed the smelter are mainly magnetite-rich with some sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite) and accessory silicates (quartz, garnet, feldspar, and clay minerals). Slag piles 1 and 2 are similar mineralogically containing predominantly skeletal and dendritic aluminian diopside and augite, skeletal forsteritic olivine, glass, rounded blebs of metallic Fe, and exotic quartz. Olivine is a major phase in all samples from pile 2, whereas it occurs in only a few samples from pile 1. Samples of the 2O3 (8.5–16.2 wt.%), CaO (8.2–26.2 wt.%), MgO (4.2–24.7 wt.%), and SiO2 (36.4–59.8 wt.%), constituting between 81% and 97% of the mass of the samples. Piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar; pile 1 slag overall contains the highest Fe2O3, K2O and MnO, and the lowest MgO concentrations. Pile 3 slag is high in Al2O3, CaO and S, and low in Fe2O3, K2O and SiO2 compared to the other piles. In general, piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar to each other, whereas pile 3 is distinct – a conclusion that reflects their mineralogy. The similarities and differences among piles in terms of mineralogy and major element chemistry result from the different smelting conditions under which the slag formed and include the fuel source, the composition of the ore and flux, the type of blast (cold versus hot), which affects the furnace temperature, and other beneficiation methods. The three distinct slag piles at Hopewell are enriched in numerous trace elements, such as As (up to 12 mg/kg), Cd (up to 0.4 mg/kg), Co (up to 31.8 mg

  1. Effects of fuel properties, temperature, and pressure on fuel reactivity, formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides, and release of alkalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Dominating reaction mechanisms were found to illustrate the reasons for the observed trends (by AaAU). Fuel reactivity study at elevated pressures (0.2 - 1.0 MPa) was carried out in co-operation with VTT and Tampere University of Technology (TUT). VTT performed the experiments with PEFR. TUT developed a novel pyrometric method to measure temperature and size distribution of burning fuel particles through the observation ports of the PEFR. This method was successfully utilized. Experimental work was combined to single particle combustion modelling showing the reasons of the observed phenomena. The results of modelling are presented in another report of VTT. Pressure increased strongest the burning rate of less reactive coal (anthracite), which is difficult to burn completely in atmospheric PF and FB boilers. The effect of pressure strengthened with decreasing particle size. Usually the effect was observed between 0.1 and 0.5 MPa. Further increase of pressure did not contribute to the burnout. Pressure transferred the mechanism from chemical control to diffusion control. To conclude, pressurized combustion produces higher efficiency and more complete burnout of high-rank coals. Sodium and potassium in vapours and aerosols cause fouling on heat transfer surfaces of the furnaces and high-temperature corrosion of gas turbine blades. The study of vaporisation of these elements from different coals was carried out in co- operation with VTT and TUT. VTT performed the experiments with PEFR. TUT completed the development of an on-line Plasma-assisted measurement method for Na and K in vapour phase and aerosols (PEARLS) and connected it to PEFR for several sets of experiments. The pyrometric method for particle temperature and size measurement was used simultaneously to combine the degree of vaporisation to fuel temperature. These results, measured simultaneously at well controlled pressurized conditions, were unique in the world in 1995. The pressure used in measurement was 1.0 MPa

  2. Reaction kinetics of solid fuels during entrained flow gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremel, Alexander

    2012-10-24

    Despite the application of entrained flow gasification on larger scales, the reaction rates in the hot conversion zone are almost unknown. But the knowledge of the rates of the gasification reactions at high temperature and high pressure is crucial for the detailed design and optimisation of these gasifiers. This dissertation provides measurements of fuel conversion under operation conditions relevant to industrial gasifiers and aims at the transfer of the data to larger scale applications. A novel pilot-scale research reactor is developed that enables the study of gasification reactions at high temperature, high pressure and under entrained flow conditions. The Pressurised High Temperature Entrained Flow Reactor (PiTER) is operated at up to 1600 C and 4.0 MPa in pyrolysis and gasification experiments. The data set is extended by measurements in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor and a pressurised wire mesh reactor. Devolatilisation and gasification behaviour of a wide range of fuels is analysed including anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite, biocoal (from hydrothermal carbonisation), and biomass; however, Rhenish lignite is used in most of the experiments. The pyrolysis data enable the validation of a simple first order reaction model that describes the influence of pressure, temperature, and residence time on volatile yield. Char samples collected from the three reactors are analysed using laboratory procedures and bench-scale setups. Specific char surface area is measured by CO{sub 2} adsorption at 273 K, and is found to be significantly influenced by char conversion, reaction temperature, and devolatilisation pressure. The surface data are described by an extension of the Random Pore Model. Intrinsic char reactivity is measured in a pressurised thermogravimetric analyser and the influence of reactant partial pressure and temperature on the char-CO{sub 2} and char-H{sub 2}O reaction is studied. The intrinsic reaction rate is described by nth order and

  3. Organic petrography:An approach for identification of maceral groups in Gheshlagh coal area, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rabani

    2016-07-01

    megaspore size in the S2 and K5 coal seams is very noticeable. The content of mineral matter of these coal seams varied from 5 to 24.9 vol%. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Eastern Alborz company employees for providing access to mines of the Gheshlagh area and sampling. We appreciate reviews for their constructive suggestions. References Hower, J.C., O'Keefe, J.M.K., Watt, M.A., Pratt, T.J., Eble, C.F., Stucker, J.D., Richardson, A.R. and Kostova, I.J., 2009. Notes on the origin of inertinite macerals in coals: Observations on the importance of fungi in the origin of macrinite. International Journal of Coal Geology, 80(2: 135–143. Hower, J.C. and Wagner, N.J., 2012. Notes on the methods of the combined maceral/ microlithotype determination in coal. International Journal of Coal Geology, 95(47-53: 47–53. International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 1998. The new vitrinite classification (ICCP System 1994. Fuel, 77(5: 349–358. International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 2001. The new inertinite classification (ICCP System 1994. Fuel, 80(4: 459–471. ISO 7404–3, 2009. Methods for the petrographic analysis of bituminous coal and anthracite- Part 3: method of determining maceral group composition. Geneva, 7 pp, http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=42831 Parkash, S., 1985. Petrographic studies of coals from Alberta plains, coal research department, Alberta research. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 47 pp. Scott, A.C. and Glasspool, I.J., 2007. Observations and experiments on the origin and formation of inertinite group macerals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 70(1-3: 55–66. Stach, E., Mackowsky, M.T., Teichmuller, M., Taylor, G.H., Chandra, D. and Teichmuller, R. 1982. Stach's Textbook of Coal Petrology. Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin-Stuttgart, 535 pp. Stopes, M.C., 1935. On the petrology of banded bituminous coals. Fuel, 14: 4–13. Suwarna, N. and Hermanto, B., 2007