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Sample records for anthonomus grandis

  1. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  2. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  3. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

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    Gomes José E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  4. Migration and dispersal of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in South America

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    Teodoro STADLER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio sobre la dispersión de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, el picudo del algodonero, en Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Bolivia, explora las características ecológicas y fisiológicas que han permitido a este insecto dispersarse y establecerse exitosamente en América del Sur. La plasticidad fenotípica de A. grandis se caracteriza por un tiempo de desarrollo flexible, ciclo de vida multivoltino con generaciones superpuestas, la capacidad de alimentarse con polen de diversas familias botánicas así como de otras fuentes de alimento y por su habilidad para migrar y dispersarse con la ayuda del viento. Todo esto hace de esta especie una plaga clave para el cultivo del algodón. Los cultivos de cítricos en Misiones, Argentina, son posibles sitios para la hibernación de esta especie. En esta región fueron capturadas grandes cantidades de individuos prediapausantes, provenientes de algodonales en post-cosecha en Paraguay, atraídos probablemente por compuestos volátiles de cítricos cultivados en la zona. La quiescencia facultativa que atraviesan los adultos ante condiciones adversas, conlleva a un retraso en el desarrollo que se relaciona con las condiciones desfavorables. Esto sugiere que la hibernación en A. grandis puede ser definida como «oligopausa», una forma intermedia de diapausa. Desde su introducción en Brasil en 1983 y hasta el 2006, el picudo se ha dispersado en dirección sudoeste hacia Argentina, a una velocidad promedio de 61 km año-1. Sin embargo, le ha insumido aproximadamente diez años cruzar 250 km, desde Paraguay hacia el centro de la zona algodonera de Argentina. Este progreso más lento se debe probablemente a las acciones llevadas a cabo en el marco del programa de erradicación del picudo del algodonero, por parte del gobierno de Argentina. La llegada del picudo al área central de cultivo de algodón en la Argentina, así como a otras áreas de cultivo en Paraguay y Argentina, confirma el hecho de que

  5. Genetic diversity of Brazilian natural populations of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major cotton pest in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, W F S; Ayres, C F J; Lucena, W A

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five RAPD loci and 6 isozyme loci were studied to characterize the genetic variability of natural populations of Anthonomus grandis from two agroecosystems of Brazil. The random-amplified polymorphic DNA data disclosed a polymorphism that varied from 52 to 84% and a heterozygosity of 0.189 to 0.347. The index of genetic differentiation (GST) among the six populations was 0.258. The analysis of isozymes showed a polymorphism and a heterozygosity ranging from 25 to 100% and 0.174 to 0.277, respectively. The genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations obtained by isozyme data was 0.544. It was possible to observe rare alleles in the populations from the Northeast region. The markers examined allowed us to distinguish populations from large-scale, intensive farming region (cotton belts) versus populations from areas of small-scale farming

  6. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  7. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

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    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  8. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  9. Método de diagnóstico para el monitoreo de resistencia a insecticidas en poblaciones de "picudo del algodonero", Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae A diagnostic test for insecticide resistance monitoring in "cotton boll weevil" Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae populations

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    Teodoro Stadler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El control de las poblaciones de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, por debajo de su umbral de daño económico durante el ciclo del cultivo del algodón, se realiza en forma efectiva hasta el momento, a través de insecticidas de síntesis. La presión selectiva de las aplicaciones extensivas e intensivas de insecticidas hace imperativa la detección temprana de focos de resistencia a los mismos, en función de un correcto manejo del fenómeno. Se desarrolló un método de diagnóstico de resistencia para A. grandis a partir de la técnica "vial test", que fue adaptada en forma de "kit" para el monitoreo rápido y sencillo de los focos de resistencia en el campo. La toxicidad (CL99, para calcular la concentración discriminante (CD del insecticida y la preparación del "kit", se obtiene a partir de bioensayos de laboratorio con una cepa normal susceptible de A. grandis. Se determinó la vida media de los insecticidas dentro de los viales por CIPAC MT 46, para establecer una fecha de vencimiento del "kit". La CD y el método en su conjunto fueron validados a través de ensayos a campo. El "kit", usado en el monitoreo de resistencia en el campo, fue especialmente diseñado para ser utilizado en las condiciones geográficas, económicas y socio-culturales presentes en la región algodonera argentina. La implementación de esta técnica permitirá conseguir la información necesaria, y así obtener una apropiada alternancia de insecticidas. Como consecuencia, se prevé una reducción de impacto ambiental de las prácticas agronómicas en el control de plagas en algodón.The in-season control of the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman is done by insecticide application, which so far is the only effective way to reduce boll weevil populations to levels below economic significance. The extensive and intensive control actions with insecticides cause selective pressure on pest populations. Thus, to achieve an accurate insecticide resistance

  10. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

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    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:23949716

  11. Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae

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    Daniela de Cassia Bená

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae. The third instar larva and the pupa of Anthonomus vis Clark, 1992 are described and illustrated, based upon specimens collected in the Serra de São José, Tiradentes, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The species was previously known from the type series collected in the states of Amapá and Pará. Comparisons with the larva and pupa of A. grandis Boheman, 1843 and A. monostigma Champion, 1903 are included. The larvae of A. vis live as inquilines in the galls induced by a species of momphid moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae in the stems of Leandra aurea (Cham. Cogn. (Melastomataceae.

  12. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  13. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil

  14. MODIFICACIÓN AL PROCESO DE PRODUCCIÓN MASIVA DE LOS PARASITOIDES Catolaccus grandis Y Catolaccus hunteri

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    Marco Antonio Reyes-Rosas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de modificar la tecnología de producción masiva de Catolaccus grandis y Catolaccus hunteri, himenópteros parasitoides de Anthonomus grandis el picudo del algodonero en Tamaulipas, México en el 2002. Se determinó la eficiencia del papel toalla para el secado de manos, en el sellamiento de cápsulas moldeadas en cera de hidrocarburos y poliolefina (LCHP, donde se confina al huésped, y evaluar la efectividad del gorgojo del garbanzo Callosobruchus maculatus como hospedante facticio para la cría de ambos parasitoides. Hubo producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri utilizando C. maculatus como huésped y el papel toalla fue efectivo para sellar los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP. La producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri mediante C. maculatus, contribuyó a incrementar la seguridad y facilidad del proceso, además de una significativa reducción de costos. El papel toalla en el sellado de los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP, redujo en un 50% por m2 los costos del proceso, sin afectar la eficiencia del parasitismo y emergencia de C. grandis.

  15. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  16. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; Leonardo L. P. de Macedo; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (throu...

  17. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  18. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  19. Wirkung von Frühjahrsapplikationen mit Kaolin gegen Obstschädlinge im Frühjahr Dysaphis plantaginea, Anthonomus pomorum, Hoplocampa testudinea

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Fragestellung: Prüfung von Kaolin gegen im Frühjahr auftretende Obstschädlinge (Dysaphis plantaginea, Anthonomus pomorum, Hoplocampa testudinea) Verfahren: • Kontrolle • Kaolin (Surround 3%; 15l pro Behandlung=1l/Baum) 3 Behandlungen: 30.03.(Stadium C3), 05.04. (D), 12.04.2005 (D-E)

  20. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned. PMID:17046244

  1. Pharmacognosy of Coccinia grandis:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamilselvan N; Thirumalai T; Elumalai EK; Balaji R; David E

    2011-01-01

    Traditional system of medicine consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Coccinia grandis belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a rapidly growing, perennial climber or trailing vine. Traditionally different parts of this plant namely the roots, leaves and fruits are used in folklore medicine for several purposes like jaundice, diabetes, wound healing, ulcers, stomach ache, skin disease, fever, asthma, cough. The leaf and its constituents have been reported to possess hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. This review provides adequate information to develop suitable therapeutics out of these plant parts.

  2. Anthonomus quadrigibbus Say,1831%检疫性有害生物——苹果花象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤; 张俊华; 陈乃中

    2012-01-01

    Anthonomus quadrigibbus is one of the most economically important forestry pests.It can cause destructive damage to apple(Malus domestica),pear(Pyrus spp.) and cherries(Prunus spp.),reduce yield prodution,make fruits unpalatable,and have a negative effect on market profits.This paper gives a general introduction of its geographic distribution,hosts,morphology,biology,impact,control,etc.For there is no A.quadrigibbus in China,it is of great significance to prevent this pest by learning more about its damage characteristic and diffusion path.%苹果花象是具有重要经济意义的林业害虫,对苹果、梨和樱桃生产能造成毁灭性损失,严重降低寄主果实的产量和质量,影响市场竞争能力。本文主要介绍了苹果花象的地理分布、寄主、形态特征、生物学特性、经济影响、防治措施等内容。该虫在我国尚无分布,深入研究该虫的危害特点和扩散途径等,对防治该虫有重要意义。

  3. ANTHONOMUS RUBI (HERBST, 1795 (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE A NEW DANGEROUS PEST IN THE ECOLOGICAL CROPS OF STRAWBERRY IN THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MANOLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania mostly of 70% of strawberry ecological plantations were cultivated with specific commercial cultivars like Premial, Red Gauntlet, Dana and Elsanta. In the last years became to be cropped cultivars with increased resistance to various pest insects, specially in the first stages of vegetation period like Honeoye, Elsanta, Camorosa, Marmolada, Chandler, Darselect, Clery and Sonata. On the little individual farms with small surfaces the cultivars Senga Sengana, Marmolada, Elsinore should be the primary source of infestation with Anthonomus rubi.A study of distribution, density and the degree attack of Anthonomus rubi was carried out in the period 2006-2007 in the Vidra and Comana localities, Giurgiu district in the southern part of Romania. The study and observations that was made showed that this species is increased in density in the new ecological plantations of strawberry from some individual farms. The strawberry blossom weevil is not a common pest of strawberry plantations in Romania but some cultivars cropped in ecological system became more sensitive to the weevil attack by increasing in density. Observations and researches were carried out on 4 cultivars and showed that the degree of damage caused by A. rubi depends of cultivar morphological characteristics (small fruits or phenophases (time of ripening and duration of budding and blossoming.

  4. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  5. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  6. Cafe Grandis kõlab lautomuusika / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Corelli Musicu salongiõhtutel festivali "Fiesta de la Guitarra" raames esineb trio koosseisus Stewart McCoy (lautomängija), Robert Staak (lautomängija) ja Maria Staak (laulja), esinejatest. Esitatakse renessansiaja autorite lautoduette ja -laule. Kontsert 8. nov. Pärnu hotellis sarjas "Café Grandi muusikasalong"

  7. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:26876518

  8. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    José Marcio de Mello; João Luís Ferreira Batista; Marcelo Silva de Oliveira; Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro Júnior

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of S...

  9. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  10. Study on Machining Properties of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. Grandis: Ⅰ. Planing and Sanding Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xinyi; JIANG Xiaomei; GAO Jianmin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    The research method in this paper is based on the standard of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Planing and sanding are selected to study the machining properties of E. Urophylla × E. Grandis plantation wood. Moreover, the reasons for machining defects are analyzed. The results show E. Urophylla × E. Grandis planted in south China is a good species with a great potential for solid wood utilization.

  11. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of potential transpiration models to simulate transpiration rates in areas prone to soil water deficits leads to overestimates of water use as the soil dries. Therefore, I carried out studies on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. I hypothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict what fraction of potential transpiration was taking place at a given time. Site 1 supported a stand of 3-year-old E. grandis trees, whereas 9-year-old trees were growing on Site 2, situated 2 km away. At each site, plastic sheeting was laid over the ground to prevent soil water recharge and thereby allow the roots in the soil to induce a continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I found that modeling the water balance of deep rooting zones is impractical for the purpose of simulating nonpotential transpiration rates because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanism and the water retention characteristics of the deep subsoil strata. I conclude that predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits from the soil water balance is not feasible at these sites.

  12. Devolatilisation kinetics and pyrolytic analyses of Tectona grandis (teak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, A O; Lasode, O A; McDonald, A G

    2014-03-01

    Devolatilisation kinetics and pyrolytic analyses were carried out on Tectona grandis (teak) using iso-conversional methods (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Starink) and analytical Py-GC/MS technique respectively. Proximate and elemental analyses were also performed and they showed that the ash and C contents and the HHV were 0.7%, 49.6% and 19.8MJ/kg respectively. Biomass sample was subjected to multiple heating rates (5-35K/min) in thermogravimetric experiments and kinetic parameters were evaluated from the non-isothermal TGA curves. The activation energy (E) varied between 222 and 300kJ/mol as a function of degree of conversion. Similarly, the pre-exponential frequency factor (A) varied between 9.6×10(17) and 9.55×10(24)min(-1). Analytical Py-GC/MS showed the presence of CO2, acetic acid, furan+2-butanone, levoglucosan, trans-coniferyl alcohol and lignin derivatives. The proportion of phenolic compounds identified was more than one-third with isoeugenol, acetoguaiacone, and 4-vinylguaiacol showing dominance. PMID:24486938

  13. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  14. Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

  15. Sewage sludge as substrate for Tectona grandis L. seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge is a waste from sewage treatment plants, which can be used in formulations of substrates for seedling production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different proportions of sewage sludge, soil and commercial substrate on the growth characteristics of Tectona grandis seedlings in tubes of 120 cm³ volume capacity. The sewage sludge used came from the STP's Cachoeiro de Itapemirim / ES. The seedlings were grown in the forest nursery / CCA / UFES. The statistical design used in the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. The treatments constituted of sewage sludge : commercial substrate: soil (v: v: v, which corresponded to 20:70:10 (T1, 40:50:10 (T2, 60:30:10 (T3, 80 : 10:10 (T4, 90:0:10 (T5 and the control treatment with 0:90:10 (T6. All variables assessed were significant at the 5% level of probability. The control (T6 showed results statistically equal to or lower than the treatments T3 with 60% of sewage sludge concentration (T3. It follows then that the use of sewage sludge in seedling production is feasible and promising, however, used in a proper proportion.

  16. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, P. J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research, Division of Forest Science and Technology, Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1996-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa were studied to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. It was expected that by defining this relationship, modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict the fraction of transpiration taking place at any given time. As part of the experimental procedure soil water recharge was prevented by plastic sheeting, thus allowing the roots in the soil to induce continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed only moderate drought stress; trees at both sites extracted water down to eight meters and more, below the surface. These results suggest that because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanisms and other related factors, soil water balance studies are not useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits at these sites. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcio de Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of São Paulo State.Two sampling procedures were used, systematic grading and unencumbered systematic. For each plot from the two samples, thefollowing dendrometric characteristics were measured: volume, quadratic average diameter, basal area and average height of thedominant trees. For each one of these characteristics, anisotropic and isotropic semi variogrammes were built, in order toevaluate the spatial continuity structure. The semi variogrammes were built using the moment estimator method. The mainauthorized functions were adjusted to the experimental semi variogrammes, by The Minimum Square Method. The behavior of thespatial continuity was evaluated through the degree of spatial dependence and of the assigned semi variogrammes for the fourcharacteristics, in the appraised sampling methods, respectively. All appraised characteristics presented spatially structured,independently of the appraised sampling procedure. The continuity structure of the four characteristics was isotropic, i.e., thevariance among pairs of points depends on the separation vector h. Therefore, unidirectional semi variogrammes can be built forall appraised characteristics. The results suggest that, in forest inventory, the spatial component should be considered, i.e., plotsshould not be treated separately.

  18. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in

  19. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  20. Chemical components of cold pressed kernel oils from different Torreya grandis cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Li, Wangling; Zeng, Maomao; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Shangwei; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The chemical compositions of cold pressed kernel oils of seven Torreya grandis cultivars from China were analyzed in this study. The contents of the chemical components of T. grandis kernels and kernel oils varied to different extents with the cultivar. The T. grandis kernels contained relatively high oil and protein content (45.80-53.16% and 10.34-14.29%, respectively). The kernel oils were rich in unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic (39.39-47.77%), oleic (30.47-37.54%) and eicosatrienoic acid (6.78-8.37%). The kernel oils contained some abundant bioactive substances such as tocopherols (0.64-1.77mg/g) consisting of α-, β-, γ- and δ-isomers; sterols including β-sitosterol (0.90-1.29mg/g), campesterol (0.06-0.32mg/g) and stigmasterol (0.04-0.18mg/g) in addition to polyphenols (9.22-22.16μgGAE/g). The results revealed that the T. grandis kernel oils possessed the potentially important nutrition and health benefits and could be used as oils in the human diet or functional ingredients in the food industry. PMID:27173552

  1. A Multivariate Study on Genetic Variation in Teak (Tectona grandis (L.))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Dahl; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Suangtho, V.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic differentiation between populations of teak (Tectona grandis (L.)) was examined in 9 quantitative characters and 10 allozyme loci. Large differences between populations were revealed in the quantitative traits. Regional patterns were revealed by multivariate analysis of the data, but ther...

  2. Governo del territorio e grandi trasformazioni nella regione urbana milanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  Lo studio analizza le grandi trasformazioni in atto nella “regione urbana” milanese, esaminando gli strumenti, le strategie e le politiche seguite. Per “regione urbana” si intende un territorio che non fa riferimento a relazioni gerarchiche di tipo centro-periferico, bensì determina relazioni multi direzionali, a differenza dell’area metropolitana che viene definita in base a relazioni di dipendenza (economica, sociale, funzionale, ecc. di agglomerati esterni rispetto ad un capoluogo. La regione urbana milanese è uno dei poli economici e produttivi più attivi a livello nazionale ed europeo, tuttavia tale territorio è caratterizzato da una ridotta qualità urbana e ambientale e da fenomeni di polarizzazione e di frammentazione sociale in aumento, che hanno ripercussioni negative sulle prospettive di sviluppo dell'area. I più recenti strumenti di pianificazione dell’area milanese fanno riferimento alla coesione territoriale, cercando di disegnare una nuova struttura per il territorio frammentato e diffuso, consolidando il policentrismo della regione urbana, favorendo il riconoscimento di aggregazioni intermedie, al cui interno ricercare integrazione del sistema dei servizi, identità e appartenenze di area. Per attivare una politica di riqualificazione a livello urbano e territoriale, risulta fondamentale seguire forme di coordinamento tra i vari livelli di pianificazione. Particolare attenzione viene posta al problema della mobilità che richiede strategie particolari non solo del traffico quale effetto indotto, ma anche delle cause che lo producono, con riferimento specifico alla distribuzione sul territorio delle diverse attività, ad un corretto equilibrio tra insediamenti residenziali, produttivi e terziari. È necessario, dunque, individuare strumenti e procedure, capaci di perseguire un equilibrio dinamico tra i flussi attratti dalle attività insediate e i flussi “sostenibili” dalle infrastrutture di trasporto

  3. Modelos de predição para sobrevivência de plantas de Eucalyptus grandis Prediction models of Eucalyptus grandis plant survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telde Natel Custódio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar modelos de predição de plantas sobreviventes de Eucalyptus grandis. Utilizaram-se os seguintes modelos: modelo linear misto com os dados transformados, utilizando-se as transformações angular e BOX-COX; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição binomial e funções de ligação logística, probit e complemento log-log; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica. Os dados são provenientes de um experimento em blocos ao acaso, para avaliação de progênies maternas de Eucalyptus grandis, aos 5 anos de idade, em que a variável resposta são plantas sobreviventes. Para comparação dos efeitos entre os modelos foram estimadas as correlações de Spearman e aplicado o teste de permutação de Fisher. Foi possível concluir que, o modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica se ajustou mal aos dados e que as estimativas para os efeitos fixos e predição para os efeitos aleatórios, não se diferenciaram entre os demais modelos estudados.The objective of this work was to compare models for prediction of the survival of plants of Eucalyptus grandis. The following models were used: linear mixed model with the transformed data, by utilizing the angular transformations and BOX-COX; generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution and logistic functions, probit and complement log-log links; generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function. The data came from a randomized block experiment for evaluation of Eucalyptus grandis maternal progenies at five years old, in which the variable response are surviving plants. For comparison of the effects among the models the correlations of Spearman were estimated and the test of permutation of Fisher was applied. It was possible to conclude that: the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and

  4. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  5. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  6. Fertirrigation in production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis during winter and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fernandes Ciavatta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies correlating the splitting of fertigation with the development and quality of tree seedlings in different production systems and periods of the year are fundamental to optimize inputs and minimization of the production cycle. Thus we conducted this study aimed to check the influence of the split of fertigation in the development and quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in winter and summer periods. The fertilization through the irrigation system by capillarity was split on: one, two, three or six times in the week, maintaining the total amount of nutrients applied. We concluded that the most effective fertigation for the development and quality of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis were six and one times in the week for the period of winter and summer, respectively, demonstrating the need for adequacy of fertigation managements according to the period of year.

  7. Assessment of the antidiabetic potential of Cassia grandis using an in vivo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh R Lodha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. grandis (Family: Leguminosae were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by a glucose tolerance test, in normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed that they significantly lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in the glucose tolerance test. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after three hours, at a dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage of protection given by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 32.72 and 46.42%, respectively. In the long-term treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring the blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides on the tenth day. Both the extracts showed a significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide. These results showed that the Cassia grandis possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  8. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

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    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  9. DENDROCLIMATOLOGY CORRELATIONS OF Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN OF RIO CLARO, RJ STATE - BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Roque Ugulino de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial forests plantation contributes decisively to generate socio-economic and environmental benefits, providing sustainability at the forest-based industries. The Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden stand out as one of the most cultivated species for reforestation in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between precipitation and wood production for 23-year old Eucalyptus grandis from a commercial plantation in Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The annual increment of wood was determined by the X-ray densitometry, which provides a detailed wood density profile in radial direction for each sample. One year of the tree life was considered because this the period for the formation of two consecutive latewood rings formation, which corresponds to two high density peaks. The results showed a positive correlation between precipitation data and annual increment of wood, revealing the dendroclimatology potential of this species in this region.

  10. Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the effect of thermal rectification on physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood at different levels of temperature and time. Samples of Eucalyptus grandis wood (10 × 10 × 200 mm were heat-treated at 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C during 4 and 8 hours. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and untreated samples were determined by static bending tests. The physical properties were determined by weight loss and swelling tests. The results showed that modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, weight loss, volumetric swelling and linear swelling were affected significantly by the thermal rectification. However, the length of exposure influenced just weight loss, while the temperature influenced all the studied properties of heat-treated wood. More significant modifications with treatments at a temperature of 200 °C or higher were found in the properties of heat-treated wood.

  11. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  12. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  13. Growth Process of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis Stand Based on Logistic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the most valuable cultivated forest genus in the tropical and subtropical areas nowadays. It has been a challenge for foresters to model growth due to the genetic variations, management regimes, and multiple products generated from the plantations. In this paper, Logistic equation was used to study the stock growth process of E. urophylla × E. grandis plantation at age of 14 with 6 spacing treatments. And the biological interpretation of the parameters of Logistic equation was analyzed. The re...

  14. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre; Adriano Wagner Ballarin; Hernando Lara Palma

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume). The materi...

  15. Formulasi Sediaan Lipstik Menggunakan Ekstrak Daun Jati (Tectona grandis L.f.) Sebagai Pewarna

    OpenAIRE

    Erinda, Nonie

    2011-01-01

    The young teak leaf (Tectona grandis L.f.) have long been used traditionally by the people as a dye fabrics, mats, and also food. The young teak leaf contain natural pigments, one of which is the class of anthocyanin, namely phelargonidine. Researches made formulation of lipstick by using the natural pigments which contained in young teak leaf. Lipstick formulation comprised of several components such as cera alba, lanolin, vaseline alba, cetaceum, cetyl alcohol, oleum ricini, propylene g...

  16. The oropharyngeal morphology in the semiaquatic giant Asian pond turtle, Heosemys grandis, and its evolutionary implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Lintner

    Full Text Available The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids-independently from other amniotes-and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct-but compared to testudinids rather small-anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles.

  17. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M J S

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypot...

  18. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments. PMID:27343456

  19. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the fertilization in the amount and quality of the produced wood is one of the questions to be considered in the research of the Eucalyptus grandis. The present work aimed to evaluate the fertilization effect in the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis. The population of Eucalyptus grandis was 21 years old and was managed under the system of selective thinning, with application of fertilizers. The factors used in this study were: presence or absence of fertilizers, two positions of log and five radial positions. The influences of the factors and of their combinations were evaluated regarding to compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in static banding. The compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity had been influenced by the factors: fertilizer and radial positions of the log. There was also an increase in the direction of the pith-bark in all studied properties. A good positive relationship was found to exist among the compression strength, the shear, the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity with radial position.

  20. MANEJO DO SOLO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM ARGISSOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Prevedello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest species cultivation with rapid growth in Brazil has increased, mainly due to the diverse use of its wood and climate adaptation. The cultivation with minimum tillage in the forest sector stands out a way to increase productivity, combined with the maintenance of biodiversity and soil conservation. This study was conducted at the experimental area of State Foundation for Agricultural Research - Research Center for Forestry in Santa Maria - RS, with aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil tillage methods on soil physical properties and on initial development of Eucalyptus grandis, in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. Four soil management practices were compared: no-tillage; chisel tillage; chisel tillage plus harrowing and; rotary tillage (rotary tiller, installed in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil under no-tillage conditioned lower initial growth of eucalyptus due higher soil penetration resistance and bulk density, when compared with treatments with mobilization. The root distribution analysis in soil, despite being a qualitative method, was effective in demonstrating the effect of soil tillage for the Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The soil tillage with mobilization resulted in a higher initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis. The chisel tillage effects in the soil physical properties persisted after one year of soil tillage.

  1. Antiproteolytic and leishmanicidal activity of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt leaf extract against Leishmania donovani promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Partha; Paik, Dibyendu; Pramanik, Asmita; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), development of alternative safe therapeutic strategy is gaining paramount wherein natural components of plant origin have prominence. We explored Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, a medicinal plant known in traditional folk medicine, for its antileishmanial efficacy. SDS-PAGE analysis of the C. grandis leaf extract (Cg-Ex) showed few protein bands about 14-66 kDa among which three (64.8, 55.8 and 15.3 kDa) were identified as serine protease inhibitors by reverse zymography. Since the virulence of Leishmania is also attributed by serine proteases, objective of the present study was to evaluate in vitro antileishmanial activity of Cg-Ex, targeting Leishmania donovani serine protease(s). Inhibition study of Cg-Ex in gelatin-zymogram and spectrophotometric assay revealed its strong inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin rather than chymotrypsin, and also showed significant inhibition of L. donovani serine protease(s). Further, studies with Cg-Ex were extended to estimate its antileishmanial efficacy with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) at 308.0 ± 2.42 μg/ml along with significant morphological alterations. The results have demonstrated the potential of the serine protease inhibitor rich fraction of the C. grandis leaf extract against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26669017

  2. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  3. Dinâmica do enraizamento de microestacas e miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Rooting dynamics of microcuttings and minicuttings of Eucalyptus grandis clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Titon

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a dinâmica de enraizamento de microestacas e miniestacas, mediante o acompanhamento da emissão e do desenvolvimento de raízes de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram utilizadas microestacas provenientes de brotações coletadas em plantas rejuvenescidas por micropropagação e miniestacas oriundas de brotações coletadas de miniestacas enraizadas originadas de mudas propagadas pelo processo de estaquia convencional. Os resultados indicaram a maior habilidade de enraizamento das microestacas em relação às miniestacas, evidenciada através do número de raízes/estaca, comprimento total de raiz/estaca, comprimento da maior raiz/estaca, comprimento médio de raízes/estaca e peso de matéria seca de raízes.The aim of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of microcutting and minicutting techniques during rooting process, by monitoring root emergence and development in microcuttings and minicuttings of four Eucalyptus grandis clones. Microcuttings were obtained from in vitro rejuvenated plant-derived sprouts, whereas minicuttings from rooted sprouts derived from plants propagated through conventional cutting technique. The results suggest the greater rooting ability of the microcuttings as compared to the minicuttings, evidenced by the number of roots/cuttings, total root/cutting length, largest root/cutting length, mean length of roots/cutting and dry weight of roots.

  4. Comparisons between two economically valuable forest species (Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda in relation to seed behaviour under controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to analyze seed behaviour under controlled deterioration and estimate viability equations for forest species Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda. Desired moisture content levels were achieved from initial values after either rehydration over water or drying over silica gel, both at 25 ºC. Seed sub samples with 8 moisture contents each for E. grandis (1.2 to 18.1%, initial value of 11.3% and P. taeda (1.5 to 19.5%, initial value of 12.9% were sealed in laminate aluminium-foil packets and stored in incubators maintained at 40, 50 and 65 ºC. The seeds from these species exhibited true orthodox and sub-orthodox storage behaviour, respectively, however E. grandis showed higher seed storability, probably due to a different seed chemical composition. Lowest moisture content limits estimated for application of the viability equations at 65 ºC were 4.9 and 4.1 mc for E. grandis and P. taeda, on equilibrium with ±20% RH. The viability equation estimated quantified the response of seed longevity to storage environment well with K E = 9.661 and 8.838; C W = 6.467 and 5.981; C H = 0.03498 and 0.10340; C Q = 0.0002330 and 0.0005476, for E. grandis and P. taeda, respectively.

  5. Impacts of grazing and mowing on reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in a semi-arid area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui GAO; YuBao GAO; XingDong HE

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance can affect biomass allocation of plants, but can it influence plant reproductive behavior? To address this issue, we performed field plant community investigations and explored the reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in response to grazing and mowing treatments at Maodeng pasture of Xilinguole League of Inner Mongolia, China during 2007-2009. The results showed that, with a similar niche width for the two plant species under mowing and grazing treatments, mowing significantly increased the ratio of ramet to genet number of S. krylovii and the carbon to nitrogen ratio of S. grandis, and grazing significantly decreased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller biomass of S. grandis and increased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. krylovii. Regression analysis showed that the significantly positive effect of root to shoot biomass ratio was stronger on the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. grandis than on that of S. krylovii. These results indicated that grazing and mowing influenced the reproductive manner and the process of sexual reproduc-tion of S. grandis and S. krylovii.

  6. Using morphometrics, in situ observations and genetic characters to distinguish among commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species; a redescription of Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 (Antipatharia : Antipathidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Daniel [University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu; Toonen, Robert J. [Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Kaneohe, HI; Brugler, Mercer R. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; France, Scott C. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Montgomery, Anthony D. [Honolulu State Department Land and Natural Resources, HI

    2010-01-01

    The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27-127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ color photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three color morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish among the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi Opresko, 2009. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana Opresko, 1996 from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis (Gray, 1860), hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.

  7. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  8. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinski, Ilara G F; Moon, David H; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD(+) for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  9. THE DENSITY AND SHRINKAGE BEHAVIOR OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD SUBMITTED TO DIFERENT TEMPERATURES OF THERMORETIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    José Otávio Brito; José Nivaldo Garcia; Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior; Antonio Maria das Chagas Pessoa; Paulo H. Müller da Silva

    2006-01-01

    This research deals with the evaluation of the behavior of thermorectificated wood of Eucalyptus grandis, in relation itsdensity and shrinkage. To evaluate these aspects, it was used a totally random experimental outline, with 5 treatments (A - woodthermorectificated (wt) at 120 ºC; B wt at 140 ºC; C wt at 160 ºC; D wt at 180 ºC; E - wt at 200 ºC) and 30 replications. The resultsindicated that, in statistical terms, the density of wood thermally treated is not different from that obtained fro...

  10. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn.) and Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi; Efemena Dickens Dolor; Ebere Mercy Okechukwu

    2007-01-01

    A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlin...

  11. SEASONAL INCREMENT IN TRUNK DIAMETER OF Eucalyptus grandis TREES APPLYING DENDROMETER BANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Sette Junior; Mario Tomazello Filho; José Luis Lousada; Jean Paul Laclau

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987557The present work aimed to evaluate the seasonal increment in diameter of Eucalyptus grandis trees for 24 months and its relationship with the climatic variables and fertilization with nitrogen and with sewer mud. The trees were planted in the spacing of 3x2 m and fertilized with nitrogen (planting, 6, 12, 18 months) and sewer mud (planting and 8 months). 20 trees were selected by treatment according witch the distribution of basal area and installed dendr...

  12. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  13. Influence of Planting Spacing on Mechanical Properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Planted in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENSON; Michael

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand influence of planting spacing on mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla planted as a potential species for solid wood products in China. Four trees at age of 13 were selected from each of 6 groups of planting spacing and a total of 24 sampling trees were selected from the Dongmen Forestry Center of Guangxi Province in China. Furthermore, a one-meter-long log from each tree was cut into small blocks for wood properties testing. MOE, MOR and co...

  14. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit;

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  15. Efeito de antioxidantes no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart; Aloisio Xavier; José Maria Moreira Dias

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos antioxidantes ácido ascórbico, carvão ativado e polivinilpirrolidona (PVP) no enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal desenvolvido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. Experimentalmente, foram testadas cinco concentrações de ácido ascórbico, quatro de carvão ativado e sete de PVP, nos quatro clones estudados. Foram realizadas avaliações quant...

  16. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  17. Antraquinonas e naftoquinonas do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandi (Verbenaceae Anthraquinones and naphtoquinones from the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae reforestation specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Y.O. Moreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato hexânico do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae, através de procedimentos fitoquímicos clássicos, levou ao isolamento das naftoquinonas lapachol e desidro-a-lapachona e das antraquinonas tectoquinona e obtusifolina. As estruturas das substâncias foram caracterizadas através da análise de métodos espectrométricos de RMN. Este é o primeiro estudo fitoquímico de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis, no Brasil, sendo o objetivo principal deste trabalho a comprovação da presença de tectoquinona em espécimes cultivados.The hexane extract of the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae afforded two anthraquinones and two naphtoquinones. Their caracterizations were obtained through NMR spectroscopic techniques. This is the first phytochemical study of the bark of Tectona grandis reforestation specimen in Brazil. The main interest in this work is proving the presence of tectoquinone in reforestation specimen.

  18. Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  19. Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  20. Light intensity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis L. f. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C. P. Leal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effects of the luminosity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis seedlings. Thus, in a substrate composed by topsoil + wood powder (1:1 the seedlings were grown into plastic tubets containing 0.3 dm3 of such substrate, or into plastic pots containing 1.0 dm3 of the same substrate, and subjected to 50 and 25% shading or full sunlight. The assessments were performed every two weeks by measuring plant height and stem diameter, during eight weeks period. At the end of this period, the leaf area, dry mass of shoots and roots, the ratio between height of plant/diameter of stem, and the Dickson quality index were also assessed. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with treatments arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial [3 luminosity levels (50, 25% shading and full sunlight x 2 types of containers (plastic tubets and clay pots] with four replicates of 10 seedlings each. Means were compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability level and adjustments for the non-linear regression polynomial curves for the assessed characteristics were computed in function of time. Shadings of 25 and 50% were the best alternatives to luminosity; and the tubets were the most suitable containers for production of Cassia grandis seedlings.

  1. Characterization and rheological study of the galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Barros, Wilson; Santos, Gustavo R C; Correia, Maria T S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2014-04-15

    Galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation, presented a yield of 36 ± 8%. The polysaccharide has a constant mannose/galactose ratio (2.44:1). Methylation analysis, one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the polysaccharide has a central core composed of 4-linked β-mannose units, with branches of galactose, linked to the carbohydrate core through α(1-6) linkage. The amorphous nature of the galactomannan was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Rheological characterization exhibited Newtonian plateaus followed by shear-thinning zones characteristic of polymer solutions up to 1.5% (w/v) and above this value the system exhibited yield stress associated with a weak gel. Adjusting stress-strain curves confirmed a 1.6% (w/v) as the galactomannan concentration value for the sol-gel transition. These results indicate that the galactomannan extracted from C. grandis seeds presents rheological characteristics suitable for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor from leaves of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, L Shilpa; Murugan, K

    2011-05-01

    Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor isolated from Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. has been reported. A 14.3 kDa protease inhibitor (PI) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation (20-85% saturation), sephadex G-75, DEAE sepharose column and trypsin-sepharose affinity chromatography from the leaves of C. grandis. The purity was checked by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. PI exhibited marked growth inhibitory effects on colon cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PI was thermostable and showed antimicrobial activity without hemolytic activity. PI strongly inhibited pathogenic microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Eschershia coli, Bacillus subtilis and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, Mucor indicus, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Examination by bright field microscopy showed inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation. Morphologically, PI treated fungus showed a significant shrinkage of hyphal tips. Reduced PI completely lost its activity indicating that disulfide bridge is essential for its protease inhibitory and antifungal activity. Results reported in this study suggested that PI may be an excellent candidate for development of novel oral or other anti-infective agents. PMID:21615062

  3. Amino Acid Content, Fatty Acid Profile and Radical Scavenging Capacities of Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtisam G. Doka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan, the unripe (green fruits of Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt. (Cucurbitaceae are eaten raw as salads or cooked by either boiling or frying in oil. In this study the amino acid content, fatty acid profile and radical scavenging capacities of the raw and boiled fruits were determined. The total amino acids ranged from 7736 mg/100 g in raw fruits to 7766 mg/100 g in boiled fruits and with the exception of leucine, boiling did not cause significant difference in the essential amino acids content (32.5% of the fruits. Boiling caused significant (p<0.05 change in the amount of the total saturated (from 38.04% in raw fruits to 14.156% in boiled ones and unsaturated fatty acids (from 57.59% in raw fruits to 85.774% in boiled ones. Moreover, boiling caused significant (p<0.05 losses of vitamin C by 73% and polyphenols by 70.6 % contents. The high antioxidant activity of the raw fruits (IC50 22 mg/L, determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, was declined dramatically upon boiling. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that fruits of C. grandis could have health beneficial effect and their consumption in the raw state is preferable.

  4. Effects of potassium and sodium supply on drought-adaptive mechanisms in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Christina, Mathias; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; de Cassia Piccolo, Marisa; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; e Moreira, Rildo Moreira; Krusche, Alex Vladimir; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Nouvellon, Yann

    2014-07-01

    A basic understanding of nutrition effects on the mechanisms involved in tree response to drought is essential under a future drier climate. A large-scale throughfall exclusion experiment was set up in Brazil to gain an insight into the effects of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) nutrition on tree structural and physiological adjustments to water deficit. Regardless of the water supply, K and Na supply greatly increased growth and leaf area index (LAI) of Eucalyptus grandis trees over the first 3 yr after planting. Excluding 37% of throughfall reduced above-ground biomass accumulation in the third year after planting for K- supplied trees only. E. grandis trees were scarcely sensitive to drought as a result of the utilization of water stored in deep soil layers after clear-cutting the previous plantation. Trees coped with water restriction through stomatal closure (isohydrodynamic behavior), osmotic adjustment and decrease in LAI. Additionally, droughted trees showed higher phloem sap sugar concentrations. K and Na supply increased maximum stomatal conductance, and the high water requirements of fertilized trees increased water stress during dry periods. Fertilization regimes should be revisited in a future drier climate in order to find the right balance between improving tree growth and limiting water shortage.

  5. Mast Cell Stabilizing,Antianaphylactic and Antihistaminic Activity of Coccinia grandis Fruits in Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Coccinia grandis Linn(Curcubitaceae)is a climber herb cultivated throughout India.In traditional medicine fruits have been used to treat leprosy,fever,asthma,bronchitis and jaundice.In present study,ethanol extract of C.grandis fruit(ECGF)at 100,125 and 150 mg·kg-1,i.p.,was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing,antianaphylactic and antihistaminic activity using egg albumin induced mast cell degranulation in mice;passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and clonidine induced catalepsy in mice respectively.ECGF at(100-150 mg·kg-1,i.p.)significantly protected egg albumin induced degranulations of mast cells and caused reduction of blue dye leakage in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in dose dependently.The treatment ECGF also inhibited clonidine induced catalepsy in dose dependent manner.Phytochemical studies observed presence of saponin,steroids,alkaloids,flavonoids and glycosides.In conclusion ECGF possesses mast cell stabilizing;anti anaphylactic and antihistaminic potential which might be used in treatment of asthma.

  6. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  7. Use of glass transition temperature for stabilization of board's cracks of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred W. Calonego

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus grandis logs temperatures were determined and correlated with the board's cracks during steaming. Thermocouples were inserted in the logs center, registering their temperatures during steaming at 90"C. The logs were sawed and the board's cracks measured. It was concluded that: (1 the logistic S-shaped curve explains the logs temperature variation; (2 the logs with diameter of 20 to As temperaturas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis, durante a vaporização, foram determinadas e correlacionadas com as rachaduras das tábuas. Nos centros das toras foram inseridos termopares e registradas suas temperaturas durante a vaporização à 90"C. As toras foram desdobradas e as rachaduras das tábuas mensuradas. Concluiu-se que: (1 o modelo estatístico sigmoidal logístico explica a variação da temperatura nas toras; (2 as toras com 20 a <25, 25 a <30 e 30 a <35 cm de diâmetro apresentaram, respectivamente, 84,2"C, 73,1"C e 45,8"C ao final da vaporização; e (3 as rachaduras foramsignificativamente menores nas toras que atingiram a temperatura de transição vítrea.

  8. Interspecific hybridization and inbreeding effect in seed from a Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clonal orchard in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campinhos Eduardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We used allozyme markers to estimate the amount of natural hybridization between Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla in a 7.4-hectare commercial hybrid-seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This orchard was planted in 1982 using a honeycomb design, with each hexagonal plot containing one E. grandis tree surrounded by six E. urophylla trees. There were 267 replicated hexagonal plots in the orchard. Seeds were harvested from the E. grandis clone only. The multilocus outcrossing rate estimated for the E. grandis clone averaged 70.2%, ranging from 33.0 to 99.0% among individual trees. Contaminant pollination, inferred from progeny genotypes containing alleles not present in the seven parental clones, accounted for 14.4% of the hybrid seed. Contaminant pollen was attributed to neighboring eucalyptus stands isolated from the orchard by a 400-m wide belt of native forest. Inbred and hybrid progenies were identified by their allozyme genotypes and transplanted to the field. Field growth of inbred progeny was 30% lower than that of hybrid plants at two and three years of age.

  9. Organogênese de explante foliar de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Organogenesis of the leaf explant of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

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    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tia-diazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no desempenho da propagação in vitro por organogênese de explante foliar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura e coloração dos calos, em razão dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento dos três genótipos foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante foliar. Os piores resultados de calejamento foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento BAP (0,1 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP em que 8% dos calos formados a partir de explantes foliares regeneraram gemas, com número médio destas formadas por calo igual a 4,2.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine e NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid on the in vitro propagation by organogenesis from foliar explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Depending on the clone used, there were singular responses to growth regulators treatment regarding callusing intensity, texture and color. The best results of the three genotypes used were observed with the TDZ (0.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment, where 100% of the foliar explants presented callus. The worst results were observed with the BAP (0.1 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment. Subsequently, considering the regeneration process, the best response was achieved with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, in which 8% of the calli regenerated buds, with an average of 4.2 buds per explant.

  10. Brotación in vitro de yemas de teca (Tectona grandis L. f. Sprouting buds in vitro teak (Tectona grandis L. f.

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    Fabiana Rojas Parajeles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La teca (Tectona grandis L.f. es una especie maderable exótica introducida a Costa Rica para la siembra de plantaciones comercial por la alta demanda de su madera, su rápido crecimiento y su alta calidad. Inicialmente se utilizó la semilla como único material de siembra y la pobre calidad de muchas de las plantaciones impulsó el inicio de programas de mejora genética. La propagación clonal tomó mucha importancia en estos programas y el cultivo in vitro se convirtió en una herramienta valiosa para la propagación masiva de los árboles élites. Por lo anterior, este trabajo se enfocó en evaluar el efecto de varias concentraciones de dos reguladores de crecimiento, bencilaminopurina (BA y ácido indolacético (AIB, solos y en combinación, en la brotación de yemas dormantes y formación de callos de teca. Tanto el análisis estadístico como la observación visual mostraron que el tratamiento que consistió de 0,005 mg/l de AIA fue el mejor para incrementar la brotación de las yemas y para disminuir la formación de callo.Teak (Tectona grandis L. f. is an exotic timber species introduced to Costa Rica for commercial plantations due to the high demand for its wood, rapid growth and high-quality. Initially the seed was use as the only planting material, but the poor quality of many of the plantations resulted in the initiation of genetic improvement programs. The introduction of clonal propagation in these programs and the establishment of in vitro culture techniques became import tools for mass propagation of the selected elite trees. On the foregoing, this work focused on assessing the effect of several concentrations of two growth regulators, benzylaminopurine (BA and indole acetic acid (AIB, alone and in combination, in the budding of dormantes buds and callus formation of teak. Both the statistical analysis and the visual observation showed that the treatment consisted of 0.005 mg/l of IAA was the best to increase the budding of the

  11. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

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    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  12. Aboveground nutrient components of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. grandis in semiarid Brazil under the nature and the mycorrhizal inoculation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcela C. Pagano; Antonio F. Bellote; Maria R. Scotti

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the aboveground biomass, nutrient content and the percentages of mycorrhizal colonization in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis plantations in the semiarid region (15° 09' S 43° 49' W) in the north of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. Results show that the total above-ground biomass (dry matter) was 33.6 Mg·ha-1 for E. camaldulensis and 53.1 Mg·ha-1 for E. grandis. The biomass of the stem wood, leaves, branches, and stem bark for E. camaldulensis accounted for 64.4%, 19.6%, 15.4%, and 0.6% of the total biomass, respectively (Table 2); meanwhile a similar partition of the total above-ground biomass was also found for E. grandis. The dry matter of leaves and branches of E. camaldulensis accounted for 35% of total biomass, and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S in leaves and branches accounted for 15.5%, 0.7%, 12.3%, 22.6%, 1.9%, and 1.4% of those in total above-ground biomass, respectively. In the trunk (bark and wood), nutrient accumulation in general was lower. Nutrient content of E. grandis presented little variation compared with that of E. camaldulensis. Wood localized in superior parts of trunk presented a higher concentration of P and bark contained significant amounts of nutrients, especially in E. grandis. This indicated that leaving vegetal waste is of importance on the site in reducing the loss of tree productivity in this semi-arid region. The two species showed mycotrophy.

  13. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  14. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

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    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  15. MORFOANATOMIA DA RIZOGÊNESE ADVENTÍCIA EM MINIESTACAS DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

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    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to accomplish the histological analysis of the events involved in the adventitious rooting pattern of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones. The mini-cuttings were collected from a mini-stump and the rooting experiments were set up under mini-hedge indoor semi-hydroponics by means of intermittent flooding fertirrigation. For histological analyses, the proximal ends of the mini- cuttings were collected after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 days after planting them at greenhouse. After fixation with FAA 70% , the samples were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and infiltrated overnight in metracrilate resin, and finally embedded in resin. It was verified the endogenous origin of adventitious root primordia from vascular cambium, and in some cases, the formation and proliferation of calli at the proximal end of the mini-cuttings within 8 to 12 days.

  16. Quantification by allometric equations of carbon sequestered by Tec-tona grandis in different agroforestry systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avinash Jain; S. A. Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Non destructive methods for quantification of carbon seques-tration in tropical trees are inadequately developed. We described a stan-dardized method for estimating carbon stock in teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.). We developed linear allometric equations using girth at breast height (GBH), height and age to quantify above ground biomass (AGB). We used AGB to estimate carbon stock for teak trees of different age groups (1.5, 3.5, 7.5, 13.5, 18.5 and 23.5 years). The regression equation with GBH, y=3.174x-21.27, r2=0.898 (p teak-wheat (56.92%)>teak-wild oat (54.94%)>teak-gram (37.15%)>teak-ashwagandha (11.86%). The results from GBH-based regression equations provided satisfactory estimates of carbon stock in tropical trees.

  17. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from the Peel of Chinese Torreya grandis Fort

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    Tao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the peel essential oil of Torreya grandis fort obtained by cold pressing and steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. 62 constituents accounting for 99.6% of the total pressed oil were identified while 59 compounds accounting for 99.4% of the steam distilled oil were identified. Limonene (35.6–37.1%, α-pinene (20.1–24.1%, and δ-carene (3.3–3.9 were the major constituents. Others include γ-carene (3.8-3.9%, germacrene D (2.5–2.9%, and β-farnesene (2.7-2.8%.

  18. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

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    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  19. INFLUENCE OF BOARDS DIAMETRICAL POSITION AND STEAMING ON THE DRYING DEFECTS OF Eucalyptus grandis.

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    Fred Willians Calonego

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the Eucalyptus grandis drying defects acting on boards diametrical position and on log steaming. Half of the logs, with diameter from 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35cm, were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature. Subsequently, the logs (control and steamed were sawn. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln pilot and the resulting defects from the drying process were measured. The results indicate that: (1 the boards coming from control logs presented different magnitude defects in function of the diametrical position. The split and spring to increase in direction to pith, the bow to increase in direction to bark and cupping were bigger in intermediary boards; (2 the boards coming from steamed logs presented a reduction from drying defects in function of logs diameter and its more homogeneous index in the pith-bark direction.

  20. Incidence and management of white grub, Schizonycha ruficollis on seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NITIN KULKARNI; KAILASH CHANDRA; PRAFULLA NARAHAR WAGH; KAILASH CHANDRA JOSHI; RAM BHAJAN SINGH

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was conducted annually from 2002 to 2005 between the second week of May and the end of September on the incidence of scarab beetle, Schizonycha ruficollis (Fabricius) in a teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nursery at Ramdongari, Nagpur, India.The immature stages, that is white grubs of the scarab beetle damaged 14%-52% of teak seedlings in the nursery beds, whereas the adult of the species, that is scarab beetles, were recorded on three new host trees (Ziziphus xylopyra, Acacia catechu and A.leucophloea) in addition to the reported hosts such as ziziphus (Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana). Beetles of the S. ruficollis started emerging from the nursery beds just after the pre-monsoon showers and continued for 10-18 days. While beetle of S. ruficollis defoliated tree hosts available in the surroundings, the immature stages of the beetle caused major damage by feeding on root systems of teak seedlings with symptoms of wilting and mortality in forest nursery beds. The result of chemical and biological treatments for the management of grubs of S. ruficollis in nursery beds indicated phorate 10% granular at the rate of 20 g/m2 and chlorpyriphos 20% emulsifiable concentrate at the rate of 5.0 mL/m2 to be effective. Grubs of S. ruficollis have not been recorded previously as a major pest of teak (T. grandis). This is also the first report on occurrence of S. ruficollis adults on tree hosts such as Z. xylopyra, A. catechu and A.leucophloea. White grubs being pests of economic importance and the toughest insects to manage, information given in this paper on incidence, pest status and management of Schizonycha ruficollis is of importance to researchers and forest nursery managers.

  1. Lignoanatomical variation in seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden treated with growth regulators

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    Regina Paula Willemen Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of growth regulators GA3 and BAP on lignification and consequently on the diameter of fibers in Eucalyptus grandis plants at age six months. Anatomical, biochemical and genetic studies after exogenous application of growth regulators during the development phase have been increasingly explored. Some of these studies have achieved progress regarding the interaction of plant hormones with the anatomy and the lignification process in plants. The application of growth regulators GA3 and BAP was done separately or combined in the following concentrations: GA3 (49.13 μM and 98.26 μM, BAP (111 μM and 222 μM, using seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis at age up to six months. Chemical and anatomical analyses were performed on the stem segment of plants subjected to treatment. To quantify lignin content by the Klason method, samples were subjected to removal of extractives and proteins. To measure fiber diameter, once dissociated, samples were analyzed by optical microscopy. The lignin content ranged between 23.37% and 29.64% and fiber diameter ranged between 13.33 µm and 20.39 µm. From results it was possible to visualize, with the G[1]C[1] treatment (49.13 μM of GA3 with 111µM of BAP that lignin content dropped by 21.2% in relation to the control treatment, and that fiber diameter had the smallest increase in relation to other treatments.

  2. Simulated drift effect of glyphosate in different parts of Eucalyptus grandis plantsEfeito da deriva simulada de glyphosate em diferentes partes da planta de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Maria Renata Rocha Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphoste on Eucalyptus grandis, through the application of low doses in different parts of the plant. The experimental design was a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments were glyphosate application at 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g a.e. ha-1 of the commercial formulation Scout®. Three forms of application were used: applying on leaf, on stem, and on the entire plant (leaf + stem. For leaf application, stems were covered with plastic ribbons to protect them from the solution; the same was made with plants that were sprayed on stems, covering leaf with plastic bag. The application was carried out in an armed stationary spray tips XR 11002 VS, with 183 KPa pressure in volume of 200 L ha-1. The eucalyptus plants receiving applications in leaves and whole plant (leaves + stem showing effects of intoxication are more intense about the plants that received the stem applications only. However, there may be increases in height growth and total dry mass of eucalyptus plants in applications of 30 g a.e. ha-1 glyphosate.No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphoste em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio da aplicação de doses reduzidas em diferentes partes da planta. Utilizouse o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g e.a.ha-1 de glyphosate, da formulação comercial Scout®. A aplicação foi realizada de três formas: aplicação sobre as folhas, no caule e na planta inteira (folha + caule. Para a aplicação nas folhas o caule foi coberto com fitas plásticas para evitar que fosse atingido pela solução, e o mesmo foi feito com as plantas que receberam pulverização no caule, cobrindo as folhas com saco plástico. A aplicação foi realizada em um pulverizador estacionário, munido de pontas XR 11002 VS, com pressão de 183

  3. Danos visuais e anatômicos causados pelo glyphosate em folhas de Eucalyptus grandis Visible and anatomic damages caused by glyphosate in Eucalyptus grandis leaves

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    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A sintomatologia é um dos principais critérios adotados para avaliar os danos causados por fatores bióticos e abióticos em plantas. Contudo, aspectos microscópicos são necessários na compreensão dos mecanismos de intoxicação e no diagnóstico precoce da injúria. Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de quatro formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® sobre a morfoanatomia foliar de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis (UFV01, UFV02, UFV03, UFV04, UFV05 e UFV06. Após a aplicação do glyphosate na dose de 129,6 g ha-1, acompanhou-se diariamente o surgimento de sintomas, e aos 14 dias coletaram-se amostras de folhas aparentemente sadias para as análises microscópicas. Todos os clones apresentaram cloroses e necroses a partir do quarto dia de exposição, independentemente da formulação utilizada. O clone UFV04 não apresentou injúrias anatômicas. Nos demais clones, os herbicidas ocasionaram plasmólise, colapso celular, hipertrofia e formação de tecido de cicatrização, porém não foram diagnosticadas variações na espessura das folhas. Visualmente, o Roundup transorb® foi o herbicida que provocou maior intoxicação nas plantas. Anatomicamente, plantas expostas ao Roundup NA® apresentaram maior número de danos. O clone UFV06 foi o mais sensível à ação das formulações testadas, considerando-se tanto a análise visual quanto a anatômica. Os resultados confirmam o valor diagnóstico da análise visual e prognóstico da anatomia vegetal, sendo o estudo conjunto desses parâmetros fundamental para avaliar a sensibilidade entre os clones e o potencial fitotóxico de herbicidas.Symptomatology is one of the most important criteria used to determine the damages caused by biotic and abiotic factors in plants. However, microscopic aspects are needed to elucidate intoxication mechanisms and early injury diagnosis. This work aimed to evaluate the

  4. Use of vermicompost as a substrate for the production of Eucalyptus grandis and Corymbia citriodora seedlings Utilização de vermicomposto como substrato na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis e Corymbia citriodora

    OpenAIRE

    Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Gustavo Schiedeck

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the vermicompost efficiency in the seedlings of two eucalyptus species production. The experiment was developed in greenhouse conditions, substrate constituted by different vermicompost proportions and peat for the E. grandis and C. citriodora seedling production. The experimental design was entirely casualized with seven treatments and eight repetitions. After 100 days of experiment were evaluated: seedli...

  5. Eficiência das minicepas e microcepas na produção de propágulos de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Efficiency of ministumps and microstumps of Eucalyptus grandis clones for minicutting and microcutting production

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    Miranda Titon

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência dos jardins clonais nas técnicas de microestaquia e miniestaquia de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, quanto a sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva das microcepas e minicepas em coletas sucessivas de microestacas e miniestacas. As microcepas utilizadas foram oriundas de mudas rejuvenescidas por micropropagação, mediante subcultivos in vitro, e as minicepas, de miniestacas oriundas de plantas propagadas pelo método da estaquia convencional (macroestaquia. As minicepas e as microcepas apresentaram desempenho similar, tendo sido observado, para ambas, elevada taxa de sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva de material para propagação vegetativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of clonal gardens in the microcutting and minicutting techniques of four Eucalyptus grandis clones regarding the survival, vigor and productive capacity of the microstumps and ministumps in successive collections of microcuttings and minicuttings. The microstumps were obtained from rejuvenated tissue explants through subculture in vitro, and the ministumps by minicuttings derived from conventional rooted cuttings. The ministumps and microstumps of E. grandis exhibited similar performance, i.e., high survival rate, vigor and productive capacity of vegetative propagation material.

  6. AVALIAÇÃO DA SUPERFÍCIE DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden TRATADA TERMICAMENTE

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    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge and sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190ºC. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good, except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad. The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr; Mario Tomazello F; José Luis Lousada; Domingos Lopes; Jean Paul Laclau

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were instal...

  8. Entomofauna associated to stands of teak (Tectona grandis) located in the south of Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Benigno Paes; Pedro Lício Loiola; Winy Agnolette Capelini; Lorenzo Lube dos Santos; Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Junior

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous forests are susceptive to the occurrence of population’s boom of forest pests. Among them, the beetles are considered important economically, not only for the actual damages to the stand, but mainly for the difficulty of control. This work aimed to carry out a population survey of insects, mainly of xylophagous, in stands of Tectona grandis. Twenty ethanolic traps and 30 wood samples of teak were installed in two stands in the municipalities of Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, ...

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao-Mei Ru; Jian-Hua Liu; Ping Shao; Jin-Zhe He

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest e...

  10. Allelopathic effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla on pathogenic fungi and pest insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study on the allelopathic effects and chemical components of the essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla shows that the leaf oil emulsion of E.grandis × E.urophylla can inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum,Pyriculerie grisea,Glorosprium musa rum and Phytophthora capsici.Pupation and feeding of the pest insects Spodopteralitura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hubner are shown to be affected with restraining effects which increase with the increasing levels of oil concentration.A GC/MS analysis of the leaf oil indicated that the main components,with a relative content of≥3%,were alloocimene (43.22%),α-pinene (13.63%),γ-terpinene (5.49%),(E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (3.58%),β-fenchyl alcohol (4.58%),and 2-amino-3,5-dicyano-6-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-pyridine (3.67%).Terpenes played an important role in the inhibitory effects of E.grandis × E.urophylla essential oil on pathogenic fungi and pest insects.Poor biodiversity of eucalyptus plantations is a function of allelopathy.

  11. A comparative assessment on regeneration status of indigenous woody plants in Eucalyptus grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiferaw Alem; Tadesse Woldemariam

    2009-01-01

    Diversity, density and species composition of naturally regenerated woody plants under Eucalyptus grandis plantation and the adjacent natural forest were investigated and compared. Twenty plots, with an area of 20 m× 20 m for each, were established in both of E. Grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest, independently. In each plot, species name, abundance, diameter and height were recorded. Numbers of seedling were collected in five sub-plots (4 m2) within each major plot. A total of 46 species in the plantation, and 52 species in the natural forest, which belongs to 36 families were recorded. The diversity of species (H') is 2.19 in the plantation and 2.74 in the natural forest. The density of understory woody plant was 3842 stems/ha in the plantation and 4122 stems/ha in the natural forest. The densities of seedlings in the natural forest and the plantation were 8101 stems/ha and 4151 stems/ha, respectively. High similarity of woody species composition was found between the natural forest and the plantation. The E. Grandis plantation was found favoring the regeneration and growth of Millitia ferruginia and Coffea arabica in a much better way than other underneath woody species.

  12. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap distance from cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Once populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) are suppressed, eradication programs rely on pheromone trap-based monitoring for timely detection of weevil populations in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Delayed detection may increase the costs of remedial treatments, and permit rep...

  13. Effect of Hexaflumuron on gustation and reproduction of adult boll weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of hexaflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory against boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, captured in pheromone-baited traps for gustatory response and reproduction of the insect. Hexaflumuron is an insect growth regulator which inhibits chitin synthesis and disrupts inse...

  14. Comparison of Flavonoid Compounds in the Flavedo and Juice of Two Pummelo Cultivars (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck from Different Cultivation Regions in China

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    Mingxia Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different cultivation regions on the pattern and content of flavonoids in two pummelo cultivars (C. grandis L. Osbeck in China. Results showed that similar patterns of flavonoids were observed in the flavedo or juice of each pummelo cultivar from these cultivation regions, whereas the individual flavonoid content showed unique characteristics. Naringin, the predominant flavanone glycoside, showed the highest content in both flavedo and juice of C. grandis “Guanximiyu” from the Pinghe of Fujian (FJ cultivation region compared with the Dapu of Guangdong (GD and Nanbu of Sichuan (SC regions. However, its content in the flavedo of C. grandis “Shatianyu” from the Pingle of Guangxi (GX was significantly lower than in the GD and SC regions. Vicenin-2 appeared to be the dominant flavone C-glycoside in the flavedo of both cultivars, and the lowest content was observed in the flavedo of C. grandis “Guanximiyu” from the SC region. However, C. grandis “Shatianyu” contained the highest content of vicenin-2 in the flavedo from SC region. Similarly, the predominant flavone O-glucoside, rhoifolin, showed the highest content in C. grandis “Guanximiyu” from the GD and FJ regions, whereas C. grandis “Shatianyu” in SC region showed the highest content of rhoifolin. Cluster analysis suggested that genotype played a primary role in determining the flavonoid profiles of pummelo cultivars, whereas regional differences significantly affected the flavonoid distribution of pummelo cultivars potentially via affecting the direction of flavonoid accumulation in pummelo.

  15. Cross-resistance in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations resistant to dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziolor, Elias M; Dubansky, Benjamin; Burggren, Warren W; Matson, Cole W

    2016-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) in Houston, Texas is an aquatic environment with a long history of contamination, including polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. Populations of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) from the HSC have adapted to resist developmental cardiac deformities caused by dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Contaminants in the HSC have acted as a strong selective pressure on resident Gulf killifish populations. Rapid adaptation can lead to fitness costs, some as a direct result of the mechanisms involved in the adaptive process, whereas other adaptations may be more general. To explore potential fitness costs, we evaluated two Gulf killifish populations with documented resistance to DLC-induced cardiac teratogenesis (Patrick Bayou and Vince Bayou), and one previously characterized reference population (Gangs Bayou). We also characterized a previously unstudied population from Galveston Bay as an additional reference population (Smith Point). We tested the sensitivity of F1 larvae from these four populations to two classes of pesticides (pyrethroid (permethrin) and carbamate (carbaryl)) and two model pro-oxidants (tert-butyl hydroquinone (tBHQ) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH)). In addition, we explored their responses to hypoxia and measured resting metabolic rates (M.O2). Both adapted populations were cross-resistant to the toxicity of carbaryl and both pro-oxidants tested. There were no population differences in sensitivity to permethrin. On the other hand, one reference population (Gangs Bayou) was less sensitive to hypoxia, and maintained a lower M.O2 . However, there were no differences in hypoxia tolerance or resting metabolic rate between the second reference and the two adapted populations. This investigation emphasizes the importance of including multiple reference populations to clearly link fitness costs or

  16. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Eucalyptus grandis

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    Denis L. G. Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  17. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

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    Garcia Tzintzuni I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and

  18. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very

  19. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

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    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las especies forestales de rápido crecimiento cultivadas en Uruguay de mayor importancia económica es el Eucalyptus grandis. Trabajos anteriores reportan propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera juvenil y adulta proveniente de plantaciones de esta especie en diferentes regiones del país. Sin embargo, dado que no se dispone de datos científicos nacionales sobre su durabilidad natural, en este trabajo fue evaluada madera de E. grandis obtenida de dos plantaciones de 16 años de edad con semilla del mismo origen, de dos sitios, Rivera y Río Negro. Se estudió la durabilidad natural del duramen externo e interno siguiendo los métodos de la norma EN 350-1, tomando Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 como especie de referencia. Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio para determinar la resistencia a la descomposición fúngica (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor y Serpula lacrymans y a las termites (Reticulitermes spp. siguiendo las normas EN 113 y EN 118, respectivamente. Se realizaron ensayos de campo de estacas, de doble capa y cámara fúngica, los cuales aún están en curso, por lo que en el presente trabajo se presentan resultados parciales. Los perfiles radiales de densidad básica revelaron que la madera del duramen externo no era adulta, sino madera de transición. En general, el duramen de E. grandis mostró una mayor durabilidad que el híbrido Populus.El E. grandis se clasificó como moderadamente o seriamente atacado por Reticulitermes spp. Según EN 350-1, la madera juvenil de E. grandis puede considerarse como “moderadamente durable” ante la pudrición parda provocada por G. trabeum, mientras que la madera de transición puede describirse como “durable”. La madera de transición mostró en relación a la madera juvenil una mayor resistencia al G. trabeum, una susceptibilidad levemente menor a las termites y mejor desempeño en el campo luego de 17 meses de exposición. El sitio de la plantación no

  20. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

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    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  1. Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lignina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a* e matriz amarelo (b* da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos.

  2. PARTICLEBOARDS PRODUCED WITH Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden POLYSTYRENE AND POLYETHYLENE THEREPHTHALATE PARTICLES

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    Antônio da Silva Maciel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the properties of wood particleboards, containing particles of polystyrene (PS and polyethylene therephthalate (PET. Particleboards were produced with 0%, 25% or 50% of polystyrene and 100%, 75% or 50% of Eucalyptus grandis particles. Additional boards were produced with two amounts of PET/PS (5/20% or 10/40% and 75% or 50% wood particles. As binding agents three amounts (0%, 4% or 6% of urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde adhesive and three amounts of polystyrene in toluene solution (0%, 4% or 6% were used. One-layer boards, measuring approximately 400,0 x 400,0 x 10,0 mm with density approximately equal to 0,60 g/cm3, were produced. Internal bond, modulus of rupture and elasticity, screw withdrawal, as well water absorption and thickness swelling, after 24 hours of immersion were determined. All mechanical boards’ properties were superior to the established by ANSI/A 208.1-1993 standards. All wood/plastic particleboards absorbed more water then those observed in commercial boards. However the observed thickness swelling was quite similar to the values of commercial wood particleboards. Boards in which the solution of polystyrene was applied were, in general, presented the best values for all properties.

  3. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

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    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  4. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application

  5. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils. PMID:16332132

  6. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND PESTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF COCCINIA GRANDIS (L. VOIGT

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    Md. Faruk Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activities of Coccinia grandis roots extract. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method against some pathogenic microorganisms. Cytotoxicity was determined using brine shrimp lethality bioassay method. The plant extract was screened for pesticidal activity towards Sitophilus oryzae adults. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was also studied against test organisms, using serial dilution technique to determine the antibacterial potency. In antibacterial screening, large inhibition zones were observed against the tested gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea and Stapphylococcus aureus and gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae bacteria. In antifungal screening, the extract showed moderate antifungal activities against the tested fungi (Candida albicans and Colletotrichum falcatum. In cytotoxicity activity test, LC50 (lethal concentration, 50% of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 15.00µg/ml. The plant extract also showed moderate pesticidal activities towards S. oryzae adults. These results suggested that the plant extract has significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, moderate antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activity towards the tested fungi, brine shrimp nauplii and S. oryzae adults, respectively.

  7. Emission characteristics of carbon dioxide in the semiarid Stipa grandis steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yun-she; QI Yu-chun; LIU Ji-yuan; Manfred Domroes; LIU Li-xin; GENG Yuan-bo; LIU Xing-ren; YANG Xiao-hong; LI Ming-feng

    2006-01-01

    Using the static opaque chamber method, the soil respiration rates (SR) were measured through the continuous experiments in situ in semiarid Stipa grandis steppe in Xilin River Basin of Inner Mongolia, China from June 2001 to June 2003, in parallel, the difference between the SR and the ecosystem respiration rates (TER) were compared. The results indicated that the seasonal variations of the SR and TER were obvious with higher emissions in growing season and a relatively low efflux level in non-growing season, furthermore, the negative effluxes were found in the (ANOVA) indicated that the difference between the annual average TER and SR did not reach the significance level of 0.05. The TER was under similar environmental controls as SR, in growing seasons of drought years, the variations of soil moisture at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth could account for 79.1%-95.6% of the changes of the SR and TER, but in non-growing season, more than 75% of the variations of the SR and TER could be explained by the changes of the ground temperature of soil surface layers.

  8. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-11-01

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  9. SEASONAL INCREMENT IN TRUNK DIAMETER OF Eucalyptus grandis TREES APPLYING DENDROMETER BANDS

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    Carlos Roberto Sette Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987557The present work aimed to evaluate the seasonal increment in diameter of Eucalyptus grandis trees for 24 months and its relationship with the climatic variables and fertilization with nitrogen and with sewer mud. The trees were planted in the spacing of 3x2 m and fertilized with nitrogen (planting, 6, 12, 18 months and sewer mud (planting and 8 months. 20 trees were selected by treatment according witch the distribution of basal area and installed dendrometer bands at a 1.3 meter. The results showed a clear effect of the climatic variables on the seasonal increment in diameter of trees, being observed a delay period (lag of 28 days for the answer of the trees in relation to the climatic variables. Regading to the fertilization effect, it was observed that the increment of trunk diameter was higher in the eucalyptus trees with organic in relation to mineral fertilization with nitrogen.

  10. Wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis dominant and average trees submitted to drying

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    Joel Telles de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined, in trees of dominant and average diameter, the influence of air seasoning followed by kiln drying in the sawn wood quality of 14 years old stand of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, located in Capivari do Sul municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling of trees was performed after a pilot inventory on the basis of the dominant and average diameter at breast height (DBH. After cutting down the trees, there were selected the logs located between the DBH and 25% of commercial height. The logs were then sawn using into boards that were submitted to air seasoning from green up to 18% of moisture content, followed by kiln drying until 13% of moisture content. End checking and board crook were evaluate after sawing, following air seasoning and kiln drying. The results indicate that, both for dominant and average trees, end checking and board crook were not influenced by different wood process stage. However, the contrast between dominant and average trees shows that the magnitude of defects is higher in the average trees.

  11. EFFECT OF LOG STEAMING ON THE REDUCTION OF DEFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH GROWTH STRESS OF Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fred Willians Calonego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate log steaming effect on the reduction of defects associated with residual growth stress of Eucalyptus grandis wood. There were used logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm, from the Horto Florestal, Manduri, São Paulo. Half of the logs was steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity. Subsequently, the logs were live sawn and the defects resulting from the growth stresses in logs of various diameter were measured. The results indicate that log steaming provided the release of a great part of the growth stresses, without eliminating them completely, showing, nevertheless, that this treatment is feasible and advisable for growth stress relief; the boards coming from heated logs of 20 to <25 cm presented, in general, larger defect reduction, showing that the smaller the log diameter the higher the efficiency of steam treatment at 90ºC of temperature during 20 hours.

  12. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhisheng; Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level. PMID:24349825

  13. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad [Food Science Program, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  14. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  15. Estudo da compatibilidade entre a madeira e as cascas de Eucalyptus grandis e cimento portland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Akira Mori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As características dos painéis cimento-madeira podem ser prejudicadas em virtude da incompatibilidade química do cimento com alguns materiais lignocelulósicos que podem inibir a "pega" do cimento. Porém, este efeito pode ser minimizado com tratamentos químicos dos materiais. As diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus podem ser promissoras como matéria-prima na produção desse tipo de painel, principalmente os resíduos gerados na forma de cascas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a compatibilidade química da madeira e cascas tratadas e não-tratadas quimicamente de Eucalyptus com o cimento Portland. O tratamento químico das cascas foi realizado com solução de hidróxido de sódio. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis apresentou uma aptidão moderada ao cimento, as cascas tratadas, alta aptidão e as cascas não-tratadas, aptidão extremamente baixa. Verificou-se a influência positiva do tratamento químico nas cascas, possibilitando futuramente sua incorporação na manufatura de painéis cimento-madeira.

  16. Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis L.F. from different provenances using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kussumoto Alcântara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the main timber species in the world with high economic value, famous for its beauty, strength and durability. The objective of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity of teak genotypes used in Brazilian plantations. Nine microsatellite primers were used to assess 60 teak genotypes, including 33 genotypes from seeds of plantations and 14 clones from Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and 13 clones from Honduras, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast and Solomon Islands. Two groups of genotypes were detected using the Bayesian Structure analysis: 80% were placed in group 1, represented by genotypes from Cáceres and one from Malaysia, and 20% allocated in group 2, composed of clones from India, Solomon Islands, Malaysia and Honduras and the clones from the Ivory Coast. Most of the genetic variability (73% was concentrated within groups according to AMOVA analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated for the two groups obtained in the analysis of Structure. Moderate genetic diversity was found, with 4.1 alleles per locus, on average, and an average heterozygosity of 0.329, which was lower than the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.492. Group 1 showed the lowest values for these parameters. Suggestions were made concerning the identification of contrasting genotypes to be used as parents in breeding programs.

  17. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  18. Optimization of acid hydrolysis from the hemicellulosic fraction of Eucalyptus grandis residue using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canettieri, Eliana Vieira; de Moraes Rocha, George Jackson; de Carvalho, João Andrade; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically and with dilute or concentrate mineral acids. The present study used dilute sulfuric acid as a catalyst for hydrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis residue. The purpose of this paper was to optimize the hydrolysis process in a 1.4 l pilot-scale reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature and residue/acid solution ratio on the hemicellulose removal and consequently on the production of sugars (xylose, glucose and arabinose) as well as on the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid). This study was based on a model composition corresponding to a 2(3) orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the hydrolysis conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylose extraction from hemicellulose of residue. The considered optimum conditions were: H(2)SO(4) concentration of 0.65%, temperature of 157 degrees C and residue/acid solution ratio of 1/8.6 with a reaction time of 20 min. Under these conditions, 79.6% of the total xylose was removed and the hydrolysate contained 1.65 g/l glucose, 13.65 g/l xylose, 1.55 g/l arabinose, 3.10 g/l acetic acid, 1.23 g/l furfural and 0.20 g/l 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. PMID:16473004

  19. Equilibrium and kinetic studies for the biosorption system of copper(II) ion from aqueous solution using Tectona grandis L.f. leaves powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solution by Tectona grandis L.f. was studied in a batch adsorption system as a function of pH, metal ion concentration, adsorbent concentration and adsorbent size. The biosorption capacities and rates of copper(II) ions onto T. grandis L.f. were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Temkin adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Biosorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 15.43 mg/g of copper(II) ion on T. grandis L.f. leaves powder. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as ΔGo, ΔHo, and ΔSo were calculated indicating that this system was a spontaneous and exothermic process

  20. One-step column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution followed by automatic separation of volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides from Citrus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hui; Hao, Rui-Lin; Chen, Ya-Fei; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2014-02-15

    Citrus grandis Tomentosa is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. Its functional components include volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides which cannot be effectively extracted through traditional methods. A column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution was developed for one-step extraction of all bioactive substances from C. grandis. Dried material was loaded into a column with petroleum ether: ethanol (8:2, PE) and sequentially eluted with 2-fold PE, 3-fold ethanol: water (6:4) and 8-fold water. The elutes was separated into an ether fraction containing volatiles and an ethanol-water fraction containing flavonoids and polysaccharides. The later was separated into flavonoids and polysaccharides by 80% ethanol precipitation of polysaccharides. Through this procedure, volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides in C. grandis were simultaneously extracted at 98% extraction rates and simply separated at higher than 95% recovery rates. The method provides a simple and high-efficient extraction and separation of wide range bioactive substances.

  1. Construction of Fluorescence Deinococcus grandis and Its Stability%荧光抗辐射菌的构建及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠振力; 叶子期; 方俐晶; 王家刚

    2012-01-01

    A shuttle expression vector pZTGL2 of Deinococcus bacteria - E. coli was inserted into D. grandis, the luciferase marked D. grandis was constructed and its stability was analyzed. The result showed that D. grandis had fluorescence activity, and there were no differences observed in the optimal culture temperature and biological characters between luciferase-marked D grandis and non-marked D. grandis. The stability of luciferase-marked D. grandis was studied for 14 d after continuous culture in chloramphenicol-free broth. The results indicated that there was no significant fluorescence difference between luciferase-marked D. grandis that continuous cultured in chloramphenicol-free broth and no continuous culture, and no resistance change was observed for luciferase-marked D. grandis against gamma irradiation. This study suggested that the luciferase-marked D. grandis was successfully constructed, and luciferase-naarked D. grandis still had good structural stability after continuous culture for 14 d in chloramphenicol-free broth. Fig 4, Tab 1, Ref 18%将构建的抗辐射菌属-大肠杆菌间的泛用穿梭表达载体pZTGL2导入抗辐射菌Deinococcus grandis,进行了荧光标识抗辐射菌的构建及其在没有抗生素的非选择性培养基中继代培养后的稳定性分析.结果表明,导入泛用穿梭表达载体pZTGL2后的D.grandis具有荧光活性,荧光标识的D.grandis在没有抗生素的培养基中经14d继代培养后的最佳培养温度及其生长状况等生物学特性与未标识的D.grandis没有明显差异进一步对荧光标识D.grandis在非选择性培养基中经14d继代培养后的稳定性进行了调查,结果表明:荧光标识的D.grandis在没有抗生素的培养基中经过14d的继代培养后的荧光活性与没有经过继代培养的荧光标识的D.grandis无显著差异,而且也没有改变荧光标识的D.grandis对y-射线的抗性.由以上结果认为:成功构建了荧光标识的抗辐射菌D.grandis,

  2. MICROPROPAGACIÓN DE EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) EN EL SISTEMA DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) micropropagation in a temporary immersion system

    OpenAIRE

    Dagoberto Castro R.; Justo González O.

    2002-01-01

    Se describe un nuevo procedimiento para la multiplicación in vitro mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal de plantas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) procedentes de árboles elite. La mayor eficiencia de multiplicación se estableció a una frecuencia óptima de inmersión cada 12 h con una duración de 3 min. La aplicación adicional de un flujo de aire fresco cada 6 h durante 3 min disminuyó la hiperhidratación de las plantas durante el proceso. Este procedimiento comprendió dos...

  3. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  4. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    José E Gonçalves; Maria M. P. Sartori; Alcides L. Leão

    2009-01-01

    O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU) e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos ma...

  5. Compósitos de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polipropileno e polietileno de alta e baixa densidades Composites of Eucalyptus grandis wood, polypropylene, and high and low-density polyethylene particles

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Gomes Milagres; Benedito Rocha Vital; Ricardo Marius Della Lúcia; Alexandre Santos Pimenta

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades de painéis fabricados com mistura de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polietileno de alta densidade, polietileno de baixa densidade e polipropileno. Empregaram-se duas formulações adesivas (uréia-formaldeído e uréia-formaldeído contendo 0,5% de epóxi). De modo geral, as propriedades dos painéis foram afetadas pela composição das partículas. Os painéis com melhores propriedades foram fabricados com 75% de partículas de mad...

  6. Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel on Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Induced Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Baniya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (CGO peel extract in rats. Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel extract was evaluated for protection against cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body wt., i.p. and doxorubicin (15 mg/kg body wt., i.p. induced cardiotoxicity in male albino rats. Biomarkers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and creatinine kinase (CK-MB along with heart weight index and antioxidant enzymes was considered to determine the cardioprotective property. Histopathological study was also carried out on heart of experimental animals. The CGO peel extract was found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannin as chemical constituents. Cyclophosphamide (CYP and doxorubicin (DOX treated groups exhibited significant increase in LDH, ALT, AST, ALP, TC, TG and CK-MB level and decrease in catalase (CAT, superoxide dimutase (SOD when compared to control group. Pretreatment with different doses of CGO significantly reduced the serum biomarkers and increased the tissue antioxidant level when compared to DOX and CYP alone treated groups. Moreover, treatment with CGO also improved CYP induced changes in histopathology of heart which may be due to its antioxidant property. The Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck exerted protective effect against CYP and DOX induced cardiotoxicity in rats, which may be due its lipid lowering and antioxidant properties. These findings might be helpful to understand the beneficial effects of CGO extract against myocardial injury although further study is needed to confirm its mechanism.

  7. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L. J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. K. Munasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117 5.56, <0.05. Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117 6.77, <0.05 and two hours (F(1,117 5.28, <0.05 postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5 and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9 was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings.

  8. Filtration and clearance rates of Anadara grandis juveniles (Pelecypoda, Arcidae) with different temperatures and suspended matter concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Voltolina, Domenico; Cordero-Esquivel, Beatriz

    2006-09-01

    The mangrove cockle Anadara grandis (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) is a potential candidate for aquaculture and for bioremediation of aquaculture effluents in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Laboratory-produced spat are available, but there is no information on their responses to the range of environmental conditions to which they might be subject during the growth cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the filtration and clearance rates ofA. grandis spat (shell length 9.50+/-0.37 mm) with a food concentration (7.5 mgxl(-1)) at four different temperatures (22, 25, 28 and 31 degrees C, with pH=7.5+/-0.2 and O2 concentration of 6.4+/-0.5 mgxl(-1); experiment one); and with a temperature (25 degrees C) and five concentrations of suspended matter (from 7.5 to 29 mgxl(-1) and pH and O2 values of 7.9+/-0.2 and 6.8+/-0.4 mgxl(-1); experiment two). Filtration and clearance rates were highest at 25 degrees C and significantly different (p.05). In the second experiment filtration increased according to the amount of food available, but there were no significant differences (p>.05) between 7.5 and 11 mgxl(-1) and from 22.4 to 29 mgxl(-1). The trend was similar for clearance, and in this case significant differences were found (p<.05) between 7.5, 22.4 and 29 mgxl(-1). Filtration at 31 degrees C was close to 80% at the optimum temperature of 25 degrees C, which indicates that A. grandis is a good candidate for tropical aquaculture. Clearance increased with high concentrations of suspended solids, but the production of biodeposits could be a source of environmental concern. Therefore, the possibility of using this species for bioremediation of aquaculture effluents should be studied with larger specimens and at higher seston concentrations. PMID:18491618

  9. Balance hidrológico y flujo de nutrientes asociados al agua en plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis, en Concordia (Entre Ríos)

    OpenAIRE

    Tesón, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    En la Provincia de Entre Ríos hay 90048 ha forestadas con eucaliptos, de las cuales el 90% lo están con Eucalyptus grandis. Estas plantaciones reemplazan comunidades de vegetación natural como los pastizales con isletas de árboles (monte) y el bosque (monte) abierto, como así también a otros usos de la tierra como plantaciones de cítricos, actividades agrícolas y pecuarias. A pesar de la importancia de Eucalyptus grandis, no existen en la zona suficientes estudios hidrológicos y de nutrientes...

  10. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Munasinghe, M. A. A. K.; Abeysena, C.; Yaddehige, I. S.; T. Vidanapathirana; Piyumal, K. P. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka) leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal cont...

  11. Proline content and protein patterns in Eucalyptus grandis shoots submitted to high and low temperature shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline content and protein patterns changes in response to temperature shocks of both acclimated and non acclimated E. grandis shoots cultivated in vitro were investigated. Analysis of soluble proteins through SDS-PAGE and proline were carried out after 12h at 12ºC (cold acclimation or 33ºC (heat acclimation, and immediately after temperature shocks at 41ºC and 0ºC. Analyses were also performed 24h after the temperature shocks (recovery period. Temperature treatment at 0ºC did not change soluble protein patterns both in acclimatized and non acclimatized plants, whereas cold temperature induced high proline levels, which kept relatively high after recovery period. Three novel, probably HSPs, proteins (90.5, 75 and 39 kDa were observed in both acclimated and non acclimated plants submitted to high temperatures. Plants exposed at 41ºC were able to recover from heat shocks after 24h, whereas they did not recover completely from cold shocks. The effect of the acclimation period on the recovering (homeostasis varied depending on the parameter evaluated, and type and duration of the temperature shock.As respostas às mudanças de temperatura de plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas de E. grandis cultivadas in vitro foram avaliadas considerando alterações dos níveis de prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Análises de proteínas solúveis através de SDS-PAGE e prolina foram realizadas após 12h a 12ºC (aclimatação ao frio ou a 33ºC (aclimatação ao calor, e imediatamente depois dos choques térmicos a 41ºC e 0ºC. Análises também foram realizadas após um período de 24h depois dos choques térmicos (período de recuperação. O tratamento de temperatura a 0ºC não alterou o padrão de proteínas nas plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas, entretanto a temperatura baixa induziu altos níveis de prolina, que se mantiveram relativamente altos após o período de recuperação. Três novas proteínas (90,5, 75 e 39 kDa, provavelmente

  12. PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS OF PROCESSOR WORKING IN STANDS OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Carlos Tarnowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a time study was conducted with the objective of adjusting equations to estimate the time of activities, productivity, operational costs and the production of the processor used in a harvest operation of stands of Eucalyptus grandis in plain topography in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The operational cycle of the processor consisted of the time spent to process a tree, and was divided in to stages, which were assessed using the methotodology of single activity times. The sampling unit was the operational cycle of the machine. The statistical analysis was based on regression analysis considering the selection procedure “stepwise”. With the adjusted equations it was possible to estimate the productivity of the machine taking into account the of tree diameter. Considering an operational efficiency of 70 % under the circumstances of the study, the productivity of the processor was 25,8 m3 cc/h, the operational costs 47,90 US$/h and the production costs 1,86 US$/m3 cc. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the time of tree processing has varied directly according to the diameter increase diameter; the preparation time, contrary to the processing time, only shows a weak correlation with tree diameter; productivity of the processor is directly proportional to tree diameter, when expressed in volume and inversely proportional when expressed in tree number; the costs per cubic meter of wood processed varies inversely with of increased diameter; from the operational costs, fixed costs had the highest proportion followed by the variable costs, administrative costs and costs for manpower; the production costs of the processor decreased exponentially with increasing tree diameter.

  13. Larger drupe size and earlier geminants for better seedling attributes of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Jijeesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Massive plantation establishment programme in the tropics hasled to an ever-increasing demand for good quality planting stock of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.. Although drupe size in teak is positively correlated with seedling growth much less is known about the combined effect of drupe size and time of emergence on the performance of the seedlings.The drupes were divided in 3 diameter categories (i.e. 9-12, 12-15and 15-18 mm and the number of germinants were weekly counted forfour weeks. The resulted seedlings were planted in poly bags containingrooting medium of soil and sand (1:1 ratio. Results of the study indicated that the seedling emergence was largest during second week irrespective of drupe size. Seedlings from 15-18 mm diameter class drupes recorded the highest seedling attributes followed by 12-15 mm and 9-12 mm classes.However, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate were highest in the seedlings obtained from 9-12 mm class drupes. With a few exceptions, first week emergents recorded the highest seedling attributes followed by second, third and fourth week germinants. Cluster analysis of the seedling attributes identified the seedlings belonging to 15-18 mm drupe size and emerging during first week as superior. But, considering the largest number of drupes in 12-15 mm size class, peak germination during second week after sowing, price of planting stock and cost of nursery operation per unit of planting, second week germinants of 12–15 mm size drupes can also be recommended for raising seedlings in plantation programmes of teak.

  14. Larger drupe size and earlier geminants for better seedling attributes of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Jijeesh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Massive plantation establishment programme in the tropics has led to an ever-increasing demand for good quality planting stock of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.. Although drupe size in teak is positively correlated with seedling growth much less is known about the combined effect of drupe size and time of emergence on the performance of the seedlings. The drupes were divided in 3 diameter categories (i.e. 9-12, 12-15 and 15-18 mm and the number of germinants were weekly counted for four weeks. The resulted seedlings were planted in poly bags containing rooting medium of soil and sand (1:1 ratio. Results of the study indicated that the seedling emergence was largest during second week irrespective of drupe size. Seedlings from 15-18 mm diameter class drupes recorded the highest seedling attributes followed by 12-15 mm and 9-12 mm classes. However, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate were highest in the seedlings obtained from 9-12 mm class drupes. With a few exceptions, first week emergents recorded the highest seedling attributes followed by second, third and fourth week germinants. Cluster analysis of the seedling attributes identified the seedlings belonging to 15-18 mm drupe size and emerging during first week as superior. But, considering the largest number of drupes in 12-15 mm size class, peak germination during second week after sowing, price of planting stock and cost of nursery operation per unit of planting, second week germinants of 12 – 15 mm size drupes can also be recommended for raising seedlings in plantation programmes of teak.

  15. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  16. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  17. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J. (Iowa State)

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  18. Contenido de los nutrientes básicos en Catolaccus grandis Burks criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAUJO LÚCIA HELENA AVELINO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los niveles de carbohidratos, proteínas solubles y aminoácidos libres de larvas, pupas hembras y adultos hembras de Catolaccus grandis (Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodón envenenadas por hembras del parasitoide y por larvas de primer instar del parasitoide. Esto estudio fue conducido en la Unidade de Investigación de Control Biologico de Plagas del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de la América, en Weslaco, Texas. Las 20 muestras de cada uno de los tres estados de desarrollo: tercer instar larval, pupas hembra y adultos hembra del parasitoide C. grandis, fueron separadas y pesadas individualmente y se cuantió el contenido de carbohidratos totales, proteínas solubles totales y aminoácidos libres criados en diferentes sustratos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la existencia de patrones metabólicos significativamente distintos de estos nutrientes básicos.

  19. Optimizing Culture System of Ri T-DNA Transformed Roots for Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhong-hai; TONG Rui-jian

    2006-01-01

    Genetic transformation experiments of the different explants from Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes were carried out in darkness or in light. The optimizing culture system of Ri T-DNA transformed roots for C. grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You was constructed as follows: After the ventral wounded striations on the single activation cotyledon were inoculated by A. rhizogenes A4 (logarithmic period), they were cocultured at (25 ± 2)℃ in darkness for 25-30 days; some transformed roots were generated from wounded striations of most cotyledons. The genetically transformed ratio is (83 ± 11)%. Axenic Ri T-DNA transformed roots (hairy roots) were harvested after five subcultures. Explants were activated on MT medium. The MS medium was used for subculture of transformed roots. Mass Ri T-DNA transformed roots in which the hormone was produced independently were harvested from this optimizing culture system. White, fresh Ri T-DNA transformed roots were (1.14 ± 0.07) cm long, (0.73 ± 0.04) mm wide, and the growth direction of transformed roots was negative geotropism.

  20. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF gene family in Eucalyptus grandis.

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    Hong Yu

    Full Text Available Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation.

  1. MICOBIOTA ASSOCIADA À MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN DURANTE A SECAGEM AO AR LIVRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi o de acompanhar a secagem ao ar livre da madeira serrada de Eucalyptus grandis conduzida na região de Lavras, MG e identificar a micobiota associada à madeira em diversas fases da secagem. As tábuas foram cortadas de oito toras de 3,0 m de comprimento, oriundas de três árvores, com 27 anos de idade, plantadas em área experimental da UFLA. Dos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis ao ar livre, iniciada em janeiro, consumiu 158 dias até atingir umidade próxima a 12,5%. A curva de secagem foi representada por uma equação logarítmica com coeficiente de determinação (R2 igual a 98,3%. Os fungos causadores de bolores superficiais e de manchas tiveram maior ocorrência no início da secagem. As mais altas freqüências de fungos, verificadas no início da secagem, foram observadas para Penicillium spp. e Pestalotiopsis sp. O fungo Lentinus lepideus ocorreu com maior freqüência no final da secagem.

  2. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  3. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  4. Efeito da hidrólise ácida dos taninos de Eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex Maiden nas propriedades dos adesivos tânicos Effect of the acid hydrolyses of Eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex Maiden tannins in the properties of the tannic adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Benedito Rocha Vital; Pedro Gustavo Ulisses Frederico; Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos; Wagner Patrício de Sousa Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da hidrólise ácida sobre as propriedades e resistência ao cisalhamento dos adesivos de taninos, extraídos a partir da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. Os adesivos foram sintetizados com taninos hidrolisados, empregando-se quatro valores de pH, três tempos de reação e 10% de formaldeído em relação à massa seca de taninos. Foram produzidas 96 juntas coladas, constituídas de duas lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. As resistên...

  5. Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17

  6. Behavior of Eucalyptus grandis and E. cloeziana seedlings grown in arsenic-contaminated soil Comportamento de mudas de E. grandis E. eucalyptus cloeziana cultivadas em solo contaminado por arsênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Freire Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been considered the most poisonous inorganic soil pollutant to living creatures. For this reason, the interest in phytoremediation species has been increasing in the last years. Particularly for the State of Minas Gerais, where areas of former mining activities are prone to the occurrence of acid drainage, the demand is great for suitable species to be used in the revegetation and "cleaning" of As-polluted areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill Maiden and E. cloeziana F. Muell, for phytoremediation of As-polluted soils. Soil samples were incubated for a period of 15 days with different As (Na2HAsO4 doses (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg dm-3. After 30 days of exposure the basal leaves of E. cloeziana plants exhibited purple spots with interveinal chlorosis, followed by necrosis and death of the apical bud at the 400 mg dm-3 dose. Increasing As doses in the soil reduced root and shoot dry matter, plant height and diameter in both species, although the reduction was more pronounced in E. cloeziana plants. In both species, As concentrations were highest in the root system; the highest root concentration was found in E. cloeziana plants (305.7 mg kg-1 resulting from a dose of 400 mg dm-3. The highest As accumulation was observed in E. grandis plants, which was confirmed as a species with potential for As phytoextraction, tending to accumulate As in the root system and stem.O arsênio (As tem sido considerado o poluente inorgânico de solo mais tóxico para os seres vivos, razão pela qual o interesse por espécies indicadoras e fitorremediadoras tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Particularmente para o Estado de Minas Gerais, que apresenta áreas remanescentes de atividade mineradora sujeitas à ocorrência de drenagem ácida, existe grande demanda por espécies com potencial para serem utilizadas na revegetação e "limpeza" de substratos contaminados por esse metaloide. Este

  7. Use of vermicompost as a substrate for the production of Eucalyptus grandis and Corymbia citriodora seedlings Utilização de vermicomposto como substrato na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis e Corymbia citriodora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the vermicompost efficiency in the seedlings of two eucalyptus species production. The experiment was developed in greenhouse conditions, substrate constituted by different vermicompost proportions and peat for the E. grandis and C. citriodora seedling production. The experimental design was entirely casualized with seven treatments and eight repetitions. After 100 days of experiment were evaluated: seedling height, fresh and dry biomass of aerial part, root volume, dry biomass of the root and Dickson quality index (DQI. The treatment constituted by 80% vermicompost and 20% peat presented the highest results in height, root volume and dry mass of the aerial part and roots. For the species C. citriodora was observed that the vermicompost addition to the peat in the proportions from 40% to 80% was shown efficient in the seedlings growth. The treatment constituted by 80% vermicompost and 20% peat provided highest height and dry mass of the aerial part seedlings and the treatment constituted by 60% vermicompost and 40% peat provided highest root volume. The proportions 60% and 80% vermicompost added to the peat increase the E. grandis and C. citriodora seedlings production.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.75

    Avaliou-se a eficiência do vermicomposto na produção de mudas de duas espécies de eucalipto. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se substratos constituídos por diferentes proporções de vermicomposto e turfa para a produção de mudas de E. grandis e C. citriodora. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e oito repetições. Decorridos 100 dias após sua implantação, avaliaram-se os parâmetros: altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea fresca e seca, volume radicular, biomassa das raízes secas e o índice de qualidade de Dickson (IQD. O tratamento constitu

  8. Compósitos de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polipropileno e polietileno de alta e baixa densidades Composites of Eucalyptus grandis wood, polypropylene, and high and low-density polyethylene particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Gomes Milagres

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades de painéis fabricados com mistura de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polietileno de alta densidade, polietileno de baixa densidade e polipropileno. Empregaram-se duas formulações adesivas (uréia-formaldeído e uréia-formaldeído contendo 0,5% de epóxi. De modo geral, as propriedades dos painéis foram afetadas pela composição das partículas. Os painéis com melhores propriedades foram fabricados com 75% de partículas de madeira e 25% de partículas de polietileno de alta densidade. A adição de epóxi ao adesivo uréico aumentou os valores do módulo de ruptura, dureza Janka, e reduziu o inchamento, em espessura, de alguns painéis. As propriedades mecânicas da maioria dos painéis, exceto o módulo de elasticidade, ultrapassaram os valores mínimos estabelecidos na norma ANSI/A1-208/93.The objective of this work was to establish the properties of particleboards fabricated with blends of Eucalyptus grandis, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene particles. Two adhesives formulations were used (urea-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde plus 0,5% of epoxy adhesive. Panel properties were affected by particle composition. Panels with best properties were fabricated with 75% of wood particles and 25% of high density polypropylene. The addition of epoxy to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved of the values of modulus of rupture, hardness and reduced the amount of thickness swelling. Except for the modulus of elasticity, board properties meet grade M-2 ANSI/A1-208/93 requirements.

  9. Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

  10. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

  11. SITE INDEX CURVES AND HYPSOMETRIC RELATIONSHIP FOR Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR THE CAMPOS GERAIS REGION, PARANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida de Souza Retslaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to fit mathematical models for the construction of Site Index curves and to estimate heights at different ages for Eucalyptus grandis in the Campos Gerais region, Parana State. The data used to fit the models came from permanent, temporary plots and pre-harvesting inventory, covering ages from 2.5 to 26.5 years. Several models were tested to represent the sites and the hypsometric relationship. The Site Index curves were constructed by the guide-curve method. For the Site Index, the Chapman-Richards model showed the best fit and precision statistics, generating 5 Site Index curves (range of 5 m with the Chapman-Richards model. The four hypsometric models tested showed satisfactory performance and similar statistics and the inclusion of the variables dominant height or site index did not substantially improve the goodness of fit statistics, but the residues were more homogeneous and closer to zero.

  12. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE TECA (Tectona grandis

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    SILVA, Carla Vanessa Moraes da

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pest insects with potential damages and losses on teak plantation, Tectona grandis, is relevant due to the economic criterion which requires high costs for managing. Therefore, the necessity of knowing about the insect fauna of plant protection importance has gained importance, such as the soil termite, field cricket, black cutworm, Saúva-lemon, Caterpillars-to-teak, Catepillar-queimadeira and others that reduce the production. Thus, this study aimed to add to the existing literature new information about the biological and morphological aspects, damages and methods to control the major pests of Teak, which may assist the crop management. A presença de insetos-pragas com potencial de dano e de perdas na cultura da teca, Tectona grandis, é relevante devido ao critério econômico que requer altos custos com seu manejo. Sendo assim, acentua-se a necessidade do conhecimento sobre a entomofauna de importância fitossanitária para a cultura, tais como o cupim do solo, grilo-comum, lagarta-rosca, saúva-limão, lagarta-da-teca, lagarta-queimadeira e demais coleobrocas que reduzem sua produção. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi acrescentar à bibliografia existente novas informações sobre os aspectos biológicos, morfológicos, injúrias e táticas de controle das principais pragas da cultura da Teca, as quais podem auxiliar no manejo da cultura.

  13. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol extract ofTectona grandis flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramaniam Ramachandran; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; KT Manisenthil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract ofTectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers(METGF)in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats to supports its traditional use.Methods: Acute toxicity study of METGF was carried out in rat to determine its dose for the antidiabetic study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was performed to evaluateMETGF effect on elevated blood glucose level. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration ofSTZ(60 mg/kg, ip.) and it was confirmed 72 h after induction.METGF was orally given to the diabetic rats up to28 days and blood glucose level were estimated each week. On28 day of the experiment, diabetic rats were sacrificed after the blood collection for the biochemical parameters analysis and liver, kidney was collected to determine antioxidants levels.Results:In acute toxicity,METGFdid not show toxicity and death up to a dose 2 000mg/kg in rats. Administration ofMETGF 100 and200mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) reduced blood glucose levels inOGTTand STZ-induced diabetic rats. Both doses ofMETGF treatment significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 andP<0.05) increased body weight, serum insulin, haemoglobin (Hb) and total protein levels in diabetic rats. Also,MEGTF treatment reduced elevated glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c) and other biochemical parameters levels significantly (P<0.001) in diabetic rats. Altered lipid profiles and antioxidants levels were reversed to near normal in diabetic rats treated withMETGF. Conclusions: These results concluded that METGF possesses antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity which supports its traditional use.

  14. Physicochemical properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil%金柚柚籽及其油脂的理化性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏梅; 谢婧

    2015-01-01

    Citrus grandis var. Jinyu see d oil was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and the physicochemi-cal properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil were analyzed. The results showed that the mass of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed accounted for 10. 3% of the total fruit mass and its crude fat content reached 34. 6%. Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil presented golden color, high transparency, good fluidity at room temperature, natural flavor and taste of shaddock. The relative density, moisture and volatile matter content, refractive index, acid value, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were 0. 963 ± 0. 025 5, (0. 071 ± 0. 009 8)%,1. 454 ± 0. 038 1, (1. 273 ± 0. 103 1) mgKOH/g, (169. 75 ± 0. 483 0)mgKOH/g, (133. 3 ± 0. 066 7)gI/100 g and (4. 25 ± 0. 711 0)mmol/kg, respectively. The GC analysis result indicated that the content of unsaturated fatty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was 67. 6%, containing linoleic acid(39. 3%), oleic acid(24. 7%) and linolenic acid(3. 6%). The saturated fat-ty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were mainly palmitic acid(27. 6%) and stearic acid(3. 9%). Therefore, Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was suitable for being developed as edible oil.%采用索氏抽提法制备金柚柚籽油,并对金柚柚籽及其油脂进行理化性质分析。结果表明:金柚柚籽质量占全果总质量10.3%,柚籽粗脂肪含量高达34.6%。柚籽油色泽金黄、室温下流动性好、透明度高、有油脂固有气味和滋味,并具有一定柚子气味;相对密度0.963±0.0255,水分及挥发物含量(0.071±0.0098)%,折光指数1.454±0.0381,酸值(KOH)(1.273±0.1031)mg/g,碘值(I)(133.3±0.0667) g/100 g,皂化值(KOH)(169.75±0.4830)mg/g,过氧化值(4.25±0.7110)mmol/kg;气相色谱法分析结果显示,柚籽油中不饱和脂肪酸含量为67.6%,主要是亚油酸(39.3%)、油酸(24.7%)、亚麻酸(3.6%);饱

  15. Régime alimentaire du grand gecko vert de Madagascar, Phelsuma grandis Gray, 1870 sur l'île de La Réunion (Squamata : Gekkonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dervin, Sébastien; Baret, Samuel; Penin, Lucie; Sanchez, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Phelsuma grandis Gray, 1870 est un gecko introduit sur l'île de La Réunion. Le régime alimentaire de ce reptile, considéré comme invasif, a été étudié afin d'évaluer la menace qu'il pourrait représenter pour la faune indigène. Le contenu stomacal de 171 individus a été analysé. À La Réunion, P. grandis se nourrit principalement d'Arthropodes. Les ressources végétales occupent également une part non négligeable de son alimentation et il consomme régulièrement d'autres espèces de geckos. P. gra...

  16. Correlações dendroclimatológicas do Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na região de Rio Claro, RJ

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    Bruna Roque Ugulino de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial forests plantation contributes decisively to generate socio-economic and environmental benefits, providing sustainability at the forest-based industries. The Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden stand out as one of the most cultivated species for reforestation in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between precipitation and wood production for 23-year old Eucalyptus grandis from a commercial plantation in Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The annual increment of wood was determined by the X-ray densitometry, which provides a detailed wood density profile in radial direction for each sample. One year of the tree life was considered because this the period for the formation of two consecutive latewood rings formation, which corresponds to two high density peaks. The results showed a positive correlation between precipitation data and annual increment of wood, revealing the dendroclimatology potential of this species in this region.

  17. Karakterisasi Penyakit Daun pada Pembibitan Enam Klon Hibrid Turunan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita di PT. Toba Pulp Lestari Tbk. Kabupaten Toba Samosir, Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Simorangkir, Esthy Aknesya

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of the disease that attacks the dominant hybrid derivative clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita at nursery locations found in the leaves . Characterization of leaf diseases need to do that aims to characterize the leaf symptoms , the level of intensity and widespread attack , and identify the causes of leaf disease. Observation of leaf symptoms done visually on 6 clones , also conducted extensive computation intensity levels and cause disease Observations conducted macros...

  18. Appraisal of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of extract and fractions from the leaves of Torreya grandis Fort Ex. Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad Khalid; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji; Li, Wei; Yu, Yuhong; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-02-01

    Torreya grandis (Taxaceae) was studied for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Leaves were extracted with 80% ethanol at 80 degrees C for 3h and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol. The aqueous ethanolic extract (aq.EE), ethylacetate fraction (EaF) and butanol fraction (BtF) at the doses of (100 and 200mg/kg, i.g.) body weight were used for study. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity was carried out by acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking time in the first and second phases of mice. The paw edema induced by formalin- and xylene-induced ear edema were used to assess anti-inflammatory activity. It was found that Torreya grandis extract and fractions at the doses of (100 and 200mg/kg, i.g.) were significantly attenuated the writhing responses induced by acetic acid and second phase of pain response induced by subplantar injection of formalin in mice. In addition, these extract and fractions inhibiting the formaldehyde-induced arthritis as well as xylene-induces edema prolifically. From acute oral toxicity studies no mortality was pragmatic even at highest dose (2500 mg/kg, i.g.). Furthermore, our phytochemical studies indicated that the aq. ethanolic extract of leaves contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. The results provide justification for the folkloric uses of Torreya grandis in the treatment of analgesic and inflammatory-based diseases across the China. PMID:19857564

  19. RESISTÊNCIA BIOLÓGICA DA MADEIRA TRATADA DE Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus cloeziana A FUNGOS APODRECEDORES EM ENSAIOS DE LABORATÓRIO

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    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was converted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA. Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  20. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden AND Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, AS A SUPPLY FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY

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    Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out at Universidade de Brasília at the Wood Products of Forestry Laboratory (IBAMA, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Two species of eucalypt wood (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus cloeziana were studied to supply the furniture making industry. The wood of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden shows physical properties (density and retractibility and mechanical properties (static bending and hardness very suitable for the industry of wood furniture. Such characteristics are complemented by its excellent behaviour in machining and also good finishing with varnishes. The colour and patterns the wood bring to the consumers a good feeling as well as for the furnitures built with such a species. The wood of Eucalyptus cloeziana, in spite of its mechanical and physical properties higher than those of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, presents good characteristics for the manufacture of furniture. Its grey-olive colouring is consistent with a good choice and taste for the consumers. However, some precaution must be observed during the machining of the wood. This wood’s hardness makes it suitable for parquetry.

  1. Influência do modo de acondicionamento de miniestacas no enraizamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Influency of the conditioning method of mini-cuttings on the rooting of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

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    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do modo de acondicionamento de miniestacas no processo de enraizamento de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5 x 4, constituído de cinco tratamentos (acondicionamento das miniestacas em posição horizontal no recipiente, em posição vertical na vermiculita, em posição vertical na vermiculita+carvão ativado, em posição vertical na vermiculita+Phytus e em posição vertical na vermiculita+PVP e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações na casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e a pleno sol, quanto ao porcentual de enraizamento, altura, diâmetro de colo e massa seca da parte aérea e radicular das miniestacas enraizadas. Concluiu-se que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o acondicionamento das miniestacas em posição vertical na vermiculita, podendo ser associado com PVP, conforme o clone.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influency of the conditioning method on the rooting process of mini-cuttings of four Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones. The mini-cuttings were collected in a mini-clonal hedge carried out in a hydroponic system in small gutters. The experimental design used was of random plots, constituted by five treatments (conditioning of the mini-cuttings in a horizontal position in the container; in a vertical position in vermiculite; in a vertical position in vermiculite+activated carbon; in a vertical position in vermiculite+Phytus, and in a vertical position in vermiculite+PVP and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. Evaluations were made of the rooting percentage, height, diameter of the stem and dry mass of the aerial and root parts

  2. Calcium and potassium silicates and the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio e o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Itamar Antonio Bognola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of silicate is a practice that has been frequently adopted in annual crops, although few studies have been conducted in order to verify its efficiency in forest tree species. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of calcium and potassium silicates in the growth of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in Alambari county, State of São Paulo. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with eight treatments, three replications and 25 plants per plot, maintained at the field capacity moisture level. Seedlings were planted in plastic tubes using local substrate, basic fertilization and silicates. Diameter, height and fresh and dry biomass of the seedlings were determined 150 days after silicates treatments were applied. The use of silicates either in the substrate or through foliar application, in the production of eucalypt seedlings has proven to be inadequate when the substrate presents a balanced basic composition in terms of nutrients and pH.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.83

    O uso de silicato é uma prática que vem sendo adotada com frequência em culturas anuais, muito embora poucos trabalhos tenham sido realizados com intuito de verificar sua eficiência em espécies florestais arbóreas. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio no crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Município de Alambari, SP. O delineamento usado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos, três repetições e 25 plantas por parcela, sendo mantidas na umidade de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram plantadas em tubetes de plástico, utilizando substrato local, com adubação básica e silicatos. Diâmetro de colo, altura e biomassa verde e seca das mudas foram determinados 150 dias após a

  3. Efeito do tempo de armazenamento de minestacas no enraizamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Effect of storage time of minicuttings on the rooting of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento de miniestacas no processo de enraizamento de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6 x 4, constituído de seis tratamentos (estaqueamento após a coleta e estaqueamento após o armazenamento em câmara fria por 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 dias e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações do porcentual de enraizamento e crescimento das miniestacas enraizadas em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e a pleno sol. Concluiu-se que o plantio das miniestacas logo após a coleta no minijardim clonal foi o que proporcionou melhor resposta ao enraizamento nos quatro clones estudados, sendo observado efeito negativo do armazenamento dos propágulos, mesmo quando realizado por curto período de tempo.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the storage time of minicuttings on the rooting process of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden carried on in a hydroponic system in small gutters. The experimental design used was of random plots, in a factorial arrangement 6 x 4, constituted by six treatments (cutting after collection, cutting after storage in cold chamber per 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. Evaluations of the rooting percentage and growth of the rooted minicuttings in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun were made. It was concluded that planting the minicuttings right after the collection in the clonal miniorchard had the best rooting response for the four clones studied and also that there was a negative effect of the storage, even when stored for a short

  4. Avaliação de um modelo de distribuição diamétrica ajustado para povoamentos de Tectona grandis submetidos a desbaste Evaluation of a diametric distribution model adjusted for thinned Tectona grandis stands

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    Gilciano Saraiva Nogueira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, do ponto de vista do realismo biológico, um modelo de distribuição diamétrica, bem como a eficiência do método dos ingressos porcentuais para determinação da idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste de povoamentos de teca (Tectona grandis L. f.. A avaliação consistiu em comparar as idades técnicas de desbaste obtidas pelo método dos ingressos porcentuais, as distribuições diamétricas projetadas para idades futuras e o comportamento da distribuição remanescente, após algumas simulações de desbaste, com a tendência lógica esperada. Pôde-se concluir que o modelo de distribuição diamétrica proposto gera estimativas que seguem uma tendência lógica do ponto de vista biológico e que o método dos ingressos porcentuais é adequado para determinar a idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste.The objective of this study was to evaluate, under the biological point of view, a diametric distribution model. Another objective was to evaluate the efficiency of the percentage of entries method to determine the technical age for the first and second thinning in teak (Tectona grandis L. f. stands. This evaluation was carried out by comparing the technical thinning ages obtained by the percentage of entries method, the diametric distributions projected for future ages and the behavior of the remaining distribution, after some thinning simulations, with the expected logical tendency. It was be concluded that the proposed diametric distribution model generates estimates which follow a logical tendency, biologically speaking and that the percentage of entries method is suitable to determine the technical age of the first and second thinning.

  5. Quebra de dormência em diásporos de teca (Tectona grandis L.f. Break of numbness in diaspores of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tectona grandis L.f. é uma essência florestal exótica de importância econômica e social para o Brasil. As mudas dessa espécie são produzidas através de diásporos constituídos dos frutos com endocarpo e mesocarpo rígidos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de métodos de quebra de dormência na germinação das sementes desta espécie. Para superar a dormência do endocarpo e mesocarpo, os diásporos de teca foram submetidos à imersão em água quente, imersão em ácido sulfúrico (33,5% e imersão em água corrente. Os diásporos foram distribuídos em substrato constituído de areia, e o teste de germinação foi realizado em câmara de germinação com temperatura de 30 ºC, sob luz branca durante oito horas por dia. As avaliações foram feitas diariamente, durante 60 dias. O método de imersão dos diásporos em ácido sulfúrico por três minutos, foi o tratamento mais eficiente, apresentando 73% das sementes germinadas.Tectona grandis L.f. it is an exotic forest essence of economical and social importance to Brazil. The seedlings of that species are produced through diaspores constituted by the fruits with rigid endocarp and mesocarp. The objective of the present work was to analyze the effect of methods of numbness break in the germination of the seeds of this species. To overcome the numbness of the endocarp and mesocarp, the teak fruits were submitted to the immersion in hot water, immersion in sulfuric acid (33,5% and immersion in running water. The diaspores were distributed in substratum constituted of sand, and the germination test was accomplished in germination camera with temperature of 30 ºC, under white light for eight hours a day. The evaluations were made daily, for 60 days. The method of immersion of the diaspores in sulfuric acid for three minutes was the most efficient treatment, presenting 73% of germinated seeds.

  6. Características tecnológicas da madeira de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  7. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  8. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Mei Ru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO2 extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE. Therefore, SC-CO2 extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

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    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were installed at the height of 1.30 meters (DBH to monitor the diameter growth every 14 days, for 26 months. After measuring growth, the trees were felled and wood discs were removed at the DBH level to determine the radial density profile through x-ray microdensitometry and then re-scale the average values every 14 days. Climatic variables for the monitoring period were obtained and grouped every 14 days. The effect of the climate variables was determined by maximum and minimum growth periods in assessing trunk growth. These growth periods were related with precipitation, average temperature and relative air humidity. The re-scaled wood density values, calculated using the radial growth of the tree trunks measured accurately with steel dendrometers, enabled the determination of the relationship of small changes in wood density and the effect of the climatic variations and growth rate of eucalyptus tree trunks. A high sensitivity of the wood density to variation in precipitation levels was found.

  10. Integrated hot-compressed water and laccase-mediator treatments of Eucalyptus grandis fibers: structural changes of fiber and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Long; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-02-18

    Eucalyptus grandis fibers were treated with hot-compressed water (HCW) and laccase mediator to enhance the fiber characteristics and to produce an active lignin substrate for binderless fiberboard production. The composition, morphology, and crystallinity index (CrI) analysis of fibers showed that the HCW treatment increased the CrI and lignin content of the treated fibers through partial removal of hemicelluloses. Simultaneously, the HCW treatment produced some granules and holes on the surface of the fibers, which possibly facilitated the accessibility of the laccase mediator. Milled wood lignins and enzymatic hydrolysis lignins isolated from the control and treated fibers were comparatively characterized. A reduction of molecular weight was observed, which indicated that a preferential degradation of lignin occurred after exposure to the laccase mediator. Quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC and (31)P NMR characterization revealed that the integrated treatment resulted in the cleavage of β-O-4' linkages, removal of G' (oxidized α-ketone) substructures, and an increase in the S/G ratio and free phenolic hydroxyls. PMID:25639522

  11. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND EXTRACTIVES CONTENT WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden IN QUALITY BONDING

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    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987561The study aimed to anatomically characterize and to quantify the total extractives in different positions of the log of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with 18 years of age and to assess their influence on the shear strength and percentage of wood failure in adhesive bonded joints with thermosetting resorcinol-formaldehyde. Histological slides were prepared for an anatomical study and determined the total extractive content. The preparation of bonded joints was made according to ASTM D 2339-98(2000. It was used the correlation coefficient of Pearson, 1% probability by t test to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical and extractives content with the quality of the glued joints. It was found that there was a correlation between the shear strength with the following characteristics: vessel diameter, wall width, length and width of the fiber, the width of the radius and total extractives content. For the percentage of wood failure, there was a correlation between this with the following characteristics: the frequency of vessels, thickness of the heat of fiber, and high frequency of lightning. Both the radial direction as in the longitudinal direction of the logs there was change in the values found for the measurement of the anatomical elements, the total amount of extractives, the shear test strength and the percentage of wood failure.

  13. Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone

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    Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

  14. Cloning and characterization of gene-resistant analogs (RGAs) involved in rust (Puccinia psidii) resistance in Eucalyptus grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcelo Luiz Laia; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Sergio Hermnio Brommonschenkel; Shinitiro Oda; Eduardo Jose de Melo; Inae Marie de Arau jo Silva; Janana Fernandes Goncalves; Ariadne Marques

    2015-01-01

    Disease-resistant genes play an important role in defending against a variety of pathogens and insect pests in plants. Most of the disease-resistant genes encode pro-teins with conserved leucine rich repeat and nucleotide binding site domains. In this study, we cloned and char-acterized gene-resistant analogs (RGAs) from Eucalyptus grandis using degenerate PCR, with primers specifically targeting these two domains. The amplified fragments were cloned into the pGEM-T vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. Among the 90 clones obtained, 13 were sequenced and compared with each other and with previ-ously identified gene-resistant diseases. A BLASTX search in GenBank revealed high similarities among the con-served domains of these cloned genes with RGA genes. Some clones, however, showed no significant similarity with DNA sequences in GenBank. Southern blotting ana-lysis identified several polymorphic RFLP loci between distinct genotypes. However, none of them co-segregated with the Puccinia psidii Winter resistance gene 1 (Ppr1) in a population study.

  15. Efeito dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla

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    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano, associados ao regulador de crescimento AIB (ácido indolbutírico na propagação vegetativa pelo enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal realizado em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constituído de quatro concentrações para cada cofator e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações na casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e ao sol nas miniestacas enraizadas. Concluiu-se que o triptofano (0,8 mg L-1 e a hidroquinona (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicados associados ao AIB, melhoraram o enraizamento em três clones dos quatro clones avaliados; enquanto a prolina (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicada associada ao AIB, promoveu melhoria expressiva no enraizamento das miniestacas nos quatros clones estudados, evidenciando ser entre os cofatores testados o mais eficiente.

  16. Multitissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey T; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-05-21

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish ( Fundulus grandis ) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL) and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine, and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA, also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast.

  17. ESTABELECIMENTO A CAMPO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis MICORRIZADAS COM Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 EM SOLO ARENOSO

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    Andréa Hentz de Mello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and the initial growth of mycorrhizated eucalypts with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 ectomycorrhizal fungus, after its transplant to area subject to the arenization process in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The area was divided into four blocks, each one with four treatments (fertile turf with and without mycorrhizae, Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae. Each parcel was composed of 16 seedlings arranged in four lines in the spacing of 1,5 m x 1,5 m, totalizing in each block 64 seedlings. 90 days after the planting in the field, the eucaliptus seedlings produced in turf with fungus in the fertile substratum presented a survival rate of 100 %, whereas for those produced in fertile turf without fingi, the survival rate was 92 %. The seedlings produced in the Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae had a survival rate varying around 98 and 89 %, respectively. The produced seedlings with turf and fungus showed significant differences in height and stem diameter. This study showed that the Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in substratum fertile turf and inoculated with the Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 isolated may maintain good development and establishment in the field.

  18. Axial variations in anatomical properties and basic density of Eucalypt urograndis hybrid (Eucalyptus grandis 3 E. urophylla) clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S K Sharma; S R Shukla; S Shashikala; V Sri Poornima

    2015-01-01

    We studied two clones of Eucalypt urograndis hybrid (Eucalyptus grandis 9 E. urophylla), GR283 and GR330, grown in Tumkur district of Karnataka (India), and felled 5–6 years old three trees of each clone. We recorded axial variations in heartwood content, bark properties, wood density and anatomical characteristics of wood including fibre length, fibre diameter, fibre wall thickness, lumen diameter, vessel frequency, vessel diameter and vessel element length. Clone GR283 had about 10 % heartwood, significantly lower than for clone GR330 (37 %). Basic wood density along the tree height varied significantly within and between the clones. We observed significant variations in fibre length, fibre diameter and wall thickness within and between the two clones. Vessel frequency and vessel element length did not vary but vessel diameter differed significantly between the clones. With a greater proportion of sapwood, clone GR283 can be utilized for paper and pulp applications. Clone GR330 had a higher proportion of heartwood and lower wood density and, hence, is more suitable for light-weight material applications.

  19. The effects of heat treatment on the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of Eucalyptus grandis

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    Bekir Cihad Bal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment can be used to improve the physical properties and durability of wood. The results achieved by heat treatment can be affected significantly by various factors. Juvenile wood and mature wood from the same trunk have different properties, and the effects of heat treatment on their physical properties have not been well defined. Thus, a study to determine the differences in the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of E. grandis after heat treatment was conducted. Samples of both types of wood were treated at temperatures of 120, 150, and 180 oC for durations of 4, 6, and 8 h. The results showed that the physical properties of juvenile and mature wood, e.g., swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point, did not decrease to the same extent. Mass loss of mature wood was higher than that of juvenile wood. Generally, percentage decreases of volumetric swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point of juvenile wood were more affected than those of mature wood.

  20. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn. PMID:26861483

  1. CONDUTÂNCIA ESTOMÁTICA DE EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA E E. GRANDIS, EM RESPOSTA A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ÁGUA NO SOLO E DE CONVIVÊNCIA COM BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND E. GRANDIS STOMATIC CONDUCTANCE IN RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF WATER AND ASSOCIATION WITH BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF

    OpenAIRE

    WILSON DA SILVA; TOCIO SEDIYAMA; ANTÔNIO ALBERTO DA SILVA; FRANCISCO AFFONSO FERREIRA

    1998-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da interferência de Brachiaria brizantha sobre a condutância estomática (gs) de mudas de Eucalyptus citriodora e E. grandis, cultivadas em solos com diferentes níveis de água, em condições de casa de vegetação, entre dezembro de 1995 e fevereiro de 1996. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (2 x 3 x 4): duas espécies de eucalipto (E. citriodora e E. grandis), três níveis de água (20, 23 e 26%) e quatro populações d...

  2. Efeito alelopático de plantas daninhas e concentrações de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens no desenvolvimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Allelopathic effect of weeds and concentrations of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar possível efeito alelopático de 18 espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis, realizaram-se dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, dentre 18 espécies de plantas daninhas testadas, Brachiaria decumbens (BRADC demonstrou acentuada capacidade de reduzir o crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis, quando incorporada ao solo. No segundo experimento avaliou-se o efeito da adição no substrato de concentrações de matéria seca de BRADC sobre o crescimento inicial de mudas de E. grandis. A matéria seca triturada de BRADC foi incorporada ao solo nas concentrações de 0% (testemunha, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% (p/p. Instalou-se também uma réplica do experimento, com adição de idênticas quantidades totais de carbono entre os tratamentos. O ajuste da quantidade de carbono foi feito através da adição de Sphagnum. Extraiu-se a solução do solo por meio de cápsulas de porcelana introduzidas nos vasos quando do transplante das mudas de eucalipto. As soluções foram coletadas ao final do experimento (39 dias após o transplante das mudas, sendo utilizadas para a determinação de pH, condutividade elétrica, potencial osmótico e para análise de teores de nutrientes. As mínimas proporções de BRADC, com efeito inibitório, foram de 0,5 e 1,0%, com e sem Sphagnum, respectivamente. Nestas duas condições, a área foliar média do eucalipto foi reduzida em 24 e 23%, respectivamente. As análises de solução do solo dos tratamentos permitiram concluir que os teores de nutrientes e as características químicas destes foram pouco alterados pelos tratamentos, sendo pouco provável que a redução do crescimento do E. grandis se deva às restrições nas quantidades de nutrientes disponíveis.Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the possible allelopathic effect of 18 weed species on the initial development of eucalyptus

  3. Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume em plantios de eucalyptus grandis Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume in eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Márcio de Mello

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha, 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal.This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and

  4. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  5. Durabilidade natural de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com Eucalyptus grandis e Bambusa vulgaris em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Natural durability of Eucalyptus grandis and Bambusa vulgaris particleboards under accelerated fungi decay test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento acerca da resistência dos compostos ligno-celulósicos ao ataque de microrganismos é primordial para servir de base à prevenção da deterioração e a correta destinação de emprego do material. Nesse sentido, avaliou-se a resistência natural a fungos apodrecedores de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com partículas de madeira (Eucalyptus grandis e/ou bambu (Bambusa vulgaris. Foram produzidas, em laboratório, chapas aglomeradas nas dimensões 50x50x0,95cm e massa específica pré-estabelecida em 0,70g cm-3, nas proporções de 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100 de madeira e bambu, respectivamente. A massa de partículas representou 91% da massa seca de cada painel, sendo, o restante, formado pelo adesivo ureia-formaldeído (8% e parafina (1%. Para determinação da resistência natural ao ataque de fungos xilófagos, os painéis foram testados em laboratório e utilizados os fungos Gloeophyllum trabeum (podridão parda e Trametes versicolor (podridão branca, de acordo com a ASTM D 2017 (2005. Quanto aos resultados, foi observado que os painéis confeccionados com mistura de partículas de madeira e bambu apresentaram menor resistência ao ataque dos fungos apodrecedores. Painéis que utilizaram apenas bambu ou madeira apresentaram resistência biológica semelhante. Dentre os fungos, T. versicolor atacou mais severamente os painéis.The knowledge about lignocellulosic compounds strength to the attack of microorganisms is essential for preventing deterioration and also for knowing the correct usage of the material. Accordingly it was evaluated the natural resistance of wood panels made of particles of wood (Eucalyptus grandis and/or bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris to decay fungi. Particleboards were produced in laboratory, each of them with dimensions 50x50x0.95cm and density pre-set at 0.70g cm-3, in proportions of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 of wood and bamboo, respectively. The particles mass represented 91% of the

  6. Caracterização bromatológica de oito linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Shiitake cultivadas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis Bromatological characterization of Lentinula edodes strains (Shiitake grown on Eucalyptus grandis logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Lentinula edodes é um alimento de qualidade elevada, sendo rico em proteínas, vitaminas e sais minerais e pobre em calorias e gorduras. No entanto, seu valor nutricional varia em função da linhagem cultivada, do processamento após a colheita, do estágio de desenvolvimento do basidioma e do substrato utilizado. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar bromatologicamente os basidiomas de oito linhagens de L. edodes (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13, inteiros ou em partes (estípete e píleo, produzidos em toras de E. grandis. Verificou-se que tanto as linhagens de L. edodes como as partes dos basidiomas analisados influenciaram nas respostas nutricionais das amostras. O estípete apresentou as maiores médias de fibra bruta e as menores médias de proteína bruta. O píleo, por sua vez, apresentou as maiores médias de cinzas. Nas avaliações de basidiomas inteiros, as maiores médias, quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, foram obtidas nas linhagens LE-95/07, LE-96/17 e LE-96/18. Já a maior média de fibra bruta foi obtida pela linhagem LE-96/13 de L. edodes. O conteúdo de lipídios do píleo e do estípete não variaram entre as linhagens de L. edodes.Lentinula edodes is high quality food which is rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals and poor in calories and fat. However, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain grown, processing after harvest, development stage of basidiomata, and substrate used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to carry out the bromatological characterization of basidiomatas from eight (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13 L. edodes strains, whole or in parts (stalk and pileus, produced in E. grandis logs. We verified that both the L. edodes strains and parts of basidiomatas analyzed influenced nutritional responses of the samples. The stalk presented the highest raw fiber averages and the

  7. Viabilidade Econômica de Sistemas Silvipastoris com Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum e Tectona grandis no Pará Economical Viability of Silvopastoral Systems with Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum Barneby and Tectona grandis in Para, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Quaresma Maneschy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Os sistemas silvipastoris (SSPs consistem de um conjunto de metodologias que podem ser consideradas promissoras para recuperar áreas de pastagens degradadas da Amazônia, por integrar o cultivo arbóreo ao pecuária tradicional. Embora já utilizados em pequena escala por produtores inovadores, os SSPs carecem de uma base científica que forneça subsídios técnicos ao seu uso mais amplo, sobretudo quando se trata de justificar a viabilidade econômica desses sistemas. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a viabilidade econômica de SSPs utilizados por produtores no nordeste do Estado do Pará, comparando-os ao monocultivo tradicional. Os sistemas são compostos basicamente pelo paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby ou teca (Tectona grandis L.F., em pastagens de quicuio-da-amazônia (Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweick pastejados por bovinos. A análise de viabilidade econômica foi realizada por meio dos métodos: valor presente líquido (VPL, taxa interna de retorno (TIR e relação benefício/custo (Rb/c, considerando quatro SSPs e o monocultivo de paricá e teca. Os sistemas compostos por teca apresentam maior atratividade econômica do que os com paricá, e dentre eles, os arranjos silvipastoris, em que o gado era próprio, foram considerados de melhor viabilidade que os sistemas em monocultivo ou em que a incorporação animal se dava através do aluguel da pastagem.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.49

    The silvopastoral systems (SPSs have been considered promising to integrate tree crops in livestock production systems and reclain large areas of degraded pastures of the Brazilian Amazon. They are used on small scale by innovative farmers, the SPSs lack a scientific basis to provide technical subsidies to its wider use, especially when it comes to justifying the economic viability of these systems. The objective of this study was to analyze the economical viability of SPSs, established in

  8. Consequências da deriva de clomazone e sulfentrazone em clones de E. grandis x E. urophylla Consequences of clomazone and sulfentrazone drift on clones of E. grandis x E. urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Norio Takahashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos de deriva simulada dos herbicidas clomazone e sulfentrazone em dois clones comerciais de E. grandis x E. urophylla, da Votorantim Celulose e Papel (VCP1 e VCP2. Na simulação, as doses do herbicida clomazone variaram de 0 a 2.000 mL ha-1 e no sulfentrazone, de 0 a 1.500 mL ha-1. As mudas dos dois clones, previamente selecionadas, foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade para 5,0 L. O solo utilizado foi o Neossolo Quartzarênico, sendo a aplicação dos herbicidas realizada 80 dias após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado em cada herbicida foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 8, com três repetições. O efeito do clomazone resultou em folhas novas rosadas, amareladas e, em alguns casos, esbranquiçadas, como um todo ou em parte dela, enquanto as nervuras se mantiveram verdes. Observou-se, também, que as folhas velhas se tornaram mais verdes e grossas. Ocorreu redução nas características de crescimento, variando de 13 a 57%, e as doses consideradas críticas do herbicida clomazone foram de 800 e 1.200 ml ha-1 nos clones VCP1 e VCP2, respectivamente. Com o sulfentrazone, os sintomas da deriva foram necroses generalizadas nas folhas novas e velhas; ao redor da necrose, formaram-se região arroxeada e deformação intensa nas folhas novas e regular nas folhas velhas, bem como houve perda de dominância apical. As características de crescimento indicaram redução de 9 a 66%. A dose crítica desse herbicida foi de 75 ml ha-1 no clone VCP1 e 1.200 ml ha-1 no VCP2. Conclui-se que uma possível deriva dos herbicidas estudados e utilizados em cana-de-açúcar poderá causar prejuízos ao crescimento dos clones avaliados.This research aimed to develop accurate information about the effects of two simulated herbicide drift (clomazone and sulfentrazone on the growth of Votorantim Celulose e Papel Eucalyptus grandis x E. urohylla comercial

  9. Caracterização e comparação entre diferentes granulometrias de serragem de Eucalyptus grandis para confecção de briquetes. Characterization and comparison between different sizes of Eucalyptus grandis sawdust for briquettes confection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Farrapo GONÇALVES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A grande geração de resíduos lignocelulósicos, a partir de processos industriais e da agricultura, torna o uso da biomassa uma fonte de energia térmica viável; sua compactação aumenta sua densidade, seu poder calorífico e sua resistência. O objetivo da pesquisa consistiu na comparação entre briquetes produzidos a partir de diferentes granulometrias de serragens de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = serragem que passou pela peneira de 10 mesh e ficou retida na de 20 mesh (10 a 20; T2 = 20 a 60; T3 = 60 a 100 ; T4 = 10 a 100. As características da matéria-prima mostraram-se viáveis para a produção de briquetes, com teor de umidade de 12%, 88,65% de voláteis, 0,44% de cinzas, 10,80% de carbono fixo e poder calorífico de 4.229 kcal.kg-1. As comparações realizadas entre os tratamentos foram feitas a partir da expansão (diametral e longitudinal e de ensaios de compressão diametral para força máxima e tensão de força máxima dos briquetes. O tratamento T4 foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados nesses testes (1,04%; 15,06%; 90,22 kgf; 0,6714 MPa, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente, a nível de 5% dos outros tratamentos. A produção em larga escala do tratamento T4 viabiliza a produção dos briquetes, pois não é necessário o processo de separação granulométrica.The great generation of lignocellulose wastes from industrial processes and agriculture makes the use of biomass a source of viable thermal energy; its compaction increases its density, its calorific value and its strength. The objective of the research consisted in comparing briquettes produced from different particle sizes of sawdust of Eucalyptus grandis. The treatments were: T1 = sawdust that passed through 10 mesh sieve and was retained on the 20 mesh (10 to 20; T2 = 20 to 60; T3 = 60 to 100; T4 = 10 to 100. The characteristics of the raw material proved feasibility to produce briquettes, with moisture content of 12%, 88.65% of

  10. Períodos de interferência de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis Hort. no crescimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden Periods of Commelina benghalensis interference in the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, em razão do uso contínuo de mesmos herbicidas e outros métodos de controle, vem se constituindo numa das plantas mais freqüentes em eucaliptais do Estado de São Paulo. Por isso, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos de períodos de controle e convivência dessa planta daninha sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, transplantadas no inverno e no verão. Uma única muda de eucalipto foi transplantada em caixa de cimento-amianto e submetida a períodos crescentes de convivência e de controle da trapoeraba (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias no sujo e no limpo, respectivamente, sendo a densidade de plantas de trapoeraba de 4 plantas.m-2 (nas condições de inverno e verão. Conduziu-se o ensaio por um período de 100 dias após o transplante (DAT, e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 10 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Pelos resultados da altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, biomassa seca e área foliar, verificou-se que o período anterior à interferência (PAI, o total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foram de 20, 60 e 20 a 60 DAT, respectivamente, no inverno. Em condições de verão, o PTPI foi menor que o PAI (10 e 40 DAT, respectivamente. Assim, não foi possível estabelecer o PCPI nessas condições.Commelina benghalensis is becomming the predominant weed invading eucalypts plantations in the State of São Paulo due to the continual use of herbicides and other control methods applied. Considering this, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of presence and control periods of Commelina benghalensis on Eucalyptus grandis initial growth, grew in winter and summer. A single eucalypt seedling was planted in a cement box and submitted to increasing periods of presence and control of Commelina benghalensis (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 days in competition or not

  11. Research of Exocarpium Citri Grandis Fingerprint Based on Self-organization Competitive Neural Network%基于自组织竞争型神经网络的化橘红指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈南迪; 卢丽萍; 汪金玉; 林励

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the self-organization competitive neural network method for identifying the species by the fingerprints of different kinds of Exocarpium Citri Grandis(Cirtus grandis Peel). Methods The fingerprints of different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis were established by fourier transform infrared speetroscopy and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC). And then we used the self-organization competitive neural network model to distinguish the different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis. Results The self-organization competitive neural network for distinguish Exocarpium Citri Grandis of different species was established, and the rate of accuracy for infrared and HPLC fingerprint of the powder and the extract was more than 91.67 % in average. Conclusion The self-organizing competitiveneural network can be used for distinguishing different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis by their fingerprints.%目的 建立不同品种化橘红指纹图谱的自组织竞争型人工神经网络判别方法.方法 采用傅里叶红外光谱法及HPLC法建立不同品种化橘红的指纹图谱,采用自组织竞争型人工神经网络进行模式识别.结果 自组织竞争型神经网络模型对化橘红粉末、提取物红外及HPLC指纹图谱预测平均准确率达91.67%以上.结论 自组织竞争型人工神经网络可有效用于化橘红品种的识别.

  12. Effects of Shading on Torreya grandis Juvenile Stage under Different Tree Species%不同树种遮荫对香榧幼龄期生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仙石玄; 潘建华; 朱小环; 周樟庭; 吴礼栋

    2014-01-01

    为比较不同树种遮荫对香榧幼龄期生长的影响,选择板栗、厚朴、杉木、杨梅4个树种进行林下套种香榧试验,以同种林分林缘裸露的山地种植香榧为对照。结果表明:林下套种香榧,平均成活率均极显著高于对照,不同树种之间成活率差异不显著;新梢年均生长量均极显著高于对照,且板栗林下套种香榧的新梢年均生长量极显著大于其它3个树种。说明以板栗遮荫最有利于香榧幼龄期生长。%The effects of shading on Torreya grandis juvenile stage was studied ,which under four forests ,chestnut ,Magnolia officina-lis,fir and red bayberry.The Torreya grandis in forests edge as control groups.The result showed:Average survival rates of Torreya grandis with sun-shading were higher than the control group significantly (P<0.01),and had no significant difference among four tree species sun-shading treatments.After sun-shading treatments , the Torreya grandis average annual growths of new shoots were higher than the control group significantly ( P <0.01 ) , and chestnut had better shading effect on Torreya grandis average annual growths of new shoots than magnolia officinalis ,fir and red bayberry.Above of all,the model of interplanting Torreya grandis under chestnut forest practicable and worth of popularization.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Eucalyptus grandis: an intriguing over-representation of stress-responsive DREB1/CBF genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Cao

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses.The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses.The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive.These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia.

  14. Boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) continue to release pheromone following host removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  15. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  16. Multidisciplinary Fingerprints: Forensic Reconstruction of an Insect Reinvasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning late August 2007, more than 150 boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, were unexpectedly captured across an extensive area of the Southern Rolling Plains (SRP) eradication zone of West-Central Texas, which was essentially weevil-free since 2003. This outbreak was detected soon after the passag...

  17. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felipe Farias, Davi; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F.; Carvalho, A.F.U.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolutio

  18. SISTEMA DE CUBICACIÓN PARA ÁRBOLES INDIVIDUALES DE Tectona grandis L. f. MEDIANTE FUNCIONES COMPATIBLES DE AHUSAMIENTO-VOLUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Tamarit Urías; Héctor M. De los Santos Posadas; Arnulfo Aldrete; J. René Valdez Lazalde; Hugo Ramírez Maldonado; Vidal Guerra de la Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Se cons truyó un sistema de cubicación de árbol individual generado a partir de una función segmentada de ahusamiento para plantaciones de Tectona grandis establecidas en Campeche, Tabasco y Chiapas. Se cubicaron 144 árboles de diferentes edades; para cada uno se midió el diámetro con corteza y la altura sobre el fuste a 1 m después del tocón hasta la altura total. Se evaluó el ajuste estadístico de seis funciones segmentadas de ahusamiento y se seleccionó al modelo de Fang como el mejor...

  19. The occurrence, prevention and cure of Exocarpium Citri Grandis plant diseases and insect pests%化橘红病虫害的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡岳文; 严振; 丘金裕

    2004-01-01

    化橘红为芸香科植物化州柚(Citrus grandis(L)Osbeck var.tomentosa Hort)以未成熟果实的外果皮入药。近几年来,随着基地化、规模化大面积种植,其病虫害的发生及危害程度亦与日俱增,一些重要害虫已严重影响化橘红的生产和产品质量。

  20. Cubicación, crecimiento y rendimiento maderable e inventario operativo para Tectona grandis en el sureste de México.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamarit Urias, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Se generó un conjunto de herramientas de silvicultura cuantitativa para apoyar la toma de decisiones en el manejo técnico de plantaciones comerciales de Tectona grandis L. f. (teca) establecidas en el sureste de México. Para estimar el volumen por tipo de producto se construyó un sistema de cubicación a nivel de árbol individual generado a partir de un modelo segmentado de ahusamiento. El modelo fue ajustado en forma simultánea con su respectiva función de volumen comercial como un modelo de ...

  1. Laboratory decomposition of Dalbergia nigra all. ex. benth and Eucalyptus grandis w.hill ex. maiden leaves in forest and eucalypt plantation soils

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende Juliana L. P.; Garcia Queila S.; Scotti Maria Rita M. M. L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the decomposition of D. nigra and E. grandis leaves under laboratory conditions when incubated in soils from Atlantic Forest and from a 40-year-old eucalypt plantation for a year. The obtained values of pH in forest and eucalypt plantation soils were 5.61 and 4.47 and for aluminum 0.32 and 1.89mEqx100, respectively. A great number of microorganisms (total fungi, phosphate solubilising and cellulolytic organisms) were found in forest soil. Litterbag study revealed...

  2. Primer registro para el Perú de Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839 Travassos, 1934 (Trematoda, Diplodiscidae en Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Salízar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo registra por primera vez para el Perú a Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839 Travassos, 1934, en la tortuga de río Podocnemis unifilis «taricaya». Los hospederos fueron colectados en las localidades del Río Putumayo, Samiria, Iquitos (Loreto y Manu (Madre de Dios. El material identificado pertenece a la Colección Helmintológica del Departamento de Protozoología, Helmintología e Invertebrados Afines del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

  3. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  4. Main Chemical Compositions in Aril of Torreya grandis%香榧假种皮中主要化学组成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 古研; 赵振东; 王婧; 毕良武

    2012-01-01

    研究了新鲜香榧假种皮中所含的挥发油、溶剂提取物、单宁物质、非单宁物质、木质素等主要化学组分及其含量。测定了新鲜原料中的挥发性精油的提取率及密度、折光率、比旋光度等物理化学性质。结果表明,新鲜的香榧假种皮精油提取得率按绝干物计算为5.5%,提取精油后残渣用溶剂甲苯提取的收率为19.7%。精油中主要含单萜类化合物,含量74.66%;残渣甲苯提取物主要含二萜类物质,含量78.22%;新鲜香榧假种皮中含有1.8%的单宁物质、18.9%的非单宁类物质、20.1%的木质素;水蒸气蒸馏残渣和溶剂抽提残渣中含木质素分别为17.13%和17.16%。%The volatile oil, solvent extract, tannin, non-tannin, lignin as well as their contents in fresh aril of Torreya grandis were studied in this paper. The yield, density, refractive index, specific rotation and non-volatile mater content of volatile oil from fresh aril of T. grandis were determined. The results showed that a volatile oil was collected from steam distillation of the fresh aril of T. grandis in 5.5 % ( based on the dry matter), and a toluene extractive was gained from the residue after volatile oil distillation in 19.7% (by toluene). The volatile oil contained mainly monoterpene, and the solvent extract contained maninly diterpene. In fresh aril of T. grandis, the contents of tannin material, non-tannin material and lignin were 1.8 %, 18.9 % and 20.1%, respectively. The contents of lignin in the steam distillation residue and solvent extraction residue were 17.13 % and 17.16 %, respectively.

  5. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  6. 榧树种质资源调查与评价%Investigation and evaluation of Torreya grandis germplasm resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓建; 黎章矩; 戴文圣; 喻卫武; 曾燕如

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl are a peculiar nut fruit in China. In order to effectively protect, develop and utilize the germplasm resources of this species, a systematic investigation of its germplasm resources in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian provinces was conducted through field investigation, specimen collection, indoor seed examination and ingredient analysis. The results showed that the resources of T. grandis was unevenly distributed and only conserved well in a few regions. The single seed weight, single kernel weight, kernel rate, kernel shape index and nutrient content varied greatly among individual trees, but some superior individual trees in integrated traits and quality had discovered, which could be grouped into seven major varieties and types. Those individual trees with seeds of integrated good traits, good quality, special traits or potential utilization value should be collected and preserved, especially focusing on those of high and stable yield and special high traits. The old trees or their population should be protected.%榧树(Torreyagrandis Fort.ex Lindl)种子是我国特有的著名干果,为了对榧树种质资源进行有效保护和开发利用,采用实地调查、采集标本、室内烤种、成分分析等方法,对浙江、安徽、江西、福建等榧树分布区的种质资源进行了系统研究.结果表明.榧树资源分布不均,仅少数地方资源保存较好;榧树种内性状变异复杂,不同单株间种子的单粒质量、种核单粒质量、出核率、核形指数及营养成分等变异大,存在一些综合性状优良、品质达到或超过香榧的优株:将香榧和榧树中的优良株系、类型分归于7个主要品种和类型.在榧树中应主要收集一些种子具有综合优良性状、特殊性状和有潜在利用价值的单株;香榧则重点在于收集种子高产、稳产、优质和具特殊性状的优株,对古树及古树群也应加以保护.

  7. White grubs, Holotrichia rustica and Holotrichia mucida (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) as pests of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin Kulkarni; Sanjay Paunikar; Kailash Chandra Josh; John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    Field observations were carried out between 2002 and 2005 on bio-ecology of white grubs infesting teak (Tectona grandis Linn, f.) seedlings at Ramdongari Forest Nursery, Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra, Nagpur in central India. The study collected the data required for an integrated pest management strategy against the white grubs. The species damaging teak seedlings were Holotrichia rustica (Burmeister) and H. mucida Gyllenhal. The beetles (adults) of both these species began to emerge just after the pre-monsoon showers and when the relative humidity had risen rapidly over several days, but before the first monsoon rains. While the adults fed and mated on naturally growing bushes of Ziziphus jujuba, Z. mauritiana, Z. xylopyra, Acacia leucophloea and A. catechu immediately after the emergence from the teak beds in the nursery, the immature stages (grubs) of both species fed on roots of the teak seedling, leading to plant death. This is the first report of (i) damage caused to teak seedlings by grubs of H. rustica and H. mucida, and (ii) of Z jujuba and Z mauritiana being hosts for the beetles of H. mucida and H. rustica. It is also the first detailed report on the field bio-ecology of the H. rustica and H. mucida as major pests of teak. White grubs are among the toughest-to-manage pests of economic importance and information presented here on the pest incidence and damage of H. rustica and H. mucida is important to researchers and nursery field managers for the management of these pests on teak.

  8. Construction of allometric relationships to predict growth parameters, stem biomass and carbon of Eucalyptus grandis growing in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts. Tree diameter and total were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values.   Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots.   According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. The carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass.   Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  9. Construction of Allometric Relationships to Predict Growth Parameters, Stem Biomass and Carbon of Eucalyptus grandis Growing in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available             Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts in Sri Lanka. Tree diameter and total height were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values. Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots. According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. Carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass. Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  10. Response of soil mite abundance and diversity to a monospecific timber Tectona grandis plantation in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Kouadio N’DRI, Henri Marc ANDRE, Jan LAGERLÖF, Jérôme Ebagnérin TONDOH,Thierry HANCE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the impact of monospecific Tectona grandis forest plantation on the soil mite abundance and diversity. To achieve these objectives, two sites situated in Ivory Coast were investigated. The first, a primary forest was characterized by a very weak human activities whereas the second, a teak plantation was characterized by a high disturbance performed during the planting. After extracting, sorted and description, 116 mite species were described in the two sites. Mite densities were lower in teak plantation and also higher in the litter and decreased to the depth in both sites. Species richness recorded in teak plantation (52 species was significantly lower compared to primary forest (98 species. The same trend was observed for Oribatida but not for Gamasida. The lower Oribatida (5 vs. 17 and higher Oribatida (24 vs. 41 were recorded respectively in teak plantation and primary forest. Mite Shannon index and evenness were significantly different between sites. High Jaccard index values and the appearance of exclusive species in both habitats showed that the sites are very distinct. Total number of species recorded corresponded to 58%–63% of the total number of species estimated by ACE and Chao 1&2 estimators, indicating that the sampling effort was not sufficient. Mite abundance and diversity varied depending on the characteristics of habitats. Chemical element (Corg, Ctot, Ntot, and SOM values were lower in teak plantation (disturbed habitat and significantly different to primary forest in the topsoil. Apart from litter height, soil depth, pH and C/N ratio, others variables were strongly correlated to mite abundance and diversity [Current Zoology 59 (5: 633–643, 2013].

  11. [Rapid Identification of Epicarpium Citri Grandis via Infrared Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology Combined with Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sha-sha; Huang, Fu-rong; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Rui-yi; Ma, Zhi-guo

    2015-10-01

    To explore rapid reliable methods for detection of Epicarpium citri grandis (ECG), the experiment using Fourier Transform Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology combined with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network pattern recognition, for the identification of ECG, and the two methods are compared. Infrared spectra and fluorescence spectral images of 118 samples, 81 ECG and 37 other kinds of ECG, are collected. According to the differences in tspectrum, the spectra data in the 550-1 800 cm(-1) wavenumber range and 400-720 nm wavelength are regarded as the study objects of discriminant analysis. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of ECG and MLP Neural Network is used in combination to classify them. During the experiment were compared the effects of different methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV), first-order derivative(FD), second-order derivative(SD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG). The results showed that: after the infrared spectra data via the Savitzky-Golay (SG) pretreatment through the MLP Neural Network with the hidden layer function as sigmoid, we can get the best discrimination of ECG, the correct percent of training set and testing set are both 100%. Using fluorescence spectral imaging technology, corrected by the multiple scattering (MSC) results in the pretreatment is the most ideal. After data preprocessing, the three layers of the MLP Neural Network of the hidden layer function as sigmoid function can get 100% correct percent of training set and 96.7% correct percent of testing set. It was shown that the FTIR/ATR and fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with MLP Neural Network can be used for the identification study of ECG and has the advantages of rapid, reliable effect. PMID:26904814

  12. Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

  13. Genome-wide patterns of recombination, linkage disequilibrium and nucleotide diversity from pooled resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping unlock the evolutionary history of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2015-11-01

    We used high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and whole-genome pooled resequencing to examine the landscape of population recombination (ρ) and nucleotide diversity (ϴw ), assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ) and build the highest density linkage maps for Eucalyptus. At the genome-wide level, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed within c. 4-6 kb, slower than previously reported from candidate gene studies, but showing considerable variation from absence to complete LD up to 50 kb. A sharp decrease in the estimate of ρ was seen when going from short to genome-wide inter-SNP distances, highlighting the dependence of this parameter on the scale of observation adopted. Recombination was correlated with nucleotide diversity, gene density and distance from the centromere, with hotspots of recombination enriched for genes involved in chemical reactions and pathways of the normal metabolic processes. The high nucleotide diversity (ϴw = 0.022) of E. grandis revealed that mutation is more important than recombination in shaping its genomic diversity (ρ/ϴw = 0.645). Chromosome-wide ancestral recombination graphs allowed us to date the split of E. grandis (1.7-4.8 million yr ago) and identify a scenario for the recent demographic history of the species. Our results have considerable practical importance to Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), while indicating bright prospects for genomic prediction of complex phenotypes in eucalypt breeding.

  14. Padrões de miniestacas e sazonalidade na produção de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla S. T. Black

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    Cibele Chaves Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes padrões de miniestacas no enraizamento e produção de mudas do híbrido do Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S.T. Black no verão e no inverno. Experimentos com cinco clones e 12 diferentes padrões de miniestacas foram conduzidos em duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno. A sobrevivência e enraizamento das miniestacas foram avaliados na saída da casa de vegetação e na saída da casa de sombra e, a pleno sol, a sobrevivência, a altura, o diâmetro do colo, o peso de massa seca da parte aérea e o da raiz. Os resultados indicaram que a manutenção das folhas é importante para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, e as folhas basais obtiveram maiores valores de enraizamento. Mudas produzidas no verão, utilizando miniestacas de 10 cm de tamanho, tiveram maior crescimento. A metodologia de não redução das folhas mostrou-se procedimento adequado para produção de mudas nas duas épocas do ano.

  15. Chromosomal localization of 45S rDNA, sex-specific C values, and heterochromatin distribution in Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Biplab Kumar; Yamamoto, Masashi; Jha, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    Coccinia grandis is a widely distributed dioecious cucurbit in India, with heteromorphic sex chromosomes and X-Y sex determination mode. The present study aids in the cytogenetic characterization of four native populations of this plant employing distribution patterns of 45S rDNA on chromosomes and guanine-cytosine (GC)-rich heterochromatin in the genome coupled with flow cytometric determination of genome sizes. Existence of four nucleolar chromosomes could be confirmed by the presence of four telomeric 45S rDNA signals in both male and female plants. All four 45S rDNA sites are rich in heterochromatin evident from the co-localization of telomeric chromomycin A (CMA)(+ve) signals. The size of 45S rDNA signal was found to differ between the homologues of one nucleolar chromosome pair. The distribution of heterochromatin is found to differ among the male and female populations. The average GC-rich heterochromatin content of male and female populations is 23.27 and 29.86 %, respectively. Moreover, the male plants have a genome size of 0.92 pg/2C while the female plants have a size of 0.73 pg/2C, reflecting a huge genomic divergence between the genders. The great variation in genome size is owing to the presence of Y chromosome in the male populations, playing a multifaceted role in sexual divergence in C. grandis. PMID:25795278

  16. Construction of a full-length cDNA library of Solen grandis dunker and identification of defense- and immune-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohua; Liu, Xiangquan; Ren, Lihua; Yang, Jianmin; Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong

    2013-11-01

    The basic genetic characteristics, important functional genes, and entire transcriptome of Solen grandis Dunker were investigated by constructing a full-length cDNA library with the `switching mechanism at the 5'-end of the RNA transcript' (SMART) technique. Total RNA was isolated from the immune-relevant tissues, gills and hemocytes, using the Trizol reagent, and cDNA fragments were digested with Sfi I before being ligated to the pBluescript II SK* vector. The cDNA library had a titer of 1048 cfu μL-1 and a storage capacity of 1.05×106 cfu. Approximately 98% of the clones in the library were recombinants, and the fragment lengths of insert cDNA ranged from 0.8 kb to 3.0 kb. A total of 2038 expressed sequence tags were successfully sequenced and clustered into 965 unigenes. BLASTN analysis showed that 240 sequences were highly similar to the known genes (E-value 80%), accounting for 25% of the total unigenes. According to the Gene Ontology, these unigenes were related to several biological processes, including cell structure, signal transport, protein synthesis, transcription, energy metabolism, and immunity. Fifteen of the identified sequences were related to defense and immunity. The full-length cDNA sequence of HSC70 was obtained. The cDNA library of S. grandis provided a useful resource for future researches of functional genomics related to stress tolerance, immunity, and other physiological activities.

  17. 大针茅根系构型对草地退化的响应%Responses of the root architecture of Stipa grandis to grassland degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳松; 王立群; 张鹏; 梁金华; 王旭峰

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate responses of root architecture of Stipa grandis grown under different grassland degradation levels (light, medium, high and extreme) in Xilin Gol League. The relative completed roots of S. grandis were collected by trenching and analyzed by using the root analysis system of WinRHIZO to determine total root length, root surface area, total root volume, root average diameter, number of root tips, number of furcation and average branching angle, number and length of first vertical root, number and length of first lateral root, number and length of secondary lateral root, number of adventitious root. The data obtained was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and principal component analysis. The results indicated that 1) the number of furcation, the surface area of root and the total length of root were the preferred indexes for analyzing S. grandis' variation to grassland degradation, while the number of furcation had the strongest explanation strength of the indexes to the variation. The cumulative contribution rate of the three root architecture indexes was 90.7%. 2) With the degradation development from light to extreme, the root architecture of S. grandis was obviously miniaturized. This phenomenon was especially obvious in medium degradation grassland. 3) The miniaturized root architecture of S. grandis eventually led to miniaturization of the entire plant, so the role of S. grandis as constructive species in the succession process of the community degradation was gradually weakened and finally replaced by other dominant species.%本研究对锡林郭勒典型草原区轻度、中度、重度和极度4个退化梯度草地中大针茅(Stipagrandis)根系构型进行研究。结果表明,1)根分叉数、根表面积和总根长3个参数是分析大针茅根系构型在不同退化程度草地中变化的主要指标,其中根分又数对该变化的解释力最强,3个参数的累积贡献率为90.7%;2

  18. Study on essence oils from citrus grandis peel and orange peel extracted by microwave method%微波辐射法提取柚皮、橙皮的挥发油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纯馨; 陈忻; 袁毅桦; 梁少华

    2003-01-01

    The essence oil of citrus grandis peel and orange peel was extracted by the microwave method in this article.The results show that the best condition of extracting is when 100 g peel is extracted at 360 W with n-hexane for 50 s,the obtained rate of pomelo oil is 1.73% and orange oil is 0.65%.

  19. The Analysis of MADS box Genes Expressing in the Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.%柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬虎; 潘一山; 王少峰; 邹金美; 陈羡德; 林莹; 王玉玲; 蓝炎阳

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerning the MADS box gene family from the fruitlet (less than 5 days) and the yang leaf of two kinds of pomelo breeding (Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.) using the De novo transcriptomics method. The fruitlet and the yang leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (which was taken as mutant group)and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (which was taken as reference group)were taken as experiment materials, by RNA extraction, reverse transcription, sequencing and assembly Unigene sequences. The MADS box transcription factor family gene annotation results were retrieved from the Nr, Swiss Prot, KEGG and COG the four databases. Adopting digital gene expression label (DGE) technology, the gene transcription abundance in the sample was taken as RPKM value, that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparing the different of the RPKM value between the mutant group and reference group, with the duplication≥2. There were 28 MADS box genes were annotated from the fruitlet and the yang leaf of the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo. There were 25 MADS box genes expressed in the fruitlet from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (FE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (FL), and sixs of them were DEGs. Meanwhile, There were 27 MADS box genes expressed in the leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (LE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (LL), and sevens of them were DEGs. The 28 MADS box gene family was reported eighteens of them in Citrus clementina and twenties of them in Citrus sinensis, respectively, and fives of them have reported neither in Citrus clementina nor in Citrus sinensis, and have not found in the Citrus's other breeding.%以De novo转录组学方法分析柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因家族的基因.以特早熟龙柚(变异型)和琯溪蜜柚(参照型)嫩果(不超过5天)和新叶为材料,经过RNA提取、反转录、测序、组装得到Unigene序列. Unigene序列在 Nr、Swiss-Prot、KEGG 和 COG 四

  20. Comparação do fator de empilhamento sob diferentes condições para madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / A comparison of wood piling factor under different conditions for Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson dos Santos Lisboa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente trabalho tem por objetivo comparar os fatores de empilhamento obtidos em três métodos distintos de empilhamento: 1 empilhamento em cima do caminhão; 2 empilhamento mecânico no pátio da fábrica e 3 empilhamento manual no pátio da fábrica. Os dados empregados são originários de um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis, visando à produção de celulose e pertencente ao GRUPO LWART, situado no município de Lençóis Paulista, SP, cortado aos sete anos de idade através do sistema semi-mecanizado. Foram analisados dados provenientes de vinte pilhas de madeira, formadas por toras de 2,80 m de comprimento e diâmetro mínimo de 6,0 cm. O fator de empilhamento de cada pilha (FE foi obtido pela relação entre o volume da pilha em metros estéreos (st e o correspondente volume sólido em metros cúbicos (m³. O volume sólido (m³ foi obtido pelo método de Smalian. Para calcular o volume estéreo (st para três diferentes métodos de empilhamento foi utilizada uma régua graduada para medir a altura, a largura e o comprimento da pilha. Os três métodos de empilhamento foram comparados estatisticamente a partir de uma análise de variância, considerando um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde os métodos foram considerados tratamentos e as pilhas repetições. Na ocorrência de diferenças significativas entre tratamentos, o teste Tukey foi utilizado para comparar suas médias, considerando um nível de 5% de significância. A análise estatística indicou diferenças significativas entre o método de empilhamento manual ou tratamento 3, dos demais métodos, ou seja, método do empilhamento em cima do caminhão e método de empilhamento mecânico. Conclui-se então, que é errôneo aplicar um fator de empilhamento médio, se houver diferentes formas de empilhar a madeira.AbstractThe research objective has been to compare the wood piling factors obtained from three distinct methods: 1 piling up on the truck; 2 mechanical

  1. Mudanças da fertilidade do solo e crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido Changes in soil fertility and growth of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Rocha

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Antes da recomendação em larga escala de biossólido em plantações florestais, é preciso compreender seus efeitos no solo e na planta. Assim, a fertilidade do solo, o estado nutricional e o crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido foram avaliados em um experimento na Estação Experimental de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (SP, ESALQ/USP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove tratamentos: (1 Testemunha; (2 Adubação mineral; (3 5 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (4 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (5 10 t ha-1 de bios.; (6 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K + P; (7 15 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (8 20 t ha-1 de bios. + K, e (9 40 t ha-1 de bios. + K. Foram analisadas quimicamente amostras de solo (camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm e de folhas. A produção de madeira foi avaliada por meio da colheita e pesagem de árvores. Até 32 meses após a aplicação do biossólido, 36 meses pós-plantio, constataram-se aumentos do pH, dos teores de C orgânico, de P-resina e de Ca trocável nas três camadas, diretamente associados às doses de biossólido aplicadas. Os teores de S-SO4(2- e K trocável diminuíram 13 meses após a aplicação do biossólido e, 19 meses depois, os teores estavam aumentados. O Al trocável diminuiu com o aumento das doses de biossólido, nas três camadas amostradas. A aplicação de biossólido influiu positivamente na nutrição das plantas, proporcionando uma produção de madeira igual à obtida no tratamento que só recebeu adubação mineral (1,5 t ha-1 de calcário dolomítico e, em kg ha-1, 98 de N, 79,5 de P2O5, 165 de K2O, 1,3 de B e 1,2 de Zn, quando a dose de biossólido foi equivalente a 12 t ha-1.Before recommending biosolids at large scale for forest plantations it is necessary to have an ample understanding of its effects on soil and plant. Thus, it was evaluated the soil fertility, nutritional status and growth of a Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized

  2. 柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬虎[1; 潘一山[1; 王少峰[2; 邹金美[1; 陈羡德[1; 林莹[1; 王玉玲[1; 蓝炎阳[2

    2015-01-01

    以De novo转录组学方法分析柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因家族的基因.以特早熟龙柚(变异型)和琯溪蜜柚(参照型)嫩果(不超过5天)和新叶为材料,经过RNA提取、反转录、测序、组装得到Unigene序列.Unigene序列在Nr、Swiss-Prot、KEGG和COG四大数据库中进行比对,获得MADS box转录因子家族基因注释结果.采用数字基因表达标签(digital gene expression tag,DGE)技术,对样本中基因转录丰度以RPKM值表示,比较处理组和对照组的RPKM值,以倍性变化≥2确定差异表达基因(differentially expressed genes,DEGs).从特早熟龙柚和琯溪蜜柚嫩果和叶片中,总共注释到28个MADS box基因家族基因.在龙柚嫩果(FE)和蜜柚嫩果(FL)中表达的有25个,其中有6个属于差异表达基因.在龙柚叶片(LE)和蜜柚叶片(LL)中表达的有27个,其中有7个属于差异表达基因.注释到的28个MADS box基因家族基因在克莱门特柚(Citrus clementina)和中国甜橙(Citrus sinensis)报道过的分别有18个和20个,其中有5个基因既在中国甜橙和克莱门特柚都没有报道过,也没有发现在其它Citrus物种报道过.

  3. Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpa Pedro Nicolau

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos.

  4. 大鹅观草与蛇河披碱草属间杂种的细胞遗传学研究%Cytogenetic study on intergeneric hybrids between Roegneria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨财容; 张海琴; 沙莉娜; 周永红

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the genomic constitution of Roegneria grandis (2n=4x=28)and to provide cytological evi-dence for the taxonomic treatment of R .grandis ,artificial distant hybridization between R .grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis (2n=4x=28)was carried out.Three F1 hybrid plants were obtained successfully.The general mor-phological appearance of the intergeneric F1 hybrid was intermediate between the Roegneria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis .For estimation of pollen fertility study,pollen grains of hybrids were examined after staining in I2-IK solution.Pollen grains of parental species were highly fertile.The percentage of stained pollen grains of Roegeriagrandis reached 94.6%,and 90.5% pollen grains of Elymus wawawaiensis were fertile.Pollen grains of the hybrid between Roegeria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis were sterile.Chromosome pairing at meiosis metaphase I(MI) of Roegeria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis and their F1 hydrid were analyzed.Meiosis of the parental tetraploid species was quite regular with 14 bivalents.Most of them were ring bivalents.A low frequency of univalent(0.04/cell)was observed in Roegeria grandis .Chromosome pairing at meiosis metaphase I(MI)was observed in 83 MI cells in the F1 hybrid.Meiotic pairing in the F1 hybrid averaged 6.46 bivalents per cell,varying from 5 to 8.7 biva-lents occurred in 35.2% of the MI cells,42.59% of the MI cells had 6 bivalents,and 8 bivalents were observed in several MI cells.All the metaphase I cells contained unpaired chromosomes,ranging from 10 to 18,with a mean of 14.66 univalents per cell.0.14 trivalents per cell were observed.The meiotic configurations of the F1 hybrid were 14.66 I+6.46 II+0.14 III.The chiasmata per cell were 9.83 with C value of 0.35.The results were as follows:(1) Roegeria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis shared a homologous St genome.The other genome of Roegeria gran-dis was not St or H genome.The genome constitution of R .grandis was not StStg genome;(2)A low frequency of trivalents

  5. Mapping of QTLs related with wood quality and developmental characteristics in hybrids (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla) Mapeamento de QTLs para características de qualidade da madeira e crescimento em híbridos (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Barros Rocha; Everaldo Gonçalves de Barros; Cosme Damião Cruz; Antônio Marcos Rosado; Elza Fernandes de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed to characterize and identify QTLs for wood quality and growth traits in E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids. For this purpose a RAPD linkage map was developed for the hybrids (LOD=3 and r=0.40) containing 52 markers and 12 linkage groups. Traits related to wood quality and growth were evaluated in the QTL analyses. QTL analyses were performed using chi-square tests, single-marker, interval mapping and composite interval mapping analyses. All approaches led to the identifi...

  6. Padrões de miniestacas e sazonalidade na produção de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla S. T. Black Patterns of mini-cuttings and seasonality in seedlings production Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla Hybrid S. T. Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chaves Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes padrões de miniestacas no enraizamento e produção de mudas do híbrido do Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S.T. Black no verão e no inverno. Experimentos com cinco clones e 12 diferentes padrões de miniestacas foram conduzidos em duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno. A sobrevivência e enraizamento das miniestacas foram avaliados na saída da casa de vegetação e na saída da casa de sombra e, a pleno sol, a sobrevivência, a altura, o diâmetro do colo, o peso de massa seca da parte aérea e o da raiz. Os resultados indicaram que a manutenção das folhas é importante para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, e as folhas basais obtiveram maiores valores de enraizamento. Mudas produzidas no verão, utilizando miniestacas de 10 cm de tamanho, tiveram maior crescimento. A metodologia de não redução das folhas mostrou-se procedimento adequado para produção de mudas nas duas épocas do ano.The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of different patterns of mini-cuttigs on rooting and production of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S. T. Black hybrid in summer and winter. Experiments with five clones and 12 different patterns of mini-cuttings were conducted in two seasons (summer and winter. The survival and rooting were evaluated ate the output greenhouse and output of the shade and in full sun, survival, height, diameter, the dry weight of shoot and root. The results indicated that the maintenance of leaves is important for rooting mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S. T. Black hybrids, and the basal leaves had higher values of rooting. Seedlings produced in summer, using cuttings of 10 cm in size, had higher growth's methodology leaves no reduction procedure proved suitable for seedling production in both seasons.

  7. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium Biomassa e atividade microbiana da serapilheira durante o desenvolvimento inicial de plantios puros e mistos de Eucalyptus grandis e Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  8. Tree-ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) in central India and its relationship with rainfall and moisture index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somaru Ram; H P Borgaonkar; A B Sikder

    2008-10-01

    Tree-ring-width index chronologies of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.)from three sites in central India have been studied for their dendroclimatic potential.The existence of good correlation among the three site chronologies indicates the influence of common forcing factor to the tree growth of the region.Tree growth and climate relationship based on correlation analysis revealed the important contribution of moisture index and rainfall rather than the direct in fluence of the temperature on tree growth during different seasons.Significant positive relationship of moisture index and rainfall during the monsoon months as well as on the annual scale with tree-ring width variations over the region indicates the important role of moisture availability at the root zone.The results suggest that the teak tree-ring chronologies can be used as high resolution proxy for past precipitation and moisture level in the environment.

  9. Tree-ring variation in teak (Tectona grandis L.) from Allapalli, Maharashtra in relation to moisture and Palmer Drought Severity Index, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somaru Ram; H P Borgaonkar; A A Munot; A B Sikder

    2011-08-01

    We developed a ring-width chronology of teak (Tectona grandis L.) from a moisture stressed area in Maharashtra, India. Bootstrapped correlation analysis indicated that moisture index (MI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) showed better performance rather than same year rainfall over the region. Tree-ring variations were most correlated positively with PDSI during different seasons compared with MI. Significant strong positive correlation with MI, and negative association with temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET) were found during previous and current year post-monsoon (ON). This study shows that the moisture availability during the post-monsoon of the previous year has a significant role in the development of annual growth rings. The reconstructed previous year post-monsoon (−ON) moisture index for the period 1866–1996 indicates 3.5 and 29.3 years periodicities.

  10. Report on the Temporary Rearing Technique of Solen grandis Dunker%大竹蛏亲体暂养技术简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯和要; 彭作波; 林玉川; 王君霞

    2004-01-01

    通过对大竹蛏(Solen grandis Dunker)亲蛏(体长9~12 cm,体重45.76±6.78 g)从采捕运输到人工暂养培育的一系列试验工作,结果表明:亲蛏的挑选以体长9~13 cm、活泼健康、肥满度好的3龄个体为最佳.经7天试验,采用细沙作为底质进行亲蛏暂养的效果良好,成活率达98.5%,个体排卵量约300万粒;不铺任何底质暂养的亲蛏,成活率仅16.4%,不能正常排放精卵.

  11. Collection and Storage of Tectona grandis Pollen%柚木花粉收集与贮藏研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂华; 梁坤南; 林明平; 周再知; 马华明

    2012-01-01

    Anthesis pheology, pollen collection, viability determination and storage of Tectona grandis L. f. were introduced and studied,the results showed that pollen can be collected by water culture method and bagged method, the time for pollen collection of Indian provenances and Burma provenances were 9 to 11 o-clock and 11 to 13 o-clock,respectively. The pollen viability rose first and then decreased after anthesis,it have highest viability after anthesis 1. 5 h and no longer viable after 4. 5 h. The pollen viability decreased fast after collected and put in room temperature for wind to dry, it no longer viable after collected 2 h. The viability of pollen stored in 5 ℃ and - 15 ℃ rose first and then decreased, both of the pollen lost viability at 330 day. Both pollen germination rate and pollen tube length of pollen stored in 5 X decreased fast than that of - 15 ℃, pollen storage effect of - 15 ℃ was better than 5 ℃. Pollen stored in - 15 ℃. for 240 day can be used for controlled pollination among different teak provenances or different species of Tectona.%介绍了柚木开花生物学特性,开展了柚木花粉收集、活力测定、贮藏方法及其效果的研究.结果表明:柚木花粉收集可采用水培法和套袋法;不同种源收集花粉时间不同,印度种源和缅甸种源分别为09:~11:00时和11:00~13:00时;花开放后,花粉活力是先升后降,1.5h后花粉活力最强,4.5h后花粉即失去萌发力;随着贮藏时间的延长,5℃和-15℃干燥贮藏花粉的活力逐渐下降,贮藏到330 d,5℃和- 15℃的花粉都失去萌发力;在整个过程中,5℃的花粉萌发率和花粉管长度都比-15℃下降速度快;-15℃柚木花粉的贮藏效果优于5℃;-15℃干燥贮藏240d的柚木花粉,可满足当年柚木花期不同的种源间或柚木属不同种间人工杂交授粉.

  12. 大针茅和贝加尔针茅营养生长和生殖生长特性分析%Analysis of reproductive and nutritive growth characteristics of Stipa grandis and Stipa baicalensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白丹; 张卓; 周婵; 杨允菲

    2011-01-01

    Quantity characteristics of reproductive and nutritive growth of Stipa grandis and S. baicalensis were studied in the dominant stipa population of Hulunber prairie with random sampling method. The results showed that the variation coefficient of vegetative and reproductive characteristics ranged from 6.9 % to 77.6% for S. grandis and S. baicalensis respectively. The indices of sexual reproduction characteristics of S. baicalensis such as number of spikelet per spike, number of floret per spike, spike weight, the grain number per panicle, seed weight per spike, reproductive allocation II , and nutritive growth characteristics such as plant weight, stream weight,scabbard weight,total leaf weight were greater than those of S. grandis. And these indices were 1. 056 to 4. 327 times more than those of S. grandis. Variance analysis indicated that nutritive and reproductive characteristics were significantly different between S. grandis and S. baicalensis. S. baicalensis inputted more resources to sexual reproduction and vegetative growth than S. grandis. And S. baicalensis has stronger capability of vegetative growth and sexual reproduction to ensure the growth and propagation.%在呼伦贝尔草原观测试验站对针茅优势种群采用随机取样法进行了大针茅和贝加尔针茅生殖分蘖株的营养生长和生殖生长的数量特征研究。结果表明,大针茅和贝加尔针茅营养和生殖生长特性指标的变异系数变化为6.90%~77.60%;贝加尔针茅有性生殖特征,以及营养生长特征,分别是它的1.056-4.327倍;方差分析表明,贝加尔针茅与大针茅的营养和生殖生长特性之间差异显著或极显著。贝加尔针茅投入到有性生殖和营养生长的资源大于大针茅,具有更强的营养生长和有性生殖的能力,保证植株的正常生长和繁殖。

  13. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae Application of an alternative technique for physical soil management in cultivation of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of growth of Eucalyptus grandis non-regularization when subjected to the ground. Relying on "Optical Chaos Theory" and starting from the assumption that the reforested

  14. Laboratory decomposition of Dalbergia nigra all. ex. benth and Eucalyptus grandis w.hill ex. maiden leaves in forest and eucalypt plantation soils Decomposição em laboratório de folhas de Dalbergia nigra e de Eucalyptus grandis em terra de mata e de eucaliptal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. P. Rezende

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the decomposition of D. nigra and E. grandis leaves under laboratory conditions when incubated in soils from Atlantic Forest and from a 40-year-old eucalypt plantation for a year. The obtained values of pH in forest and eucalypt plantation soils were 5.61 and 4.47 and for aluminum 0.32 and 1.89mEqx100, respectively. A great number of microorganisms (total fungi, phosphate solubilising and cellulolytic organisms were found in forest soil. Litterbag study revealed a higher mass loss of the leaves in forest soil in the first four months (c. 30%. In the eucalypt plantation soils loss was observed only after eight months (c. 40%. The initial contents of N and P were greater in D. nigra than in E. grandis leaves, although lignin and cellulose contents were similar. The C/N ratio was higher in E. grandis indicating that its degradation could be slower. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in the decay rates (k among the treatments. Phosphorus, lignina and cellulose were lost at the end of the experiment in all treatments. The results show the differences between decomposition of both species and the influence of forest and eucalypt plantation soils in the decomposition process.O objetivo foi acompanhar a decomposição de folhas de D. nigra e de E. grandis em laboratório, enterradas por 12 meses, em solo de Mata Atlântica e de eucaliptal com 40 anos de plantio. Os valores de pH obtidos para os solos de mata e de eucaliptal foram 5,61 e 4,47 e de alumínio 0,32 e 1,89mEqx100, respectivamente. Um grande número de microrganismos (fungos totais, solubilizadores de fosfato e de celulolíticos foram encontrados no solo de mata. Uma perda de massa significativa foi observada após 4 meses de decomposição nas folhas de ambas espécies no solo de mata (30%, enquanto em solo de eucaliptal esta perda foi observada somente após 8 meses (40%. O conteúdo inicial de N e P em folhas de D. nigra é maior do que nas de

  15. Níveis de sombreamento na produção e desenvolvimento de mudas Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden Shading levels on production and development of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden seedlings Los niveles de sombra en la producción de plántulas y el desarrollo de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Fereira Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de los niveles de sombra en las plántulas de Eucalyptus grandis. Las plántulas fueron sometidas a los siguientes tratamientos: 0%, 18%, 30%, 50% y 70% de atenuación de la radiación solar a través de telas de color negro. El experimento se llevó a cabo en los meses de otoño de 2009 en la en lo vivero municipal de la ciudad de Catanduvas- PR durante un período de 90 días. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. La repicage de las plántulas de la semilleira para los tubetes ocurrió treinta días después de la siembra. A los 90 días se evaluó: altura de la parte aérea de las plantas, el número de hojas por planta, el diámetro del cuello, longitud de la raíz, peso fresco y seco de la hoja y cuello de la raíz. Para todas las variables dendrométricas evaluadas el efecto de los tratamientos fue significativo. Para la altura de la parte aérea, los tratamientos de 30 y 50% de sombra fueron superiores a los demás. Ya para el diámetro del cuello y el número de hojas, el tratamiento con pleno sol presento los valores más altos (0,20 y 15,2 g de hojas, respectivamente. Para la variable masa fresca y seca de hojas, cuello y de la raíz el tratamiento con 30% de sombra fue estadísticamente superior a los demás. La atenuación del 30% de la radiación solar ha proporcionado características dendométricas superiores de las plántulas a las variables analizadas para E. grandis.

    The goal of the work was to assess the influence of shading levels on seedling production of Eucalyptus grandis. The seedlings have been subjected to treatments: 0%; 18%; 30%; 50% and 70% attenuation of solar radiation through screens of polyolefins black coloring. The experiment was performed in autumn 2009 in the city hotbed of Catanduvas – PR, during a period of 90 days. The experiment

  16. CONDUTÂNCIA ESTOMÁTICA DE EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA E E. GRANDIS, EM RESPOSTA A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ÁGUA NO SOLO E DE CONVIVÊNCIA COM BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA WILSON DA; SEDIYAMA TOCIO; SILVA ANTÔNIO ALBERTO DA; FERREIRA FRANCISCO AFFONSO

    1998-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da interferência de Brachiaria brizantha sobre a condutância estomática (gs) de mudas de Eucalyptus citriodora e E. grandis, cultivadas em solos com diferentes níveis de água, em condições de casa de vegetação, entre dezembro de 1995 e fevereiro de 1996. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (2 x 3 x 4): duas espécies de eucalipto (E. citriodora e E. grandis), três níveis de água (20, 23 e 26%) e quatro populações d...

  17. 尾巨桉液流特征分析%Analysis on sap flow characteristics of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翠鸣; 黄玉清; 顾大形; 赵平; 张德楠; 姚月锋

    2016-01-01

    Large number of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis plantations have been planted in the southern area of Chi-na, especially in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in the recent years. The influence of water use efficiency in sus-tainable forest development and water resources management has been receiving increasing attention. Therefore, under- standing the water use characteristics is important. The Granier thermal dissipation probe method ( TDP ) is commonly used to monitor tree trunk flow. The sap flow density ( SFD) was monitored in four years E. urophylla × E. grandis plan-tation for one and a half years by Granier TDP at Guangxi Huangmian forest. The change in regularity of SFD, the SFD in trees of different diameters at breast height and the relationship between the SFD and the environmental factors were studied. The results showed that average daily SFD was 830. 1 L . m-2 . d-1 , and the maximum value did not exceed 2 000 L.m-2 .d-1 , when compared with similar studies, these results were relatively low. Because tree trunk was the main part of the plant for water transport, it was necessary to analyze the tree trunk sap flow density( SFD) change at about different diameters at breast height of E. urophylla × E. grandis. There was a positive correlation between SFD and diameter. The SFD was similar when the DBH (diameter at breast height) were in the same diameter class. The SFD varied from tree to tree with different values of maximum and minimum SFD ( 1 300 L . m-2 . d-1 at most ) . This was mainly caused by the different water absorbing capacities of trees. Many studies showed that photosynthetic active radia-tion and vapor pressure deficit( VPD) were the main factors of tree canopy transpiration. The SFD and VPD, photosyn-thetic active radiation ( PAR) displayed similar trend over the study period and exhibited a unimodal curve. The value of SFD was higher in summer and fall, and lower in spring and winter. The relation between SFD and PAR showed signifi

  18. 香榧坚果生物活性成分与抗氧化研究进展%Recent Advances in Research on Bioactive Compounds and Anfioxidant Activity of Torreya grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴飞; 郜海燕; 陈杭君; 房祥军; 葛林梅

    2012-01-01

    香榧为浙江著名的坚果,其富含多种生物活性成分,诸如油脂、二萜类、多酚类等都具有一定的药用及生物活性。本文综述了香榧的生物活性成分,并探讨其与氧化劣变之间的关系,可为更好的贮存坚果提供借鉴,也为进一步发展利用香榧资源提供参考。%Torreya grandis is a conifer of the Cephalotaxaceae family. It is found only in China, mostly in Zhejiang Province. The seed of Torreya grandis, known as 'Xiangfei', is edible and has been recognized as a valuable tree nut for their high content of various medical and biological active compounds, such as essential fatty acids, polyphenols and diterpenoids. Here we review bioactive compounds in the seeds and discuss their association with oxidative deteriorations during storage with the purpose to provide some reference for better storage and utilization of Torreya grandis seeds.

  19. Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

  20. Somatic embryogenesis of Torreya grandis 'Merrillii'%香榧体细胞胚发生的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚进; 黄坚钦; 胡恒康; 裘林艳; 朱旻华; 张启香

    2013-01-01

    以香榧Torreya grandis‘Merrillii’胚为外植体,研究了基本培养基、复合添加物、碳源以及植物生长调节物质对愈合组织形成的影响,筛选出胚性愈合组织诱导和增殖的适宜条件,并初步进行了体细胞胚的诱导与萌发试验.结果表明:Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH)是最佳基本培养基,碳源以蔗糖最好,在SH中添加谷氨酰胺,愈合组织诱导率显著高于其他处理,达50.8%;低浓度的萘乙酸(NAA)或2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-D)能够促进愈合组织的诱导,NAA的促进作用比2,4-D明显,当NAA的质量浓度为0.1 mg·L-1时,愈合诱导率显著高于其他处理,达60.1%;SH+0.1 mg.L-1 NAA+30 g·L-1蔗糖是愈合组织形成的最佳条件,SH+0.05 mg.L-1 NAA+30 g·L-1蔗糖为胚性愈合组织形成和增殖的最适宜培养基;胚性愈合组织在添加有脱落酸(ABA)和聚乙二醇(PEG) 6000的SH培养基上,可形成体胚,以1/2SH作为萌发培养基,体胚在1 200 lx光照下的萌发效果比黑暗条件下好.%To establish somatic embryogenesis protocols for Torreya grandis 'Merrillii', immature embryos were used as explants. The effects of different basal mediums (SH, MS, B5), organic additives (glutamine (Glu), casein hydrolysate (CH), myo-inositol), carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, maltose), and plant growth regulators (PGRs) (N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) , Kinetin (KT) , 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) orBA, KT, a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for the initiation of primary callus were tested. Optimal PGRs for induction and proliferation of embryogenic tissue were determined, and a study on somatic embryo induction (SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0.25 mg·L-1 2,4-D, SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 2,4-D and SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 NAA respectively) and germination (SH supplemented with ABA or PEG) was carried out. Results showed that callus initiation frequency for SH supplemented with Glu was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than

  1. Utilização de águas residuárias provenientes do tratamento biológico de esgotos domésticos na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex. maiden Use of biologically treated wastewater in Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex. maiden seedling production by continuum sub irrigation

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    Danielle Camargo Celentano Augusto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a viabilidade do uso de águas residuárias provenientes de um sistema biológico de tratamento de esgotos domésticos como alternativa à fertirrigação convencional de viveiros florestais, visando à produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis via subirrigação contínua. As variáveis avaliadas foram: altura, diâmetro do coleto, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz, área foliar, razão raiz/parte aérea e concentração nutricional foliar. O desenvolvimento das plantas, em geral, foi superior no tratamento convencional com adubos minerais. A razão raiz/parte aérea foi favorecida no tratamento com água residuária. Os resultados indicaram que a água residuária pode ser utilizada na fertirrigação de viveiros para a produção do Eucalyptus grandis, pois todas as plantas cresceram, sem deficiência ou toxidez aparente. Entretanto, constatou-se que essas mudas necessitavam de um maior tempo no viveiro, em comparação com as produzidas com fertilizantes minerais.This work studied the effect of treated domestic wastewater derived from a biological treatment system as an alternative to nursery conventional fertirrigation for Eucalyptus grandis seedling production. The evaluated variables were: height, basal diameter, shoot and roots dry weight, plant total leaf area, shoot/root ratio and leaf nutritional status of the seedlings. Greater development of seedlings was found when mineral fertilizers were used, but root/shoot ratio was greater when wastewater was used. The results showed that wastewater can be used as an alternative for conventional mineral fertirrigation, considering that all plants grew, without showing any nutritional deficiency or toxicity symptoms. Seedlings fertirrigated with wastewater, however, spend more time in the nursery, when compared to those produced with mineral fertilizers.

  2. Grandi e piccoli eventi nelle città di mare per mutamenti urbani sostenibili: i casi studio di Lorient e Valencia

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    Massimo Clemente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In generale, i grandi eventi sono considerati dalle città come la possibilità di realizzare nuove architetture e infrastrutture, per migliorare gli spazi pubblici e dare risonanza internazionale alla città stessa. In molte città contemporanee, la ristrutturazione economica e la riqualificazione urbana posto gli eventi al centro delle strategie di cambiamento.Spesso, tuttavia, questi interventi richiedono un tempo molto breve e investimenti elevati, che non sempre hanno un effetto duraturo nel tempo, con edifici e spazi che, dopo l'evento, si trasformano in spazi pubblici inutilizzati o edifici che devono essere riqualificati.Le città costiere rappresentano un campo privilegiato di analisi per approfondire le dinamiche dei processi di sviluppo e di rigenerazione connessi ad eventi.Alcune città hanno potenziato la propria identità marittima sviluppando attività legate alla vela, eventi sportivi velici e la nautica da diporto, promuovendo la crescita sociale ed economica, nonché la riqualificazione delle aree dismesse. Il recupero di questa identità è il punto di partenza per migliorare la qualità urbana e attrarre grandi eventi, sviluppando la competitività in un circolo virtuoso.L'immagine di queste città è migliorata, a livello locale, nazionale e internazionale, promuovendo processi di riqualificazione che hanno coinvolto i responsabili politici, gli utenti della città e gli stakeolders.Nei casi di successo, i grandi e i piccoli eventi rappresentano tessere di un mosaico più ampio, una visione della città fondata sulla identità marittima e il progetto di riqualificazione del waterfront è stato in grado di rafforzare le relazioni con le aree urbane esistenti.Il saggio propone due casi di studio europei, le città di Lorient e Valencia, mettendo in evidenza il ruolo della pianificazione a lungo termine nei processi di rigenerazione.La città di Lorient, in linea con la sua storia, ha iniziato un processo di rigenerazione

  3. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of the Extracts and Chemical Constituents of an Endemic Turkish Plant, Salsola grandis

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    Nurgün Küçükboyacı

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salsola is one of the largest and most important genera in the family Chenopodiaceae. Salsola species are used for their anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anthelmintic and antipruritic effects and also as diuretic in traditional medicines worldwide. The aim of the present study is to assess the activity potential of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds from the aerial parts of and Salsola grandis, an endemic species in Turkey in a scientific platform. The effects of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds were investigated using in vivo experimental models of inflammation and pain in mice, and also total phenolic content of the plant was determined. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced paw edema and for the assessment of antinociceptive activity, p-benzoquinone-induced nociception tests in mice were employed. The crude ethanol extract of the plant was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts, namely n-hexane, CHCl 3, EtOAc, n-BuOH and remaining water subextracts. Further studies were carried out on the bioactive n -BuOH subextract. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures from active fraction , ten flavonoids, i sorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside(1, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2,quercetin-3-O-metylether (3,tiliroside (4, isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide (5, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6,quercetin-3-O-galactoside (7, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (8,quercetin (9 and manghaslin (10, and two oleanane-type saponins, momordin II b (11 andmomordin II c (12, and one amino acid derivative compound, N-acetyltryptophan (13 were isolated, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of 1 , 4, 6, 7 and 12 were investigated firstly in this study, and 4 and 7 were found to have the most potent inhibitory activity in used models. The present study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive

  4. Funções de afilamento não segmentadas e segmentadas para Tectona grandis na região centro-sul matogrossense Non-segmented and segmented taper models to Tectona grandis in center-southern region of Mato Grosso

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    Sidney Fernando Caldeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a acurácia dos modelos polinomiais não segmentados do quinto grau e de Hradetzky de 1976 e os segmentados de Max e Burkhart de1976 e Clark et al. de 1991, na estimativa dos diâmetros ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f., com ajustes para o conjunto total dos dados e por classe de diâmetro, em um povoamento com 16 anos, na região centro- sul matogrossense. A base de dados foi composta por 114 árvores, cubadas pela metodologia de Hohenadl modificada e distribuídas em classes de diâmetro. O ajuste dos modelos foi avaliado em função do coeficiente de determinação corrigido, erro padrão da estimativa e pela distribuição dos resíduos em porcentagem. A acuracidade dos modelos ao longo do fuste foi avaliada pelo desvio, desvio padrão das diferenças, somatório de quadrado dos resíduos relativos e a porcentagem dos resíduos. A Equação de Hradetzky foi a que apresentou o melhor ajuste para estimar os diâmetros ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis tanto para o conjunto total dos dados quanto para as classes de diâmetro com os menores valores nas estatísticas auxiliares, exceto na Classe 3, onde a equação selecionada foi a de Clark et al. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the non-segmented polynomial models of Fifth degree and Hradetzky from 1976 and the segmented models of Max and Burkhart from 1976 and Clark et al. from 1991, in estimating diameters along the stem of Tectona grandis L.f., with adjustments for the full set of data and by diameter class in a 16 years old stand in the center–southern region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The database consisted of 114 trees, scaled by the modified Hohenadl method and distributed in diameter classes. The models adjustments were evaluated according to the adjusted coefficient of determination, standard eError of estimate and distribution of residuals. The accuracy of the models along the stem was evaluated by deviation

  5. Influência da idade e da posição ao longo do tronco na composição química da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden Influence of age and position along the trunk on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood

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    José de Castro Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou a variação da composição química na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos, proveniente de talhões comerciais. As amostras foram coletadas de tr��s discos, retirados da base e das extremidades das duas primeiras toras, de 3 m cada uma, de 16 árvores (quatro para cada idade, totalizando 48 discos. Os valores médios dos teores de holocelulose, lignina e extrativos foram de 69, 27 e 4%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os teores de extrativos e lignina aumentaram com a idade, com maiores concentrações nos discos próximos da base; verificou-se, também, que o teor de holocelulose diminuiu com a idade, com maiores concentrações nos discos retirados nas regiões superiores do tronco.The objective of this work was to study the chemical composition variation of the Eucalyptus grandis wood, of four different ages (10,14,20 and 25 years, from commercial stands. The samples were removed from three disks taken from the base and top of the first two 3 m logs, from sixteen trees (four per age, totalizing fourty-eight discs. The mean values of holocellulose, lignin and extractive contents were 69, 27 and 4%, respectively. The extractive and lignin contents increased with age, with greater concentrations near the base; the holocellulose content also decreased with age with greater concentrations in discs removed from the upper parts of the trunk.

  6. Albucacrispa and A. grandis (Hyacinthaceae: Omithogaloideae, two new species of subgenus Albuca, the rediscovery of A. albucoides (sub­ genus Osmyne, and the identity of A. reflexa

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    J. C. Manning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Albuca crispa is a new species of section Falconera series Trianthera with crispulate leaves from the Great Karoo, known  at least since 1947 but overlooked until now. A second new species. A grandis. from the southwestern Cape was previously included in  A. fragrans Jacq. (section  Falconera series  Falconera. It is a robust species that flowers in winter and early spring and the styles are rugulose with ± isodiametric epidermal cells, unlike typical  A. fragrans which is a more slender species flowering in early summer and with derived, smooth styles with fusiform epidermal cells. The recent discovery of a flowering population matching the type of A. albucoides (Aiton J.C.Manning & Goldblatt (subgenus Osmyne allows for a full description and illustration of this poorly know n and taxonomically neglected species that has often been included in A. suaveolens (Jacq. J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. Lastly, examination of the type  of A. reflexa Krause & Dinter from Namibia shows it to be conspecific w ith Drimia indica (Roxb. Jessop.

  7. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla NA QUALIDADE DA POLPA BRANQUEADA

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    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  8. Espécies de Pisolitus sp. na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden em solo arenoso.

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    Robson Andreazza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a ação de isolados de fungos ectomicorrízicos nativos de São Francisco de Assis, na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, em solo arenoso, na presença de dois níveis de fósforo. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação num bifatorial (4 x 2 x 3, três tratamentos de fungos ectomicorrízicos ( FSE- S, F1-RS e Pt Silv.1 e uma testemunha, dois níveis de fósforo (natural ou existente no solo (8 mg.kg-1 e adição de 30 mg.kg-1 de fósforo, em três repetições. Avaliaram-se a massa verde da parte aérea e radicial, massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, diâmetro do colo, comprimento e área superficial específica radicial, colonização micorrízica e teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. A adição de fungos ectomicorrízicos nativos na produção de mudas apresentou resultados melhores do que os demais tratamentos aplicados, em solo arenoso.

  9. Age trends and correlations of growth and wood properties in clone of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis in Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shi-jun; XU Jian-min; LI Guang-you; Du Zhi-hu; LU Zhao-hua; LI Bao-qi

    2012-01-01

    We assessed growth traits and wood properties of DH32-29,a clone of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis,at age of two to six years in Guangdong in China.Analysis of variance of studied traits showed that there were significant differences (1% level) on all studied traits among ages except for wood basic density.Analysis of age trends of growth traits and wood properties revealed that rotation length of DH32-29 should be more than six years or longer.Phenotypic correlations among traits at individual ages indicated that correlations between growth traits were strongly positive.There was significant change in relationship between growth and wood basic density with increasing age,ranging from -0.03 to -0.54 at 2 and 5 year and 0.003 to 0.3 at 3,4 and 6 year.Correlations between Pilodyn pin penetration and basic density measured on increment cores showed that Pilodyn could rank or group genotypes or sites into density classes,but failure to predict individual tree and individual clone.

  10. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation. PMID:24519224

  11. Efeito da vaporização de toras na redução dos defeitos associados a tensões de crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fred Willians Calonego

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate log steaming effect on the reduction of defects associated with residual growth stress of Eucalyptus grandis wood. There were used logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm, from the Horto Florestal, Manduri, São Paulo. Half of the logs was steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity. Subsequently, the logs were live sawn and the defects resulting from the growth stresses in logs of various diameter were measured. The results indicate that log steaming provided the release of a great part of the growth stresses, without eliminating them completely, showing, nevertheless, that this treatment is feasible and advisable for growth stress relief; the boards coming from heated logs of 20 to <25 cm presented, in general, larger defect reduction, showing that the smaller the log diameter the higher the efficiency of steam treatment at 90ºC of temperature during 20 hours.

  12. Morphological parameters and genetic diversity of progenies from seed production areas and unimproved stands of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Lyngdoh; Geeta Joshi; G. Ravikanth; R. Vasudeva; R. Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    We compared morphological and genetic attributes of prog-eny obtained from three seed production areas (SPAs) and three corre-sponding unimproved stands (UIS) of teak (Tectona grandis L.f) at three broad teak growing regions in the state of Karnataka, India. In general, seed morphological parameters such as seed weight, seed size and seed emptiness were significantly superior in SPAs compared to UISs. Seed germination percentage was also higher in seeds from SPAs. Seedling performance measured at two monthly intervals for six months was ob-served to be superior in SPAs at two of the three regions compared. Although the genetic diversity of progeny of SPAs was lower than UIS at all regions, the values were moderately high. Germination percent was positively correlated with fruit weight and kernel weight per seed, while diversity indices were negatively correlated with fruit weight, fruit di-ameter and kernel weight per seed. SPAs proved important as a source of moderately improved planting material with no severe threat to the ge-netic diversity of future plantations.

  13. The tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) subfamily of Eucalyptus grandis: Characterization of EgTIP2, a root-specific and osmotic stress-responsive gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcela I; Bravo, Juliana P; Sassaki, Flávio T; Severino, Fábio E; Maia, Ivan G

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins have important roles in various physiological processes in plants, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, a gene encoding a root-specific tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) from Eucalyptus grandis (named EgTIP2) was investigated. The root-specific expression of EgTIP2 was validated over a panel of five eucalyptus organ/tissues. In eucalyptus roots, EgTIP2 expression was significantly induced by osmotic stress imposed by PEG treatment. Histochemical analysis of transgenic tobacco lines (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) harboring an EgTIP2 promoter:GUS reporter cassette revealed major GUS staining in the vasculature and in root tips. Consistent with its osmotic-stress inducible expression in eucalyptus, EgTIP2 promoter activity was up-regulated by mannitol treatment, but was down-regulated by abscisic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that EgTIP2 might be involved in eucalyptus response to drought. Additional searches in the eucalyptus genome revealed the presence of four additional putative TIP coding genes, which could be individually assigned to the classical TIP1-5 groups.

  14. Qualidade e rendimento do carvão vegetal de um clone híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

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    Maíra Reis de Assis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the quality and yields of the charcoal of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clone commercially named GG100 for use in iron industry at different ages, plantation sites and spacing. The wood was carbonized in a laboratorial electric furnace (muffle furnace at a heating rate of 1.67 ºC min-1 until the final temperature of 450 ºC, remaining stabilized for 30 min. The gravimetric yield in charcoal, pyroligneous extract, non condensable gases and insoluble tar, proximate and elemental chemical composition, relative apparent density and higher heating value of the charcoal were determined. In general, the charcoal evaluated may be considered homogeneous based on chemical and physical aspects and can be used in the steel sector. The apparent relative density allowed the charcoal samples differentiation produced by the same pyrolysis condition. The results obtained suggest that the density of the charcoal is highly influenced by the wood origin. It was observed that higher values of higher heating values are positively related with carbon content and negatively related with oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and with gravimetric yield in charcoal.

  15. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  16. Effect of thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of wood from Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Moura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment (thermal rectification is a process in which technological properties of wood are modified using thermal energy, the result of which is often value-added wood. Thermally treated wood takes on similar color shades to tropical woods and offers considerable resistance to destructive microorganisms and climate action, in addition to having high dimensional stability and low hygroscopicity. Wood samples of Eucalyptus grandis were subjected to various thermal treatments, as performed in presence (140ºC; 160ºC; 180ºC or in absence of oxygen (160ºC; 180ºC; 200ºC inside a thermal treatment chamber, and then studied as to their chemical characteristics. Increasing the maximum treatment temperatures led to a reduction in the holocellulose content of samples as a result of the degradation and volatilization of hemicelluloses, also leading to an increase in the relative lignin content. Except for glucose, all monosaccharide levels were found to decrease in samples after the thermal treatment at a maximum temperature of 200ºC. The thermal treatment above 160ºC led to increased levels of total extractives in the wood samples, probably ascribed to the emergence of low molecular weight substances as a result of thermal degradation. Overall, it was not possible to clearly determine the effect of presence or absence of oxygen in the air during thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of the relevant wood samples.

  17. Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynen, Martina; Fick, Jerker; Jonsson, Micael; Klaminder, Jonatan; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems. PMID:26762222

  18. Stomatal Conductance and Chlorophyll Characteristics and Their Relationship with Yield of Some Cocoa Clones Under Tectona grandis, Leucaena sp., and Cassia surattensis.

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    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An optimum physiological condition will support high yield and quality of cocoa production. The research was aimed to study the effects of stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content related to cocoa production under three shade regimes.This research was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station, elevation of 45 m above sea level with D climate type based on Schmidt & Fergusson. Cocoa trees which were planted in 1994 at a spacing of 3 X 3 m were used in the study planted by using split plot design. The shade tree species were teak (Tectona grandis, krete (Cassiasurattensis, and lamtoro (Leucaena sp. as the main plots, and cocoa clones of Sulawesi 01,Sulawesi 02, KKM 22 and KW 165 as sub plots. This study showed that there was interaction between cocoa clone and shade species for stomatal conductance where stomatal diffusive resistance of KKM 22 was the best under Leucaena sp.and Cassiasurattensis with the values of 1.38 and 1.34 s.cm -1, respectively. The highest chlorophyll content, stomatal index and transpiration values was under Leucaena sp. shade. There was positive correlation between chlorophyll content and transpiration with pod yield of cocoa. The highest yield and the lowest bean count wereobtainedon Sulawesi 01 clone under Leucaenasp. shade.Keywords: stomatal conductance, transpiration, diffusive resistance, shades trees, clones,pod yield

  19. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Brasília e no Laboratório de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Brasília, DF. Foram estudadas duas espécies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confecção de peças mobiliárias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades físicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecânicas (flexão estática e dureza extremamente positivas para a indústria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e máquinas, além de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar ótima aceitação do móvel fabricado com a espécie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades físicas e mecânicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta características desejadas para indústria moveleira. A sua coloração cinza oliva é uma opção para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espécie deverão ser tomados durante operações com máquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricação de piso.

  20. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.

  1. Analyses on population pattern and endangered causes of endangered species Manglietia grandis Hu et Cheng%濒危植物大果木莲种群格局及濒危原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少瑜; 付玉嫔; 吴涛; 司马永康; 郝佳波; 韩燕

    2012-01-01

    采用径级结构代替年龄结构以及方差均值比率法对木兰科(Magnoliaceae)木莲属(Manglietia Bl.)濒危植物大果木莲(Manglietia grandis Hu et Cheng)种群的年龄结构和种群格局进行了研究,并编制了大果木莲种群的特定时间生命表和存活曲线;结合生殖生物学特征以及遗传多样性研究结果,分析了导致大果木莲濒危的主要原因.根据株高和胸径可分别将大果木莲种群的年龄结构分为5级、高度结构分为6级;在大果木莲的5个年龄结构分级中,成年个体较多,幼年个体较少;其高度结构完整,个体高度主要在20 m以下.种群的方差均值比率为0.838 3,其空间分布格局属于随机分布.根据特定时间生命表可将大果木莲种群的发育分为3个阶段:幼树阶段(年龄级为Ⅱ~Ⅲ级)、成树阶段(年龄级为Ⅲ~Ⅳ级)、老树阶段(年龄级为Ⅳ~Ⅴ级),其中成树阶段个体死亡率最低.大果木莲种群存活曲线接近Deevey Ⅰ型,属于衰退型种群.种群自我更新能力差、种子生产力低下、有性生殖困难、生境片断化导致的基因流受限以及人为干扰是大果木莲濒危的主要原因.针对大果木莲濒危现状和致危原因,提出了相应的保护对策和建议.%Using the way of diameter structure instead of age structure and variance/mean ratio method, the age structure and population pattern of the endangered species Manglietia grandis Hu et Cheng belonging to Manglietia Bl. in Magnoliaceae were studied, and the time-specific life table and survival curve of the species was created. And combining with research results of propagation and genetic diversity, the main endangered causes were analyzed. According to tree height and diameter of breath height, age structure of M. grandis population is divided into five classes and its height structure into six classes. There are more adults and less young trees in five age classes. The height structure of M

  2. Utilização da madeira comercial do hibrido de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na confecção de vigas laminadas coladas

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Ingrid Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de produzir e avaliar o comportamento de vigas laminadas coladas horizontalmente, confeccionadas a partir de tábuas obtidas de madeira comercial de dois clones híbridos de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake x Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, provenientes de plantios do Estado de São Paulo. Essas tábuas foram classificadas de forma mecânica em ensaio de flexão estática não-destrutivo. Algumas propriedades de resistência mecânica e rigidez das tábuas fora...

  3. Influence of a step-change in metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn) on metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning in a freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis: A long-term transplantation experiment between lakes with contrasting ambient metal levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bonneris, Emmanuelle [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Bayer S.A.S., Bayer CropScience, 16 Rue Jean-Marie Leclair, CP 90106, F 69266 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Michaud, Annick [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Direction des Évaluations environnementales, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 675, boul. René-Lévesque Est, 6e étage, Québec, QC G1R 5V7 (Canada); Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette [Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We transferred freshwater bivalves from a reference lake to a Cd and Zn contaminated lake. ? Changes in metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning were followed over time (up to 860 d). ? Metal detoxification strategies differed between target organs (gills vs. digestive gland). ? The ability to handle Cd is inherent in P. grandis, not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation. -- Abstract: The objective of the present field experiment was to identify detoxification responses in the gills and digestive gland of a freshwater unionid bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, subjected to a step-change in metal exposure. Adult bivalves were transferred from a reference site (Lake Opasatica) and a metal-contaminated lake (Lake Héva) to a second contaminated lake (Lake Vaudray) in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Changes in organ metal concentrations, in the subcellular distribution of metals and in metallothionein concentrations were followed over time (t = 0, 132, (400) and 860 days). At each collection time and for each bivalve, the gills and digestive gland were excised and gently homogenized; six sub-cellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation and analyzed for their Cd, Cu and Zn content, and metallothionein was quantified independently. Metal detoxification strategies were shown to differ between target organs: in the gills, incoming metals were sequestered largely in the granules, whereas in the digestive gland the same metals primarily accumulated in the cytosol, in the metallothionein-like protein fraction. These metal-handling strategies, as employed by the metal-naïve bivalves originating in the reference lake, closely resemble those identified in free-living P. grandis chronically exposed in the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that the ability to handle incoming metals (Cd in particular) is inherent in P. grandis and is not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation of the bivalve to metal-contaminated environments. The

  4. Gestión de la fertilidad de suelos y la nutrición de plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) en América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Moya, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    La teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) ha sido tradicionalmente considerada como una madera preciosa en los países del SE Asiático, de donde es originaria, pero durante las últimas décadas ha alcanzado especial relevancia en el sector internacional de las maderas tropicales duras de buena calidad. La especie ha sido ampliamente establecida en América Central, donde tiene una gran importancia socioeconómica, tanto por el impacto de las grandes empresas multinacionales que gestionan grandes plantacione...

  5. CONDUTÂNCIA ESTOMÁTICA DE EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA E E. GRANDIS, EM RESPOSTA A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ÁGUA NO SOLO E DE CONVIVÊNCIA COM BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA WILSON DA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da interferência de Brachiaria brizantha sobre a condutância estomática (gs de mudas de Eucalyptus citriodora e E. grandis, cultivadas em solos com diferentes níveis de água, em condições de casa de vegetação, entre dezembro de 1995 e fevereiro de 1996. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (2 x 3 x 4: duas espécies de eucalipto (E. citriodora e E. grandis, três níveis de água (20, 23 e 26% e quatro populações de B. brizantha (zero, uma, duas e três plantas por vaso. O nível de água nos vasos foi mantido praticamente constante, até a última avaliação do experimento, aos 70 dias após o transplante das mudas, por microtensiômetro e pesagens diárias, com reposições de água evapotranspirada. A mensuração da condutância estomática foi realizada com um analisador de gás infravermelho (IRGA. A presença de B. brizantha cultivada em um mesmo vaso com E. citriodora e/ou E. grandis promoveu redução da condutância estomática dos eucaliptos, independentemente do nível de água no solo. As folhas do terço superior das mudas de E. citriodora e/ou E. grandis cultivadas em um mesmo vaso com e sem B. brizantha, apresentaram maior condutância estomática que aquelas dos terços mediano e inferior, independentemente dos níveis de água no solo e das populações de B. brizantha. Os maiores valores da condutância estomática foram apresentados pelas folhas do terço superior da planta dos eucaliptos quando o nível de água no solo foi de 26% (próximo à capacidade de campo.

  6. 大竹蛏胚胎发生及稚贝发育基本特征%Basic Characteristics of Embryogenesis and Juvenile Development of Solen grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杨平; 陈爱华; 姚国兴; 张志伟; 张曹进; 张雨

    2012-01-01

    Under the artificial breeding conditions, the embryogenesis and juvenile development of Solen grandis were observed by light microscopy. The results indicated that the embryonic and larval development of S. Grandis included the following stages: zygote, embryo cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochosphere, d-larvae, and finally juvenile. After 20 - 24 hours of fertilization, D-larvae appeared at the average daily water temperature of 22. A°C . It took 5-7 days to develop to juvenile, and the juvenile became the adult shellfish after 38 days when the shell length-width ratio was 2. 60. The accumulated temperature from zygote to attachment was 3 088. 79-5 005. 19℃·h. After juvenile developed outlet pipe, its intake pipe appeared, and at last the two pipes transformed into one pipe with diplopore. The regression equation of shell length and shell height was y = 150. 37 e0.002 7χ,χ: shell height ( μm) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 =0.985 5, P <0.01. The regression equation of shell length and day old was y = 143. 38e0.0916χ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 = 0. 979 5 , P < 0. 01. The regression equation of shell height and day old was y = 33. 979 x - 15. 450 ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell height (μm) , R2 =0.987 3, P<0. 01.%在人工培育条件下,对大竹蛏(Solengrandis)胚胎发生及稚贝发育进行显微观察,探究大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育规律.结果表明,大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育过程为:受精卵、卵裂、囊胚期、原肠期、担轮幼虫、D形幼虫、稚贝.在日平均水温为22.4℃时,受精后20~24h发育成D形幼虫,5~7d变态为稚贝,38d稚贝已具备成贝形态,壳长壳高比为2.60.从受精卵到附着所需积温为3088.79~5005.19℃·h.稚贝先形成出水管,后形成进水管,最终形成“一管双孔”.壳长与壳高关系式为y=150.37e0.0027x,x为壳高(μm),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9855,P<0.01;壳长与日龄关系式为y=143.38e0.0916x,x为日龄(d),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9795,P<0

  7. GROWTH AND ARCHITECTURE OF ROOT SYSTEMS OF PLANTS OF Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. GRANDIS AND E. PELLITA WERE EVALUATED AFTER THE PLANTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Leles

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings were produced according to two methodologies: pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. A mixture of decomposed sugar-cane bagasse (60% and industrial sugar-cane plant residues (40% were used as substrate. The blocks were made by pressing the humid substrate in metallic moulds with the dimensions of 60 x 40 x 20 cm (lenght, width and height and pressure of 10 kgf/cm2 for 15 minutes. Under this load the blocks height was reduced to 10 cm. They were placed in wooden boxes with screen bottom. The stiff plastic tubes had circular section 12 cm high, with volume capacity of 50 cm3. The seeds were sown in the blocks 5 cm apart, by means of a spatula. At the end of nursey phase, the seedlings were planted the field. After 2, 6 and 10 months of planting, the height and the diameter at the ground level were evaluated. At the age of 10 months it was also evaluated the number of laterals root and deformatiom cofficient the three plants for treatment. Two months after planting, the plants originated from the pressed blocks showed growth highly signifficant in relation to those of the stiff plastic tubes. At 10 months, of age only Eucalyptus grandis seedlings showed significant difference concerning to height and diameter at the ground level between plants produced by pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. For the three species, the pressed blocks seedling showed higher number of lateral roots and smaller number of root deformation coefficents in comparision to the plants from the stiff tubes.

  8. 野生香榧种实性状变异研究%Variation and Correlativity Analysis of Fruit Characters of Wild Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬; 姚小华; 王开良; 任华东; 常君

    2009-01-01

    通过对安徽黟县、浙江富阳市、建德市3个地区野生香榧种实形态指标进行分析,结果表明:(1)香榧在产地间性状差异较小(仅鲜重出核率表现出显著性差异),变异幅度最大的为建德地区,其次为黟县地区,富阳地区相对较小;(2)产地内株间各项性状均表现出极显著差异,变异幅度最大的是单种重(CV=26.33%),其次为单核重(CV=27.20%),最小的为核径(CV=9.21%);(3)香榧种实的重量与长、径的大小呈极显著线性相关,与长径比相关性不显著;香榧种子的大小和重量与其出核率呈负相关.%Analysis on fruit morphological characters of wild Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii collected from Qianxian County of Anhui province, Fuyang and Jiande city of Zhejiang province resulted that there were no significant differences in 3 producing areas. The largest variation coefficient reca was Jiande, the second oneQiaixian and the last Fuyang. There were extremely significant differences among each individual in each areas, the largest variation ccefficient was seed weight ( CV= 26.33% ), the second one was nut weight (CV = 27.20%), the smallest nut diameter (CV= 9.21 %). Seed weight had evident linear correlation with length and diameter, but no significant relation with length and diameter ratio.

  9. Parâmetros cinéticos de adesivos produzidos a partir de taninos de Anadenanthera peregrina e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crise do petróleo, na década de 70, pesquisas tiveram o objetivo de substituir parcial ou totalmente os adesivos convencionais, à base de petróleo. Uma forma de substituição foi a utilização de fontes naturais, como os taninos, provenientes de algumas espécies arbóreas. Porém, os taninos apresentam algumas limitações de uso, que podem ser superadas através da sulfitação e da hidrolise ácida. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da hidrólise ácida e sulfitação de taninos extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Anadenanthera peregrina, nos parâmetros cinéticos dos adesivos tânicos, através da técnica de calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC. Os taninos foram hidrolisados com ácido acético ou ácido clorídrico a 10N, empregando-se três valores de pH e três tempos de reação. A sulfitação foi realizada em solução de sulfito de sódio, à 5%, em três tempos de reação. A energia de ativação, entalpia e temperatura de cura dos adesivos foram reduzidas pela hidrólise e sulfitação dos taninos, porém apresentaram banda larga de polimerização. O tempo de reação dos taninos não teve efeito sobre os parâmetros cinéticos.

  10. 尾巨桉萌芽林定株高度试验研究%Research on Growth of Eucalyptus urophylla x E.grandis Coppice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    音振兴; 李文栋; 余洋

    2012-01-01

    对尾巨桉4种萌芽高度(0.5 m、1.0m、1.5 m和2.0 m)进行定株除萌,结果表明:各处理之间树高、胸径生长差异均显著;以萌芽高度为1.5~2.0 m时定株除萌林木生长较好,8个月生2m定株除萌的萌芽林平均树高、平均胸径达5.30m、4.12 cm。考虑生产成本,定株除萌高度以1.5 m为佳。%Growth of Eucalyptus urophylla x E.grandis coppice sprouts were assessed following 4 different singling treatments, which involved singling when sprout heights averaged around 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 m. Significant differences were found in average heights and DBHs among treatments. The treatments of singling when sprouts reached 1.5 and 2.0 m were judge to give the best results. Singling at a sprout height of 2.0 m provided an average height and DBH at about 8 months after singling of 5.30 m and 4.12 cm respectively. Based on costs, singling at a sprout height of 1.5 m is preferred.

  11. Eefeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em algumas propriedades da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis

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    Róger Moya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em algumas propriedades da madeira de Tectona grandis oriundas de plantações entre 7 e 15 anos de idade, localizadas nas regiões Norte e Noroeste da Costa Rica, as quais apresentam dois tipos de clima (tropical seco e tropical úmido e com grande variedade de fertilidade de solo. As análises do solo consistiram no estudo de suas propriedades físicas (porcentagem de argila, limo e areia, densidade aparente, porcentagem de retenção de água e de água útil, retenção 15 Bar e 0,33 Bar e propriedades químicas (pH, acidez e conteúdo de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, Fe e Mn. As contrações tangenciais e radiais foram as propriedades da madeira mais correlacionadas com as características do solo, seguidas da porcentagem de cerne, medula e casca e teor de umidade na condição verde. A propriedade de menor correlação foi a densidade básica, enquanto a contração volumétrica não foi correlacionada com nenhuma propriedade do solo. Os coeficientes de correlação foram altamente significativos (a = 0,05, embora baixos valores (<0,67 foram encontrados, provavelmente influenciados pela ampla variedade das condições de clima e de solo amostrados. As propriedades físicas e químicas do solo não apresentaram influência expressiva nas propriedades da madeira de teca. Assim, apesar da grande variedade de solos existente na Costa Rica, a Teca pode ser cultivada comercialmente em todos eles sem que ocorram grandes variações nas propriedades da madeira.

  12. Efeito do intervalo de tempo entre coleta/preparo e estaqueamento no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

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    Lucas Amaral de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do intervalo de tempo entre coleta/preparo e estaqueamento no enraizamento de miniestacas em quatro clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, arranjo bifatorial com parcelas subdivididas, tendo os intervalos de tempo nas parcelas (0, 2 e 4 horas e clones nas subparcelas (C1, C2, C3 e C4, em três repetições de 192 plantas cada. Avaliou-se o enraizamento e a sobrevivência de miniestacas na saída da casa de vegetação e casa de sombra, a sobrevivência, o crescimento e a qualidade do sistema radicular de mudas aos 50 dias de idade. Em três dos quatro clones estudados, períodos de armazenamento das miniestacas superiores a 2 horas causam redução significativa no percentual de enraizamento e na sobrevivência das mudas aos 50 dias de idade. No entanto, o clone C2 apresenta a máxima eficiência técnica para enraizamento na saída da casa de sombra e para sobrevivência das mudas aos 50 dias, quando suas miniestacas são armazenadas por, respectivamente, 2,3 e 2,5 horas; assim como apresenta maior crescimento em altura, quando armazenadas por 4 horas. Em todos os clones, mudas provenientes de miniestacas armazenadas por 4 horas apresentam qualidade do sistema radicular inferior ao sistema radicular de mudas obtidas a partir de miniestacas com 0 e 2 horas de armazenamento.

  13. [Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus].

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    Wu, Xiu-Hua; Li, Yi-Qiao; Hu, Ting-Xing; Chen, Bao-Jun; Yang, Yong-Gui; Chen, Hong; Hu, Hong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    From March to May, 2010, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus. Four treatments with different application rate of the leaf litter, i.e., 0 g x pot(-1) (CK), 30 g x pot(-1) (A1), 60 g x pot(-1) (A2), and 90 g x pot(-1) (A3), were installed. Each pot contained 12 kg soil mixed with the leaf litter, and then, C. intybus was sown. The growth indicators of the C. intybus were measured at the 30, 45, 60, and 75 d after sowing, and the photosynthetic characteristics of the C. intybus in treatment A3 were studied after the seedlings third leaf fully expanded. At each measured time, the biomass accumulation and leaf area growth of C. intybus in treatments A1, A2, and A3 were inhibited significantly. At the early stage of the leaf litter decomposition, the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments of the C. intybus seedlings was inhibited significantly, and the inhibition effect was getting stronger with the increasing amount of the leaf litter addition. The diurnal change of the seedlings photosynthetic rate in all treatments showed a bimodal curve with midday depression, the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency had the same variation trend with the net photosynthetic rate, and the total diurnal photosynthesis decreased in the order of CK > A1 > A2 > A3. The GC-MS analysis showed there were 33 kinds of small molecule compounds released gradually with the decomposition of the leaf litter, among which, allelopathic substance terpenoid dominated. PMID:24175509

  14. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

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    Martin Kemler

    Full Text Available The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters. Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  15. Combinação de dois métodos não industriais no tratamento preservativo de moirões de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of the combination of two non-industrial methods to treat fence posts of Eucalyptus grandis, on the penetration and retention of water borne preservative. Thus, four fences with 2.20 m in length were treated by replacement of sap and simple diffusion alone and other four ones have combined the two techniques, with water-borne CCB 50% preservative at a concentration of 3.5%. After each treatment condition, the pieces were seasoned in the shade for 30 days. Disks were taken at 0.60 and 1.60 m from the base of the pieces which had one side sanded for analysis of the penetration of the preservative using a solution of chrome azurol S. From the same parts, test specimens were also manufactured in diametrically opposed positions with dimensions of approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal to analyze the retention of the element copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and boron by visible spectrophotometry with azomethine-H, also known as colorimetry. The retention values obtained were compared with the minimum recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards - ABNT for water borne preservatives which is 6.5 kg of active ingredients per m³ of wood. The penetration achieved by the combined method was considered sufficient for non-industrial treatment, while the retention values were higher than the retention of at least 6.5 kg of active ingredients / m³ of treated wood in all positions and portions evaluated.

  16. Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoe, Otávio C; Stape, José Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

  17. RAPD analysis of genetic variability in a multiprovenance base population of Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden Variabilidade genética através da técnica RAPD de uma população-base multiprocedências de Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden

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    Susi Meire Maximino Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability among individuals of a base population of Eucalyptus grandis and to build a molecular marker database for the analyzed populations. The Eucalyptus grandis base population comprised 327 individuals from Coff's Harbour, Atherton and Rio Claro. A few plants came from other sites (Belthorpe MT. Pandanus, Kenilworth, Yabbra, etc.. Since this base population had a heterogeneous composition, the groups were divided according to geographic localization (latitude and longitude, and genetic breeding level. Thus, the influence of those two factors (geographic localization and genetic breeding level on the genetic variability detected was discussed. The RAPD technique allowed the evaluation of 70 loci. The binary matrix was used to estimate the genetic similarity among individuals using Jaccard's Coefficient. Parametric statistical tests were used to compare within-group similarity of the means. The obtained results showed that the base population had wide genetic variability and a mean genetic similarity of 0.328. Sub-group 3 (wild materials from the Atherton region showed mean genetic similarity of 0.318. S.P.A. (from Coff's Harbour region had a mean genetic similarity of 0.322 and was found to be very important for maintenance of variation in the base population. This can be explained since the individuals from those groups accounted for most of the base population (48.3% for it. The base population plants with genetic similarity higher than 0.60 should be phenotypically analyzed again in order to clarify the tendency of genetic variability during breeding programs.Este estudo visou avaliar a variabilidade e distância genética dentro de uma população-base de melhoramento genético de Eucalyptus grandis. A avaliação da variabilidade genética tem como objetivos principais analisar a base genética da população-base e montar um banco de dados marcadores moleculares da população em an

  18. Organogênese in vitro a partir de explante caulinar na regeneração de clones de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden X E. urophylla S. T. Blake In vitro regeneration from stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones through organogenesis

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    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar a regeneração in vitro por organogênese a partir de explante caulinar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, foram avaliados os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tiadiazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. De modo geral, pôde-se observar resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura, coloração e grau de oxidação dos calos, em função dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento foram dos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante caulinar. Houve a formação de estruturas nodulares compactas, principalmente na extremidade dos explantes caulinares, sendo essas regiões responsáveis pela regeneração de gemas adventícias. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.With the objective of testing in vitro regeneration through organogenesis from stem explants of three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, the effects of the growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-ilurea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine and NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid were evaluated. In general, a differentiated clone response in relation to intensity, texture, color and oxidation degree of calli was observed due to growth regulator treatments. The best results in callus formation were recorded for the treatments with the combination TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 and ANA (0,1 mg L-1, achieving 100% of callus formation from the stem explants. Compact node structures appeared mainly in the extremities of the stem explants, being those areas responsible for the regeneration of adventitious buds. The best regeneration response was obtained with 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.

  19. Fator de cubicação para toretes de Eucalyptus grandis e sua variação com o tempo de exposição ao ambiente

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    Marcos Vinicios Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes the express wood volume in stere needs to be converted into cubic meter. This is possible estimating a cubication factor (Fc. With the objective of determining the Fc for Eucalyptus grandis and its variation in wood pieces of different lengths of 1 and 2,3m due to time of exposure to the environment, in the summer and in the winter, six stacks of woodpiles were made in the dimensions 3x2x1m and six piles in the dimensions 3x2x2, 3m, installed in the summer and in the winter. Medium Fcc´s obtained by the reason of volumes presented smaller variation in comparison to the ones obtained by angular counting. The statistical analysis indicated difference (α < 5% in the variables of the main effect, that is: in the climatic station (F = 18.72, in the time of exhibition (F = 6.51 and in the length of the stacks (F = 35.18. The analysis of the correlation indicated that Fc was also influenced by the top cracks, by the humidity of the wood and by the atmospheric variability. The average values of Fcc´s indicated a stabilization after ninety days of the installation of the piles. The stacks of Eucalyptus grandis presented dimensional variation when exposed to the atmosphere, making the Fc to vary in the time of exhibition at environment.

  20. Interferência de herbicidas, associados a um análogo de brassinosteroide, no aparato fotossintético de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Effects of herbicides, associated to a brassinosteroid Analogue, on the photosynthetic apparatus of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings

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    C.M.M. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da aplicação dos herbicidas imazapyr e glyphosate e as suas interações com um análogo espirostânico da castasterona (BB16 no crescimento de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis. Para isso, utilizou-se a aplicação de BB16 (nas concentrações de 0,08 e 0,16 mg L-1: BB16(- e BB16(+, respectivamente, de imazapyr (0,750 kg ha-1 e de glyphosate (1,440 kg ha-1. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo controle, BB16(-, BB16(+, glyphosate, imazapyr, além da interação hormônio-herbicida, em intervalo de 12 h entre a aplicação de BB16 e de cada herbicida, e vice-versa. A mensuração da fluorescência da clorofila a foi realizada diariamente, na terceira folha totalmente expandida, além das avaliações de altura, diâmetro e biomassa seca da parte aérea (BSPA e das raízes (BSR. O controle, BB16(- e BB16(+ diferiram dos demais tratamentos para BSPA, porém, para BSR, altura e diâmetro, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. As médias dos parâmetros de fluorescência, obtidas para os tratamentos que receberam a aplicação dos herbicidas, foram superiores ao controle, BB16(- e BB16(+ até o sétimo dia após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. As mudas que receberam aplicação de glyphosate - este associado, ou não, a BB16(- ou BB16(+ - apresentaram-se necróticas antes do sétimo DAT, enquanto as que receberam imazapyr associado ao BB16 manifestaram apenas as extremidades dos ramos laterais necrosadas. Os herbicidas testados causaram efeitos deletérios no aparato fotossintético de E. grandis; todavia, a partir do sétimo DAT as mudas que receberam a aplicação de imazapyr (com ou sem BB16 não diferiram dos tratamentos controle, BB16(- e BB16(+, quanto aos parâmetros de fluorescência.The effects of the application of imazapyr and glyphosate and their interactions with a spirostanic analogue of castasterone (BB16, on the growth of seedling clones of Eucalyptus grandis were evaluated

  1. Variação genética para os teores dos macro e micronutrientes após aplicação de 2,4-D em progênies de Eucalyptus grandis. Genetic variation in the levels of macro and micronutrients after 2,4-D application on Eucalyptus grandis progenies.

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    Alexandre Martins FRAGOSO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil triplicou sua produção florestal de eucalipto desde 1970, alcançando médias de 45 m3 .ha-1.ano-1. Muitos avanços técnicos contribuíram para essa produtividade, entre eles a utilização de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas. O produto 2,4-D destaca-se como herbicida seletivo às dicotiledôneas utilizado nas grandes culturas, entre elas está a cultura do eucalipto. O 2,4-D também pode ser usado como regulador vegetal, auxina (Ax, em subdosagem, podendo gerar incrementos nutricionais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento morfológico do vegetal após testes preliminares para obtenção de dosagem ideal, que no presente trabalho foi de 3,75 µL L-1. Assim, o trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a aplicação de auxina em um teste de progênies de Eucalyptus grandis, na fase de mudas, para estimar os parâmetros genéticos das variações dos elementos minerais nas plantas, com base no procedimento REML/BLUP. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com 20 progênies em três repetições, 16 plantas por parcela, totalizando 960 plantas. Como fatores norteadores, após 15 dias da aplicação do produto, foram avaliados os macro e micronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn nos tecidos vegetais da parte aérea. Como resultado, verificou-se que o 2,4-D age como auxina, quando aplicada em subdosagem (3,75 µL L-1, promovendo o desenvolvimento das mudas de E. grandis e permite a expressão da variação genética, sendo que o CVg variou de 1,22% (S a 13,51% (Ca. Apenas os teores de N (43,05%, Fe (56,545% e Cu (58,37% apresentaram acurácias inferiores a 70%. Os maiores coeficientes de variação relativa foram para os teores de Ca (2,0 em relação à escolha de uma variável para a seleção com base nos macronutrientes e Mn (1,16 no caso dos micronutrientes. The forest tree production in Brazil was three times greater than through 70’s decade, reaching the wood volume averages by 45 m3 .ha-1.year-1. Many

  2. In vitro ectomycorrhiza formation by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus in Eucalyptus grandis Formação de ectomicorrizas in vitro por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus em Eucalyptus grandis

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    Maurício Dutra Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of ectomycorrhizas by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. in Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. was studied by in vitro synthesis in Petri dishes. The formation of ectomycorrhizas was observed for all strains tested. Ectomycorrhizas formed by the monokaryotic strains presented a sheath of hyphae around the roots and a Hartig net limited to the epidermis layer, typical of the angiosperm ectomycorrhizas. Colonization rates, a measure of the number of ectomycorrhizas in relation to the total number of lateral root tips, varied from 23 to 62%. Some monokaryotic strains stimulated the formation of lateral roots, promoting increases of up to 109% above the control. The presence of some of the isolates in the in vitro synthesis medium stimulated the production of thicker lateral root tips. The dimensions of the lateral roots tips and ectomycorrhizas varied from one isolate to the next, indicating a variation in their capacity to provoke morphological changes in the host plant roots. The dikaryotic strain M5M11 presented higher values for lateral root yield, number of ectomycorrhizas, and colonization percentage than the corresponding monokaryotic strains, M5 and M11. This indicated the possibility of selecting compatible performing monokaryotic isolates for the yield of superior dikaryotic strains. The set of monokaryotic strains tested varied greatly in their ability to colonize E. grandis roots and cause secondary metabolism-related morphological changes in roots, providing a wealth of model systems for the study of genetic, physiological, and morphogenetic processes involved in Pisolithus-Eucalyptus ectomycorrhiza formation.A formação de ectomicorrizas por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. em Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. foi estudada usando-se o método de síntese in vitro em placas de Petri. A formação de

  3. Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF

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    Benedito Rocha Vital

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF. Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity

  4. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM CITRUS GRANDIS PEEL%微波辅助提取柚皮精油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚盛昭; 程江; 杨卓如

    2005-01-01

    进行了微波辅助提取柚皮精油的实验.结果表明,石油醚是微波辅助提取柚皮精油的最佳溶剂,液料质量比、物料含水率、粒度、微波功率等因素对微波辅助提取柚皮精油有较大影响.通过实验得到了柚皮精油提取的最佳工艺条件:物料粒度60目,物料含水率7.4%,总液料质量比14:1,微波功率300W,提取两次,每次微波辐射时间3 min.提取液进行真空浓缩至不再有溶剂蒸出,得精油粗产品.往精油粗产品中加入乙醇溶解,放入-15℃冰箱中冷冻48 h,离心分离去除树脂状物质,过滤,滤液进行真空浓缩后,即得精油,产率约2.09%,精油纯度99.0%.与传统的直接加热提取法相比,微波辅助提取法所用时间仅为直接加热提取法的1/20.%Microwave-assisted extraction(MAE) was used to extract essential oil (EO) from pomelo(Citrus grandis (L.)Osbeck) peel (CGP). Results show that petroleum ether is an optimal solvent and the extraction was affected mainly by stock mass ratio, microwave power, water content and granularity of material. The optimal conditions were obtained. Materials with granularity of 60 mesh and water content of around 7.4 % are suitablefor extraction. Total solvent-material mass ratio is 14: 1. Extraction had to be performed twice with microwave irradiation (300 W) for 3 min each time. Crude EO was obtained after the extracted liquor was concentrated under vacuum. Crude EO was then dissolved with ethanol, frozen at - 15 ℃ for 48 h, and centrifugally separated and filtered to get rid of impurities. The final product EO with yield of 2.09 % and purity of 99.0 % was then obtained after distilling the liquor under vacuum. Compared with direct-heating extraction (DHE), MAE reduced the extracting time up to 1/20.

  5. ANÁLISE SILVICULTURAL E ECONÔMICA DE PLANTIOS CLONAIS E SEMINAIS DE Tectona grandis L.f. EM SISTEMA TAUNGYA1

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    Reginaldo Antonio Medeiros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise silvicultural e econômica de plantios clonais e seminais de Tectona grandis em monocultivo e em sistema taungya com Zea mays, no Município de Figueirópolis D'Oeste, MT. O experimento foi instalado em 2010 e compôs um fatorial 2x2 em blocos casualizados e quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se a altura total (H, o diâmetro a 5 cm (DAB e a 1,3 m (DAP de altura em relação ao nível do solo, a área basal, o volume, a sobrevivência e a estimativa e tendência de crescimento da teca na idade atual e futura, além da produção de silagem do milho. Foram realizadas análises das receitas e custos totais de implantação e manutenção do sistema. Plantas clonais em monocultivo e no sistema Taungya apresentaram maior crescimento em altura total, DAB e DAP em relação às seminais. No monocultivo e no sistema Taungya, a produção (m3 ha-1 de plantas clonais em relação às seminais foi 33 e 30% superior, respectivamente. Os custos com insumos e atividades de implantação da teca foram superiores e os de manutenção, inferiores no sistema Taungya em relação ao monocultivo, tanto para plantios clonais quanto seminais. No sistema Taungya com plantas clonais, o milho reduziu em 21% os custos totais de implantação e manutenção em relação ao monocultivo; nas plantas seminais, a redução foi de 27%. A teca no sistema Taungya cresce menos, porém apresenta tendência de recuperação após a retirada do milho, cuja presença amortiza custos de implantação e manutenção da teca em plantios clonais e seminais.

  6. Study on Infrared Fingerprint of Exocarpium Citri Grandis with Different Species%化橘红药材红外指纹图谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽萍; 林励; 黄爱华; 欧立娟; 汪金玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide theoretical basis and practical methods for the rapid identification of Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) with different species. Methods The fingerprints were established by fourier transform ifrared spectroscopy(FTIR), and then were analyzed by Spectrum v5.0.1 software. Results With normalization of the selected points between 1,820 cm-1 and 950 cm-1 on the FTIR fingerprints of ECG powder, significant differences were shown, and the second derivative spectra of the two different species between 1,800 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 had significant differences, which can be taken as one of the major identical characteristics to distinguish the two species. Conclusion The FTIR fingerprints is effective and feasible for the identification of the two species of ECG.%目的 建立化橘红药材的红外指纹图谱,通过考察不同品种化橘红药材的红外指纹图谱差异,为化橘红药材的快速鉴别提供理论依据和实用方法.方法 采用傅里叶红外光谱法(FTIR)建立不同品种化橘红药材红外指纹图谱,应用Spectrum v5.0.1红外软件对实验数据进行处理.结果 FTIR图谱在1820~950 cm-1范围内选点归一化处理后毛橘红和光橘红差异显著,其在1800~700 cm-1范围内二阶导数谱差异亦显著,可作为两者主要鉴别特征,经处理后的FTIR指纹图谱能有效鉴别两类化橘红药材.结论 红外指纹图谱法鉴别化橘红快速、简便、可行,可有效区分毛橘红和光橘红.

  7. Variación de la densidad básica de la madera de Eucalyptus grandis en arboles de siete años de edad.

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    Arango A. Bibiana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estima la variación de la densidad básica de la madera con la altura de los árboles en clones de Eucalyptus grandis de 7 años de edad, seleccionados en plantaciones forestales de la empresa Smurfit Cartón de Colombia localizadas en los municipios de Restrepo, Pereira y Popayán, encontrándose que la densidad decrece desde la base del árbol hacia el nivel del D.A.P y luego, a partir de este aumenta hacia la copa hasta el 75% de la altura total del árbol. De igual manera se establecen correlaciones entre la densidad básica media de la madera en función de las tres zonas de estudio y los diferentes clones. Se comparan tanto las metodologías empleadas para la determinación de la densidad básica (Norma Tappi 258-om-94 y el Método del Máximo Contenido de Humedad como los diferentes tipos de muestras empleadas para la determinación de la misma (muestras tipo disco de madera y muestras de barreno. El rango de variación de la densidad básica media para las muestras tipo disco de madera fue de 0.40 a 059 g/cm3 y para las muestras de barreno fue de 0.38 a 0.55 g/cm3. Respecto a los métodos para la determinación de la densidad básica media de la madera en muestras de barreno, el método del máximo contenido de humedad mostró una subestimación de aproximadamente 3% de la misma en comparación con los valores obtenidos por el método de la balanza hidrostática.

  8. Modelagem do balanço hídrico em microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    André Quintão Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o número de plantios comerciais de espécies florestais de crescimento rápido vem aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas. Contudo, os possíveis impactos desse aumento sobre os recursos hídricos ainda são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a modelagem do balanço hídrico em uma microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no Leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O trabalho foi realizado em uma microbacia experimental com área total de 40 ha durante o ano hidrológico, compreendido entre outubro de 2009 e setembro de 2010. A principal entrada de água no sistema via precipitação pluvial e os dados meteorológicos foram coletados por uma estação automática instalada no interior da área de estudo. As principais saídas foram estimadas pela equação modificada de Penman-Monteith e pela mensuração do deflúvio gerado na saída da bacia. Do total precipitado (1.123 mm durante o ano, 9% (106 mm retornaram à atmosfera via interceptação, 66% (740 mm via transpiração da cultura e 11% (119 mm pela evaporação do solo, que somados corresponderam à aproximadamente 86% da entrada de água na microbacia. Do deflúvio total gerado (~147 mm, apenas 4,29 mm (0,4% foram convertidos em escoamento superficial. Pode-se concluir que durante o ano hidrológico monitorado o balanço entre as principais entradas e as saídas de água na microbacia foi equalizado, não comprometendo a disponibilidade hídrica natural no curso d'água.

  9. Fitossociologia de sub-bosque de cerrado em talhão de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden no município de Bom Despacho-MG

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    Saporetti Jr. Amilcar Walter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado, o segundo maior bioma brasileiro, apresenta uma crescente área sujeita a impactos variados, o que desperta a necessidade de conservá-lo e desenvolver métodos para seu uso sustentável. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico de regeneração em um Cerrado no município de Bom Despacho - MG e embasar tomadas de decisões para conservação da biodiversidade. Para o estudo foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m em uma área originalmente de Cerrado, que atualmente encontra-se ocupada por um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis. A distribuição das parcelas foi feita sistematicamente. Foram amostradas todas as plantas lenhosas eretas com CAB - ao nível do solo - maior ou igual a 10 cm. A composição florística apresentou 39 espécies, distribuídas em 24 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, com cinco espécies, Myrtaceae, com quatro, e Melastomataceae, com três, seguidas de Annonaceae, Leguminosae Papilionoideae, Nyctaginaceae, Rubiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com duas. A espécie que apresentou o maior VI foi Eucalyptus grandis (42,03%, seguida das Miconia albicans (7,69%, Brosimum gaudichaudii (6,9%, Eugenia dysenterica (4,99%, Qualea grandiflora (3,11% e Xylopia aromatica (3,01%. Das 39 espécies lenhosas nativas encontradas no sub-bosque de Eucalyptus grandis, 27 são peculiares do Cerrado e as demais são acessórias, vindas de florestas da região. Esses dados mostram que o Cerrado está em regeneração.

  10. 巨桉人工林根际可培养土壤微生物数量的季节变化%Seasonal Variation of Rhizosphere Culturable Soil Microorganism Quantity in Eucalyptus grandis Plantation Ecosystem

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    崔炳华; 蒋勇; 陈绍武; 晋明瑞; 胡开波; 王守强

    2012-01-01

    Researches were conducted on seasonal dynamics of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere culturable soil microorganism quantity in Eucalyptus grandis plantation ecosystem.The result showed that the seasonal dynamics of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil bacteria and actinomyces was generally consistent,which in autumn was significantly higher than in winter,while the fungus quantity was no significant difference between seasons.Soil microorganism in Eucalyptus grandis plantation had an obvious rhizosphere effect(R/S value of 1.40),rhizospheric soil bacteria,fungi and actinomyces quantity were significantly higher than the non-rhizospheric in each season.Rhizosphere aerobic bacteria and fungi quantity of Eucalyptus grandis were significantly higher,rhizosphere soil nutrient index was also mostly better than secondary Cyclobalanopsis glauca forest,and many nutrient indicators reached significant difference.There was a close relationship between rhizosphere microorganisms and rhizosphere soil nutrients,and rhizospheric soil organic matter,hydrolysis N,available P and rhizosphere soil microorganism quantity had a very significant positive correlation.%巨桉人工林生态系统根际与根外可培养土壤微生物数量季节变化研究表明,根际与根外细菌和放线菌季节变化规律基本一致,都表现为秋季显著高于冬季,而真菌数量季节之间差异不显著;巨桉人工林土壤微生物具有明显的根际效应(R/S值为1.40),各季节根际土壤细菌、真菌和放线菌的数量显著高于根外;巨桉人工林根际土壤好气性细菌、真菌数量显著高于毗邻青冈次生林,根际土壤有效养分指标大多显著或极显著高于青冈次生林;根际土壤微生物与根际土壤养分之间存在密切的关系,根际土壤有机质、水解N、速效P与根际土壤微生物数量都呈极显著正相关。

  11. Mapping of QTLs related with wood quality and developmental characteristics in hybrids (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla Mapeamento de QTLs para características de qualidade da madeira e crescimento em híbridos (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

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    Rodrigo Barros Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to characterize and identify QTLs for wood quality and growth traits in E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids. For this purpose a RAPD linkage map was developed for the hybrids (LOD=3 and r=0.40 containing 52 markers and 12 linkage groups. Traits related to wood quality and growth were evaluated in the QTL analyses. QTL analyses were performed using chi-square tests, single-marker, interval mapping and composite interval mapping analyses. All approaches led to the identification of similar QTLs associated with wood density, cellulose pulp yield and percentage of extractives, which were detected and confirmed by both the interval mapping and composite interval mapping methodologies. Some QTLs regions were confirmed only by the composite interval mapping methodology: percentage of soluble lignin, percentage of insoluble lignin, CBH and total height. Overlapping QTLs regions were detected, and these, can be the result of major genes involved in the regulation and control of the growth traits by epistatic interactions. In order to evaluate the effect of early selection using RAPD molecular data, molecular markers adjacent to QTLs were used genotype selection. The analysis of selection differential values suggests that for all the traits the phenotypic selection at seven years should generate larger genetic gains than early selection assisted by molecular markers and the combination of the strategies should elevate the selection efficiency.O presente trabalho teve como objetivos a caracterização e identificação de QTLs para características de crescimento e de qualidade da madeira em híbridos de eucalipto derivados do cruzamento entre E. grandis e E. urophylla. Para isso foi desenvolvido um mapa de ligação RAPD pouco saturado (LOD = 3 e r = 0,40 contendo 52 marcas e 12 grupos de ligação. Características de qualidade da madeira e características de crescimento foram avaliadas quanto à presença de QTLs. Foram utilizadas

  12. Análise da influência de diferentes tamanhos e composições de amostras no ajuste de uma relação hipsométrica para Eucalyptus grandis Evaluation of the influence of varying sample sizes and composition on the precision of a hypsometric relation for Eucalyptus grandis

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    Gilson Fernandes da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O ajuste de relações hipsométricas a partir de dados oriundos de inventário florestal com o objetivo de estimar o volume de árvores individuais é procedimento comum nas empresas florestais brasileiras. Assim, considerando um conjunto de 481 árvores de Eucalyptus grandis, obtido por meio de um procedimento de inventário florestal, foram simulados diversos tamanhos de amostra, variando de 6 a 204 árvores-amostra. Para cada tamanho de amostra foram feitas 10.000 simulações para cada tamanho de amostra obtidas aleatoriamente. Considerando o exposto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tamanho e da composição das amostras simuladas sobre a precisão de um modelo hipsométrico previamente selecionado. O modelo selecionado teve como variáveis independentes o diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP e a idade, sendo avaliado também o efeito dessas variáveis sobre as estimativas de altura. Ao final, conclui-se que amostras com pelo menos 27 árvores proporcionaram estimativas mais precisas da altura das árvores quando comparadas com amostras menores que esse número. No entanto, amostras maiores que 27 árvores não implicaram ganhos significativos em termos de precisão. Conclui-se também que a variável DAP foi mais importante para estimar a altura do que a variável idade, considerando-se o modelo proposto, sendo a influência da variável idade na estimação da altura maior nas árvores de maior DAP.The adjustment of hypsometric relations using data from forest inventory aiming at the estimation of individual tree volumes is a common task in Brazilian forestry companies. This study used a data set of 481 trees of Eucalyptus grandis from a forest inventory. Simulation was carried out varying sample sizes from 6 to 204 sample-trees. For each sample size it was run 10,000 simulations for each size samples selected randomly. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of sample size and structure on the precision of a

  13. Acúmulo de Nutrientes na Biomassa e na Serapilheira de Eucalyptus grandis em Função da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano e de Nutrientes Minerais Nutrient Accumulation in Eucalyptus grandis Biomass and Litter Using Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizer

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    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Quantidades significativas de resíduos orgânicos são produzidas a cada ano pela população, tornando-se indispensável obter práticas econômicas e seguras para a disposição e utilização destes. A aplicação de resíduos orgânicos em plantios florestais é uma alternativa a ser considerada. Este trabalho avaliou os efeitos da aplicação de lixo urbano e da adubação mineral em Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden sobre o acúmulo de nutrientes na serapilheira e na biomassa aérea das árvores aos 86 meses de idade, em Itatinga, SP, em Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico. Verificou-se, nas pcarcelas experimentais com lixo urbano, maiores valores para biomassa arbórea (36,9 % de ganho com relação à testemunha e maiores conteúdos de N, P, K e Ca no sítio antes do corte das árvores. Após a retirada de madeira (alburno e cerne, observou-se também que com a manutenção das outras partes da árvore nessas parcelas, houve uma maior disponibilização desses nutrientes no sítio, cujos valores foram entre 18 % e 49 % a mais dos conteúdos encontrados para a testemunha, que poderão contribuir para a manutenção da produtividade. Os resultados evidenciaram a importância de se manter a casca das árvores no sítio, pois o descascamento feito no local propiciou, em média, um retorno de 32 % do total de nutrientes acumulados na biomassa aérea. Também, na colheita da madeira, galhos, folhas, ponteiras e serapilheira, devem ser mantidos no campo como um meio de se aumentar o estoque de nutrientes das próximas rotações.
    Large quantities of organic wastes are produced mainly in big cities, annually. There is urgent demand for safe and possible economic practices for its use on forest plantations. This study evaluated the effects of the application of urban waste and mineral fertilizers on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden plantation

  14. Volume de madeira e concentração foliar de nutrientes em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizadas com lodos de esgoto úmido e seco Wood volume and foliar concentration of nutrients in Eucalyptus grandis after wet and dry sewage sludge application

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    Paulo Henrique Muller da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, diversos municípios estão construindo estações de tratamento de esgoto (ETEs, e futuramente serão produzidas anualmente milhares de toneladas de lodo para as quais deverá ser dada destinação adequada. O lodo de esgoto tratado (biossólido é o resíduo resultante do tratamento do esgoto urbano, e sua disposição final precisa ser bem planejada devido às implicações sanitárias, ambientais, econômicas e sociais. Apresenta elevado teor de matéria orgânica e de nutrientes e poderia ser utilizado como fertilizante em plantios florestais. Esta pesquisa foi realizada na Estação de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (Universidade de São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de três doses (10, 20 e 30 t ha-1 dos lodos de esgoto úmido (torta e seco (granulado, complementados com K e B e aplicados ao solo nas linhas de plantio em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis. Dezoito meses após a implantação das mudas no campo, o volume dos troncos demonstrou aumento significativo (ao redor de 130% no tocante ao crescimento dos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos úmido e seco em relação à testemunha sem aplicação de fertilizante, bem como teve resultado semelhante ao do tratamento com adubo mineral. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com a aplicação dos biossólidos úmido e seco. Com relação à nutrição mineral, foi observado aumento da concentração dos elementos P, Ca e Zn nas folhas com as maiores doses dos biossólidos, e verificou-se efeito inverso de Mn. As concentrações foliares de todos os nutrientes nos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos mantiveram-se dentro dos limites observados usualmente nas plantações comerciais, não havendo sinais de desequilíbrio nutricional.In Brazil, several municipalities are building waste treatment plants and in the future thousands of tons of sewage sludge will be generated. Sewage sludge is the waste left

  15. Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste, com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in

  16. Eucalipto, madeira serrada, metodologia de amostragem, regressão multivariada. Log sampling of Eucalyptus grandis trees submitted to selection for sawn timber and energy purposes Amostragem de toras de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis selecionadas para finalidades de serraria e energia

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    Paulo Eduardo Telles dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By the assessment of ten technological traits of eucalypt wood for sawn timber and energy purposes,
    it was developed a multivariate statistical procedure in order to determine the sequence of logs to be sampled, in such a way to represent all statistical variation contained within the tree and, accordingly, to establish the appropriate sampling intensity. In the present work, it was used a total of 40 logs from four trees of Eucalyptus grandis provenance Concórdia-SC aged 18 years. By using principal components regression analysis and stepwise selection techniques, it was showed that only two logs, corresponding to the first (0.05 m to 2.60 m and fourth (8.85 m to 11.40 m positions into the tree, contained 99.2 % of the total variation detected originally. In the case of adopting a single log, the recommendation was over the fourth log, which represented 97.5 % of the total
    amount of the original variation. For the referred  population, the statistical procedure contributed substantially to reduce the high time-consuming and financial costs that are normally associated to studies oriented to this goal, without affecting the original statistical information exhibited by the whole group of logs that would be usually sampled.A partir da avaliação de dez características tecnológicas de madeira de eucalipto para fins de serraria e energia, desenvolveu-se procedimento estatístico multivariado para se determinar a seqüência de toras a ser amostrada, de forma a representar acumuladamente toda a variação estatística presente na árvore e, com isso, estabelecer a intensidade adequada de amostragem. Neste estudo, foram utilizadas 40 toras oriundas de quatro árvores de Eucalyptus grandis aos 18 anos de idade procedentes de Concórdia, SC. Com o uso de técnicas de regressão multivariada de componentes principais e seleção por etapas, chegou-se à conclusão que amostrandose apenas duas toras, correspondentes à primeira (0,05 m a 2

  17. Seleção de modelos polinomiais para representar o perfil e volume do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. Selection of polynomial models to represent the profile and volume of the bole of Tectona grandisL.f.

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    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A precisão do volume de um povoamento florestal torna-se importante à medida que as empresas florestais integram verticalmente suas atividades e o resíduo da elaboração de um produto torna-se matéria-prima para outros. Os estudos realizados objetivaram avaliar a acurácia dos modelos polinomiais propostos por Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 e Goulding & Murray (1976, na estimativa dos diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. de quatro povoamentos localizados na microrregião do Baixo Rio Acre e, ainda, testar a identidade do melhor modelo polinomial, avaliando-se a adequação de manter as áreas agrupadas ou segregá-las em grupos menores ou individualmente. A base de dados foi constituída de 159 árvores cubadas rigorosamente. Na avaliação da acurácia dos modelos foram empregadas estatísticas de desvio médio, desvio padrão das diferenças, soma dos quadrados dos resíduos relativos e resíduos percentuais. O modelo Goulding & Murray (1976 gerou as melhores estimativas de diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste, seguido pelos modelos Hradetzky (1976 e Schöepfer (1966. O teste de identidade de modelo mostrou ser mais adequado realizar ajustes independentes para as áreas 1 e 4 e para o subgrupo 2 e 3.The precise estimate of the volume of a forest stand become important as forest enterprises integrate vertically their activities and the residue of the manufacture of a product becomes the raw material for the manufacture of other. The accomplished studies aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the polynomial models proposed by Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 and Goulding & Murray (1976 in the estimate of the diameters and volumes along the bole of Tectona grandis L.f from four stands situated in the Baixo Rio Acre micro region and further, to test the identity of the best polynomial model by evaluating the adequacy of maintaining the grouped areas or segregate them into smaller groups or singly. The data base was

  18. Contribution of a second diameter in estimating individual volume in young stands of Tectona grandis L.f.=Contribuição de um segundo diâmetro na estimação de volume individual de plantios jovens de Tectona grandis L.f.

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    Mateus Niroh Inoue Sanquetta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the individual volume of trees with precision and without bias is a prerequisite of a quality forest inventory. The most common methods are based on application of the average form factor, or on single or double entry equations. This study proposes models with two diameters as independent variables to estimate the commercial volume of Tectona grandis, with a view to improving precision and reducing bias. Thirty-five trees from commercial plantation of 4-5 years old, in the town of Redenção, in the State of Pará, were rigorously cubed using the Smalian method of scaling. Diameters at different heights were correlated with actual volume. Three new volumetric models based on two diameters were proposed, without the addition of tree height as a variable. These models were compared with others, which are traditionally used in forest inventories. The model with the best fit uses the diameter at breast height (dap and at a height of 4.0 m (d4.0 as independent variables. The operational difficulties of using d4.0 are discussed. Models that use the dap and the diameter at 2.0 m (d2.0 were considered the most satisfactory, as they are more accurate and practical than classic models, and operationally more feasible than the model using d4,0. The conclusion was that there are other diameters that are more correlated with volume than dap, and that the introduction of a second diameter improves volume estimates, even without the inclusion of height as a variable.

  19. Nutrient Uptake of Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis Seedlings in Response to Different Nitrogen Exponential Regimes%不同浓度指数施肥方法下尾巨桉幼苗需肥规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华林; 谢耀坚; 彭彦

    2013-01-01

    An exponential fertilization trail was conducted with five dose levels (applying a total of 0,50,100,150,200 mg) of nitrogen to assess the effects on different nitrogen levels on the growth,quality and nutrient status of Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis seedlings.The objective of this study was to reveal the nitrogen demand and determine the optimal nitrogen amount for E.urophylla×E.grandis seedlings.It was indicated that the height,ground diameter,biomass,SPAD value and quality index of seedlings increased with the increase of N supply,up to 100 mg,after then the ground diameter,biomass and quality index were unchanged,but the height and SPAD value remarkably decreased.The biomass of seedling was found positively significant correlation with the height,ground diameter,QI and SPAD value.Critical level approach was used for identifying N,P and K deficiencies of E.urophylla×E.grandis seedlings,and the critical values of N,P and K was 26.6,3.8 and 16.5 g/kg,while their optimal concentrations was ranged from 26.6 to 38.5,3.8 to 5.3,16.5 to 21.4 g/kg,respectively.In conclusion,100mg would be the optimal nitrogen amount for E.urophylla×E.grandis seedlings.%设置每株施N 0、50、100、150、200 mg的5个氮素水平处理,进行尾巨桉幼苗指数施肥试验,探讨不同氮素供应水平对其幼苗生长、质量及养分含量的影响,揭示尾巨桉幼苗的氮素需求特征,确定其适宜施氮量.结果表明:(1)随着施氮量的增加,尾巨桉幼苗的苗高、地径、生物量、SPAD值与苗木质量指数也随之增大,当施氮量大于100 mg株后苗木地径、生物量和苗木质量指数基本趋于稳定,而苗高和SPAD值则显著减小;(2)尾巨桉幼苗的生物量与苗高、地径、SPAD值以及苗木质量指数都存在极显著的正相关;(3)运用临界浓度法确定出尾巨桉幼苗N、P、K含量的临界值分别为26.6、3.8、16.5 g/kg,最适含量范围分别为26.6~38.5、3.8~5.3、16.5~21.4g/kg; (4)综合

  20. Rita De Grandis, Reciclaje cultural y memoria revolucionaria. La práctica polémica de José Pablo Feinmann : Buenos Aires, Biblos, 2006, 239 páginas

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Este estudio sobre la escritura de José Pablo Feinmann —la cual se desarrolla desde la década del setenta hasta el presente— es mucho más que el desentrañamiento de las formas que esa escritura fue adoptando con los años. Lo que se propone y logra Rita De Grandis es establecer las condiciones de producción de los textos, marcados por las tensiones del campo cultural y político de los años setenta, época que se constituye en el punto axial en torno del que giran las polémicas y preocupaciones ...

  1. 巨桉林下马勃分子系统发育的关系%Analysis of Puffballs' Phylogenetic Relationships from Eucalyptus grandis Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘欣; 张健; 朱天辉; 梁洪萍

    2011-01-01

    Mycelia were cultivated from a fruiting body of puffballs which were collected from the Eucalyptus grandis forest, and the genomic DNA was extracted as template. Subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rDNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The phylogenetic tree of puffballs was first built based on different part of ITS region. The results showed that six species of puffballs were cultivated successfully using a PDA medium after comparing the sequences of puffballs fruiting body and mycelium ITS regions. The rDNA-ITS region of different puffballs was 607 bp to 766 bp in length. Analysis of phylogenesis revealed that the Scleroderma had close genetic relationships with Pisolithus , Calvatia , Lycoperdon and Vascellum. The three undetermined species, Scleroderma sp. 11-1, Scleroderma sp.2-2 and Scleroderma sp. 5-2, could probably be S. aurantium. The sequence of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 can be used as an evolutionary marker between different genus, and ITS2 as an evolutionary marker in genus. Thus, this work laid a foundation for studying the ectotrophic mycorrhiza, the mechanisms of action, the classification of puffballs and its exploitation and utilization.%采集巨桉林下马勃子实体,培养其菌丝体,提取子实体及菌丝体基因组DNA,进行rDNA-ITS区序列的扩增、克隆和序列测定,并对rDNA-ITS不同区域作序列分析,首次构建马勃的系统发育树.结果表明:野外采集获得马勃子实体l0种,其中成功培养6种,测序结果表明马勃rDNA-ITS区长度在607~766 bp之间,系统发育分析表明硬皮马勃属(Scleroderma)与豆包菌(Pisolithus)亲缘关系较近,秃马勃属(Calvatia)、马勃属(Lycoperdon)及横膜马勃属(Vascellum)之间亲缘关系较近,ITSl-5.8S rDNA-ITS2区可建立马勃类真菌属间系统发育树,ITS2区可用于建立马勃类真菌属内系统发育树,3个待定种硬皮马勃Scleroderma sp.11-1,Scleroderma sp.2-2和Scleroderma sp.5-2为金黄硬皮马勃(S

  2. Morphological and cytological studies on hybrid from Roegneria grandis × R. Alashanica(Poaceae:Triticeae)%大鹅观草与阿拉善鹅观草杂种的形态学和细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琴; 周永红; 郑有良; 杨瑞武; 丁春帮

    2002-01-01

    为探讨阿拉善鹅观草R. alashanica Keng的染色体组组成,进行了大鹅观草R. grandis Keng (2n=24,StStYY)和阿拉善鹅观草种间杂交,对这两个种及其杂种F1的形态学、繁育学和减数分裂染色体配对行为进行了研究.结果表明:杂种F1的形态特征介于父母本之间,其花粉母细胞减数分裂染色体平均构型为: 20.40Ⅰ+3.69Ⅱ+0.09Ⅲ+0.04Ⅳ.表明阿拉善鹅观草含有一个修饰的St基因组,即Sta.%Interspecific hybridization was carried out between Roegneria alashanica Keng and Roegneria grandis Keng (2n=24. StStYY). The morphology, fertility and chromosome pairing behavior in meiosis of the parents and their hybrid F1 were studied to determine the genomic constitution of R. alashanica. The F1 hybrid appeared intermadiate between the two parents. The meiotic configuration of the hybrid was 20.40 unvalents + 3.69 bivalents + 0.09 trivalents + 0.04 quadrivalents. The results indicated that R. alashanica has one slightly modified St genome, be designated as Sta.

  3. Agrupamento de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em função das variáveis dendrométricas e das caracteristicas tecnológicas da madeira

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    Merielen Lopes de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this study is to cluster selected trees of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden as a function of phenotypic, dendrometric and wood technology characteristics. In a 27 years old commercial stand, located in the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, 63 selected trees were cut down and classified to the phenotypic and dendrometric characteristics. Then, disks were taken at the base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height, and at the DBH, for basic density determination. From the two first logs above the DBH boards parallel to the pith were taken, with 25mm of thickness, for sawn wood qualitative evaluation. The selected trees were grouped into four distinct groups following cluster analysis. In Group I were classified the trees with a lower tendency of presenting boards with end splits while in Groups II and III were classified the trees with a lower tendency of presenting logs with end splits and, in Group IV were classified the trees with a higher tendency of presenting end splits of the boards and the logs. For these groups, by discriminant analysis, there were identified five variables with real power of discrimination (DBH, estimated log split perimeter, ratio height/diameter (rh/d, type of bark and sapwood volumetric percentage and three discriminant functions. The technique of the multivariate analyze was an efficient method of grouping the selected trees of Eucalyptus grandis. The discriminant analysis enabled the selection of variables with real power of sorting the trees and determinating the discriminant functions that allow the allocation of future trees in the cluster.

  4. Effets de lisière sur la productivité du teck (Tectona grandis L.f.: étude de cas des teckeraies privées du Sud-Bénin

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    Toyi, MS.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge Effects on the Productivity of Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.: a Case Study of Private Teak Plantations in Southern Benin. The present study aims to improve the production of teak wood (Tectona grandis L.f. in private plantations in southern Benin through the application of a central concept in landscape ecology: the edge effect. As teak is an heliophilous species, the hypothesis of a higher wood production in edges was tested on the basis of the basal area. Sixty-two private teak plantations were investigated and 10,667 trees were measured. The stratified sampling scheme in three distinct parts for each plantation (the centre, the edge and the summits permitted to highlight the edge effect on wood production. For each part, a plot was installed and the diameter at breast height (dbh was measured for all trees. The leaf area between the edge and the centre of plantations was measured. Finally, the influence of the spatial configuration of plantations and the direction of each side of these plantations on the production of wood was tested. Results show that the edge effect on the production of teak wood affects four planting lines, the first presenting a production of 150% relative to the centre. We noticed a significant influence of the edge on the leaf area of about 218% relative to the centre. No influence of the direction of the sides of the plantation was observed. The shape of the plantations presents a significant influence on the wood production. These results permitted to propose a planting model included in an agroforestry system that optimizes the production of wood per area and having a succession of two planting lines interrupted by fields.

  5. Comparação entre uso de água em plantações de Eucalyptus grandis e floresta ombrófila densa (Mata Atlântica na costa leste do Brasil Comparison of water use in Eucalyptus grandis plantations and Atlantic Rainforest in eastern coast of Brazil

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    Auro Campi de Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma controvérsia histórica sobre o uso de água em plantações de eucalipto em vários países onde estas plantações vêm se expandindo. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um monitoramento hidrológico intensivo que vem sendo realizado desde 1994 em uma microbacia no município de Aracruz-ES, Brasil. As medições realizadas nos plantios de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden e em uma floresta nativa (Mata Atlântica e as estimativas a partir de modelos hidrológicos para o cálculo de balanço hídrico demonstram que as plantações de eucalipto se comparam à floresta nativa quanto à evapotranspiração anual e ao uso de água do solo. Considerando o ciclo de crescimento do eucalipto para produção de celulose, o uso de água pela plantação pode ser inferior ao da floresta nativa, principalmente no início do ciclo. A análise da relação entre evapotranspiração e precipitação mostrou que em anos em que a precipitação é próxima à média anual existe um equilíbrio entre a perda e a entrada de água através da precipitação pluviométrica.A historical controversy exists on the use of water by eucalypt plantations worldwide. This study presents the results of an intensive hydrologic monitoring carried out since 1994 in a watershed in Aracruz-ES, Brazil. After over eight years of measuring a eucalyptus forest and its neighboring native species stands (Atlantic Rainforest, the measurements and hydrological models have shown that the eucalypt trees may consume water more economically than the native trees, considering its whole growing cycle of seven years. The evapotranspiration and precipitation ratio showed a water balance when the precipitation is close to the annual average.

  6. Efeitos da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal na preservação da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo Effects of the purification and enrichment of wood tar creosote on preservation of Eucalyptus grandis wood, after 48 months of field testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal contra xilófagos, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo. Por destilação do alcatrão vegetal, obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto (creosoto 1, recuperado à temperatura de 110-255 °C. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, para obter o creosoto vegetal purificado (creosoto 2. Os creosotos 1 e 2 foram enriquecidos com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% de naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tributil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Estacas obtidas do alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula cheia. A eficiência das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada com a do creosoto mineral. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina. Os resultados indicam que o creosoto 2 + pentaclorofenol foi superior aos creosotos 1 e 2 + TBTO, aos creosotos 1 e 2 + naftenato de zinco e ao creosoto 1 puro, sendo semelhante ao creosoto mineral. O creosoto 2 foi superior ao creosoto 1 apenas para a localidade de Leopoldina. De modo geral, a vida média da madeira não-tratada ficou entre 12 e 24 meses, a da madeira tratada com o creosoto 1 + TBTO entre 24 e 37 meses e a da tratada com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de zinco entre 37 e 48 meses e a com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de cobalto, creosoto 2 puro e creosoto 2 + naftenato de zinco ou TBTO foi de 48 meses. No atual estágio da pesquisa, não é possível estimar a vida média da madeira tratada com as demais soluções preservativas testadas, pois ainda não atingiram os 60% das estacas quebradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of purifying and enriching wood tar creosote against wood decay after 48 months in field testing. By distillation of wood tar, the crude wood tar (creosote 1 was

  7. 巨尾桉工业原料林下植物群落学分析%Community analysis of undergrowth vegetation in industrial plantation of Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程盛慧; 杨宇明; 赵一鹤; 李昊民

    2012-01-01

    基于群落调查方法,对巨尾桉林下植物进行群落学分析.结果表明:巨尾桉林下植物共有维管束植物57科、124属、154种及变种,以禾本科和菊科的种类占优势;林下植物物种组成较为分散,优势属不明显;种子植物53科划分为6个分布区类型和2个变型,以热带分布科为主;种子植物120个属有14个分布区类型和7个变型,以热带分布属为主,植物区系成分较为复杂.林下植被可分为灌木层和草本层,但是分层现象不明显,草本层植物占优势,偶见有少量的层间植物分布.林下物种丰富度表现为草本层>灌木层;而Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou均匀度指数则表现为灌木层>草本层,生境空间异质性及人为干扰活动影响了巨尾桉林下植物组成及分布.%Based on standard community survey methodologies, community analysis of undergrowth vegetation in the Eucalyptus grandis ×E. Urophylla industrial plantations were analyzed. The results showed that, totally 154 vascu lar plants species belonging to 57 families and 124 genera were found. The dominating families were Gramineae and Compositae. The distribution of different plants was dispersed. And, there were no distinguishing dominating genera. 53 spermatophyte families could be classified into six areal types and two variables,mainly composed of tropical distri bution families; 120 spermatophyte genera could be classified into 14 areal types and 7 variables which were domina ted by 14 tropical distribution genera as dominating areal types. The pantropic areal types accounted for 28. 04% of non-cosmopolitan families. From the above, the flora composition of the undergrowth vegetation in the Eucalyptus grandis × E. Urophylla industrial plantations was very complicated. There were two layers of undergrowth vegetation in the Eucalyptus grandis ×E. Urophylla industrial plantations: herbaceous layer and shrub layer, but the layers were less obviously classified and

  8. Sequencing and Bioinformatic Analysis for Transcriptome of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. merrillii%香榧转录组测序及生物信息学基础分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易官美; 包燕春

    2016-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. Merrillii is an economically important plant on both agriculture and ecology. However, the genomic information of this species has been less studied, leading to limited researching progresses in both molecular biology and gene functions. In the present study, we have sampled different tissues of T. grandi to conduct a transcriptomic analysis using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 technical platform. As a result, a total of 37,349,086 reads were obtained with the whole base number of 4.35 G. Based on the assembling of high quality reads, we identified a total of 104,636 Unigenes with an average length of 784 nt and N50 was 1,702 nt. Comparing these Unigene sequences with those in the public database, 28,766 Unigenes were annotated in the Nr database, 24,003 Unigenes were in the NT database, and 21,401 Unigenes were in the Swiss-Prot database. Moreover, based on the COG database and the GO database, we also found 16,137 Unigenes and 11,410 Unigenes were in both databases respectively. We further classified 18,564 Unigenes into 256 pathways according to the KEGG annotation information. Finally, we identified 4,706 SSR loci in 4,217 Unigenes via SSR loci searching. The obtained transcriptome data was thus as the first genomic-wide database serving for future studies of T. grandis in terms of functional gene cloning, gene expression, fingerprint construction and molecular marker-assisted breeding.%香榧具有重要的经济价值,但其基因组信息相对匮乏,限制了其分子生物学和基因功能的研究。本文以不同组织的香榧作为研究对象,采用新一代高通量测序技术平台Illumina HiSeq™2000对香榧转录组进行测序和数据分析,共得到37,349,086个reads片段,总碱基数为4.35 G。利用组装软件,对获得的高质量序列进行组装,共得到104,636个Unigene,平均长度为784 nt,N50为1,702。将Unigene序列与公共数据库进行比对,28,766

  9. UTILIZAÇÃO DE MISTURAS DE CAVACOS INDUSTRIAIS COM RESÍDUOS DE SERRARIA PROVENIENTES DE MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis DE DIFERENTES IDADES PARA PRODUÇÃO DE PASTA KRAFT

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    Angelina Maron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda a viabilidade técnica do uso conjunto de resíduos de serraria (costaneiras dentre outros e topos de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis com 15 anos de idade, destinadas à produção de madeira sólida, com madeira de árvores de plantio industrial, com 7 anos de idade, destinadas à produção de pasta kraft. São apresentados modelos úteis à realização de estimativas de alturas total e comercial e de volumes de madeira comercial e adequadas para serraria, todos baseados no DAP. São fornecidos dados anatômicos, de densidade básica e de composição química de misturas desses tipos de materiais. Mostra-se que é tecnicamente viável realizar deslignificações kraft com misturas contendo madeira comercial de Eucalyptus grandis 7 anos com resíduo de serraria ou topos de árvores. A deslignificação kraft de resíduos de serraria resulta em perda rápida de rendimento, mas a pasta produzida sob as mesmas condições apresenta número Kappa menor que a de Eucalyptus grandis com 7 anos. A deslignificação de topos de árvores resulta em perda de rendimento bruto, mas o consumo específico de madeira é menor. Conforme aumenta a madeira de topo nas misturas, ocorre um aumento na densidade básica, o comprimento médio das fibras fica praticamente o mesmo e um pequeno aumento no teor de lignina; há diminuição nos extrativos em etanol, em água quente e na solubilidade em NaOH 1%. Diminui um pouco o rendimento bruto em pasta, mas praticamente não afeta o número Kappa, caindo sensivelmente o consumo específico de madeira. Com o aumento de madeira de resíduo de serraria das árvores nas misturas, praticamente não há efeito sobre a densidade básica, mas o comprimento médio das fibras aumenta, ocorrendo também um pequeno aumento no teor de lignina. Os extrativos em etanol, em água quente e na solubilidade em NaOH 1% diminuem. O rendimento bruto em pasta cai um pouco, mas com uma queda sensível no número Kappa

  10. 香榧转录组测序及生物信息学基础分析%Sequencing and Bioinformatic Analysis for Transcriptome of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. merrillii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易官美; 包燕春

    2016-01-01

    香榧具有重要的经济价值,但其基因组信息相对匮乏,限制了其分子生物学和基因功能的研究。本文以不同组织的香榧作为研究对象,采用新一代高通量测序技术平台Illumina HiSeq™2000对香榧转录组进行测序和数据分析,共得到37,349,086个reads片段,总碱基数为4.35 G。利用组装软件,对获得的高质量序列进行组装,共得到104,636个Unigene,平均长度为784 nt,N50为1,702。将Unigene序列与公共数据库进行比对,28,766个Unigenes获得了注释。其中26,856个Unigene在NR蛋白数据库中获得注释,24,003个Unigenes在NT数据库中获得注释,21,401个Unigene在Swiss-Prot蛋白数据库中获得注释,16,137个Unigene在COG数据库中获得注释,11,410个Unigene在GO数据库中获得注释。根据KEGG注释信息,18,564个Unigene被划分到256个代谢途径中。SSR位点搜索发现,在4,217个Unigene中含有4,706个SSR位点。分析所获得的转录组数据,将为香榧功能基因的克隆,基因的表达,指纹图谱构建和分子标记辅助选育奠定基础。%Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. Merrillii is an economically important plant on both agriculture and ecology. However, the genomic information of this species has been less studied, leading to limited researching progresses in both molecular biology and gene functions. In the present study, we have sampled different tissues of T. grandi to conduct a transcriptomic analysis using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 technical platform. As a result, a total of 37,349,086 reads were obtained with the whole base number of 4.35 G. Based on the assembling of high quality reads, we identified a total of 104,636 Unigenes with an average length of 784 nt and N50 was 1,702 nt. Comparing these Unigene sequences with those in the public database, 28,766 Unigenes were annotated in the Nr database, 24,003 Unigenes were in the NT database, and 21,401 Unigenes were in the Swiss

  11. 大针茅干旱胁迫下最佳内参基因组合的筛选及验证%Screening and Verification of the Best Combination of Reference Genes of Stipa grandis under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武志娟; 王照兰; 韩冰; 焦志军; 赵鸿彬

    2016-01-01

    经 qRT-PCR,采用ΔCt 值分析法、geNorm 和 NormFinder 软件分析法综合比较 Act 2、TUB-α、TUB-β、18S rRNA 、GAPDH 、EF-1a 、RNA POL I I 、APRT 、TLF 9个基因的稳定值,筛选大针茅干旱胁迫下基因表达分析最佳内参基因组合。结果表明,在根中最稳定的内参基因组合为18S rRNA 和 EF-1a ,在叶中最稳定的内参基因组合为18S rRNA 和 TLF 。在不同干旱胁迫下用大针茅根和叶中 P IP 2-1和 P IP 2-2基因表达差异验证最佳内参基因组合的稳定性表明,所筛选的内参基因稳定性较好,可以作为大针茅干旱胁迫基因表达的内参基因。%In order to provide stable reference genes for the analysis of gene expression of Stipa gran-dis under the drought stress,stable values of 9 reference genes of Act 2,TUB-α,TUB-β,18S rRNA ,GAP-D H ,EF-1a ,RNA POL I I ,APRT and TLF were investigated by qRT-PCR with ΔCt analyzing method and geNorm and NormFinder software.The best reference genes combination was selected.The results showed that the most stable reference genes combination was 18S rRNA and EF-1a in the root as well as 18S rRNA and TLF in the leaf.The best reference genes combination of P I P 2-1 and P I P 2-2 in the root and leaf of Stipa grandis was proved to be stable under different drought stress.

  12. 紫外线照射对梁平柚果皮基因表达的影响%Effect of UV-B Radiation on Gene Expression in Peels of'Liangping'Pommelo[Citrus grandis(L.)Osbeck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春振; 朱世平; 吴波; 阳佳位; 贝学军; 马岩岩; 钟广炎

    2011-01-01

    A suppression subtractive hybridization library was successfully constructed using cDNA synthesized from RNA extracted from peels of 'Liangping' pemmelo[Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck]receiving UV-B radiation as tester and non-UVB treatment as driver.Two hundred randomly-picked positive clones were sequenced, and a total of 168 EST sequences were obtained.One hundred and fourteen ESTs, involving in 57 genes, were found to share considerable homology with known genes while the rest 54 ESTs had low or even no homology with known genes.Function analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes were related to numerical celluar events such as stress-tolerance, growth and development, cell apoptosis, cell differenciation, gene transcription and translation, signaling, energy metabolism, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and secondary metabolism.%采用SSH技术以紫外照射的梁平柚[Citrus grandis(L.)Osbeck]果皮作为实验方(tester),以未被照射的正常果皮作为驱动方(driver),构建了一个梁平柚果皮紫外诱导基因的正向差减文库.经菌液PCR检测后随机挑取200个阳性克隆测序,获得168条表达序列标签(ESTs).比对这168条ESTs,发现有分属于57个基因的114条ESTs与已知基因高度同源,54条ESTs同源性较低或没有同源性.功能分析发现,这些ESTs主要参与抗逆防御、生长发育、细胞凋亡、转录与翻译、细胞分化、信号传导、能量代谢、糖类及氨基酸代谢以及次生代谢等.

  13. Monitoramento do teor de umidade de madeiras de Pinus elliottii Engelm. E Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, sob diferentes temperaturas de secagem, através do ultra-som

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the viability of use of ultrasonic technique to estimate the wood moisture content during the drying process, samples of Pinus elliottii Engelm. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with dimensions of 3.5 cm thick, 10 cm width and 25 cm long were submitted to drying temperatures of 20, 40 and 70ºC. A PUNDIT ultrasonic equipment with plane face transducers by 50 KHz was used to measure sound velocity in the longitudinal direction of the wood. Results indicated increase of estimated ultrasonic speed with reduction of moisture content. This relationship showed to be valid for the wood from green to the end of the drying process, and the best determination coefficients were found in the eucalypt wood (R² = 81%. Although no influence of the species in the ultrasonic speed has been observed, this one was influenced by the wood specific gravity and by the drying temperature. The effect of the specific mass was directly proportional for the pinus wood. Opposite effect was observed in eucalypt wood. The ultrasonic speed tended to decrease as drying temperature increased for both species. Results suggest that this method presents good potential for the control of the drying process.

  14. Larger mammals as a tourist attraction: factors influencing their visibility in the Hell's Gate National Park, Kenya / I grandi mammiferi come attrazione turistica: fattori che ne influenzano la visibilità nello Hell's Gate National Park, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lovari

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The larger (i.e. >5 Kg mammals of the Hell's Gate National Park were censused during the dry season. Fourteen species were sighted. Eland and Thomson's gazelles, as well as kongoni and zebras occupied open areas respectively in the early morning and late afternoon, whereas Grant's gazelles were present chiefly around midmorning. The Customer Satisfaction index (Chanter & Owen, 1976, calculated for all mammals, showed little variation throughout the day, but the greatest values were found at sunrise and at sunset. Concentration of animals was the highest around water pools. Riassunto Durante la stagione arida è stata studiata la "godibilità turistica" dei grandi mammiferi, attraverso l'indice di Chanter & Owen (1976, in relazione alla loro avvistabilità nello Hell's Gate National Park (Kenya. Eland, gazzelle di Thomson, alcelafi e zebre di Grant sono risultate specie frequentatrici degli spazi aperti, le prime due soprattutto all'alba e le altre due al tramonto, mentre le gazzelle di Grant comparivano principalmente a mattino inoltrato nelle aree erbose. Le pozze d'acqua costituivano importanti poli d'attrazione. L'indice di Chanter & Owen, calcolato sulle 14 specie di mammiferi avvistati nel corso dei transetti (75 Km/d, ha indicato una scarsa variazione di godibilità turistica nel corso della giornata, ma con valori lievemente maggiori all'alba e al tramonto.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DE PAINÉIS MDF DE MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis CONFECCIONADOS EM LABORATÓRIO E EM LINHA DE PRODUÇÃO INDUSTRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MDF panels of Eucalyptus grandis wood fibers were made in either experimentally in a laboratory or on an industrial production line. In order to analyze the influence of the production condition, the anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of the panels were determined. The wood refining induced the transversal rupture of the transversal fiber wall. The MDF panels obtained from the industrial production line presented less swelling in thickness and absorption values and improved mechanical properties in the requirements of bending strength, module of elasticity and surface resistance. For laboratory MDF panels, it was possible to verify a statistically significant correlation between bending strength and module of elasticity, medium density and internal bond and swelling in thickness and absorption. This tendency was also true for the MDF panels obtained in real conditions of production, however without statistical significance. By comparing the quality properties of MDF panels produced in the laboratory with those obtained in real conditions of production, it was sought to standardize the established variables for obtaining panels on a small scale, as well to make possible the safe transfer and divulgation of information obtained in the laboratory.

  16. Quality assessment of essential oils of Citrus Grandis peel obtained by different extraction methods%不同方法提取的柚皮精油质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊荣; 曾新安; 关昕

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil of Citrus Grandis peel was obtained by steam distillation,organic solvent extraction and supercritical(carbon dioxide)extraction methods,respectively.The physical and chemical properties as well as the major functional group were compared and identified.It could be concluded from the results that the quality of the essential oil obtained by steam distillation was better than that obtained by the other two extraction methods.%利用水热法、超临界萃取法、有机溶剂萃取三种不同的方法从沙田柚皮中提取柚皮精油,比较了提取出的三种精油的理化指标、香气特征,并且对精油的主要官能团进行了鉴定。通过对柚皮精油进行综合评价,得出最佳的提取方法。结果表明用水热法提取的精油香气比较纯正,精油含量较高,而且生产成本投资较少,综合评价值最高。

  17. INFLUÊNCIA DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS ANATÔMICAS E DO TEOR DE EXTRATIVOS TOTAIS DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden NA QUALIDADE DA COLAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to anatomically characterize and to quantify the total extractives in different positions of the log of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with 18 years of age and to assess their influence on the shear strength and percentage of wood failure in adhesive bonded joints with thermosetting resorcinolformaldehyde. Histological slides were prepared for an anatomical study and determined the total extractive content. The preparation of bonded joints was made according to ASTM D 2339-98(2000. It was used the correlation coefficient of Pearson, 1 % probability by t test to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical and extractives content with the quality of the glued joints. It was found that there was a correlation between the shear strength with the following characteristics: vessel diameter, wall width, length and width of the fiber, the width of the radius and total extractives content. For the percentage of woodfailure, there was a correlation between this with the following characteristics: the frequency of vessels, thickness of the heatof fiber, and high frequency of lightning. Both the radial direction as in the longitudinal direction of the logs there was change in the values found for the measurement of the anatomical elements, the total amount of extractives, the shear test strength and the percentage of wood failure.

  18. Produção de chapas de partículas orientadas “OSB” de Eucalyptus grandis com diferentes teores de resina, parafina e composição em camadas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Ivakiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência dos seguintes parâmetros de processo de produção sobre as propriedades das chapas "OSB": composição das chapas em camadas cruzadas com proporções face-miolo-face de 30-40-30 e 20-60-20 em relação à composição homogênea; e, quantidades de 3, 4,5 e 6,0% de resina fenol-formaldeído, com incorporação de 0,5 e 1,0% de emulsão de parafina. Os resultados demonstraram que a composição das chapas, com a relação 20-60-20, apresentou melhor balanço das propriedades de flexão estática entre os sentidos de ensaios paralelo e perpendicular ao plano da chapa. A quantidade de 6,0% de resina foi a que resultou em melhores propriedades físico-mecânicas das chapas "OSB". A produção de chapas "OSB" de Eucalyptus grandis, com 4,5 e 6,0% de resina fenol-formaldeído, superou as exigências mínimas de propriedades mecânicas das chapas "OSB" referendadas pela norma canadense CSA 0437-0 (1993.

  19. 大竹蛏5个野生群体遗传多样性的微卫星分析%Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity of five wild populations of Solen grandis (Dunker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志伟; 张雨; 陈爱华; 张志勇; 陆勤勤; 张朝晖; 姚国兴; 蔡永祥; 吴杨平; 曹奕

    2015-01-01

    The grand jackknife clam Solen grandis (Dunker, 1861) is a commercial marine bivalve that is found in coastal waters of China, Japan, and Korea from the shallow subtidal to depths of 20 m. It has high nutritive and medical value according to traditional Chinese medicine. In addition, it is adaptable and has high growth rates and great market potential. Currently, this clam is only available from natural sources. Over the last few decades, however, overfishing and environmental pollution have caused dramatic declines in natural stocks of S. grandis, and production is low and unstable. Fortunately, methods of artificial breeding and cultivation of the jackknife clam are developing. Previous studies on S. grandis focused primarily on morphological and ecological characteristics, allozyme analysis, and evalua-tion of its nutrition components. Little is known about the molecular ecology of S. grandis or its genetic background. Thus, it is important to evaluate genetic differences among populations along the coast of China. In this study, 14 mi-crosatellite DNA markers were used to examine the genetic diversity and differentiation among five wild populations of the grand jackknife clam. A total of 150 samples were collected from Dandong (DD) in Liaoning Province, Qinhuang-dao (QHD) in Hebei Province, Rizhao (RZ) in Shandong Province, Lyusi (LS) in Jiangsu Province, and Beihai (BH) in Guangxi Province. Comparisons of 199 alleles among the five populations showed that, in the fourteen loci, polymor-phism information content (PIC)values ranged from 0.696 to 0.853 with high polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 8 to 22 and the average number (AM) and richness(AR) of alleles were 14.2 and 11.05, respectively. Ex-pected (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged 0.769–0.826 and 0.809–0.858, respectively, suggesting high levels of genetic diversity in all populations. Only the Sg16 locus in the DD population deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

  20. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest. PMID:27419079

  1. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta R. Coelho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenin (Vg, a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest.

  2. Simulação do crescimento e da produção em plantações desbastadas de Eucalyptus grandis com diferentes procedimentos de obtenção dos parametros da distribuição Weibull

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Cesar Junio de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um simulador da produção de plantações de Eucalyptus grandis manejadas com regimes de desbaste. A fonte de dados foi proveniente de amostragem sobre projetos florestais implantados pela Inpacel Agroflorestal Ltda. na região nordeste do Paraná. A empresa aplicou um desbaste misto com intensidade variável sobre talhões situados em locais com diferentes capacidades produtivas. Os talhões tinham entre sete e onze anos de idade e a operação remov...

  3. Effects of Fertilization on Shoot Growth and Fruit Yield of Torreya grandis%施肥对香榧枝梢生长和结实量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕; 刘千玲; 陈田甜; 刘桂华

    2015-01-01

    We determined the shoot growth and fruit yield of Torreya grandis with different amount of fertilization in the first and second year, and studied the effect of fertilization on the shoot growth and fruit yield of I.grandis.The rapeseed cake had no effect on new growth shoot in the first year , while the relationship between the amount of composite fertilization and the production of new shoot in the first year was pronounced , the production of new shoot in the first year was initially in-creased and then decreased with increment amount of composite fertilization , and over-fertilization of composite fertilizer would inhibit the growth of new shoot .The growth of new shoot in the second year , fruit production in two years would not increase with the rapeseed and composite fertilization endlessly , however, the maximum new shoot growth and fruit output was reached at the optimal ( minimum) rate of fertilization based on the tree size .The bigger trees required greater amount of optimal ( minimum) fertilization to achieve the maximum growth of new shoot and fruit yield .For the trees of same size with equal amount of fertilization , rapeseed fertilizer had less facilitation effect on new shoot growth in the first year than composite fertilizer , but rapeseed fertilizer promoted shoot growth more prominently in the following year .Two fertilizers didn’ t have obvious divergence for the promotion of fruit yield in the first year , while rapeseed cake had a more positive impact on the fruit output than composite fertilizer in the second year .%采用田间试验的方法,对不同大小树体的香榧进行了施肥试验,分析施肥对香榧树的新梢生长和结实量的影响。结果表明:菜籽饼肥对当年新梢的生长没有产生显著影响;当年新梢生长量随复合肥施肥量的增加呈现先增加后略降的变化规律,过量施用复合肥会对新梢当年生长量产生抑制影响。翌年新梢生长量以及当年和翌年

  4. Cloning and sequence analysis of citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the root of ‘Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis)%酸柚根系CS和PEPC基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林通; 林郑和; 陈立松

    2012-01-01

    Total RNA was extracted from root of ' sour pummelo' ( Citnus grandis) by hot borate method. The sequence of conserved region, 3' RACE product and 5' RACE product of citrate synthase (CS) and phosphoenolpyruvate cariboxylase (PEPC) genes were obtained by RT-PCR and RACE. The full-length cDNA of CS was 1217 bp, which contained a 1413 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 472 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 52.487 ku and an isoelectric point of 6.9, a 67 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a277 bp 3'-UTR. An alignment of deduced amino acid sequence of CS gene from ' sour pummelo' with other plants showed ihey shared high homeology (85.4% -99.6%). The full-length cDNA of PEPC was 3307, which contained a 2604 bp ORF encoding 868 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 99.569 ku and an isoelectric point of 6.68, a 431 bp 5'-UTR and a 269 bp 3'-UTR. An alignment of deduced amino acid sequence of PEPC gene from sour pummelo with other plants showed they shared high homeology (85.8% -95.7%).%以酸柚(Citrus grandis)根系为材料,利用热硼酸法提取了根系总RNA,并逆转录成cDNA,利用PCR和RACE技术相继得到柠檬酸合酶基因(CS)和磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶基因(PEPC)的保守区、3′端和5′端.酸柚根系CS基因全长1760bp,开放读码框有1413bp,编码472个氨基酸,氨基酸序列相对分子质量为52.487 ku,等电点为6.9,亲水指数为-0.199;5′端非编码区为67 bp,3′端非编码区为277 bp;推导的氨基酸经序列比对,发现与其他物种具有很高的同源性(85.4% -99.6%).酸柚根系PEPC基因全长3307bp,开放读码框有2604 bp,编码868个氨基酸,氨基酸序列相对分子质量为99.569ku,等电点为6.68,亲水指数为-0,398;5′端非编码区为431 bp,3′端非编码区为269 bp,推导的氨基酸经序列比对,发现与其他物种具有很高的同源性(85.8% - 95.7%).初步确定克隆到的为酸柚根系CS和PEPC基因,登

  5. Estudio de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, trabajabilidad y secado de la teca (Tectona grandis L.f de Puerto libertador (Córdoba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancur Salgado Carlos A.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Productos Forestales " Héctor Anaya López" de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín. Dado el interés de la Empresa Reforestadora del Caribe, por conocer las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, trabajabilidad y secado de la madera de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. ; de cuya especie la Empresa estableció en Noviembre de 1987, una plantación en el municipio de Puerto libertador (Córdoba. Las propiedades físicas que se evaluaron fueron; peso especifico (verde, seco al aire, básico, anhidro y ajustado al 12 % de contenido de humedad, contracción y contenido de humedad. En lo relacionado a las propiedades mecánicas, se realizaron ensayos de flexión estática, compresión paralela a las fibras, compresión perpendicular al las fibras, cizallamiento, dureza, extracción de clavos e impacto; los ensayos se llevaron a cabo tanto en estado verde (CH>30% como en estado seco al aire (CH<15%. La madera presentó peso especifico anhidro (0.57 g/ cm3 , ubicándose dentro del grupo de maderas medianamente pesadas, las propiedades mecánicas de la especie se colocaron en el rango de algo medianas a medianas. Al comparar estos resultados con los estudios reportados para la especie, no se observo diferencia alguna. Los ensayos de trabajabilidad se realizaron en estado seco al aire (CH<15%, evaluando la respuesta de la madera al cepillado, moldurado y taladrado. Los defectos que se presentaron en cepillado fueron grano arrancado, grano velloso y en relieve, siendo de mayor importancia el último, debido a que los demás, se pueden eliminar fácilmente mediante lijado.

  6. 干旱胁迫对巨桉幼树生长及光合特性的影响%Effects of Drought Stress on Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Eucalyptus Grandis Saplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光良; 罗杰; 胡红玲; 胡庭兴; 陈洪; 王锐

    2015-01-01

    To study effects of drought stress on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis saplings, a pot experiment kept under continuous drought was performed. Growth and photosynthetic parameters of the saplings were monitored once every two days after irrigation, that is, on D2, D4, D6, D8, D10, D12, D14 and D16, while the sam-pling with normal irrigation as DO. Results show that ( 1) during the first 6 days, although growth of the saplings in ground diameter and plant height declined, it did not differ much from that on D0 ( P>0. 05);however, with the stress going on ( D8-D16) , the growth of the saplings in ground diameter and plant height dropped significantly. ( 2) with the stress going on, the content of chlorophyll a ( Chl a) in the saplings decreased significantly ( P0. 05) , but were getting much lower from D4 than those on D0( P<0. 05);(3) with the stress going on, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) of the saplings decreased significantly ( P<0. 05) while intercellular CO2 concentration ( Ci ) decreased first and then in-creased;(4) with the stress going on, apparent quantum yield(YAQ), RuBP apparent carboxylation rate (Ec), light sat-uration point(Lsp) and CO2saturation point(Csp) of the saplings were all on declining trends, while light compensation point(Lcp), CO2 compensation point(Ccp) on rising ones and maximum net photo-syntheticrate(Pmax)was on a declining one. In summary, with the drought stress aggravating, the content of photosynthetic pigments in the saplings decreased;stomata closed partly;photosynthetic organs were damaged to some extent, thus greatly reducing the saplings′ability to use light and CO2 and their photosynthetic rate, and consequently suppressing growth of the E. grandis saplings.%采用盆栽和持续干旱的方法,研究了干旱胁迫(以2 d为1个处理期,随干旱处理时间延长分别记为D2、D4、D6、D8、D10、D12、D14、D16,正常浇水记为D0)

  7. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  8. El picudo del algodonero en la Argentina: Principales resultados e implicancias de los estudios moleculares The cotton boll weevil in Argentina: Main results and implications of the molecular studies

    OpenAIRE

    Analía A. Lanteri; Confalonieri, Viviana A.; M. Amalia Scataglini

    2003-01-01

    Después de diez años del primer registro del picudo del algodonero, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), en la Argentina, el insecto ha llegado a la zona algodonera del Chaco. Los estudios moleculares realizados sobre poblaciones de la Argentina, Brasil y Paraguay, y posibles poblaciones fuente de EE.UU y México, han aportado información relevante para el control de la plaga. Se aplicaron las técnicas de RAPD (Polimorfismos del ADN Amplificados al Azar) y de secuenciación d...

  9. 巨桉低温胁迫响应基因EgrCR的表达与功能%Expression and Function of EgrCR Gene Responding to Cold Stress in Eucalyptus grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤华; 程龙军; 魏晓玲; 窦锦青

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]The protein structure,subcellular localization and expression with treatment of abiotic stresses for EgrCR( Eucgr. B02857 ) ,a cold responsive gene in Eucalyptus grandis,were characterized. And,the phenotype of Arabidopsis thaliana lines which over-expressed EgrCR were also analyzed to elucidate the roles it played in response to low temperature and other abiotic stresses in E. grandis. [Method]The characterization of EgrCR protein,cis-elements in promoter sequence of the gene and construction of phylogenetic tree of homologous proteins of EgrCR in different plants were analyzed with Protparam,PSIPRED,TMHMM,MatInspector and MEGA softwares. Subcellular localization of EgrCR was characterized with the method of introducing EgrCR-GFP fused genes into onion epidermal cells via gene gun bombardment. Gene expression analysis under treatments of abiotic stresses and circadian rhythm were carried on by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR methods respectively. The 35S::EgrCR over-expression vector was constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana,and the phenotypes of transgenic plants under different low temperatures (0,4 ℃) were analyzed to elucidate the function of EgrCR under the treatment of low temperature.[Result]The protein encoded by EgrCR contains 144 amino acids and there were 4 α helixes and 3 β sheets. No domain and trans-membrane region were found in the protein. The phylogenetic tree based on homology comparison showed that it was closed to its homologous protein in Populus trichocarpa,sharing a 68% protein similarity for them. To the promoter sequence of EgrCR,Some cis-elements related with plant stresses response were found in it. Nuclear localization for EgrCR merged protein with GFP implied EgrCR was located in the nucleus. Under normal condition,EgrCR were mainly expressed in stems and leaves, and qRT-PCR result of EgrCR under 0,2,4,6,8 ℃ and time course (2,6,12,24,48 h) treatments at 4 ℃revealed that it was induced

  10. Effects of manganese-excess on CO2 assimilation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, carbohydrates and photosynthetic electron transport of leaves, and antioxidant systems of leaves and roots in Citrus grandis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Ning

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about the effects of manganese (Mn-excess on citrus photosynthesis and antioxidant systems. Seedlings of sour pummelo (Citrus grandis were irrigated for 17 weeks with nutrient solution containing 2 μM (control or 500 μM (excess MnSO4. The objective of this study were to understand the mechanisms by which Mn-excess leads to a decrease in CO2 assimilation and to test the hypothesis that Mn-induced changes in antioxidant systems differ between roots and leaves. Results Mn-excess decreased CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, increased intercellular CO2 concentration, but did not affect chlorophyll (Chl level. Both initial and total ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco activity in Mn-excess leaves decreased to a lesser extent than CO2 assimilation. Contents of glucose, fructose, starch and total nonstructural carbohydrates did not differ between Mn-excess leaves and controls, while sucrose content was higher in the former. Chl a fluorescence (OJIP transients from Mn-excess leaves showed increased O-step and decreased P-step, accompanied by positive L- and K-bands. Mn-excess decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm and total performance index (PItot,abs, but increased relative variable fluorescence at I-steps (VI and energy dissipation. On a protein basis, Mn-excess leaves displayed higher activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR, glutathione reductase (GR, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX and contents of antioxidants, similar ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities and lower dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR activities; while Mn-excess roots had similar or lower activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants. Mn-excess did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA content of roots and leaves. Conclusions Mn-excess impaired the whole photosynthetic electron transport chain from the donor side of photosystem II

  11. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J; Steele, C L; Croteau, R

    1997-08-29

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and diterpene (C20) synthases from conifers more closely than other monoterpene synthases from angiosperm species. This similarity between extant monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of gymnosperms is surprising since functional diversification of this enzyme class is assumed to have occurred over 300 million years ago. Wound-induced accumulation of transcripts for monoterpene synthases was demonstrated by RNA

  12. 新干特早柚GPAT基因5'端克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequencing Analysis of the 5' Fragment of GPAT Gene from Citrus grandis cv. Xingantezaoyou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴波; 刘勇

    2009-01-01

    Citrus maxima cv. Xingantezaoyou' s GPAT gene of 5' end fragment was isolated from the leaf by means of 5 ' - RACE technology. The cDNA fragment is 832 bp long ( GenBank Accession No: DQ193970). The nucleotide sequence analysis showed that these sequences of GPAT 5' end fragment are greatly different from those of other plants. The best nucleotide similarity to Citrus unshiu was 98.9% but those Carthamus tinctorius, Arabidopsis thaliana ,Elaeis guineensis, Pisum sativum and Viciafaba were 62.5% ,54.6% , 48.2% ,47.4% and 46.9% respectively. The deduce amino acids sequence analysis showed the similarity to Carthamus tinctorius,Arabidopsis thaliana, Elaeis guineensis,Pisum sativum and Capsicum annuum were 51.6% , 60% ,45.1% ,48% and 52.3%. The amino acid sequences of GPAT gene has genera specificity because the similarity of amino acid sequences to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is only 18.9%.%采用5'-RACE技术从新干特早柚(Citrus grandis cv. Xingantezaoyou)叶片中克隆出一条长832 bp的GPAT基因5'端cDNA片段(GenBank 登录号:DQ193970).序列分析结果表明:该cDNA片段序列与其它科属植物的GPAT基因序列的同源性差异较大,除与同类植物--温州蜜柑(Citrus unshiu)的同源性高达98.9%,与红花(Carthamus tinctorius)、拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)、非洲油棕榈(Elaeis guineensis)、豌豆(Pisum sativum)、蚕豆(Vicia faba)的同源性分别为62.5%、54.6%、48.2%、47.4%、46.9%;其所编码的氨基酸序列与红花、拟南芥、非洲油棕榈、豌豆、辣椒的同源性分别为51.6%、60%、45.1%、48%、52.3%,与细菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)的同源性仅为18.9%,说明GPAT基因的氨基酸序列具有种属特异性.

  13. Avaliação comparativa de iscas atrativas a partir da riqueza de espécies de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae numa floresta de Eucalyptus grandis, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Boscardin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar diferentes iscas atrativas, buscando eficiência quanto à riqueza de espécies de formigas epigéicas, potenciais bioindicadores da qualidade ambiental, em uma área antropizada, com Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden (Myrtaceae, com 16 anos, e aproximadamente cinco hectares, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram realizadas utilizando-se cinco tipos de iscas: sardinha com óleo (SO, sardinha com tomate (ST, patê de frango (FR, patê de fígado de frango (FG e atum sólido (AT distribuídas aleatoriamente na área, em intervalos de cinco metros, com cinco repetições, totalizando 25 unidades experimentais, amostradas a cada estação do ano, de novembro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Após 60 minutos de exposição, todo o material presente sobre a armadilha foi recolhido e acondicionado em recipientes com álcool 70 % e em seguida, encaminhado ao laboratório de entomologia para separação em morfo-espécies para posterior identificação. Coletaram-se 3072 indivíduos, distribuídos em 14 espécies pertencentes a oito gêneros e quatro subfamílias. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as riquezas médias observadas de espécies nas iscas (DMS = 2,3252 ; g.l. = 19, p > 0,05. A isca constituída de sardinha com óleo apresentou maior riqueza média observada de espécies (SM = 5,75, porém a isca a base de patê de fígado de frango apresentou maior riqueza de espécies (S = 13, sendo que, Pseudomyrmex termitarius ocorreu somente nestas duas. Das espécies amostradas, nenhuma apresentou preferência por uma única isca atrativa específica, espécies de Brachymyrmex, Camponotus, Pheidole, Wasmannia e Solenopsis foram comuns nas cinco iscas. Portanto, no momento da escolha de uma das iscas avaliadas para a realização da amostragem de formigas epigéicas, sugere-se ponderar, além da riqueza específica, a não- presen

  14. Analysis on Fatty Acid and Unsaponifiable Matter in Torreya grandis var.merriii Seed Oil%香榧籽油的脂肪酸及不皂化物组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛丽影; 吴晓琴; 张英

    2011-01-01

    香榧为我国特产的名贵干果,试验对其籽油的脂肪酸及不皂化物采用GC/MS进行了定性定量分析,结果确定香榧籽油脂肪酸组成以亚油酸与油酸为主,质量分数分别为39.60%与35.40%,其次为棕榈酸(10.24%).一种特殊脂肪酸,金松酸(顺5,11,14-二十碳三烯酸),质量分数达8.65%.另外,香榧籽油的不皂化物组成以β-谷甾醇和β-生育酚为主,含量分别为1.10 mg/g和0.51 mg/g.本研究为香榧籽油作为高档功能性油脂的开发利用提供了基础数据.%The seed of Chinese torreya ( Torreya grandis var. merriii) is a special rare native nut in China. This research focused on the fatty acid and unsaponifiable matter composition of its seed oil determined by GC/MS. Results showed that linoleic acid and oleic acid were most abundant with mass fraction of 39.60% and 35.40% ,followed by palmitic acid ( 10.24% ) and sciadonic acid ( all -cis - 5,11,14 - eicosatrienoic acid,8.65% ). Sciadonic acid is an unusual fatty acid, which is first reported in Torreya seed oil in China. In other side, β -sitosterol and β -tocopherol were main unsaponifiable components with respective contents of 1.10 mg/g and 0.51 mg/g. These data would be helpful for the further development and utilization of Chinese torreya seed oil as functional food.

  15. 巨桉EgrDREB2 A基因结构及表达特性分析%The Structure and Expression Characteristics of EgrDREB2 A Gene in Eucalyptus grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓玲; 程龙军; 窦锦青; 徐凤华

    2015-01-01

    降低。【结论】巨桉 EgrDREB2A 属于DREB2类基因,其表达受低温诱导,同时受 ABA、盐和昼夜节律的影响。该基因启动子序列上启动子元件及与其共表达基因大多与植物逆境响应有关。这些结果表明 EgrDREB2A可能在巨桉抵抗非生物逆境因子的过程中发挥比较重要的作用。%Objective]A gene,EgrDREB2A,was isolated from the mRNA suppression subtractive hybridization library of Eucalyptus grandis (Eucgr. G03094). Based on the analysis of structure,subcellular localization of EgrDREB2A protein and gene expression under different treatments of low temperature,ABA and salt,the roles of EgrDREB2A in the resistance to abiotic stresses of Eucalyptus grandis were discussed. [Method]SMART and MatInspector softwares were used to analyze the protein structure of EgrDREB2A and the cis-elements in promoter sequence of the gene. Phylogenetic tree of DREB proteins was constructed by MEGA software. Subcellular localization of EgrDREB2A was characterized with the method of introducing EgrDREB2A-GFP fused genes into onion epidermal cells via gene gun bombardment. And,gene expression analysis in different tissue,under treatments of low temperature,ABA,salt and circadian rhythm were carried out by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR method respectively. For the gene co-expression of EgrDREB2A under different time treatment at 4 ℃,WGCNA and Cytoscape softwares were used. [Result]EgrDREB2A was classed into DREB2 group because the protein it encodes containing one AP2 domain which including a YRG and a RAYD conserved regions. The phylogenetic tree based on homology comparison showed it belonging to subtypeⅠof DREB2 group. Several cis-elements related with plant stress response were found in the EgrDREB2A promoter sequence. Nuclear localization with DREB2 merged protein with GFP implied EgrDREB2A mainly located in the nucleus. qRT-PCR result of EgrDREB2A under 0 ℃,2 ℃,4 ℃,6 ℃ and 8 ℃ revealed it was induced. Time course (0. 5

  16. 不同林龄巨尾桉的灰分含量和热值%Ash contents and caloric values of Eucalyptus grandis ×Eucalyptus urophylla in different stand ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周群英; 陈少雄; 韩斐扬; 陈文平

    2011-01-01

    Ash contents and caloric values of leaves,branches, roots,stem-wood and bark of 1-4 years old Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla were determined by using calorimeter and muffle furnace. The results showed that the ash contents of five parts ranged from (0. 42±0. 14)% to (4. 43±1.35)% with the highest in bark and the lowest in stem-wood,the decreasing orders of them at different stand ages were not in the same way and were irregular,there were significant different in ash contents of leaves,branches,stem-wood and bark except roots at four stand ages(P<0. 05).Mean gross caloric values (GCV) and ash free caloric values (AFCV) of different parts ranged from (17. 24±0. 31) to (20. 58±0. 34)kJ · g-1 and (18. 04±0. 22) to (21.44±0. 37)kJ · g-1 respectively,the distribution law of them at different stand ages were quite different from component to component with leaves having the highest GCV and AFCV and bark the lowest. The differences among stand ages in GCV of leaves, branches,roots and AFCV of leaves,roots,bark were not significant (P>0. 05), but making obvious differences in stem-wood and bark's GCV, branches and stem-wood's AFCV (P<0. 05). As to the whole tree,4-year-old Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla had the highest ash content which was 2. 76% ,while the 2-year-old tree had the highest GCV and AFCV which was 19. 06 kJ · g-1 and 19. 53kJ · g-1. To whole tree,the differences in ash content and colaric value were not obvious(P>0. 05).%采用热量仪和马福炉对1~4年生4个不同林龄阶段巨尾桉的叶、枝、根、干、皮5个部位进行灰分含量和热值测定,结果表明:不同林龄巨尾桉其5个部位的平均灰分含量在(0.42±0.14)%~(4.43±1.35)%之间,以皮的最高、干的最低,各部位灰分含量的大小排列顺序无一相同且无明显的规律可循,除根外,叶、枝、干、皮在林分4个林龄阶段的灰分含量差异均显著(P<0.05);部位平均

  17. Overview of the teak silviculture in Brazil and perspectives for genetic improvement O cenário nacional da silvicultura de teca (Tectona grandis L. f. e perspectivas de melhoramento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Schnell e Schuhli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The teak (Tectona grandis L. f. wood properties direct an intense process of domestication and plantation outside its original habitat. The interest in the species as an alternative for the traditional forest plantations in Brazil is growing. This review contributes with the recovery of technical and scientific information regarding teak aiming the subsequent proposition of a genetic breeding program. In this paper it is presented a brief review of the silvicultural methods for the species in Brazil. The positive perspectives and the main risks related to the teak plantation were explored. In  general, in the most recent genetic improvement  programs the employment of clones was a common strategy. The initial emphasis of the improvement programs were the growth rate and wood property (generally density. As for other species the proper choice of the selection methods resides in observing the genetic variances (additive and non-additive, herdability (broad and narrow, and the genetic correlations among characters. As in other forest  breeding programs the conversion of progeny tests in seedling seed orchards is common for a faster seed production and development of commercial clones
    or clonal seed orchards.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.217

    As propriedades da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis L. f regem um intenso processo de domesticação e cultivo em regiões além de seu habitat natural. O interesse na espécie como alternativa aos plantios florestais tradicionais no Brasil vem crescendo. Esta revisão contribui com o processo de resgate da  informação técnicocientífica sobre a teca com vistas à elaboração de um programa de melhoramento. Neste documento, é apresentada uma breve revisão sobre os métodos silviculturais para a espécie no Brasil. Foram explorados aspectos positivos inerentes ao cultivo assim como os principais riscos. De forma geral, verificou-se que os programas recentes de

  18. 尾巨桉3个无性系继代增殖培养研究%Multiplication Subculture of Three Clones of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石前; 李飞宇; 梁秀莉; 邓冬丽; 李丽芳; 兰俊

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究尾巨桉3个无性系继代增殖培养技术,为尾巨桉苗木快速繁殖提供理论依据。[方法]以尾巨桉3个无性系DH32-26、DH32-29、DH32-28为试验材料,筛选最佳的植物生长调节剂组合、凝固剂、暗培养天数和培养瓶,达到较高的继代增殖系数。[结果]3个无性系继代增殖培养时最适的植物生长调节剂组合为:DH32-26(6-BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L);DH32-28(6-BA 0.4 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L);DH32-29(6-BA 0.3 mg/L+NAA0.2 mg/L);DH32-26的继代增殖系数在凝固剂为卡拉胶和琼脂的培养基中差异不大,DH32-28、DH32-29的继代增殖系数在以卡拉胶作为凝固剂的培养基中比在以琼脂作为凝固剂的培养基中有所提高,在生根培养过程中,以卡拉胶作为凝固剂的培养基远比用琼脂作为凝固剂的培养基诱导出根好;继代增殖初期DH32-26、DH32-28需用黑布进行全暗遮光5~10 d,而DH32-29不需全暗培养;用广口瓶继代增殖培养DH32-29可降低苗木生产成本,但DH32-26、DH32-28不适合用广口瓶进行继代增殖培养。[结论]要提高无性系继代增殖系数,需要选取最优的植物生长调节剂组合、凝固剂、暗培养天数和培养瓶。%Objective] To research the multiplication subculture technology of three clones of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis, and to pro-vide theoretical foundation for the rapid propagation of E. urophylla × E. grandis seedlings. [ Method] With three clones (DH32-26, DH32-29, DH32-28) as the test materials, the optimal combination of regulators was screened, as well as the coagulator, dark culture days and culture flask. Thus, multiplication coefficient was relatively high. [Result] The optimal combination of plant growth regulators for subculture of three clones were DH32-26(6-BA 0. 5 mg/L + NAA 0. 2 mg/L), DH32-28(6-BA 0. 4 mg/L + NAA 0. 2 mg/L) and DH32-29(6-BA 0. 3 mg/L +NAA 0. 2 mg/L). DH32-26 multiplication coefficient showed no significant differences

  19. Simulación del impacto de diferentes regímenes de cosecha sobre el capital de nutrientes e indicadores económicos en plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis del NE de Entre Ríos, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Goya

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect on soil productivity of harvesting forestry products deserved special attention in last years. Consequently, it is necessary to establish quantitative indices of environmental and economic impact for the different management stages. The decision of planting forestry trees is dependent on financial indicators; high costs may change investor decision. Maintaining soil nutrient stock as a baseline for productivity support may be an indicator of ecological sustainability; however, it can increase costs. Our objective was to answer the following: (i How each harvest scenario affect the nutrient stability of plantations? (ii Which of the alternative scenarios is of higher financial value at present? And (iii Does the present scenario of higher financial value persist if, for maintaining ecological sustainability, we conserve or replace the nutrients exported during harvest? We simulated different types of harvest and crop residue treatments in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis of 8 and 11 years old. Nutrient export in different scenarios was quantified and ecological stability indices -Plantation Stability Index (PEI-, and financial indices –Present Net Worth, Soil Expectation Value and Internal Rate of Return - were analyzed considering the cost of nitrogen replacement. The scenario of total harvest and residue burning gave losses of 491 and 369 kgN.ha-1 for 8 and 11 years rotation, respectively. PEI have shown that complete tree harvest and residue burning cause the highest ecological impact with index values superior to 2.5 (>0.5= instability; economic indices lowered when soil nutrients are recovered through fertilization inputs. Revenues reduction may affect the decision of planting commercial trees, alerting and stimulating to improve harvest practices at harvest and post-harvest stages. RESUMEN El efecto de la cosecha de productos forestales sobre la productividad edáfica ha adquirido singular atención últimamente. Por

  20. Selective breeding for increased pheromone production in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, uses an aggregating pheromone to attract females, after which mating often occurs. Sterile boll weevil release programs depend upon this phenomenon to produce sterile matings with feral females. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the individual sterile male and thereby reduce the number of sterile males required per hectare, a selective-breeding system was used to increase the total pheromone produced by individual male boll weevils. This breeding program increased the total pheromone production by individual male boll weevils to 4.5 times that of the parent population. After irradiation-induced sterilization, there remained 2.2 times more pheromone produced by the selected strain. Therefore, these sterile weevils should be about 2.2 times more attractive to feral females than the parent weevils now in use, and they have the potential to reduce the number of sterile males required in a sterile release program

  1. Effect of Extractives on Color Changes of Eucalyptus urophyll a ×Eucalyptus grandis and Its SpectrumA nalysis%溶剂抽提物对尾巨桉热变色的影响及光谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高姗; 陈瑶; 高建民

    2015-01-01

    为探讨溶剂抽提物对尾巨桉热变色的影响,在过热蒸气条件下对抽提物进行热处理,之后采用冷水、热水、乙醇、甲醇、丙酮、正己烷等6种溶剂对热处理前后的尾巨桉木粉进行抽提,对热处理前后经过抽提的木粉进行色度指数的测定和红外光谱分析,并对抽提物进行紫外光谱分析。结果表明:①极性溶剂抽提物对尾巨桉颜色及其热处理后颜色变化影响较大,其中热水抽提物对颜色的影响最显著;②抽提物热处理后共轭结构增加,共轭体系能量降低,吸收带延伸至可见光范围,是木材受热后颜色加深的重要原因;③热处理后,尾巨桉木粉ΔL倡为负值,即颜色变深,木材颜色均匀美观,可提高利用价值。%Overheating steam treatment can darken the color of Eucalyptus urophylla×Eucalyptus grandis wood and make it look like precious wood, which can improve its utility value.For studying the effect of overheating steam treatment on discolora-tion of Eucalyptus urophylla ×Eucalyptus grandis wood, we extracted the wood powder before and after heating treatment with cold water, hot water, alcohol, methyl alcohol, and acetone and n-hexane, and measured the color parameters of the samples before and after extracted.We used ultraviolet absorption spectrum and the FTIR spectra to evaluate chemical changes of extractives and wood powder.Polar solvents extract was more effective on color and color changes of E.grandis wood powder after heat treatment.Hot water extraction had the most important influence on wood color.The important rea-sons of color deepen after heat treatment were:after heat treatment, the conjugated structures of extractives increased, and the energy of conjugated system decreased, and the absorption band extended to the visible light range.After heat treat-ment,ΔL* value of E.urpoh ylla×E.grandis wood powder was negative, which meant the color was deepen, and the

  2. 巨尾桉韧皮部周皮形成过程的研究%Study on the periderm forming process in Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla phloem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜明; 陈瑞英; 陈居静; 于再君

    2013-01-01

    周皮具有重要的保护作用和商业价值,采用石蜡切片法对4年生巨尾桉韧皮部周皮形成过程的微观结构进行研究.结果表明:周皮形成于每年的2月下旬至5月上旬,距树皮外表面900 μm深度附近的位置,并随树龄增长而加深.依据细胞形态结构特征和发生顺序,将周皮形成过程划分为6个阶段.(1)细胞脱分化前:将会形成周皮的位置,细胞处于相对静止状态;(2)细胞脱分化期:将会形成周皮的位置,细胞发生脱分化,逐步恢复分裂能力;(3)木栓形成层形成期:脱分化后的细胞开始分裂,形成木栓形成层并逐渐连续;(4)木栓层形成期:木栓形成层向外分生木栓层,向内分生栓内层;(5)径向伸展层形成期:木栓形成层发生径向伸展,变异为径向伸展层;(6)木栓层细胞分离期:部分木栓层细胞发生脱落,落皮层从局皮上分离.在径向伸展层形成期,木栓形成层细胞径向壁发生先破裂解体再重构的现象,为细胞伸展过程中的细胞壁化学键断裂学说提供了直观证据.%Periderm has important role in protection and high values in commerce.The microstructure of pefiderm forming process in 4 years old Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla phloem was studied by paraffin method,the results showed as follows.The periderm formed from late February to early May every year,it lay about 900 μm under outermostlayer,and became deeper with age.Based on the cell morphological structure features and sequence,the periderm forming process was divided into six stages.(1) Before cell dedifferentiating stage,the parenchymal cells where periderm would emerge were static.(2) At cell dedifferentiating stage,the parenchymal cells were dedifferentiating to regain fission ability.(3) Cork cambium forming stage,the parenchymal cells were dividing to forming cork cambium.(4)Cork forming stage,the cork cambium dividing cork cells outward and phelloderm inward.(5) Radial expanded layer forming stage

  3. Variation of Soil Fauna Community in Eucalyptus grandis Plantation Before and After Felling Disturbance%采伐干扰前后巨桉人工林土壤动物群落比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玖金; 张健; 黄玉梅; 马红星; 李旭东

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the response of soil animal community to harvesting disturbance and evaluate the ecological etfect of a eucalypt plantation, an investigation on soil fauna was carried out in the eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis) plantation which was planted in 1997 and harvested in August 2006. Soil macro-fauna were picked up by hand. Nematodes and mesofauna were separated and collected from the soil samples by Baermann and Tullgren methods, respectively. Totally, 5 578 individuals of soil fauna, belonging to 4 phyla, 10 classes and 25 orders were collected before and after felling disturbance, and the individuals of soil fauna were 1 290 fewer than those before felling. Individuals were easier affected by felling disturbance than group numbers. Acarina, Hymenoptera and Nematode occupied 91.76% of the total decreased individuals, Collembolan 88.99%of the total increased individuals, and other soil fauna changed insignificantly. The meso-micro soil fauna (including those collected by Baermann and Tullgren methods) were mainly distributed in top soil layer, which was negatively correlated with soil temperature, and positively with soil organic content and soil moisture. The felling disturbance represented a significant effect on meso-micro soil fauna (P < 0.01). Shannon-Wiener (H') and Pielou (J) indexes increased significantly ( P > 0.05), DG index decreased extremely significantly ( P < 0.01), Simpson(C) index of plot A decreased and plot B increased, indicating that havesting disturbance had induced significant eftects on the structure of soil fauna in the eucalypt plantation. Tab 6, Ref 33%为了解采伐干扰对巨桉人工林土壤动物的影响,采用手捡法和干湿漏斗法对四川省洪雅县巨桉人工林采伐干扰前和干扰后土壤动物群落进行调查.结果显示:巨桉人工林采伐干扰前后共获大中小型土壤动物5 578头,分属4门10纲25目,采伐干扰后共减少1 290头,类群数减少了3个.采伐干扰前

  4. Optimization design based on kinetic model and extraction process of pectin from pomelo (Citrus grandis L.Osbeck) fruit peel%柚果皮果胶浸提过程及动力学分析优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周存山; 余筱洁; 马海乐; 王允祥; 韩平

    2013-01-01

    以琯溪蜜柚果皮为原料,采用果胶酸解浸提法,基于果胶在浸提过程中包括原果胶转变为果胶、果胶从组织扩散到溶剂、果胶大分子降解等进程,以同步串联反应法构建果胶浸提动力学模型,获得基于浸提工艺优化和果胶同步降解影响的浸提动力学方程,进而进行模型验证分析及参数优化.有效性(残差分析及F检验)检验表明:该模型可应用于分析柚果皮果胶浸提动力学过程,在温度70 ~ 90℃,浸提过程表观活化能Ea为31.34kJ· mol-1;优化分析获得在浸提液pH =2.0,浸提温度90℃,浸提时间90.25 min,料液质量与体积比为1:40时,柚果皮果胶浸提得率11.83%,此结果与正交设计优化结果吻合.%The pectin extraction of pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) fruit peel was investigated by the method of acid hydrolysis. The kinetic model of the processes of protopectin hydrolysis to pectin, pectin diffusion from tissue to solvent, degradation of some pectin macromolecules was established by synchronous series reaction method to estimate the most important mass transfer coefficients. Based on the effects of degradation and extraction of pectin, and optimization of simultaneous extraction conditions, the kinetic equations were obtained to realize model validation and optimization parameter. The validations of residual error analysis and F test show that the model can be applied to the kinetic analysis of pectin extraction from pomelo fruit peel. The apparent activation energy of extraction process is 31. 34 kJ·mol-1 at temperature of 70 - 90 ℃ . According to the optimization analysis, the pectin extraction yield from pomelo fruit peel is 11. 83% of dried peel at the optimized conditions with pH value of 2. 0,extraction temperature of 90 ℃ , extraction time of 90 min and solid to liquid ration of 1 : 40. The optimization condition and the maximum yield from kinetic model are confirmed by the results from orthogonal experiment.

  5. Crescimento e absorção de fósforo em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis associadas a fungos micorrízicos em diferentes doses de fósforo e potenciais de água do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Fernandes

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a produção de parte aérea (MS, a absorção (CP e a eficiência de utilização de fósforo (EUP por plantas de Eucalyptus grandis inoculadas com Glomus etunicatum (Ge e, ou, Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt, em diferentes combinações entre doses de P e potenciais hídricos do solo (ψ, utilizando-se técnica de raízes subdivididas em vasos geminados, em casa de vegetação. Um dos vasos do conjunto geminado continha os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial de duas doses de P (P60 e P120, correspondentes a adições de 60 e 120 mg dm-3 de solo, três ψ (-10, -40 e -300 kPa e quatro tratamentos com inóculos fúngicos (não inoculado, Ge, Pt, Ge + Pt. Outro vaso do conjunto continha 4,5 litros de solução nutritiva, sem P. Independentemente da dose de P adicionada, a colonização por Ge foi reduzida com a diminuição do ψ. Quanto à colonização por Pt, observou-se ausência de resposta a ψ em P60 e aumento em P120. A colonização ectomicorrízica foi reduzida quando Pt foi inoculado concomitantemente a Ge. Aumentos do CP, em função do incremento do ψ, foram observados em P60 e P120. No entanto, MS e EUP responderam positivamente à elevação de ψ apenas em P120. A inoculação isolada com Ge não apresentou efeito sobre as plantas, nas combinações entre ψ e P. A colonização por Pt apresentou efeitos diferenciados sobre as plantas, dependendo das condições de ψ e P no solo. Na combinação P60 e -300 kPa, correspondente à situação de menor disponibilidade de P, observou-se efeito deletério da colonização por Pt, isolada ou concomitantemente com Ge, sobre a EUP das plantas. Efeitos positivos da inoculação isolada com Pt sobre o CP foram observados nas combinações entre P120 e ψ de -10 kPa e -40 kPa, embora apenas na segunda situação este maior CP tenha sido acompanhado de incremento da MS.

  6. 水蒸气蒸馏与乙醇提取化橘红叶成分的GC-MS分析%GC-MS Analysis of the Extracts by Steam Distillation and Ethanol Extraction from Citrus Grandis Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩寒冰; 王明阳; 刘杰凤; 马超; 李海航

    2015-01-01

    分析比较水蒸汽蒸馏法与乙醇提取化橘红叶化学成分的差异。通过水蒸汽蒸馏提取和无水乙醇超声辅助提取化橘红叶中的化学成分,运用GC-MS技术对其成分进行分离鉴定,用峰面积归一化法进行定量分析。水蒸汽蒸馏提取法共分离出58种成分,鉴定出其中的18种,主要成分是:β-蒎烯(19.44%)、β-月桂烯(6.95%)、D-柠檬烯(10.49%)、γ-萜品烯(19.30%)和石竹烯(20.46%)等;乙醇提取法共分离出80种成分,鉴定出其中的43种,主要成分是亚油酸(16.8%)、硬脂酸(6.57%)、菜油甾醇(5.82%)、豆甾烯醇(7.12%)和扶桑甾醇氧化物(14.28%)等,同时鉴定了甲氧基香豆素、补骨脂素、佛手柑内酯、前胡内酯和橙皮油内酯等香豆素类化合物,以及柚皮素、角鲨烯和VE等活性成分。两种不同的提取法共分离鉴定了18种相同的化学成分,乙醇提取法多分离鉴定25种成分。%To analyse the chemical constituent of the extracts from leaves of Exocarpium Citrus Grandis by different extraction methods. The compounds were extracted by steam distillation and ethanol separately , constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS , and were quantified by the accuracy of area percent. 58 components were separated , among which 18 were identified, the main components wereβ-Pinene (19.44%),β-Myrcene (6.95%), Limonene (10.49%),γ-Terpinene (19.30%) and Caryophyllene (20.46%) by steam distillation. 80 components were separated , among which 43 were identified , the main components were fatty acids (23.27%) and sterols (27.22%), the main active ingredients were five cumarins (Herniarin, Ficusin, Bergapte, Ammidin and Aurapten), Naringenin, Supraene and Vitamin E in the alcohol extraction. 18 chemical components of the extracts were the same by the two extraction methods, but there were more than 25 components in the alcohol extraction.

  7. 巨尾桉单宁的提取分离及其抗菌抗氧化性能%Extraction and Separation of Tannins from Eucalyptus Grandis x E.urophylla and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄增; 刘雄民; 库咏峰; 黄红铭; 殷勇

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction was adopted to extract tannins from Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The crude extract tannins was purified by the macroporous resin adsorption. The antimicrobial activity of tannins on multiple common bacteria was studied by way of filter paper method, and the oxidation resistance of the samples was studied by way of three different systems. Tannin in crude extract was 4. 01% and increased to 53. 12% when it was chromatographied by macroporous resin. Tannins had strong inhibition on the 7 kinds of bacteria activity but exhibited no distinct inhibition on Excherichia coli. Minimum antimicrobial mass concentration of the purified tannins on Staphyloccocus aureus, Yeast and Shigella was 1.0 g/L,and the antimicrobial activity against Live Bacillus Cereus Preparation and Salmonella was stronger than that against positive control. The maximum scavenging rates of crude tannins and purified tannins for H2O2 were 80. 00% and 89. 12% respectively when the mass concentration was 0. 50 g/L,and their IC50 were 0. 11 g/L and 0. 12 g/L, respectively. The maximum scavenging rates of Vc, crude tannins and purified tannins for DPPH o were 98. 43% ,88. 97% and 92. 21% respectively. When the mass concentration was 4. 00 g/L,the highest scavenging rate of crude tannins and purified tannins for o OH were 87.52% and 94. 32% respectively.%采用超声波辅助法提取了巨尾桉叶中的单宁,大孔树脂吸附法纯化了粗提物,考察了提取物对8种常见菌种的抑制作用和对H2O2、DPPH·和·OH的清除作用.结果表明,巨尾桉单宁的提取得率为4.01%;经树脂分离纯化后单宁质量分数达到53.12%;巨尾桉单宁对除大肠杆菌外的供试菌种均有较强的抑制作用,纯化后的单宁对金黄色葡萄球菌、酵母菌和痢疾杆菌的最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)均为1.0 g/L,对蜡状芽孢杆菌和沙门氏菌的抑制作用优于阳性对照物;粗提物、纯化物在质最浓度为0.50 g

  8. Uksed avab Cafe Grandi muusikasalong / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    18.mail avab agentuur Corelli Music Pärnu hotellis Victoria uue muusikasalongi Café Grand kontserdiga "Saksa radadel", 13. juulil esineb tshellokvartett C.-JAM ja 15. juulil ansambel Corelli Consort (vt. www.corelli.ee)

  9. 10个柚木种源27年生长与适应性%Growth and adaptability of ten provenances of Tectona grandis at 27-year-old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁坤南; 赖猛; 黄桂华; 林明平; 周再知; 马华明

    2011-01-01

    海南省乐东尖峰岭柚木Tectona grandisl0个种源27年生的生长与适应性研究结果表明:在适应性方面种源间保存率存在极显著差异,27年生印度种源3071和3074的保存率仍达到92.34%,而泰国4个种源保存率最低仅有4.95%~39.6%,与印度种源3071和3074以及对照种源8204差异达极显著;在生长方面,种源间树高、单株材积差异显著,印度3070和3071种源是树高和胸径生长最好的两个种源,比对照种源分别提高了16.7%~17.6%和28.9%~32.5%;泰国4个种源树高和胸径生长最差;10个种源间每公顷蓄积量差异极显著,其中:27年生印度种源3071每公顷蓄积量最大(430.8m3),年生长量达到15.95m3/hm2,是对照种源的2.25倍,差异极显著;泰国4个种源27年生蓄积量最低8.67~46.92m3·hm-2,3071种源每公顷蓄积量是泰国种源的9.18~49.69倍,差异极显著;种源的树高、胸径和单株材积与原产地纬度呈显著至极显著负相关,保存率与原产地降雨量呈显著正相关;提出了印度种源3071和3074宜在当地发展,而泰国4个种源不宜在当地引种与种植.%The researches on the growth and adaptability of ten provenances of Tectona grandis at 27-year-old at Jianfengling of Ledong Country in Hainan province were carried out.The results show that there existed highly significant differences in survival at 27-year-old among the ten provenances.Provenances of 3071 and 3074 from India showed high adaptability with a survival of 92.34%, while four provenances from Thailand showed poor survival from 4.95% to 39.6%, which were highly significantly different to two Indian provenances (3071 and 3074) and control provenance (8204).In terms of growth, there were significant differences in height growth and volume per tree among 6 provenances.Indian provenances of 3070 and 3071 were the best provenances in height and DBH,which increased by 16.7%~17.6% and 28.9%~32.5% respectively compared with 8204

  10. Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus urophylla ×E. grandis (DH32-29) Seedlings Under Different Cadmium Concentrations%镉胁迫对尾巨桉幼苗生长和生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国粹; 杜阿朋; 李慧; 王志超; 张利丽; 竹万宽; 陈少雄

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the most common heavy metals causing soil contamination problems. Bioremediation is an effective way to rehabilitate soils contaminated with this comp. An pot trial was conducted to measure various morphological and physiological indices of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis (DH32-29) grown under treatments of eight different soil concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) ranging from 10 to 140 mg·kg-1. There were no significant differences found among seedling grown at low concentration (10 mg·kg-1) of Cd and the control (i.e. no Cadmium). Under higher Cd concentrations (>20 mg·kg-1) seedling growth was significantly impacted. As Cd concentration increases, the biomass, chlorophyll content, fluorescent parameter (PSⅡ), maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm), efficiency of PS Ⅱ photochemistry (φPS Ⅱ ), non-photochemical quenching coefficient (Np) and nitrogen balance index (NBI) decreased, photochemical quenching (qP) showed little change, whilst malondialdehyde (MDA) increased. Seedlings of clone DH32-29 show clear visible symptoms of injury at levels above 20 mg·kg-1 and at plant growth stagnated at Cd concentration exceeding 40 mg·kg-1. It was concluded that DH32-29 seedlings can grow normally at lower Cadmium concentrations (≤20 mg·kg-1). But as the concentration increases, above this level, the morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings start to display significant impacts. Surveys of soil Cadmium levels in areas suited to Eucalyptus plantations and related research results in combination with this current study illustrate the potential soil remediation value of DH32-29 for areas where soils are affected by Cd pollution.%以尾巨桉(DH32-29)幼苗为试验材料,以植株的生长指标(苗高、地径、叶面积)、生物量、根冠比、氮平衡指数(NBI)、叶绿素相对含量(SPAD 值)、丙二醛(MDA)含量和叶绿素荧光参数为指标,通过盆栽试验设置8个10~140 mg·kg-1浓度镉(Cd)盐

  11. 醇水体系下尾巨桉抽出物的热解特性研究%Leaching Law and Pyrolysis Characteristics of Extractives from Eucalyptus grandis Pretreatment under Ethanol/Water Solution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 武书彬

    2012-01-01

    采用回转式密封炉在醇水体系下,分别采用水及乙醇-水混合液(醇水体积比1∶4、1∶2、1∶1)4种溶剂对桉木片进行抽提预处理,制得4种不同的抽提物.通过元素分析、溶出物微粒子粒径分析对其进行了基本溶出规律的研究,抽提液中所含的糖类化合物通过HPLC测定,设计TG与Py-GC/MS实验,对不同方式获得的抽出物进行了热分析,对其受热分解特性以及产物的分布进行了考查.结果发现,醇水体系中不同乙醇浓度下抽提液中糖类化合物的GC含量类似,并且抽提物总量也相近;元素分析的结果表明不同浓度醇水抽提物的化学元素含量并没有明显的差异,而与水抽提物相比存在较大的区别,醇水抽提物相对于水抽提物具有较高的C含量及较低的O含量;不同乙醇浓度抽提物溶液之间的微粒子直径也不存在较大的差异,而与水抽提溶液中微粒子的尺寸差别明显.由此推断醇水溶剂中乙醇和水对尾巨桉木片的抽提作用是相对独立的.对于抽提物的热分析表明,不同体系下抽提物所表现出的热解特性存在较大差异,而醇水体系下3种抽提物的热解特性类似;水抽提物(WE)的热解产物主要是酮类、酚类和酸类;醇水抽提物(EWE)的热解产物主要是呋喃、糠醛(醇)、酚类和酮类.%Eucalyptus grandis chips were pretreated under ethanol/water solution system with a sealed helicoid furnace and four extractives were obtained by pure water and ethanol/water mixtures with ratio of 1∶4, 1∶2, 1∶ 1 .respectively. Basic leaching rule was studied through ultimate analysis and micro particle size detection. Sugar content in each extractive was determined by ionic chromatograph analysis, meanwhile TG and Py-GC/MS reveal were designed to reveal the pyrolysis properties of extractives. The results showed that all three extractives from ethanol/water extraction had similar total extractive quality and sugar

  12. Study on Ultrasonic Extraction Technology of Sterol from the Rhizome of Begonia grandis Dry.subsp, sinensis ( A.DC.) Irmsch.%中华秋海棠根茎中甾醇的超声提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽; 黄行健; 凌洁玉

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the ultrasonic extraction technology of sterol from the rhizome of Begonia grandis Dry. Subsp. Sinensis (A. DC. ) Irmsch. . [Method] In this study,the sterol was first extracted from the rhizome of B. Grandis using ultrasonic technology,and then quantitatively analyzed using the advanced Liebennann - Burchard colorimetric method. The single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment were carried out to study the effects of factors including extraction temperature, extraction time and solid - liquid ratio on the yield of sterol. The regression equations to three factors were established by RSREG software in SAS8. 1. In addition, the types of sterols were analyzed using HPLC. [ Result] Results show that the regression equation was significant,the optimal technological conditions of sterol extraction were as follows : extracting temperature was 58℃, extracting time was 57 min, solid - liquid ratio was 1: 44 g/ml. Under these conditions, the content of sterol was 1.80 mg/g in the rhizome of B. Sinensis. [Conclusion] Ultrasonic - assisted technology is an efficient, energy - saving and time -saving method that can be used to extract sterol from the rhizome of B. Grandis. In addition, the analysis of HPLC spectrum reveals that sterol composition in the rhizome of B. Sinensis is complex, including β- sitosterol and other sterols.%[目的]研究中华秋海棠根茎中甾醇的超声提取工艺条件.[方法]使用超声波提取法对中华秋海棠进行提取,利用改进的Liebermarn - Bur chard比色法对秋海棠根茎超声波提取物中的甾醇进行定量分析,研究了料液比、温度、时间和提取溶剂4个因素对秋海棠根茎中甾醇含量的影响,选取提取温度、提取时间和料液比为影响因子,采用3元2次旋转正交设计,对超声提取工艺进行优化,计算回归方程,并进行响应面分析,同时采用高效液相色谱法分析其甾醇种类.[结果]回归方程准确可靠,且拟合情

  13. Allelopathic Sensitivity of Five Economic Species to Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis with Different Ages%5种经济植物对幼龄尾巨桉叶片提取液的化感敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雪; 刘芸; 邵呈龙; 唐小荐; 黄小辉; 吴艳冰; 唐吉芳; 何炳辉

    2011-01-01

    近几年,随着重庆"森林工程"全面启动,重庆西部主要区县充分利用当地有利自然条件,大规模发展速生桉树人工用材林.种植桉树需5年以上才能产生经济效益,因此,开展幼龄林林下种植成为以短养长、提高桉农收益的有效途径.但很多研究发现:桉树不仅具有较强的水、肥竞争力,而且作为一种外来树种,化感作用为其在新生境的生长和繁殖提供了"Novel weapon"(Bais et al.,2003;Hierro et al.,2003;吴锦容等,2005).%In order to guide scientifically planting on forest floor in eucalyptus plantations, screen suitable plants, and understand allelopathic effects of eucalyptus trees with different young ages (1 a, 2 a and 3 a) on the understory species and growth germination rate and seedling growth of five species widely planted in the local region were measured after treatments with different concentration of aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. Grandis treatments with different concentration. The results showed that the leaf extract reduced seed germination rate and inhibited seedling growth of all five species, and had a stronger inhibiting effect on radical than hypocotyl growth. The species tested in this study had different sensitivity to the leaf extract. The inhibition rate of Lolium perenne, Sorghum sudanense, Phaseolus aureus, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max was 56. 85% , 54. 58% , 33. 48% , 20. 81% , 16. 01% , respectively, among which Giycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris were the most insensitive to the leaf extract. The allelopathy of the leaf extract was concentration dependent, increasing with increase of the concentration, and low concentration (0.01 g · mL-1 ) had no significant influence on the species. Furthermore, the allelopathy aqueous leaf extract of E. Urophylla × E. Grandis to the five species had no significant difference with increase of their ages.

  14. Effects on Growth and Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristics of Different Nitrogen Fertilization Methods of Eucalyptus urophylla ×E. grandis Seedlings%不同氮素施肥方法对尾巨桉苗期生长和光合生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华林; 罗萍; 贺军军; 谢耀坚

    2015-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis seedlings by three different methods (mean fertilization, linear fertilization and exponential fertilization plus a control involving no applied fertilizer) were examined in this study. The height and ground diameter of seedlings given exponential fertilization were larger than those fertilized by the mean and linear methods whilst growth of seedlings that received no fertilization was markedly poorer than all fertilized seedlings. Leaf dry weights, stem dry weights, root dry weights, shoot dry weights and whole plant biomass of exponential fertilized seedlings were significantly higher those from other fertilization methods. Under the 3 fertilization methods, the net photosynthesis ratio (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) were similar and significantly higher than those of seedlings with no fertilization. Exponential fertilization generally proved the best method for E. urophylla ×E. grandis seedlings as it gave the highest growth of the 3 fertilization methods and matched the other methods on photosynthetic and physiological indicators.%采用3种不同的氮素施肥处理(平均施肥、直线施肥和指数施肥)对尾巨桉苗木进行施肥处理,结果显示:指数施肥获得的苗木苗高和地径均大于其他施肥处理;指数施肥下尾巨桉苗木的叶、茎、根和地上部分干质量和整株生物量均显著大于其他施肥处理,指数施肥获得了更多的苗木生物量;3种施肥处理下,指数施肥的苗木净光合速率 Pn、气孔导读 Gs 和蒸腾速率 Tr 均为最大值,且显著大于其他处理。因此,3种施肥方法中,指数施肥方法最利于尾巨桉苗木的生长和光合作用。

  15. Effect of drought stress on mineral nutrient contents in leaves of sdeedling plant of C. tangerina Hort., C. sinensis Osbeck and C. grandis Osbeck%干旱胁迫对实生红橘、甜橙和柚叶中营养元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文涛; 樊卫国

    2007-01-01

    以红橘(Citrus tangerina Hort.)、甜橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)、柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck)实生苗为材料,采用模拟降雨控水长期干旱胁迫的方法,研究了降水量400和800 mm的干旱胁迫对3种柑橘实生苗叶片的N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu、Mn、B元素含量的影响.结果表明:干旱胁迫降低了实生甜橙、红橘和柚的叶片中N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、B元素的含量,增加了叶中Mn元素的含量;实生红橘和柚叶中的Zn含量在降水量400 mm的干旱胁迫下显著降低,而同样的干旱胁迫条件下,实生甜橙叶中的Zn含量极显著地增加了.干旱胁迫降低实生甜橙和红橘叶中N、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、B元素含量的作用相对较大.

  16. Competition Strategies of Resources Between Stipa grandis and Cleistogenes squarrosa.Ⅰ.Morphological Response of Shoot and Root on Sulfur Supply%大针茅和糙隐子草对养分资源的竞争策略Ⅰ.根和茎对施硫和其他养分的形态学反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳芬; 汪诗平; 邢雪荣; 陈佐忠; Ewald SCHNUG; Silvia HANEKLAUS

    2004-01-01

    Effects of nutrients (compounds of macro- and micro-elements) supply without sulfur (T1)and with sulfur (T2) on the competition between Stipa grandis L. (C3) and Cleistogenes squarrosa L. (C4)were examined using a replacement series design in a greenhouse experiment over a period of 80 d. Blank treatment (nothing applied) (To) was conducted simultaneously. it seems to be no inter-competition between S. grandis and C. squarrosa in all treatments. There was also no intra-competition for S. grandis in all treatments, and for C. squarrosa under T0 treatment because of low productivity. However, the intra-competition of aboveground of C squarrosa was significant when nutrients were supplied regardless of sulfur (S) application. The interaction on dry weight of C. squarrosa per pot between S supply and proportion of C. squarrosa was observed. Under the treatments of T1 and T2 the shoot growth of S. grandis increased significantly compared with To treatment, but there was no significant difference between T1 and T2 treatments, indicating S had no effect on it. Root morphologies of S. grandis was not sensitive to nutrients added. Nutrients supply (T1 and T2 treatments) not only increased significantly the shoot growth of C. squarrosa, but also increased significantly its root growth. Sulfur increased significantly growth of the shoot and root of C. squarrosa. Nutrients supply decreased significantly ratio of root to shoot dry matter (RRS) of C. squarrosa regardless of S application, but the RRS of S. grandis was not affected by nutrients applied. Sulfur also decreased significantly the RRS of C. squarrosa in 100% and 75% proportions of C.squarrosa. The RRS of C. squarrosa was greater significantly in the 100% proportion than that in the 25% proportion of C. squarrosa for all treatments. Therefore, photosynthesis is more allocated to root in infertility soils than in fertility soils and the competition for nutrient resources stimulates root production.The degree of leaf

  17. 3种整地方式下尾巨桉林分生物量动态及其与土壤水分的关系%The Variation of Biomass of Eucalyptus urophylla ×E. grandis Plantations on the Leizhou Peninsula under Three Land Preparation Methods and Relationships with Soil Moisture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石驭天; 魏国余; 王志超; 刘国粹; 杜阿朋

    2015-01-01

    对3种整地方式下的尾巨桉林分生长和林地土壤水分进行了监测,通过分析各林地的林分单株平均生物量及林地土壤水分的变化,探讨二者的相互关系,以期为合理评估整地对尾巨桉林分生长和水分利用效率的影响提供科学依据。研究结果表明:随着林龄的增长,3种整地方式下尾巨桉林分单株总生物量和各器官生物量均呈增加趋势,其树干和树根所占比例逐渐增加,而树枝和树叶所占比例呈减小趋势。在幼龄期(16个月之前),全垦条件下的尾巨桉林分生长量最大,18个月后带垦的林分生长量最大;3种整地方式下的尾巨桉林地土壤水分的季节变化格局相似,与天然降水分布基本保持一致。3种整地方式中穴垦尾巨桉林地土壤有较高含水率且显著大于全垦和带垦的(P<0.05),全垦与带垦之间差异不显著;3种整地方式下尾巨桉林分单株平均生物量与耗水量之间均呈显著正相关,利用3块林分单株平均生长量及对应时间的耗水量得到了尾巨桉林分单株生长量与林分耗水量的拟合方程。%Growth and soil moisture were examined for Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis plantations established using three land preparation methods. Traits evaluated included average biomass per tree, soil moisture content, and then the relationship between these two traits in order to evaluate effect of site preparation method on stand growth and water use efficiency. Research results showed: although eucalypt forest plant total biomass of three species of soil preparation and biomass of different organs increased as age increased, the proportion of total biomass accounted for by branches and leaves gradually decreased whilst that accounted for by stems and roots increased. The growth amount of full cultivation was the largest in the young (to age 16 months) eucalypt plantation, and furrowing was the largest 18 months later

  18. EFEITO DO COBRE NA POPULAÇÃO DE BACTÉRIAS E FUNGOS DO SOLO, NA ASSOCIAÇÃO MICORRÍZICA E NO CULTIVO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Pinus elliottii Engelm E Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel Tauber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a heavy metal that can have toxic effects on microorganisms and plants. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are able to protect the plant from heavy metal toxicity, but the presence of certain metal concentrations can inhibit the growth of this fungus, damage the mycorrhizal symbiosis and also altering the development of the plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper on soil bacteria and fungus population, as well as the effects on the ectomycorrhizal association in the development of Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus elliottii and Peltophorum dubium seedlings. The survey of the soil microorganism population was carried out in a greenhouse during 60 days and the treatments consisted of applications of copper sulphate (0.7; 0.708; 0.716; 0.724 mg Kg-1 to the soil and to eucalyptus and pinus seedlings. Eucalyptus and Peltophorum dubium seedlings inoculated and not inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke and Massee Cunn (UFSC Pt 116 received copper levels of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1. The height, stem diameter, shoot and root fresh biomass, shoot and root dry biomass and ectomycorrhizal colonization were evaluated at 110 days. Soil bacteria and fungus population were altered by the presence of copper and the eucalyptus and pinus seedlings were not affected by copper addition. The inoculation of the eucalyptus and canafístula seedlings with isolate UFSC Pt 116 favored the height of the plants and the development of shoot and root fresh biomass. According to the results, canafístula was able to form an ectomycorrhizal association with the isolate tested. The eucalyptus and canafístula seedling development was inhibited by copper following inoculation with the UFSC Pt 116 isolate.

  19. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  20. 巨尾桉胞质 EuCuZnSOD 基因的克隆与原核表达%Cloning and Expression of the Cytosolic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase Gene in Eucalyptus grandis ×E .ophylla

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    赵艳玲; 周利建

    2015-01-01

    Copper Zinc superoxide dismutases are avital antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the disproportionation of su-peroxide anion to oxygen (O2 )and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )to guard cells against superoxide toxicity.The cytosolic CuZnSOD gene was cloned from Eucalyptus grandis ×E.ophylla (GenBank Accession Number:JX138573).The cDNA nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that an open reading frame contains 459 bp nucleotide coding for 152 residues (15.2 ku).The full-length gene is amplified to construct expression vetor pET-CuZnSOD .The Escherichia coli is induced by 1 mmol·L-1 IPTG in 28 ℃ for 4 hours and enzyme activity assay result shows that enzyme activity has increased 19.9%than the control in 28 ℃.%通过克隆巨尾桉的细胞质 EuCuZnSOD 基因,构建原核表达载体 pET-CuZnSOD,并研究该基因的功能.测序结果表明:基因序列长度为459 bp;152个编码氨基酸,蛋白相对分子质量为15.2 ku.在28℃条件下,1 mmol·L-1异丙基硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导4 h,转化菌株的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD),总酶活比对照组平均高19.9%.结果表明:克隆获得的巨尾桉细胞质 EuCuZnSOD 的重组基因表达产物具有 SOD 酶活性, GenBank 注册号为 JX138573.

  1. 尾巨桉锯末基质化腐熟处理及对桉树育苗效果影响的研究%Studies on Composting Technology of Eucalyptus urophylla× E. grandis Sawdust and its Use as a Growing Medium for EucalyptusSeedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚秀华; 谢耀坚; 张沛健; 彭彦

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the composting of Eucalyptusurophylla× E. grandissawdust and the effects of this compost on Eucalyptus seedlings when used as a growing medium. To facilitate the composting, we examined the use of chicken manure as a nitrogen source, and EM bacteria, enzyme bacteria, fermentation bacteria as microbial agents. The results showed that EM bacteria, enzyme bacteria and fermentation bacteria all promoted composting of the sawdust, with the time required for composting being about 70 days. After composting was completed, the cellulose decomposition rate was greater than 40%, the C/N ratio was less than 10:1, and the organic matter decomposition rate was higher than 35%. Based on considerations of compost heating, the physical and chemical properties of the E. urophylla× E. grandis composted sawdust and its effect when subsequently used as seedling matrix, EM bacteria was the best choice. When the pile body volume exceeds 5 m3, the quantity of EM bacteria in the matrix was 0.1%~0.2%on a dry weight basis.%本文采用鸡粪作为氮源,EM菌、酵素菌、发酵菌作为微生物菌剂研究了尾巨桉锯末腐熟发酵的效果,并进行育苗试验进行验证。结果表明:EM菌、酵素菌、发酵菌均可促进锯末腐熟的进行,腐熟时间为70 d左右。腐熟锯末纤维素分解率大于40%,C/N比小于10:1,有机质含量分解率高于35%。腐熟后的几种锯末基质,从升温、基质理化性质及育苗效果看,EM菌效果最好,堆体体积超过5m3时EM菌剂添加量可为堆体干重的0.1%~0.2%。

  2. 香榧籽油的超临界萃取及其脂肪酸组成的比较分析研究%Extraction of Oil from Torreya grandis cv.Merrilli Seed with Supercritical CO2 and Comparison of its Fatty Acid with Other Four Vegetable Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙斐; 张星海; 赵粼

    2013-01-01

    The seed of Chinese torreya ( Torreya grandis cv. Merrilli) is a special rare native nut in China. The extraction of torreya seed oil with the supercritical carbon dioxide technique was carried out. Then its fatty acid was analyzed by GC - MS,and compared with olive oil,peanut oil,camellia oil and sesame oil. Results showed that the obtained optimum extraction conditions were under the conditions of pressure 30 Mpa, extraction temperature 50 ℃ , and time 2 h,and extraction yield rate was 16.2%. Iinoleic acid and oleic acid are most abundant with mass fraction of 38.23% and 35.52% ,followed by palmitic acid (7.45% ) and sciadonic acid (7.41% ). Sciadonic acid was an unusual bio -active fatty acid. The fat acid components of torreya seed oil were similar to sesame oil and had the richest varieties among the five vegetable oils analyzed. The MUFA (36.39%) and PUFA (49.80%) in torreya seed oil were relatively balanced. These data would be helpful for the further development and utilization of Chinese torreya seed oil as functional food.%香榧为我国特产的名贵干果,本试验首先采用正交试验研究了超临界二氧化碳萃取香榧籽油的工艺条件;然后对香榧籽油的脂肪酸采用GC/MS进行分析,并与橄榄油、花生油、山茶油、芝麻油的脂肪酸进行比较.结果表明,超临界CO2流体萃取的最佳工艺条件为萃取压力30 MPa,温度50℃,萃取时间2h,萃取率达16.2%;香榧籽油主要含有亚油酸(38.23%)、油酸(35.52%)、棕榈酸(7.45%)、金松酸(7.41%)等10种脂肪酸,金松酸是具有较强生理活性的特殊脂肪酸.香榧籽油主要脂肪酸种类在所检测的5种油中最丰富,其脂肪酸组成与芝麻油较相似,单不饱和脂肪酸与多不饱和脂肪酸较为均衡(36.39%、49.80%).本研究可为香榧籽油作为高档功能性油脂的开发利用提供基础数据.

  3. Effect of Weed Fermentation Matters on Growth and Mycorrhizal Formation in Roots of Citrus grandis cv.Changshou Shatian You Seedlings%不同杂草发酵对柚苗生长和菌根形成效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝瑞建; 刘雪琴; 杨晓红

    2011-01-01

    1 % (w/w) fennentation matters from 3 weeds (Artemisia princeps Pamp. , Ranunculus japonicus Thunb. , Stellaria media ( Linn. ) Cyr. ) were respectively added into pot soil which contained low denaity AM fungi propagula( 100 indigenoua spores /1. 0 kg soil) and well-proportioned with pot soil for culturing non-mycorrhizal Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You seedlings. The fresh root weight, fresh total biomasss the seedling height and mycorrhizal infection rate in roots of pomelo seedlings in controls were 1. 41±0. 12 , 2. 91 ± 0. 27 g, 14. 43 ± 0. 39 cm. And those in treatments of weed fermentation liquids and fermented shoots and leaves were 1. 89 ±0. 11 -2. 85 ± 0. 06 g, 4. 18 ±0. 17 - 8. 08 ± 1. 26 g. 17. 58 ±1. 30 -23. 18 ± 1. 91 cm, (15. 76 ± 0. 49) % - ( 34. 20 ± 1. 05 ) % . The experimental reaults showed that : the seedling of inoculation with low density spores of AM fungi compared with the control , all weed fermentation matters stimulated the growth of pomelo seedlings and the myconhizal colonization rate. The growth stimulatory effect of fermented weeds ahowed stronger than that of weed fermentation liquids no matter whieh kind of weeds. Whereas the growth of pomelo seedlings and the mycorrhizal colonization rate the effect of different weeds had remarkable differences.%分别利用魁蒿(Artemisia princeps Pamp.)、毛茛(Ranunculus japonicus Thunb.)和繁缕(Stellaria media(Linn.)Cyr.)3种杂草充分发酵后,分别用1%(w/w)的发酵液和发酵杂草处理在低密度AM真菌繁殖体(100孢子/1.0 kg干土)土壤中培育的无菌柚苗,对照柚苗的根鲜样质量、整株苗鲜样质量和苗高分别为1.41±0.12、2.91±0.27 g和14.43±0.39 cm,而各杂草发酵液和各发酵杂草处理的柚苗根鲜样质量、整株苗鲜样质量和苗高分别为1.89±0.11~2.85±0.06 g、4.18±0.17~8.08±1.26 g和17.58±1.30~23.18±1.91 cm;对照植株的菌根侵染率为(11.88±1.35)%,杂草发酵液和发酵杂草

  4. 巨桉EgrCBF1和EgrCBF2基因的克隆和胁迫响应表达分析%Cloning of EgrCBF1 and EgrCBF2 Genes from Eucalyptus grandis and their Expression under Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京京; 童再康; 黄程前; 程龙军

    2012-01-01

    Two CBF genes named EgrCBFl and EgrCBF2 ( GenBank No. JQ068827 ; JQ068828 ) were isolated from Eucalyptus grandis seedlings under low temperature. Sequence analysis showed that EgrCBFl and EgrCBFl cDNA had 1 062 bp and 1 203 bp, respectively. The two genes encoded 220 and 196 amino acids, separately and both contained an AP2 domain. The results of homology comparison showed that EgrCBFl and EgrCBF2 protein shared 91% and 80% homology with EguCBFla. Spatial expression analyses showed that EgrCBFl expressed mainly in leaves and roots while EgrCBF2 expressed in all leaves, stems and roots. qRT-PCR result of EgrCBFl and EgrCBFl under 0 ℃ ,2 ℃ ,4 ℃ ,6 ℃ , and 8 ℃ revealed that they were both induced by low temperatures and reached the highest level at 2 ℃ . Time course of the genes expressions at 4 ℃ for 2 h,4 h,8 h,24 h,and 48 h showed that their expressions increased at the first and then decreased. Changes in EgrCBFl and EgrCBFl expression under 100 μmol · L-1 ABA, 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl and drought were also analyzed. The results showed EgrCBFl was up-regulated under drought stress and ABA treatment, while the expression of EgrCBF2 increased under drought and salt stress.%从低温诱导的巨桉幼苗中克隆到2条CBF的全长cDNA序列,命名为EgrCBF1和EgrCBF2,全长分别为1 062 bp和1 203 bp,编码220个氨基酸和196个氨基酸,命名为EgrCBF1和EgrCBF2(GenBank登录号分别为:JQ068827; JQ068828),都包含1个AP2结构域.2个基因编码的蛋白都与冈尼桉中CBF蛋白(DQ241820)具有很高的同源性,与EguCBF1a的同源性分别达到了91%和80%.RT-PCR分析表明,EgrCBF1主要在叶和根中表达,而EgrCBF2在叶、茎和根中都有表达.对不同低温条件(0,2,4,6,8℃)和4℃2,4,8,24,48 h处理下EgrCBF1和EgrCBF2的qRT-PCR分析表明:2个基因都受低温诱导,并在2℃时诱导水平达到最高;4℃下随低温时间的延长,它们的诱导表达特性都呈先升后降的趋势.在100 μmol·L-1 ABA,200 mmol

  5. I grandi gruppi italiani verso il mercato bancario europeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. FERRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the single European banking market will result in a much larger market than the sum of the various national segments; even the qualitative characteristics of the single market will differ from those of any one national component. European credit intermediaries are now required to undertake major structural changes. In particular, these changes will effect banking systems that are still not very internationalised, often coming about from experiences of protecting the internal market. In this context, the authors investigate the unification of the European credit market, the internationalization of the European banking systems, and the specialisation and comparison of the major Italian groups.  JEL Codes: G21Keywords: European banking market, credit market, Italian conglomerates

  6. Capitalismo, socialismo e democrazia e le grandi imprese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The work takes issue with Schumpeter’s Capitalism, socialism and democracy, reviewing it in light of the recent historical evidence. The main thesis of Schumpeter’s book is that widespread concentration processes in modern capitalism, arising from static and dynamic economies of scale, are among the most important phenomena for economic development. As it is well known, Schumpeter believed that capitalism cannot survive and that socialism may work. The author, however, points out that Schumpeter’s view was highly influenced by the phenomena that took place between the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth. However, more recent evidence suggests radical changes in the innovation and competition processes of capitalism.  JEL Codes: P51, L13, B13Keywords: Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism, Economies of scale

  7. An experiment using neutron activation analysis and a rare earth element to mark cotton plants and two insects that feed on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on insect dispersal and other behaviors can benefit from using markers that will not alter flight and fitness. Rare earth elements, such as samarium (Sm), have been used as ingested markers of some insects and detected using neutron activation analysis (NAA). In this study, samarium nitrate hexahydrate was mixed into artificial diet for boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at different dosages and in water used to irrigate cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Samarium was detected in adult boll weevils fed on the samarium-labeled diet, but not after 5 or 10 days of being switched to non-labeled diet, even if the insects were given labeled diet for as long as 7 consecutive days. Introduced in irrigation water, 1% samarium (m/m) was detectable in cotton squares and leaf tissue. However, boll weevil adults fed samarium-labeled squares did not retain detectable levels of samarium, nor did boll weevil adults reared to adulthood from samarium-labeled squares. Fourth instar beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), fed on samarium-labeled cotton leaves obtained enough samarium for NAA detection, but adult moths reared from them did not have detectable amounts of samarium. Although samarium can be useful as a marker when insects are presented with a continuous pulse of the label, elements that are assimilated by the insect would be more useful if a continuous infusion of the marker cannot be provided

  8. Potential for transport of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to the cotton gin within cotton modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Norman, John W; Knutson, Allen E

    2004-06-01

    There is concern that cotton gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones serving customers in adjacent infested zones may serve as a site for boll weevil reintroductions if weevils are transported alive inside cotton modules. We surveyed fields in three distinct areas of Texas and found that weevils can be present in large numbers in cotton fields that have been defoliated and desiccated in preparation for harvest, both as free adults and as immatures inside unopened bolls. Harvested cotton taken from module builders indicated that approximately = 100-3700 adult boll weevils were packed inside modules constructed at the sampled fields. Marked weevils were forced through a laboratory field cleaner (bur extractor) commonly mounted on stripper-harvesters, and 14% were recovered alive in the seed cotton fraction and lived at least to 24 h. Survival of weevils placed inside modules declined over time up to 7 d, but the magnitude of the decline varied with experimental conditions. In one experiment, 91% of the weevils survived to 7 d, whereas under harsher environmental conditions, only 11% survived that long. Together, our results indicate that when cotton is harvested in an infested area, boll weevils likely will be packed alive into cotton modules, and many will still be alive by the time the module is fed into the gin, at least up to 7 d after the module's construction. PMID:15279274

  9. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through the seed cotton cleaning process in the cotton gin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-08-01

    There is concern that gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones may become points of reintroduction when they process cotton grown in a neighboring infested area. We estimated boll weevil survival through two typical machine sequences used in commercial cotton gins to clean and dry the seed cotton in advance of the gin stand, as well as separately through two incline cylinder cleaners or one or two tower dryers operating at different temperatures. Large numbers of laboratory-reared adult boll weevils were marked with fluorescent powder, fed into the test system, and recovered with the assistance of blacklights. We found no evidence of survival through the seed cotton cleaning systems even when the dryers were not heated, or when passed separately through the two incline cleaners alone. Upper confidence limits (95%) were calculated for the observed zero recoveries based on sample size and the binomial distribution, and these represent the statistical worst-case (i.e., highest) survival potential. Survival through heated tower dryers declined rapidly to zero at higher temperatures, especially when two dryers were running. Although we conclude that the potential for survival of weevils in the seed cotton to the gin stand is zero or close to zero, a small percentage of live weevils was recovered in the green boll/rock trap, which may represent the greatest threat of reintroduction at the gin. Escape of live weevils with the gin trash is also possible, and studies addressing this issue will be presented elsewhere. PMID:15384344

  10. Sublethal effects of malathion on boll weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) fecundity when maintained on cotton squares or artificial diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOHN SCOTT ARMSTRONG; ALLAN T. SHOWLER; MAMOUDOU SETAMOU; SHOIL GREENBERG

    2006-01-01

    Mated 3-day-old female boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman,reared from field-infested cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) squares were topically treated with an estimated LD50 of malathion (2μg) to assess its effects on fecundity, oviposition, and body fat condition. Two different food sources, cotton squares and artificial diet, were assessed in malathion-treated and nontreated (control) weevils. The LD50 caused ≈ 50%mortality in the square-fed malathion treatment, but the artificial diet-fed malathion-treated weevils were less susceptible. LD50 survivors fed on the squares produced ≥ 9 times more chorionated eggs in the ovaries and oviposited≥ 19-fold more than survivors fed artificial diet, regardless of the malathion treatment. Boll weevils that survived a 2μg LD50 malathion and also fed squares were ≈ 4.5-fold leaner than diet-fed weevils. Our findings demonstrate that non-resistant boll weevils surviving a sublethal dose of malathion will reproduce without any delay or significant loss in fecundity, and the food source for which boll weevils are maintained when conducting these assays will directly affect the results. The significance of these findings and how they are related to the final stages of eradicating the boll weevil from the US are discussed.

  11. Crescimento de raizes e da parte aérea de clones de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla e de Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp submetidos a dois regimes de irrigação no campo Performance of Eucalyptus spp clones under different levels of soil water availability in the field - root and aboveground growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Gonçalves dos Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou subsidiar a seleção de genótipos de eucalipto para plantio em ambientes com disponibilidade variável de água no solo, através da análise do crescimento de raízes na fase inicial de estabelecimento da planta no campo e de sua associação com o crescimento das plantas adultas. Foram utilizados os clones 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 e 1277 de eucalipto, sob dois regimes de irrigação, a partir de seis meses de idade, em condições de campo, no norte do Estado da Bahia. O experimento foi estabelecido em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. O crescimento em altura aos 38 meses de idade não variou significativamente entre os tratamentos de irrigação, enquanto em diâmetro e volume nessa mesma idade foi significativamente superior nas plantas do tratamento irrigado em relação ao não-irrigado, sendo os clones 1260 e 0321 os mais produtivos. O clone 1277 apresentou menor sensibilidade à deficiência hídrica, o que pode ser atribuído ao intenso crescimento do sistema radicular. O clone 1250 apresentou menor crescimento em altura e diâmetro, possivelmente em razão de apresentar menor crescimento do sistema radicular, o que torna esse clone mais suscetível à deficiência hídrica. Com base nas avaliações realizadas, o clone 1250 não deve ser recomendado para regiões com déficit hídrico acentuado, e os demais clones estudados podem ser estabelecidos em regiões com regime hídrico semelhante ao da região objeto deste estudo, destacando-se os clones 1260 e 0321, por apresentarem maior produção volumétrica. Em condições de déficit hídrico mais acentuado, o clone 1277 é o mais promissor, em razão de não ter apresentado redução no crescimento, quando sob deficiência hídrica acentuada no solo.Below and aboveground growth of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla and one Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp clones identified as 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 and 1277, were studied in the

  12. Mutantes morfológicos de algodoeiro herbáceo como fonte de resistência ao bicudo Morphological mutants of upland cotton as source of boll weevil resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três características morfológicas mutantes de linhagens de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch., isoladas ou combinadas no mesmo genótipo, como fonte de resistência ao bicudo, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, sob infestação natural, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2´3 com um tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Em teste com chance de escolha, a característica bráctea frego foi a que apresentou maior redução no dano de oviposição pelo bicudo (34,71%, em relação ao equivalente normal. A folha "okra" reduziu o dano apenas quando associada à bráctea frego (40%. A combinação das três características mutantes na mesma planta proporcionou a menor porcentagem de botões com dano de oviposição (23,13%.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of three morphological mutants of upland cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutm L. r. latifolium Hutch., isolated or in combination in the same cotton genotype, as a source of resistance to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. The experiment was carried out in the field, under natural infestation, with a completely randomized block design arranged in a factorial 2´3 plus an additional treatment, with four replications. In a multiple choice test, the character mutant frego bract presented the higher reduction on boll weevil oviposition damage (34.71%, in relation to the normal equivalent. The okra leaf reduced the boll weevil damage only when associated with frego bract (40%. The combination of the three mutant characters in the same plant presented the least square percent with oviposition damage (23.13%.

  13. Efeito de inseticidas em insetos predadores em culturas de algodão Effect of insecticides on predator insects associated with cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ JANDUI SOARES

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de inseticidas em insetos predadores em cultura de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L., instalaram-se, em 1993-1994, dois experimentos, um no campo, e outro, em laboratório. No experimento realizado no campo, os tratamentos foram: Fipronil 200 SC (75 g/ha de i.a.; Fipronil 800 WDG (64, 80 e 100 g/ha de i.a.; Endosulfan 350 CE (700 g/ha de i.a.; e testemunha. Em laboratório, além das formulações à base de Fipronil foi utilizado o Paration metílico 600 CE (480 g/ha de i.a.. Fipronil foi seletivo para os artrópodes predadores (Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis, Cycloneda sanguinea e Doru lineare no campo, e a Cycloneda sanguinea (L., em laboratório, e pode ser recomendado em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do algodoeiro para o controle de Alabama argillacea (Rueb., e Anthonomus grandis Boh. Endosulfan foi seletivo em relação a Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis Thomazini e Doru lineare (Eschs no campo, com uma redução dos insetos inferior a 30%, e o Paration metílico não foi seletivo para C. sanguinea em laboratório.To assess the selectivity of insecticides to predator insects in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. crops two, trials, 1993-1994, under field and laboratory conditions were conducted. Under field conditions, the following treatments were compared: Fipronil 200 CS (75 g/ha of a.i.; Fipronil 800 WDG (64, 80 and 100 g/ha of a.i.; Endosulfan 350 EC (700 g/ha of a.i.; and control. Under laboratory conditions, in addition to Friponil, Methyl parathion 600 EC 480 g/ha of a.i. was also tested. Fipronil was selective to predators (Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis, Cycloneda sanguinea and Doru lineare under field condition and to Cycloneda sanguinea (L. under laboratory conditions. This product can be used in integrated pest management programs in cotton crops to control Alabama argillacea (Rueb., and Anthonomus grandis Boh. Endosulfan was selective to Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis

  14. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  15. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  16. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through cotton gin trash fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-10-01

    There is concern that cotton gins may serve as loci for reintroduction of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, to eradicated or suppressed zones when processing weevil-infested cotton from neighboring zones. Previous work has shown that virtually all weevils entering the gin in the seed cotton will be removed before they reach the gin stand. Those not killed by the seed cotton cleaning machinery will be shunted alive into the trash fraction, which passes through a centrifugal trash fan before exiting the gin. The objective of this study was to determine survival potential of boll weevils passed through a trash fan. Marked adult weevils were distributed in gin trash and fed through a 82.6-cm (32.5-in.) diameter centrifugal fan operated across a range of fan-tip speeds. A small number of boll weevils were recovered alive immediately after passage through the fan, but all were severely injured and did not survive 24 h. In another experiment, green bolls infested with both adult- and larval-stage weevils were fed through the fan. Several teneral adults survived 24 h, and there was no evidence that fan-tip speed affected either initial survival of weevils, or the number of unbroken boll locks that could harbor an infesting weevil. Thus, designating a minimum fan-tip speed for ensuring complete kill is not possible for the boll weevil. Experiments suggest that a device installed in a gin that partially crushes or cracks bolls open before entering a trash fan will increase mortality, possibly enough that further precautions would be unnecessary. PMID:15568350

  17. Potential for escape of live boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) into cottonseed, motes, and cleaned lint at the cotton gin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-12-01

    Reintroductions of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, into areas of the United States where it has been eradicated or suppressed are very expensive to mitigate. There is concern that a cotton gin in an eradication zone may serve as a site of boll weevil reintroductions when processing cotton harvested in a neighboring infested zone. Similarly, there is a question whether weevil-free areas can safely import gin products, such as cottonseed and baled lint, from infested areas without risking an introduction. Many countries require fumigation of imported U.S. cotton bales to protect against boll weevil introductions, costing the U.S. cotton industry millions of dollars annually. In previously reported experiments, we quantified the potential for boll weevils to survive passage through precleaning machinery in the gin. In this study, we quantified survival potential of boll weevils passing through the gin stand and segregating into the cottonseed, mote, or lint fractions. We also examined boll weevil survival when passed with ginned lint through a lint cleaner. We present a flow chart of experimentally determined survival potentials of boll weevils passing through the various subprocesses of the gin, from which one can calculate the risk of a live boll weevil reaching any point in the process. Our data show that there is virtually no chance of a boll weevil being segregated alive into the cottonseed or of one surviving in the lint to approach the bale press. Therefore, quarantine or fumigation of cottonseed and cotton bales to guard against boll weevil introductions is unnecessary. PMID:15666727

  18. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil. PMID:26719592

  19. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings. PMID:18330118

  20. Reproductive potential of field-collected overwintering boll weevils (Coleoptera" Curculionidae) fed on pollen in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Greenberg; G.D.Jones; J.J.Adamczyk, Jr.; F.Eischen; J.S.Armstrong; R.J.Coleman; M.Sétamou; Tong-Xian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Bobeman), females collected from pheromone traps in September, November and January, fed for 1, 3, and 5 weeks on plant pollens, and then provided cotton squares, was determined in the laboratory at 27 ± 1℃, 65% RH, and a photoperiod 13 : 11 (L : D) h.Duration of pollen feeding by overwintering boll weevils did not significantly influence egg and feeding punctures, or puncture ratios (egg to total punctures) for any of the three months of parent weevil collections when provided cotton squares on a daily basis.However, punctures and puncture ratios are significantly different when comparing mean data between months of boll weevil collections. When boll weevils were provided with cotton squares daily, the pre-ovipositional periods of female parents captured in September, November and January were 5, 9 and 14 days, respectively. The rate of eggs by females was significantly lower during November and January than September. Female parents collected in September produced a significantly higher percentage of eggs yielding adult progeny than those collected in November and January. Life table parameters indicated that net reproductive rate (R_o) of boll weevil females collected in September was 1.2-fold higher than those collected in November and 10.7-fold higher than those collected in January. Except for testes size, no differences in male reproductive parameters were observed during the cotton-free period compared with males captured during mid-cotton (June). The number of oocytes in the ovarioles and the number of oocytes containing yolk were significantly lower during September, November and January compared with June. The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil females collected in different months is an important consideration in determining the success of any control strategy.

  1. Propagación clonal in vitro de arboles elite de teca (Tectona grandis L. In vitro clonal propagation of elite trees of teak (Tectona grandis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linero Juan Carlos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EI empleo de las técnicas de cultivo de tejidos vegetales para la propagación y el mejoramiento de especies de interés forestal es una importante herramienta de apoyo a los programas de reforestación y establecimiento de huertos semilleros clonales. EI objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en el desarrollo de una metodología para la propagación clonal in vitro de la teca a partir de arboles elite. Como fuente de explantes se emplearon ápices procedentes de brotes epicormicos, los cuales se sembraron en el medio de cultivo de Schenk y Hildebrandt, enriquecido con los microelementos de Bourgin y Nitsch, Bencil Amino Purina (BAP 0,5 mg/L y solidificado con agar. Para la fase de proliferación se empleó el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog con las sales nitrogenadas reducidas a la mitad de su concentración normal. Se evaluaron diferentes concentraciones de BAP (0, 0,1, 0,5 Y 1,0 mg/L. EI mayor coeficiente de multiplicaci6n y mejor calidad de los brotes se logr6 con 0,5 mg/L de BAP.  El enraizamiento se realizó en condiciones ex vitro; se emplearon microesquejes apicales con una longitud pro media de 1,5 a 2,0 cm. Estos se trataron con diferentes concentraciones de AlB (0,250, 500, 1.000, 2.000, 4.000 Y5.000 mg/L, Los mayores porcentajes de enraizamiento y supervivencia de las plantulas se lograron con 4.000 mg/L de AlB. Esta metodología permitió el establecimiento de los arboles en condiciones de campo para apoyar los programas de huertos semilleros clonales y plantaciones a escala comercial de Refocosta.The employment of the techniques of plant tissue culture for the propagation and the genetic improvement of forest trees are importants support tool to the reforestation programs and the establishment of clonal seed orchards. This work's main objective was the development of a methodology for the in vitro clonal propagation of teak, starting from elite trees. As explants source apical shoots from epicormic buds were used, which were placed in the basal medium of Schenk and Hildebrandt supplemented with 0.5 mg/L of BAr, Bourgin and Nitsch micronutrients and solidified with agar. For the proliferation phase it was used the basal medium of Murashige and Skoog with half of the normal NH4N03 and KN03 concentration. Different concentrations of BAP were evaluated (0, 0,1, 0,5 and 1,0 mg/L. The biggest multiplication coefficient and better quality of the buds was achieved with 0.5 mg/L of BAP. The rooting was carried out under ex vitro conditions; were used microcutings between 1.5 and 2.0 em of length. Then, they were treated with different concentrations of IBA (0, 250, 500, 1.000, 2.000, 4.000 and 5.000 mg/L. The biggest rooting percentage and plantlets survival was achieved with 4000 mg/L of IBA. This methodology allowed the establishment of the trees under field conditions to support the programs of clonal seed orchards and operative plantations of Refocosta.

  2. Micromorfologia foliar na análise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfície foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulações comerciais Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI®. Entre os clones não foram identificadas diferenças quanto à tolerância ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas à deriva simulada de Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentagem de intoxicação. Observou-se menor massa seca em plantas expostas ao glyphosate, independentemente da formulação, e menor altura naquelas expostas ao Scout® e ao Roundup transorb®. As características quantitativas da superfície foliar não foram afetadas pelo glyphosate. As alterações micromorfológicas ocorreram na ausência de danos visíveis e foram observadas em ambas as faces da epiderme, em todos os clones avaliados. Danos como erosão e aspecto amorfo das ceras epicuticulares e infestação por hifas fúngicas ocorreram, independentemente da formulação utilizada. A avaliação anatômica da superfície foliar foi relevante para descrição e interpretação dos danos causados pelo glyphosate. Os dados de crescimento e de intoxicação indicam o Zapp QI® como a formulação de menor risco para a cultura do eucalipto quanto aos efeitos indesejáveis da deriva.The effects of commercial glyphosate drift on the leaf surface and growth of eucalypt clones were evaluated. Seedlings of six clones were submitted to 129.6 g ha-1 sub-rate of commercial glyphosate formulations Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI®. No differences in tolerance to glyphosate were observed among the clones. Plants exposed to simulated drift of Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI® presented the highest and lowest intoxication percentages, respectively. Plants exposed to glyphosate reduced dry biomass, regardless of the formulation, and also reduced height of the plants exposed to Scout® and Roundup transorb®. Leaf surface characteristics were not affected by glyphosate application. However, the micromorphological damages occurred prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, and were observed on both faces of the epidermis, in all clones tested. Damages such as erosion and amorphous aspect of epicuticular waxes and infestation of fungal hyphae occurred, independently of the formulation used. The anatomical evaluation of the leaf surface effectively described the damages caused by glyphosate. The growth and intoxication data indicate Zapp QI® formulation as presenting the lowest risk to eucalypt culture, in relation to the undesirable herbicide drift effects.

  3. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  4. Diflubenzuron Hazards to Fish, Wildlife and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (1(4chlorophenyl)3(2,6difluorobenzoyl)urea), also known as dimilin, is a potent broad spectrum insect growth regulator that interferes with chitin synthesis at time of molting and is effective in controlling immature stages of insects. Diflubenzuron was approved for domestic use in 1976 to control gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), and in 1979 against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis). By 1989 this compound was also registered for domestic use against mosquitos, forest Lepidoptera, mushroom flies, and leaf-eating insect pests of citrus, woody ornamentals, vegetables, and fruit. Diflubenzuron seldom persists for more than a few days in soil and water. When used properly in forest management, it is unlikely to be leached into ground water from the application site. Degradation in water and soil is most rapid when small particle formulations are applied; microorganisms are abundant; and at elevated pH, temperature, and organic loading. Chemical and biological processes initially yield 2,6difluorobenzoic acid and 4chlorophenylurea.

  5. 昆虫产卵抑制素的研究及应用%Progress in the study and application of oviposition deterrents of insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟国玲; 肖春; 龚信文

    2000-01-01

    Many insects left "oviposition markers" on the surface of the eggs or at the egg-laying site after oviposition. It was found that "oviposition markers" were chemical-oviposition deterrents (OVD) produced by female adults,which deterred oviposition at the same sites by conspecific or heterospecific females. It was confirmed that the larvae of many insects could secret OVD. The species in Orthoptera,Lepidoptera,Coleoptera and Diptera could also produce OVD. Many documents confirmed that there were chemicals functioning as OVD in many kinds of plants. A set of techniques for studying OVD such as electrophysiological responses,behavioral responses,and isolation and identification of active compounds has now been developed. The OVD produced by females of Pieris rape,Lasioderma serricorne and Rhagoletis cerasi were identified and synthesized. The chemicals functioning as OVD of Pieris rape and Hylemya spp. were found in many plants. Controlling Rhagoleris cerasi with OVD was a typical example in the application of OVD. In addition,a new variety of cotton that could deter oviposition by females of Anthonomus grandis was also developed. OVD could also be used to study coevolutionary relationship between herbivore insects and plants. We think that study on OVD of insects plays a very important role in decoding the ovipositional behaviors of insects,co-evoluationary relationship between herbiore insects and plants,and developing new types of pest insect-controlling techniques.

  6. First complete and productive cell culture model for members of the genus Iridovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Susan M; Vigerust, David J; Perales-Hull, Marsha R; Lodhi, Sundus A; Viravathana, Polrit; Bilimoria, Shän L

    2012-11-01

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; the type strain of the genus Iridovirus) replicates productively in larvae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. This study focuses on characterizing productive infections of a boll weevil cell line, BRL-AG-3A (AG3A), starting with CIV reared in the waxworm, Galleria mellonella. We show that CIV can be continually and productively passaged to high titer in AG3A cells. The replication of larval-derived CIV in AG3A was analyzed by observing viral DNA replication and restriction endonuclease digestion profiles, morphogenesis, and infectivity using TCID(50) assays with AG3A as an indicator cell line. The data showed that virus passaged in the AG3A host is stable. AG3A cells are more efficient than previously utilized CF-124T cells from Choristoneura fumiferana. This system constitutes a superior model for cellular and molecular studies on CIV; it represents the first complete, productive cell culture model for the replication of CIV or any member of the genus Iridovirus.

  7. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Robério C S; Colares, Felipe; Torres, Jorge B; Santos, Roberta L; Bastos, Cristina S

    2014-01-01

    Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation. PMID:26462942

  8. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério C. S. Neves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation.

  9. Use of sterile male technique for insects to eradicate red palm weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The date palm plantations in the Middle East countries are infested by a devastating insect which is called red palm weevil originally from India and spread firstly into the Arab Gulf countries through imported palm trees. Red palm weevil is mainly controlled by using synthetic chemical pesticides and aggregative pheromone traps. Use of chemical pesticides has dramatically increased during recent years and posed many poisoning cases, pollution of environment, killed beneficial and non-target insects. The aim of this study is to highlight the application of Sterile Insect Technique to suppress or eradicate red palm weevil. The results revealed that the application of Sterile Insect Technique to control cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in USA could be considered as an ideal example to apply the Sterile Insect Technique against red palm weevil because both species have similarities such as : both are exotic pests; have protected larval and pupal stages; have limited hosts; have economic importance; have an aggregative pheromone that attracts males and females; that can be used for detection and survey; and finally both insects are Coleopterans belonging to the same family.

  10. Using an Electronic Nose to Rapidly Assess Grandlure Content in Boll Weevil Pheromone Lures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles P.-C. Suh; Ningye Ding; Yubin Lan

    2011-01-01

    Samples of pheromone lures used in boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis (Boheman),eradication programs are routinely analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) to ensure lures are adequately dosed with grandlure,the synthetic aggregation pheromone produced by male weevils.However,preparation of GC samples is tedious,time consuming,and requires a moderate level of experience.We examined the use of a commercially-available electronic nose (e-nose) for rapidly assessing the grandlure contents of lures.The e-nose was trained to recognize headspace collections of grandlure emitted from new lures and after lures were aged under field conditions for 4 d,7 d,10 d,and 14 d.Based on cross-validation of the training set,the e-nose was 82%accurate in discriminating among the different age classes of lures.Upon sampling headspace collections of pheromone from a different set of field-aged lures,the e-nose was <50% accurate in discriminating 4 d,7 d,and 10 d aged lures from the other ageclasses of lures.However,the e-nose identified new and 14 d aged lure samples with 100% accuracy.In light of these findings,e-nose technology shows considerable promise as an alternative approach for rapidly assessing the initial grandlure contents of lures used in boll weevil eradication programs.

  11. Environ: E00536 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00536 Protohermes grandis larva Protohermis vermiculus Crude drug Protohermes grandis... [TAX:621229] Corydalidae Protohermes grandis larva (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects E00536 Protohermes grandis larva ...

  12. Combining 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, the major flower volatile of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, with the aggregation pheromone of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi improves attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibe, Atle; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin; Cross, Jerry;

    2014-01-01

    were also unsuccessful. This paper reports the finding that addition of the major flower volatile from wild strawberry flowers [Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae)], 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (comprising 98% of the volatiles emitted from wild strawberry flowers), to the aggregation pheromone increased trap catches...

  13. Influence of belt speed, grit sizes and pressure on the sanding of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Jorge Duarte de Souza; Luis Fernando Frezzatti Santiago; Marcos Tadeu Tiburcio Gonçalves; Manoel Cléber de Sampaio Alves; Francisco Mateus Faria de Almeida Varasquim

    2012-01-01

    The sanding process is important to the quality of wood products. Sanding reduces imperfections in wood surfaces and it is important to the final product and application of paints or varnishes. There are few studies about sanding in the literature and finding out the relationship between the input parameters (i.e., species of wood, grit size, abrasive) on the output parameters (i.e., roughness, force, pressure) will help to improve this process. This study analyzed the influence of input para...

  14. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on Solar Drying Ratefor Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Wood drying is one of the most important process links in wood products processing.However, the existing drying methods mainly depend on heat to desiccate wood, which makes wooddrying consume roughly 40% - 70% of the total energy in the entire wood process. Using solar energyfor drying is greatly significant in two aspects of energy conservation and environment protection. Themoisture content (MC) of lumber affects not only the target value of wood drying, but also the heattransfer properties, moisture rate...

  15. "Üksinduse võlud" kõlavad Cafe Grandis / Kersti Inno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Inno, Kersti, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Agentuur Corelli Music avas Pärnu hotellis Victoria "Café Grand muusikasalongi", mis pakub kord kuus pühapäeviti matinée-kontserte. Barokkansambli Corelli Consort kontserdist kavaga "Üksinduse võlud" 15. juunil ja tshellokvarteti C-JAM kontserdist 13. juulil (vt. www.corelli.ee)

  16. Cafe Grandi muusikasalong pakub värvika barokikava / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Agentuur Corelli Music avas Pärnu hotellis Victoria "Café Grand muusikasalongi", mis pakub kord kuus pühapäeviti matinée-kontserte. Barokkansambli Corelli Consort kontserdist kavaga "Üksinduse võlud" 15. juunil (vt. www.corelli.ee)

  17. Cafe Grandi muusikasalong pakub värvika barokikava / Kersti Inno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Inno, Kersti, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Agentuur Corelli Music avas Pärnu hotellis Victoria "Café Grand muusikasalongi", mis pakub kord kuus pühapäeviti matinée-kontserte. Barokkansambli Corelli Consort kontserdist kavaga "Üksinduse võlud" 15. juunil (vt. www.corelli.ee)

  18. L’enigma dei raggi cosmici le più grandi energie dell’universo

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Grazie ad avventurosi studi fu possibile dimostrare un secolo fa che parte della radiazione naturale che si osserva sulla Terra è di natura extraterrestre: era la scoperta dei cosiddetti “raggi cosmici”, particelle che arrivano da misteriosi acceleratori nell’universo, probabilmente buchi neri supermassicci e resti di supernova, a energie anche centinaia di milioni di volte di quelle a cui riusciamo a produrle con i più potenti acceleratori della Terra. A cent’anni dalle prime scoperte questo libro si propone, con l’aiuto di documenti scoperti recentemente, di raccontare la vera storia di questa appassionante avventura scientifica e le frontiere dell'esplorazione dei raggi cosmici.

  19. ENSO flavors in a tree-ring δ18O record of Tectona grandis from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schollaen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia's climate is dominated by the equatorial monsoon system, and has been linked to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO events that often result in extensive droughts and floods over the Indonesian archipelago. In this study we investigate ENSO-related signals in a tree-ring δ18O record (1900–2007 of Javanese teak. Our results reveal a clear influence of Warm Pool (central Pacific El Niño events on Javanese tree-ring δ18O, and no clear signal of Cold Tongue (eastern Pacific El Niño events. These results are consistent with the distinct impacts of the two ENSO flavors on Javanese precipitation, and illustrate the importance of considering ENSO flavors when interpreting palaeoclimate proxy records in the tropics.

  20. Basal Root Rot, a new Disease of Teak (Tectona grandis in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal root rot of teak was first reported from Sabak Bernam, Selangor making this the first report of the disease on teak in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungus found associated with the disease was Phellinus noxious. The disease aggressively killed its host irrespective of the host health status. Bark depression at the root collar which was visible from a distance was the characteristic symptom and the main indicator in identifying the disease in the plantation since above ground symptoms of the canopy could not be differentiated from crowns of healthy trees. However, although above ground symptoms were not easily discernible, the disease was already advanced and the trees mostly beyond treatment; 3.4 % of the trees in the plantation were affected and the disease occurred both on solitary trees and in patches. Below ground, infected trees had rotted root systems, mainly below and around the collar region with brown discolored wood and irregular golden-brown honeycomb-like pockets of fungal hyphae in the wood. Pathogenicity tests showed that the fungus produced symptoms similar to those observed in the plantation and killed two year-old teak plants. The disease killed all the inoculated hosts within three months, irrespective of wounded or unwounded treatments.

  1. [Gestire il difficile equilibrio tra esigenze occupazionali e salute pubblica nei grandi siti industriali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversano, M

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pressures affecting Taranto area led institutional commitment to the local Health (LHA) and Environment Agency, which have helped to provide data in support of epidemiological and health impacts evidence.This is relevant in view of the issues related to the public health which led the Apulia Region to enact measures for environmental monitoring of dioxins (Regional Law 44/2008) and protection of food safety (Regional Council Deliberation 1442/2009). The LHA investigated three lines of development: monitoring of food matrices, studies of human biomonitoring and the establishment of local Cancer Registry. Same time to the actions of the Taranto Judiciary, Apulia Region has enacted the RL 24/12, integrating the legislative gap present into the Environmental Authorization procedures, which will allow the Health Damage Assessment, through the correlation between environmental monitoring data, biomonitoring and Cancer Registry. The next step will see the LHA involved in managing effective and feasible prevention initiatives. The Special Health and Environment Plan objective is to monitor the Taranto population health status, to screen the health determinants, to estimate the toxicologically relevant indicators of possible contamination and, if possible, to modify the correlations between risk factors, body burden, and specific diseases.

  2. Timber industry waste-teak ( Tectona grandis Linn.) leaf extract mediated synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty, K. Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    The current research article emphasizes efficacious use of teak leaves, an agro -biowaste from world's premier hardwood timber industry, for "green" synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Bioactive compounds of the leaves act as prolific reducing and stabilizing agents in AgNP synthesis. The characterization of the AgNPs synthesized using teak leaves revealed that the particles are spherical with an average size of 28 nm and the presence of bioactive compounds present in teak leaf extract as capping agents on the nanoparticles. A prominent decrease in the content of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, antioxidants and flavonoids after the biosynthesis of AgNPs signifies that these class of compounds act as reductants and stabilizers during biosynthesis. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were also successfully evaluated for their antibacterial characteristics against waterborne pathogens, E. coli and S. aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration of 25.6 μg/mL. Exploitation of agrowaste resources for synthesis of AgNPs curtails indiscriminate usage of food and commercial plant materials, rather contributing a sustainable way for effective plant waste biomass utilization and management. The biosynthesized AgNps have potential application in water purifiers, antibacterial fabrics, sports wear and in cosmetics as antibacterial agent and the process used for its synthesis being greener is highly beneficial from environmental, energy consumption and economic perspectives.

  3. In vitro wood decay of teak (Tectona grandis by Rigidoporus cf. microporus (Meripiliaceae, Polyporales, Basidiomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarmiento S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of exotic species like teak for industry demands has increased over the last decades in Central America, however its vulnerability to decay by saprophytic fungi has not been well studied. Among these fungi, Rigidoporus spp. have been described as white rotters of dead hardwoods and conifers worldwide. In Costa Rica, R. microporus has been found growing on teak stumps. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of this white rot fungus on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of teak wood from trees of different ages. Six and ten year old sapwood and heartwood samples were used in the assays. Severe anatomical damage and the highest weight and resistance losses were observed on 6 yr. old sapwood samples. There was an increase in the quantity of soluble materials in 1% NaOH (relative values and lignin content in all the samples analyzed, after 3 months exposure and up to the end of the experiment. Mass loss reduction and increased resistance of wood to compressive strength parallel to the grain were related to both the type of wood and the age of the tree. Knowledge of the potential damage that this fungus can cause to teak wood might help in a better selection of wood and developing more effective protection measures against decay in the field or in construction wood.

  4. Karakteristik Patogen Penyebab Penyakit Hawar Daun pada Bibit Tanaman Eucalyptus spp di PT. Toba Pulp Lestari Tbk. Kabupaten Toba Samosir, Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Klara Adhykarini

    2010-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui penyebab utama penyakit hawar daun pada E. grandis x E. urophylla dan E. grandis x E. pellita, untuk mengetahui ketahanan jenis E. grandis x E. urophylla dan E. grandis x E. pellita terhadap patogen penyebab penyakit hawar daun, dan untuk mengetahui virulensi dari dua jenis patogen hawar daun pada E. grandis x E. urophylla dan E. grandis x E. pellita. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman E. grandis x E. urophylla dan E. ...

  5. Aspectos biológicos de adultos de um parasitóide do bicudo do algodoeiro Biological aspects of a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Avelino Araújo

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Bracon sp. é um importante agente de controle biológico de Anthonomus grandis (Boheman. Estudaram-se em laboratório, aspectos biológicos de Bracon sp., utilizando-se como hospedeiro larva do bicudo do algodoeiro, a temperatura de 26 ± 2oC, 70 ± 5% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O ciclo biológico de Bracon sp. teve duração média de 11,7 dias, o período de incubação de 1 dia, o período médio larval de 3,9 dias, com 4 estádios; a viabilidade larval de 98,7%, o período pré-pupal de 0,6 dia, o período pupal de 6,2 dias, o tempo de pré-oviposição de 4,0 dias. A fêmea colocou, em média, 74 ovos em um período de 27,2 dias, a oviposição média diária de 2,7 ovos/fêmea/dia, o período de pós-oviposição de 3,7 dias e a longevidade de Bracon sp. foi de 34 dias para as fêmeas. A informação da biologia deste braconídeo é necessária para desenvolver estratégias de propagação e colonização do parasitóide.Bracon sp. is an important biological control agent of Anthonomus grandis, the cotton Boll weevil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of Bracon sp. using cotton Boll weevil larvae as host, at conditions of 26 ± 2oC, with 70 ± 5% RH and 12h photoperiod. The complete life cycle of Bracon sp. was 11.7 days. The incubation period lasted 1.0 day and the larval period 3.9 days with four stages; the viability of the larvae was 98.7%; prepupal period lasted 0.6 day; and the pupal period lasted 6.2 days. Preoviposition period was 4.0 days, and the females laid an average of 74.0 eggs with in an oviposition period of 27.2 days, while the average daily oviposition rate was 2.7 eggs per female per day, posovipositional lasted 3.7 days, and the longevity of Bracon sp. was 34.0 days in females. The information of the biology of this Braconid is needed to develop parasitoid propagation and colonization strategies.

  6. El picudo del algodonero en la Argentina: Principales resultados e implicancias de los estudios moleculares The cotton boll weevil in Argentina: Main results and implications of the molecular studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía A. Lanteri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Después de diez años del primer registro del picudo del algodonero, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, en la Argentina, el insecto ha llegado a la zona algodonera del Chaco. Los estudios moleculares realizados sobre poblaciones de la Argentina, Brasil y Paraguay, y posibles poblaciones fuente de EE.UU y México, han aportado información relevante para el control de la plaga. Se aplicaron las técnicas de RAPD (Polimorfismos del ADN Amplificados al Azar y de secuenciación de los genes mitocondriales de la Citocromo Oxidasa I y II, las cuales permitieron identificar dos linajes principales de picudos: a linajes con escasa o nula variabilidad medida en términos de heterocigosis y diversidad haplotípica, considerados colonizadores recientes, y asociados con ambientes xerófilos y cultivos de algodón (provincia de Formosa; b linajes con una elevada variabilidad y diversidad haplotípica, considerados ancestrales, y asociados con áreas de vegetación nativa de la selva misionera (Parque Nacional Iguazú. Se supone que ambos linajes tendrían diferentes orígenes, adaptaciones y preferencias de huéspedes, y que en este momento se estarían hidridando en zonas de ecotono. Se postula que el picudo se hallaría presente en América del Sur como consecuencia de una dispersión natural asociada principalmente con sus huéspedes silvestres de los géneros Gossypium y Cienfuegosia, probablemente desde el Pleistoceno. Por otra parte no se descarta la posibilidad de una o más introducciones desde EE.UU. hacia Brasil, mediante el comercio del algodón. Se destaca la importancia del cultivo extensivo del algodón, y de la deforestación y formación de corredores entre fragmentos de selva, para explicar la dispersión rápida de la plaga durante los últimos 20 años, en áreas algodoneras y/o no algodoneras pero afectadas por serios disturbios ambientales, como por ejemplo la provincia de Misiones.Ten years after the first record of

  7. Comportamento de progênies oriundas de raças primitivas de algodão herbáceo frente ao ataque do bicudo Behavior of lines from cotton primitive race stocks to attack of the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Correia Farias

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de obter linhagens resistentes ao bicudo-do-algodoeiro (Anthonomus grandis Boheman, a Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão vem testando progênies oriundas de raças primitivas de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. originárias do México e da América Central, que apresentam níveis aceitáveis de resistência ao bicudo. Em 1991 e 1992, as progênies em BC1F5 e BC1F6 oriundas das linhagens Texas 277, Texas 326 e Texas 1180, Texas 297, Texas 339, Texas 766 e Texas 1134, foram avaliadas com relação à resistência ao bicudo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. A unidade experimental foi constituída por duas fileiras de 5 m, sob um espaçamento de 0,75 m x 0,20 m. As parcelas foram infestadas com adultos do bicudo recém-emergidos, a uma taxa de 10.000 adultos/ha. Aos seis dias após a liberação dos adultos, as parcelas foram pulverizadas com Cipermethrim, sendo realizadas em intervalos semanais. Foram procedidas cinco avaliações através da coleta de 33 botões florais ao acaso, por parcela. Os maiores níveis de resistência ao bicudo foram obtidos pelas progênies Texas 326-95-1, Texas 277-87-5, Texas 1180-99-2, Texas 297 e Texas 339, com redução de ataque de 44,0, 41,2, 32,0, 40,4 e 36,4%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha CNPA 6H.The goal of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman resistance program of Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão is to obtain cultivars that give 80% suppression when compared to commercial cultivars. The primitive cottons (Gossypium hirsutum L. from Mexico and Central America have been known to show measurable levels of resistance to the boll weevil. In 1991 and 1992, the lines in BC1F5 and BC1F6 from Texas 277, Texas 326, Texas 1180, Texas 297, Texas 339, Texas 766 and Texas 1134 were evaluated to boll weevil resistance. The experiment was carried out at Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. The trial

  8. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  9. Optimal Cotton Insecticide Application Termination Timing: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, T W; Zapata, S D

    2016-08-01

    The concept of insecticide termination timing is generally accepted among cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) researchers; however, exact timings are often disputed. Specifically, there is uncertainty regarding the last economic insecticide application to control fruit-feeding pests including tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)), boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus). A systematic review of prior studies was conducted within a meta-analytic framework. Nine publicly available articles were amalgamated to develop an optimal timing principle. These prior studies reported 53 independent multiple means comparison field experiments for a total of 247 trial observations. Stochastic plateau theory integrated with econometric meta-analysis methodology was applied to the meta-database to determine the shape of the functional form of both the agronomic optimal insecticide termination timing and corresponding yield potential. Results indicated that current university insecticide termination timing recommendations are later than overall estimated timing suggested. The estimated 159 heat units (HU) after the fifth position above white flower (NAWF5) was found to be statistically different than the 194 HU termination used as the status quo recommended termination timing. Insecticides applied after 159 HU may have been applied in excess, resulting in unnecessary economic and environmental costs. Empirical results also suggested that extending the insecticide termination time by one unit resulted in a cotton lint yield increase of 0.27 kilograms per hectare up to the timing where the plateau began. Based on economic analyses, profit-maximizing producers may cease application as soon as 124 HU after NAWF5. These results provided insights useful to improve production systems by applying inputs only when benefits were expected to be in excess of the

  10. Optimal Cotton Insecticide Application Termination Timing: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, T W; Zapata, S D

    2016-08-01

    The concept of insecticide termination timing is generally accepted among cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) researchers; however, exact timings are often disputed. Specifically, there is uncertainty regarding the last economic insecticide application to control fruit-feeding pests including tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)), boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus). A systematic review of prior studies was conducted within a meta-analytic framework. Nine publicly available articles were amalgamated to develop an optimal timing principle. These prior studies reported 53 independent multiple means comparison field experiments for a total of 247 trial observations. Stochastic plateau theory integrated with econometric meta-analysis methodology was applied to the meta-database to determine the shape of the functional form of both the agronomic optimal insecticide termination timing and corresponding yield potential. Results indicated that current university insecticide termination timing recommendations are later than overall estimated timing suggested. The estimated 159 heat units (HU) after the fifth position above white flower (NAWF5) was found to be statistically different than the 194 HU termination used as the status quo recommended termination timing. Insecticides applied after 159 HU may have been applied in excess, resulting in unnecessary economic and environmental costs. Empirical results also suggested that extending the insecticide termination time by one unit resulted in a cotton lint yield increase of 0.27 kilograms per hectare up to the timing where the plateau began. Based on economic analyses, profit-maximizing producers may cease application as soon as 124 HU after NAWF5. These results provided insights useful to improve production systems by applying inputs only when benefits were expected to be in excess of the

  11. Le coton biologique au Paraguay. 2. Production et contraintes agronomiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic cotton production in Paraguay. 2. Agronomic limitations for a novel industry. Two main limiting factors to organic cotton production are soil fertility and pest (arthropods and diseases management. Paraguay has begun to produce organic cotton since 2003. An exploratory study was carried out in order to have a better knowledge of the way the organic cotton production has developed and to identify economic (first paper and agronomic limitations (this paper. In addition, this paper provides an analysis of the production of cotton-seed. The study was achieved in 2008 during the cotton harvest period by interviewing the actors from the farm to the industrial level. With more than 200 tons of cotton-seed produced since 2006-2007, Paraguay has reached the second position of South-American producers of organic cotton, behind Peru. In 2007-2008, the recorded average yield of 492 kg.ha-1 of cotton-seed has been underestimated because of sales of organic cotton to the conventional industry. Fertilization and insect pest management, especially for the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis, were based on biological approaches at the whole cropping system level. Management practices included the use of made-in-farm inputs with, according to users, a fair level of efficacy but whose actual effects are mostly poorly known. We recommend in-depth studies firstly to identify the biological pathways involved when necessary, secondly to assess the qualitative and quantitative diversity of farmers practices, and thirdly to integrate their impacts at different space and time scales.

  12. Survival of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)adults after feeding on pollens from various sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOIL M. GREENBERG; GRETCHEN D. JONES; FRANK EISCHEN; RANDY J.COLEMAN; JOHN J. ADAMCZYK, JR; TONG-XIAN LIU; MAMOUDOU SETAMOU

    2007-01-01

    The survival of overwintering boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman),adults on non-cotton hosts in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas was examined from 2001 to 2006. The success of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program, which was reintroduced into the LRGV in 2005, depends on controlling overwintering boll weevil populations. Laboratory studies were conducted using boll weevil adults that were captured in pheromone traps from September through March. The number of adults captured per trap declined significantly in the field from fall to the beginning of spring (3.5-7.0-fold). The proportion of trapped males and females did not differ significantly. The mean weight of boll weevil adults captured in September was 13.3 mg, while those of captured adults from November to February were significantly lower and ranged from 6.7 to 7.8 mg. Our results show that boll weevil adults can feed on different plant pollens. The highest longevity occurred when adults were fed almond pollen or mixed pollens (72.6 days and 69.2 days, respectively)and the lowest when they fed on citrus pollen or a non-food source (9.7 days or 7.4 days,respectively). The highest adult survival occurred on almond and mixed pollens [88.0%-97.6% after 1st feeding period (10 days), 78.0%-90.8% after 3rd feeding period (10 days), 55.0%-83.6% after 5th feeding period (10 days), and 15.2%-32.4% after 10th feeding period (10days)]. The lowest adult survival occurred on citrus pollen [52.0%-56.0% after 1st feeding period (10 days), 13.3% after 3rd and 5th feeding periods (10 days), and 0 after 6th feeding period (10 days)]. Pollen feeding is not a behavior restricted to adult boll weevils of a specific sex or physiological state. Understanding how boll weevil adults survive in the absence of cotton is important to ensure ultimate success of eradicating this pest in the subtropics.

  13. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika (now Tanzania), and E. F. Knipling of the United States Department of Agriculture. Serebrovskii's work on chromosomal translocations for pest population suppression could not succeed in the catastrophic conditions in the USSR during World War II, after which he died. Vanderplank used hybrid sterility to suppress a tsetse population in a large field experiment, but lacked the resources to develop this method further. Knipling and his team exploited H. J. Muller's discovery that ionizing radiation can induce dominant lethal mutations, and after World War II this approach was applied on an area-wide basis to eradicate the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in the USA, Mexico, and Central America. Since then very effective programmes integrating the SIT have been mounted against tropical fruit flies, some species of tsetse flies Glossina spp., the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), and the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In non-isolated onion fields in the Netherlands, the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Meigen) has since 1981 been suppressed by the SIT. In the 1970s there was much research conducted on mosquito SIT, which then went into 'eclipse', but now appears to be reviving. Development of the SIT for use against the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) has ended, but it is in progress for two sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas formicarius (F.) and Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), the false codling moth Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae

  14. Somatic hybridization between Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and C. grandis (L. Osbeck Hibridação somática entre Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Calixto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to produce citrus somatic hybrids between sweet oranges and pummelos. After chemical fusion of sweet orange embryogenic protoplasts with pummelo mesophyll-derived protoplasts, plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis and acclimatized in a greenhouse. The hybrids of 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo and 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Singapura' pummelo were confirmed by leaf morphology, chromosome counting and molecular analysis. These hybrids have potential to be used directly as rootstocks aiming blight, citrus tristeza virus, and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerance, as well as for rootstocks improvement programs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos entre laranjas doces e toranjas. Após fusão de protoplastos embriogênicos de laranja doce com protoplastos derivados de mesófilo foliar de toranjas, plantas foram regeneradas por embriogênese somática e aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. Os híbridos laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' e laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Singapura' foram confirmados pela morfologia foliar, contagem do número de cromossomos e análise molecular. Esses híbridos apresentam potencial para serem testados como porta-enxertos tolerantes a declínio, tristeza e doenças causadas por Phytophthora, bem como em programas de melhoramento de porta-enxertos.

  15. The Transcriptome and Terpene Profile of Eucalyptus grandis Reveals Mechanisms of Defense Against the Insect Pest, Leptocybe invasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Caryn N; Külheim, Carsten; Myburg, Alexander A; Slippers, Bernard; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2015-07-01

    Plants have evolved complex defenses that allow them to protect themselves against pests and pathogens. However, there is relatively little information regarding the Eucalyptus defensome. Leptocybe invasa is one of the most damaging pests in global Eucalyptus forestry, and essentially nothing is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing the interaction between the pest and host. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the transcriptional landscape and terpene profile of a resistant and susceptible Eucalyptus genotype in an effort to improve our understanding of this interaction. We used RNA-seqencing to investigate transcriptional changes following L. invasa oviposition. Expression levels were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. Terpene profiles were investigated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectometry on uninfested and oviposited leaves. We found 698 and 1,115 significantly differentially expressed genes from the resistant and susceptible interactions, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and Mapman analyses identified putative defense mechanisms including cell wall reinforcement, protease inhibitors, cell cycle suppression and regulatory hormone signaling pathways. There were significant differences in the mono- and sesquiterpene profiles between genotypes and between control and infested material. A model of the interaction between Eucalyptus and L. invasa was proposed from the transcriptomic and chemical data. PMID:25948810

  16. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p authenticity and the health benefits from the juice. PMID:26243926

  17. The protective effects of pomelo extract (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) against fructose-mediated protein oxidation and glycation

    OpenAIRE

    Caengprasath, Natarin; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Mäkynen, Kittana; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic protein glycation, which plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications. Immense efforts have been made to determine effective antiglycation compounds from natural products. Pomelo has shown beneficial effects for human health. The objective of this study was to determine the antiglycation effect of pomelo extract against fructose-mediated protein oxidation and glycation. Our results showed that the pomelo extract (0.25 - 2.00 ...

  18. Efeito da fertilização em propriedades mecânicas da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-01-01

    estática. A resistência à compressão e o módulo de elasticidade foram influenciados pelos fatores: adubo e posição da tora. Todas as propriedades mecânicas aumentaram no sentido da medula para a casca. Foi observada uma relação positiva entre resistência à compressão paralela às fibras, cisalhamento, módulo de resistência à flexão estática e módulo de elasticidade na flexão estática com a posição radial.

  19. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.): A preferred timber for shipbuilding in India as evidenced from shipwrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Shashikala, S.; Sardar, A.A.

    anatomy. INDIA has contributed significantly to world culture in the field of science, technology, culture and philosophy. One of the greatest achievements of man was the invention of watercraft made of reeds, logs and skins, which were used from...

  20. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  1. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis po

  2. Environ: E00457 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00457 Torreya grandis seed Torreyae semen Crude drug Torreya grandis [TAX:58047] T...axaceae (yew family) Torreya grandis mature seed (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Naked-seed plants Taxaceae (yew family) E00457 Torreya grandis seed ...

  3. Development and Optimisation of a Low-Temperature Drying Schedule for Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden in a Solar-Assisted Timber Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    The Brazilian furniture industry consumes about 45 million m³ of sawnwood per year which is mainly supplied by deforestation of the tropical rainforest. At the same time, fast growing eucalypt species are produced on almost 3 million ha for the production of wood pulp and charcoal. Meanwhile, several Brazilian companies try to substitute the expensive natural woods by hardwood from eucalypt trees for the production of high quality sawnwood. However, eucalypt wood has to be dried very carefull...

  4. Evaluacion comparativa de dos tipos de muestreo en chucheca (Grandiarca grandis y piangua (Anadara tuberculosa, en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bolaños Montero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo para probar la bondad estadística de dos métodos de muestreo de moluscos en el ecosistema de manglar. El muestreo por estratos resultó ser mejor que el muestreo irrestricto al azar.

  5. 香榧细菌性褐腐病的症状及防治试验%Symptom and control of bacterial brown rot in Torreya grandis Fort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈李红; 金国龙; 孙蔡江; 郎学军

    2006-01-01

    由胡萝卜软腐欧氏菌Erwinia carotovora(Jones)Bergeey等引起的香榧细菌性褐腐病是危害香榧果实的一种重要病害,病斑呈褐色,常引起香榧落果而减产.4月底5月初开始发病,5月中下旬为发病高峰.经雨水传播,从皮孔或伤口侵入,连续的阴雨天易发病,用5%菌毒清800倍液喷雾防治,效果达90.4%,50%退菌特400倍液喷雾防治,效果达76.9%.

  6. Study on HPLC Fingerprint of Folium Citri Grandis of Tongxian%通贤柚叶HPLC指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游元元; 范媛媛; 陈席; 谢仁宗

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立通贤柚叶的HPLC指纹图谱.方法 色谱柱为Sepax Amethyst C18-H(250 mm×4.6 0mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-0.1%甲酸,梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL· min-1,检测波长303 nm,柱温25℃,进样量20μL.分析12批通贤柚叶样品,并进行主成分分析.结果 建立了通贤柚叶的HPLC指纹图谱,确定了16个共有色谱峰,采用对照品指认了其中2个峰.主成分分析结果表明,11个色谱峰对其质量控制较为重要.结论 所建立的指纹图谱分析方法特征性强,为通贤柚叶的质量控制提供了科学依据.

  7. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) con manejo tumba y quema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uribe, S.; Huerta, E.; Geissen, V.; Mendoza, M.I.; Godoy, R.; Jarquin, A.

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de oligoquetos en los ecosistemas puede indicar fertilidad del suelo, ya que estos organismos transportan, mezclan y entierran los residuos vegetales de la superficie al interior del suelo. Se caracterizó la comunidad de oligoquetos bajo sitios con diferentes periodos de establecimiento

  8. EFEITO DA INOCULAÇÃO COM FUNGOS ECTOMICORRÍZICOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex MAIDEN EM SOLO ARENOSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes inóculos e mistura de inóculos de fungos ectomicorrízicos sobre a produção de mudas de eucalipto em solo arenoso. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos foram quatro isolados e quatro mistura de inóculo de fungos ectomicorrízicos. Utilizou-se solo sob processo de arenização, coletado no município de São Francisco de Assis – RS. Avaliou-se a massa da parte aérea e radicular verde, massa da parte aérea seca, altura de planta, diâmetro do colo, comprimento e área superficial específica radicular, colonização micorrízica e teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. Os resultados mostraram que o isolado F2-RS (Pisolithus sp. proporcionou os maiores incrementos no desenvolvimento das mudas de eucalipto. A mistura de inóculos de fungos pode ser utilizada desde que se tenha um prévio conhecimento do efeito isolado do fungo.

  9. Parâmetros cinéticos de adesivos produzidos a partir de taninos de Anadenanthera peregrina e Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Benedito Rocha Vital; Ana Flávia Neves Mendes Castro; Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos; Renato Vinícius Oliveira Castro; Márcia Aparecida Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Devido à crise do petróleo, na década de 70, pesquisas tiveram o objetivo de substituir parcial ou totalmente os adesivos convencionais, à base de petróleo. Uma forma de substituição foi a utilização de fontes naturais, como os taninos, provenientes de algumas espécies arbóreas. Porém, os taninos apresentam algumas limitações de uso, que podem ser superadas através da sulfitação e da hidrolise ácida. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da hidrólise ácida e sulfitação de t...

  10. Da Rabelais a Zola, da Erasmo a Camus: la psicologia del processo, le intuizioni dei grandi autori, la conferma delle scienze cognitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  Rabelais, Zole, Camus have seen that the judments are based on many – sided thought processes, and not only on legal rationality. The article want to demonstrate that these intuitions are confirmed by the psycholgy and cognitive sciences.To hit the mark, the article analyses an extract ofGargantua and Pantagruele, Thérèse Raquin and The stranger, comparing the pieces of these works to some psychological tests.The article shows that Rabelais has rightly seen how much some heuristics are important to come to a decision; that Zola has seen the importance of the expectations in the perception of eyewitnesses; that Camus has described the deformations that could be produced in the course of the evidence.In the end, the article shows that sometimes the justice is most clear in the great writers’ work and not, like Erasmus said, collecting glosses and glosses.

  11. Characterization of the Aldehydes and Their Transformations Induced by UV Irradiation and Air Exposure of White Guanxi Honey Pummelo (Citrus Grandis (L.) Osbeck) Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Jun; Hong, Peng; Chen, Feng; Sun, Hao; Yang, Yuan Fan; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Gao Ling; Wu, Li Ming; Ni, Hui

    2016-06-22

    Aldehydes are key aroma contributors of citrus essential oils. White Guanxi honey pummelo essential oil (WPEO) was investigated in its aldehyde constituents and their transformations induced by UV irradiation and air exposure by GC-MS, GC-O, and sensory evaluation. Nine aldehydes, i.e., octanal, nonanal, citronellal, decanal, trans-citral, cis-citral, perilla aldehyde, dodecanal, and dodecenal, were detected in WPEO. After treatment, the content of citronellal increased, but the concentrations of other aldehydes decreased. The aliphatic aldehydes were transformed to organic acids. Citral was transformed to neric acid, geranic acid, and cyclocitral. Aldehyde transformation caused a remarkable decrease in the minty, herbaceous, and lemon notes of WPEO. In fresh WPEO, β-myrcene, d-limonene, octanal, decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal had the highest odor dilution folds. After the treatment, the dilution folds of decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal decreased dramatically. This result provides information for the production and storage of aldehyde-containing products. PMID:27226192

  12. Integrating remote sensing and ancillary data for regional ecosystem assessment: Eucalyptus grandis agro-system in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Aardt, van J.; Main, R.; Majeke, B.; Ramoelo, A.; Mathieu, R.; Norris-Rogers, M.; Plessis, Du M.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of various ecosystems to perform vital functions such as biodiversity production, and water, energy and nutrient cycling depends on the ecosystem state, i.e. health. Ecosystem state assessment has been a topic of intense research, but has reached a point at which accurate large scale (e.

  13. Value Added and Equity in the Smallholder-produced Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. Poles Value Chain in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbo, V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the value added created, and equity in the smallholder-produced teak poles value chain in Southern Benin. The questions intended to be addressed were as follows: how well does the value chain contribute to create wealth? How fairly is the value added shared among chain participants? What are the opportunities for smallholder farmers to capture a wider share of the value added? The study was based on data from 103 teak planters surveyed in the Atlantic Department, and 89 teak poles traders operating in five major cities. The consolidated production-trading account of the value chain was elaborated. The level of equity in the value chain was analysed based on the costs borne, the contribution to the value added, and the share of value added received by each stakeholder. The value chain generated a positive value added. Traders were the main contributors, and the first beneficiaries of the value added. However, there was no sufficient evidence of inequity to the disadvantage of farmers. There is avenue for farmers to upgrade in the value chain by acquiring new functions, to increase the farm gate value of timber. The related policy implications were discussed.

  14. 沙田柚多倍体基因组AFLP分析%Genome Analysis of Nature and Artificial Polyploids by AFLP in Citrus grandis.cv.Shatianyou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何波; 汪卫星; 向素琼; 刘秀芳; 李晓林; 郭启高; 梁国鲁

    2009-01-01

    沙田柚性状优良却多核,通过多倍体选育获得无核或少核品种具有很高的价值.本研究运用AFLP技术分析沙田柚多倍体基因组的变化,以期为多倍化选育优良品种提供一定的理论依据.结果表明,多倍体沙田柚基因组存在大量片段的丢失,也有许多新的酶切位点出现,变异率在21 %~29 %之间.其中多个位点同时发生了相同变异,暗示着多倍体基因组的进化并不是一个随机事件,而这些变异与哪些表观遗传变异直接相关,还有待深入研究.

  15. Hubungan Jumlah Stomata Daun Ketapang terminalia catappa Linn dan Daun Jati tectona grandis l.f dengan Hasil Absorpsi CO2 di Hutan Kota UNHAS Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    WAHYUNI W. AH, A. SRI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A research in the connection of the quantity of stomata on tropical almond and teak???s leaves with the result of absorb CO2 located in urban forest in Unhas Makassar has been conducted on October ??? December 2014. The research aimed to know the result of carbohydrate and the ability of both tropical almond and teak leaves to absorb CO2 and also intended to know the characterization of stomata from tropical almond and teak leaves. The result showed that tropical almond???s leav...

  16. Influência do vermicomposto na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden.

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher; Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira; Elda Raquel Vargas de Oliveira; Edson Luís Piroli

    2010-01-01

    Considerando a expressiva área de florestas plantadas com espécies do gênero Eucalyptus e o uso dessa madeira para múltiplos propósitos, sua cultura é de grande importância econômica para o Brasil. O uso de substratos com boas características físico-químicas constituem importante fator para a qualidade das mudas produzidas. Neste sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de diferentes doses de vermicomposto em tubetes com capacidade de receber aproximadamente 50 cm3 de s...

  17. Alterações na estrutura anatômica da madeira de cavacos de eucalyptus grandis em três condições de desfibramento para a confecção de painéis MDF Changes in the anatomical structure of eucalyptus grandis wood chips in three conditions wood chip refining for production of MDF panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da madeira de eucalipto na confecção de painéis MDF é recente, tornando-se necessário entender as modificações em sua estrutura anatômica durante as etapas do processo industrial, notadamente no desfibramento dos cavacos. Com esse objetivo, neste estudo foram aplicadas três condições diferenciadas de desfibramento dos cavacos, alterando-se (i o tempo de aquecimento, (ii as pressões de digestão e de desfibramento e (iii a energia específica de desfibramento, sendo avaliadas as características anatômicas dos componentes celulares da madeira. O aumento da intensidade de refino dos cavacos de madeira reduziu o comprimento médio das fibras e aumentou o porcentual de fibras quebradas, corroborando as imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, além da diminuição do número dos vasos e de células de parênquima. Essa condição de desfibramento mais intensa promoveu, também, um característico escurecimento da coloração da polpa composta pelos elementos celulares da madeira. A aplicação de variáveis de desfibramento mais brandas aumentou a presença de feixes de fibras e do número de vasos e de parênquima, resultando em uma polpa de coloração mais clara. As alterações das características morfológicas dos componentes celulares da madeira dos cavacos de eucalipto, após o tratamento de desfibramento, relacionaram-se com as etapas do processo operacional e com a qualidade tecnológica dos painéis de fibras MDF.The use of eucalyptus wood for production of MDF panels is recent, becoming necessary to understand the changes in the anatomical structure during the stages of industrial processing, especially during wood chip refining. With this aim, in the present work three different conditions of wood chip refining were applied (i chip heating time, (ii digestion and refining pressures and (iii the specific refining energy, and the anatomical characteristics of wood cell components were evaluated. Increase in the intensity of wood chip refining reduced the fiber mean length and increased the percentage of broken fibers. This corroborated with the images of scanning electronic microscopy, besides decreasing the number of vessel elements and parenchyma cells. The more intense refining condition promoted a characteristic darkening of the pulp composed by the wood cell elements. The application of lighter refining variables increased the frequency of fiber bundles, number of vessels and parenchyma, resulting in pulp with clearer coloration. The morphological changes in cell components of eucalyptus wood chips caused by the refining treatment were related with the stages of the operational process and the technological quality of MDF fiberboard.

  18. 柚皮提取物的抗氧化活性研究%STUDY ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS FROM THE PEEL OF THE CITRUS GRANDIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳萍; 俞远志

    2007-01-01

    柚皮经乙醇浸提,上硅胶柱,分别用石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇、甲醇和水作溶剂洗脱其中有效成分,并采用DPPH体系、氮蓝四唑(NBT)光化还原法以及羟基氧化细胞色素C法对各洗脱物的抗氧化性进行研究.结果:柚皮中各相提取物对DPPH自由基、超氧自由基以及羟基自由基均有较强的清除效果,且正丁醇相对DPPH自由基以及羟基自由基均有较好的清除效果.而甲醇相、乙酸乙酯相对超氧自由基则有很好的清除效果.

  19. 微波辅助提取巨尾枝叶多糖及其抗氧化性研究%Study on microwave-assisted extraction and antioxidation of polysaccharides from leaves of Eucalyptus Grandis x E.Urophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳芯吟; 刘雄民; 马丽; 赖芳; 刘田元

    2015-01-01

    以巨尾桉叶为原料,开展了微波辅助水提法提取巨尾桉叶多糖的工艺优化研究,建立了葡萄糖为标准品测定多糖的定量分析方法,考察了巨尾桉叶多糖的抗氧化性.实验结果表明,测定波长为489 nm下的标准曲线方程为:y=0.014 5x +0.000 8;巨尾桉叶多糖提取的优化工艺为:微波功率为480 W,液固比为45∶1 mL/g,提取时间为7 min,多糖提取率为9.17%;巨尾桉叶多糖对DPPH·和过氧化氢的清除率分别为70.05%和84.7%.

  20. 复方川贝止咳糖浆中化橘红和薄荷脑的薄层色谱鉴别%Identification of Exocarpium Citri Grandis and Mentholum in Compound Bulbus Fritillariae Cough Syrup by TLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛振杰; 李依信; 李永斌

    2007-01-01

    目的 提高复方川贝止咳糖浆的质量标准,更好地控制产品的质量.方法 采用薄层色谱(TLC)法,对制剂中化橘红和薄荷脑的定性方法进行研究.结果 建立了两味药材的TLC鉴别方法,且方法专属性强,操作简便可靠,便于普通检验室操作.结论 TLC法专属性强,可用于复方川贝止咳糖浆的质量控制.

  1. Efeito da inoculação com fungos ectomicorrízicos na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden em solo arenoso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes inóculos e mistura de inóculos de fungos ectomicorrízicos sobre a produção de mudas de eucalipto em solo arenoso. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos foram quatro isolados e quatro mistura de inóculo de fungos ectomicorrízicos. Utilizou-se solo sob processo de arenização, coletado no município de São Francisco de Assis - RS. Avaliou-se a massa da parte aérea e radicular verde, massa da parte aérea seca, altura de planta, diâmetro do colo, comprimento e área superficial específica radicular, colonização micorrízica e teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. Os resultados mostraram que o isolado F2-RS (Pisolithus sp. proporcionou os maiores incrementos no desenvolvimento das mudas de eucalipto. A mistura de inóculos de fungos pode ser utilizada desde que se tenha um prévio conhecimento do efeito isolado do fungo.

  2. COMPORTAMENTO DE ADESÃO DA MADEIRA DE UM HÍBRIDO CLONAL DE EUCALYPTUS UROPHYLLA × EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS PROVENIENTE DE TRÊS CONDIÇÕES DE MANEJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2012-01-01

    treatments on the adhesive used. We evaluated the shear strength by compression tests and the percentage of wood failure in the glue line. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that the adhesion had satisfactory performance with all the resins used, and the average values of shear strength of the glue line were shown to be equivalent to the shear strength of solid wood only for the samples which adhered with 'Wonderbond' adhesive and also provide higher values for wood failure (97.64%. The highest density present in the wood of the second stratum (E2 influenced only sticking with the resorcinol formaldehyde resin. For polyvinyl acetate (Cascorez 2590, shear values decreased in the third management condition (E3.

  3. Simulación del impacto de diferentes regímenes de cosecha sobre el capital de nutrientes e indicadores económicos en plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis del NE de Entre Ríos, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Goya; Jorge Luis Frangi; Gerardo Denegri; Federico Larocca

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect on soil productivity of harvesting forestry products deserved special attention in last years. Consequently, it is necessary to establish quantitative indices of environmental and economic impact for the different management stages. The decision of planting forestry trees is dependent on financial indicators; high costs may change investor decision. Maintaining soil nutrient stock as a baseline for productivity support may be an indicator of ecological sustainability...

  4. Phenotypic Plasticity and Physiological Responses of Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla Seedling under Drought Stress%干旱胁迫下巨尾桉的形态可塑性和生理响应特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓云; 王冰; 苏文华; 张光飞; 邓晓保

    2010-01-01

    以1月龄巨尾桉组培苗为材料,通过模拟雨季和旱季的土壤水分条件试验探讨干旱胁迫下巨尾桉幼苗形态的可塑性及生理响应特征.结果表明:与高水和中水处理相比,低水处理(13%左右土壤体积水分含量,模拟旱季土壤水分)导致巨尾桉幼苗生物量减少,叶片形态发生明显变化,总叶面积、叶片数、平均叶面积和比叶面积减少,而且叶片可溶性糖含量增加;但水分胁迫下巨尾桉生物量分配模式不变,叶片脯氨酸含量变化也不明显,叶片最大光化学量子效率(Fv/Fm)仍维持在正常水平.研究发现,干旱并未对巨尾桉光合能力和水分吸收策略造成过多影响,巨尾桉能通过限制生长、减少水分消耗来应对干旱胁迫,保证植株安全度过干旱同时又不会过度消耗当地环境水分,以利于维持当地旱季的水分平衡.

  5. Effect of High Temperature and Drought Stress on the Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis Seedlings%高温和干旱胁迫对尾巨桉幼苗生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕清; 陈泽雄; 杨婉晴

    2008-01-01

    以木本植物尾巨桉无性系幼苗为试验材料,研究高温(40℃)和干旱胁迫(停止浇水)对其生理特性的影响.结果表明:随着高温和干旱胁迫处理时间的延长,幼苗受害指数、膜透性、丙二醛含量和脯氨酸含量均有不同程度的升高;叶片含水量、叶绿素含量均明显降低,干旱胁迫的影响大于高温胁迫的影响.

  6. Obtaining Polyploids and Genome Analysis of Tetraploids by GISH in Citrus grandis cv. Shatianyou%沙田柚多倍体的获得与基因组原位杂交(GISH)分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向素琼; 梁国鲁; 李晓林; 汪卫星; 郭启高; 何桥; 陈瑶

    2008-01-01

    [目的]沙田柚是中国特有的柚类名优品种,但种子多,一般100粒左右.为创新三倍体无核品种积累育种材料,本研究通过实生筛选获得不同倍性沙田柚新种质,同时运用基因组原位杂交(GISH)技术分析天然与人工四倍体新种质的染色体组组成.[方法]随机采集沙田柚自然授粉果实,萌发种子检测其染色体数目获得倍性变异植株;以2x母株gDNA为探针,同获得的4x植株中期染色体杂交进行GISH分析.[结果]从6 000粒沙田柚种子中共获得三倍体5株,四倍体9株;对沙田柚天然与人工四倍体新种质的基因组原位杂交(GISH)分析表明,天然四倍体中有7株为异源四倍体,2株为同源四倍体,秋水仙碱诱导获得的人工四倍体4株均为同源四倍体;初步观察显示;与二倍体相比,四倍体植株生长缓慢,树冠较小,枝短而密生,叶片浓绿,宽度变宽,叶形指数减小,叶片厚度增加明显.[结论]多倍体单胚柚新种质的获得为进一步选育无核品种奠定了基础,同时GISH分析证实了沙田柚雌性未减数配子的存在.

  7. Isolation,Identification and cDNA Cloning of ACTIN of the Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Juice Sacs%琯溪蜜柚汁胞ACTIN的分离鉴定和cDNA克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟凤林; 郭志雄; 潘东明

    2010-01-01

    对琯溪蜜柚粒化与正常汁胞汁胞双向电泳分析,获得一个在粒化中上调表达的羞异蛋白质点,经过质谱鉴定、生物信息学分析,为肌动蛋白(Actin),以琯溪蜜柚粒化汁胞cDNA为模板,根据Actin氨基酸序列设计引物,进行全长的扩增,得到Actin开放阅读框包含1134个碱基,编码377个氨基酸.其核酸序列与黑杨派(Populus trichocarpa)、棉花(Gossypium hirsutum)、蓖麻(Ricinus communis)、圆叶锦葵(Malva pusilla)ACT的同源性在89%以上.

  8. 琯溪蜜柚果肉过氧化物酶cDNA的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence analysis of the Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Flesh Peroxidase cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 郭志雄; 潘东明

    2006-01-01

    以琯溪蜜柚果肉为材料,运用cDNA克隆的方法,克隆得到了琯溪蜜柚果肉过氧化物酶的cDNA的全长,并对得到的序列进行了一些分析,从分子生物学角度对粒化的研究做了初步的探索.结果表明:琯溪蜜柚果肉POD cDNA全长1263bp,有完整的阅读框,编码351个氨基酸.另外5'非翻译区42bp,3'非翻译区168bp(不包含终止密码子TAA),其中包括一个多聚腺苷酸化信号AATAAA,以及一个含24个腺苷酸的poly(A)尾.由琯溪蜜柚果肉POD cDNA推导的氨基酸序列与无花果(Ficus carica)、陆地棉(Gossypium hirsutum)、杨属植物(Populus)等同源性较高,分别为:58.6%,67.61%,65.24%,67.14%等.

  9. Drying Characteristics and Drying Schedules of Tropical Plantation Wood in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Drying characteristics of 5 species of tropical plantation wood were studied by the100℃-test method. The results showed that almost every sample had some light end checks and thesamples of Eucalyptus citriodora and E. exserta were severer than the others in the end check.E. grandis × E. urophylla and Acacia mangium were the severest in internal checks, followed byE. grandis, E. exserta and E. citriodora. And E. grandis and E. grandis × E. urophylla were theseverest in cross-section deformation, followed by ...

  10. Three Boll Weevil Diapause Myths in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonmus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), originated in Mesoamerica but its contemporary distribution extends from the United States Cotton Belt to Argentina, throughout which it is a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. While research on the boll weev...

  11. The Creation of BugBag. Redesign of Insect Trap for Biological Pest Control

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Mads Rømer; Andersen, Jakob Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The project is based on research on pheromones and the project SoftPest Multitrap. Copenhagen Universitys Science and Life Sciences, more specifically Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, has researched and developed the pheromonis for mass trapping of the Strawberry Blossom Weevil (Anthonomus Rubi) and the European Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus Rugulipennis). Our foucus is on the user-experience Associated with the pheromonibased traps. Especially the distrubution, as...

  12. Seletividade alimentar e influência da idade da folha de Eucalyptus SPP. para Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae Feeding selectivity and influence of leaf age of Eucalyptus SPP. for Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae é considerada uma das mais sérias pragas do eucalipto no Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a preferência alimentar de T. arnobia em seis espécies de eucalipto e a influência da idade foliar sobre a seleção hospedeira, utilizando-se folhas jovens e velhas de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Lagartas de T. arnobia alimentadas na geração anterior com folhas de E. grandis preferiram folhas jovens de E. grandis e E.cloeziana, enquanto as alimentadas com E. saligna, na geração anterior, preferiram folhas velhas de E. grandis. A espécie preferida por lagartas de T. arnobia foi E. grandis, observando-se, também maior preferência por folhas jovens que por folhas velhas nas espécies utilizadas nos testes.Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is considered one of the most serious Eucalyptus pests in Brazil. This work was carried out aiming to study feeding preference of T. arnobia and the influence of leaf age on the host selection, using young and old leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Caterpillars fed with E. grandis leaves in previous generation, preferred young leaves of E. grandis and E. cloeziana, while caterpillars fed with E. saligna in previous generation preferred old leaves of E. grandis. The most consumed species was E. grandis, and the caterpillars preferred young leaves than old ones, for all species studied.

  13. Dez anos de sucessivas adubações com boro no algodoeiro Ten years of cotton fertilization with boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Machado da Silva

    1995-01-01

    Canajus indicus was cultivated, in crop rotation, to control the increasing incidence of nemathodes. After the eighth year, there was intense attack of Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Thus, cotton yield diminished from the first period, of three years, to the last, while the effect of boron accumulation increased in this sense. In the first period, there was an enchance of yield at rate of 0.4 kg/ha of B, but after lime reaction the best responses were obtained with 0.8 kg/ha of B. The plants were more sensitives to fertilization in terms of boron concentration in the leaf blade, specially after liming. Rates of 1.6 and 3.2 kg/ha of B were injurious starting from the beginning of the study. After liming, yield decreases were related with B concentration higher than 50 mg/kg in leaf blades. Results of soil analysis in the nineth year, indicated a great residual effect of boron accumulation in the 0-20 cm soil layer, as well as leaching of the micronutrient at least down to 40-60 cm deep, in proportion to the rates applied.

  14. 78 FR 18899 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Hearing on Proposed Amendment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... ``grapefruit''; (c) Citrus reticulata, commonly called ``tangerines'' or ``mandarin''; (d) C.grandis (L... oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos (citrus) grown in Florida. Nine amendments are proposed by the Citrus Administrative Committee (committee), which is responsible for local administration of...

  15. Väärtushinnangud eesti algklassilugemikus / Leida Talts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talts, Leida

    1997-01-01

    Väärtushinnangute aspektist analüüsitakse 2. klassi emakeele lugemikku : Kivi,L., Roosleht,M. "Emakeel II klassile". - 2., parandatud trükk. - Tallinn : Valgus, 1991. Uurimus on valminud ETF grandi nr. 2425 toetusel

  16. Primeiro registro de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) em mudas de teca no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre dos Santos; Vagner Aniceto Teixeira; Otávio Peres Filho; Milson Evaldo Serafin; Marçal Pedro Neto; Carlos Alberto da Cunha Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    O ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae (Kock, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) foi relatado e suas injúrias caracterizadas pela primeira vez em viveiro de produção mudas de teca (Tectona grandis) no Brasil.

  17. Kunstnikud rehabiliteerivad vana naise / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline vananemiseteemaline kunstinäitus "Homo grandis natu" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Kuraator Reet Varblane. Osalejate loetelu. 21. aprillil avatakse Katarzyna Kozyra videoinstallatsioon "Naiste saun". Näitusega haakuvad seminar ja loengusari

  18. Poola videokunstnik piilub kunstihoones naiste sauna / Rainer Vilumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilumaa, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Poola meediakunstniku Katarzyna Kozyra 1997. aastast pärit ruumiinstallatsioonist "Naiste saun". See on esimene videoteos seeriast, kus kunstnik kasutab varjatud kaamerat. Näidatakse Tallinna Kunstihoones näitusel "Homo grandis natu"

  19. Scope and substance of the integration principle in EC law and its application in Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Ühenduse keskkonnaõiguse eesmärkidest ja põhiprintsiipidest ning vahekorrast Eesti keskkonnaõigusega, liikmesriigi kohustustest keskkonnadirektiivide elluviimisel. - Artikkel on valminud ETF grandi nr 6673 toel

  20. Grant aitab leida lahendusi kliimaprobleemidele / Marge Kohtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kohtla, Marge

    2012-01-01

    Vestlusest maaülikooli taimefüsioloogia professori Ülo Niinemetsaga, kes esimese Eesti teadlasena sai Euroopa Teadusuuringute Nõukogu tippteadlase grandi taimede ja kliima omavaheliste seoste uurimiseks