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Sample records for anthonomus grandis

  1. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  2. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  3. Toxicity to cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de P G Gomes, Angélica; Dias, Simoni C; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Furtado, José R; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Franco, Octávio L

    2005-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Adult A. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. The predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. The present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) and its effects against A. grandis. This inhibitor, named CaTI, was purified by using affinity Red-Sepharose Cl-6B chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC (Vydac C18-TP). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses, showed a unique monomeric protein with a mass of 12,877 Da. Purified CaTI showed significant inhibitory activity against larval cotton boll weevil serine proteinases (78%) and against bovine pancreatic trypsin (73%), when analyzed by fluorimetric assays. Although the molecular mass of CaTI corresponded to alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitors masses, no inhibitory activity against insect and mammalian alpha-amylases was observed. In order to observe CaTI in vivo effects, an inhibitor rich fraction was added to an artificial diet at different concentrations. At 1.5% (w/w), CaTI caused severe development delay, several deformities and a mortality rate of approximately 45%. These results suggested that CaTI could be useful in the production of transgenic cotton plants with enhanced resistance toward cotton boll weevil.

  4. Genetic diversity of Brazilian natural populations of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major cotton pest in the New World.

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    Martins, W F S; Ayres, C F J; Lucena, W A

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five RAPD loci and 6 isozyme loci were studied to characterize the genetic variability of natural populations of Anthonomus grandis from two agroecosystems of Brazil. The random-amplified polymorphic DNA data disclosed a polymorphism that varied from 52 to 84% and a heterozygosity of 0.189 to 0.347. The index of genetic differentiation (GST) among the six populations was 0.258. The analysis of isozymes showed a polymorphism and a heterozygosity ranging from 25 to 100% and 0.174 to 0.277, respectively. The genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations obtained by isozyme data was 0.544. It was possible to observe rare alleles in the populations from the Northeast region. The markers examined allowed us to distinguish populations from large-scale, intensive farming region (cotton belts) versus populations from areas of small-scale farming

  5. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

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    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2016-12-12

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m(2), planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  6. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

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    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program.

  7. Effect of Different Lignocellulosic Diets on Bacterial Microbiota and Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in the Gut of the Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

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    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Soria, Marcelo; Salvador, Ricardo; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Campos, Eleonora; Brodie, Eoin L.; Talia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Cotton boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, are omnivorous coleopteran that can feed on diets with different compositions, including recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. We characterized the changes in the prokaryotic community structure and the hydrolytic activities of A. grandis larvae fed on different lignocellulosic diets. A. grandis larvae were fed on three different artificial diets: cottonseed meal (CM), Napier grass (NG) and corn stover (CS). Total DNA was extracted from the gut samples for amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the gut microbiota followed by Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes and a small number of unclassified phyla in CM and NG microbiomes. In the CS feeding group, members of Spirochaetes were the most prevalent, followed by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bray–Curtis distances showed that the samples from the CS community were clearly separated from those samples of the CM and NG diets. Gut extracts from all three diets exhibited endoglucanase, xylanase, β-glucosidase and pectinase activities. These activities were significantly affected by pH and temperature across different diets. We observed that the larvae reared on a CM showed significantly higher activities than larvae reared on NG and CS. We demonstrated that the intestinal bacterial community structure varies depending on diet composition. Diets with more variable and complex compositions, such as CS, showed higher bacterial diversity and richness than the two other diets. In spite of the detected changes in composition and diversity, we identified a core microbiome shared between the three different lignocellulosic diets. These results suggest that feeding with diets of different lignocellulosic composition could be a viable strategy to discover variants of hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown systems. PMID:28082962

  8. Método de diagnóstico para el monitoreo de resistencia a insecticidas en poblaciones de "picudo del algodonero", Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae A diagnostic test for insecticide resistance monitoring in "cotton boll weevil" Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae populations

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    Teodoro Stadler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El control de las poblaciones de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, por debajo de su umbral de daño económico durante el ciclo del cultivo del algodón, se realiza en forma efectiva hasta el momento, a través de insecticidas de síntesis. La presión selectiva de las aplicaciones extensivas e intensivas de insecticidas hace imperativa la detección temprana de focos de resistencia a los mismos, en función de un correcto manejo del fenómeno. Se desarrolló un método de diagnóstico de resistencia para A. grandis a partir de la técnica "vial test", que fue adaptada en forma de "kit" para el monitoreo rápido y sencillo de los focos de resistencia en el campo. La toxicidad (CL99, para calcular la concentración discriminante (CD del insecticida y la preparación del "kit", se obtiene a partir de bioensayos de laboratorio con una cepa normal susceptible de A. grandis. Se determinó la vida media de los insecticidas dentro de los viales por CIPAC MT 46, para establecer una fecha de vencimiento del "kit". La CD y el método en su conjunto fueron validados a través de ensayos a campo. El "kit", usado en el monitoreo de resistencia en el campo, fue especialmente diseñado para ser utilizado en las condiciones geográficas, económicas y socio-culturales presentes en la región algodonera argentina. La implementación de esta técnica permitirá conseguir la información necesaria, y así obtener una apropiada alternancia de insecticidas. Como consecuencia, se prevé una reducción de impacto ambiental de las prácticas agronómicas en el control de plagas en algodón.The in-season control of the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman is done by insecticide application, which so far is the only effective way to reduce boll weevil populations to levels below economic significance. The extensive and intensive control actions with insecticides cause selective pressure on pest populations. Thus, to achieve an accurate insecticide resistance

  9. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

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    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Towards Coleoptera-specific high-throughput screening systems for compounds with ecdysone activity: development of EcR reporter assays using weevil (Anthonomus grandis)-derived cell lines and in silico analysis of ligand binding to A. grandis EcR ligand-binding pocket.

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    Soin, Thomas; Iga, Masatoshi; Swevers, Luc; Rougé, Pierre; Janssen, Colin R; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-08-01

    Molting in insects is regulated by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones. Several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists are on the market as insecticides. These ecdysone agonists are dibenzoylhydrazine (DBH) analogue compounds that manifest their toxicity via interaction with the ecdysone receptor (EcR). Of the four commercial available ecdysone agonists, three (tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide and chromafenozide) are highly lepidopteran specific, one (halofenozide) is used to control coleopteran and lepidopteran insects in turf and ornamentals. However, compared to the very high binding affinity of these DBH analogues to lepidopteran EcRs, halofenozide has a low binding affinity for coleopteran EcRs. For the discovery of ecdysone agonists that target non-lepidopteran insect groups, efficient screening systems that are based on the activation of the EcR are needed. We report here the development and evaluation of two coleopteran-specific reporter-based screening systems to discover and evaluate ecdysone agonists. The screening systems are based on the cell lines BRL-AG-3A and BRL-AG-3C that are derived from the weevil Anthonomus grandis, which can be efficiently transduced with an EcR reporter cassette for evaluation of induction of reporter activity by ecdysone agonists. We also cloned the almost full length coding sequence of EcR expressed in the cell line BRL-AG-3C and used it to make an initial in silico 3D-model of its ligand-binding pocket docked with ponasterone A and tebufenozide.

  11. Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae

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    Daniela de Cassia Bená

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae. The third instar larva and the pupa of Anthonomus vis Clark, 1992 are described and illustrated, based upon specimens collected in the Serra de São José, Tiradentes, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The species was previously known from the type series collected in the states of Amapá and Pará. Comparisons with the larva and pupa of A. grandis Boheman, 1843 and A. monostigma Champion, 1903 are included. The larvae of A. vis live as inquilines in the galls induced by a species of momphid moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae in the stems of Leandra aurea (Cham. Cogn. (Melastomataceae.

  12. Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi herbst. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae).

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    Innocenzi, P J; Hall, D R; Cross, J V

    2001-06-01

    The strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi, is a major pest of strawberries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. As part of a project to develop noninsecticidal control methods, the pheromone system of this species was investigated. Comparison of volatiles produced by field-collected, overwintering individuals of each sex led to identification of three male-specific compounds--(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (cis)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)cyclobutaneethanol, and 2-(1-methylethenyl)-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol (lavandulol)--in amounts of 6.1, 1.2, and 0.82 microg/day/ male. The first two compounds are components of the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandlure II and grandlure I, respectively. Grandlure I was the (1R,2S)-(+) enantiomer and lavandulol was a single enantiomer, although the absolute configuration was not determined. Trace amounts of the other two grandlure components (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure III) and (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure IV) were also detected. (E,E)-1-(1-Methylethyl)-4-methylene-8-methyl-2,7-cyclo-decadiene (germacrene-D), a known volatile from strawberry plants, Fragaria ananassa, was collected in increased amounts in the presence of pheromone-producing weevils. Male weevils only produced pheromone on F. ananassa and not on scented mayweed, Matracaria recutita, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, although these are known food sources. In field trials using various combinations of synthetic grandlures I, II, III, and IV and lavandulol, significantly more weevils were caught in traps baited with blends containing grandlure I and II and lavandulol than in those baited with blends without lavandulol or unbaited controls. Addition of grandlure III and IV had no significant effect on attractiveness. Horizontal sticky traps were found to be more effective than vertical sticky traps or standard boll weevil traps. In mid-season females

  13. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

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    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  14. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

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    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  15. MODIFICACIÓN AL PROCESO DE PRODUCCIÓN MASIVA DE LOS PARASITOIDES Catolaccus grandis Y Catolaccus hunteri

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    Marco Antonio Reyes-Rosas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de modificar la tecnología de producción masiva de Catolaccus grandis y Catolaccus hunteri, himenópteros parasitoides de Anthonomus grandis el picudo del algodonero en Tamaulipas, México en el 2002. Se determinó la eficiencia del papel toalla para el secado de manos, en el sellamiento de cápsulas moldeadas en cera de hidrocarburos y poliolefina (LCHP, donde se confina al huésped, y evaluar la efectividad del gorgojo del garbanzo Callosobruchus maculatus como hospedante facticio para la cría de ambos parasitoides. Hubo producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri utilizando C. maculatus como huésped y el papel toalla fue efectivo para sellar los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP. La producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri mediante C. maculatus, contribuyó a incrementar la seguridad y facilidad del proceso, además de una significativa reducción de costos. El papel toalla en el sellado de los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP, redujo en un 50% por m2 los costos del proceso, sin afectar la eficiencia del parasitismo y emergencia de C. grandis.

  16. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

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    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  17. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

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    Eller, Fred; Palmquist,Debra

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about a...

  18. Toxicidad de insecticidas sobre Catolaccus hunteri Crawford (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoide de Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

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    Murillo Hernández, Juan Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Cuando no se puede evitar el uso de insecticidas es recomendable que la propuesta de manejo de sus plagas incluya el efecto de dichos insecticidas sobre los enemigos naturales (EN). En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de la residualidad y la toxicidad letal y subletal de los insecticidas beta-cyfluthrin, bifenazate, clorantraniliprol, flonicamid, spirotetramat y thiametoxam sobre Catolaccus hunteri, un ectoparasitoide del picudo del chile, Anthonomus eugenii. En las evaluaciones se emp...

  19. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

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    Eller, Fred J.; Debra E. Palmquist

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about ...

  20. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  1. FCH_Crenichthys_baileyi grandis_19850927

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Hiko White River springfish (Crenichthys baileyi grandis) occur. "Nevada, Lincoln County. Each of...

  2. Susceptibility of pepper weevil (anthonomus eugenii cano) (coleoptera: curculionidae) to seven insecticides in rural areas of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalía Servín Villegas; José. L. García Hernández; Armando Tejas Romero; José L. Martínez Carrillo; M. A. Toapanta

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility of the pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii), collected from Baja California Sur, Mexico, to seven insecticides was determined. Acontact, residual exposition method was used to obtain the lethal concentrations fifty (LC50) and the diagnostic concentration (LC95) of organophosphates (OF), carbamates (CA), pyrethroids (PIR), and organochlorine (OC) insecticides used to control pepper weevils from two agricultural areas (Los Planes and Todos Santos) in Southern Baja California Pe...

  3. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  4. Patogenicidade e viabilidade de Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae Var. anisopliae e Metarhizium anisopliae Var. acridium ao Anthonomus grandis (Boheman) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae amplamente distribuídos em todas as regiões do mundo podem ser isolados de insetos, solo e de outros substratos. Essas espécies apresentam variabilidade genética e habilidades sobre diferentes insetos-praga. Patogenicidade e virulência sobre diversos artrópodes têm sido observadas com a variação de atividades enzimáticas e características genéticas dos isolados. A ação desses agentes está relacionada com as condições climáti...

  5. Strade, ferrovie e grandi rischi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scira Menoni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nell’articolo il rapporto tra sistemi di accessibilità (ferroviaria e stradale e grandi rischi viene affrontato da due diverse prospettive. La prima vede tali sistemi come esposti e vulnerabili a diverse forme di pericolosità naturale; la seconda li considera invece quali potenziali fonti di pericolo, indagando in particolare il trasporto di sostanze pericolose. Per quanto riguarda la prima parte dell’articolo, ovvero l’analisi di vulnerabilità delle infrastrutture di trasporto a diversi agenti naturali, verranno esplicitati i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica, sistemica e organizzativa. A sostegno della modellazione proposta, si fa riferimento sia alla letteratura internazionale sia al metodo sviluppato presso il Politecnico di Milano, nei suoi ultimi sviluppi. Interessa infatti presentare un metodo relativamente semplice da utilizzare a scala vasta per poi scendere nel dettaglio necessario laddove le priorità individuata a grande scala ne indichino la necessità. Tra i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica si indicheranno gli elementi maggiormente critici per diversi tipi di sollecitazione (sismica, vulcanica, alluvionale, etc.; per quanto attiene ai fattori di vulnerabilità sistemica si considerano le interdipendenze tra reti e sistemi (inclusi gli altri servizi a rete; per quanto attiene alla vulnerabilità organizzativa si indicheranno le difficoltà nel produrre un sistema integrato di allertamento, che consenta ad esempio di chiudere tratti di strada quando questi vengano segnalati come imminentemente interessati da un dato evento estremo. Infine si indicheranno i danni che il sistema di accessibilità può subire e le ripercussioni di questi sul territorio di interesse. Nella seconda parte viene trattato un particolare tipo di trasporto, quello delle sostanze pericolose, differenziando opportunamente tra ferroviario e stradale. Il ribaltamento del punto di vista comporta la necessità di identificare in modo puntuale i fattori di

  6. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Fred J; Palmquist, Debra E

    2014-11-18

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  7. Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, F J; Bartelt, R J; Shasha, B S; Schuster, D J; Riley, D G; Stansly, P A; Mueller, T F; Shuler, K D; Johnson, B; Davis, J H; Sutherland, C A

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the identification of an aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii and field trials of a synthetic pheromone blend. Volatile collections and gas chromatography revealed the presence of six male-specific compounds. These compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques as: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid (geranic acid), and (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). The emission rates of these compounds from feeding males were determined to be about: 7.2, 4.8, 0.45, 0.30, 2.0, and 0.30µg/male/day, respectively. Sticky traps baited with a synthetic blend of these compounds captured more pepper weevils (both sexes) than did unbaited control traps or pheromone-baited boll weevil traps. Commercial and laboratory formulations of the synthetic pheromone were both attractive. However, the commercial formulation did not release geranic acid properly, and geranic acid is necessary for full activity. The pheromones of the pepper weevil and the boll weevil are compared. Improvements for increasing trap efficiency and possible uses for the pepper weevil pheromone are discussed. A convenient method for purifying geranic acid is also described.

  8. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Eller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  9. Micropropagation of Eucalyptus grandis and nitens using tissue culture techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furze, M.J.; Creswell, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with nodal explants of E. grandis and E. nitens seedlings and E. grandis coppice shoots showed that a large number of plants can be produced from a single explant using micropropagation. The percentage of micropropagated shoots that formed roots was about 90% for E. grandis and 80% for E. nitens. For both species, about 90% of the rooted shoots survived after hardening off. 9 references.

  10. I Grandi Eventi: il caso spagnolo

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Il tema dell’articolo verte sulle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali generate dai grandi eventi in Spagna in relazione all’implementazione/trasformazione dei sistemi di trasporto durante gli stessi. A tale scopo l’articolo analizza i risultati, sia finali che attesi, delle trasformazioni degli ultimi 15 anni in Spagna in occasione di questi eventi straordinari. Nello specifico si analizzano cinque casi-studio: Barcellona ed i Giochi Olimpici del 1992, Siviglia e l’Es...

  11. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned.

  12. Flavonoids in Adaptation of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis Introduced in West Siberia (Novosibirsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova E.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols in leaves of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis plants introduced in Western Siberia (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk during the growing season in the greenhouse and the open ground were studied for the first time. The ranges of flavonoid fractions and individual flavonoids contents in a favorable environment and during periods of temperature drops and frost were established. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse and in the open ground B. grandis subsp. grandis leaves were characterized by relatively low content of the sum of flavonoids (up to 10.1 mg/g. During periods of temperature drops in the greenhouse it was decreased (down to 5.2 mg/g, and in conditions of more considerable temperature drops and frost in open ground it was increased by several times (up to 28.3 mg/g. During the period of the action of stress factors content of the sum of flavonoid aglycones in the leaves was increased both in the greenhouse (including quercetin, luteolin and in the open ground (including quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, in the open ground content of major constituent, luteolin 8-C-glucoside (orientin, was increased. The most significant transformations during the growing season were observed in the O-glycosides and free aglycones fractions, their contents of compounds and composition were varied. Four O-glycosides, including isoquercitrin, are detected only in the leaves of open ground plants.

  13. Pharmacognosy of Coccinia grandis:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamilselvan N; Thirumalai T; Elumalai EK; Balaji R; David E

    2011-01-01

    Traditional system of medicine consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Coccinia grandis belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a rapidly growing, perennial climber or trailing vine. Traditionally different parts of this plant namely the roots, leaves and fruits are used in folklore medicine for several purposes like jaundice, diabetes, wound healing, ulcers, stomach ache, skin disease, fever, asthma, cough. The leaf and its constituents have been reported to possess hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. This review provides adequate information to develop suitable therapeutics out of these plant parts.

  14. florescimento precoce em eucalyptus grandis1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Silva Domingues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few available tools in eucalyptus breeding to accelerate the selection of superior genotypes, and one of the main tools to improve this process is the use of molecular markers linked to traits of interest. Using “Bulked Segregant Analysis”, we evaluated 81 RAPD molecular markers in a Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden progeny that segregates for early flowering, and one marker was identified as related to this trait. This RAPD marker was converted into a Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR, which was then evaluated in a F1 progeny, and validated in other progenies that presents this trait. The SCAR marker was informative in the progeny in which one of the parental was the donor of the band, with an efficiency of 60%. These results describe the first SCAR marker developed for eucalypt and confirm this technique as a useful molecular tool for forestry breeding which could be employed to locate markers linked to other silvicultural traits.

  15. I Grandi Eventi: il caso spagnolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Giovanna Trifiletti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Il tema dell’articolo verte sulle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali generate dai grandi eventi in Spagna in relazione all’implementazione/trasformazione dei sistemi di trasporto durante gli stessi. A tale scopo l’articolo analizza i risultati, sia finali che attesi, delle trasformazioni degli ultimi 15 anni in Spagna in occasione di questi eventi straordinari. Nello specifico si analizzano cinque casi-studio: Barcellona ed i Giochi Olimpici del 1992, Siviglia e l’Esposizione Universale del 1992, Bilbao e la realizzazione del Museo Guggenheim (landmark architettonico nel 1997, Valencia e la Coppa America del 2007 e infine Saragozza e l’Expo del 2008 dove è stata realizzata una nuova stazione dell’Alta Velocità. Le occasioni, colte al volo dalle città spagnole, hanno modificato il volto dell’intero paese e negli ultimi quindici anni la Spagna si è dotata non solo di un nuovo grande patrimonio architettonico e di nuovi modelli di città, ma principalmente si è dotata di un sistema di trasporto (aeroporti, porti, metropolitane e strade moderno ed efficiente.

  16. Anthonomus quadrigibbus Say,1831%检疫性有害生物——苹果花象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤; 张俊华; 陈乃中

    2012-01-01

    Anthonomus quadrigibbus is one of the most economically important forestry pests.It can cause destructive damage to apple(Malus domestica),pear(Pyrus spp.) and cherries(Prunus spp.),reduce yield prodution,make fruits unpalatable,and have a negative effect on market profits.This paper gives a general introduction of its geographic distribution,hosts,morphology,biology,impact,control,etc.For there is no A.quadrigibbus in China,it is of great significance to prevent this pest by learning more about its damage characteristic and diffusion path.%苹果花象是具有重要经济意义的林业害虫,对苹果、梨和樱桃生产能造成毁灭性损失,严重降低寄主果实的产量和质量,影响市场竞争能力。本文主要介绍了苹果花象的地理分布、寄主、形态特征、生物学特性、经济影响、防治措施等内容。该虫在我国尚无分布,深入研究该虫的危害特点和扩散途径等,对防治该虫有重要意义。

  17. Structure and development of ovaries in the weevil, Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga). II. Germ cells of the trophic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the germ cell cluster formation in Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Curculionidae) has revealed that both linear and branched clones of cystocytes occur in the pupa stage. In the branched clones a poorly developed polyfusome is formed and cystocytes with maximally 3 intercellular bridges were found. In the linear clones the polyfusomes are absent. Further divisions of cystocytes produce exclusively linearly arranged cells. Just after metamorphosis (Imago-A stage), the process of the germ cell membrane reduction starts. Only 2 groups of cells retain cell membranes: i.e the most anteriorly localized group of cystocytes and the posteriorly located presumptive oocytes. The former cells divide mitotically during the summer. As a result an anterior-posterior gradient of the syncytialization process arises in the Imago-B stage (females preparing for hibernation). In the sexually mature females (Imago-C) the trophic chamber consists of a huge syncytial area with numerous nurse cell nuclei embedded in a common cytoplasm, and posteriorly located young oocytes surrounded by prefollicular cells. In the light of recent hypothesis concerning the germ cell cluster formation and telotrophy anagenesis in Polyphaga the significance of the presented results is discussed.

  18. I caratteri tipicizzanti il paesaggio dei grandi laghi lombardi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Busi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I sei grandi laghi lombardi costituiscono un distretto, posto tra l’alta pianura del Po e le Alpi, con spiccate caratteristiche paesistiche. L’ambiente fisico e biologico (ed, in particolare, la vegetazione e l’opera plurisecolare dell’uomo hanno infatti connotato il territorio con componenti la cui organica giustapposizione manifesta paesaggi che, ad un tempo, hanno forte unitarietà territoriale e spinta individualità. I grandi laghi lombardi costituiscono pertanto un importante patrimonio culturale e paesaggistico che necessita, per la sua conservazione e valorizzazione, di adeguata attenzione e sensibilità.

  19. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  20. Cafe Grandis kõlab lautomuusika / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Corelli Musicu salongiõhtutel festivali "Fiesta de la Guitarra" raames esineb trio koosseisus Stewart McCoy (lautomängija), Robert Staak (lautomängija) ja Maria Staak (laulja), esinejatest. Esitatakse renessansiaja autorite lautoduette ja -laule. Kontsert 8. nov. Pärnu hotellis sarjas "Café Grandi muusikasalong"

  1. Structure and development of ovaries in the weevil, Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga). I. Somatic tissues of the trophic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, P

    2001-01-01

    In developing ovarioles of Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Curculionidae) the trophic chambers (tropharia) are relatively large and consist of clusters (clones) of germ cells and various somatic tissues. Each ovariole is enclosed within an outer epithelial sheath (tunica externa). Throughout the pupal phase, the growth of this sheath is accelerated and precedes the development of the rest of the ovariole. As a result, the epithelial sheath proliferates anteriorly and forms an elongated "sleeve" that during the later stages of development becomes gradually filled by the growing tropharium. In the early pupal stage, a few terminal filament cells are observed in contact with the anterior end of the tropharium. These cells are separated from the rest of the trophic chamber by a transverse septum, which maintains continuity with the basal lamina. Beneath the basal lamina there is a layer of inner sheath cells, whereas inside the tropharium there are interstitial cells. These two types of cell differ morphologically in a mature ovary but they retain, until the end of the imago-B stage, a similar ultrastructure testifying to their common origin. At the posterior end of the tropharium, from the imago-B stage on, many young oocytes, surrounded by prefollicular cells, are observed. This is the so-called neck region of the tropharium. Extraction with Triton X-100 detergent showed that in a mature trophic chamber there are only individual microtubules arranged along the projections of interstitial cells. This indicates that the cytoskeleton elements (microfilaments and microtubules) participate only to a very limited extent in the spatial organisation of the tropharium in A. pomorum.

  2. ANTHONOMUS RUBI (HERBST, 1795 (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE A NEW DANGEROUS PEST IN THE ECOLOGICAL CROPS OF STRAWBERRY IN THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MANOLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania mostly of 70% of strawberry ecological plantations were cultivated with specific commercial cultivars like Premial, Red Gauntlet, Dana and Elsanta. In the last years became to be cropped cultivars with increased resistance to various pest insects, specially in the first stages of vegetation period like Honeoye, Elsanta, Camorosa, Marmolada, Chandler, Darselect, Clery and Sonata. On the little individual farms with small surfaces the cultivars Senga Sengana, Marmolada, Elsinore should be the primary source of infestation with Anthonomus rubi.A study of distribution, density and the degree attack of Anthonomus rubi was carried out in the period 2006-2007 in the Vidra and Comana localities, Giurgiu district in the southern part of Romania. The study and observations that was made showed that this species is increased in density in the new ecological plantations of strawberry from some individual farms. The strawberry blossom weevil is not a common pest of strawberry plantations in Romania but some cultivars cropped in ecological system became more sensitive to the weevil attack by increasing in density. Observations and researches were carried out on 4 cultivars and showed that the degree of damage caused by A. rubi depends of cultivar morphological characteristics (small fruits or phenophases (time of ripening and duration of budding and blossoming.

  3. Grandi Eventi: indicatori di classificazione e incidenza sui sistemi urbani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available I grandi eventi sono ritenuti una opportunità per le città in quanto sono uno straordinario catalizzatore di investimenti mirati alla trasformazione della città. L’azione dei grandi eventi non è confinata solo nel periodo di svolgimento dell’evento stesso ma si estende ad un periodo molto più ampio, prima e, soprattutto, dopo il suo termine. Nell’organizzazione delle manifestazioni più recenti le trasformazioni urbane hanno interessato in modo sempre maggiore parti già in precedenza urbanizzate, al punto che l’evento diviene l’occasione per trasformare la città costruita e per modificarne il profilo. Il paper approfondisce l’argomento della classificazione degli eventi e del loro impatto sul sistema urbano sviluppandosi in tre parti. Nella prima si analizzano due tipologie di grandi eventi (le esposizioni internazionali e i giochi olimpici con l’obiettivo di pervenire ad una definizione condivisa. Nella seconda parte si identificano i più importanti fattori ed indicatori per l’analisi di questa specifica categoria di avvenimenti. Infine, nella terza parte, si approfondiscono i fattori connessi all’impatto sul sistema urbano e all’organizzazione della sua mobilità. In particolare, viene approfondito il concetto di “effetto pulsar”, ossia gli effetti moltiplicativi sulla evoluzione urbana dipendenti dalla organizzazione di eventi multipli in parallelo o in sequenza. Uno degli elementi più negativi connessi alla organizzazione di un grande evento è la dispersione nel tempo dei benefici acquisiti grazie ad esso; per evitare ciò è necessario che l’evento sia seguito da politiche strategiche continue in modo da preservare i vantaggi acquisiti.

  4. Study on Machining Properties of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. Grandis: Ⅰ. Planing and Sanding Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xinyi; JIANG Xiaomei; GAO Jianmin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    The research method in this paper is based on the standard of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Planing and sanding are selected to study the machining properties of E. Urophylla × E. Grandis plantation wood. Moreover, the reasons for machining defects are analyzed. The results show E. Urophylla × E. Grandis planted in south China is a good species with a great potential for solid wood utilization.

  5. [Community features of Sacrabaeoida larvae in Stipa grandis steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinmin, Liu; Ning, Wu

    2004-09-01

    The study showed that in the Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, there were 4 families and 9 species of Scarabaeoidea larvae, among which, the numbers of species and individuals of Melolonthidae were more than those of other families. The important value of the dominant species in Scarabaeoidea larvae community were Trematodes tenebrioides > Serica orientalis > Amphimallon solstitialis > Cyriopertha arcuata. Based on the features of their seasonal dynamics, they could be classified into three kinds. The first kind was that their density peak occurred in spring and autumn, such as Serica orientalis. Cyriopertha arcuata belonged to the second kind, and its density had no obvious fluctuation through all the year. Trematodes tenebrioides and Amphimallon solstitialis could be classified into the third kind, and their density peak all occurred in autumn. The biodiversity index of Scarabaeoidea larvae community was relatively higher in autumn than in spring and summer. Although the richness of Scarabaeoidea larvae populations was not lower in spring, their composition was very simple.

  6. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of potential transpiration models to simulate transpiration rates in areas prone to soil water deficits leads to overestimates of water use as the soil dries. Therefore, I carried out studies on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. I hypothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict what fraction of potential transpiration was taking place at a given time. Site 1 supported a stand of 3-year-old E. grandis trees, whereas 9-year-old trees were growing on Site 2, situated 2 km away. At each site, plastic sheeting was laid over the ground to prevent soil water recharge and thereby allow the roots in the soil to induce a continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I found that modeling the water balance of deep rooting zones is impractical for the purpose of simulating nonpotential transpiration rates because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanism and the water retention characteristics of the deep subsoil strata. I conclude that predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits from the soil water balance is not feasible at these sites.

  7. Five types of olfactory receptor neurons in the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi: selective responses to inducible host-plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichão, Helena; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Araújo, Jorge; Mustaparta, Hanna

    2005-02-01

    Plants release hundreds of volatiles that are important in the interaction with herbivorous animals, but which odorants are detected by which species? In this study, single receptor neurons on the antenna of the oligophagous strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi were screened for sensitivity to naturally produced plant compounds by the use of gas chromatography linked to electrophysiological recordings from single cells. The narrow tuning of the neurons was demonstrated by responses solely to a few structurally related sesquiterpenes, aromatics or monoterpene hydrocarbons out of hundreds of plant constituents tested. We present five olfactory receptor neuron types, identified according to one primary odorant i.e. the compound to which the neurons are most sensitive. These odorants, (-)-germacrene D, (-)-beta-caryophyllene, methyl salicylate, E-beta-ocimene and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, present in the intact strawberry plant, are induced in higher amounts by weevil feeding. This suggests that these compounds can provide information about the presence of conspecifics. We used protocols especially designed to allow comparison with previously investigated species. Striking similarities, but also differences, are demonstrated between receptor neuron specificity in the strawberry weevil and moths.

  8. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  9. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, P. J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research, Division of Forest Science and Technology, Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1996-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa were studied to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. It was expected that by defining this relationship, modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict the fraction of transpiration taking place at any given time. As part of the experimental procedure soil water recharge was prevented by plastic sheeting, thus allowing the roots in the soil to induce continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed only moderate drought stress; trees at both sites extracted water down to eight meters and more, below the surface. These results suggest that because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanisms and other related factors, soil water balance studies are not useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits at these sites. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

  11. Sewage sludge as substrate for Tectona grandis L. seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge is a waste from sewage treatment plants, which can be used in formulations of substrates for seedling production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different proportions of sewage sludge, soil and commercial substrate on the growth characteristics of Tectona grandis seedlings in tubes of 120 cm³ volume capacity. The sewage sludge used came from the STP's Cachoeiro de Itapemirim / ES. The seedlings were grown in the forest nursery / CCA / UFES. The statistical design used in the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. The treatments constituted of sewage sludge : commercial substrate: soil (v: v: v, which corresponded to 20:70:10 (T1, 40:50:10 (T2, 60:30:10 (T3, 80 : 10:10 (T4, 90:0:10 (T5 and the control treatment with 0:90:10 (T6. All variables assessed were significant at the 5% level of probability. The control (T6 showed results statistically equal to or lower than the treatments T3 with 60% of sewage sludge concentration (T3. It follows then that the use of sewage sludge in seedling production is feasible and promising, however, used in a proper proportion.

  12. Cassia grandis Linn. f. seed galactomannan: structural and crystallographical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Harsha; Kapoor, Virendra P

    2003-09-01

    Cassia grandis is a small or medium sized tree, found in abundance throughout India. The seeds contain about 50% endosperm gum and possess the characteristics of becoming a potential source of seed gum. The purified polysaccharide has been characterized as a pure galactomannan having a mannose-galactose ratio of 3.15; molecular weight (Mw) 80,200; polydispersity (Mw/Mn), 1.35 and intrinsic viscosity [eta], 848 mL/g. Methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 13C NMR studies confirm that the polysaccharide has the basic structure of legume galactomannans consisting of a beta-(1-->4)-linked main mannan backbone to which galactose units are attached at O-6. The orthorhombic lattice constants of the hydrated gum are as follows: a=9.00, b=24.81, c=10.30 A. The crystallographic data establish that the probable space group symmetry of the unit cell is P2(1)2(1)2. The results are in contradiction to earlier reports (Indian J. Chem. 16B (1978) 966; J. Indian Chem. Soc. 55 (1978) 1216) in which a non-galactomannan polysaccharide structure has been assigned having a main chain of (1-->4)-linked galactose and mannose units in the molar ratio 6:3, where 50% of the galactose units branched with two galactose and one mannose through 1-->3 linkage.

  13. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcio de Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of São Paulo State.Two sampling procedures were used, systematic grading and unencumbered systematic. For each plot from the two samples, thefollowing dendrometric characteristics were measured: volume, quadratic average diameter, basal area and average height of thedominant trees. For each one of these characteristics, anisotropic and isotropic semi variogrammes were built, in order toevaluate the spatial continuity structure. The semi variogrammes were built using the moment estimator method. The mainauthorized functions were adjusted to the experimental semi variogrammes, by The Minimum Square Method. The behavior of thespatial continuity was evaluated through the degree of spatial dependence and of the assigned semi variogrammes for the fourcharacteristics, in the appraised sampling methods, respectively. All appraised characteristics presented spatially structured,independently of the appraised sampling procedure. The continuity structure of the four characteristics was isotropic, i.e., thevariance among pairs of points depends on the separation vector h. Therefore, unidirectional semi variogrammes can be built forall appraised characteristics. The results suggest that, in forest inventory, the spatial component should be considered, i.e., plotsshould not be treated separately.

  14. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  15. Effect of thermal modification on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis. Boards were taken from 30-year-old E. grandis trees. The boards were thermally modified at 180 °C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation at UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The results showed that thermal modification caused: (1 decrease of 6.8% in the density at 0% equilibrium moisture content of mature wood; (2 significant decreases of 14.7% and 35.6% in the maximum volumetric swellings of juvenile and mature woods, respectively; (3 significant decreases of 13.7% and 21.3% in the equilibrium moisture content of juvenile and mature woods, respectively. The influence of thermal modification in juvenile wood was lower than in mature wood and caused greater uniformity in the physical variations between these types of wood in E. grandis.

  16. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in

  17. [Isolation and identification of Metarhizium from Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' GAP base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weisi; Xu, Jiang; Qiao, Haili; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiangming; Qin, Rongmin; Cheng, Huizhen

    2012-04-01

    A type of entomopathogenic fungus of soil in Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' production base was isolated and identified with morphological and molecular biological methods, including pathogenesis, spore characteristic and ITS sequence analysis were conducted. The results showed that eighteen entomopathogenic fungi strains were isolated from the Tenebrio molitor infected in the soil samples, which were identified as Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. Based on results above, we concluded that there was quantity of Metarhizium resources in this area. These provided the useful information for controlling some pests of C. grandis by using these strains of fungus.

  18. Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis roots and soils in Thailand plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Chaiyasen

    Full Text Available Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts.

  19. Chemical components of cold pressed kernel oils from different Torreya grandis cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Li, Wangling; Zeng, Maomao; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Shangwei; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The chemical compositions of cold pressed kernel oils of seven Torreya grandis cultivars from China were analyzed in this study. The contents of the chemical components of T. grandis kernels and kernel oils varied to different extents with the cultivar. The T. grandis kernels contained relatively high oil and protein content (45.80-53.16% and 10.34-14.29%, respectively). The kernel oils were rich in unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic (39.39-47.77%), oleic (30.47-37.54%) and eicosatrienoic acid (6.78-8.37%). The kernel oils contained some abundant bioactive substances such as tocopherols (0.64-1.77mg/g) consisting of α-, β-, γ- and δ-isomers; sterols including β-sitosterol (0.90-1.29mg/g), campesterol (0.06-0.32mg/g) and stigmasterol (0.04-0.18mg/g) in addition to polyphenols (9.22-22.16μgGAE/g). The results revealed that the T. grandis kernel oils possessed the potentially important nutrition and health benefits and could be used as oils in the human diet or functional ingredients in the food industry.

  20. A Multivariate Study on Genetic Variation in Teak (Tectona grandis (L.))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Dahl; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Suangtho, V.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic differentiation between populations of teak (Tectona grandis (L.)) was examined in 9 quantitative characters and 10 allozyme loci. Large differences between populations were revealed in the quantitative traits. Regional patterns were revealed by multivariate analysis of the data, but ther...

  1. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Weber; Rowley, Daniel L.; Greenstone, Matthew H.; Athanas, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laborator...

  2. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis.

  3. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  4. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  5. Fertirrigation in production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis during winter and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fernandes Ciavatta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies correlating the splitting of fertigation with the development and quality of tree seedlings in different production systems and periods of the year are fundamental to optimize inputs and minimization of the production cycle. Thus we conducted this study aimed to check the influence of the split of fertigation in the development and quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in winter and summer periods. The fertilization through the irrigation system by capillarity was split on: one, two, three or six times in the week, maintaining the total amount of nutrients applied. We concluded that the most effective fertigation for the development and quality of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis were six and one times in the week for the period of winter and summer, respectively, demonstrating the need for adequacy of fertigation managements according to the period of year.

  6. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    Berenice K. de Alcântara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al, a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  7. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  8. Cloning and structural analysis of a haemocyanin from the Stonefly Perla grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochetti, Romolo; Belardinelli, Mariacristina; Guerra, Laura; Buonocore, Francesco; Fausto, Anna Maria; Caporale, Carlo

    2006-12-01

    We characterized two subunits of a putative haemocyanin from the stonefly species Perla grandis. In particular, we cloned and sequenced the corresponding cDNAs and studied their expression in different insect stages. Moreover, using the deduced amino acid sequences, homology studies were performed both on their primary and tertiary structures. 3-D molecular modelling data showed that the residues involved in the oxygen transport and subunits contacts were located in spatial positions preserving the functionality of the molecule. Despite it was paradigmatically affirmed that insects do not have respiratory proteins, our data suggest that the haemocyanin could be involved in the respiratory mechanisms of P. grandis. As far as we know, this is the first haemocyanin 3-D structure described and analyzed in insects.

  9. Callogenesis in stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden showing resilience in oxide calluses

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    Regina Paula Willemen Pereira

    Full Text Available Callogenesis was achieved using growth regulators at different concentrations to obtain the best characteristics regarding the calluses texture aspect with the main objective to produce friable calluses from stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis. Stem segments of approximately 1 cm were excised from 30-day seedlings. The treatments were prepared based on the MS medium added with TDZ alone or combined with AIA; 2,4-D; ANA. Each treatment consisted of five repetitions with five explants per plate. After 210 days of in vitro culture, the calluses were evaluated visually and by manipulation for texture. The explants that did not produce calluses were those exposed to treatments with 2,4-D 50.0 µM; TDZ 3.0 µM and in absence of a growth regulator (control.The best protocols for maintenance of friable calluses of stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis under the conditions performed in this work were those using only TDZ.

  10. Assessment of the antidiabetic potential of Cassia grandis using an in vivo model

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    Sandesh R Lodha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. grandis (Family: Leguminosae were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by a glucose tolerance test, in normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed that they significantly lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in the glucose tolerance test. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after three hours, at a dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage of protection given by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 32.72 and 46.42%, respectively. In the long-term treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring the blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides on the tenth day. Both the extracts showed a significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide. These results showed that the Cassia grandis possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  11. Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood

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    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the effect of thermal rectification on physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood at different levels of temperature and time. Samples of Eucalyptus grandis wood (10 × 10 × 200 mm were heat-treated at 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C during 4 and 8 hours. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and untreated samples were determined by static bending tests. The physical properties were determined by weight loss and swelling tests. The results showed that modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, weight loss, volumetric swelling and linear swelling were affected significantly by the thermal rectification. However, the length of exposure influenced just weight loss, while the temperature influenced all the studied properties of heat-treated wood. More significant modifications with treatments at a temperature of 200 °C or higher were found in the properties of heat-treated wood.

  12. The oropharyngeal morphology in the semiaquatic giant Asian pond turtle, Heosemys grandis, and its evolutionary implications.

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    Monika Lintner

    Full Text Available The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids-independently from other amniotes-and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct-but compared to testudinids rather small-anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles.

  13. Growth Process of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis Stand Based on Logistic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the most valuable cultivated forest genus in the tropical and subtropical areas nowadays. It has been a challenge for foresters to model growth due to the genetic variations, management regimes, and multiple products generated from the plantations. In this paper, Logistic equation was used to study the stock growth process of E. urophylla × E. grandis plantation at age of 14 with 6 spacing treatments. And the biological interpretation of the parameters of Logistic equation was analyzed. The re...

  14. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

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    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  15. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  16. MANEJO DO SOLO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM ARGISSOLO

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    Juliana Prevedello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest species cultivation with rapid growth in Brazil has increased, mainly due to the diverse use of its wood and climate adaptation. The cultivation with minimum tillage in the forest sector stands out a way to increase productivity, combined with the maintenance of biodiversity and soil conservation. This study was conducted at the experimental area of State Foundation for Agricultural Research - Research Center for Forestry in Santa Maria - RS, with aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil tillage methods on soil physical properties and on initial development of Eucalyptus grandis, in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. Four soil management practices were compared: no-tillage; chisel tillage; chisel tillage plus harrowing and; rotary tillage (rotary tiller, installed in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil under no-tillage conditioned lower initial growth of eucalyptus due higher soil penetration resistance and bulk density, when compared with treatments with mobilization. The root distribution analysis in soil, despite being a qualitative method, was effective in demonstrating the effect of soil tillage for the Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The soil tillage with mobilization resulted in a higher initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis. The chisel tillage effects in the soil physical properties persisted after one year of soil tillage.

  17. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments.

  18. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of methanol extract of Tectona grandis flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran S; Rajini kanth B; Rajasekaran A; Manisenthil Kumar KT

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of Tectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers (METGF) in animal models to support its traditional use. Methods:Acute toxicity study was performed to determine the toxicity level of METGF in mice and rats. Carrageenan (1%w/w) was administered and inflammation was induced in sub-plantar region of rat paw. Analgesia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6%v/v acetic acid in mice to assess peripheral analgesic action of METGF. Also, hot-plate was used to induce pain in mice to evaluate central analgesic action of METGF. Results: Oral administration of METGF in rat and mice did not produce any toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg dose level. In carrageenan induced inflammation, administration of METGF (100 and 200 mg/kg) as well as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) reduced rat paw edema significantly at 3, 4 and 5 h. Both the doses of METGF showed significant inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing responses. In thermally induced analgesia models, administration of METG at dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased reaction time compared to control animals. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds and tannins in METGF. Conclusions: Present study, for the first time, confirms the anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of METGF and it supports the traditional use of T. grandis flowers.

  20. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the fertilization in the amount and quality of the produced wood is one of the questions to be considered in the research of the Eucalyptus grandis. The present work aimed to evaluate the fertilization effect in the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis. The population of Eucalyptus grandis was 21 years old and was managed under the system of selective thinning, with application of fertilizers. The factors used in this study were: presence or absence of fertilizers, two positions of log and five radial positions. The influences of the factors and of their combinations were evaluated regarding to compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in static banding. The compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity had been influenced by the factors: fertilizer and radial positions of the log. There was also an increase in the direction of the pith-bark in all studied properties. A good positive relationship was found to exist among the compression strength, the shear, the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity with radial position.

  1. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald C; Rowley, Daniel L; Greenstone, Matthew H; Athanas, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laboratory comparisons suggest that L. juncta, the presumptive original host, best supports the development of the parasitoid larval L. grandis, based on 43.6% successful emergence of the adult carabid parasitoid, compared to 11.5% from the two other Leptinotarsa species. L. grandis adults accept eggs and larvae of all 3 Leptinotarsa species as adult food. Naive, newly-emerged adults show no preference when presented the 3 species of third-instar larvae, which they consume at a mean rate of 3.3 per day, a rate which does not differ significantly by sex, larval host, or weight at emergence. When presented with equal amounts by weight of the 3 species of Leptinotarsa eggs, such adults consume the equivalent of 23.0 L. decemlineata eggs per day, with consumption of L. juncta eggs 67% higher by weight than L. decemlineata consumption. Insight into the biotic and abiotic limitations on L. grandis should aid in determining its potential for suppression of Colorado potato beetle by biological control in diverse agroecosystems.

  2. Impacts of grazing and mowing on reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in a semi-arid area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui GAO; YuBao GAO; XingDong HE

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance can affect biomass allocation of plants, but can it influence plant reproductive behavior? To address this issue, we performed field plant community investigations and explored the reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in response to grazing and mowing treatments at Maodeng pasture of Xilinguole League of Inner Mongolia, China during 2007-2009. The results showed that, with a similar niche width for the two plant species under mowing and grazing treatments, mowing significantly increased the ratio of ramet to genet number of S. krylovii and the carbon to nitrogen ratio of S. grandis, and grazing significantly decreased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller biomass of S. grandis and increased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. krylovii. Regression analysis showed that the significantly positive effect of root to shoot biomass ratio was stronger on the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. grandis than on that of S. krylovii. These results indicated that grazing and mowing influenced the reproductive manner and the process of sexual reproduc-tion of S. grandis and S. krylovii.

  3. Using morphometrics, in situ observations and genetic characters to distinguish among commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species; a redescription of Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 (Antipatharia : Antipathidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Daniel [University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu; Toonen, Robert J. [Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Kaneohe, HI; Brugler, Mercer R. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; France, Scott C. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Montgomery, Anthony D. [Honolulu State Department Land and Natural Resources, HI

    2010-01-01

    The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27-127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ color photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three color morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish among the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi Opresko, 2009. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana Opresko, 1996 from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis (Gray, 1860), hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.

  4. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  5. PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis EM SUBSTRATOS ORGÂNICOS ALTERNATIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the disposal of urban and agro-industries waste have become essential for the possibility of their use in forest seedling production and the environmental impact that would be caused by improper disposal. The study was developed to evaluate the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings submitted to different types and combinations of urban and agro-industrial organic substrates. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 10 treatments consisting of different substrates and proportions combinations of them (100% organic compost urban waste (COLU, 100% organic compost of the agro-industrial residue (CORA; 100% commercial substrate; 25% (COLU+ 75% Commercial; 25% CORA +75% Commercial; 25% COLU + 75% soil; 50% COLU +50% Commercial; 50% CORA +50% Commercial; 50% Commercial + 50% soiland 100% Soil and 12 repetitions. It was evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, length between node, fresh weight of shoot and root dry mass of shoots and roots, total dry weight, main root length, root system length, root volume, average root radius, specific surface area of the root system and stability of clod.The substrates containing organic compost urban show great potential for use as alternative substrates for the production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of commercial substrate to organic compost allows the urban growth of root and the shoot of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of 50% commercial substrate and 50% organic compound of agro-industrial waste provide more stem diameter growth compared to treatments containing soil or over the organic compound of agro-industrial waste.

  6. Localization and transcriptional responses of Chrysoporthe austroafricana in Eucalyptus grandis identify putative pathogenicity factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronishree Mangwanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysoporthe austroafricana is a fungal pathogen that causes the development of stem cankers on susceptible Eucalyptus grandis trees. Clones of E. grandis that are partially resistant and highly susceptible have been identified based on the extent of lesion formation on the stem upon inoculation with C. austroafricana. These interactions have been used as a model pathosystem to enhance our understanding of interactions between pathogenic fungi and woody hosts, which may be different to herbaceous hosts. In previous research, transcriptomics of host responses in these two clones to C. austroafricana suggested roles for salicylic acid and gibberellic acid phytohormone signalling in defense. However, it is unclear how the pathogen infiltrates host tissue and which pathogenicity factors facilitate its spread in the two host genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate these two aspects of the E. grandis-C. austroafricana interaction and to test the hypothesis that the pathogen possesses mechanisms to modulate the tree phytohormone-mediated defenses. Light microscopy showed that the pathogen occurred in most cell types and structures within infected E. grandis stem tissue. Notably, the fungus appeared to spread through the stem by penetrating cell wall pits. In order to understand the molecular interaction between these organisms and predict putative pathogenicity mechanisms of C. austroafricana, fungal gene expression was studied in vitro and in planta. Fungal genes associated with cell wall degradation, carbohydrate metabolism and phytohormone manipulation were expressed in planta by C. austroafricana. These genes could be involved in fungal spread by facilitating cell wall pit degradation and manipulating phytohormone mediated defense in each host environment, respectively. Specifically, the in planta expression of an ent-kaurene oxidase and salicylate hydroxylase in C. austroafricana suggests putative mechanisms by which the pathogen can

  7. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit;

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  8. Influence of Planting Spacing on Mechanical Properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Planted in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENSON; Michael

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand influence of planting spacing on mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla planted as a potential species for solid wood products in China. Four trees at age of 13 were selected from each of 6 groups of planting spacing and a total of 24 sampling trees were selected from the Dongmen Forestry Center of Guangxi Province in China. Furthermore, a one-meter-long log from each tree was cut into small blocks for wood properties testing. MOE, MOR and co...

  9. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

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    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  10. Magnesium Alleviates Adverse Effects of Lead on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Ultrastructural Alterations of Torreya grandis Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Song, Lili; Müller, Karin; Hu, Yuanyuan; Song, Yang; Yu, Weiwu; Wang, Hailong; Wu, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+) toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+) toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis) seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm), root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations on the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. All measurements were tested by a one-way ANOVA for the effects of treatments. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The generated results

  11. Magnesium alleviates adverse effects of lead on growth, photosynthesis and ultrastructural alterations of Torreya grandis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg2+ has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+ toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+ toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm, root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations in the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The gener¬ated results may have important implications for understanding the

  12. Antraquinonas e naftoquinonas do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandi (Verbenaceae Anthraquinones and naphtoquinones from the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae reforestation specimen

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    Rafael Y.O. Moreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato hexânico do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae, através de procedimentos fitoquímicos clássicos, levou ao isolamento das naftoquinonas lapachol e desidro-a-lapachona e das antraquinonas tectoquinona e obtusifolina. As estruturas das substâncias foram caracterizadas através da análise de métodos espectrométricos de RMN. Este é o primeiro estudo fitoquímico de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis, no Brasil, sendo o objetivo principal deste trabalho a comprovação da presença de tectoquinona em espécimes cultivados.The hexane extract of the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae afforded two anthraquinones and two naphtoquinones. Their caracterizations were obtained through NMR spectroscopic techniques. This is the first phytochemical study of the bark of Tectona grandis reforestation specimen in Brazil. The main interest in this work is proving the presence of tectoquinone in reforestation specimen.

  13. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  14. Effects of potassium and sodium supply on drought-adaptive mechanisms in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Christina, Mathias; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; de Cassia Piccolo, Marisa; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; e Moreira, Rildo Moreira; Krusche, Alex Vladimir; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Nouvellon, Yann

    2014-07-01

    A basic understanding of nutrition effects on the mechanisms involved in tree response to drought is essential under a future drier climate. A large-scale throughfall exclusion experiment was set up in Brazil to gain an insight into the effects of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) nutrition on tree structural and physiological adjustments to water deficit. Regardless of the water supply, K and Na supply greatly increased growth and leaf area index (LAI) of Eucalyptus grandis trees over the first 3 yr after planting. Excluding 37% of throughfall reduced above-ground biomass accumulation in the third year after planting for K- supplied trees only. E. grandis trees were scarcely sensitive to drought as a result of the utilization of water stored in deep soil layers after clear-cutting the previous plantation. Trees coped with water restriction through stomatal closure (isohydrodynamic behavior), osmotic adjustment and decrease in LAI. Additionally, droughted trees showed higher phloem sap sugar concentrations. K and Na supply increased maximum stomatal conductance, and the high water requirements of fertilized trees increased water stress during dry periods. Fertilization regimes should be revisited in a future drier climate in order to find the right balance between improving tree growth and limiting water shortage.

  15. Genetic effects of rainforest fragmentation in an early successional tree (Elaeocarpus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, M; Jones, R; Hunter, J

    2004-12-01

    Rainforests in Australia and around the world have been extensively cleared and degraded. It is essential to recognize the changes in population diversity and dynamics that follow habitat fragmentation if better conservation and management strategies are to be developed. This study is an investigation of the medium term (over 100 years) effects of rainforest fragmentation on a long-lived, early successional tree species within a habitat matrix that includes various types of fragmented and undisturbed sites. Five microsatellite loci were used to assess the level and distribution of genetic variation across the southern range of Elaeocarpus grandis (Elaeocarpaceae). In all, 21 sites were sampled to provide a direct comparison between fragmented and undisturbed populations. Overall levels of diversity (A=3.4, He=0.568, f=0.094) were higher than those of closely related endemic species, but lower than those recorded across other rainforest trees. No significant genetic structure was detected across this species, suggesting the existence of efficient dispersal and colonization mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of gene flow. Rainforest fragments, and in particular those within the extensively cleared Big Scrub, show a trend for increased inbreeding levels caused by a loss of heterozygosity within juvenile cohorts. However, the overall rate of genetic decline within fragmented rainforests appears to be more subtle in E. grandis than across other species. A combination of ecological attributes and evolutionary history is likely to have contributed to this outcome and need to be considered in future rainforest restoration projects.

  16. Mast Cell Stabilizing,Antianaphylactic and Antihistaminic Activity of Coccinia grandis Fruits in Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Coccinia grandis Linn(Curcubitaceae)is a climber herb cultivated throughout India.In traditional medicine fruits have been used to treat leprosy,fever,asthma,bronchitis and jaundice.In present study,ethanol extract of C.grandis fruit(ECGF)at 100,125 and 150 mg·kg-1,i.p.,was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing,antianaphylactic and antihistaminic activity using egg albumin induced mast cell degranulation in mice;passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and clonidine induced catalepsy in mice respectively.ECGF at(100-150 mg·kg-1,i.p.)significantly protected egg albumin induced degranulations of mast cells and caused reduction of blue dye leakage in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in dose dependently.The treatment ECGF also inhibited clonidine induced catalepsy in dose dependent manner.Phytochemical studies observed presence of saponin,steroids,alkaloids,flavonoids and glycosides.In conclusion ECGF possesses mast cell stabilizing;anti anaphylactic and antihistaminic potential which might be used in treatment of asthma.

  17. Use of glass transition temperature for stabilization of board's cracks of Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fred W. Calonego

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus grandis logs temperatures were determined and correlated with the board's cracks during steaming. Thermocouples were inserted in the logs center, registering their temperatures during steaming at 90"C. The logs were sawed and the board's cracks measured. It was concluded that: (1 the logistic S-shaped curve explains the logs temperature variation; (2 the logs with diameter of 20 to As temperaturas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis, durante a vaporização, foram determinadas e correlacionadas com as rachaduras das tábuas. Nos centros das toras foram inseridos termopares e registradas suas temperaturas durante a vaporização à 90"C. As toras foram desdobradas e as rachaduras das tábuas mensuradas. Concluiu-se que: (1 o modelo estatístico sigmoidal logístico explica a variação da temperatura nas toras; (2 as toras com 20 a <25, 25 a <30 e 30 a <35 cm de diâmetro apresentaram, respectivamente, 84,2"C, 73,1"C e 45,8"C ao final da vaporização; e (3 as rachaduras foramsignificativamente menores nas toras que atingiram a temperatura de transição vítrea.

  18. Light intensity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis L. f. seedlings

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    Caio C. P. Leal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effects of the luminosity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis seedlings. Thus, in a substrate composed by topsoil + wood powder (1:1 the seedlings were grown into plastic tubets containing 0.3 dm3 of such substrate, or into plastic pots containing 1.0 dm3 of the same substrate, and subjected to 50 and 25% shading or full sunlight. The assessments were performed every two weeks by measuring plant height and stem diameter, during eight weeks period. At the end of this period, the leaf area, dry mass of shoots and roots, the ratio between height of plant/diameter of stem, and the Dickson quality index were also assessed. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with treatments arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial [3 luminosity levels (50, 25% shading and full sunlight x 2 types of containers (plastic tubets and clay pots] with four replicates of 10 seedlings each. Means were compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability level and adjustments for the non-linear regression polynomial curves for the assessed characteristics were computed in function of time. Shadings of 25 and 50% were the best alternatives to luminosity; and the tubets were the most suitable containers for production of Cassia grandis seedlings.

  19. Characterization and rheological study of the galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Barros, Wilson; Santos, Gustavo R C; Correia, Maria T S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2014-04-15

    Galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation, presented a yield of 36 ± 8%. The polysaccharide has a constant mannose/galactose ratio (2.44:1). Methylation analysis, one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the polysaccharide has a central core composed of 4-linked β-mannose units, with branches of galactose, linked to the carbohydrate core through α(1-6) linkage. The amorphous nature of the galactomannan was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Rheological characterization exhibited Newtonian plateaus followed by shear-thinning zones characteristic of polymer solutions up to 1.5% (w/v) and above this value the system exhibited yield stress associated with a weak gel. Adjusting stress-strain curves confirmed a 1.6% (w/v) as the galactomannan concentration value for the sol-gel transition. These results indicate that the galactomannan extracted from C. grandis seeds presents rheological characteristics suitable for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries.

  20. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

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    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  1. Estimate of the density of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden using near infrared spectroscopy

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    Silviana Rosso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to estimate wood density of Eucalyptus grandis. For that, 66 27-year-old trees were logged and central planks were removed from each log. Test pieces 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size were removed from the base of each plank, in the pith-bark direction, and subjected to determination of bulk and basic density at 12% moisture (dry basis, followed by spectral readings in the radial, tangential and transverse directions using a Bruker Tensor 37 infrared spectrophotometer. The calibration to estimate wood density was developed based on the matrix of spectra obtained from the radial face, containing 216 samples. The partial least squares regression to estimate bulk wood density of Eucalyptus grandis provided a coefficient of determination of validation of 0.74 and a ratio performance deviation of 2.29. Statistics relating to the predictive models had adequate magnitudes for estimating wood density from unknown samples, indicating that the above technique has potential for use in replacement of conventional testing.

  2. Pathogenic Interactions Between Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Cultivars of Pummelo (Citrus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, H; Ozaki, K; Tsuyumu, S

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT The aggressiveness of strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on seven Citrus species, including Citrus sinensis (navel orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. unshiu (Satsuma mandarin), C. junos (Yuzu), C. aurantifolia ('Mexican' lime), C. tachibana (Tachibana), and C. grandis (pummelo: 'Otachibana', 'Banpeiyu', and 'Anseikan'), were assessed by comparing lesion expansion and growth in planta, using a prick inoculation method. The existence of two groups distinct in aggressiveness was demonstrated on the pummelo cultivars, whereas the remaining species tested were uniformly susceptible. The two groups of strains were distinct in lesion expansion and growth in planta; however, both caused canker lesions on the 'Otachibana' pummelo. The sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phages Cp1 and Cp2 was associated with differences in aggressiveness. Namely, all the strains sensitive to Cp2 but resistant to Cp1 were aggressive to 'Otachibana', whereas all the strains sensitive to Cp1 but resistant to Cp2 were weakly aggressive. When a repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction amplification was carried out by enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus (ERIC) sequences (ERIC1R and ERIC2) as the primers, these two groups were also distinguishable by the presence or absence of a 1.8-kb DNA fragment among otherwise identical fragments. The 1.8-kb fragment was amplified only from the strains aggressive to C. grandis.

  3. Quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis planted at three locations

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    Cláudio Angeli Sansígolo

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus grandis is one of the most popular species to use as raw material for pulp production in Brazil, as it provides excellent pulping, bleaching and papermaking results. The main objective of this study is to examine the quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis, at age 4 years approximately, planted in three different soils, two of which being low fertility and one being a superior fertility soil, and their reflections on wood quality and pulping results. Chemical analyses of the soils followed guidelines developed by Raij et al. (2001, while physical and chemical properties of the wood followed ABTCP, TAPPI and ABNT standards. Chemical analyses of the soils pointed to lower fertility in Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada as opposed to higher fertility in Fazenda Mendes União. Results revealed stronger tendencies for the stand grown in the less fertile soils (Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada in comparison to the stand grown in more fertile soil (Fazenda Mendes União as to: higher wood and bark basic density, lower height and dry matter content, higher bark content, lower extractives content and higher holocellulose content, higher total and screened yields from pulping, lower specific wood consumption/t of pulp, and higher tear and tensile indices at low refining levels.

  4. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India ...

  5. Mycorrhizal symbionts of Pisonia grandis and P. sechellarum in Seychelles: identification of mycorrhizal fungi and description of new Tomentella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvi, Triin; Tedersoo, Leho; Abarenkov, Kessy; Beaver, Katy; Gerlach, Justin; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2010-01-01

    Nyctaginaceae includes species that are predominantly non-mycorrhizal or form arbuscular or ectomycorrhiza. Root-associated fungi were studied from P. grandis and P. sechellarum roots collected respectively on the islands of Cousin and Silhouette in Seychelles. In addition fungal sporocarps were collected from the sampling area. Fungal symbionts were identified from the roots by anatomotyping and rDNA sequencing; sporocarps collected were examined microscopically and sequenced. Three distantly related ectomycorrhizal fungal species belonging to Thelephoraceae were identified from the roots of P. grandis. Sporocarps also were found for two symbionts and described as new Tomentella species. In addition Tomentella species collected from other Seychelles islands were studied and described as new species if there was no close resemblance to previously established species. P. sechellarum was determined to be an arbuscular mycorrhizal plant; three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species were detected from the roots. P. grandis is probably associated only with species of Thelephoraceae throughout its area. Only five Tomentella species are known to form ectomycorrhiza with P. grandis and they never have been found to be associated with another host, suggesting adaptation of these fungi to extreme environmental conditions in host's habitat.

  6. Evaluating variations of physiology-based hyperspectral features along a soil water gradient in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Aardt, van J.; Main, R.; Majeke, B.

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing is viewed as a cost-effective alternative to intensive field surveys in assessing site factors that affect growth of Eucalyptus grandis over broad areas. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing to discriminate between site qualities in E.

  7. Interspecific hybridization and inbreeding effect in seed from a Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clonal orchard in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campinhos Eduardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We used allozyme markers to estimate the amount of natural hybridization between Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla in a 7.4-hectare commercial hybrid-seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This orchard was planted in 1982 using a honeycomb design, with each hexagonal plot containing one E. grandis tree surrounded by six E. urophylla trees. There were 267 replicated hexagonal plots in the orchard. Seeds were harvested from the E. grandis clone only. The multilocus outcrossing rate estimated for the E. grandis clone averaged 70.2%, ranging from 33.0 to 99.0% among individual trees. Contaminant pollination, inferred from progeny genotypes containing alleles not present in the seven parental clones, accounted for 14.4% of the hybrid seed. Contaminant pollen was attributed to neighboring eucalyptus stands isolated from the orchard by a 400-m wide belt of native forest. Inbred and hybrid progenies were identified by their allozyme genotypes and transplanted to the field. Field growth of inbred progeny was 30% lower than that of hybrid plants at two and three years of age.

  8. HPTLC METHOD OF QUANTITATION OF BIOACTIVE MARKER CONSTITUENT PINITOL IN EXTRACTS OF PISONIA GRANDIS (R.BR

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    G. Poongothai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pisonia grandis R.Br. is an evergreen medicinal plant in the four O'clock family of Nyctaginaceae. Leaves, stems and root of this plant are extensively used by tribals in India to prepare several folk medicines to treat rheumatism, arthritis and diabetes. Recently pinitol has been reported from the leaves of Pisonia grandis and thus the present study was designed to quantify this antidiabetic molecule in the various extracts of leaves of Pisonia grandis by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. The calibration curve of a stabilized HPTLC method was linear in the range of 1.5 to 7.0µg per spot and the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9718, thus exhibiting good linearity between concentration and area. The limit of quantification (LOQ and limit of detection (LOD was found to be 1.5 and 1.2 µg respectively. The present study also revealed that among all the extracts, PGSX3 and PGSX4 contain more than 8 µg of pinitol per milligram of extract and thus exhibited chloroform: methanol mixture (9:1 and 100 % ethanol are found to be effective solvents to extract pinitol from Pisonia grandis. This is the first report on quantitation of pinitol by HPTLC.

  9. Brotación in vitro de yemas de teca (Tectona grandis L. f. Sprouting buds in vitro teak (Tectona grandis L. f.

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    Fabiana Rojas Parajeles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La teca (Tectona grandis L.f. es una especie maderable exótica introducida a Costa Rica para la siembra de plantaciones comercial por la alta demanda de su madera, su rápido crecimiento y su alta calidad. Inicialmente se utilizó la semilla como único material de siembra y la pobre calidad de muchas de las plantaciones impulsó el inicio de programas de mejora genética. La propagación clonal tomó mucha importancia en estos programas y el cultivo in vitro se convirtió en una herramienta valiosa para la propagación masiva de los árboles élites. Por lo anterior, este trabajo se enfocó en evaluar el efecto de varias concentraciones de dos reguladores de crecimiento, bencilaminopurina (BA y ácido indolacético (AIB, solos y en combinación, en la brotación de yemas dormantes y formación de callos de teca. Tanto el análisis estadístico como la observación visual mostraron que el tratamiento que consistió de 0,005 mg/l de AIA fue el mejor para incrementar la brotación de las yemas y para disminuir la formación de callo.Teak (Tectona grandis L. f. is an exotic timber species introduced to Costa Rica for commercial plantations due to the high demand for its wood, rapid growth and high-quality. Initially the seed was use as the only planting material, but the poor quality of many of the plantations resulted in the initiation of genetic improvement programs. The introduction of clonal propagation in these programs and the establishment of in vitro culture techniques became import tools for mass propagation of the selected elite trees. On the foregoing, this work focused on assessing the effect of several concentrations of two growth regulators, benzylaminopurine (BA and indole acetic acid (AIB, alone and in combination, in the budding of dormantes buds and callus formation of teak. Both the statistical analysis and the visual observation showed that the treatment consisted of 0.005 mg/l of IAA was the best to increase the budding of the

  10. Organogênese de explante foliar de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Organogenesis of the leaf explant of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tia-diazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no desempenho da propagação in vitro por organogênese de explante foliar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura e coloração dos calos, em razão dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento dos três genótipos foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante foliar. Os piores resultados de calejamento foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento BAP (0,1 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP em que 8% dos calos formados a partir de explantes foliares regeneraram gemas, com número médio destas formadas por calo igual a 4,2.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine e NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid on the in vitro propagation by organogenesis from foliar explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Depending on the clone used, there were singular responses to growth regulators treatment regarding callusing intensity, texture and color. The best results of the three genotypes used were observed with the TDZ (0.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment, where 100% of the foliar explants presented callus. The worst results were observed with the BAP (0.1 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment. Subsequently, considering the regeneration process, the best response was achieved with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, in which 8% of the calli regenerated buds, with an average of 4.2 buds per explant.

  11. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

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    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  12. Aboveground nutrient components of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. grandis in semiarid Brazil under the nature and the mycorrhizal inoculation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcela C. Pagano; Antonio F. Bellote; Maria R. Scotti

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the aboveground biomass, nutrient content and the percentages of mycorrhizal colonization in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis plantations in the semiarid region (15° 09' S 43° 49' W) in the north of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. Results show that the total above-ground biomass (dry matter) was 33.6 Mg·ha-1 for E. camaldulensis and 53.1 Mg·ha-1 for E. grandis. The biomass of the stem wood, leaves, branches, and stem bark for E. camaldulensis accounted for 64.4%, 19.6%, 15.4%, and 0.6% of the total biomass, respectively (Table 2); meanwhile a similar partition of the total above-ground biomass was also found for E. grandis. The dry matter of leaves and branches of E. camaldulensis accounted for 35% of total biomass, and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S in leaves and branches accounted for 15.5%, 0.7%, 12.3%, 22.6%, 1.9%, and 1.4% of those in total above-ground biomass, respectively. In the trunk (bark and wood), nutrient accumulation in general was lower. Nutrient content of E. grandis presented little variation compared with that of E. camaldulensis. Wood localized in superior parts of trunk presented a higher concentration of P and bark contained significant amounts of nutrients, especially in E. grandis. This indicated that leaving vegetal waste is of importance on the site in reducing the loss of tree productivity in this semi-arid region. The two species showed mycotrophy.

  13. PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis EM SUBSTRATOS ORGÂNICOS ALTERNATIVOS

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    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815745Estudos referentes ao descarte de resíduos orgânicos urbanos e agroindustriais tornaram-se imprescindíveis pela possibilidade de seu uso na produção de mudas florestais e pelo impacto ambiental que seria provocado pelo descarte inadequado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis submetidas a diferentes tipos e combinações de substratos orgânicos urbano e agroindustriais. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos constituídos por diferentes substratos e proporções de combinação dos mesmos (100% Composto Orgânico de Lixo Urbano (COLU; 100% Composto Orgânico de Resíduo Agroindustrial (CORA; 100% Substrato Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Comercial; 25% CORA + 75% Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Solo; 50% COLU + 50% Comercial; 50% CORA + 50% Comercial; 50% Comercial + 50% Solo e 100% Solo e 12 repetições. Avaliaram-se altura da planta, diâmetro do colo, número de folhas, comprimento entre nós, massa fresca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca total, comprimento da raiz principal, comprimento do sistema radicular, volume do sistema radicular, raio médio das raízes, área superficial específica do sistema radicular e estabilidade de torrão. Os substratos contendo composto orgânico de lixo urbano apresentam grande potencialidade de uso como substratos alternativos na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de substrato comercial ao composto orgânico de lixo urbano possibilita crescimento do sistema radicular e parte aérea das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de 50% de substrato comercial e 50% composto orgânico de resíduo agroindustrial proporciona maior crescimento de diâmetro de caule em relação aos tratamentos contendo solo ou em relação ao composto orgânico de res

  14. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  15. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

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    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  16. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from the Peel of Chinese Torreya grandis Fort

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    Tao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the peel essential oil of Torreya grandis fort obtained by cold pressing and steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. 62 constituents accounting for 99.6% of the total pressed oil were identified while 59 compounds accounting for 99.4% of the steam distilled oil were identified. Limonene (35.6–37.1%, α-pinene (20.1–24.1%, and δ-carene (3.3–3.9 were the major constituents. Others include γ-carene (3.8-3.9%, germacrene D (2.5–2.9%, and β-farnesene (2.7-2.8%.

  17. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  18. Quantification by allometric equations of carbon sequestered by Tec-tona grandis in different agroforestry systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avinash Jain; S. A. Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Non destructive methods for quantification of carbon seques-tration in tropical trees are inadequately developed. We described a stan-dardized method for estimating carbon stock in teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.). We developed linear allometric equations using girth at breast height (GBH), height and age to quantify above ground biomass (AGB). We used AGB to estimate carbon stock for teak trees of different age groups (1.5, 3.5, 7.5, 13.5, 18.5 and 23.5 years). The regression equation with GBH, y=3.174x-21.27, r2=0.898 (p teak-wheat (56.92%)>teak-wild oat (54.94%)>teak-gram (37.15%)>teak-ashwagandha (11.86%). The results from GBH-based regression equations provided satisfactory estimates of carbon stock in tropical trees.

  19. Wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus caribaea estimated by colorimetry

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    Patrícia Gomes Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-destructive technologies has been very effective in characterization and evaluation of wood quality. This study aimed to characterize the technologically wood of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus grandis by Colorimetry. The study was conducted at the University of Brasilia (UNB in Physics and Engineering Laboratory the Laboratory of Forest Products/LPF - Brazilian Forest Service (SFB. Species were subjected to standard tests of basic density, shrinkage and bending. For the colorimetric determination of the parameters it was used a spectrophotometer according to the methodology adopted by Camargos (1999. The radial surface of the wood is most suitable for the collecting of the colorimetric parameters and prediction of properties. Property best estimated by this technique was the density, followed by modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR.

  20. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

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    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  1. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Fang, Bo; Zhao, Qiyang; Jiao, Bining; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-10-15

    China is one of the most important diversity centres of the genus Citrus L. and is particularly rich in pummelo germplasm. In this study, the flavonoids in the peels and pulps of 28 Chinese local pummelos and four grapefruits were determined by optimised Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide anion methods. We found that naringin was the predominant flavonoid in pummelo, while naringin and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in grapefruit. The fruit peels of Citrus paradisi cvs. Rio Red and Cocktail had the highest contents of naringin (9871.69mg/kg FW) and neohesperidin (7011.15mg/kg FW), respectively. Overall, C. paradisi cvs. Cocktail, Rio Red and Changshanhuyou, Citrus grandis cvs. 28-19, Chandler, and Hongxinyou contained more flavonoids and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities and are potentially good sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  2. Incidence and management of white grub, Schizonycha ruficollis on seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NITIN KULKARNI; KAILASH CHANDRA; PRAFULLA NARAHAR WAGH; KAILASH CHANDRA JOSHI; RAM BHAJAN SINGH

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was conducted annually from 2002 to 2005 between the second week of May and the end of September on the incidence of scarab beetle, Schizonycha ruficollis (Fabricius) in a teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nursery at Ramdongari, Nagpur, India.The immature stages, that is white grubs of the scarab beetle damaged 14%-52% of teak seedlings in the nursery beds, whereas the adult of the species, that is scarab beetles, were recorded on three new host trees (Ziziphus xylopyra, Acacia catechu and A.leucophloea) in addition to the reported hosts such as ziziphus (Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana). Beetles of the S. ruficollis started emerging from the nursery beds just after the pre-monsoon showers and continued for 10-18 days. While beetle of S. ruficollis defoliated tree hosts available in the surroundings, the immature stages of the beetle caused major damage by feeding on root systems of teak seedlings with symptoms of wilting and mortality in forest nursery beds. The result of chemical and biological treatments for the management of grubs of S. ruficollis in nursery beds indicated phorate 10% granular at the rate of 20 g/m2 and chlorpyriphos 20% emulsifiable concentrate at the rate of 5.0 mL/m2 to be effective. Grubs of S. ruficollis have not been recorded previously as a major pest of teak (T. grandis). This is also the first report on occurrence of S. ruficollis adults on tree hosts such as Z. xylopyra, A. catechu and A.leucophloea. White grubs being pests of economic importance and the toughest insects to manage, information given in this paper on incidence, pest status and management of Schizonycha ruficollis is of importance to researchers and forest nursery managers.

  3. Effect of the fractions of Coccinia grandis on Ethanol-Induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats

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    M Umamaheswari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the various fractions of hydromethanol extract of the leaves of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. The leaves of this species is used in traditional medicine for treating jaundice, bronchitis, skin eruptions, burns, rheumatism, syphilis, gonorrhoea, etc. Cerebral oxidative stress was induced in rats by the administration of 20% ethanol (5 ml/100 g b.w. for 28 days. The pet-ether (PEF, chloroform (CF, ethylacetate (EAF and residual (RF fractions at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. were simultaneously administered with ethanol orally for 28 days. Vitamin E at a dose of 100 mg/kg orally was used as the standard. Administration of ethanol resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid and lipid levels. In addition, there was a significant elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides and a reduction in the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the brain. Simultaneous administration of the fractions prevented the enzymatic leakage and the rise in uric acid and lipid levels. All the fractions (except the residual fraction prevented the peroxidative damage caused by ethanol, which is evidenced from the improved antioxidant potential. Further, histopathological examination of the brain tissue revealed that the fractions offered significant protection against ethanol toxicity. Among the fractions tested, the chloroform fraction exhibited appreciable antioxidant property, which was almost comparable with the standard Vitamin E. These results suggest that the leaves of Coccinia grandis exhibit significant antioxidant activity in ethanol-treated rats.

  4. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  5. Simulated drift effect of glyphosate in different parts of Eucalyptus grandis plantsEfeito da deriva simulada de glyphosate em diferentes partes da planta de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Renata Rocha Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphoste on Eucalyptus grandis, through the application of low doses in different parts of the plant. The experimental design was a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments were glyphosate application at 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g a.e. ha-1 of the commercial formulation Scout®. Three forms of application were used: applying on leaf, on stem, and on the entire plant (leaf + stem. For leaf application, stems were covered with plastic ribbons to protect them from the solution; the same was made with plants that were sprayed on stems, covering leaf with plastic bag. The application was carried out in an armed stationary spray tips XR 11002 VS, with 183 KPa pressure in volume of 200 L ha-1. The eucalyptus plants receiving applications in leaves and whole plant (leaves + stem showing effects of intoxication are more intense about the plants that received the stem applications only. However, there may be increases in height growth and total dry mass of eucalyptus plants in applications of 30 g a.e. ha-1 glyphosate.No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphoste em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio da aplicação de doses reduzidas em diferentes partes da planta. Utilizouse o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g e.a.ha-1 de glyphosate, da formulação comercial Scout®. A aplicação foi realizada de três formas: aplicação sobre as folhas, no caule e na planta inteira (folha + caule. Para a aplicação nas folhas o caule foi coberto com fitas plásticas para evitar que fosse atingido pela solução, e o mesmo foi feito com as plantas que receberam pulverização no caule, cobrindo as folhas com saco plástico. A aplicação foi realizada em um pulverizador estacionário, munido de pontas XR 11002 VS, com pressão de 183

  6. Danos visuais e anatômicos causados pelo glyphosate em folhas de Eucalyptus grandis Visible and anatomic damages caused by glyphosate in Eucalyptus grandis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A sintomatologia é um dos principais critérios adotados para avaliar os danos causados por fatores bióticos e abióticos em plantas. Contudo, aspectos microscópicos são necessários na compreensão dos mecanismos de intoxicação e no diagnóstico precoce da injúria. Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de quatro formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® sobre a morfoanatomia foliar de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis (UFV01, UFV02, UFV03, UFV04, UFV05 e UFV06. Após a aplicação do glyphosate na dose de 129,6 g ha-1, acompanhou-se diariamente o surgimento de sintomas, e aos 14 dias coletaram-se amostras de folhas aparentemente sadias para as análises microscópicas. Todos os clones apresentaram cloroses e necroses a partir do quarto dia de exposição, independentemente da formulação utilizada. O clone UFV04 não apresentou injúrias anatômicas. Nos demais clones, os herbicidas ocasionaram plasmólise, colapso celular, hipertrofia e formação de tecido de cicatrização, porém não foram diagnosticadas variações na espessura das folhas. Visualmente, o Roundup transorb® foi o herbicida que provocou maior intoxicação nas plantas. Anatomicamente, plantas expostas ao Roundup NA® apresentaram maior número de danos. O clone UFV06 foi o mais sensível à ação das formulações testadas, considerando-se tanto a análise visual quanto a anatômica. Os resultados confirmam o valor diagnóstico da análise visual e prognóstico da anatomia vegetal, sendo o estudo conjunto desses parâmetros fundamental para avaliar a sensibilidade entre os clones e o potencial fitotóxico de herbicidas.Symptomatology is one of the most important criteria used to determine the damages caused by biotic and abiotic factors in plants. However, microscopic aspects are needed to elucidate intoxication mechanisms and early injury diagnosis. This work aimed to evaluate the

  7. Eficiência das minicepas e microcepas na produção de propágulos de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Efficiency of ministumps and microstumps of Eucalyptus grandis clones for minicutting and microcutting production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Titon

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência dos jardins clonais nas técnicas de microestaquia e miniestaquia de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, quanto a sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva das microcepas e minicepas em coletas sucessivas de microestacas e miniestacas. As microcepas utilizadas foram oriundas de mudas rejuvenescidas por micropropagação, mediante subcultivos in vitro, e as minicepas, de miniestacas oriundas de plantas propagadas pelo método da estaquia convencional (macroestaquia. As minicepas e as microcepas apresentaram desempenho similar, tendo sido observado, para ambas, elevada taxa de sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva de material para propagação vegetativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of clonal gardens in the microcutting and minicutting techniques of four Eucalyptus grandis clones regarding the survival, vigor and productive capacity of the microstumps and ministumps in successive collections of microcuttings and minicuttings. The microstumps were obtained from rejuvenated tissue explants through subculture in vitro, and the ministumps by minicuttings derived from conventional rooted cuttings. The ministumps and microstumps of E. grandis exhibited similar performance, i.e., high survival rate, vigor and productive capacity of vegetative propagation material.

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DA SUPERFÍCIE DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden TRATADA TERMICAMENTE

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    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge and sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190ºC. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good, except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad. The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  9. Effect of Hexaflumuron on gustation and reproduction of adult boll weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of hexaflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory against boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, captured in pheromone-baited traps for gustatory response and reproduction of the insect. Hexaflumuron is an insect growth regulator which inhibits chitin synthesis and disrupts inse...

  10. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap distance from cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Once populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) are suppressed, eradication programs rely on pheromone trap-based monitoring for timely detection of weevil populations in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Delayed detection may increase the costs of remedial treatments, and permit rep...

  11. René Descartes, the Robots and the Soul in the debate between Tommaso Ceva and Guido Grandi

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    Alfredo Serrai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Descartes outlined human intelligence as a divine gift, albeit in a system governed by universal laws of physics and mathematics. In the eighteenth century the camaldolite Guido Grandi and Tommaso Ceva, both mathematicians, had a dispute about the interpretation of the Cartesian model of human intelligence. This case provides an opportunity to retrace the path of a speculative techno-philosophical question concerning the human possibility to equipping robots with the ability to experience a self-consciousness.

  12. A comparative assessment on regeneration status of indigenous woody plants in Eucalyptus grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiferaw Alem; Tadesse Woldemariam

    2009-01-01

    Diversity, density and species composition of naturally regenerated woody plants under Eucalyptus grandis plantation and the adjacent natural forest were investigated and compared. Twenty plots, with an area of 20 m× 20 m for each, were established in both of E. Grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest, independently. In each plot, species name, abundance, diameter and height were recorded. Numbers of seedling were collected in five sub-plots (4 m2) within each major plot. A total of 46 species in the plantation, and 52 species in the natural forest, which belongs to 36 families were recorded. The diversity of species (H') is 2.19 in the plantation and 2.74 in the natural forest. The density of understory woody plant was 3842 stems/ha in the plantation and 4122 stems/ha in the natural forest. The densities of seedlings in the natural forest and the plantation were 8101 stems/ha and 4151 stems/ha, respectively. High similarity of woody species composition was found between the natural forest and the plantation. The E. Grandis plantation was found favoring the regeneration and growth of Millitia ferruginia and Coffea arabica in a much better way than other underneath woody species.

  13. Investigating inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion by Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Inyang, Michael Anietie; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin; Nwaokorie, Ikechi Thaddeus; Adidi, Emmanuel Amanogho; Owoeye, Taiwo Felicia; Nwakudu, Kelechukwu Chinedu; Akinlabu, Deborah Kehinde; Gabriel, Olanrewaju Oyewale; Taiwo, Olugbenga Samson; Awotoye, Olufisayo Adebola

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion (MIC) of metals by Tectona grandis based Fe (iron) Nanoparticle material was investigated. For this, extract was obtained from the leaf of Tectona grandis and this was employed as precursor for synthesizing the Fe-nanoparticle material. From this, the synthesized plant extract based nanoparticle material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM+EDS) instrument. The developed Fe bio-nanoparticle material was then employed for sensitivity and/or resistance study application against different strains of microbes that are known to induce microbiologically-influenced-corrosion, in metallic materials, and for this, microbial growth inhibition effect was compared with that from a commercial antibiotic employed as control. Results showed that the Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle exhibited good inhibition effects on the growth of many of the MIC inducing microbes investigated. Sensitivity measures of zone of inhibition against the growth of MIC inducing microbial strains either outperformed or compares well with that obtained from the commercial antibiotic control, in the study. These results indicate positive prospect on the suitability of Fe bio-nanoparticle for corrosion inhibition applications for the protection of metals against microbiological corrosion influencing environment.

  14. Evidence for salicylic acid signalling and histological changes in the defence response of Eucalyptus grandis to Chrysoporthe austroafricana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Lizahn; Berger, Dave Kenneth; Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2017-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are cultivated for forestry and are of economic importance. The fungal stem canker pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana causes disease of varying severity on E. grandis. The Eucalyptus grandis-Chrysoporthe austroafricana interaction has been established as a model system for studying Eucalyptus antifungal defence. Previous studies revealed that the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) affects the levels of resistance in highly susceptible (ZG14) and moderately resistant (TAG5) clones. The aims of this study were to examine histochemical changes in response to wounding and inoculation as well as host responses at the protein level. The anatomy and histochemical changes induced by wounding and inoculation were similar between the clones, suggesting that anatomical differences do not underlie their different levels of resistance. Tyloses and gum-like substances were present after inoculation and wounding, but cell death occurred only after inoculation. Hyphae of C. austroafricana were observed inside dead and living cells, suggesting that the possibility of a hemibiotrophic interaction requires further investigation. Proteomics analysis revealed the possible involvement of proteins associated with cell death, SA signalling and systemic resistance. In combination with previous information, this study forms a basis for future functional characterisation of candidate genes involved in resistance of E. grandis to C. austroafricana. PMID:28349984

  15. Allelopathic effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla on pathogenic fungi and pest insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study on the allelopathic effects and chemical components of the essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla shows that the leaf oil emulsion of E.grandis × E.urophylla can inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum,Pyriculerie grisea,Glorosprium musa rum and Phytophthora capsici.Pupation and feeding of the pest insects Spodopteralitura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hubner are shown to be affected with restraining effects which increase with the increasing levels of oil concentration.A GC/MS analysis of the leaf oil indicated that the main components,with a relative content of≥3%,were alloocimene (43.22%),α-pinene (13.63%),γ-terpinene (5.49%),(E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (3.58%),β-fenchyl alcohol (4.58%),and 2-amino-3,5-dicyano-6-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-pyridine (3.67%).Terpenes played an important role in the inhibitory effects of E.grandis × E.urophylla essential oil on pathogenic fungi and pest insects.Poor biodiversity of eucalyptus plantations is a function of allelopathy.

  16. Feeding ecology of the copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis near the lower interface of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.

    Feeding ecology of the calanoid copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis collected in the Arabian Sea at one station during the Spring Intermonsoon and during the Southwest Monsoon of 1995 was studied with transmission electron microscopy of gut-contents. Highest abundances of these animals occurred from ˜400 to 1100 m, near the lower interface of the oxygen minimum zone and at the inflection point where oxygen starts to increase. We expected that their gut-contents would include particles and cells that had sunk relatively undegraded from surface waters as well as those from within the oxygen minimum zone, and that gut-contents would differ between the Spring Intermonsoon and the more productive SW Monsoon. Overall, in both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis was omnivorous, and consumed a variety of detrital particles, prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs, gram-negative bacteria including metal-precipitating bacteria, aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, microheterotrophs, virus-like particles and large virus-like particles, as well as cuticle and cnidarian tissue. Few significant differences in types of food consumed were seen among life stages within or among various depth zones. Amorphous, unidentifiable material was significantly more abundant in guts during the Spring Intermonsoon than during the late SW Monsoon, and recognizable cells made up a significantly higher portion of gut-contents during the late SW Monsoon. This is consistent with the Intermonsoon as a time when organic material is considerably re-worked by the surface water microbial loop before leaving the euphotic zone. In both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis had consumed what appeared to be aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, similar to those we had previously found in gut-contents of several species of zooplankton from the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical Pacific. By intercepting sinking material, populations of Lucicutia aff. L. grandis act as a filter for carbon

  17. High-throughput gene and SNP discovery in Eucalyptus grandis, an uncharacterized genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappas Georgios J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benefits from high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology may be most apparent for species with high societal or economic value but few genomic resources. Rapid means of gene sequence and SNP discovery using this novel sequencing technology provide a set of baseline tools for genome-level research. However, it is questionable how effective the sequencing of large numbers of short reads for species with essentially no prior gene sequence information will support contig assemblies and sequence annotation. Results With the purpose of generating the first broad survey of gene sequences in Eucalyptus grandis, the most widely planted hardwood tree species, we used 454 technology to sequence and assemble 148 Mbp of expressed sequences (EST. EST sequences were generated from a normalized cDNA pool comprised of multiple tissues and genotypes, promoting discovery of homologues to almost half of Arabidopsis genes, and a comprehensive survey of allelic variation in the transcriptome. By aligning the sequencing reads from multiple genotypes we detected 23,742 SNPs, 83% of which were validated in a sample. Genome-wide nucleotide diversity was estimated for 2,392 contigs using a modified theta (θ parameter, adapted for measuring genetic diversity from polymorphisms detected by randomly sequencing a multi-genotype cDNA pool. Diversity estimates in non-synonymous nucleotides were on average 4x smaller than in synonymous, suggesting purifying selection. Non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (Ka/Ks among 2,001 contigs averaged 0.30 and was skewed to the right, further supporting that most genes are under purifying selection. Comparison of these estimates among contigs identified major functional classes of genes under purifying and diversifying selection in agreement with previous researches. Conclusion In providing an abundance of foundational transcript sequences where limited prior genomic information existed, this

  18. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

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    Garcia Tzintzuni I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and

  19. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Eucalyptus grandis

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    Denis L. G. Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  20. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very

  1. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

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    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las especies forestales de rápido crecimiento cultivadas en Uruguay de mayor importancia económica es el Eucalyptus grandis. Trabajos anteriores reportan propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera juvenil y adulta proveniente de plantaciones de esta especie en diferentes regiones del país. Sin embargo, dado que no se dispone de datos científicos nacionales sobre su durabilidad natural, en este trabajo fue evaluada madera de E. grandis obtenida de dos plantaciones de 16 años de edad con semilla del mismo origen, de dos sitios, Rivera y Río Negro. Se estudió la durabilidad natural del duramen externo e interno siguiendo los métodos de la norma EN 350-1, tomando Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 como especie de referencia. Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio para determinar la resistencia a la descomposición fúngica (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor y Serpula lacrymans y a las termites (Reticulitermes spp. siguiendo las normas EN 113 y EN 118, respectivamente. Se realizaron ensayos de campo de estacas, de doble capa y cámara fúngica, los cuales aún están en curso, por lo que en el presente trabajo se presentan resultados parciales. Los perfiles radiales de densidad básica revelaron que la madera del duramen externo no era adulta, sino madera de transición. En general, el duramen de E. grandis mostró una mayor durabilidad que el híbrido Populus.El E. grandis se clasificó como moderadamente o seriamente atacado por Reticulitermes spp. Según EN 350-1, la madera juvenil de E. grandis puede considerarse como “moderadamente durable” ante la pudrición parda provocada por G. trabeum, mientras que la madera de transición puede describirse como “durable”. La madera de transición mostró en relación a la madera juvenil una mayor resistencia al G. trabeum, una susceptibilidad levemente menor a las termites y mejor desempeño en el campo luego de 17 meses de exposición. El sitio de la plantación no

  2. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  3. Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lignina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a* e matriz amarelo (b* da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos.

  4. EFEITO DO DESBASTE NAS RACHADURAS DE TOPO DAS TORAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

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    Rômulo Trevisan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of thinning in the end splits of the logs of the Eucalyptus grandis at 18 years of age. There was analyzed a thinning experiment, located in the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, installed in randomized blocks with four repetitions. The seven treatments were defined according to the number of thinnings applied and ranged from zero to six interventions. The trees were selected, in each treatment, on the basis of the Assmann’s dominant diameter and the central diameter of tree, being referred to as dominant and central trees, respectively. After cutting down the selected the logs were located between the DBH (diameter at breast height and 25% positions, 25% and 50%; 50% and 75%; 75% and 100% of the commercial height, for the end split study. The results indicate that the average end splits of the logs in the dominant and central trees was higher at the second log sampled, suggesting that sectioning should be carried in conjunction with techniques that minimize the growth stress, especially when this is performed near the half of the commercial height. The thinning induced variation in the logs end split, both for dominant and central trees; however, there was no clear positive or negative trend, leading to the conclusion that changes in growth rate did not af fect these parameters uniformly.

  5. LOG BREAKDOWN OF Eucalyptus grandis WITH CHAINSAW, PART 1 – OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSISi

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    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810558The aim of this work was to analyze the operational performance of chainsaw log breakdown of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill, taking into account small scale use, e.g., in small farms, using yield and efficiency as evaluation tools. The specific aim was to analyze the behavior of yield and efficiency in five diametric classes: 20.0-25.9cm, 26.0-28.9 cm, 29.0-31.9 cm, 32.0-34.9 cm and 35.0-41.0 cm. According to the results obtained, the chainsaw log breakdown had a satisfactory operational behavior, with average yield and efficiency of 58,5% and 0.55m³/operator/h, respectively. However, the feasibility of such technique is restricted to small scale use. Diametric class 3 (29.0-31.9 cm presented the best yield (66.6% because it was the one that presented the best adequacy between log diameter and products. It is suggested for further researches the development of specific sawing diagrams per diametric class, in addition to the reduction of class ranges, aiming the yield increase. The average breakdown time spent per log was the same for classes 3, 4 and 5, resulting that the latter presented the best efficiency, 0.82 m³/operator/h.

  6. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

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    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha−1 and 86% higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  7. Fractionation of Eucalyptus grandis chips by dilute acid-catalysed steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Alexandre; Mathias, Alvaro L; Wypych, Fernando; Ramos, Luiz P

    2003-01-01

    Steam explosion of Eucalyptus grandis has been carried out under various pretreatment conditions (200-210 degrees C, 2-5 min) after impregnation of the wood chips with 0.087 and 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4. This study, arranged as a 2(3) factorial design, indicated that pretreatment temperature is the most critical variable affecting the yield of steam-treated fractions. Pretreatment of 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4-impregnated chips at 210 degrees C for 2 min was the best condition for hemicellulose recovery (mostly as xylose) in the water soluble fraction, reaching almost 70% of the corresponding xylose theoretical yield. By contrast, lower pretreatment temperatures of 200 degrees C were enough to yield steam-treated substrates from which a 90% cellulose conversion was obtained in 48 h, using low enzyme loadings of a Celluclast 1.5 1 plus Novozym 188 mixture (Novo Nordisk). Release of water-soluble chromophores was monitored by UV spectroscopy and their concentration increased with pretreatment severity. The yield of alkali-soluble lignin increased at higher levels of acid impregnation and pretreatment temperatures. Thermoanalysis of these lignin fractions indicated a pattern of lignin fragmentation towards greater pretreatment severities but lignin condensation prevailed at the most drastic pretreatment conditions.

  8. Probability density functions for description of diameter distribution in thinned stands of Tectona grandis

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    Julianne de Castro Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fatigue life, Frechet, Gamma, Generalized Gamma, Generalized Logistic, Log-logistic, Nakagami, Beta, Burr, Dagum, Weibull and Hyperbolic distributions in describing diameter distribution in teak stands subjected to thinning at different ages. Data used in this study originated from 238 rectangular permanent plots 490 m2 in size, installed in stands of Tectona grandis L. f. in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The plots were measured at ages 34, 43, 55, 68, 81, 82, 92, 104, 105, 120, 134 and 145 months on average. Thinning was done in two occasions: the first was systematic at age 81months, with a basal area intensity of 36%, while the second was selective at age 104 months on average and removed poorer trees, reducing basal area by 30%. Fittings were assessed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. The Log-logistic (3P, Burr (3P, Hyperbolic (3P, Burr (4P, Weibull (3P, Hyperbolic (2P, Fatigue Life (3P and Nakagami functions provided more satisfactory values for the k-s test than the more commonly used Weibull function.

  9. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad [Food Science Program, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  10. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

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    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  11. SEEDLINGS ESTABLISHMENT OF Eucalyptus grandis MYCORRHIZATED WITH Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 IN SANDY SOIL

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    Andréa Hentz de Mello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and the initial growth of mycorrhizated eucalypts with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 ectomycorrhizal fungus, after its transplant to area subject to the arenization process in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The area was divided into four blocks, each one with four treatments (fertile turf with and without mycorrhizae, Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae. Each parcel was composed of 16 seedlings arranged in four lines in the spacing of 1,5 m x 1,5 m, totalizing in each block 64 seedlings. 90 days after the planting in the field, the eucaliptus seedlings produced in turf with fungus in the fertile substratum presented a survival rate of 100 %, whereas for those produced in fertile turf without fingi, the survival rate was 92 %. The seedlings produced in the Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae had a survival rate varying around 98 and 89 %, respectively. The produced seedlings with turf and fungus showed significant differences in height and stem diameter. This study showed that the Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in substratum fertile turf and inoculated with the Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 isolated may maintain good development and establishment in the field.

  12. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND PESTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF COCCINIA GRANDIS (L. VOIGT

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    Md. Faruk Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activities of Coccinia grandis roots extract. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method against some pathogenic microorganisms. Cytotoxicity was determined using brine shrimp lethality bioassay method. The plant extract was screened for pesticidal activity towards Sitophilus oryzae adults. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was also studied against test organisms, using serial dilution technique to determine the antibacterial potency. In antibacterial screening, large inhibition zones were observed against the tested gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea and Stapphylococcus aureus and gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae bacteria. In antifungal screening, the extract showed moderate antifungal activities against the tested fungi (Candida albicans and Colletotrichum falcatum. In cytotoxicity activity test, LC50 (lethal concentration, 50% of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 15.00µg/ml. The plant extract also showed moderate pesticidal activities towards S. oryzae adults. These results suggested that the plant extract has significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, moderate antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activity towards the tested fungi, brine shrimp nauplii and S. oryzae adults, respectively.

  13. Características de vigas laminadas coladas confeccionadas com madeira de teca (Tectona grandis

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a influência do adesivo, das gramaturas e dos tempos de prensagem nas propriedades mecânicas de vigas laminadas coladas, confeccionadas com madeira de teca (Tectona grandis. As vigas foram produzidas com cinco lamelas, sendo duas da classe de módulo de elasticidade dinâmico, classe 1 - MOEd C1 nas faces, e três da classe 2 - MOEd C2 no miolo. Para a colagem, utilizou-se o adesivo à base de resorcina-fenol-formaldeído (RFF, com gramaturas de 350 e 450 g.m- 2, e tempos de prensagem de 5 e 8 horas. Para o adesivo à base de emulsão polimérica de isocianato (EPI, a colagem foi realizada com gramaturas de 180 e 220 g.m- 2, e tempos de prensagem de 3 e 4 horas. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas das vigas indicaram que não houve uma relação bem definida dos efeitos das variáveis de estudo nas propriedades de flexão estática. As vigas coladas com o adesivo RFF tiveram maior resistência da linha de cola em comparação às vigas coladas com o adesivo EPI.

  14. Métodos de captura para formigas em pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Jardel Boscardin

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar três métodos de coleta de formigas em uma área de pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis em Santa Maria-RS. Foram realizadas amostragens de março a agosto de 2011, utilizando-se armadilha de solo (AS, isca atrativa à base de patê de fígado de frango (IA e extração por Funil de Berlese (FB, sendo seis repetições por tratamento em cada data de coleta. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da aplicação de glifosato, tendo sido realizados controles das plantas infestantes: na linha e na entrelinha de plantio (T1; em faixa de um metro paralela à linha de plantio e de um metro na parte central da entrelinha, sem controle (T2; em faixa de meio metro paralela à linha de plantio (T3, e a testemunha, sem controle de plantas infestantes (T4. A partir dos resultados obtidos, os métodos demonstraram ser complementares entre si, sugerindo a utilização de mais de um método na captura de formigas.

  15. PARTICLEBOARDS PRODUCED WITH Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden POLYSTYRENE AND POLYETHYLENE THEREPHTHALATE PARTICLES

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    Antônio da Silva Maciel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the properties of wood particleboards, containing particles of polystyrene (PS and polyethylene therephthalate (PET. Particleboards were produced with 0%, 25% or 50% of polystyrene and 100%, 75% or 50% of Eucalyptus grandis particles. Additional boards were produced with two amounts of PET/PS (5/20% or 10/40% and 75% or 50% wood particles. As binding agents three amounts (0%, 4% or 6% of urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde adhesive and three amounts of polystyrene in toluene solution (0%, 4% or 6% were used. One-layer boards, measuring approximately 400,0 x 400,0 x 10,0 mm with density approximately equal to 0,60 g/cm3, were produced. Internal bond, modulus of rupture and elasticity, screw withdrawal, as well water absorption and thickness swelling, after 24 hours of immersion were determined. All mechanical boards’ properties were superior to the established by ANSI/A 208.1-1993 standards. All wood/plastic particleboards absorbed more water then those observed in commercial boards. However the observed thickness swelling was quite similar to the values of commercial wood particleboards. Boards in which the solution of polystyrene was applied were, in general, presented the best values for all properties.

  16. Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis L.F. from different provenances using microsatellite markers

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    Berenice Kussumoto Alcântara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the main timber species in the world with high economic value, famous for its beauty, strength and durability. The objective of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity of teak genotypes used in Brazilian plantations. Nine microsatellite primers were used to assess 60 teak genotypes, including 33 genotypes from seeds of plantations and 14 clones from Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and 13 clones from Honduras, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast and Solomon Islands. Two groups of genotypes were detected using the Bayesian Structure analysis: 80% were placed in group 1, represented by genotypes from Cáceres and one from Malaysia, and 20% allocated in group 2, composed of clones from India, Solomon Islands, Malaysia and Honduras and the clones from the Ivory Coast. Most of the genetic variability (73% was concentrated within groups according to AMOVA analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated for the two groups obtained in the analysis of Structure. Moderate genetic diversity was found, with 4.1 alleles per locus, on average, and an average heterozygosity of 0.329, which was lower than the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.492. Group 1 showed the lowest values for these parameters. Suggestions were made concerning the identification of contrasting genotypes to be used as parents in breeding programs.

  17. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  18. EFFECT OF LOG STEAMING ON THE REDUCTION OF DEFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH GROWTH STRESS OF Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fred Willians Calonego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate log steaming effect on the reduction of defects associated with residual growth stress of Eucalyptus grandis wood. There were used logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm, from the Horto Florestal, Manduri, São Paulo. Half of the logs was steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity. Subsequently, the logs were live sawn and the defects resulting from the growth stresses in logs of various diameter were measured. The results indicate that log steaming provided the release of a great part of the growth stresses, without eliminating them completely, showing, nevertheless, that this treatment is feasible and advisable for growth stress relief; the boards coming from heated logs of 20 to <25 cm presented, in general, larger defect reduction, showing that the smaller the log diameter the higher the efficiency of steam treatment at 90ºC of temperature during 20 hours.

  19. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

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    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  20. Optimum extraction process of polyphenols from Bridelia grandis stem bark using experimental design.

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    Brusotti, Gloria; Ngueyem, Tatiana Adrienne; Biesuz, Raffaela; Caccialanza, Gabriele

    2010-06-01

    Euphorbiaceae barks are known to contain an appreciable amount of polyphenolic compounds responsible for several biological activities. Preliminary extraction from Bridelia grandis stem bark afforded high content of polyphenols, determined by spectrophotometric methods such as Folin-Ciocalteu (for total phenols, TP) and n-butanol-HCl (for condensed tannins, CT). A preliminary Plackett-Burman screening design was used to identify the key factors that influence the TP and CT extraction. Between all the variables known to influence the extraction from vegetable matrixes, six were selected; maceration was chosen as traditional extraction methodology. To investigate the effect of solvents and extraction method, methanol, acetone 70% (v/v in water), centrifugation and ultrasound were chosen. A full factorial design 2(3) was applied to optimize the extraction procedure. The responses were obtained analyzing the extracts for their TP and CT contents determined by the above-mentioned spectrophotometric methods. The results confirm that, within the explored domain, the optimum solvent is methanol and the optimum method is one-cycle centrifugation. Finally, it was also compared with the effect of maceration on the considered responses. It has never given results better than centrifugation, whereas in the case of CT it represents an advantage to employ a three-cycle centrifugation instead of one.

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ANATOMY AND DRYING IN Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus urophylla WOOD

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying is an important step to using wood and anatomical characteristics influence this process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between anatomy and wood drying. Samples with 2 x 2 x 4 cm were obtained from eight Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clones at 1.3 m height to evaluate the anatomy and drying in climate chamber during 15 days. Cell wall fraction was established as the parameter that best correlated with drying, the Pearson correlation coefficient between this parameter and moisture was -0.8986, -0.6580, 0.9216, 0.8743, 0.7131 and 0.8727 for saturated wood, and after 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 days of drying, respectively. The frequency and vessel size, as well as the height and width of the rays showed low relation with wood drying. Wood anatomy, mainly the cell wall fraction, influences moisture losses and should be considered in wood drying programs.

  2. One-step column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution followed by automatic separation of volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides from Citrus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hui; Hao, Rui-Lin; Chen, Ya-Fei; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2014-02-15

    Citrus grandis Tomentosa is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. Its functional components include volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides which cannot be effectively extracted through traditional methods. A column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution was developed for one-step extraction of all bioactive substances from C. grandis. Dried material was loaded into a column with petroleum ether: ethanol (8:2, PE) and sequentially eluted with 2-fold PE, 3-fold ethanol: water (6:4) and 8-fold water. The elutes was separated into an ether fraction containing volatiles and an ethanol-water fraction containing flavonoids and polysaccharides. The later was separated into flavonoids and polysaccharides by 80% ethanol precipitation of polysaccharides. Through this procedure, volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides in C. grandis were simultaneously extracted at 98% extraction rates and simply separated at higher than 95% recovery rates. The method provides a simple and high-efficient extraction and separation of wide range bioactive substances.

  3. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  4. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L. J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

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    M. A. A. K. Munasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117 5.56, <0.05. Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117 6.77, <0.05 and two hours (F(1,117 5.28, <0.05 postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5 and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9 was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings.

  5. Proline content and protein patterns in Eucalyptus grandis shoots submitted to high and low temperature shocks

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    Gustavo M. Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline content and protein patterns changes in response to temperature shocks of both acclimated and non acclimated E. grandis shoots cultivated in vitro were investigated. Analysis of soluble proteins through SDS-PAGE and proline were carried out after 12h at 12ºC (cold acclimation or 33ºC (heat acclimation, and immediately after temperature shocks at 41ºC and 0ºC. Analyses were also performed 24h after the temperature shocks (recovery period. Temperature treatment at 0ºC did not change soluble protein patterns both in acclimatized and non acclimatized plants, whereas cold temperature induced high proline levels, which kept relatively high after recovery period. Three novel, probably HSPs, proteins (90.5, 75 and 39 kDa were observed in both acclimated and non acclimated plants submitted to high temperatures. Plants exposed at 41ºC were able to recover from heat shocks after 24h, whereas they did not recover completely from cold shocks. The effect of the acclimation period on the recovering (homeostasis varied depending on the parameter evaluated, and type and duration of the temperature shock.As respostas às mudanças de temperatura de plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas de E. grandis cultivadas in vitro foram avaliadas considerando alterações dos níveis de prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Análises de proteínas solúveis através de SDS-PAGE e prolina foram realizadas após 12h a 12ºC (aclimatação ao frio ou a 33ºC (aclimatação ao calor, e imediatamente depois dos choques térmicos a 41ºC e 0ºC. Análises também foram realizadas após um período de 24h depois dos choques térmicos (período de recuperação. O tratamento de temperatura a 0ºC não alterou o padrão de proteínas nas plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas, entretanto a temperatura baixa induziu altos níveis de prolina, que se mantiveram relativamente altos após o período de recuperação. Três novas proteínas (90,5, 75 e 39 kDa, provavelmente

  6. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  7. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

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    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J. (Iowa State)

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  8. PRODUÇÃO DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM DIFERENTES INTENSIDADES DE DESBASTE

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    Gerson Mainardi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes intensidades de desbaste sobre a produção Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden implantado no ano de 1981, em espaçamento inicial de 3,0 x 2,0 metros, na região de Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudado com delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições e quatro tratamentos: testemunha, sem desbastes, manutenção de 40%, 50% e 60% da área basal da testemunha, constando-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. A produção máxima (756,3 m3cc/ha foi obtida na testemunha, sem desbaste, que não diferiu estatísticamente de 639,6 m3cc/ha, obtido no tratamento com manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha, porém diferiu dos tratamentos com manutenção de 50% e 40% da área basal da testemunha. A redução da área basal incrementou a concentração das freqüências nas maiores classes de diâmetro, deslocando a distribuição para a direita, porém com perdas expressivas de produção total e acréscimo significativo no diâmetro. A manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha permitiu as menores perdas de produção, cerca de 15,4%, e um ganho de 6,4cm ou 23,9% em incremento diamétrico das árvores remanescentes quando comparado com a testemunha, sem desbaste.

  9. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with ‘King’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on ‘Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis ‘Washington Navel’ x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity. PMID:28208159

  10. PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS OF PROCESSOR WORKING IN STANDS OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

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    Bernardo Carlos Tarnowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a time study was conducted with the objective of adjusting equations to estimate the time of activities, productivity, operational costs and the production of the processor used in a harvest operation of stands of Eucalyptus grandis in plain topography in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The operational cycle of the processor consisted of the time spent to process a tree, and was divided in to stages, which were assessed using the methotodology of single activity times. The sampling unit was the operational cycle of the machine. The statistical analysis was based on regression analysis considering the selection procedure “stepwise”. With the adjusted equations it was possible to estimate the productivity of the machine taking into account the of tree diameter. Considering an operational efficiency of 70 % under the circumstances of the study, the productivity of the processor was 25,8 m3 cc/h, the operational costs 47,90 US$/h and the production costs 1,86 US$/m3 cc. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the time of tree processing has varied directly according to the diameter increase diameter; the preparation time, contrary to the processing time, only shows a weak correlation with tree diameter; productivity of the processor is directly proportional to tree diameter, when expressed in volume and inversely proportional when expressed in tree number; the costs per cubic meter of wood processed varies inversely with of increased diameter; from the operational costs, fixed costs had the highest proportion followed by the variable costs, administrative costs and costs for manpower; the production costs of the processor decreased exponentially with increasing tree diameter.

  11. COMBINATION OF TWO NON-INDUSTRIAL METHODS ON THE PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Eucalyptus grandis FENCE POSTS

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of the combination of two non-industrial methods to treat fence posts of Eucalyptus grandis, on the penetration and retention of water borne preservative. Thus, four fences with 2.20 m in length were treated by replacement of sap and simple diffusion alone and other four ones have combined the two techniques, with water-borne CCB 50% preservative at a concentration of 3.5%. After each treatment condition, the pieces were seasoned in the shade for 30 days. Disks were taken at 0.60 and 1.60 m from the base of the pieces which had one side sanded for analysis of the penetration of the preservative using a solution of chrome azurol S. From the same parts, test specimens were also manufactured in diametrically opposed positions with dimensions of approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal to analyze the retention of the element copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and boron by visible spectrophotometry with azomethine-H, also known as colorimetry. The retention values obtained were compared with the minimum recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards – ABNT for water borne preservatives which is 6.5 kg of active ingredients per m³ of wood. The penetration achieved by the combined method was considered sufficient for non-industrial treatment, while the retention values were higher than the retention of at least 6.5 kg of active ingredients / m³ of treated wood in all positions and portions evaluated.

  12. Polyamines and transglutaminase activity are involved in compatible and self-incompatible pollination of Citrus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Alessandra; Antognoni, Fabiana; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Distefano, Gaetano; Las Casas, Giuseppina; La Malfa, Stefano; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Pollination of pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) pistils has been studied in planta by adding compatible and self-incompatible (SI) pollen to the stigma surface. The pollen germination has been monitored inside the pistil by fluorescent microscopy showing SI altered morphologies with irregular depositions of callose in the tube walls, and heavy callose depositions in enlarged tips. The polyamine (PA) content as free, perchloric acid (PCA)-soluble and -insoluble fractions and transglutaminase (TGase) activity have been analyzed in order to deepen their possible involvement in the progamic phase of plant reproduction. The conjugated PAs in PCA-soluble fraction were definitely higher than the free and the PCA-insoluble forms, in both compatible and SI pollinated pistils. In pistils, pollination caused an early decrease of free PAs and increase of the bound forms. The SI pollination, showed highest values of PCA-soluble and -insoluble PAs with a maximum in concomitance with the pollen tube arrest. As TGase mediates some of the effects of PAs by covalently binding them to proteins, its activity, never checked before in Citrus, was examined with two different assays. In addition, the presence of glutamyl-PAs confirmed the enzyme assay data and excluded the possibility of a misinterpretation. The SI pollination caused an increase in TGase activity, whereas the compatible pollination caused its decrease. Similarly to bound PAs, the glutamyl-PAs and the enzyme activity peaked in the SI pollinated pistils in concomitance with the observed block of the pollen tube growth, suggesting an involvement of TGase in SI response.

  13. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  14. Influence of 6-Benzyladenine and gelling agent on the reduction of hyperhydricity in Tectona grandis L.

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    Elisa Quiala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Running title: Controlling hyperhydricity in teakInfluencia de la 6-Bencilaminopurina y el agente gelificante en la reducción de la hiperhidricidad en Tectona grandis L. Abstract:  The influence of different factors on shoot proliferation and the occurrence of hyperhydricity in teak (Tectona grandis L. have been studied. Four concentrations of BA (2.22, 4.44, 6.66 and 8.88 µM and a control treatment with 0 BA were examined. Aiming at reducing the costs during commercial propagation by using gelrite in stead of agar, the use of both gelling agent in the proliferation and hyperhydricity was tested. In order to evaluate if hyperhydricity can be reduced by increasing the gelrite concentration in the culture medium, three concentrations (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g l-1 were tested in combination with 4.44 µM BA.  The proliferation and occurrence of hyperhydricity during 21 successive subcultures were evaluated. The highest proliferation was achieved in the treatments with 6.66 or 8.88 µM BA. They yielded 5.22 and 5.56 shoots/explant, respectively. But also, the highest percent of hyperhydric shoots was achieved in this treatment. Gelrite resulted in a higher proliferation, but also an almost two times higher hyperhydricity as compared to agar-solidified media. Satisfactory reduction in hyperhydricity (18% was achieved with 3.0 g l-1 gelrite. However, the successive subcultures onto proliferation in this treatment favored hyperhydricity compromising shoot quality and its competence to proliferate. In vitro teak plants were ex vitro rooted and then transferred to greenhouse conditions for acclimatization; ten weeks after transfer they were ready for field plantation.Key words: cytokinin; forestry; micropropagation; morpho-physiological disorder; teakAbbreviations: BA- 6-Benzyladenine, MS- Murashige and Skoog basal medium, IBA- Indole-3-butyric acid, ANA-Naphtalene acetic acidResumen: Se estudió la influencia de diferentes factores en la proliferaci

  15. Optimizing Culture System of Ri T-DNA Transformed Roots for Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhong-hai; TONG Rui-jian

    2006-01-01

    Genetic transformation experiments of the different explants from Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes were carried out in darkness or in light. The optimizing culture system of Ri T-DNA transformed roots for C. grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You was constructed as follows: After the ventral wounded striations on the single activation cotyledon were inoculated by A. rhizogenes A4 (logarithmic period), they were cocultured at (25 ± 2)℃ in darkness for 25-30 days; some transformed roots were generated from wounded striations of most cotyledons. The genetically transformed ratio is (83 ± 11)%. Axenic Ri T-DNA transformed roots (hairy roots) were harvested after five subcultures. Explants were activated on MT medium. The MS medium was used for subculture of transformed roots. Mass Ri T-DNA transformed roots in which the hormone was produced independently were harvested from this optimizing culture system. White, fresh Ri T-DNA transformed roots were (1.14 ± 0.07) cm long, (0.73 ± 0.04) mm wide, and the growth direction of transformed roots was negative geotropism.

  16. MICOBIOTA ASSOCIADA À MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN DURANTE A SECAGEM AO AR LIVRE

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    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi o de acompanhar a secagem ao ar livre da madeira serrada de Eucalyptus grandis conduzida na região de Lavras, MG e identificar a micobiota associada à madeira em diversas fases da secagem. As tábuas foram cortadas de oito toras de 3,0 m de comprimento, oriundas de três árvores, com 27 anos de idade, plantadas em área experimental da UFLA. Dos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis ao ar livre, iniciada em janeiro, consumiu 158 dias até atingir umidade próxima a 12,5%. A curva de secagem foi representada por uma equação logarítmica com coeficiente de determinação (R2 igual a 98,3%. Os fungos causadores de bolores superficiais e de manchas tiveram maior ocorrência no início da secagem. As mais altas freqüências de fungos, verificadas no início da secagem, foram observadas para Penicillium spp. e Pestalotiopsis sp. O fungo Lentinus lepideus ocorreu com maior freqüência no final da secagem.

  17. Contenido de los nutrientes básicos en Catolaccus grandis Burks criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodon

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    ARAUJO LÚCIA HELENA AVELINO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los niveles de carbohidratos, proteínas solubles y aminoácidos libres de larvas, pupas hembras y adultos hembras de Catolaccus grandis (Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodón envenenadas por hembras del parasitoide y por larvas de primer instar del parasitoide. Esto estudio fue conducido en la Unidade de Investigación de Control Biologico de Plagas del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de la América, en Weslaco, Texas. Las 20 muestras de cada uno de los tres estados de desarrollo: tercer instar larval, pupas hembra y adultos hembra del parasitoide C. grandis, fueron separadas y pesadas individualmente y se cuantió el contenido de carbohidratos totales, proteínas solubles totales y aminoácidos libres criados en diferentes sustratos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la existencia de patrones metabólicos significativamente distintos de estos nutrientes básicos.

  18. A four-domain Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from Solen grandis is implicated in immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong; Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Xiangquan; Liu, Meijun; Yang, Dinglong; Xu, Jie; Hu, Xiaoke

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) serves as a negative regulator in immune signal pathway by restraining the activities of serine proteinase (SP) and plays an essential role in the innate immunity. In the present study, a Kunitz-type SPI was identified from the mollusk razor clam Solen grandis (designated as SgKunitz). The full-length cDNA of SgKunitz was of 1284 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp. The ORF encoded four Kunitz domains, and their amino acids were well conserved when compared with those in other Kunitz-type SPIs, especially the six cysteines involved in forming of three disulfide bridges in each domain. In addition, the tertiary structure of all the four domains adopted a typical model of Kunitz-type SPI family, indicating SgKunitz was a new member of Kunitz-type SPI superfamily. The mRNA transcripts of SgKunitz were detected in all tested tissues of razor clam, including muscle, mantle, gonad, gill, hepatopancreas and hemocytes, and with the highest expression level in gill. When the razor clams were stimulated by LPS, PGN or β-1, 3-glucan, the expression level of SgKunitz mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated (P inhibitor of SP involving in the immune response of S. grandis, and provided helpful evidences to understand the regulation mechanism of immune signal pathway in mollusk.

  19. Genome scans for divergent selection in natural populations of the widespread hardwood species Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) using microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhijiao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Fagen; Weng, Qijie; Zhou, Chanpin; Li, Mei; Li, Jie; Huang, Huanhua; Mo, Xiaoyong; Gan, Siming

    2016-01-01

    Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs. Using three FST outlier detection methods, a total of 58 outlying SSRs were collectively identified as loci under divergent selection against three non-correlated climatic variables, namely, mean annual temperature, isothermality and annual precipitation. Using a spatial analysis method, nine significant associations were revealed between FST outlier allele frequencies and climatic variables, involving seven alleles from five SSR loci. Of the five significant SSRs, two (EUCeSSR1044 and Embra394) contained alleles of putative genes with known functional importance for response to climatic factors. Our study presents critical information on the population diversity and structure of the important woody species E. grandis and provides insight into the adaptive responses of perennial trees to climatic variations. PMID:27748400

  20. α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Phenolic Extracts from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Bark

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    Ping Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of different extracts and fractions from Eucalyptus. grandis × urophylla bark (EB against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities. The ethyl acetate extract (EB-E showed the highest activity among others. Seven fractions were derived from EB-E; among them EB-E-7 showed the highest significant inhibition of both enzymes, with IC50 of 1.40±0.18 and 1.72±0.12 μg/mL, respectively. EB-E and its active fraction EB-E-7 showed highest contents of total phenolics: 178.79±4.68 and 920.4±5.46 mg GAEag−1, respectively. HPLC-MS analysis of EB-E-7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid, quercetin-glucuronide, quercetin-3-α-rhamnopyranoside, and ellagic acid rhamnoside as major compounds, together with smaller concentrations of myricetin-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-hexoside, myricetin-3-α-arabinofuranoside, and isorhamnetin. Therefore, the phenolic compounds from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urograndis bark potently inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, having potential in prevention of hyperglycemia.

  1. 桉树枝瘿姬小蜂危害巨园桉的研究%Study on Leptocybe invasa's Hazard to Eucalyptus grandis × E.tereticonis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 王缉健; 刘宇; 罗基同; 蒋金培; 吴耀军

    2010-01-01

    桉树枝瘿姬小蜂(Leptocybe invasa Fish er & La salle)在巨园桉(E.grandis×E.tereticornis)DH201-2不同生长阶段和不同生长高度均能侵入定居,并产生大量虫瘿,对巨园桉危害严重.

  2. Produção de Eucalyptus grandis Hhill ex Maiden em diferentes intensidades de desbaste.

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    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O efeito de diferentes intensidades de desbaste sobre a produção Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden implantado no ano de 1981, em espaçamento inicial  de 3,0 x 2,0 metros, na região de Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudado com delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições e quatro tratamentos: testemunha, sem desbastes, manutenção de 40%, 50% e 60% da área basal da testemunha, constando-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. A produção máxima (756,3 m3cc/ha foi obtida na testemunha, sem desbaste, que não diferiu estatísticamente de 639,6 m3cc/ha, obtido no tratamento com manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha, porém diferiu dos tratamentos com manutenção de 50% e 40% da área basal da testemunha. A redução da área basal incrementou a concentração das freqüências nas maiores classes de diâmetro, deslocando a distribuição para a direita, porém com perdas expressivas de produção total e acréscimo significativo no diâmetro. A manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha permitiu as menores perdas de produção, cerca de 15,4%, e um ganho de 6,4cm ou 23,9% em  incremento  diamétrico  das  árvores  remanescentes quando comparado com a testemunha, sem desbaste.

  3. Trophic discrimination factor of nitrogen isotopes within amino acids in the dobsonfly Protohermes grandis (Megaloptera: Corydalidae) larvae in a controlled feeding experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Hayashi, Fumio; Sasaki, Yoko; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2017-03-01

    The trophic discrimination factor (TDF) of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids, between a stream-dwelling dobsonfly larva (Protohermes grandis: Megaloptera; Corydalidae) and its diet (chironomid larvae), was determined in controlled feeding experiments. Last-instar larvae of P. grandis were collected from the Yozawa-gawa River, central Japan, and reared in the laboratory. After fed to satiation for 1 month, one group of larvae was each fed one living chironomid larva per day for 4 weeks, while a second group was starved for 8 weeks. The larvae were harvested at intervals and the nitrogen isotopic composition of glutamic acid (δ(15)NGlu) and phenylalanine (δ(15)NPhe) were determined to calculate TDF. The mean TDF of satiated and starved larvae were 7.1‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 3) and 7.3‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 5), respectively. Thus, the TDF for P. grandis larvae in this study was similar to that reported for other arthropods (approximately 7‰) and was independent of satiation or starvation. A previous study of wild P. grandis larvae, based on the δ(15)NGlu and δ(15)NPhe values, estimated its trophic position (TP) as approximately 2.0 ± 0.1 (n = 5), a low value close to that of algivores, although they are generally characterized as carnivores (usually accepted as TP ≥ 3). The TDF for P. grandis larvae suggests that their low TPs in nature were caused by incorporation of vascular plant-derived amino acids (with a different δ(15)N profile from that of algae) and not by an unusually low TDF or by the effects of the satiation/starvation on amino acid metabolism.

  4. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  5. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  6. Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis

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    José Luiz Gava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas

  7. Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla

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    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17

  8. Behavior of Eucalyptus grandis and E. cloeziana seedlings grown in arsenic-contaminated soil Comportamento de mudas de E. grandis E. eucalyptus cloeziana cultivadas em solo contaminado por arsênio

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    Roseli Freire Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been considered the most poisonous inorganic soil pollutant to living creatures. For this reason, the interest in phytoremediation species has been increasing in the last years. Particularly for the State of Minas Gerais, where areas of former mining activities are prone to the occurrence of acid drainage, the demand is great for suitable species to be used in the revegetation and "cleaning" of As-polluted areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill Maiden and E. cloeziana F. Muell, for phytoremediation of As-polluted soils. Soil samples were incubated for a period of 15 days with different As (Na2HAsO4 doses (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg dm-3. After 30 days of exposure the basal leaves of E. cloeziana plants exhibited purple spots with interveinal chlorosis, followed by necrosis and death of the apical bud at the 400 mg dm-3 dose. Increasing As doses in the soil reduced root and shoot dry matter, plant height and diameter in both species, although the reduction was more pronounced in E. cloeziana plants. In both species, As concentrations were highest in the root system; the highest root concentration was found in E. cloeziana plants (305.7 mg kg-1 resulting from a dose of 400 mg dm-3. The highest As accumulation was observed in E. grandis plants, which was confirmed as a species with potential for As phytoextraction, tending to accumulate As in the root system and stem.O arsênio (As tem sido considerado o poluente inorgânico de solo mais tóxico para os seres vivos, razão pela qual o interesse por espécies indicadoras e fitorremediadoras tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Particularmente para o Estado de Minas Gerais, que apresenta áreas remanescentes de atividade mineradora sujeitas à ocorrência de drenagem ácida, existe grande demanda por espécies com potencial para serem utilizadas na revegetação e "limpeza" de substratos contaminados por esse metaloide. Este

  9. Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

  10. Compósitos de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polipropileno e polietileno de alta e baixa densidades Composites of Eucalyptus grandis wood, polypropylene, and high and low-density polyethylene particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Gomes Milagres

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades de painéis fabricados com mistura de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polietileno de alta densidade, polietileno de baixa densidade e polipropileno. Empregaram-se duas formulações adesivas (uréia-formaldeído e uréia-formaldeído contendo 0,5% de epóxi. De modo geral, as propriedades dos painéis foram afetadas pela composição das partículas. Os painéis com melhores propriedades foram fabricados com 75% de partículas de madeira e 25% de partículas de polietileno de alta densidade. A adição de epóxi ao adesivo uréico aumentou os valores do módulo de ruptura, dureza Janka, e reduziu o inchamento, em espessura, de alguns painéis. As propriedades mecânicas da maioria dos painéis, exceto o módulo de elasticidade, ultrapassaram os valores mínimos estabelecidos na norma ANSI/A1-208/93.The objective of this work was to establish the properties of particleboards fabricated with blends of Eucalyptus grandis, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene particles. Two adhesives formulations were used (urea-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde plus 0,5% of epoxy adhesive. Panel properties were affected by particle composition. Panels with best properties were fabricated with 75% of wood particles and 25% of high density polypropylene. The addition of epoxy to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved of the values of modulus of rupture, hardness and reduced the amount of thickness swelling. Except for the modulus of elasticity, board properties meet grade M-2 ANSI/A1-208/93 requirements.

  11. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

  12. Flavonoid profiles of immature and mature fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck (Dangyuja) and overall contribution to the antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Semin; Yi, Song; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2015-04-01

    Citrus fruits are a valuable functional food and their peel is used in East Asian folk medicine. In this study, the polar components of the fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared with reported data. Among the 13 characterized compounds, eight flavonoids and one coumarin were identified for the first time in fruit tissues. The total amount of the identified components was the largest for the immature fruit peel, followed by mature fruit peel, mature fruit flesh, and immature fruit flesh. Naringin (2) and neohesperidin (3) were particularly rich in all samples. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracted from fruit tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of the fruit peels was significantly higher than that of the fruit flesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol extract ofTectona grandis flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramaniam Ramachandran; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; KT Manisenthil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract ofTectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers(METGF)in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats to supports its traditional use.Methods: Acute toxicity study of METGF was carried out in rat to determine its dose for the antidiabetic study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was performed to evaluateMETGF effect on elevated blood glucose level. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration ofSTZ(60 mg/kg, ip.) and it was confirmed 72 h after induction.METGF was orally given to the diabetic rats up to28 days and blood glucose level were estimated each week. On28 day of the experiment, diabetic rats were sacrificed after the blood collection for the biochemical parameters analysis and liver, kidney was collected to determine antioxidants levels.Results:In acute toxicity,METGFdid not show toxicity and death up to a dose 2 000mg/kg in rats. Administration ofMETGF 100 and200mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) reduced blood glucose levels inOGTTand STZ-induced diabetic rats. Both doses ofMETGF treatment significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 andP<0.05) increased body weight, serum insulin, haemoglobin (Hb) and total protein levels in diabetic rats. Also,MEGTF treatment reduced elevated glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c) and other biochemical parameters levels significantly (P<0.001) in diabetic rats. Altered lipid profiles and antioxidants levels were reversed to near normal in diabetic rats treated withMETGF. Conclusions: These results concluded that METGF possesses antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity which supports its traditional use.

  14. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE TECA (Tectona grandis

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    SILVA, Carla Vanessa Moraes da

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pest insects with potential damages and losses on teak plantation, Tectona grandis, is relevant due to the economic criterion which requires high costs for managing. Therefore, the necessity of knowing about the insect fauna of plant protection importance has gained importance, such as the soil termite, field cricket, black cutworm, Saúva-lemon, Caterpillars-to-teak, Catepillar-queimadeira and others that reduce the production. Thus, this study aimed to add to the existing literature new information about the biological and morphological aspects, damages and methods to control the major pests of Teak, which may assist the crop management. A presença de insetos-pragas com potencial de dano e de perdas na cultura da teca, Tectona grandis, é relevante devido ao critério econômico que requer altos custos com seu manejo. Sendo assim, acentua-se a necessidade do conhecimento sobre a entomofauna de importância fitossanitária para a cultura, tais como o cupim do solo, grilo-comum, lagarta-rosca, saúva-limão, lagarta-da-teca, lagarta-queimadeira e demais coleobrocas que reduzem sua produção. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi acrescentar à bibliografia existente novas informações sobre os aspectos biológicos, morfológicos, injúrias e táticas de controle das principais pragas da cultura da Teca, as quais podem auxiliar no manejo da cultura.

  15. Potensi Kayu Perkakas dan Kayu Bakar Jenis Jati (Tectona grandis di Hutan Rakyat Desa Natah, Gunung Kidul

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    Ris Hadi Purwanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Potentials  of Merchantable Timber and Firewod of Teak (Tectona grandis in Natah Village Community Forest , Gunungkidul The potential of merchantable timber and firewod of teak (Tectona grandis in Desa Natah community forest was estimated by developing allometric equations method. To establish the allometric equation 350 sample trees were measured to determine the relationships between tree height (H and diameter breast height (D. Thirty trees of various sizes were cut to measure the merchantable timber and firewood volume. The raw merchantable timber volume of teak in the community forest was defined as the ligneous material contained in the bole and branches which both with a diameter of at least 10cm. The result showed that D (taken at about 1.3m above the ground was a good predictor of H with r2 over 0.9672. When D was combined with H, r2 was improved somewhat for the merchantable timber volume, suggesting the growth patterns of tree dimensions were colesy interdependent. A standing stock of the merchantable timber and firewood volume of teak in the community forest was then estimated based on the allometric relations. Proportions of the merchantable timber and firewood volume were 66.91% and 33.09% of total wood volume per tree, respectively. The potential of merchantable timber and firewood volume in these community forest were 13.501 m3/ha and 8.686 m3/ha, respectively, with a basal area of 1.887 m2/ha. Based on the basal area, Desa Natah community forests of teak could be classified into extremely sparse of stands category.

  16. MODELOS PREDICTIVOS DE BIOMASA AÉREA DE Eucalyptus grandis PARA EL NORESTE DE ARGENTINA

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    Rosa Angela Winck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes intereses industriales, energéticos y ambientales han motivado el análisis de las distintas posibilidades de aprovechamiento de la biomasa forestal, este tema está adquiriendo un creciente protagonismo, por lo que la cuantificación de la biomasa aérea de estos sistemas forestales constituye un primer paso fundamental e ineludible. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar modelos que permitan estimar la biomasa de los diferentes compartimentos aéreos de Eucalyptus grandis . Para ello se emplearon datos de 41 árboles provenientes de rodales de diferentes edades, entre 4 y 32 años, ubicados en la región NE de Argentina. Se tomaron 23 individuos ubicados en la Zona Norte y Alta de Misiones (zona 1 y 18 en el Sur de Misiones y NE de Corrientes (zona 2. Se determinó la biomasa de hojas, ramas menores a 5 cm, ramas mayores a 5 cm, total de ramas, fuste y biomasa total del árbol. Para el ajuste de modelos se tomaron diversas variables independientes, el diámetro a la altura de pecho (dap, la altura total del árbol (h, el producto (dap 2 *h y la variable “ dummy” (zona. Para el caso de la biomasa de ramas y de hojas, debido a que no se lograron resultados satisfactorios con el empleo de estas variables, se examinaron modelos que adicionaban índice de sitio, factor de espaciamiento, diámetro en la base de la copa verde (dbcv, altura hasta la base de la copa verde (hbcv, longitud de copa verde (lcv, el área transversal de albura en la base de copa verde (g Alb bcv y diferentes combinaciones de estas variables. Los modelos fueron seleccionados en base al coeficiente de determinación y el error cuadrático medio. Para la biomasa de ramas menores a 5 cm, ramas mayores a 5 cm, total de ramas, fuste y total, los mejores modelos fueron los que incorporaron como variables regresoras, el diámetro a la altura de pecho, la altura total del árbol y la variable “ dummy” (zona. Para la biomasa de hojas, las variables, edad,

  17. Correlações dendroclimatológicas do Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na região de Rio Claro, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Roque Ugulino de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial forests plantation contributes decisively to generate socio-economic and environmental benefits, providing sustainability at the forest-based industries. The Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden stand out as one of the most cultivated species for reforestation in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between precipitation and wood production for 23-year old Eucalyptus grandis from a commercial plantation in Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The annual increment of wood was determined by the X-ray densitometry, which provides a detailed wood density profile in radial direction for each sample. One year of the tree life was considered because this the period for the formation of two consecutive latewood rings formation, which corresponds to two high density peaks. The results showed a positive correlation between precipitation data and annual increment of wood, revealing the dendroclimatology potential of this species in this region.

  18. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  19. Physicochemical properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil%金柚柚籽及其油脂的理化性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏梅; 谢婧

    2015-01-01

    Citrus grandis var. Jinyu see d oil was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and the physicochemi-cal properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil were analyzed. The results showed that the mass of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed accounted for 10. 3% of the total fruit mass and its crude fat content reached 34. 6%. Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil presented golden color, high transparency, good fluidity at room temperature, natural flavor and taste of shaddock. The relative density, moisture and volatile matter content, refractive index, acid value, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were 0. 963 ± 0. 025 5, (0. 071 ± 0. 009 8)%,1. 454 ± 0. 038 1, (1. 273 ± 0. 103 1) mgKOH/g, (169. 75 ± 0. 483 0)mgKOH/g, (133. 3 ± 0. 066 7)gI/100 g and (4. 25 ± 0. 711 0)mmol/kg, respectively. The GC analysis result indicated that the content of unsaturated fatty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was 67. 6%, containing linoleic acid(39. 3%), oleic acid(24. 7%) and linolenic acid(3. 6%). The saturated fat-ty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were mainly palmitic acid(27. 6%) and stearic acid(3. 9%). Therefore, Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was suitable for being developed as edible oil.%采用索氏抽提法制备金柚柚籽油,并对金柚柚籽及其油脂进行理化性质分析。结果表明:金柚柚籽质量占全果总质量10.3%,柚籽粗脂肪含量高达34.6%。柚籽油色泽金黄、室温下流动性好、透明度高、有油脂固有气味和滋味,并具有一定柚子气味;相对密度0.963±0.0255,水分及挥发物含量(0.071±0.0098)%,折光指数1.454±0.0381,酸值(KOH)(1.273±0.1031)mg/g,碘值(I)(133.3±0.0667) g/100 g,皂化值(KOH)(169.75±0.4830)mg/g,过氧化值(4.25±0.7110)mmol/kg;气相色谱法分析结果显示,柚籽油中不饱和脂肪酸含量为67.6%,主要是亚油酸(39.3%)、油酸(24.7%)、亚麻酸(3.6%);饱

  20. Urbanistica d'occasione. Grandi eventi ed esperienze di rigenerazione urbana della città post-industriale nel Regno Unito

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La ricerca affronta il rapporto tra eventi culturali e Grandi Eventi nelle dinamiche di rigenerazione urbana delle aree della città post-moderna e post-industriale. L’evento non è valutato solo in quanto catalizzatore del cambiamento, ma anche e soprattutto in quanto progetto di trasformazione integrata, che costituisca una strategia di condivisione e promozione di immaginari radicati e interconnessi, legati ai significati e alle potenzialità dei territori interessati. In particolar modo, ess...

  1. Effects of Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizers Applications on Eucalyptus grandis Growth and Soil Conditions Efeito da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano Compostado e de Adubos Minerais no Solo e na Produtividade de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Forest plantations have been studied as a potential ecosystem able to absorb organic residues as fertilizers or soil conditioners. This study evaluate the effects of the application of composted organic waste and mineral fertilizers in a Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden plantation with 86 months of age in Neossolo Quartzarênico. It was analyzed wood production, litter decomposition and the physical and chemical changes in the soil properties. It was observed that the municipal composted organic wastes resulted in an increase of 45.6% in wood volume, as compared to the control. It also increase the velocity of the litter
    decomposition on average of 28% and 16% for leaves and twigs respectively, increasing the pH level values and the availability of water in the soil (from 13% to 25% more available water in the first layer of the soil, 0 -10 cm. 
    As florestas têm sido estudadas como ecossistemas aptos à absorver resíduos orgânicos, utilizados como fertilizantes e condicionadores do solo. Este trabalho avaliou no Município de Itatinga, SP, em Neossolo Quartzarênico, os efeitos da aplicação de lixo urbano compostado e da adubação mineral em plantações de Eucalyptus grandis com 86 meses de idade. Foram analisadas as produtividades de madeira, a decomposição da serapilheira e as propriedades químicas e físicas do
    solo. Verificou-se que a aplicação de lixo urbano aumentou a produtividade de E. grandis com relação à testemunha, com um ganho de 45,6 % no volume cilíndrico de madeira. O solo com aplicação de lixo urbano apresentou um menor tempo de decomposição da serapilheira, em média com reduções de 28 % para folhas e de 16 % para galhos, com aumentos no pH e na água disponível no solo de 13 % a 25 %, na camada de 0 a 10 cm de profundidade, que podem justificar a maior
    produção de madeira obtida no final da rotação, em

  2. The cold-hardiness of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) and Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera, Rhizophagidae)%红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens(Coleoptera,Scolytidae)和大唼蜡甲 Rhizophagus grandis(Coleoptera,Rhizophagidae)的耐寒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建兴; 杨忠岐; Jean-Claude Gregoire

    2009-01-01

    Dendroctonus valens LeConte(Red turpentine beetle,RTB) was recently found in outbreak in China.Its elder instars and mature larvae mainly over-winter under the roots of the pine stumps and standing trees in China.The cold tolerant capabilities of the pest was estimated in the laboratory by SU-per-cooling points (SCP) and short-term lower lethal temperatures (LLT).The results show that the lowest mean super-cooling point of the RTB over-wintering larvae is-11.98 ± 2.55℃ and it is a species of tolerant-freezing insect.The SCP of RTB is significantly different between different geographical populations,the elder stage larvae have lower cold-hardiness than younger ones,but no significantly different between the larvae in early winter and later winter.The RTB larvae could spend its life in winter below the atmospheric temperie temperature which being lower more than-23.5℃ at least.In contrast,Rhizophagus grandis Gyll.,as a predator of Dendroctonus micans,was introduced to China against RTB since 2001.The mean SCP of Rhizophagus grandis larva is-l8.05 ±2.76℃ which being lower temperature more than ones of any stage of RTB.%红脂大小蠹 Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Red turpentine beetle,RTB)是近年来在中国爆发的入侵生物,在我国主要以老熟幼虫在油松伐桩和立木的根部越冬.室内测定昆虫的过冷却点(SCP)和短时间致死低温(LLT)是评价昆虫耐寒能力的重要方法.实验结果显示,红脂大小蠹越冬幼虫的平均过冷却点为一11.98±2.55℃,是一种耐冰冻的昆虫.红脂大小蠹的过冷却点在不同地理分布区的种群问有明显差异,老熟幼虫的过冷却点明显低于低龄幼虫,在越冬前和越冬后的幼虫问没有明显差异.红脂大小蠹幼虫在冬季至少町以忍受-23.5℃的大气温度安全越冬.从2001年开始引入我国的云杉大小蠹的捕食者大唼蜡甲(Rhizophagus grandis cyll.)幼虫的过冷却点为-18.05±2.76℃,低于红脂大小蠹所有虫态

  3. RESISTÊNCIA BIOLÓGICA DA MADEIRA TRATADA DE Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus cloeziana A FUNGOS APODRECEDORES EM ENSAIOS DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was converted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA. Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  4. Calcium and potassium silicates and the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio e o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Antonio Bognola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of silicate is a practice that has been frequently adopted in annual crops, although few studies have been conducted in order to verify its efficiency in forest tree species. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of calcium and potassium silicates in the growth of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in Alambari county, State of São Paulo. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with eight treatments, three replications and 25 plants per plot, maintained at the field capacity moisture level. Seedlings were planted in plastic tubes using local substrate, basic fertilization and silicates. Diameter, height and fresh and dry biomass of the seedlings were determined 150 days after silicates treatments were applied. The use of silicates either in the substrate or through foliar application, in the production of eucalypt seedlings has proven to be inadequate when the substrate presents a balanced basic composition in terms of nutrients and pH.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.83

    O uso de silicato é uma prática que vem sendo adotada com frequência em culturas anuais, muito embora poucos trabalhos tenham sido realizados com intuito de verificar sua eficiência em espécies florestais arbóreas. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio no crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Município de Alambari, SP. O delineamento usado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos, três repetições e 25 plantas por parcela, sendo mantidas na umidade de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram plantadas em tubetes de plástico, utilizando substrato local, com adubação básica e silicatos. Diâmetro de colo, altura e biomassa verde e seca das mudas foram determinados 150 dias após a

  5. Avaliação de um modelo de distribuição diamétrica ajustado para povoamentos de Tectona grandis submetidos a desbaste Evaluation of a diametric distribution model adjusted for thinned Tectona grandis stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilciano Saraiva Nogueira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, do ponto de vista do realismo biológico, um modelo de distribuição diamétrica, bem como a eficiência do método dos ingressos porcentuais para determinação da idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste de povoamentos de teca (Tectona grandis L. f.. A avaliação consistiu em comparar as idades técnicas de desbaste obtidas pelo método dos ingressos porcentuais, as distribuições diamétricas projetadas para idades futuras e o comportamento da distribuição remanescente, após algumas simulações de desbaste, com a tendência lógica esperada. Pôde-se concluir que o modelo de distribuição diamétrica proposto gera estimativas que seguem uma tendência lógica do ponto de vista biológico e que o método dos ingressos porcentuais é adequado para determinar a idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste.The objective of this study was to evaluate, under the biological point of view, a diametric distribution model. Another objective was to evaluate the efficiency of the percentage of entries method to determine the technical age for the first and second thinning in teak (Tectona grandis L. f. stands. This evaluation was carried out by comparing the technical thinning ages obtained by the percentage of entries method, the diametric distributions projected for future ages and the behavior of the remaining distribution, after some thinning simulations, with the expected logical tendency. It was be concluded that the proposed diametric distribution model generates estimates which follow a logical tendency, biologically speaking and that the percentage of entries method is suitable to determine the technical age of the first and second thinning.

  6. Efeito do tempo de armazenamento de minestacas no enraizamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Effect of storage time of minicuttings on the rooting of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento de miniestacas no processo de enraizamento de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6 x 4, constituído de seis tratamentos (estaqueamento após a coleta e estaqueamento após o armazenamento em câmara fria por 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 dias e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações do porcentual de enraizamento e crescimento das miniestacas enraizadas em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e a pleno sol. Concluiu-se que o plantio das miniestacas logo após a coleta no minijardim clonal foi o que proporcionou melhor resposta ao enraizamento nos quatro clones estudados, sendo observado efeito negativo do armazenamento dos propágulos, mesmo quando realizado por curto período de tempo.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the storage time of minicuttings on the rooting process of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden carried on in a hydroponic system in small gutters. The experimental design used was of random plots, in a factorial arrangement 6 x 4, constituted by six treatments (cutting after collection, cutting after storage in cold chamber per 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. Evaluations of the rooting percentage and growth of the rooted minicuttings in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun were made. It was concluded that planting the minicuttings right after the collection in the clonal miniorchard had the best rooting response for the four clones studied and also that there was a negative effect of the storage, even when stored for a short

  7. Nutrients Comparative Study in Seeds of Torreya yunnanensis and Torreya grandis%云南榧子和香榧子营养成分比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马长乐; 周稚凡; 李向楠; 付荣; 黄晓霞; 李靖

    2015-01-01

    香榧种植已经成为浙江诸暨等地山区农民的主要经济来源,而云南榧子还未得到有效的开发利用.对云南榧子和香榧子的蛋白质、粗脂肪和矿质元素含量进行了测定和比较研究,采用凯式定氮法测定了两种榧子蛋白质含量,结果显示香榧子蛋白含量较云南榧子蛋白含量高;采用索氏提取法测定了两种榧子粗脂肪含量,结果显示云南榧子的粗脂肪含量低于香榧子;采用ICP-OES法测定了两种榧子20种矿质元素含量,结果显示两种榧子均富含矿质元素K、Mg、P、Ca、Na、Fe、Mn、Cu、S、Zn、Se,均为典型的高钾低钠食品.%Torreya grandis plant had become main economic sources for mountain farmers such as zhuji in Zhejiang province, whereas seeds of Torreya yunnanensis had not been effectively used. Protein, crude fat and mineral elements content in seeds of T.yunnanensis and T. grandis were determined and compared in this study. Kjeldahl method was used to determine the protein content , and results showed that protein content in seeds of T. grandis was higher than that in T.yunnanensis. Soxhlet extraction method was used to determine the crude fat content, and results showed that crude fat content in seeds of T.yunnanensis was less than that in T. grandis. Twenty mineral elements of seeds were determined by ICP-OES. Results showed that seeds of T.yunnanensis and T. grandis were both rich in mineral elements K, Mg, P, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, S, Zn and Se. They were typical high potassium and low sodium dried fruits.

  8. Características tecnológicas da madeira de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis.

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    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  9. Evaluation of soil nutrients under Eucalyptus grandis plantation and adjacent sub-montane rain forest%巨桉(Eucalyptus grandis)植被和其相邻的山地雨林中土壤营养的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiferaw Alem; Tadesse Woldemariam; Jindrich Pavlis

    2010-01-01

    研究评价巨桉(Eucalyptus grandis)植被和其相邻的山地雨林中土壤营养状况.在研究地建立了20个样方,每个小样方为20 m×20 m.在每个小样方内对土壤进行5个样点的采样(4角和中心点).把每个小样方的不同点采集的士样进行混合,并独立放置.分析结果表明,巨桉植被和其相邻的山地雨林中土壤指标(全N、有效P、可交换性K、Ca和 Mg含量),pH值以及全碳含量)没有明显的变化.但两种林地土壤中的粘土颗粒和可交换性N含量有明显的变化.与巨 桉植被相邻的山地雨林中土壤指标比较表明,巨桉植被有提高十壤营养和全碳含量的作用.

  10. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  11. Influência do aspecto nutricional de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden na preferência alimentar da lagarta desfolhadora Eupseudosoma involuta (Lepidoptera - Arctiidae Influence of nutritional status of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden on defoliating caterpillar Eupseudosoma involuta (Lepidoptera - Arctiidae dietary preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria da Silva Carmo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se o consumo de folhas de mudas de eucalipto por insetos herbívoros pode ser influenciado pela condição nutricional a que essas plantas estão submetidas. Para tal, mudas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden foram mantidas em soluções nutritivas, constituindo tratamentos diferenciados entre si pela presença e ausência dos macronutrrientes nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, além da solução completa e da testemunha, sendo este último tratamento constituído somente por água destilada. Após as plantas estarem submetidas às diferentes condições de nutrição por 30 dias, suas folhas foram arrancadas e oferecidas como dieta a lagartas de Eupseudossoma involuta (Lepidoptera - Arctiidae. Decorridas 20 horas do início do período de alimentação, o restante da dieta de folhas foi pesado. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros altura e número de folhas das mudas de E. grandis antes e depois de submetidas aos tratamentos, bem como o peso das folhas antes e depois de serem oferecidas aos insetos. Concluiu-se que houve preferência alimentar das lagartas em função da nutrição com que as plantas de E. grandis eram mantidas.This work aimed at investigating whether the consumption of eucalyptus seedling leaves by a herbivorous insect can be affected by the nutritional condition to which these plants have been submitted. To do so, leaves of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings (9 months old kept for 30 days in several nutrient solutions, were offered to Eupseudossoma involuta (Lepidoptera - Arctiidae caterpillars. Nutrient solutions differed from each other by the presence/absence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Control treatments consisted of a complete solution (N, P, K present and a treatment consisting of distilled water. The following parameters were measured: size and number of E. grandis leaves before and after having submitted to the treatments and leaf weight before and after they

  12. Arthropods of Rose Atoll with special reference to ants and Pulvinaria Urbicola Scales (Hempitera Coccidae) on Pisonia Grandis trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Pendleton, Frank; Schmaedick, Mark; Ernsberger, Kelsie

    2014-01-01

    Rose Atoll, at the eastern end of the Samoan Archipelago, is a small but important refuge for seabirds, shorebirds, and sea turtles. While the vertebrate community is relatively well-studied, the terrestrial arthropod fauna, and its role in ecosystem function, are poorly known. Arthropods may be influencing the decline of Pisonia grandis, an ecologically important tree that once dominated the 6.6 ha of land on Rose Atoll. Reasons for the decline are not fully understood but a facultative relationship between two invasive arthropods, the soft scale Pulvinaria urbicola and ants, likely has contributed to tree death. The primary objectives of this study were to systematically survey the terrestrial arthropod fauna and identify ant species that tend scales on Pisonia. Using an array of standard arthropod collecting techniques, at least 73 species from 20 orders were identified, including nine ant species. Of the ants collected, only Tetramorium bicarinatum and T. simillimum were observed tending scales on Pisonia. No known natural enemies of Pulvinaria scales were found, suggesting little predation on scale populations. Treatment of Pisonia with the systemic insecticide imidacloprid failed to eliminate Pulvinaria scales, although short-term suppression apparently occurred. The arthropod fauna of Rose Atoll is dominated by exotic species that likely have a significant impact on the structure and function of the island’s ecosystem.

  13. ESTABELECIMENTO A CAMPO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis MICORRIZADAS COM Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 EM SOLO ARENOSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Hentz de Mello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and the initial growth of mycorrhizated eucalypts with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 ectomycorrhizal fungus, after its transplant to area subject to the arenization process in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The area was divided into four blocks, each one with four treatments (fertile turf with and without mycorrhizae, Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae. Each parcel was composed of 16 seedlings arranged in four lines in the spacing of 1,5 m x 1,5 m, totalizing in each block 64 seedlings. 90 days after the planting in the field, the eucaliptus seedlings produced in turf with fungus in the fertile substratum presented a survival rate of 100 %, whereas for those produced in fertile turf without fingi, the survival rate was 92 %. The seedlings produced in the Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae had a survival rate varying around 98 and 89 %, respectively. The produced seedlings with turf and fungus showed significant differences in height and stem diameter. This study showed that the Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in substratum fertile turf and inoculated with the Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 isolated may maintain good development and establishment in the field.

  14. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn.

  15. Molecular characterization of a distinct bipartite Begomovirus species infecting ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, K; Satya, V K; Mohankumar, S; Karthikeyan, G

    2016-02-01

    A distinct bipartite begomovirus was found to be associated with the mosaic disease on ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India. The complete DNA A and DNA B components were cloned by rolling circle amplification. Genome organization of this virus is found to be typical of Old World bipartite begomovirus. The association of betasatellite component with this virus is absent. The closest nucleotide identity of 73.4 % was seen with the Loofa yellow mosaic virus (LYMV-[VN]-AF509739) suggesting that it is a new virus species Coccinia mosaic virus (CoMoV-Ivy gourd [TN TDV Coc1]) and distantly related to the other known begomoviruses. The DNA B component shared a maximum identity of 55 % with that of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In the phylogenetic analysis, CoMoV-Ivy gourd form cluster separate from other begomoviruses. Recombination analysis showed that there was no recombination event in the genome. This is the distinct begomovirus infecting ivy gourd.

  16. Efeito dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano, associados ao regulador de crescimento AIB (ácido indolbutírico na propagação vegetativa pelo enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal realizado em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constituído de quatro concentrações para cada cofator e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações na casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e ao sol nas miniestacas enraizadas. Concluiu-se que o triptofano (0,8 mg L-1 e a hidroquinona (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicados associados ao AIB, melhoraram o enraizamento em três clones dos quatro clones avaliados; enquanto a prolina (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicada associada ao AIB, promoveu melhoria expressiva no enraizamento das miniestacas nos quatros clones estudados, evidenciando ser entre os cofatores testados o mais eficiente.

  17. Forma de tronco e sortimentos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Maiden para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 No presente trabalho foi estudada a forma de tronco do Eucalyptus grandis Maiden para a determinação de volume e formação de sortimentos de madeira em duas classes: serraria, compreendendo toras com diâmetro na ponta fina superior a 30 cm com casca e com comprimentos de 4,20 m, 3,40 m e 2,60 m, priorizando a formação de sortimentos com o maior comprimento; indústria, para troncos ou porções deste com diâmetros entre 7 e 30 cm com casca. A forma de tronco foi ajustada por um polinômio do 5 grau, tendo como variável dependente os diâmetros relativos (di /d e independente as alturas relativas (hi/h, apresentando bom ajuste e boa precisão estatística, permitindo estimar o volume absoluto e relativo dos sortimentos por integração da função de forma.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

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    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were installed at the height of 1.30 meters (DBH to monitor the diameter growth every 14 days, for 26 months. After measuring growth, the trees were felled and wood discs were removed at the DBH level to determine the radial density profile through x-ray microdensitometry and then re-scale the average values every 14 days. Climatic variables for the monitoring period were obtained and grouped every 14 days. The effect of the climate variables was determined by maximum and minimum growth periods in assessing trunk growth. These growth periods were related with precipitation, average temperature and relative air humidity. The re-scaled wood density values, calculated using the radial growth of the tree trunks measured accurately with steel dendrometers, enabled the determination of the relationship of small changes in wood density and the effect of the climatic variations and growth rate of eucalyptus tree trunks. A high sensitivity of the wood density to variation in precipitation levels was found.

  19. Cloning and characterization of gene-resistant analogs (RGAs) involved in rust (Puccinia psidii) resistance in Eucalyptus grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcelo Luiz Laia; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Sergio Hermnio Brommonschenkel; Shinitiro Oda; Eduardo Jose de Melo; Inae Marie de Arau jo Silva; Janana Fernandes Goncalves; Ariadne Marques

    2015-01-01

    Disease-resistant genes play an important role in defending against a variety of pathogens and insect pests in plants. Most of the disease-resistant genes encode pro-teins with conserved leucine rich repeat and nucleotide binding site domains. In this study, we cloned and char-acterized gene-resistant analogs (RGAs) from Eucalyptus grandis using degenerate PCR, with primers specifically targeting these two domains. The amplified fragments were cloned into the pGEM-T vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. Among the 90 clones obtained, 13 were sequenced and compared with each other and with previ-ously identified gene-resistant diseases. A BLASTX search in GenBank revealed high similarities among the con-served domains of these cloned genes with RGA genes. Some clones, however, showed no significant similarity with DNA sequences in GenBank. Southern blotting ana-lysis identified several polymorphic RFLP loci between distinct genotypes. However, none of them co-segregated with the Puccinia psidii Winter resistance gene 1 (Ppr1) in a population study.

  20. The effects of heat treatment on the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cihad Bal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment can be used to improve the physical properties and durability of wood. The results achieved by heat treatment can be affected significantly by various factors. Juvenile wood and mature wood from the same trunk have different properties, and the effects of heat treatment on their physical properties have not been well defined. Thus, a study to determine the differences in the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of E. grandis after heat treatment was conducted. Samples of both types of wood were treated at temperatures of 120, 150, and 180 oC for durations of 4, 6, and 8 h. The results showed that the physical properties of juvenile and mature wood, e.g., swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point, did not decrease to the same extent. Mass loss of mature wood was higher than that of juvenile wood. Generally, percentage decreases of volumetric swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point of juvenile wood were more affected than those of mature wood.

  1. INFLUENCE OF ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND EXTRACTIVES CONTENT WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden IN QUALITY BONDING

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    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987561The study aimed to anatomically characterize and to quantify the total extractives in different positions of the log of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with 18 years of age and to assess their influence on the shear strength and percentage of wood failure in adhesive bonded joints with thermosetting resorcinol-formaldehyde. Histological slides were prepared for an anatomical study and determined the total extractive content. The preparation of bonded joints was made according to ASTM D 2339-98(2000. It was used the correlation coefficient of Pearson, 1% probability by t test to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical and extractives content with the quality of the glued joints. It was found that there was a correlation between the shear strength with the following characteristics: vessel diameter, wall width, length and width of the fiber, the width of the radius and total extractives content. For the percentage of wood failure, there was a correlation between this with the following characteristics: the frequency of vessels, thickness of the heat of fiber, and high frequency of lightning. Both the radial direction as in the longitudinal direction of the logs there was change in the values found for the measurement of the anatomical elements, the total amount of extractives, the shear test strength and the percentage of wood failure.

  2. Genetic and morphological variation in natural teak (Tectona grandis) populations of the Western Ghats in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.M. Sreekanth; M. Balasundaran; P.A. Nazeem

    2014-01-01

    Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is a popular hardwood species native to South and South-East Asia. The possible association of ampli-fied fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker with morphological variables of eleven important characters viz. girth at breast height (GBH), height of tree, bole height, branch knots, presence of fluting, spiral stem, leaf hair, leaf length/breadth ratio, branching pattern, bark colour and petiole shape for nine natural populations comprising 180 genotypes of teak (9 populations × 20 trees). The phenogram constructed using Euclidean distances for the eleven morphological characters showed that the populations were not grouped according to their geographical origin. The Mantel’s test for pairwise correlation between Euclidean distances of different morphological variables and genetic distances from AFLP data revealed that only petiole character (r =0.269; p =0.046) and height of tree (r=0.200;p=0.001) were significantly correlated with that of AFLP data matrix. The nine populations in this study covered a geographic area of about 1000 km stretch along the Western Ghat of South India. A test of correlation between genetic and geographic distance matrices revealed a significant positive correlation (r=0.475;p=0.009). The lack of perfect congruence between morphological and molecular data except for geo-graphic distance, tree height and petiole character suggested that the morphological system might be useful for the morphotypes management but not appropriate to study the genetic structure of the teak populations.

  3. Multitissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey T; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-05-21

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish ( Fundulus grandis ) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL) and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine, and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA, also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast.

  4. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  5. Axial variations in anatomical properties and basic density of Eucalypt urograndis hybrid (Eucalyptus grandis 3 E. urophylla) clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S K Sharma; S R Shukla; S Shashikala; V Sri Poornima

    2015-01-01

    We studied two clones of Eucalypt urograndis hybrid (Eucalyptus grandis 9 E. urophylla), GR283 and GR330, grown in Tumkur district of Karnataka (India), and felled 5–6 years old three trees of each clone. We recorded axial variations in heartwood content, bark properties, wood density and anatomical characteristics of wood including fibre length, fibre diameter, fibre wall thickness, lumen diameter, vessel frequency, vessel diameter and vessel element length. Clone GR283 had about 10 % heartwood, significantly lower than for clone GR330 (37 %). Basic wood density along the tree height varied significantly within and between the clones. We observed significant variations in fibre length, fibre diameter and wall thickness within and between the two clones. Vessel frequency and vessel element length did not vary but vessel diameter differed significantly between the clones. With a greater proportion of sapwood, clone GR283 can be utilized for paper and pulp applications. Clone GR330 had a higher proportion of heartwood and lower wood density and, hence, is more suitable for light-weight material applications.

  6. Influência do vermicomposto na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large area of planted forest with species of the genus Eucalyptus and its uses for multiple purpose, its cultivation has an economic importance in Brazil. The use of substratum with good physic-chemical characteristics is an important point for the quality of the produced seedlings. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of vermicompost in containers with capacity of about 50 cm3 of substratum. The current study was conducted in a greenhouse with Eucalyptus grandis from January to April in 1997. The substratum used for seedlings production was the soil from horizon A (0-20 cm of São Pedro Unit Mapping (yellow red Podzolic with different vermicompost quantities (0; 5.0; 10.0; 15.0 and 20.0 cm3. The vermicompost was produced from red-worm from California (Eisenia foetida Savigny with cow dung. After 100 days, the results of development for the same seedlings were different depending on doses of vermicompost. It was verified that quantities over 15.0 cm3 (30% of vermicompost per container are not recommended for the seedling production.

  7. Efeito alelopático de plantas daninhas e concentrações de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens no desenvolvimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Allelopathic effect of weeds and concentrations of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar possível efeito alelopático de 18 espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis, realizaram-se dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, dentre 18 espécies de plantas daninhas testadas, Brachiaria decumbens (BRADC demonstrou acentuada capacidade de reduzir o crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis, quando incorporada ao solo. No segundo experimento avaliou-se o efeito da adição no substrato de concentrações de matéria seca de BRADC sobre o crescimento inicial de mudas de E. grandis. A matéria seca triturada de BRADC foi incorporada ao solo nas concentrações de 0% (testemunha, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% (p/p. Instalou-se também uma réplica do experimento, com adição de idênticas quantidades totais de carbono entre os tratamentos. O ajuste da quantidade de carbono foi feito através da adição de Sphagnum. Extraiu-se a solução do solo por meio de cápsulas de porcelana introduzidas nos vasos quando do transplante das mudas de eucalipto. As soluções foram coletadas ao final do experimento (39 dias após o transplante das mudas, sendo utilizadas para a determinação de pH, condutividade elétrica, potencial osmótico e para análise de teores de nutrientes. As mínimas proporções de BRADC, com efeito inibitório, foram de 0,5 e 1,0%, com e sem Sphagnum, respectivamente. Nestas duas condições, a área foliar média do eucalipto foi reduzida em 24 e 23%, respectivamente. As análises de solução do solo dos tratamentos permitiram concluir que os teores de nutrientes e as características químicas destes foram pouco alterados pelos tratamentos, sendo pouco provável que a redução do crescimento do E. grandis se deva às restrições nas quantidades de nutrientes disponíveis.Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the possible allelopathic effect of 18 weed species on the initial development of eucalyptus

  8. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felipe Farias, Davi; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F.; Carvalho, A.F.U.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolutio

  9. Attraction of dispersing boll weevils from surrounding habitats relative to simulated pheromone diffusion from traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to detect populations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), with pheromone traps has contributed significantly in progress toward eradication of the boll weevil. However, new information is needed to aid in the interpretation of trap captures, such as identification of habitats...

  10. Genetic Profiling to Determine Potential Origins of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Captured in a Texas Eradication Zone: Endemicity, Immigration, or Sabotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five specimens of adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, were captured nearly simultaneously in pheromone traps clustered near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone in late summer 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earl...

  11. Continued pheromone release by boll weevils (Coleoptera: curculionidae) following host removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  12. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  13. Multidisciplinary Fingerprints: Forensic Reconstruction of an Insect Reinvasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning late August 2007, more than 150 boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, were unexpectedly captured across an extensive area of the Southern Rolling Plains (SRP) eradication zone of West-Central Texas, which was essentially weevil-free since 2003. This outbreak was detected soon after the passag...

  14. 神经网络技术在化橘红两品种识别中的应用%Application of Neural Network in the Discrimination of Two Different Species of Exocarpium Citrus Grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏航; 林励; 黄志煜; 陈永刚; 袁旭江

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish an effective model for the discrimination of Citrus grandis ' Tomentosa' and C. grandis (L.) Osbeck, which are the medicinal plant sources of Exocarpium Citrus Grandis. Methods Twentythree batches of medicinal material samples of Exocarpium Citrus Grandis were collected from different places. Fingerprints of the samples were determined by HPLC, and several variables based on principal component analysis were selected for the establishment of BP neural network model. Results An effective BP neural network model was established. The distinguishing rate was over 91.3%, and the samples of Citrus grandis ' Tomentosa' were all correctly recognized. Conclusion Neural network technology can offer a feasible approach to the effective discrimination of Citrus grandis ' Tomentosa'.%[目的]建立有效区别毛橘红与光橘红2种药材的识别模型.[方法]收集不同产地的23批化橘红药材样品的指纹图谱,采用主成分分析法提取主成分,利用BP神经网络进行模式识别.[结果]建立了有效识别毛橘红和光橘红的神经网络模型,有效识别率超过91.3%,其中毛橘红均能被正确识别.[结论]神经网络技术可有效识别出道地药材毛橘红.

  15. Research of Exocarpium Citri Grandis Fingerprint Based on Self-organization Competitive Neural Network%基于自组织竞争型神经网络的化橘红指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈南迪; 卢丽萍; 汪金玉; 林励

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the self-organization competitive neural network method for identifying the species by the fingerprints of different kinds of Exocarpium Citri Grandis(Cirtus grandis Peel). Methods The fingerprints of different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis were established by fourier transform infrared speetroscopy and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC). And then we used the self-organization competitive neural network model to distinguish the different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis. Results The self-organization competitive neural network for distinguish Exocarpium Citri Grandis of different species was established, and the rate of accuracy for infrared and HPLC fingerprint of the powder and the extract was more than 91.67 % in average. Conclusion The self-organizing competitiveneural network can be used for distinguishing different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis by their fingerprints.%目的 建立不同品种化橘红指纹图谱的自组织竞争型人工神经网络判别方法.方法 采用傅里叶红外光谱法及HPLC法建立不同品种化橘红的指纹图谱,采用自组织竞争型人工神经网络进行模式识别.结果 自组织竞争型神经网络模型对化橘红粉末、提取物红外及HPLC指纹图谱预测平均准确率达91.67%以上.结论 自组织竞争型人工神经网络可有效用于化橘红品种的识别.

  16. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  17. Durabilidade natural de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com Eucalyptus grandis e Bambusa vulgaris em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Natural durability of Eucalyptus grandis and Bambusa vulgaris particleboards under accelerated fungi decay test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento acerca da resistência dos compostos ligno-celulósicos ao ataque de microrganismos é primordial para servir de base à prevenção da deterioração e a correta destinação de emprego do material. Nesse sentido, avaliou-se a resistência natural a fungos apodrecedores de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com partículas de madeira (Eucalyptus grandis e/ou bambu (Bambusa vulgaris. Foram produzidas, em laboratório, chapas aglomeradas nas dimensões 50x50x0,95cm e massa específica pré-estabelecida em 0,70g cm-3, nas proporções de 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100 de madeira e bambu, respectivamente. A massa de partículas representou 91% da massa seca de cada painel, sendo, o restante, formado pelo adesivo ureia-formaldeído (8% e parafina (1%. Para determinação da resistência natural ao ataque de fungos xilófagos, os painéis foram testados em laboratório e utilizados os fungos Gloeophyllum trabeum (podridão parda e Trametes versicolor (podridão branca, de acordo com a ASTM D 2017 (2005. Quanto aos resultados, foi observado que os painéis confeccionados com mistura de partículas de madeira e bambu apresentaram menor resistência ao ataque dos fungos apodrecedores. Painéis que utilizaram apenas bambu ou madeira apresentaram resistência biológica semelhante. Dentre os fungos, T. versicolor atacou mais severamente os painéis.The knowledge about lignocellulosic compounds strength to the attack of microorganisms is essential for preventing deterioration and also for knowing the correct usage of the material. Accordingly it was evaluated the natural resistance of wood panels made of particles of wood (Eucalyptus grandis and/or bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris to decay fungi. Particleboards were produced in laboratory, each of them with dimensions 50x50x0.95cm and density pre-set at 0.70g cm-3, in proportions of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 of wood and bamboo, respectively. The particles mass represented 91% of the

  18. Períodos de interferência de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis Hort. no crescimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden Periods of Commelina benghalensis interference in the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, em razão do uso contínuo de mesmos herbicidas e outros métodos de controle, vem se constituindo numa das plantas mais freqüentes em eucaliptais do Estado de São Paulo. Por isso, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos de períodos de controle e convivência dessa planta daninha sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, transplantadas no inverno e no verão. Uma única muda de eucalipto foi transplantada em caixa de cimento-amianto e submetida a períodos crescentes de convivência e de controle da trapoeraba (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias no sujo e no limpo, respectivamente, sendo a densidade de plantas de trapoeraba de 4 plantas.m-2 (nas condições de inverno e verão. Conduziu-se o ensaio por um período de 100 dias após o transplante (DAT, e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 10 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Pelos resultados da altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, biomassa seca e área foliar, verificou-se que o período anterior à interferência (PAI, o total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foram de 20, 60 e 20 a 60 DAT, respectivamente, no inverno. Em condições de verão, o PTPI foi menor que o PAI (10 e 40 DAT, respectivamente. Assim, não foi possível estabelecer o PCPI nessas condições.Commelina benghalensis is becomming the predominant weed invading eucalypts plantations in the State of São Paulo due to the continual use of herbicides and other control methods applied. Considering this, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of presence and control periods of Commelina benghalensis on Eucalyptus grandis initial growth, grew in winter and summer. A single eucalypt seedling was planted in a cement box and submitted to increasing periods of presence and control of Commelina benghalensis (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 days in competition or not

  19. Estudo do tamanho de parcelas experimentais em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill , usando parcelas lineares Determination of the size of experimental plots in eucalyptus grandis hill populations using linear plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Augusto Muniz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas experimentais para Eucalyptus grandis Hill, estimou-se o coeficiente de regressão de Smith, através do método de Hatheway e Williams, para parcelas lineares, a partir de um ensaio em branco com seis anos de idade, instalado no município de Paraibuna, São Paulo. O método considerou as correlações entre as estimativas das variâncias usadas para estimação do coeficiente de heterogeneidade do solo, ponderando os logaritmos das estimativas das variâncias pelos elementos da matriz de informação. As estimativas das variâncias reduzidas à unidade básica foram obtidas através dos componentes de variância associados à análise de variância de um modelo aleatório em classificação hierárquica. O tamanho ótimo da parcela foi determinado considerando-se o número de repetições (r necessário para se obter uma diferença de médias (d, fixada "a priori", a um nível de 80% pelo teste t com 5% de probabilidade, para 10 e 20 tratamentos, utilizando-se um delineamento em blocos casualizados. A estimativa do coeficiente de heterogeneidade do solo foi de 0,949, indicando que as parcelas adjacentes não se mostraram correlacionadas. Os resultados mostraram que, com os valores de d e r fixos, o tamanho da parcela aumenta com o aumento do coeficiente de variação (CV. Para CV e d fixos, o tamanho da parcela reduz com o aumento do número de repetições. Com CV e r fixos, o tamanho da parcela reduz com o aumento das diferenças reais entre médias de tratamentos.The regression coefficient proposed by Smith was estimated in accordance with Hatheway & Williams' method for linear plots to determine the optimal size of experimental plots for Eucalyptus grandis Hill, in a six-year-old uniformity trial located in Paraibuna, São Paulo. To estimate the soil heterogeneity coefficient, the method takes into account the correlation among the variance estimates, weighing the logarithms of the

  20. Caracterização e comparação entre diferentes granulometrias de serragem de Eucalyptus grandis para confecção de briquetes. Characterization and comparison between different sizes of Eucalyptus grandis sawdust for briquettes confection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Farrapo GONÇALVES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A grande geração de resíduos lignocelulósicos, a partir de processos industriais e da agricultura, torna o uso da biomassa uma fonte de energia térmica viável; sua compactação aumenta sua densidade, seu poder calorífico e sua resistência. O objetivo da pesquisa consistiu na comparação entre briquetes produzidos a partir de diferentes granulometrias de serragens de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = serragem que passou pela peneira de 10 mesh e ficou retida na de 20 mesh (10 a 20; T2 = 20 a 60; T3 = 60 a 100 ; T4 = 10 a 100. As características da matéria-prima mostraram-se viáveis para a produção de briquetes, com teor de umidade de 12%, 88,65% de voláteis, 0,44% de cinzas, 10,80% de carbono fixo e poder calorífico de 4.229 kcal.kg-1. As comparações realizadas entre os tratamentos foram feitas a partir da expansão (diametral e longitudinal e de ensaios de compressão diametral para força máxima e tensão de força máxima dos briquetes. O tratamento T4 foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados nesses testes (1,04%; 15,06%; 90,22 kgf; 0,6714 MPa, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente, a nível de 5% dos outros tratamentos. A produção em larga escala do tratamento T4 viabiliza a produção dos briquetes, pois não é necessário o processo de separação granulométrica.The great generation of lignocellulose wastes from industrial processes and agriculture makes the use of biomass a source of viable thermal energy; its compaction increases its density, its calorific value and its strength. The objective of the research consisted in comparing briquettes produced from different particle sizes of sawdust of Eucalyptus grandis. The treatments were: T1 = sawdust that passed through 10 mesh sieve and was retained on the 20 mesh (10 to 20; T2 = 20 to 60; T3 = 60 to 100; T4 = 10 to 100. The characteristics of the raw material proved feasibility to produce briquettes, with moisture content of 12%, 88.65% of

  1. Consequências da deriva de clomazone e sulfentrazone em clones de E. grandis x E. urophylla Consequences of clomazone and sulfentrazone drift on clones of E. grandis x E. urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Norio Takahashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos de deriva simulada dos herbicidas clomazone e sulfentrazone em dois clones comerciais de E. grandis x E. urophylla, da Votorantim Celulose e Papel (VCP1 e VCP2. Na simulação, as doses do herbicida clomazone variaram de 0 a 2.000 mL ha-1 e no sulfentrazone, de 0 a 1.500 mL ha-1. As mudas dos dois clones, previamente selecionadas, foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade para 5,0 L. O solo utilizado foi o Neossolo Quartzarênico, sendo a aplicação dos herbicidas realizada 80 dias após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado em cada herbicida foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 8, com três repetições. O efeito do clomazone resultou em folhas novas rosadas, amareladas e, em alguns casos, esbranquiçadas, como um todo ou em parte dela, enquanto as nervuras se mantiveram verdes. Observou-se, também, que as folhas velhas se tornaram mais verdes e grossas. Ocorreu redução nas características de crescimento, variando de 13 a 57%, e as doses consideradas críticas do herbicida clomazone foram de 800 e 1.200 ml ha-1 nos clones VCP1 e VCP2, respectivamente. Com o sulfentrazone, os sintomas da deriva foram necroses generalizadas nas folhas novas e velhas; ao redor da necrose, formaram-se região arroxeada e deformação intensa nas folhas novas e regular nas folhas velhas, bem como houve perda de dominância apical. As características de crescimento indicaram redução de 9 a 66%. A dose crítica desse herbicida foi de 75 ml ha-1 no clone VCP1 e 1.200 ml ha-1 no VCP2. Conclui-se que uma possível deriva dos herbicidas estudados e utilizados em cana-de-açúcar poderá causar prejuízos ao crescimento dos clones avaliados.This research aimed to develop accurate information about the effects of two simulated herbicide drift (clomazone and sulfentrazone on the growth of Votorantim Celulose e Papel Eucalyptus grandis x E. urohylla comercial

  2. Caracterização bromatológica de oito linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Shiitake cultivadas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis Bromatological characterization of Lentinula edodes strains (Shiitake grown on Eucalyptus grandis logs

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    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Lentinula edodes é um alimento de qualidade elevada, sendo rico em proteínas, vitaminas e sais minerais e pobre em calorias e gorduras. No entanto, seu valor nutricional varia em função da linhagem cultivada, do processamento após a colheita, do estágio de desenvolvimento do basidioma e do substrato utilizado. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar bromatologicamente os basidiomas de oito linhagens de L. edodes (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13, inteiros ou em partes (estípete e píleo, produzidos em toras de E. grandis. Verificou-se que tanto as linhagens de L. edodes como as partes dos basidiomas analisados influenciaram nas respostas nutricionais das amostras. O estípete apresentou as maiores médias de fibra bruta e as menores médias de proteína bruta. O píleo, por sua vez, apresentou as maiores médias de cinzas. Nas avaliações de basidiomas inteiros, as maiores médias, quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, foram obtidas nas linhagens LE-95/07, LE-96/17 e LE-96/18. Já a maior média de fibra bruta foi obtida pela linhagem LE-96/13 de L. edodes. O conteúdo de lipídios do píleo e do estípete não variaram entre as linhagens de L. edodes.Lentinula edodes is high quality food which is rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals and poor in calories and fat. However, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain grown, processing after harvest, development stage of basidiomata, and substrate used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to carry out the bromatological characterization of basidiomatas from eight (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13 L. edodes strains, whole or in parts (stalk and pileus, produced in E. grandis logs. We verified that both the L. edodes strains and parts of basidiomatas analyzed influenced nutritional responses of the samples. The stalk presented the highest raw fiber averages and the

  3. Sistema de equações para simulação do crescimento e da produção em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. sem desbaste baseado no modelo de clutter / An equation system to simulate the growth and the yield in stands of unthinned Euclyptus grandis Hill Ex Maiden based on the clutter model

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    César Santana

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste estudo foi desenvolver um sistema de equações baseado no modelo compatível de crescimento e produção de Clutter para projeção do volume futuro em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. conduzidos sob regime ‘pulpwood’. Para tal fim foram utilizados dados provenientes de cento e quarenta e quatro parcelas permanentes do inventário florestal contínuo da empresa, considerando os anos de 1996 a 2002. As parcelas foram locadas em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. plantados entre 1991 e 1994, com espaçamento inicial de 3 x 2 m, localizados na região conhecida como “norte-pioneiro” do estado do Paraná. O modelo de Clutter foi utilizado para simular o crescimento e a produção prognosticando o volume total e o volume comercial. Como resultado, foi construída uma tabela de produção de área basal, volume total e volume comercial, ao longo dos anos para as diferentes classes de sítio. Pelas análises realizadas pode-se concluir que o sistema baseado no modelo de Clutter foi eficiente para estimar a produção futura de povoamentos não desbastados de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. na região nordeste do Paraná.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Eucalyptus grandis: an intriguing over-representation of stress-responsive DREB1/CBF genes.

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    P B Cao

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses.The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses.The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive.These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia.

  5. The occurrence, prevention and cure of Exocarpium Citri Grandis plant diseases and insect pests%化橘红病虫害的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡岳文; 严振; 丘金裕

    2004-01-01

    化橘红为芸香科植物化州柚(Citrus grandis(L)Osbeck var.tomentosa Hort)以未成熟果实的外果皮入药。近几年来,随着基地化、规模化大面积种植,其病虫害的发生及危害程度亦与日俱增,一些重要害虫已严重影响化橘红的生产和产品质量。

  6. Primer registro para el Perú de Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839 Travassos, 1934 (Trematoda, Diplodiscidae en Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae

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    Patricia Salízar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo registra por primera vez para el Perú a Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839 Travassos, 1934, en la tortuga de río Podocnemis unifilis «taricaya». Los hospederos fueron colectados en las localidades del Río Putumayo, Samiria, Iquitos (Loreto y Manu (Madre de Dios. El material identificado pertenece a la Colección Helmintológica del Departamento de Protozoología, Helmintología e Invertebrados Afines del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

  7. 榧树种质资源调查与评价%Investigation and evaluation of Torreya grandis germplasm resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓建; 黎章矩; 戴文圣; 喻卫武; 曾燕如

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl are a peculiar nut fruit in China. In order to effectively protect, develop and utilize the germplasm resources of this species, a systematic investigation of its germplasm resources in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian provinces was conducted through field investigation, specimen collection, indoor seed examination and ingredient analysis. The results showed that the resources of T. grandis was unevenly distributed and only conserved well in a few regions. The single seed weight, single kernel weight, kernel rate, kernel shape index and nutrient content varied greatly among individual trees, but some superior individual trees in integrated traits and quality had discovered, which could be grouped into seven major varieties and types. Those individual trees with seeds of integrated good traits, good quality, special traits or potential utilization value should be collected and preserved, especially focusing on those of high and stable yield and special high traits. The old trees or their population should be protected.%榧树(Torreyagrandis Fort.ex Lindl)种子是我国特有的著名干果,为了对榧树种质资源进行有效保护和开发利用,采用实地调查、采集标本、室内烤种、成分分析等方法,对浙江、安徽、江西、福建等榧树分布区的种质资源进行了系统研究.结果表明.榧树资源分布不均,仅少数地方资源保存较好;榧树种内性状变异复杂,不同单株间种子的单粒质量、种核单粒质量、出核率、核形指数及营养成分等变异大,存在一些综合性状优良、品质达到或超过香榧的优株:将香榧和榧树中的优良株系、类型分归于7个主要品种和类型.在榧树中应主要收集一些种子具有综合优良性状、特殊性状和有潜在利用价值的单株;香榧则重点在于收集种子高产、稳产、优质和具特殊性状的优株,对古树及古树群也应加以保护.

  8. Construction of allometric relationships to predict growth parameters, stem biomass and carbon of Eucalyptus grandis growing in Sri Lanka

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    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts. Tree diameter and total were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values.   Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots.   According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. The carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass.   Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  9. Construction of Allometric Relationships to Predict Growth Parameters, Stem Biomass and Carbon of Eucalyptus grandis Growing in Sri Lanka

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    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available             Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts in Sri Lanka. Tree diameter and total height were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values. Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots. According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. Carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass. Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  10. White grubs, Holotrichia rustica and Holotrichia mucida (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) as pests of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin Kulkarni; Sanjay Paunikar; Kailash Chandra Josh; John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    Field observations were carried out between 2002 and 2005 on bio-ecology of white grubs infesting teak (Tectona grandis Linn, f.) seedlings at Ramdongari Forest Nursery, Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra, Nagpur in central India. The study collected the data required for an integrated pest management strategy against the white grubs. The species damaging teak seedlings were Holotrichia rustica (Burmeister) and H. mucida Gyllenhal. The beetles (adults) of both these species began to emerge just after the pre-monsoon showers and when the relative humidity had risen rapidly over several days, but before the first monsoon rains. While the adults fed and mated on naturally growing bushes of Ziziphus jujuba, Z. mauritiana, Z. xylopyra, Acacia leucophloea and A. catechu immediately after the emergence from the teak beds in the nursery, the immature stages (grubs) of both species fed on roots of the teak seedling, leading to plant death. This is the first report of (i) damage caused to teak seedlings by grubs of H. rustica and H. mucida, and (ii) of Z jujuba and Z mauritiana being hosts for the beetles of H. mucida and H. rustica. It is also the first detailed report on the field bio-ecology of the H. rustica and H. mucida as major pests of teak. White grubs are among the toughest-to-manage pests of economic importance and information presented here on the pest incidence and damage of H. rustica and H. mucida is important to researchers and nursery field managers for the management of these pests on teak.

  11. Response of soil mite abundance and diversity to a monospecific timber Tectona grandis plantation in Ivory Coast

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    Julien Kouadio N’DRI, Henri Marc ANDRE, Jan LAGERLÖF, Jérôme Ebagnérin TONDOH,Thierry HANCE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the impact of monospecific Tectona grandis forest plantation on the soil mite abundance and diversity. To achieve these objectives, two sites situated in Ivory Coast were investigated. The first, a primary forest was characterized by a very weak human activities whereas the second, a teak plantation was characterized by a high disturbance performed during the planting. After extracting, sorted and description, 116 mite species were described in the two sites. Mite densities were lower in teak plantation and also higher in the litter and decreased to the depth in both sites. Species richness recorded in teak plantation (52 species was significantly lower compared to primary forest (98 species. The same trend was observed for Oribatida but not for Gamasida. The lower Oribatida (5 vs. 17 and higher Oribatida (24 vs. 41 were recorded respectively in teak plantation and primary forest. Mite Shannon index and evenness were significantly different between sites. High Jaccard index values and the appearance of exclusive species in both habitats showed that the sites are very distinct. Total number of species recorded corresponded to 58%–63% of the total number of species estimated by ACE and Chao 1&2 estimators, indicating that the sampling effort was not sufficient. Mite abundance and diversity varied depending on the characteristics of habitats. Chemical element (Corg, Ctot, Ntot, and SOM values were lower in teak plantation (disturbed habitat and significantly different to primary forest in the topsoil. Apart from litter height, soil depth, pH and C/N ratio, others variables were strongly correlated to mite abundance and diversity [Current Zoology 59 (5: 633–643, 2013].

  12. Photosynthetic pigments and stomatal conductance in ecotypes of copoazu (Theobroma grandi orum Willd. Ex. Spreng K. Schum..

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    Juan Carlos Suárez-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic pigment content and daily stomatal conductance was evaluated in relation to environmental variables in Copoazú (Theobroma grandi orum ecotypes. The ecotypes used were part of the germoplasm bank of the University of the Amazon (Colombia. The study was carried out during the year 2015. Four leaves of the average stratum of four plants were collected for each ecotype, to extract and read at different levels of absorbance and determine the content of photosynthetic pigments. During the hours of 04:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., the stomatal conductance (gs was monitored for environmental variables (relative humidity, air temperature, radiation and vapor pressure de cit (VPD. An analysis of variance was made using the Tukey test, correlations and regressions were made between gs and environmental variables. The contents of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids among ecotypes were different (P<0.0001, the ecotype UA-31 presented the highest values, contrasting with the ecotype UA-37. Concerning gs, the interaction ecotype*hour showed signi cant differences (P<0.0001 .The ecotypes that presented the highest values of gs were UA-67 and UA-039, (P<0.0001, radiation (-0.91, P<0.0001 and DPV (-0.94; P<0.0001 0.0001.The results suggest that ecotypes UA-039 and UA-31 were the most suitable in terms of gaseous exchange and content of photosynthetic pigments.

  13. Chromosomal localization of 45S rDNA, sex-specific C values, and heterochromatin distribution in Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Biplab Kumar; Yamamoto, Masashi; Jha, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    Coccinia grandis is a widely distributed dioecious cucurbit in India, with heteromorphic sex chromosomes and X-Y sex determination mode. The present study aids in the cytogenetic characterization of four native populations of this plant employing distribution patterns of 45S rDNA on chromosomes and guanine-cytosine (GC)-rich heterochromatin in the genome coupled with flow cytometric determination of genome sizes. Existence of four nucleolar chromosomes could be confirmed by the presence of four telomeric 45S rDNA signals in both male and female plants. All four 45S rDNA sites are rich in heterochromatin evident from the co-localization of telomeric chromomycin A (CMA)(+ve) signals. The size of 45S rDNA signal was found to differ between the homologues of one nucleolar chromosome pair. The distribution of heterochromatin is found to differ among the male and female populations. The average GC-rich heterochromatin content of male and female populations is 23.27 and 29.86 %, respectively. Moreover, the male plants have a genome size of 0.92 pg/2C while the female plants have a size of 0.73 pg/2C, reflecting a huge genomic divergence between the genders. The great variation in genome size is owing to the presence of Y chromosome in the male populations, playing a multifaceted role in sexual divergence in C. grandis.

  14. Construction of a full-length cDNA library of Solen grandis dunker and identification of defense- and immune-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohua; Liu, Xiangquan; Ren, Lihua; Yang, Jianmin; Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong

    2013-11-01

    The basic genetic characteristics, important functional genes, and entire transcriptome of Solen grandis Dunker were investigated by constructing a full-length cDNA library with the `switching mechanism at the 5'-end of the RNA transcript' (SMART) technique. Total RNA was isolated from the immune-relevant tissues, gills and hemocytes, using the Trizol reagent, and cDNA fragments were digested with Sfi I before being ligated to the pBluescript II SK* vector. The cDNA library had a titer of 1048 cfu μL-1 and a storage capacity of 1.05×106 cfu. Approximately 98% of the clones in the library were recombinants, and the fragment lengths of insert cDNA ranged from 0.8 kb to 3.0 kb. A total of 2038 expressed sequence tags were successfully sequenced and clustered into 965 unigenes. BLASTN analysis showed that 240 sequences were highly similar to the known genes (E-value 80%), accounting for 25% of the total unigenes. According to the Gene Ontology, these unigenes were related to several biological processes, including cell structure, signal transport, protein synthesis, transcription, energy metabolism, and immunity. Fifteen of the identified sequences were related to defense and immunity. The full-length cDNA sequence of HSC70 was obtained. The cDNA library of S. grandis provided a useful resource for future researches of functional genomics related to stress tolerance, immunity, and other physiological activities.

  15. Genome-wide patterns of recombination, linkage disequilibrium and nucleotide diversity from pooled resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping unlock the evolutionary history of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2015-11-01

    We used high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and whole-genome pooled resequencing to examine the landscape of population recombination (ρ) and nucleotide diversity (ϴw ), assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ) and build the highest density linkage maps for Eucalyptus. At the genome-wide level, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed within c. 4-6 kb, slower than previously reported from candidate gene studies, but showing considerable variation from absence to complete LD up to 50 kb. A sharp decrease in the estimate of ρ was seen when going from short to genome-wide inter-SNP distances, highlighting the dependence of this parameter on the scale of observation adopted. Recombination was correlated with nucleotide diversity, gene density and distance from the centromere, with hotspots of recombination enriched for genes involved in chemical reactions and pathways of the normal metabolic processes. The high nucleotide diversity (ϴw = 0.022) of E. grandis revealed that mutation is more important than recombination in shaping its genomic diversity (ρ/ϴw = 0.645). Chromosome-wide ancestral recombination graphs allowed us to date the split of E. grandis (1.7-4.8 million yr ago) and identify a scenario for the recent demographic history of the species. Our results have considerable practical importance to Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), while indicating bright prospects for genomic prediction of complex phenotypes in eucalypt breeding.

  16. Avaliação do método centróide para estudo de adaptabilidade ao ambiente de clones de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Rodrigo Barros Rocha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The intense genotype x environment interaction present in many cultures make studies of adaptability to specific environments an important part of vegetal improvement programs. The different response of genotypes to favorable and unfavorable environments can be studied using methodologies based on three main strategies: analysis of variance, linear regression and non-parametric statistics. This work presents a new methodology for the study of genotype environment interaction, using principal components analysis, in order to facilitate the recommendation of specific genotypes to certain environments. This methodology, called centroid method, consists in the comparison of cartesian distance values between the genotypes and four ideal references using principal components. It differs from methods based in analysis of variance due to the aiming of genotypes according to environment variation and the facility of genotype identification, dispensing the analysis of several parameters as in methods based on regression. In order to exemplify the use of this method an experiment of Eucalyptus grandis planted in random blocks design and four environments was studied. Four clones of general adaptability were identified besides others of specific adaptation that can also be recommended aiming to capitalize the interaction effect. The results of this study were compared with the ones obtained through other methodologies by Eberhart e Russel (1966 and by Lin and Binns (1988 and allows to conclude that the centroid method was efficient in the identification of differentiated performance E. grandis clones; associated to the easiness of recommendation and ordering of the genotypes into specific adaptability groups.

  17. Decoupling of above and belowground C and N pools within predominant plant species Stipa grandis along a precipitation gradient in Chinese steppe zone

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    X. H. Ye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of the carbon and nutrient cycles drives the food web structure and biogeochemistry of ecosystems. However, across precipitation gradients, there may be a shift in C and N pools from above- to belowground because of shifting plant stoichiometry and allocation. Here, we present a study which is the first to explicitly compare above- and belowground pool sizes of N and C within predominant plant species along precipitation gradient. We dissected these pools into biomass allocation and nutrient concentrations. Based on previous evidence, biomass allocation to roots should increase with aridity, while leaf [N] should increase. If their effect sizes are equal, they should cancel each other out, and the above- and belowground proportions of the N would remain constant. Along a precipitation gradient in Chinese steppe zone, the effect sizes of the biomass shifts were remarkably consistent among the predominant species, Stipa grandis. The effect sizes of biomass allocation and [N] were equal and the proportion of N of above- and belowground did not change with aridity, but the shift in leaf [C] with aridity was much weaker than the biomass shift, leading to a decrease in the proportion of C belowground at dry sites. Precipitation gradients do decouple the C and N pool of S. grandis along a precipitation gradient in Chinese steppe zone.

  18. Study on essence oils from citrus grandis peel and orange peel extracted by microwave method%微波辐射法提取柚皮、橙皮的挥发油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纯馨; 陈忻; 袁毅桦; 梁少华

    2003-01-01

    The essence oil of citrus grandis peel and orange peel was extracted by the microwave method in this article.The results show that the best condition of extracting is when 100 g peel is extracted at 360 W with n-hexane for 50 s,the obtained rate of pomelo oil is 1.73% and orange oil is 0.65%.

  19. Mudanças da fertilidade do solo e crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido Changes in soil fertility and growth of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Rocha

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Antes da recomendação em larga escala de biossólido em plantações florestais, é preciso compreender seus efeitos no solo e na planta. Assim, a fertilidade do solo, o estado nutricional e o crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido foram avaliados em um experimento na Estação Experimental de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (SP, ESALQ/USP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove tratamentos: (1 Testemunha; (2 Adubação mineral; (3 5 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (4 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (5 10 t ha-1 de bios.; (6 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K + P; (7 15 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (8 20 t ha-1 de bios. + K, e (9 40 t ha-1 de bios. + K. Foram analisadas quimicamente amostras de solo (camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm e de folhas. A produção de madeira foi avaliada por meio da colheita e pesagem de árvores. Até 32 meses após a aplicação do biossólido, 36 meses pós-plantio, constataram-se aumentos do pH, dos teores de C orgânico, de P-resina e de Ca trocável nas três camadas, diretamente associados às doses de biossólido aplicadas. Os teores de S-SO4(2- e K trocável diminuíram 13 meses após a aplicação do biossólido e, 19 meses depois, os teores estavam aumentados. O Al trocável diminuiu com o aumento das doses de biossólido, nas três camadas amostradas. A aplicação de biossólido influiu positivamente na nutrição das plantas, proporcionando uma produção de madeira igual à obtida no tratamento que só recebeu adubação mineral (1,5 t ha-1 de calcário dolomítico e, em kg ha-1, 98 de N, 79,5 de P2O5, 165 de K2O, 1,3 de B e 1,2 de Zn, quando a dose de biossólido foi equivalente a 12 t ha-1.Before recommending biosolids at large scale for forest plantations it is necessary to have an ample understanding of its effects on soil and plant. Thus, it was evaluated the soil fertility, nutritional status and growth of a Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized

  20. Comparação do fator de empilhamento sob diferentes condições para madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / A comparison of wood piling factor under different conditions for Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson dos Santos Lisboa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente trabalho tem por objetivo comparar os fatores de empilhamento obtidos em três métodos distintos de empilhamento: 1 empilhamento em cima do caminhão; 2 empilhamento mecânico no pátio da fábrica e 3 empilhamento manual no pátio da fábrica. Os dados empregados são originários de um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis, visando à produção de celulose e pertencente ao GRUPO LWART, situado no município de Lençóis Paulista, SP, cortado aos sete anos de idade através do sistema semi-mecanizado. Foram analisados dados provenientes de vinte pilhas de madeira, formadas por toras de 2,80 m de comprimento e diâmetro mínimo de 6,0 cm. O fator de empilhamento de cada pilha (FE foi obtido pela relação entre o volume da pilha em metros estéreos (st e o correspondente volume sólido em metros cúbicos (m³. O volume sólido (m³ foi obtido pelo método de Smalian. Para calcular o volume estéreo (st para três diferentes métodos de empilhamento foi utilizada uma régua graduada para medir a altura, a largura e o comprimento da pilha. Os três métodos de empilhamento foram comparados estatisticamente a partir de uma análise de variância, considerando um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde os métodos foram considerados tratamentos e as pilhas repetições. Na ocorrência de diferenças significativas entre tratamentos, o teste Tukey foi utilizado para comparar suas médias, considerando um nível de 5% de significância. A análise estatística indicou diferenças significativas entre o método de empilhamento manual ou tratamento 3, dos demais métodos, ou seja, método do empilhamento em cima do caminhão e método de empilhamento mecânico. Conclui-se então, que é errôneo aplicar um fator de empilhamento médio, se houver diferentes formas de empilhar a madeira.AbstractThe research objective has been to compare the wood piling factors obtained from three distinct methods: 1 piling up on the truck; 2 mechanical

  1. The Analysis of MADS box Genes Expressing in the Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.%柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬虎; 潘一山; 王少峰; 邹金美; 陈羡德; 林莹; 王玉玲; 蓝炎阳

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerning the MADS box gene family from the fruitlet (less than 5 days) and the yang leaf of two kinds of pomelo breeding (Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.) using the De novo transcriptomics method. The fruitlet and the yang leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (which was taken as mutant group)and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (which was taken as reference group)were taken as experiment materials, by RNA extraction, reverse transcription, sequencing and assembly Unigene sequences. The MADS box transcription factor family gene annotation results were retrieved from the Nr, Swiss Prot, KEGG and COG the four databases. Adopting digital gene expression label (DGE) technology, the gene transcription abundance in the sample was taken as RPKM value, that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparing the different of the RPKM value between the mutant group and reference group, with the duplication≥2. There were 28 MADS box genes were annotated from the fruitlet and the yang leaf of the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo. There were 25 MADS box genes expressed in the fruitlet from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (FE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (FL), and sixs of them were DEGs. Meanwhile, There were 27 MADS box genes expressed in the leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (LE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (LL), and sevens of them were DEGs. The 28 MADS box gene family was reported eighteens of them in Citrus clementina and twenties of them in Citrus sinensis, respectively, and fives of them have reported neither in Citrus clementina nor in Citrus sinensis, and have not found in the Citrus's other breeding.%以De novo转录组学方法分析柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因家族的基因.以特早熟龙柚(变异型)和琯溪蜜柚(参照型)嫩果(不超过5天)和新叶为材料,经过RNA提取、反转录、测序、组装得到Unigene序列. Unigene序列在 Nr、Swiss-Prot、KEGG 和 COG 四

  2. The effect of quality attributes in determination of price for plantation-grown Teak (Tectona grandis logs in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K.P.C. Jayawardhane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the highly demanded timber species in Sri Lanka. When buying teak logs, customers assess their quality by visual appraisal of surface characteristics such as visible defects. Hence, the buyers’ preference for logs with desired attributes is reflected by the price achieved in the market. In this study, we examined the influence of visually observable quality attributes of plantation grown teak logs on their market price. A set of 650 randomly selected teak logs were assessed for dimensions, shape defects, surface defects and end-defects. Length of the log, mid-circumference (under bark, diameter at top-end and butt-end, number of knots per meter, average diameter of the knots, bend fraction, percentage of heartwood, shape of the log, presence of buttress, position of the hollows, presence of felling damages, splits and heart rot were recorded using standard methods. Selling prices of logs were obtained from the records of log storing facilities. By using the multiple linear regressions, a price-quality model was developed to explain the impact of quality attributes on sellingprice. The regression model achieved a strong coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.87. Accordingly, the length, mid-circumference, number of knots per meter, bend fraction, hollow position, presence of buttresses and presence of heart rot were found to have a significant influence on the price. The relative price reduction due to presence of a specific log defect was further examined using the derived price-quality model. The presence of high number of knots had the highest detrimental impact on price, followed by the higher bend fraction, presence of hollows at top end and/or middle of the log, presence of heart rot and presence of buttresses respectively. These findings have implications in the improved management of teak plantations.

  3. Propriedades físicas e mecânicas de painéis LVL de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Hernando Alfonso Lara Palma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar as propriedades físicas e mecânicas de painéis LVL (Laminated veneer lumber confeccionados com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis, provenientes de reflorestamentos da região de Sengés, Paraná - Brasil. Foram confeccionados painéis LVL de 23 lâminas, de dimensões comerciais de 2500 mm de comprimento, 1200 mm de largura e espessura nominal de 50 mm (lâminas de 2,4 mm. Em vigas retiradas dos painéis LVL foram analisadas as propriedades de flexão estática (rigidez e resistência, nas condições de menor inércia (flatwise e de maior inércia (edgewise, compressão paralela, cisalhamento paralelo nos planos L-X e L-Y e densidade, atendendo às prescrições das normas ASTM-D 5456/4761 e ASTM-D 198/143. Os valores médios obtidos para o módulo de elasticidade e resistência à flexão estática foram, respectivamente, 13114 MPa e 88,76 MPa para o ensaio na condição de menor inércia e de, respectivamente, 15871 MPa e 88,63 MPa para o ensaio na condição de maior inércia. A densidade aparente (a 12% de umidade dos painéis LVL e das lâminas foram, respectivamente, 690 kg/ m3 e 649 kg/m3. Os valores médios obtidos nos ensaios de compressão paralela foram 16856 MPa para o módulo de elasticidade e 58,05 MPa para a resistência. Os valores médios da resistência no ensaio de cisalhamento paralelo no plano L-Y e no plano L-X foram 5,96 MPa e 5,91 MPa, respectivamente. Todos esses valores atingiram parcialmente ou ultrapassaram os limites médios de referência estabelecidos para painéis LVL e para a madeira sólida originária, atestando, sobretudo, a qualidade dos painéis produzidos com essa madeira.

  4. 柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬虎[1; 潘一山[1; 王少峰[2; 邹金美[1; 陈羡德[1; 林莹[1; 王玉玲[1; 蓝炎阳[2

    2015-01-01

    以De novo转录组学方法分析柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因家族的基因.以特早熟龙柚(变异型)和琯溪蜜柚(参照型)嫩果(不超过5天)和新叶为材料,经过RNA提取、反转录、测序、组装得到Unigene序列.Unigene序列在Nr、Swiss-Prot、KEGG和COG四大数据库中进行比对,获得MADS box转录因子家族基因注释结果.采用数字基因表达标签(digital gene expression tag,DGE)技术,对样本中基因转录丰度以RPKM值表示,比较处理组和对照组的RPKM值,以倍性变化≥2确定差异表达基因(differentially expressed genes,DEGs).从特早熟龙柚和琯溪蜜柚嫩果和叶片中,总共注释到28个MADS box基因家族基因.在龙柚嫩果(FE)和蜜柚嫩果(FL)中表达的有25个,其中有6个属于差异表达基因.在龙柚叶片(LE)和蜜柚叶片(LL)中表达的有27个,其中有7个属于差异表达基因.注释到的28个MADS box基因家族基因在克莱门特柚(Citrus clementina)和中国甜橙(Citrus sinensis)报道过的分别有18个和20个,其中有5个基因既在中国甜橙和克莱门特柚都没有报道过,也没有发现在其它Citrus物种报道过.

  5. Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii

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    Serpa Pedro Nicolau

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos.

  6. Níveis de sombreamento na produção e desenvolvimento de mudas Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden Shading levels on production and development of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden seedlings Los niveles de sombra en la producción de plántulas y el desarrollo de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Fereira Santos; Leandro Morais; Augustinho Borsoi; Deonir Secco; Gláucia Cristina Moreira

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de los niveles de sombra en las plántulas de Eucalyptus grandis. Las plántulas fueron sometidas a los siguientes tratamientos: 0%, 18%, 30%, 50% y 70% de atenuación de la radiación solar a través de telas de color negro. El experimento se llevó a cabo en los meses de otoño de 2009 en la en lo vivero municipal de la ciudad de Catanduvas- PR durante un período de 90 días. El diseño experimental f...

  7. Tree-ring variation in teak (Tectona grandis L.) from Allapalli, Maharashtra in relation to moisture and Palmer Drought Severity Index, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somaru Ram; H P Borgaonkar; A A Munot; A B Sikder

    2011-08-01

    We developed a ring-width chronology of teak (Tectona grandis L.) from a moisture stressed area in Maharashtra, India. Bootstrapped correlation analysis indicated that moisture index (MI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) showed better performance rather than same year rainfall over the region. Tree-ring variations were most correlated positively with PDSI during different seasons compared with MI. Significant strong positive correlation with MI, and negative association with temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET) were found during previous and current year post-monsoon (ON). This study shows that the moisture availability during the post-monsoon of the previous year has a significant role in the development of annual growth rings. The reconstructed previous year post-monsoon (−ON) moisture index for the period 1866–1996 indicates 3.5 and 29.3 years periodicities.

  8. Tree-ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) in central India and its relationship with rainfall and moisture index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somaru Ram; H P Borgaonkar; A B Sikder

    2008-10-01

    Tree-ring-width index chronologies of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.)from three sites in central India have been studied for their dendroclimatic potential.The existence of good correlation among the three site chronologies indicates the influence of common forcing factor to the tree growth of the region.Tree growth and climate relationship based on correlation analysis revealed the important contribution of moisture index and rainfall rather than the direct in fluence of the temperature on tree growth during different seasons.Significant positive relationship of moisture index and rainfall during the monsoon months as well as on the annual scale with tree-ring width variations over the region indicates the important role of moisture availability at the root zone.The results suggest that the teak tree-ring chronologies can be used as high resolution proxy for past precipitation and moisture level in the environment.

  9. Himenópteros parasitóides coletados em povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis e mata nativa em Ipaba, estado de Minas Gerais

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    Onice Dall\\u0092Oglio Teresinha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition and frequency of hymenopteran parasitoids were studied in an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex. Maiden plantation and in a native vegetation area with 11 Malaise traps in a transect native vegetation-eucalyptus plantation from March 1997 to March 1998. A total of 2,099 individuals of nine superfamilies and 26 families of this group was collected. The family with the highest number of individuals was Ichneumonidae followed by Braconidae, Scelionidae and Eulophidae with 577, 452, 374 and 185 individuals. Higher number of parasitoids was collected in the vicinity and borders of the native vegetation what demonstrates that fragments of native vegetation intermingled with eucalyptus plantations can be recommended as a strategy for pest management in these plantations.

  10. Report on the Temporary Rearing Technique of Solen grandis Dunker%大竹蛏亲体暂养技术简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯和要; 彭作波; 林玉川; 王君霞

    2004-01-01

    通过对大竹蛏(Solen grandis Dunker)亲蛏(体长9~12 cm,体重45.76±6.78 g)从采捕运输到人工暂养培育的一系列试验工作,结果表明:亲蛏的挑选以体长9~13 cm、活泼健康、肥满度好的3龄个体为最佳.经7天试验,采用细沙作为底质进行亲蛏暂养的效果良好,成活率达98.5%,个体排卵量约300万粒;不铺任何底质暂养的亲蛏,成活率仅16.4%,不能正常排放精卵.

  11. ESTUDIO DE LA VEGETACION NATIVA EN PLANTACIONES DE EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS (MYRTACEAE EN EL NORTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE CORRIENTES, REPUBLICA ARGENTINA

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    Wilfredo H. Barrett

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Especies de plantas vasculares del sotobosque de Eucalyptus grandis fueron estudiados en los departamentos del nordeste de la provincia argentina de Corrientes. Estas plantaciones fueron situadas las colinas de tierra roja, en los bancos de arena del río y en las dunas de arena fósiles del río Paraná. El inventario incluye 243 taxones nativos que corresponden a 66 familias, 86% pertenecen a la Dicotiledóneas de los cuales la mayoría de ellos (70% son las especies leñosas. Las familias mejor representadas son: Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae y Compositae. El tamaño, el número de especies y los individuos dentro de las especies disminuye de Norte a sudoeste asociado a factores limitantes del suelo y bajas precipitaciones. La mayoría de las dicotiledóneas tienen mecanismos de dispersión relacionados con los animales (49%, principalmente aves, seguido por el viento (25%. Un número importante de especies (64% pertenecen al bosque nativo subtropical húmedo. Many overstory species of this forest compete succesfully with the eucalipts, tales como: Cabralea canjerana, Patagonula americana, Holocalyx balansae, Tabebuia heptaphylla, todas de  importancia comercio regional de madera. También un gran número de especies que viven espontáneamente en condiciones húmedas, se encuentran aparentemente bien adaptados al nuevo entorno. Dado que la mayoría de las especies del sotobosque de plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis vino desde el bosque húmedo nativo, es posible concluir que estas plantaciones crean las condiciones ambientales que favorecen la migración del bosque húmedo en las sabanas y los pastizales de la zona.

  12. EMERGÊNCIA E DESENVOLVIMENTO INICIAL DE PLÂNTULAS DE Cassia grandis L. f. EM FUNÇÃO DE DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS

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    Caio César Pereira Leal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is aimed to use substrates composed primarily of organic waste in order to reduce costs with chemical fertilizer. In that sense, the experiment was to evaluate different types of substrates for the emergence and early development of seedlings of Cassia grandis L. f. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Departament of Vegetable Sciences of Federal Rural do Semi- Árido (UFERSA, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The substrates used were: sand + carbonized rice husk (in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1, plant sand + wood dust (in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1, plant sand + coconut fiber (in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1, plant sand + chestnut bark (in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 and plant sand (control. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with 13 treatments (combinations of substrates, with four replications of 25 seeds and the means to test for Skot-knot (pr <0.05. We evaluated the following variables: plant emergence, emergence speed, plant height, root length and weight of the aerial part of the plant, root dry mass and total dry mass. According to the results, the substrate plant sand + sawdust (1:1 and plant sand + coconut fiber (1:3 showed higher values, providing better results in emergence, weight of the aerial part of the plant, length of the aerial part of the plant, root dry mass and root length. It was found that the substrate compounds sand plant and chestnut bark (1:3 is harmful to the emergence of seedling of Cassia grandis .

  13. Subcellular partitioning of cadmium in the freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, after separate short-term exposures to waterborne or diet-borne metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie; Hare, Landis [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The dynamics of cadmium uptake and subcellular partitioning were studied in laboratory experiments conducted on Pyganodon grandis, a freshwater unionid bivalve that shows promise as a biomonitor for metal pollution. Bivalves were collected from an uncontaminated lake, allowed to acclimate to laboratory conditions ({>=}25 days), and then either exposed to a low, environmentally relevant, concentration of dissolved Cd (5 nM; 6, 12 and 24 h), or fed Cd-contaminated algae ({approx}70 nmol Cd g{sup -1} dry weight; 4 x 4 h). In this latter case, the bivalves were allowed to depurate for up to 8 days after the end of the feeding phase. As anticipated, the gills were the main target organ during the aqueous Cd exposure whereas the intestine was the initial site of Cd accumulation during the dietary exposure; during the subsequent depuration period, the dietary Cd accumulated in both the digestive gland and in the gills. For the gills, the distribution of Cd among the subcellular fractions (i.e., granules > heat-denatured proteins (HDP) {approx} heat-stable proteins (HSP) > mitochondria {approx} lysosomes + microsomes) was insensitive to the exposure route; both waterborne and diet-borne Cd ended up largely bound to the granule fraction. The subcellular distribution of Cd in the digestive gland differed markedly from that in the gills (HDP > HSP {approx} granules {approx} mitochondria > lysosomes + microsomes), but as in the case of the gills, this distribution was relatively insensitive to the exposure route. For both the gills and the digestive gland, the subcellular distributions of Cd differed from those observed in native bivalves that are chronically exposed to Cd in the field - in the short-term experimental exposures of P. grandis, metal detoxification was less effective than in chronically exposed native bivalves.

  14. The Composition Analysis of Essential Oil from Leaves of Eucalyptus grandis%巨桉叶精油的化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉红; 周贤闯; 周小柳; 黄琼

    2011-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法从100 g巨按叶中提取得到1.26 mL精油,利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用方法分析鉴定了巨按叶精油的主要化学成分.从巨桉叶精油中鉴定出44种化合物,占总流出峰面积的71.087%,巨桉叶精油的主要成分为对伞花烃(26.794%)、α-蒎烯(15.864%)、1,8-按叶油素(6.281%)、α-松油醇(4.100%)、柠檬烯(3.614%)和龙脑(2.519%).%The essential oil of the air-dry leaves from Eucalyptus grandis was obtained by steam distillation and the yield was 1.26 mL oil per 100 g material. The volatile components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS)method. 44 compounds in essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis were identified, amounting to 71.087% of the total area of the peaks. The principal constituents were p-cymene (26.794%), α-pinene (15.864%), 1,8-cineole (6.281%), α-terpineol (4.100%), limonene (3.614%) and borneol(2.519%).

  15. Transcriptomic profiling of differential responses to drought in two freshwater mussel species, the giant floater Pyganodon grandis and the pondhorn Uniomerus tetralasmus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Luo

    Full Text Available The southeastern US has experienced recurrent drought during recent decades. Increasing demand for water, as precipitation decreases, exacerbates stress on the aquatic biota of the Southeast: a global hotspot for freshwater mussel, crayfish, and fish diversity. Freshwater unionid mussels are ideal candidates to study linkages between ecophysiological and behavioral responses to drought. Previous work on co-occurring mussel species suggests a coupling of physiology and behavior along a gradient ranging from intolerant species such as Pyganodon grandis (giant floater that track receding waters and rarely burrow in the substrates to tolerant species such as Uniomerus tetralasmus (pondhorn that rarely track receding waters, but readily burrow into the drying sediments. We utilized a next-generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq approach to examine heat/desiccation-induced transcriptomic profiles of these two species in order to identify linkages between patterns of gene expression, physiology and behavior. Sequencing produced over 425 million 100 bp reads. Using the de novo assembly package Trinity, we assembled the short reads into 321,250 contigs from giant floater (average length 835 bp and 385,735 contigs from pondhorn (average length 929 bp. BLAST-based annotation and gene expression analysis revealed 2,832 differentially expressed genes in giant floater and 2,758 differentially expressed genes in pondhorn. Trancriptomic responses included changes in molecular chaperones, oxidative stress profiles, cell cycling, energy metabolism, immunity, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Comparative analyses between species indicated significantly higher induction of molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal elements in the intolerant P. grandis as well as important differences in genes regulating apoptosis and immunity.

  16. Transcriptomic profiling of differential responses to drought in two freshwater mussel species, the giant floater Pyganodon grandis and the pondhorn Uniomerus tetralasmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yupeng; Li, Chao; Landis, Andrew Gascho; Wang, Guiling; Stoeckel, James; Peatman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The southeastern US has experienced recurrent drought during recent decades. Increasing demand for water, as precipitation decreases, exacerbates stress on the aquatic biota of the Southeast: a global hotspot for freshwater mussel, crayfish, and fish diversity. Freshwater unionid mussels are ideal candidates to study linkages between ecophysiological and behavioral responses to drought. Previous work on co-occurring mussel species suggests a coupling of physiology and behavior along a gradient ranging from intolerant species such as Pyganodon grandis (giant floater) that track receding waters and rarely burrow in the substrates to tolerant species such as Uniomerus tetralasmus (pondhorn) that rarely track receding waters, but readily burrow into the drying sediments. We utilized a next-generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq approach to examine heat/desiccation-induced transcriptomic profiles of these two species in order to identify linkages between patterns of gene expression, physiology and behavior. Sequencing produced over 425 million 100 bp reads. Using the de novo assembly package Trinity, we assembled the short reads into 321,250 contigs from giant floater (average length 835 bp) and 385,735 contigs from pondhorn (average length 929 bp). BLAST-based annotation and gene expression analysis revealed 2,832 differentially expressed genes in giant floater and 2,758 differentially expressed genes in pondhorn. Trancriptomic responses included changes in molecular chaperones, oxidative stress profiles, cell cycling, energy metabolism, immunity, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Comparative analyses between species indicated significantly higher induction of molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal elements in the intolerant P. grandis as well as important differences in genes regulating apoptosis and immunity.

  17. Collection and Storage of Tectona grandis Pollen%柚木花粉收集与贮藏研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂华; 梁坤南; 林明平; 周再知; 马华明

    2012-01-01

    Anthesis pheology, pollen collection, viability determination and storage of Tectona grandis L. f. were introduced and studied,the results showed that pollen can be collected by water culture method and bagged method, the time for pollen collection of Indian provenances and Burma provenances were 9 to 11 o-clock and 11 to 13 o-clock,respectively. The pollen viability rose first and then decreased after anthesis,it have highest viability after anthesis 1. 5 h and no longer viable after 4. 5 h. The pollen viability decreased fast after collected and put in room temperature for wind to dry, it no longer viable after collected 2 h. The viability of pollen stored in 5 ℃ and - 15 ℃ rose first and then decreased, both of the pollen lost viability at 330 day. Both pollen germination rate and pollen tube length of pollen stored in 5 X decreased fast than that of - 15 ℃, pollen storage effect of - 15 ℃ was better than 5 ℃. Pollen stored in - 15 ℃. for 240 day can be used for controlled pollination among different teak provenances or different species of Tectona.%介绍了柚木开花生物学特性,开展了柚木花粉收集、活力测定、贮藏方法及其效果的研究.结果表明:柚木花粉收集可采用水培法和套袋法;不同种源收集花粉时间不同,印度种源和缅甸种源分别为09:~11:00时和11:00~13:00时;花开放后,花粉活力是先升后降,1.5h后花粉活力最强,4.5h后花粉即失去萌发力;随着贮藏时间的延长,5℃和-15℃干燥贮藏花粉的活力逐渐下降,贮藏到330 d,5℃和- 15℃的花粉都失去萌发力;在整个过程中,5℃的花粉萌发率和花粉管长度都比-15℃下降速度快;-15℃柚木花粉的贮藏效果优于5℃;-15℃干燥贮藏240d的柚木花粉,可满足当年柚木花期不同的种源间或柚木属不同种间人工杂交授粉.

  18. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae Application of an alternative technique for physical soil management in cultivation of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

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    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of growth of Eucalyptus grandis non-regularization when subjected to the ground. Relying on "Optical Chaos Theory" and starting from the assumption that the reforested

  19. Níveis de sombreamento na produção e desenvolvimento de mudas Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden Shading levels on production and development of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden seedlings Los niveles de sombra en la producción de plántulas y el desarrollo de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Fereira Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de los niveles de sombra en las plántulas de Eucalyptus grandis. Las plántulas fueron sometidas a los siguientes tratamientos: 0%, 18%, 30%, 50% y 70% de atenuación de la radiación solar a través de telas de color negro. El experimento se llevó a cabo en los meses de otoño de 2009 en la en lo vivero municipal de la ciudad de Catanduvas- PR durante un período de 90 días. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. La repicage de las plántulas de la semilleira para los tubetes ocurrió treinta días después de la siembra. A los 90 días se evaluó: altura de la parte aérea de las plantas, el número de hojas por planta, el diámetro del cuello, longitud de la raíz, peso fresco y seco de la hoja y cuello de la raíz. Para todas las variables dendrométricas evaluadas el efecto de los tratamientos fue significativo. Para la altura de la parte aérea, los tratamientos de 30 y 50% de sombra fueron superiores a los demás. Ya para el diámetro del cuello y el número de hojas, el tratamiento con pleno sol presento los valores más altos (0,20 y 15,2 g de hojas, respectivamente. Para la variable masa fresca y seca de hojas, cuello y de la raíz el tratamiento con 30% de sombra fue estadísticamente superior a los demás. La atenuación del 30% de la radiación solar ha proporcionado características dendométricas superiores de las plántulas a las variables analizadas para E. grandis.

    The goal of the work was to assess the influence of shading levels on seedling production of Eucalyptus grandis. The seedlings have been subjected to treatments: 0%; 18%; 30%; 50% and 70% attenuation of solar radiation through screens of polyolefins black coloring. The experiment was performed in autumn 2009 in the city hotbed of Catanduvas – PR, during a period of 90 days. The experiment

  20. Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

  1. 尾巨桉液流特征分析%Analysis on sap flow characteristics of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翠鸣; 黄玉清; 顾大形; 赵平; 张德楠; 姚月锋

    2016-01-01

    Large number of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis plantations have been planted in the southern area of Chi-na, especially in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in the recent years. The influence of water use efficiency in sus-tainable forest development and water resources management has been receiving increasing attention. Therefore, under- standing the water use characteristics is important. The Granier thermal dissipation probe method ( TDP ) is commonly used to monitor tree trunk flow. The sap flow density ( SFD) was monitored in four years E. urophylla × E. grandis plan-tation for one and a half years by Granier TDP at Guangxi Huangmian forest. The change in regularity of SFD, the SFD in trees of different diameters at breast height and the relationship between the SFD and the environmental factors were studied. The results showed that average daily SFD was 830. 1 L . m-2 . d-1 , and the maximum value did not exceed 2 000 L.m-2 .d-1 , when compared with similar studies, these results were relatively low. Because tree trunk was the main part of the plant for water transport, it was necessary to analyze the tree trunk sap flow density( SFD) change at about different diameters at breast height of E. urophylla × E. grandis. There was a positive correlation between SFD and diameter. The SFD was similar when the DBH (diameter at breast height) were in the same diameter class. The SFD varied from tree to tree with different values of maximum and minimum SFD ( 1 300 L . m-2 . d-1 at most ) . This was mainly caused by the different water absorbing capacities of trees. Many studies showed that photosynthetic active radia-tion and vapor pressure deficit( VPD) were the main factors of tree canopy transpiration. The SFD and VPD, photosyn-thetic active radiation ( PAR) displayed similar trend over the study period and exhibited a unimodal curve. The value of SFD was higher in summer and fall, and lower in spring and winter. The relation between SFD and PAR showed signifi

  2. Somatic embryogenesis of Torreya grandis 'Merrillii'%香榧体细胞胚发生的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚进; 黄坚钦; 胡恒康; 裘林艳; 朱旻华; 张启香

    2013-01-01

    以香榧Torreya grandis‘Merrillii’胚为外植体,研究了基本培养基、复合添加物、碳源以及植物生长调节物质对愈合组织形成的影响,筛选出胚性愈合组织诱导和增殖的适宜条件,并初步进行了体细胞胚的诱导与萌发试验.结果表明:Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH)是最佳基本培养基,碳源以蔗糖最好,在SH中添加谷氨酰胺,愈合组织诱导率显著高于其他处理,达50.8%;低浓度的萘乙酸(NAA)或2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-D)能够促进愈合组织的诱导,NAA的促进作用比2,4-D明显,当NAA的质量浓度为0.1 mg·L-1时,愈合诱导率显著高于其他处理,达60.1%;SH+0.1 mg.L-1 NAA+30 g·L-1蔗糖是愈合组织形成的最佳条件,SH+0.05 mg.L-1 NAA+30 g·L-1蔗糖为胚性愈合组织形成和增殖的最适宜培养基;胚性愈合组织在添加有脱落酸(ABA)和聚乙二醇(PEG) 6000的SH培养基上,可形成体胚,以1/2SH作为萌发培养基,体胚在1 200 lx光照下的萌发效果比黑暗条件下好.%To establish somatic embryogenesis protocols for Torreya grandis 'Merrillii', immature embryos were used as explants. The effects of different basal mediums (SH, MS, B5), organic additives (glutamine (Glu), casein hydrolysate (CH), myo-inositol), carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, maltose), and plant growth regulators (PGRs) (N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) , Kinetin (KT) , 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) orBA, KT, a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for the initiation of primary callus were tested. Optimal PGRs for induction and proliferation of embryogenic tissue were determined, and a study on somatic embryo induction (SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0.25 mg·L-1 2,4-D, SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 2,4-D and SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 NAA respectively) and germination (SH supplemented with ABA or PEG) was carried out. Results showed that callus initiation frequency for SH supplemented with Glu was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than

  3. Residue trend of imidacloprid in fruits of Citrus grandis%吡虫啉在化橘红果中的残留动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海莉; 程惠珍; 李少南; 陈君; 陈荣敏; 覃蓉敏; 徐常青; 于晶; 徐荣; 李向明

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究低毒内吸性杀虫剂吡虫啉在化橘红果实中的残留动态.方法:在化橘红采果前期,树干基部注射吡虫啉可溶性溶液,施药后定期采集化橘红果实,采用高效液相色谱法测定果实中吡虫啉的残留量.结果:以每厘米树干胸径注入0.8mL吡虫啉药剂后,化橘红果实中的农药残留量始终保持在很低的水平;以每厘米树干胸径注入1.5 mL吡虫啉药剂后,前7 d果实中的农药残留量一直在很低的水平,7 d后迅速上升,14 d时达到高峰,之后逐渐下降,30 d降至0.835 mg·kg-1,低于国内和国际上吡虫啉在柑橘类成果中最大残留限量(MRLs≤1 mg·kg-1).以施用1.5 mL·cm-1吡虫啉药剂对化橘红蛀茎害虫的防治效果最佳.结论:在化橘红果实采收期前30 d,以每厘米树干胸径注入1.5 mL吡虫啉药液,能有效地防治化橘红蛀茎害虫,且果实中的农药残留量始终在安全范围内.%Objective : To study on residue trend of imidacloprid in fruits of Citrus grandis. Methods : It was examined by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) after trunk injection. Results : The residue of imidacloprid remained a low period in fruits of C. grandis after injection with 0. 8 mL · cm-1 diluted of imidacloprid. When the trunk was injected with 1. 5 mL · cm -1 diluted of imidacloprid, the residue level of imidacloprid in fruits increased on the 7th day immediately. And the peak level was detected on the 14th day after the treatment. The level of imidacloprid in fruits was 0. 835 mg · kg-1 in the 30th day, which was lower than MRLs ( 1 mg · kg-1). Conclusions:When imidacloprid through trunk injection was applied to control bore pests of C. grandis,which was diluted with 1. 5 mL · cm -1 ,the safe interval period was more than 30 d.

  4. Grandi e piccoli eventi nelle città di mare per mutamenti urbani sostenibili: i casi studio di Lorient e Valencia

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    Massimo Clemente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In generale, i grandi eventi sono considerati dalle città come la possibilità di realizzare nuove architetture e infrastrutture, per migliorare gli spazi pubblici e dare risonanza internazionale alla città stessa. In molte città contemporanee, la ristrutturazione economica e la riqualificazione urbana posto gli eventi al centro delle strategie di cambiamento.Spesso, tuttavia, questi interventi richiedono un tempo molto breve e investimenti elevati, che non sempre hanno un effetto duraturo nel tempo, con edifici e spazi che, dopo l'evento, si trasformano in spazi pubblici inutilizzati o edifici che devono essere riqualificati.Le città costiere rappresentano un campo privilegiato di analisi per approfondire le dinamiche dei processi di sviluppo e di rigenerazione connessi ad eventi.Alcune città hanno potenziato la propria identità marittima sviluppando attività legate alla vela, eventi sportivi velici e la nautica da diporto, promuovendo la crescita sociale ed economica, nonché la riqualificazione delle aree dismesse. Il recupero di questa identità è il punto di partenza per migliorare la qualità urbana e attrarre grandi eventi, sviluppando la competitività in un circolo virtuoso.L'immagine di queste città è migliorata, a livello locale, nazionale e internazionale, promuovendo processi di riqualificazione che hanno coinvolto i responsabili politici, gli utenti della città e gli stakeolders.Nei casi di successo, i grandi e i piccoli eventi rappresentano tessere di un mosaico più ampio, una visione della città fondata sulla identità marittima e il progetto di riqualificazione del waterfront è stato in grado di rafforzare le relazioni con le aree urbane esistenti.Il saggio propone due casi di studio europei, le città di Lorient e Valencia, mettendo in evidenza il ruolo della pianificazione a lungo termine nei processi di rigenerazione.La città di Lorient, in linea con la sua storia, ha iniziato un processo di rigenerazione

  5. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of the Extracts and Chemical Constituents of an Endemic Turkish Plant, Salsola grandis

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    Nurgün Küçükboyacı

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salsola is one of the largest and most important genera in the family Chenopodiaceae. Salsola species are used for their anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anthelmintic and antipruritic effects and also as diuretic in traditional medicines worldwide. The aim of the present study is to assess the activity potential of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds from the aerial parts of and Salsola grandis, an endemic species in Turkey in a scientific platform. The effects of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds were investigated using in vivo experimental models of inflammation and pain in mice, and also total phenolic content of the plant was determined. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced paw edema and for the assessment of antinociceptive activity, p-benzoquinone-induced nociception tests in mice were employed. The crude ethanol extract of the plant was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts, namely n-hexane, CHCl 3, EtOAc, n-BuOH and remaining water subextracts. Further studies were carried out on the bioactive n -BuOH subextract. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures from active fraction , ten flavonoids, i sorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside(1, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2,quercetin-3-O-metylether (3,tiliroside (4, isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide (5, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6,quercetin-3-O-galactoside (7, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (8,quercetin (9 and manghaslin (10, and two oleanane-type saponins, momordin II b (11 andmomordin II c (12, and one amino acid derivative compound, N-acetyltryptophan (13 were isolated, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of 1 , 4, 6, 7 and 12 were investigated firstly in this study, and 4 and 7 were found to have the most potent inhibitory activity in used models. The present study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive

  6. Influência da idade e da posição ao longo do tronco na composição química da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden Influence of age and position along the trunk on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood

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    José de Castro Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou a variação da composição química na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos, proveniente de talhões comerciais. As amostras foram coletadas de tr��s discos, retirados da base e das extremidades das duas primeiras toras, de 3 m cada uma, de 16 árvores (quatro para cada idade, totalizando 48 discos. Os valores médios dos teores de holocelulose, lignina e extrativos foram de 69, 27 e 4%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os teores de extrativos e lignina aumentaram com a idade, com maiores concentrações nos discos próximos da base; verificou-se, também, que o teor de holocelulose diminuiu com a idade, com maiores concentrações nos discos retirados nas regiões superiores do tronco.The objective of this work was to study the chemical composition variation of the Eucalyptus grandis wood, of four different ages (10,14,20 and 25 years, from commercial stands. The samples were removed from three disks taken from the base and top of the first two 3 m logs, from sixteen trees (four per age, totalizing fourty-eight discs. The mean values of holocellulose, lignin and extractive contents were 69, 27 and 4%, respectively. The extractive and lignin contents increased with age, with greater concentrations near the base; the holocellulose content also decreased with age with greater concentrations in discs removed from the upper parts of the trunk.

  7. Influência de idade e da posição radial nas dimensões das fibras e dos vasos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden Influence of age and radial position on fiber and vessel dimensions of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood

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    José de Castro Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a variação das dimensões das fibras e dos vasos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis com quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos, proveniente de talhões comerciais. A amostragem do material na árvore foi feita através da coleta de três discos, retirados da base e das extremidades das duas primeiras toras, ambas com o comprimento comercial de 3 m. De cada disco, retiraram-se cinco amostras, de dimensões 1,0 x 1,0 x 1,0 cm, tomadas de pontos eqüidistantes, correspondentes a 0; 25; 50; 75; e 100% da seção, no sentido radial medula-casca, fazendo-se a medição das fibras e dos vasos. Verificou-se, em todos os parâmetros, o efeito da idade e da variação radial, no sentido medula-casca, à exceção da largura e do diâmetro do lume das fibras; todos os demais parâmetros apresentaram correlação positiva.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of wood quantitative anatomical characteristics (fibers and vessels of Eucalyptus grandis of four different ages (10, 14, 20 and 25 years, obtained from commercial stands. Tree material sampling was collected from three disks in the bottom and top of the first two logs, both three m long. Five samples were collected from each disc at the pith-to-bark direction at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the radii. In all cases, age and pith-to-bark direction were observed to have a marked influence on all the assays, except for fiber lumen diameter and width; all the other parameters showed a positive correlation.

  8. The tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) subfamily of Eucalyptus grandis: Characterization of EgTIP2, a root-specific and osmotic stress-responsive gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcela I; Bravo, Juliana P; Sassaki, Flávio T; Severino, Fábio E; Maia, Ivan G

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins have important roles in various physiological processes in plants, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, a gene encoding a root-specific tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) from Eucalyptus grandis (named EgTIP2) was investigated. The root-specific expression of EgTIP2 was validated over a panel of five eucalyptus organ/tissues. In eucalyptus roots, EgTIP2 expression was significantly induced by osmotic stress imposed by PEG treatment. Histochemical analysis of transgenic tobacco lines (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) harboring an EgTIP2 promoter:GUS reporter cassette revealed major GUS staining in the vasculature and in root tips. Consistent with its osmotic-stress inducible expression in eucalyptus, EgTIP2 promoter activity was up-regulated by mannitol treatment, but was down-regulated by abscisic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that EgTIP2 might be involved in eucalyptus response to drought. Additional searches in the eucalyptus genome revealed the presence of four additional putative TIP coding genes, which could be individually assigned to the classical TIP1-5 groups.

  9. Morphological parameters and genetic diversity of progenies from seed production areas and unimproved stands of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Lyngdoh; Geeta Joshi; G. Ravikanth; R. Vasudeva; R. Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    We compared morphological and genetic attributes of prog-eny obtained from three seed production areas (SPAs) and three corre-sponding unimproved stands (UIS) of teak (Tectona grandis L.f) at three broad teak growing regions in the state of Karnataka, India. In general, seed morphological parameters such as seed weight, seed size and seed emptiness were significantly superior in SPAs compared to UISs. Seed germination percentage was also higher in seeds from SPAs. Seedling performance measured at two monthly intervals for six months was ob-served to be superior in SPAs at two of the three regions compared. Although the genetic diversity of progeny of SPAs was lower than UIS at all regions, the values were moderately high. Germination percent was positively correlated with fruit weight and kernel weight per seed, while diversity indices were negatively correlated with fruit weight, fruit di-ameter and kernel weight per seed. SPAs proved important as a source of moderately improved planting material with no severe threat to the ge-netic diversity of future plantations.

  10. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla NA QUALIDADE DA POLPA BRANQUEADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  11. Stomatal Conductance and Chlorophyll Characteristics and Their Relationship with Yield of Some Cocoa Clones Under Tectona grandis, Leucaena sp., and Cassia surattensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An optimum physiological condition will support high yield and quality of cocoa production. The research was aimed to study the effects of stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content related to cocoa production under three shade regimes.This research was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station, elevation of 45 m above sea level with D climate type based on Schmidt & Fergusson. Cocoa trees which were planted in 1994 at a spacing of 3 X 3 m were used in the study planted by using split plot design. The shade tree species were teak (Tectona grandis, krete (Cassiasurattensis, and lamtoro (Leucaena sp. as the main plots, and cocoa clones of Sulawesi 01,Sulawesi 02, KKM 22 and KW 165 as sub plots. This study showed that there was interaction between cocoa clone and shade species for stomatal conductance where stomatal diffusive resistance of KKM 22 was the best under Leucaena sp.and Cassiasurattensis with the values of 1.38 and 1.34 s.cm -1, respectively. The highest chlorophyll content, stomatal index and transpiration values was under Leucaena sp. shade. There was positive correlation between chlorophyll content and transpiration with pod yield of cocoa. The highest yield and the lowest bean count wereobtainedon Sulawesi 01 clone under Leucaenasp. shade.Keywords: stomatal conductance, transpiration, diffusive resistance, shades trees, clones,pod yield

  12. Effect of thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of wood from Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Moura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment (thermal rectification is a process in which technological properties of wood are modified using thermal energy, the result of which is often value-added wood. Thermally treated wood takes on similar color shades to tropical woods and offers considerable resistance to destructive microorganisms and climate action, in addition to having high dimensional stability and low hygroscopicity. Wood samples of Eucalyptus grandis were subjected to various thermal treatments, as performed in presence (140ºC; 160ºC; 180ºC or in absence of oxygen (160ºC; 180ºC; 200ºC inside a thermal treatment chamber, and then studied as to their chemical characteristics. Increasing the maximum treatment temperatures led to a reduction in the holocellulose content of samples as a result of the degradation and volatilization of hemicelluloses, also leading to an increase in the relative lignin content. Except for glucose, all monosaccharide levels were found to decrease in samples after the thermal treatment at a maximum temperature of 200ºC. The thermal treatment above 160ºC led to increased levels of total extractives in the wood samples, probably ascribed to the emergence of low molecular weight substances as a result of thermal degradation. Overall, it was not possible to clearly determine the effect of presence or absence of oxygen in the air during thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of the relevant wood samples.

  13. Efeito da vaporização de toras na redução dos defeitos associados a tensões de crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate log steaming effect on the reduction of defects associated with residual growth stress of Eucalyptus grandis wood. There were used logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm, from the Horto Florestal, Manduri, São Paulo. Half of the logs was steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity. Subsequently, the logs were live sawn and the defects resulting from the growth stresses in logs of various diameter were measured. The results indicate that log steaming provided the release of a great part of the growth stresses, without eliminating them completely, showing, nevertheless, that this treatment is feasible and advisable for growth stress relief; the boards coming from heated logs of 20 to <25 cm presented, in general, larger defect reduction, showing that the smaller the log diameter the higher the efficiency of steam treatment at 90ºC of temperature during 20 hours.

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. during the pre-symbiotic phase of the ectomycorrhizal association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Coelho, Irene; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Costa, Maurício Dutra; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    The pre-symbiotic phase that precedes physical contact between symbionts is a crucial phase in determining their compatibility, allowing the formation of the ectomycorrhiza. A subtractive cDNA library representing the differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. in the pre-symbiotic phase was constructed using fungal mycelia obtained through the in vitro mycorrhization technique. The fungus was cultured in the presence of Eucalyptus grandis roots, but with no contact between the hyphae and the root system of the host plant. Genes that code for proteins related to carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms, transcription, and protein synthesis, cellular communication, signal transduction, stress response, transposons, and proteins related to the biogenesis of cell components were identified among the 131 expressed sequence tags. Expression of the genes that code for acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, a voltage-dependent protein from the selective ion channel, and hydrophobin was evaluated by the RT-qPCR technique, confirming the activation of these genes in this phase of the association.

  15. Espécies de Pisolitus sp. na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden em solo arenoso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Andreazza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a ação de isolados de fungos ectomicorrízicos nativos de São Francisco de Assis, na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, em solo arenoso, na presença de dois níveis de fósforo. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação num bifatorial (4 x 2 x 3, três tratamentos de fungos ectomicorrízicos ( FSE- S, F1-RS e Pt Silv.1 e uma testemunha, dois níveis de fósforo (natural ou existente no solo (8 mg.kg-1 e adição de 30 mg.kg-1 de fósforo, em três repetições. Avaliaram-se a massa verde da parte aérea e radicial, massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, diâmetro do colo, comprimento e área superficial específica radicial, colonização micorrízica e teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. A adição de fungos ectomicorrízicos nativos na produção de mudas apresentou resultados melhores do que os demais tratamentos aplicados, em solo arenoso.

  16. Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynen, Martina; Fick, Jerker; Jonsson, Micael; Klaminder, Jonatan; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems.

  17. Albucacrispa and A. grandis (Hyacinthaceae: Omithogaloideae, two new species of subgenus Albuca, the rediscovery of A. albucoides (sub­ genus Osmyne, and the identity of A. reflexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Albuca crispa is a new species of section Falconera series Trianthera with crispulate leaves from the Great Karoo, known  at least since 1947 but overlooked until now. A second new species. A grandis. from the southwestern Cape was previously included in  A. fragrans Jacq. (section  Falconera series  Falconera. It is a robust species that flowers in winter and early spring and the styles are rugulose with ± isodiametric epidermal cells, unlike typical  A. fragrans which is a more slender species flowering in early summer and with derived, smooth styles with fusiform epidermal cells. The recent discovery of a flowering population matching the type of A. albucoides (Aiton J.C.Manning & Goldblatt (subgenus Osmyne allows for a full description and illustration of this poorly know n and taxonomically neglected species that has often been included in A. suaveolens (Jacq. J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. Lastly, examination of the type  of A. reflexa Krause & Dinter from Namibia shows it to be conspecific w ith Drimia indica (Roxb. Jessop.

  18. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  19. Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB, fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³ e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³. Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 e ASTM-D 1037 (1991. Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 e CSA 0437-93 (1993. As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993. A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular, foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura. Somente a resistência

  20. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Brasília e no Laboratório de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Brasília, DF. Foram estudadas duas espécies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confecção de peças mobiliárias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades físicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecânicas (flexão estática e dureza extremamente positivas para a indústria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e máquinas, além de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar ótima aceitação do móvel fabricado com a espécie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades físicas e mecânicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta características desejadas para indústria moveleira. A sua coloração cinza oliva é uma opção para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espécie deverão ser tomados durante operações com máquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricação de piso.

  1. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.

  2. 基于电子舌技术对不同年份的化橘红的识别%Discrimination of Exocarpium Citri Grandis in Different Years Based on Electronic Tongue Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊萧萧; 王鲁峰; 徐晓云; 潘思轶; 王可兴

    2012-01-01

    不同年份的化橘红功效和价格均存在差异,为了快速识别未知橘红样品的年份,采用电子舌对2001~2010年的10个样品和一个盲样进行了分析.对原始数据采用主成分分析和判别因子分析.结果表明:主成分分析可以将不同年份的样品进行有效的区分,判别因子分析可以更好地区分不同年份的样品,并能进行盲样识别.在模式识别中,判别因子分析法的识别结果均优于主成分分析法,前者2个判别因子的累计方差贡献量达到了99.929%.电子舌可以较好地区分不同年份的化橘红,改进后有望应用于化橘红的快速检测.%The effect and price vary in Exocarpium Citri Grandis of different years. Ten samples of Exocarpium Citri Grandis produced from 2001 to 2010 were analyzed with electronic tongue to discriminate their ages. The study shows that both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Factor Analysis (DFA) can be used to discriminate samples of different years with the latter mathod being more accurate. In the pattern recognition, the result of DFA is also more accurate than PCA with the fact that its conmulative contribution of 2-dimentional principal component reached as high as 99.929%. In conclusion, electronic tongue can be utilized as an effective way to discriminate the age level of Exocarpium Citri Grandis. The results of this study suggest the possibility of application of the propsed method in the rapid detection and analysis of Exocarpium Citri Grandis in the process of production, sales, and other related fields.

  3. Variación en la resistencia de clones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) ante la infección de la roya (Olivea tectonae Rac.) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Arguedas-Gamboa, Marcela; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica; Murillo-Gamboa, Olman; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica; Ayuso, Federico; Expomaderas S.A.; Madrigal, Oscar; Expomaderas S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó una evaluación de resistencia de diferentes clones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) ante la infección de la roya (Olivea tectonae Rac.), en el jardín clonal de la empresa Expomaderas S.A., San Carlos, Costa Rica. Se evaluaron la incidencia clonal y la incidencia y severidad de la infección de 83 clones seleccionados de árboles plus en tres regiones geográficas de la zona norte del país: a) Los Chiles (San Emilio), b) Upala (Canalete), y c) El Concho (Pocosol, San Carlos) y Altamira d...

  4. Influence of a step-change in metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn) on metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning in a freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis: A long-term transplantation experiment between lakes with contrasting ambient metal levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bonneris, Emmanuelle [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Bayer S.A.S., Bayer CropScience, 16 Rue Jean-Marie Leclair, CP 90106, F 69266 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Michaud, Annick [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Direction des Évaluations environnementales, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 675, boul. René-Lévesque Est, 6e étage, Québec, QC G1R 5V7 (Canada); Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette [Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We transferred freshwater bivalves from a reference lake to a Cd and Zn contaminated lake. ? Changes in metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning were followed over time (up to 860 d). ? Metal detoxification strategies differed between target organs (gills vs. digestive gland). ? The ability to handle Cd is inherent in P. grandis, not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation. -- Abstract: The objective of the present field experiment was to identify detoxification responses in the gills and digestive gland of a freshwater unionid bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, subjected to a step-change in metal exposure. Adult bivalves were transferred from a reference site (Lake Opasatica) and a metal-contaminated lake (Lake Héva) to a second contaminated lake (Lake Vaudray) in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Changes in organ metal concentrations, in the subcellular distribution of metals and in metallothionein concentrations were followed over time (t = 0, 132, (400) and 860 days). At each collection time and for each bivalve, the gills and digestive gland were excised and gently homogenized; six sub-cellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation and analyzed for their Cd, Cu and Zn content, and metallothionein was quantified independently. Metal detoxification strategies were shown to differ between target organs: in the gills, incoming metals were sequestered largely in the granules, whereas in the digestive gland the same metals primarily accumulated in the cytosol, in the metallothionein-like protein fraction. These metal-handling strategies, as employed by the metal-naïve bivalves originating in the reference lake, closely resemble those identified in free-living P. grandis chronically exposed in the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that the ability to handle incoming metals (Cd in particular) is inherent in P. grandis and is not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation of the bivalve to metal-contaminated environments. The

  5. Ensayos de trabajabilidad de Tectona grandis L.f. de 11 años de edad proveniente de dos sitios de crecimiento en plantaciones del Atlántico y el Pacífico de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados de ensayos comparativos de trabajabilidad de la madera de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) procedente de plantaciones forestales de 11 años de edad de dos regiones geográficas de Costa Rica (Atlántica y Pacífica). Tanto en la región Atlántica (Pococí) como en la región Pacífica (Parrita), se seleccionaron dos sitios, uno de mayor crecimiento (Sitio 1) y otro de menor crecimiento (Sito 2). Los ensayos incluyeron cepillado, lijado, taladrado y torneado. S...

  6. Gestión de la fertilidad de suelos y la nutrición de plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) en América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Moya, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    La teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) ha sido tradicionalmente considerada como una madera preciosa en los países del SE Asiático, de donde es originaria, pero durante las últimas décadas ha alcanzado especial relevancia en el sector internacional de las maderas tropicales duras de buena calidad. La especie ha sido ampliamente establecida en América Central, donde tiene una gran importancia socioeconómica, tanto por el impacto de las grandes empresas multinacionales que gestionan grandes plantacione...

  7. 大竹蛏胚胎发生及稚贝发育基本特征%Basic Characteristics of Embryogenesis and Juvenile Development of Solen grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杨平; 陈爱华; 姚国兴; 张志伟; 张曹进; 张雨

    2012-01-01

    Under the artificial breeding conditions, the embryogenesis and juvenile development of Solen grandis were observed by light microscopy. The results indicated that the embryonic and larval development of S. Grandis included the following stages: zygote, embryo cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochosphere, d-larvae, and finally juvenile. After 20 - 24 hours of fertilization, D-larvae appeared at the average daily water temperature of 22. A°C . It took 5-7 days to develop to juvenile, and the juvenile became the adult shellfish after 38 days when the shell length-width ratio was 2. 60. The accumulated temperature from zygote to attachment was 3 088. 79-5 005. 19℃·h. After juvenile developed outlet pipe, its intake pipe appeared, and at last the two pipes transformed into one pipe with diplopore. The regression equation of shell length and shell height was y = 150. 37 e0.002 7χ,χ: shell height ( μm) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 =0.985 5, P <0.01. The regression equation of shell length and day old was y = 143. 38e0.0916χ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 = 0. 979 5 , P < 0. 01. The regression equation of shell height and day old was y = 33. 979 x - 15. 450 ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell height (μm) , R2 =0.987 3, P<0. 01.%在人工培育条件下,对大竹蛏(Solengrandis)胚胎发生及稚贝发育进行显微观察,探究大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育规律.结果表明,大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育过程为:受精卵、卵裂、囊胚期、原肠期、担轮幼虫、D形幼虫、稚贝.在日平均水温为22.4℃时,受精后20~24h发育成D形幼虫,5~7d变态为稚贝,38d稚贝已具备成贝形态,壳长壳高比为2.60.从受精卵到附着所需积温为3088.79~5005.19℃·h.稚贝先形成出水管,后形成进水管,最终形成“一管双孔”.壳长与壳高关系式为y=150.37e0.0027x,x为壳高(μm),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9855,P<0.01;壳长与日龄关系式为y=143.38e0.0916x,x为日龄(d),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9795,P<0

  8. Estudio comparativo del proceso de secado de Eucalyptus grandis en dos secaderos solares ubicados en diferentes zonas y un secado natural a la intemperie durante el invierno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl De Castro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En la siguiente nota técnica se presentan los resultados de tres ensayos de secados de tablas de Eucalyptus grandis de 27 mm de espesor, realizados durante los meses de invierno. Dos de ellos fueron realizados en secaderos solares tipo semi invernadero (ubicados en Paysandú y en Montevideo, y uno fue realizado secando a la intemperie (en Montevideo.Se registraron las condiciones de humedad relativa y temperatura del aire durante los tres ensayos y se compararon los resultados obtenidos. El secado solar realizado en Paysandú tuvo una duración de 95 días y se logró un contenido de humedad medio (CHM final en base seca de 10,5 %. El secado solar realizado en Montevideo duró 80 días y se llegó a un CHM final de 10,5 %. El secado a la intemperie realizado también en Montevideo tuvo lugar a lo largo de 80 días y se obtuvo un CHM final de 22,1 %. Se obtuvieron resultados similares para ambos secados solares, teniendo en cuenta las diferencias de diseño, de ubicación y de capacidad. Comparando los secados solares con el secado a la intemperie, los primeros llevaron la madera de verde (CHM de 105 % aprox. hasta un CHM de 22 % en la mitad de tiempo. Según los resultados obtenidos, es posible reemplazar el secado ala intemperie por un secado solar y lograr así acortar los tiempos de secado a un bajo costo.AbstractIn the following report, the results of three drying runs made during winter with boards of Eucalyptus grandis 27 mm thick are shown. Two of them took place in solar kilns, semi-greenhouse type (located in Montevideo and Paysandú, and the third took place outdoors (located in Montevideo. The relative humidity and temperature conditions of the three drying runs were registered and the results obtained were compared. The solar drying in Paysandú lasted 95 days, and achieved a final average moisture content (AMC of 10,5 % in dry basis. The other solar drying which took place in Montevideo lasted 80 days and achieved a final AMC of 10

  9. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Martin; Garnas, Jeff; Wingfield, Michael J; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Pillay, Kerry-Anne; Slippers, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters). Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  10. Parâmetros cinéticos de adesivos produzidos a partir de taninos de Anadenanthera peregrina e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crise do petróleo, na década de 70, pesquisas tiveram o objetivo de substituir parcial ou totalmente os adesivos convencionais, à base de petróleo. Uma forma de substituição foi a utilização de fontes naturais, como os taninos, provenientes de algumas espécies arbóreas. Porém, os taninos apresentam algumas limitações de uso, que podem ser superadas através da sulfitação e da hidrolise ácida. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da hidrólise ácida e sulfitação de taninos extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Anadenanthera peregrina, nos parâmetros cinéticos dos adesivos tânicos, através da técnica de calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC. Os taninos foram hidrolisados com ácido acético ou ácido clorídrico a 10N, empregando-se três valores de pH e três tempos de reação. A sulfitação foi realizada em solução de sulfito de sódio, à 5%, em três tempos de reação. A energia de ativação, entalpia e temperatura de cura dos adesivos foram reduzidas pela hidrólise e sulfitação dos taninos, porém apresentaram banda larga de polimerização. O tempo de reação dos taninos não teve efeito sobre os parâmetros cinéticos.

  11. 尾巨桉萌芽林定株高度试验研究%Research on Growth of Eucalyptus urophylla x E.grandis Coppice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    音振兴; 李文栋; 余洋

    2012-01-01

    对尾巨桉4种萌芽高度(0.5 m、1.0m、1.5 m和2.0 m)进行定株除萌,结果表明:各处理之间树高、胸径生长差异均显著;以萌芽高度为1.5~2.0 m时定株除萌林木生长较好,8个月生2m定株除萌的萌芽林平均树高、平均胸径达5.30m、4.12 cm。考虑生产成本,定株除萌高度以1.5 m为佳。%Growth of Eucalyptus urophylla x E.grandis coppice sprouts were assessed following 4 different singling treatments, which involved singling when sprout heights averaged around 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 m. Significant differences were found in average heights and DBHs among treatments. The treatments of singling when sprouts reached 1.5 and 2.0 m were judge to give the best results. Singling at a sprout height of 2.0 m provided an average height and DBH at about 8 months after singling of 5.30 m and 4.12 cm respectively. Based on costs, singling at a sprout height of 1.5 m is preferred.

  12. Combinação de dois métodos não industriais no tratamento preservativo de moirões de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of the combination of two non-industrial methods to treat fence posts of Eucalyptus grandis, on the penetration and retention of water borne preservative. Thus, four fences with 2.20 m in length were treated by replacement of sap and simple diffusion alone and other four ones have combined the two techniques, with water-borne CCB 50% preservative at a concentration of 3.5%. After each treatment condition, the pieces were seasoned in the shade for 30 days. Disks were taken at 0.60 and 1.60 m from the base of the pieces which had one side sanded for analysis of the penetration of the preservative using a solution of chrome azurol S. From the same parts, test specimens were also manufactured in diametrically opposed positions with dimensions of approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal to analyze the retention of the element copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and boron by visible spectrophotometry with azomethine-H, also known as colorimetry. The retention values obtained were compared with the minimum recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards - ABNT for water borne preservatives which is 6.5 kg of active ingredients per m³ of wood. The penetration achieved by the combined method was considered sufficient for non-industrial treatment, while the retention values were higher than the retention of at least 6.5 kg of active ingredients / m³ of treated wood in all positions and portions evaluated.

  13. Eefeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em algumas propriedades da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em algumas propriedades da madeira de Tectona grandis oriundas de plantações entre 7 e 15 anos de idade, localizadas nas regiões Norte e Noroeste da Costa Rica, as quais apresentam dois tipos de clima (tropical seco e tropical úmido e com grande variedade de fertilidade de solo. As análises do solo consistiram no estudo de suas propriedades físicas (porcentagem de argila, limo e areia, densidade aparente, porcentagem de retenção de água e de água útil, retenção 15 Bar e 0,33 Bar e propriedades químicas (pH, acidez e conteúdo de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, Fe e Mn. As contrações tangenciais e radiais foram as propriedades da madeira mais correlacionadas com as características do solo, seguidas da porcentagem de cerne, medula e casca e teor de umidade na condição verde. A propriedade de menor correlação foi a densidade básica, enquanto a contração volumétrica não foi correlacionada com nenhuma propriedade do solo. Os coeficientes de correlação foram altamente significativos (a = 0,05, embora baixos valores (<0,67 foram encontrados, provavelmente influenciados pela ampla variedade das condições de clima e de solo amostrados. As propriedades físicas e químicas do solo não apresentaram influência expressiva nas propriedades da madeira de teca. Assim, apesar da grande variedade de solos existente na Costa Rica, a Teca pode ser cultivada comercialmente em todos eles sem que ocorram grandes variações nas propriedades da madeira.

  14. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kemler

    Full Text Available The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters. Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  15. GROWTH AND ARCHITECTURE OF ROOT SYSTEMS OF PLANTS OF Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. GRANDIS AND E. PELLITA WERE EVALUATED AFTER THE PLANTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Leles

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings were produced according to two methodologies: pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. A mixture of decomposed sugar-cane bagasse (60% and industrial sugar-cane plant residues (40% were used as substrate. The blocks were made by pressing the humid substrate in metallic moulds with the dimensions of 60 x 40 x 20 cm (lenght, width and height and pressure of 10 kgf/cm2 for 15 minutes. Under this load the blocks height was reduced to 10 cm. They were placed in wooden boxes with screen bottom. The stiff plastic tubes had circular section 12 cm high, with volume capacity of 50 cm3. The seeds were sown in the blocks 5 cm apart, by means of a spatula. At the end of nursey phase, the seedlings were planted the field. After 2, 6 and 10 months of planting, the height and the diameter at the ground level were evaluated. At the age of 10 months it was also evaluated the number of laterals root and deformatiom cofficient the three plants for treatment. Two months after planting, the plants originated from the pressed blocks showed growth highly signifficant in relation to those of the stiff plastic tubes. At 10 months, of age only Eucalyptus grandis seedlings showed significant difference concerning to height and diameter at the ground level between plants produced by pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. For the three species, the pressed blocks seedling showed higher number of lateral roots and smaller number of root deformation coefficents in comparision to the plants from the stiff tubes.

  16. RAPD analysis of genetic variability in a multiprovenance base population of Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden Variabilidade genética através da técnica RAPD de uma população-base multiprocedências de Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Meire Maximino Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability among individuals of a base population of Eucalyptus grandis and to build a molecular marker database for the analyzed populations. The Eucalyptus grandis base population comprised 327 individuals from Coff's Harbour, Atherton and Rio Claro. A few plants came from other sites (Belthorpe MT. Pandanus, Kenilworth, Yabbra, etc.. Since this base population had a heterogeneous composition, the groups were divided according to geographic localization (latitude and longitude, and genetic breeding level. Thus, the influence of those two factors (geographic localization and genetic breeding level on the genetic variability detected was discussed. The RAPD technique allowed the evaluation of 70 loci. The binary matrix was used to estimate the genetic similarity among individuals using Jaccard's Coefficient. Parametric statistical tests were used to compare within-group similarity of the means. The obtained results showed that the base population had wide genetic variability and a mean genetic similarity of 0.328. Sub-group 3 (wild materials from the Atherton region showed mean genetic similarity of 0.318. S.P.A. (from Coff's Harbour region had a mean genetic similarity of 0.322 and was found to be very important for maintenance of variation in the base population. This can be explained since the individuals from those groups accounted for most of the base population (48.3% for it. The base population plants with genetic similarity higher than 0.60 should be phenotypically analyzed again in order to clarify the tendency of genetic variability during breeding programs.Este estudo visou avaliar a variabilidade e distância genética dentro de uma população-base de melhoramento genético de Eucalyptus grandis. A avaliação da variabilidade genética tem como objetivos principais analisar a base genética da população-base e montar um banco de dados marcadores moleculares da população em an

  17. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL)...

  18. Organogênese in vitro a partir de explante caulinar na regeneração de clones de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden X E. urophylla S. T. Blake In vitro regeneration from stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones through organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar a regeneração in vitro por organogênese a partir de explante caulinar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, foram avaliados os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tiadiazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. De modo geral, pôde-se observar resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura, coloração e grau de oxidação dos calos, em função dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento foram dos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante caulinar. Houve a formação de estruturas nodulares compactas, principalmente na extremidade dos explantes caulinares, sendo essas regiões responsáveis pela regeneração de gemas adventícias. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.With the objective of testing in vitro regeneration through organogenesis from stem explants of three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, the effects of the growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-ilurea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine and NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid were evaluated. In general, a differentiated clone response in relation to intensity, texture, color and oxidation degree of calli was observed due to growth regulator treatments. The best results in callus formation were recorded for the treatments with the combination TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 and ANA (0,1 mg L-1, achieving 100% of callus formation from the stem explants. Compact node structures appeared mainly in the extremities of the stem explants, being those areas responsible for the regeneration of adventitious buds. The best regeneration response was obtained with 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.

  19. Efeito da acetilação das partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e da inclusão de partículas de polietileno e de embalagens cartonadas nas propriedades de chapas de aglomerado Effect of particle acetylation of Eucalyptus grandis wood and the inclusion of particles of polyethylene and cardboard packaging of properties in crowded plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vitor Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da acetilação das partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e da inclusão de partículas de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e de alta densidade (PEAD e de embalagens cartonadas nas propriedades de chapas de aglomerado. As partículas de madeira foram produzidas em laboratório a partir de toras que foram desdobradas em tábuas, convertidas em baguetas, depois em flocos e, finalmente, transformadas em partículas. Embalagens cartonadas e de polietino de alta e baixa densidades foram coletadas em depósitos de material reciclável e processadas em moinho de martelo. A acetilação foi realizada em autoclave com controle de pressão e temperatura. A acetilação promoveu significativa estabilização dimensional dos painéis, entretanto diminuiu algumas propriedades mecânicas. A adição de polietileno reduziu as propriedades mecânicas, em especial a flexão estática (MOR e MOE, porém, de modo geral, melhorou a estabilidade dimensional dos painéis, independentemente do tipo de partícula. No entanto, a adição de embalagens cartonadas reduziu a resistência mecânica e promoveu maior adsorção de vapor de água, inchamento em espessura e expansão linear, tanto nas chapas contendo partículas acetiladas quanto naquelas que não as continham.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus grandis particles acetylation and the addition of polyethylene of low (pebd and high density (pead and paperboard particles in the properties particleboard. Wood particles were produced in laboratory from logs that were split into plaks, baguettes and then converted into flakes and finally transformed into particles. Paperboard and polyethylene collected in recyclable material stores and processed in a hammer mil. Acetylation was performed in autoclave with pressure and temperature control. Wood particles acetylation promoted a significant stabilization of the particleboards but

  20. 沙田柚无机焦磷酸酶基因的 cDNA 克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of inorganic pyrophosphatase gene from Citrus grandis var.shatianyu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦新民; 万珊; 李惠敏; 覃屏生; 张渝

    2015-01-01

    related)and non-self(genetically unrelated)pollen.Inorganic pyrophosphatase(IPPase)play important roles in regu-lating the growth and development in plants.In order to better understand the mechanism of IPP gene in the self-in-compatibility of Citrus grandis var.shatianyu ,the inorganic pyrophosphatase gene of C .grandis var.shatianyu was cloned and physicochemical properties of pyrophosphatase were analyzed.The total RNA was isolated from style of C .grandis var.shatianyu used the total RNA Purification System(Invitrogen)and following the manufacture′s pro-tocols.According to the EST sequence(internal fragment of inorganic pyrophosphatase gene)in suppression subtrac-tive hybridization libraries of C .grandis var.shatianyu style,4 specific primers 5′-GSP1,5′-nGSP1,3′-GSP2 and 3′-nGSP2 were designed for amplifying 3-RACE and 5-RACE of the gene.The full-length sequences of cDNA of inor-ganic pyrophosphatase gene were obtained from suppression subtractive hybridization libraries of C .grandis var.shatianyu style by the SMART-RACE PCR method.A comparison of the similarity of the full-length cDNA se-quence of the inorganic pyrophosphatase gene was performed in the GenBank database used the BLAST program.DNAman software was used for mino acid sequence and homology analysis.Prediction of molecular weight, isoeletric point(pI)and hydrophobicity were performed by using on line software ExpASy and DNAman.A 150 bp band in 3-RACE,and a 900 bp band in 5-RACE were cloned by nested and non nested PCR method.For the full-length cDNA sequences,the middle sequence,3-RACE and 5-RACE sequence of the inorganic pyrophosphatase gene were spliced and formed the full-length cDNA sequences.As a result,the cDNA of inorganic pyrophosphatase was 1 136 bp in length containing an 654 bp open reading frame(ORF),which encoded a protein of 217 amino acids with a 170 bp 5 untranslated region(5 UTR)and a 321 bp 3 UTR.The sequence of the cloned cDNA of the inorganic pyro-phosphatase from C .grandis

  1. 尾巨桉纯林土壤化感效应的生物评价%Bioassay of Allelopathic Effects of Pure Forest Soil of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建; 王凌晖; 秦武明

    2011-01-01

    用不同浓度的尾巨桉(Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis)纯林土壤水浸提液处理菜心(Brassica parachinensis)、白菜(B.pekineinsis)、水稻(Oryza sativa)、萝卜(Raphanus sativus)的种子和幼苗,综合评价尾巨桉纯林土壤的化感作用.结果表明,尾巨桉纯林土壤对所选作物有化感作用,浸提液浓度不同,其化感效应不同,受体植物不同,化感效应差别也较大,浓度越低化感作用越小,而随着溶液浓度的增大化感抑制作用逐渐增强.%Solutions of water extract of the soil of pure Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis forest were applied on the seeds and seedlings of Brassica parachinensis, B. pekinensis, Oryza sativa, and Raphanus sativus to comprehensively evaluate the allelopathic effects of the soil. Allelopathic effects of the soil to the selected crops were found, and exhibited concentration dependency. Differences in the degrees of allelopathy among different crops were also found.

  2. Fator de cubicação para toretes de Eucalyptus grandis e sua variação com o tempo de exposição ao ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicios Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes the express wood volume in stere needs to be converted into cubic meter. This is possible estimating a cubication factor (Fc. With the objective of determining the Fc for Eucalyptus grandis and its variation in wood pieces of different lengths of 1 and 2,3m due to time of exposure to the environment, in the summer and in the winter, six stacks of woodpiles were made in the dimensions 3x2x1m and six piles in the dimensions 3x2x2, 3m, installed in the summer and in the winter. Medium Fcc´s obtained by the reason of volumes presented smaller variation in comparison to the ones obtained by angular counting. The statistical analysis indicated difference (α < 5% in the variables of the main effect, that is: in the climatic station (F = 18.72, in the time of exhibition (F = 6.51 and in the length of the stacks (F = 35.18. The analysis of the correlation indicated that Fc was also influenced by the top cracks, by the humidity of the wood and by the atmospheric variability. The average values of Fcc´s indicated a stabilization after ninety days of the installation of the piles. The stacks of Eucalyptus grandis presented dimensional variation when exposed to the atmosphere, making the Fc to vary in the time of exhibition at environment.

  3. Study on Anatomical Structure of Rhizogenesis Tissues of the Soft-wood Cutting Propagation for Tectona grandis Linn%柚木嫩枝扦插生根组织解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永芳; 曾炳山; 杨懋勋; 周锦平; 李云

    2013-01-01

    Tectona grandis L.f.is a kind of defoliated or half-defoliated tall arbor,belonging to Verbenaceae Tectona.In this softwood cuttings propagation experiment ,the half-lignified twigs of 4-year-old Tectona grandis L.f. were treated with exogenesis hormones of IBA powder in different concentrations in the last ten -day of July .The ana-tomical structure of rhizogenesis tissues of the soft-wood cutting propagation were studied ,to discuss the relationship between cutting woods rooting and callus ,primordium of adventitious roots ,and to study the type and process of ad-ventitious roots .%以4年生柚木的当年生半木质化嫩枝为材料,在7月下旬,采用不同浓度IBA粉剂处理插穗,进行扦插试验。观察扦插生根的解剖结构,探讨扦插生根与愈伤组织、不定根原始体的关系,及扦插生根的类型、不定根的形成过程等。

  4. Interferência de herbicidas, associados a um análogo de brassinosteroide, no aparato fotossintético de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Effects of herbicides, associated to a brassinosteroid Analogue, on the photosynthetic apparatus of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings

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    C.M.M. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da aplicação dos herbicidas imazapyr e glyphosate e as suas interações com um análogo espirostânico da castasterona (BB16 no crescimento de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis. Para isso, utilizou-se a aplicação de BB16 (nas concentrações de 0,08 e 0,16 mg L-1: BB16(- e BB16(+, respectivamente, de imazapyr (0,750 kg ha-1 e de glyphosate (1,440 kg ha-1. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo controle, BB16(-, BB16(+, glyphosate, imazapyr, além da interação hormônio-herbicida, em intervalo de 12 h entre a aplicação de BB16 e de cada herbicida, e vice-versa. A mensuração da fluorescência da clorofila a foi realizada diariamente, na terceira folha totalmente expandida, além das avaliações de altura, diâmetro e biomassa seca da parte aérea (BSPA e das raízes (BSR. O controle, BB16(- e BB16(+ diferiram dos demais tratamentos para BSPA, porém, para BSR, altura e diâmetro, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. As médias dos parâmetros de fluorescência, obtidas para os tratamentos que receberam a aplicação dos herbicidas, foram superiores ao controle, BB16(- e BB16(+ até o sétimo dia após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. As mudas que receberam aplicação de glyphosate - este associado, ou não, a BB16(- ou BB16(+ - apresentaram-se necróticas antes do sétimo DAT, enquanto as que receberam imazapyr associado ao BB16 manifestaram apenas as extremidades dos ramos laterais necrosadas. Os herbicidas testados causaram efeitos deletérios no aparato fotossintético de E. grandis; todavia, a partir do sétimo DAT as mudas que receberam a aplicação de imazapyr (com ou sem BB16 não diferiram dos tratamentos controle, BB16(- e BB16(+, quanto aos parâmetros de fluorescência.The effects of the application of imazapyr and glyphosate and their interactions with a spirostanic analogue of castasterone (BB16, on the growth of seedling clones of Eucalyptus grandis were evaluated

  5. Variação genética para os teores dos macro e micronutrientes após aplicação de 2,4-D em progênies de Eucalyptus grandis. Genetic variation in the levels of macro and micronutrients after 2,4-D application on Eucalyptus grandis progenies.

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    Alexandre Martins FRAGOSO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil triplicou sua produção florestal de eucalipto desde 1970, alcançando médias de 45 m3 .ha-1.ano-1. Muitos avanços técnicos contribuíram para essa produtividade, entre eles a utilização de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas. O produto 2,4-D destaca-se como herbicida seletivo às dicotiledôneas utilizado nas grandes culturas, entre elas está a cultura do eucalipto. O 2,4-D também pode ser usado como regulador vegetal, auxina (Ax, em subdosagem, podendo gerar incrementos nutricionais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento morfológico do vegetal após testes preliminares para obtenção de dosagem ideal, que no presente trabalho foi de 3,75 µL L-1. Assim, o trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a aplicação de auxina em um teste de progênies de Eucalyptus grandis, na fase de mudas, para estimar os parâmetros genéticos das variações dos elementos minerais nas plantas, com base no procedimento REML/BLUP. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com 20 progênies em três repetições, 16 plantas por parcela, totalizando 960 plantas. Como fatores norteadores, após 15 dias da aplicação do produto, foram avaliados os macro e micronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn nos tecidos vegetais da parte aérea. Como resultado, verificou-se que o 2,4-D age como auxina, quando aplicada em subdosagem (3,75 µL L-1, promovendo o desenvolvimento das mudas de E. grandis e permite a expressão da variação genética, sendo que o CVg variou de 1,22% (S a 13,51% (Ca. Apenas os teores de N (43,05%, Fe (56,545% e Cu (58,37% apresentaram acurácias inferiores a 70%. Os maiores coeficientes de variação relativa foram para os teores de Ca (2,0 em relação à escolha de uma variável para a seleção com base nos macronutrientes e Mn (1,16 no caso dos micronutrientes. The forest tree production in Brazil was three times greater than through 70’s decade, reaching the wood volume averages by 45 m3 .ha-1.year-1. Many

  6. In vitro ectomycorrhiza formation by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus in Eucalyptus grandis Formação de ectomicorrizas in vitro por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus em Eucalyptus grandis

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    Maurício Dutra Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of ectomycorrhizas by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. in Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. was studied by in vitro synthesis in Petri dishes. The formation of ectomycorrhizas was observed for all strains tested. Ectomycorrhizas formed by the monokaryotic strains presented a sheath of hyphae around the roots and a Hartig net limited to the epidermis layer, typical of the angiosperm ectomycorrhizas. Colonization rates, a measure of the number of ectomycorrhizas in relation to the total number of lateral root tips, varied from 23 to 62%. Some monokaryotic strains stimulated the formation of lateral roots, promoting increases of up to 109% above the control. The presence of some of the isolates in the in vitro synthesis medium stimulated the production of thicker lateral root tips. The dimensions of the lateral roots tips and ectomycorrhizas varied from one isolate to the next, indicating a variation in their capacity to provoke morphological changes in the host plant roots. The dikaryotic strain M5M11 presented higher values for lateral root yield, number of ectomycorrhizas, and colonization percentage than the corresponding monokaryotic strains, M5 and M11. This indicated the possibility of selecting compatible performing monokaryotic isolates for the yield of superior dikaryotic strains. The set of monokaryotic strains tested varied greatly in their ability to colonize E. grandis roots and cause secondary metabolism-related morphological changes in roots, providing a wealth of model systems for the study of genetic, physiological, and morphogenetic processes involved in Pisolithus-Eucalyptus ectomycorrhiza formation.A formação de ectomicorrizas por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. em Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. foi estudada usando-se o método de síntese in vitro em placas de Petri. A formação de

  7. 香榧子油的理化性质及脂肪酸组成分析%Analysis on Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Torreya grandis Oil

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    李红; 张露; 刘延奇; 贾亚娟; 郑玉冠

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition of the Torreya grandls oil were mainly analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the content of the crude protein,crude fat,total sugar,and starch of the Torreya grandis were 48.3% ,14.6% ,37.6% and 68.3% ,respectively. The acid value,iodine value,peroxide valueand saponification value of Torreya grandis oil were 0. 95 mg KOH/g, 131.3 g/100 g, 8. 76 raraol/kg and 137. 9 mg KOH/g,respectively. Twelve kinds of fatty acids were found in Torreya grandis oil. The saturated fatty acid was mainly behenic acid(12.2% ) ,palmitic acid(9.95% )and margaric acid(0.18% ).The unsaturated fatty acids were mainly composed of linoleic acid(41.9% )and oleic acid(26.0% ). Moreover,3.51% of the conjugated dienoic fatty acid -11,13 - eicosadienoic acids were found in Torreya grandis oil. The content of long - chain fatty acid was up to 18%. The Sn -2 fatty acids were mainly oleic acid(46.5% )and linoleic acid(45.3% ).The fatty acid distribution of Torreya grandis oil was also determined, and the triglycerides were mainly composed of β - LOL(7. 51% ), LLL (7.32%)、β-LOBe(6.28%)and β-LLBe(6.12%).%主要对香榧子油的理化性质及脂肪酸组成进行了分析.结果表明,香榧子粗蛋白、粗脂肪、饼粕总糖及淀粉质量分数分别为48.3%、14.6%、37.6%和68.3%.香榧子油的酸值、碘值、过氧化值及皂化值分别为0.95mgKOH/g、131.3g/100g、8.76mmol/kg、137.9mgKOH/g.香榧子油主要由12种脂肪酸组成,饱和脂肪酸以山嵛酸(12.2%)为主,其次是棕榈酸(9.95%)和十七碳酸(0.18%);不饱和脂肪酸中亚油酸(41.9%)和油酸(26.0%)较高,还含有3.51%的共轭二烯酸——顺-11,顺-13-二十碳二烯酸;长碳链脂肪酸质量分数较高,达18%.香榧子油Sn-2位脂肪酸主要由油酸(46.5%)和亚油酸(45.3%)组成.香榧子油甘三酯组成中分布比较均匀,主要为β-LOL(7.51%)、LLL(7.32%)、β-LOBe(6.28

  8. 桉树枝瘿姬小蜂在尾巨桉幼林扩散为害研究%Study on Damages of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle to Young Plantation of Eucalyptus urophylla×E. grandis DH32-29

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    方小玉; 江洁; 梁一萍; 蒋虎; 洪明; 马文志

    2011-01-01

    Based on scattered trees of Eucalyptus grandis×E.tereticornis DH201-2 which severely attacked by Leptocybe invasa Fisher La Salle,observations on dispersal damages of Leptocybe invasa Fisher La Salle deriving from infested trees to young plantation of Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis DH32-29 was carried out from November 2009 to October 2010 in Jiangzhou district,Chongzuo city.The results showed that about 100 m2 around each infested tree of Eucalyptus grandis×E.tereticornis DH201-2,on average 69.6 % of Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis DH32-29 are harmed by Leptocybe invasa Fisher La Salle,and 51.9 % of trees develop galls,of the injured trees 20.4 % of branches are infected and 1.9 % of branches produce galls.Light infestation of Leptocybe invasa Fisher La Salle dispersing from the infested trees of Eucalyptus grandis×E.tereticornis DH201-2 to Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis DH32-29 was demonstrated on the basis of the percentage of branches with galls.%在崇左市江州区以零星分布在林中的已受桉树枝瘿姬小蜂(Leptocybe invasa Fisher&La Salle)严重为害的巨园桉(Eucalyptus grandis×E.tereticornis)DH201-2植株作为虫源株,研究其产生的桉树枝瘿姬小蜂对由尾巨桉(Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis)DH32-29组成的幼林自然扩散为害情况。结果表明:以虫源株为中心约100 m2范围内尾巨桉DH32-29平均受害株率69.6%,平均有虫瘿株率51.9%,受害植株中平均枝条受害率20.4%,平均有虫瘿枝率1.9%。根据受害植株中有虫瘿枝率,巨园桉DH201-2虫源株所产生的桉树枝瘿姬小蜂对尾巨桉DH32-29扩散为害程度为轻度。

  9. Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF

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    Benedito Rocha Vital

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF. Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity

  10. Modelagem do balanço hídrico em microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    André Quintão Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o número de plantios comerciais de espécies florestais de crescimento rápido vem aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas. Contudo, os possíveis impactos desse aumento sobre os recursos hídricos ainda são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a modelagem do balanço hídrico em uma microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no Leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O trabalho foi realizado em uma microbacia experimental com área total de 40 ha durante o ano hidrológico, compreendido entre outubro de 2009 e setembro de 2010. A principal entrada de água no sistema via precipitação pluvial e os dados meteorológicos foram coletados por uma estação automática instalada no interior da área de estudo. As principais saídas foram estimadas pela equação modificada de Penman-Monteith e pela mensuração do deflúvio gerado na saída da bacia. Do total precipitado (1.123 mm durante o ano, 9% (106 mm retornaram à atmosfera via interceptação, 66% (740 mm via transpiração da cultura e 11% (119 mm pela evaporação do solo, que somados corresponderam à aproximadamente 86% da entrada de água na microbacia. Do deflúvio total gerado (~147 mm, apenas 4,29 mm (0,4% foram convertidos em escoamento superficial. Pode-se concluir que durante o ano hidrológico monitorado o balanço entre as principais entradas e as saídas de água na microbacia foi equalizado, não comprometendo a disponibilidade hídrica natural no curso d'água.

  11. Study on Infrared Fingerprint of Exocarpium Citri Grandis with Different Species%化橘红药材红外指纹图谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽萍; 林励; 黄爱华; 欧立娟; 汪金玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide theoretical basis and practical methods for the rapid identification of Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) with different species. Methods The fingerprints were established by fourier transform ifrared spectroscopy(FTIR), and then were analyzed by Spectrum v5.0.1 software. Results With normalization of the selected points between 1,820 cm-1 and 950 cm-1 on the FTIR fingerprints of ECG powder, significant differences were shown, and the second derivative spectra of the two different species between 1,800 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 had significant differences, which can be taken as one of the major identical characteristics to distinguish the two species. Conclusion The FTIR fingerprints is effective and feasible for the identification of the two species of ECG.%目的 建立化橘红药材的红外指纹图谱,通过考察不同品种化橘红药材的红外指纹图谱差异,为化橘红药材的快速鉴别提供理论依据和实用方法.方法 采用傅里叶红外光谱法(FTIR)建立不同品种化橘红药材红外指纹图谱,应用Spectrum v5.0.1红外软件对实验数据进行处理.结果 FTIR图谱在1820~950 cm-1范围内选点归一化处理后毛橘红和光橘红差异显著,其在1800~700 cm-1范围内二阶导数谱差异亦显著,可作为两者主要鉴别特征,经处理后的FTIR指纹图谱能有效鉴别两类化橘红药材.结论 红外指纹图谱法鉴别化橘红快速、简便、可行,可有效区分毛橘红和光橘红.

  12. FORMA DE TRONCO E SORTIMENTOS DE MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, NA REGIÃO SUDESTE DO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi estudada a forma de tronco do Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, com base em 261 árvores cubadas, cobrindo diâmetros entre 8,0 cm e 74,0 cm ao nível do dap (diâmetro à altura do peito originadas de florestas de propriedade da Aracruz Celulose S. A., localizadas em hortos florestais da Depressão Central e do Escudo Sul-Riograndense, no Rio Grande do Sul, para a determinação de volume e formação de sortimentos de madeira em duas classes: serraria, compreendendo toras com diâmetro na ponta fina superior a 25,0 cm com casca e com comprimentos de 5,60 metros, 4,20 metros e 2,80 metros, priorizando a formação de sortimentos com o maior comprimento; indústria, para troncos ou porções destes com diâmetros entre 8,0 cm e 25,0 cm com casca. O polinômio do quinto grau, tendo como variável dependente os diâmetros relativos (di/d e independente as alturas relativas (hi/h, foi selecionado para descrever a forma, com estratificação dos dados em três classes de diâmetro à altura do peito: diâmetro até 20,0 cm; entre 20,0 cm e 30,0 cm e maiores que 30,0 cm, com coeficientes de determinação superiores a 0,97 e erro padrão da estimativa inferior a 6,2 %, permitindo estimar o volume absoluto e relativo dos sortimentos por integração da função de forma. O ajuste do modelo para o conjunto de árvores cobrindo toda a amplitude de diâmetros gerou um coeficiente de determinação igual à 0,98 e erro padrão da estimativa igual a 6,54 % permitindo também selecionar o modelo para ajuste da forma e obtenção dos sortimentos.

  13. Variación de la densidad básica de la madera de Eucalyptus grandis en arboles de siete años de edad.

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    Arango A. Bibiana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estima la variación de la densidad básica de la madera con la altura de los árboles en clones de Eucalyptus grandis de 7 años de edad, seleccionados en plantaciones forestales de la empresa Smurfit Cartón de Colombia localizadas en los municipios de Restrepo, Pereira y Popayán, encontrándose que la densidad decrece desde la base del árbol hacia el nivel del D.A.P y luego, a partir de este aumenta hacia la copa hasta el 75% de la altura total del árbol. De igual manera se establecen correlaciones entre la densidad básica media de la madera en función de las tres zonas de estudio y los diferentes clones. Se comparan tanto las metodologías empleadas para la determinación de la densidad básica (Norma Tappi 258-om-94 y el Método del Máximo Contenido de Humedad como los diferentes tipos de muestras empleadas para la determinación de la misma (muestras tipo disco de madera y muestras de barreno. El rango de variación de la densidad básica media para las muestras tipo disco de madera fue de 0.40 a 059 g/cm3 y para las muestras de barreno fue de 0.38 a 0.55 g/cm3. Respecto a los métodos para la determinación de la densidad básica media de la madera en muestras de barreno, el método del máximo contenido de humedad mostró una subestimación de aproximadamente 3% de la misma en comparación con los valores obtenidos por el método de la balanza hidrostática.

  14. Fitossociologia de sub-bosque de cerrado em talhão de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden no município de Bom Despacho-MG

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    Saporetti Jr. Amilcar Walter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado, o segundo maior bioma brasileiro, apresenta uma crescente área sujeita a impactos variados, o que desperta a necessidade de conservá-lo e desenvolver métodos para seu uso sustentável. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico de regeneração em um Cerrado no município de Bom Despacho - MG e embasar tomadas de decisões para conservação da biodiversidade. Para o estudo foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m em uma área originalmente de Cerrado, que atualmente encontra-se ocupada por um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis. A distribuição das parcelas foi feita sistematicamente. Foram amostradas todas as plantas lenhosas eretas com CAB - ao nível do solo - maior ou igual a 10 cm. A composição florística apresentou 39 espécies, distribuídas em 24 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, com cinco espécies, Myrtaceae, com quatro, e Melastomataceae, com três, seguidas de Annonaceae, Leguminosae Papilionoideae, Nyctaginaceae, Rubiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com duas. A espécie que apresentou o maior VI foi Eucalyptus grandis (42,03%, seguida das Miconia albicans (7,69%, Brosimum gaudichaudii (6,9%, Eugenia dysenterica (4,99%, Qualea grandiflora (3,11% e Xylopia aromatica (3,01%. Das 39 espécies lenhosas nativas encontradas no sub-bosque de Eucalyptus grandis, 27 são peculiares do Cerrado e as demais são acessórias, vindas de florestas da região. Esses dados mostram que o Cerrado está em regeneração.

  15. Eucalipto, madeira serrada, metodologia de amostragem, regressão multivariada. Log sampling of Eucalyptus grandis trees submitted to selection for sawn timber and energy purposes Amostragem de toras de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis selecionadas para finalidades de serraria e energia

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    Paulo Eduardo Telles dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By the assessment of ten technological traits of eucalypt wood for sawn timber and energy purposes,
    it was developed a multivariate statistical procedure in order to determine the sequence of logs to be sampled, in such a way to represent all statistical variation contained within the tree and, accordingly, to establish the appropriate sampling intensity. In the present work, it was used a total of 40 logs from four trees of Eucalyptus grandis provenance Concórdia-SC aged 18 years. By using principal components regression analysis and stepwise selection techniques, it was showed that only two logs, corresponding to the first (0.05 m to 2.60 m and fourth (8.85 m to 11.40 m positions into the tree, contained 99.2 % of the total variation detected originally. In the case of adopting a single log, the recommendation was over the fourth log, which represented 97.5 % of the total
    amount of the original variation. For the referred  population, the statistical procedure contributed substantially to reduce the high time-consuming and financial costs that are normally associated to studies oriented to this goal, without affecting the original statistical information exhibited by the whole group of logs that would be usually sampled.A partir da avaliação de dez características tecnológicas de madeira de eucalipto para fins de serraria e energia, desenvolveu-se procedimento estatístico multivariado para se determinar a seqüência de toras a ser amostrada, de forma a representar acumuladamente toda a variação estatística presente na árvore e, com isso, estabelecer a intensidade adequada de amostragem. Neste estudo, foram utilizadas 40 toras oriundas de quatro árvores de Eucalyptus grandis aos 18 anos de idade procedentes de Concórdia, SC. Com o uso de técnicas de regressão multivariada de componentes principais e seleção por etapas, chegou-se à conclusão que amostrandose apenas duas toras, correspondentes à primeira (0,05 m a 2

  16. Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste, com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in

  17. Decomposição e liberação de nutrientes da serapilheira foliar em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis no norte fluminense Decomposition and nutrient release from leaf litter of Eucalyptus grandis in plantations and regrowth sistems in northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

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    Gilmar Santos Costa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a decomposição e liberação de nutrientes da serapilheira foliar em um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis de primeira rotação, com 8 anos, e em rebrotas com 2 e 5 anos de idade, por meio da técnica de sacos de serapilheira. A temperatura média anual foi de 19,5 ºC e a precipitação pluvial anual, de 850 mm, com 54% das chuvas concentradas no período de outubro a dezembro. Os resultados indicaram que foi similar o porcentual de perda de massa, bem como a liberação de frações orgânicas (lignina, celulose e polifenol e de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca e Mg da serapilheira foliar para o plantio de primeira rotação e as rebrotas. O porcentual de perda de massa, média dos três povoamentos, ajustou-se a um modelo quadrático (y = 99,443 + 0,0348x - 0,0003x²; R²=0,92; p=0,0225. Somente no período de maiores precipitações observou-se a efetiva perda de massa (29 - 33%, assim como a liberação de celulose (40 - 51%, de polifenóis (54 - 70% e, em pequena quantidade, de lignina (3 - 14%. Entre os nutrientes avaliados, houve liberação de N (6 - 19%, K (49 - 60%, Ca (18 - 20% e Mg (27 - 39%, enquanto o P foi acumulado (-20 e -40%. Na região norte fluminense, a dinâmica da decomposição e liberação de nutrientes da serapilheira foliar de eucalipto, durante 382 dias, evidenciou a liberação de K > Mg > Ca > N e a imobilização de P, sendo marcadamente influenciada pela precipitação pluvial.This work aimed to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release of leaf litter in 8-year old Eucalyptus grandis first rotation and 2 and 5-year old regrowth systems through litter bag technique. The annual average temperature was 19.5 ºC and annual rainfall was 848 mm, with 54% of rains concentrated in the period from October to December. The results showed that the dry weight loss, nutrient release (N, K, Ca and Mg and organic fraction release (lignin, cellulose and polyphenols were similar for the first

  18. Acúmulo de Nutrientes na Biomassa e na Serapilheira de Eucalyptus grandis em Função da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano e de Nutrientes Minerais Nutrient Accumulation in Eucalyptus grandis Biomass and Litter Using Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizer

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    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Quantidades significativas de resíduos orgânicos são produzidas a cada ano pela população, tornando-se indispensável obter práticas econômicas e seguras para a disposição e utilização destes. A aplicação de resíduos orgânicos em plantios florestais é uma alternativa a ser considerada. Este trabalho avaliou os efeitos da aplicação de lixo urbano e da adubação mineral em Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden sobre o acúmulo de nutrientes na serapilheira e na biomassa aérea das árvores aos 86 meses de idade, em Itatinga, SP, em Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico. Verificou-se, nas pcarcelas experimentais com lixo urbano, maiores valores para biomassa arbórea (36,9 % de ganho com relação à testemunha e maiores conteúdos de N, P, K e Ca no sítio antes do corte das árvores. Após a retirada de madeira (alburno e cerne, observou-se também que com a manutenção das outras partes da árvore nessas parcelas, houve uma maior disponibilização desses nutrientes no sítio, cujos valores foram entre 18 % e 49 % a mais dos conteúdos encontrados para a testemunha, que poderão contribuir para a manutenção da produtividade. Os resultados evidenciaram a importância de se manter a casca das árvores no sítio, pois o descascamento feito no local propiciou, em média, um retorno de 32 % do total de nutrientes acumulados na biomassa aérea. Também, na colheita da madeira, galhos, folhas, ponteiras e serapilheira, devem ser mantidos no campo como um meio de se aumentar o estoque de nutrientes das próximas rotações.
    Large quantities of organic wastes are produced mainly in big cities, annually. There is urgent demand for safe and possible economic practices for its use on forest plantations. This study evaluated the effects of the application of urban waste and mineral fertilizers on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden plantation

  19. Seleção de modelos polinomiais para representar o perfil e volume do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. Selection of polynomial models to represent the profile and volume of the bole of Tectona grandisL.f.

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    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A precisão do volume de um povoamento florestal torna-se importante à medida que as empresas florestais integram verticalmente suas atividades e o resíduo da elaboração de um produto torna-se matéria-prima para outros. Os estudos realizados objetivaram avaliar a acurácia dos modelos polinomiais propostos por Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 e Goulding & Murray (1976, na estimativa dos diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. de quatro povoamentos localizados na microrregião do Baixo Rio Acre e, ainda, testar a identidade do melhor modelo polinomial, avaliando-se a adequação de manter as áreas agrupadas ou segregá-las em grupos menores ou individualmente. A base de dados foi constituída de 159 árvores cubadas rigorosamente. Na avaliação da acurácia dos modelos foram empregadas estatísticas de desvio médio, desvio padrão das diferenças, soma dos quadrados dos resíduos relativos e resíduos percentuais. O modelo Goulding & Murray (1976 gerou as melhores estimativas de diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste, seguido pelos modelos Hradetzky (1976 e Schöepfer (1966. O teste de identidade de modelo mostrou ser mais adequado realizar ajustes independentes para as áreas 1 e 4 e para o subgrupo 2 e 3.The precise estimate of the volume of a forest stand become important as forest enterprises integrate vertically their activities and the residue of the manufacture of a product becomes the raw material for the manufacture of other. The accomplished studies aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the polynomial models proposed by Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 and Goulding & Murray (1976 in the estimate of the diameters and volumes along the bole of Tectona grandis L.f from four stands situated in the Baixo Rio Acre micro region and further, to test the identity of the best polynomial model by evaluating the adequacy of maintaining the grouped areas or segregate them into smaller groups or singly. The data base was

  20. Caracterização da estrutura anatômica, densidade básica e morfologia de cavacos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis para a produção de painéis MDF Characterization of wood anatomy, basic density, and morphology of Eucalyptus grandis chips for MDF production

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    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na produção dos painéis "Medium Density Fiberboard" (MDF confeccionados com madeira de espécies de Eucalyptus spp de rápido crescimento evidencia a necessidade da caracterização dos seus componentes celulares, da densidade básica e da morfologia de cavacos. Com esse objetivo, foram coletadas três amostras de cavacos de madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis, na linha de produção de indústria de painel. Em laboratório, os cavacos foram dissociados por maceração, para a avaliação das dimensões das fibras e dos vasos; determinou-se a densidade básica dos cavacos, bem como se caracterizaram a sua espessura e morfologia. Os resultados indicaram valores médios de 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm para o comprimento, largura, diâmetro do lume e espessura média da parede das fibras, respectivamente. A densidade básica da madeira foi de 0,432 g/cm³ e a espessura dos cavacos, de 4,36 mm. Os valores médios de retenção dos cavacos foram de 0,9-16,9-44,5-30,7-6,1-0,9% nas peneiras 40, 25, 16, 8, 3,35 mm e fundo, respectivamente, sendo 75,2% retidos nas peneiras de 16-8 mm de abertura. Os resultados das análises anatômicas e morfológicas dos cavacos de madeira foram discutidos e comparados com informações da literatura especializada e correlacionados com o processo produtivo de chapas MDF.The increase of the MDF panels (Medium Density Fiberboard production by the use of the fast growing eucalypt wood species it evidences the need of the characterization of the cellular components, basic density and the chips morphology. With this aim 3 samples of wood chips of Eucalyptus grandis trees were collected, in the production line of panel industry. In laboratory, the wood chips were dissociated by maceration for the evaluation of the fiber and vessels dimensions; the wood basic density was determined and the thickness and morphology were characterized. The results indicated mean values of 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm for the fiber length

  1. Volume de madeira e concentração foliar de nutrientes em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizadas com lodos de esgoto úmido e seco Wood volume and foliar concentration of nutrients in Eucalyptus grandis after wet and dry sewage sludge application

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    Paulo Henrique Muller da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, diversos municípios estão construindo estações de tratamento de esgoto (ETEs, e futuramente serão produzidas anualmente milhares de toneladas de lodo para as quais deverá ser dada destinação adequada. O lodo de esgoto tratado (biossólido é o resíduo resultante do tratamento do esgoto urbano, e sua disposição final precisa ser bem planejada devido às implicações sanitárias, ambientais, econômicas e sociais. Apresenta elevado teor de matéria orgânica e de nutrientes e poderia ser utilizado como fertilizante em plantios florestais. Esta pesquisa foi realizada na Estação de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (Universidade de São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de três doses (10, 20 e 30 t ha-1 dos lodos de esgoto úmido (torta e seco (granulado, complementados com K e B e aplicados ao solo nas linhas de plantio em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis. Dezoito meses após a implantação das mudas no campo, o volume dos troncos demonstrou aumento significativo (ao redor de 130% no tocante ao crescimento dos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos úmido e seco em relação à testemunha sem aplicação de fertilizante, bem como teve resultado semelhante ao do tratamento com adubo mineral. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com a aplicação dos biossólidos úmido e seco. Com relação à nutrição mineral, foi observado aumento da concentração dos elementos P, Ca e Zn nas folhas com as maiores doses dos biossólidos, e verificou-se efeito inverso de Mn. As concentrações foliares de todos os nutrientes nos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos mantiveram-se dentro dos limites observados usualmente nas plantações comerciais, não havendo sinais de desequilíbrio nutricional.In Brazil, several municipalities are building waste treatment plants and in the future thousands of tons of sewage sludge will be generated. Sewage sludge is the waste left

  2. Variação das dimensões dos elementos anatômicos da madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden aos sete anos. Variation of anatomical structure of wood of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden with 7 years old.

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    Finê Thomaz ROCHA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A variação das dimensões dos elementos anatômicos do lenho tem um efeito marcante sobre a qualidade da madeira e o produto final. Visando obter melhores informações sobre o assunto, foram coletadas amostras de árvores dominantes, intermediárias e dominadas de Eucalyptus grandis aos sete anos, com o objetivo de verificar as variações das dimensões dos elementos anatômicos entre árvores, no sentido medula-casca e base-topo. De cada árvore foram retirados discos de madeira na base, 25, 50, 75 e 100% da altura comercial. Em cada disco foram demarcados corpos de prova a 0, 50 e 100% do raio. Os elementos anatômicos foram mensurados através de programa de análise de imagens. Os resultados permitem concluir que: (a das classes sociológicas, a dominante apresentou fibras 14% mais longas e 20% mais espessas, diâmetro de vasos 30% mais largo e raios 20% mais altos do que as outras classes; (b os maiores valores das dimensões das fibras e comprimento de vasos foram encontrados a 25% da altura comercial, os vasos apresentaram-se mais largos a 75% e a freqüência de raios foi maior no topo, e (c em todas as dimensões das fibras, o diâmetro e o comprimento dos vasos foram crescentes.The variation in the dimensions of the anatomical elements of the xylem has a marked effect on the quality of wood and on the final product. In order to obtain further information about this variation samples of dominant, intermediate and dominated 7-year-old Eucalyptus grandis trees were collected. The aim was to analyze the variation in the dimensions of the anatomical elements among trees in the pith-bark and base-top directions. Wood disks from the base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height were removed from each tree. From each disk samples at 0, 50 and 100% of the radius were defined. The anatomical elements were measured through image analysis. The results indicate that: (a of all sociological classes, the dominant one showed fibers 14% longer

  3. Efeito da aplicação de fertilização nitrogenada e lodo de esgoto nas características da madeira juvenil de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Carlos Roberto Sette Junior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the wood anatomical and physical characteristics of 24 months-old Eucalyptus grandis trees, planted in 3x2m spacing and fertilized with nitrogen ( 6, 12, 18 month old and sewage sludge (planting, 8 month old. For each treatment 10 eucalypts trees were cut according to the distribution of basal area. Wood samples were collected in different percentages of the total height to analyze the anatomical (vessels and fibers and physical (wood density characteristics. The results showed that the wood apparent density and wood basic density of the eucalypt trees in the nitrogen and sewage sludge were larger in comparison to the control. Radial profiles of wood apparent density were similar in the three treatments, presenting the exected characteristics of juvenile wood of 24 months-old eucalypt trees. Fiber and vessel dimensions were not affected by fertilization.

  4. Isolation and identification of Metarhizium from Citrus grandis ‘tomentosa’ GAP base%化橘红GAP基地土壤绿僵菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马维思; 徐江; 乔海莉; 陈君; 李向明; 覃蓉敏; 程惠珍

    2012-01-01

    A type of entomopathogenic fungus of soil in Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' production base was isolated and identified with morphological and molecular biological methods, including pathogenesis, spore characteristic and ITS sequence analysis were conducted. The results showed that eighteen entomopathogenic fungi strains were isolated from the Tenebrio molitor infected in the soil samples, which were identified as Metarhizium anhopliae var. anisopliae. Based on results above, we concluded that there was quantity of Metarhaium resources in this area. These provided the useful information for controlling some pests of C grandis by using these strains of fungus.%目的:从化橘红GAP基地土壤中分离、鉴定绿僵菌,为进一步利用绿僵菌防治化橘红害虫奠定基础.方法:采用黄粉虫诱集法从40份土壤样品中诱集、分离绿僵菌,通过形态特征和ITS序列比对鉴定其种类.结果:从化橘红GAP基地土壤中共分离出18个绿僵菌菌株,经鉴定均为金龟子绿僵菌小孢变种Metarhizium anisopliae var.anisoplia.结论:化橘红GAP基地环境适于金龟子绿僵菌小孢变种生存,土壤中拥有丰富的绿僵菌资源,这为进一步利用绿僵菌防治化橘红害虫奠定基础.

  5. Agrupamento de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em função das variáveis dendrométricas e das caracteristicas tecnológicas da madeira

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    Merielen Lopes de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this study is to cluster selected trees of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden as a function of phenotypic, dendrometric and wood technology characteristics. In a 27 years old commercial stand, located in the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, 63 selected trees were cut down and classified to the phenotypic and dendrometric characteristics. Then, disks were taken at the base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height, and at the DBH, for basic density determination. From the two first logs above the DBH boards parallel to the pith were taken, with 25mm of thickness, for sawn wood qualitative evaluation. The selected trees were grouped into four distinct groups following cluster analysis. In Group I were classified the trees with a lower tendency of presenting boards with end splits while in Groups II and III were classified the trees with a lower tendency of presenting logs with end splits and, in Group IV were classified the trees with a higher tendency of presenting end splits of the boards and the logs. For these groups, by discriminant analysis, there were identified five variables with real power of discrimination (DBH, estimated log split perimeter, ratio height/diameter (rh/d, type of bark and sapwood volumetric percentage and three discriminant functions. The technique of the multivariate analyze was an efficient method of grouping the selected trees of Eucalyptus grandis. The discriminant analysis enabled the selection of variables with real power of sorting the trees and determinating the discriminant functions that allow the allocation of future trees in the cluster.

  6. Effets de lisière sur la productivité du teck (Tectona grandis L.f.: étude de cas des teckeraies privées du Sud-Bénin

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    Toyi, MS.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge Effects on the Productivity of Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.: a Case Study of Private Teak Plantations in Southern Benin. The present study aims to improve the production of teak wood (Tectona grandis L.f. in private plantations in southern Benin through the application of a central concept in landscape ecology: the edge effect. As teak is an heliophilous species, the hypothesis of a higher wood production in edges was tested on the basis of the basal area. Sixty-two private teak plantations were investigated and 10,667 trees were measured. The stratified sampling scheme in three distinct parts for each plantation (the centre, the edge and the summits permitted to highlight the edge effect on wood production. For each part, a plot was installed and the diameter at breast height (dbh was measured for all trees. The leaf area between the edge and the centre of plantations was measured. Finally, the influence of the spatial configuration of plantations and the direction of each side of these plantations on the production of wood was tested. Results show that the edge effect on the production of teak wood affects four planting lines, the first presenting a production of 150% relative to the centre. We noticed a significant influence of the edge on the leaf area of about 218% relative to the centre. No influence of the direction of the sides of the plantation was observed. The shape of the plantations presents a significant influence on the wood production. These results permitted to propose a planting model included in an agroforestry system that optimizes the production of wood per area and having a succession of two planting lines interrupted by fields.

  7. 巨桉林下马勃分子系统发育的关系%Analysis of Puffballs' Phylogenetic Relationships from Eucalyptus grandis Forest

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    潘欣; 张健; 朱天辉; 梁洪萍

    2011-01-01

    Mycelia were cultivated from a fruiting body of puffballs which were collected from the Eucalyptus grandis forest, and the genomic DNA was extracted as template. Subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rDNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The phylogenetic tree of puffballs was first built based on different part of ITS region. The results showed that six species of puffballs were cultivated successfully using a PDA medium after comparing the sequences of puffballs fruiting body and mycelium ITS regions. The rDNA-ITS region of different puffballs was 607 bp to 766 bp in length. Analysis of phylogenesis revealed that the Scleroderma had close genetic relationships with Pisolithus , Calvatia , Lycoperdon and Vascellum. The three undetermined species, Scleroderma sp. 11-1, Scleroderma sp.2-2 and Scleroderma sp. 5-2, could probably be S. aurantium. The sequence of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 can be used as an evolutionary marker between different genus, and ITS2 as an evolutionary marker in genus. Thus, this work laid a foundation for studying the ectotrophic mycorrhiza, the mechanisms of action, the classification of puffballs and its exploitation and utilization.%采集巨桉林下马勃子实体,培养其菌丝体,提取子实体及菌丝体基因组DNA,进行rDNA-ITS区序列的扩增、克隆和序列测定,并对rDNA-ITS不同区域作序列分析,首次构建马勃的系统发育树.结果表明:野外采集获得马勃子实体l0种,其中成功培养6种,测序结果表明马勃rDNA-ITS区长度在607~766 bp之间,系统发育分析表明硬皮马勃属(Scleroderma)与豆包菌(Pisolithus)亲缘关系较近,秃马勃属(Calvatia)、马勃属(Lycoperdon)及横膜马勃属(Vascellum)之间亲缘关系较近,ITSl-5.8S rDNA-ITS2区可建立马勃类真菌属间系统发育树,ITS2区可用于建立马勃类真菌属内系统发育树,3个待定种硬皮马勃Scleroderma sp.11-1,Scleroderma sp.2-2和Scleroderma sp.5-2为金黄硬皮马勃(S

  8. Cadmium-handling strategies in two chronically exposed indigenous freshwater organisms-the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and the floater mollusc (Pyganodon grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Peter G.C. [Universite du Quebec, INRS Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Que., G1K 9A9 (Canada)]. E-mail: peter_campbell@ete.inrs.ca; Giguere, Anik [Universite du Quebec, INRS Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Que., G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bonneris, Emmanuelle [Universite du Quebec, INRS Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Que., G1K 9A9 (Canada); Unite mixte de recherche INRA-DGER-1233, ' Mycotoxines et Toxicologie comparees des xenobiotiques' , 1 av Bourgelat, BP 83, 69290 Marcy l' Etoile (France); Hare, Landis [Universite du Quebec, INRS Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Que., G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2005-03-25

    Laboratory experiments on a variety of aquatic organisms suggest that metallothionein-like proteins (MT) play an important role in the regulation of essential metals, and in the sequestration and detoxification of non-essential metals (e.g., Cd). However, the importance of metallothionein production relative to alternative strategies of metal detoxification, and its effectiveness in metal detoxification, remain largely unexplored in field situations. In the present study we explored metal-handling strategies in an adult benthic bivalve (Pyganodon grandis) and in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens), exposed to Cd in their natural habitat. The two biomonitor species were collected from lakes located along a Cd concentration gradient. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations were determined by in situ dialysis as a measure of metal exposure. Sub-cellular Cd partitioning was determined in target tissues (bivalve gills and digestive gland; perch liver) by differential centrifugation, and metallothionein was measured independently by a mercury-saturation assay in the bivalve tissues. Malondialdehyde concentrations were measured as a potential indicator of oxidative stress. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.57 nM in the nine lakes from which bivalves were collected, and from <0.3 to 6.7 nM in the eight lakes from which yellow perch were sampled. Bioaccumulated Cd also varied from lake to lake, more so for the bivalve than for the yellow perch; the [Cd]{sub max}/[Cd]{sub min} ratios for the various tissues decreased in the order: bivalve gill Cd (28) > bivalve digestive gland Cd (18) > perch hepatic Cd (14). In the two lakes that were common to both the bivalve and perch studies, i.e. lakes Opasatica and Vaudray, accumulated Cd concentrations were consistently higher in the bivalve than in the perch. Cadmium-handling strategies were similar in the bivalve digestive gland and perch liver, in that Cd was mainly associated with the heat-stable protein

  9. Effects of Nitrogen Forms on Foliar Photosynthesis,Nutrient Status and Nitrogen Metabolism of Torreya grandis Seedlings%氮素形态对香榧苗期光合作用、主要元素吸收及氮代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐辉; 李婷婷; 沈朝华; 胡渊渊; 吴家胜

    2014-01-01

    In this study,we measured the photosynthetic rate,the contents of primary inorganic elements,and nitrate reductase activity and leaf N content of Torreya grandis seedlings subjected to different inorganic nitrogen treatments. The results showed that the nitrogen forms and the ratio had significant impact on the photosynthetic rate,N,P,K content, and the nitrate reductase ( NR) activity of T. grandis seedlings. With the mixture of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N at the ratio of 1:1 and 3:1,the photosynthetic rate,and stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) were significant higher compared to plants fed with sole NH4 +-N or NO3 --N. However,there were no different significances in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) among the different inorganic nitrogen treatments. The sole NH4 +-N and NO3 --N fed plants had lower phosphorus ( P ) and potassium ( K ) content than that treated with mixed nitrogen of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N. Plants supplied with both forms of N ( NH4 +-N /NO3 --N =25/75 and 50/50 ) had higher NO3 - content and NR activity in comparison to the plants only fed with NO3 --N. Compared to the plants fed with NH4 +-N or NO3 --N alone,significant higher N content was observed in the plants fed with mixture of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N ( NH4 +-N /NO3 --N =50/50 and 25/75). It is concluded that Torreya grandis seedlings have no obvious preference to NH4 +-N or NO3 --N. The mixture of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N at the ratio of 1∶1 is able to boost the photosynthesis,nutrients absorption and nitrogen metabolism of T. grandis seedlings.

  10. Efeitos da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal na preservação da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo Effects of the purification and enrichment of wood tar creosote on preservation of Eucalyptus grandis wood, after 48 months of field testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal contra xilófagos, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo. Por destilação do alcatrão vegetal, obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto (creosoto 1, recuperado à temperatura de 110-255 °C. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, para obter o creosoto vegetal purificado (creosoto 2. Os creosotos 1 e 2 foram enriquecidos com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% de naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tributil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Estacas obtidas do alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula cheia. A eficiência das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada com a do creosoto mineral. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina. Os resultados indicam que o creosoto 2 + pentaclorofenol foi superior aos creosotos 1 e 2 + TBTO, aos creosotos 1 e 2 + naftenato de zinco e ao creosoto 1 puro, sendo semelhante ao creosoto mineral. O creosoto 2 foi superior ao creosoto 1 apenas para a localidade de Leopoldina. De modo geral, a vida média da madeira não-tratada ficou entre 12 e 24 meses, a da madeira tratada com o creosoto 1 + TBTO entre 24 e 37 meses e a da tratada com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de zinco entre 37 e 48 meses e a com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de cobalto, creosoto 2 puro e creosoto 2 + naftenato de zinco ou TBTO foi de 48 meses. No atual estágio da pesquisa, não é possível estimar a vida média da madeira tratada com as demais soluções preservativas testadas, pois ainda não atingiram os 60% das estacas quebradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of purifying and enriching wood tar creosote against wood decay after 48 months in field testing. By distillation of wood tar, the crude wood tar (creosote 1 was

  11. Effects of pruning on growth dynamic and veneer quality of Eucalyptus urophyllaíE. grandis%修枝对尾巨桉生长动态及单板质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任世奇; 陈健波; 邓紫宇; 郭东强; 刘媛; 黄明军; 蒙江拢; 肖文发; 项东云

    2015-01-01

    Using Eucalyptus urophyllaíE. grandis plantation as the research material in this paper, the effects of pruning on the growth dynamic and veneer quality were studied by setting four pruning intensities of CK ( no pruning) , light pruning ( cut 25% of the whole canopy ) , moderate pruning ( cut 33.3% of the whole canopy) and heavy pruning ( cut 50% of the whole canopy) , and pruning in consecutive 2 years with applying split-plot experiment design. The results showed that the growth of young E. urophyllaíE. grandis was most influenced by pruning intensity, especially with the increasing of trees age. The increase of diameter at breast height ( DBH ) was affected under the principle of nearby allocation of biomass;however the growing on the height of tree was affected quite less than that for DBH. The reason of this phenomenon was mainly related to the height of canopy and net photosynthetic rate after pruning. The tree volumes for both bi-monthly continuous and regular growth in 2013 were nearly the same under four pruning intensities after two consecutive pruning in 2011 and 2012 . The veneer quality was improved by the heavy pruning, which was able to increase green knots and decrease dead knots per unit area. The heavy pruning is most appropriate method for directive breeding of clear wood based on the growth and veneer quality of E. urophyllaíE. grandis.%以尾巨桉人工林为研究对象,通过设置未修枝、轻度修枝、中度修枝和重度修枝4种修枝强度,采用裂区设计连续2年度实施人工修枝,研究修枝对尾巨桉生长动态和单板质量等级的影响。结果表明:幼林龄尾巨桉生长量受修枝强度的影响更大;随着林龄的增加,胸径生长将在生物量就近分配原则下受到影响,但修枝对树高生长的影响相对较小,这主要与修枝后林冠的高度以及叶片净光合速率有关;经2011和2012年连续实施2次人工修枝后,4种修枝强度的2013

  12. 巨桉凋落叶分解对假俭草生长及光合特性的影响%Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Eremochola ophiuroides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李羿桥; 李西; 胡庭兴

    2013-01-01

    植物生长的本质是由光能驱动的复杂生理学过程,90%~95%干物质的积累来源于光合产物.本研究采用盆栽试验探讨了巨桉凋落叶分解对假俭草生长及光合特性的影响.4个添加不同凋落叶量的试验组被设置,包括了T1(30 g/盆),T2(60 g/盆),T3(90 g/盆)以及CK(0 g/盆);同时,以添加去除化感物质凋落叶的处理为空白试验.选取晴天测定假俭草光合参数以及在30,60,90 d时的生长指标.结果表明,分解中的巨桉凋落叶明显抑制假俭草的生长、生物量的积累以及光合色素的合成,且随凋落叶含量的增加抑制作用加大;处理组叶片的气孔导度及其对环境中光照和CO2改变的适应能力与对照组相比显著降低(P<0.05).综上,巨桉凋落叶化感作用减弱了假俭草叶片的光合作用,并抑制假俭草的生长.%The essence of crop production is a complex system that is driven by light energy.The accumulation of 90% of the dry matter comes from the production of photosynthesis.In this study,we investigated the effect of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Eremochola ophiuroides.Four treatments with different amounts of leaf litter were designed,including T1 (30 g/pot),T2 (60 g/pot),T3 (90 g/pot) and control (0 g/pot,CK),and the blank experiment groups with distilled fallen leaves were set as the above.The growth indexes were measured at 30,60 and 90 d after sowing,and the photosynthetic characteristics were tested on the mature leaf in the middle of stolon.The test results showed that increasing amounts of E.grandis leaf litter significantly inhibited the accumulation of biomass,growth,synthesis of photosynthetic pigments of E.ophiuroides seedlings (P<0.05).Meanwhile,the stomatal conductance and the adaptation capacity to the change of light and CO2 in the environment of CK were significantly lower than which of treatments.This demonstrated that the

  13. 巨桉凋落叶分解对菊苣生长及光合特性的影响%Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀华; 胡庭兴; 杨万勤; 陈洪; 胡红玲; 涂利华; 泮永祥; 曾凡明

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter during its early stage decomposition on the growth and the photosynthesis of Ckhorium intybus. Each pot contained 12 kg soil mixed with different amounts of E. grandis leaf litter (30 g · pot-1, A1; 60 g · pot-1, A2; 90 g · pot-1, A3; and 0 g · pot-1, CK) , and sowed with C. intybus. The growth indicators and the photosynthetic characteristics of C. intybus were measured after the third leaf of C. intybus seedlings fully expanded in treatment A,. At the early stage of leaf litter decomposition , the C. intybus biomass accumulation, leaf area growth, and synthesis of photosynthetic pigments were inhibited significantly, and the inhibition effect was getting stronger with the increasing amount of the leaf litter addition. The intercellular CO2 concentration of C. intybus was increased by litter addition, while the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were significantly lower than those of the control. With the increase of leaf litter addition, all the parameters of C. intybus light response and CO2 response except CO2 compensation point showed an obvious downward trend, and there existed significant differences between the treatments of litter additions and the control. It was suggested that during the decomposition of E. grandis leaf litter, its al-lelopathic substances released gradually and acted on receptor plants, inhibited the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and the photosynthesis of the receptors, decreased the receptors environmental adaptation ability, and accordingly, inhibited the growth of C. intybus.%采用盆栽试验,研究了巨桉凋落叶分解初期对菊苣幼苗生长和光合生理特性的影响,试验设置A1(30 g·pot-1)、A2(60 g·pot-1)、A3 (90 g·pot-1)和对照(CK)4个凋落叶水平,将各处理的凋落叶分别与12 kg土壤混合后装盆,播种菊苣.待A3处理植株的第3片真叶完全展开后测定

  14. 尾巨桉萌芽林土壤种子库特征分析%Studies on the Characteristics of Soil Seed Banks of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis Sprout Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宇林; 唐庆兰; 陆绍锋; 张照远; 刘建

    2012-01-01

    The soil seed bank of Eucalyptus urophyllaxE. Grandis sprout forest and Castanopsis fissa mixed forest were investigated and the characteristics of soil seed bank were studied using the method of seed germination. The results showed that the rule of seed germination was the same in different soil layers. The seeds entered germination peak period from the 7th day, then to slow period followed by end period from the 19th day. The seed density of soil seed banks in E. Urophylla x E. Grandis sprout forest was 7 356 grain/m2, significantly higher than that of control (3 614 grain/m2). A total of 8 species, belonging to 7 families, among which Microstegium ciliatum was the dominant species (accounted for 95.8% of total soil seed bank) was identified. More than 80% of the seeds were stored in the litter layer and 0~5 cm soil layer. The ecological dominance index of soil seed banks in E. Urophylla x E. Grandis sprout forest was obviously higher than that of C. Fissa mixed forest, but the Margalef richness index (R), Shannon-Wiener index (H'), Pielou evenness index (E), Simpson index (D) were lower than that of C. Fissa mixed forest.%对尾巨桉萌芽林和大叶栎杂木林土壤种子库进行了取样调查,采用种子萌发试验研究了不同森林类型的土壤种子库特征.结果表明,各土壤层种子萌发的规律基本一致,大约从第7天开始进入种子萌发高峰期,第19天后进入缓慢萌发期,至最后停止萌发;土壤种子库种子密度尾巨桉萌芽林(7 356粒/m2)显著高于对照大叶栎杂木林(3 614粒/m2).尾巨桉萌芽林土壤种子库共计物种8种,分属于7科,其中以禾本科的刚莠竹为优势种,占土壤种子库总量的95.8%;种子库垂直分布格局显示,80%以上的种子储存在枯枝落叶层和0~5 cm的土壤中.尾巨桉萌芽林土壤种子库具有较高的生态优势度指数,但Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数及

  15. 巨尾桉工业原料林下植物群落学分析%Community analysis of undergrowth vegetation in industrial plantation of Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程盛慧; 杨宇明; 赵一鹤; 李昊民

    2012-01-01

    基于群落调查方法,对巨尾桉林下植物进行群落学分析.结果表明:巨尾桉林下植物共有维管束植物57科、124属、154种及变种,以禾本科和菊科的种类占优势;林下植物物种组成较为分散,优势属不明显;种子植物53科划分为6个分布区类型和2个变型,以热带分布科为主;种子植物120个属有14个分布区类型和7个变型,以热带分布属为主,植物区系成分较为复杂.林下植被可分为灌木层和草本层,但是分层现象不明显,草本层植物占优势,偶见有少量的层间植物分布.林下物种丰富度表现为草本层>灌木层;而Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou均匀度指数则表现为灌木层>草本层,生境空间异质性及人为干扰活动影响了巨尾桉林下植物组成及分布.%Based on standard community survey methodologies, community analysis of undergrowth vegetation in the Eucalyptus grandis ×E. Urophylla industrial plantations were analyzed. The results showed that, totally 154 vascu lar plants species belonging to 57 families and 124 genera were found. The dominating families were Gramineae and Compositae. The distribution of different plants was dispersed. And, there were no distinguishing dominating genera. 53 spermatophyte families could be classified into six areal types and two variables,mainly composed of tropical distri bution families; 120 spermatophyte genera could be classified into 14 areal types and 7 variables which were domina ted by 14 tropical distribution genera as dominating areal types. The pantropic areal types accounted for 28. 04% of non-cosmopolitan families. From the above, the flora composition of the undergrowth vegetation in the Eucalyptus grandis × E. Urophylla industrial plantations was very complicated. There were two layers of undergrowth vegetation in the Eucalyptus grandis ×E. Urophylla industrial plantations: herbaceous layer and shrub layer, but the layers were less obviously classified and

  16. Sequencing and Bioinformatic Analysis for Transcriptome of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. merrillii%香榧转录组测序及生物信息学基础分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易官美; 包燕春

    2016-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. cv. Merrillii is an economically important plant on both agriculture and ecology. However, the genomic information of this species has been less studied, leading to limited researching progresses in both molecular biology and gene functions. In the present study, we have sampled different tissues of T. grandi to conduct a transcriptomic analysis using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 technical platform. As a result, a total of 37,349,086 reads were obtained with the whole base number of 4.35 G. Based on the assembling of high quality reads, we identified a total of 104,636 Unigenes with an average length of 784 nt and N50 was 1,702 nt. Comparing these Unigene sequences with those in the public database, 28,766 Unigenes were annotated in the Nr database, 24,003 Unigenes were in the NT database, and 21,401 Unigenes were in the Swiss-Prot database. Moreover, based on the COG database and the GO database, we also found 16,137 Unigenes and 11,410 Unigenes were in both databases respectively. We further classified 18,564 Unigenes into 256 pathways according to the KEGG annotation information. Finally, we identified 4,706 SSR loci in 4,217 Unigenes via SSR loci searching. The obtained transcriptome data was thus as the first genomic-wide database serving for future studies of T. grandis in terms of functional gene cloning, gene expression, fingerprint construction and molecular marker-assisted breeding.%香榧具有重要的经济价值,但其基因组信息相对匮乏,限制了其分子生物学和基因功能的研究。本文以不同组织的香榧作为研究对象,采用新一代高通量测序技术平台Illumina HiSeq™2000对香榧转录组进行测序和数据分析,共得到37,349,086个reads片段,总碱基数为4.35 G。利用组装软件,对获得的高质量序列进行组装,共得到104,636个Unigene,平均长度为784 nt,N50为1,702。将Unigene序列与公共数据库进行比对,28,766

  17. 大针茅干旱胁迫下最佳内参基因组合的筛选及验证%Screening and Verification of the Best Combination of Reference Genes of Stipa grandis under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武志娟; 王照兰; 韩冰; 焦志军; 赵鸿彬

    2016-01-01

    经 qRT-PCR,采用ΔCt 值分析法、geNorm 和 NormFinder 软件分析法综合比较 Act 2、TUB-α、TUB-β、18S rRNA 、GAPDH 、EF-1a 、RNA POL I I 、APRT 、TLF 9个基因的稳定值,筛选大针茅干旱胁迫下基因表达分析最佳内参基因组合。结果表明,在根中最稳定的内参基因组合为18S rRNA 和 EF-1a ,在叶中最稳定的内参基因组合为18S rRNA 和 TLF 。在不同干旱胁迫下用大针茅根和叶中 P IP 2-1和 P IP 2-2基因表达差异验证最佳内参基因组合的稳定性表明,所筛选的内参基因稳定性较好,可以作为大针茅干旱胁迫基因表达的内参基因。%In order to provide stable reference genes for the analysis of gene expression of Stipa gran-dis under the drought stress,stable values of 9 reference genes of Act 2,TUB-α,TUB-β,18S rRNA ,GAP-D H ,EF-1a ,RNA POL I I ,APRT and TLF were investigated by qRT-PCR with ΔCt analyzing method and geNorm and NormFinder software.The best reference genes combination was selected.The results showed that the most stable reference genes combination was 18S rRNA and EF-1a in the root as well as 18S rRNA and TLF in the leaf.The best reference genes combination of P I P 2-1 and P I P 2-2 in the root and leaf of Stipa grandis was proved to be stable under different drought stress.

  18. EFEITO DA DISPONIBILIDADE HÍDRICA E DA APLICAÇÃO DE POTÁSSIO E SÓDIO NAS CARACTERÍSTICAS ANATÔMICAS DO LENHO JUVENIL DE Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Castro e Freitas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de água e de fertilizantes em povoamentos florestais promove estímulos na atividade do meristema cambial das árvores, causando significativas alterações nas características anatômicas e na formação do lenho. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as características anatômicas do lenho de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis com 24 e 36 meses de idade submetidas à redução das chuvas e à nutrição de K e Na. Os tratamentos foram definidos por dois regimes hídricos (100% e 66% das chuvas, com redução artificial com lonas de polietileno e três tipos de nutrição: K (4,5 kmol/ha, Na (4,5 kmol/ha e controle. Foram selecionadas três árvores por tratamento e por idade, totalizando 36 árvores amostradas, sendo seccionados Discos de lenho a 1,3 m de altura (DAP para a avaliação das características anatômicas. Os resultados indicaram que os tratamentos de nutrição x disponibilidade hídrica induziram alterações na largura total, diâmetro do lume e espessura da parede da fibra aos 24 meses e não alteraram as dimensões dos vasos no lenho do E. grandis. A aplicação isolada do K e do Na não influenciou as características anatômicas do lenho, exceto para a largura, diâmetro do lume e espessura da parede da fibra aos 24 meses. A redução dos níveis de precipitação, pela instalação de faixas de lonas de polietileno, não influenciou significativamente as dimensões das fibras e dos vasos no lenho das árvores de eucalipto. Os resultados poderão ser utilizados como subsídios para a adoção de práticas silviculturais nas plantações florestais em áreas com estresse hídrico, bem como a substituição parcial de K por Na.

  19. Technology research of composite manufacturing MDF with Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla wood chips%白千层与尾巨桉木片混合压制MDF工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹馨蕾; 李凯夫; 陈文军

    2014-01-01

    采用正交试验设计方法,用不同工艺参数压制白千层-尾巨桉中密度纤维板(MDF),并对其力学性能进行测试。结果显示:木片的蒸煮压力对白千层-尾巨桉MDF静曲强度和吸水厚度膨胀率影响较大,而白千层木片与尾巨桉木片的混合比例则对内结合强度影响较大;对4.4 mm厚MDF试验成品的各项性能进行极差分析,得出在白千层与尾巨桉混合比例为1∶1、蒸煮时间为13 min、蒸煮压力0.95 MPa的条件下MDF的质量为最好,符合GB/T 11718-2009中对普通型中密度纤维板的性能要求。%The orthogonal test was used to explore the physical property of MDF with different process parameters. The results show that the steaming pressure had great impact in the static bending intensity and thickness swelling of the tested chips;the mixing ratio of Melaleuca alternifolia chips and Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla chips had great effect to the internal bond strength. By analyzing the 4.4 mm MDF products with range analysis method,the conclusions were as follows:with the conditions of the mixing ratio 1︰1 of Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla, steaming time 13 mins, and the steaming pressure 0.95 MPa, the products quality MDF of is the best. In this way, the quality of MDF not only would reach the standard of GB/T11718-2009, but also has the best performance..

  20. 巨桉无性系Eg5的卡那霉素和头孢霉素敏感性研究%Study on kanamycin and cefotaxime sensitivity of Eucalyptus grandis clone Eg5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利军; 曾炳山; 刘英; 李湘阳; 裘珍飞

    2012-01-01

    By taking Eucalyptus grandis colne Eg5 leaves as explants, the effects of Kanamycin sulfate on the callus proliferation, bud differentiation and shoot rooting of leaf explains of Eucalyptus grandis clone Eg5 and the effect of Cefotaxime on explant's regeneration and the growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 were studied. The results showed that the concentration of kanamycin for restraining callus proliferation was 17.5 mg/L, that for fully suppressing bud differentiation was 60 mg/L and that for inhibiting shoots rooting was 400 mg/L. Cefotaxime at a dosage from 0 mg/L to 300 mg/L had minimal impact on the differentiation of leaf explants. With a soak of the explants in the solution of 500 mg/L Cefotaxime, the growth of agrobacterium can be fully inhibited at a Cefotaxime dosage of 100 mg/L in medium.%以巨桉无性系Eg5叶片为外植体材料,试验了硫酸卡那霉素(kanamycin sulfate,Km)对外植体愈伤组织诱导增殖、芽分化、芽生根的影响,并且试验了头孢霉素(Cefotaxime,Cef对外植体再生的影响及其对根癌农杆菌GV3101的抑制效果.结果表明:抑制愈伤组织增殖培养的卡那霉素浓度为17.5 mg/L,完全抑制芽分化的卡那霉素浓度为60 mg/L,完全抑制生根的卡那霉素浓度为400 mg/L; Cef在0~500mg/L范围内,0~300mg/L Cef对外植体的生长分化影响最小;共培养结束后的外植体经过500mgL的Cef处理后,共培养基中添加100 mg/L的Cef便可以完全抑制农杆菌GV3101的生长.

  1. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females

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    Roberta R. Coelho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenin (Vg, a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest.

  2. Monitoramento do teor de umidade de madeiras de Pinus elliottii Engelm. E Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, sob diferentes temperaturas de secagem, através do ultra-som

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    Leandro Calegari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the viability of use of ultrasonic technique to estimate the wood moisture content during the drying process, samples of Pinus elliottii Engelm. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with dimensions of 3.5 cm thick, 10 cm width and 25 cm long were submitted to drying temperatures of 20, 40 and 70ºC. A PUNDIT ultrasonic equipment with plane face transducers by 50 KHz was used to measure sound velocity in the longitudinal direction of the wood. Results indicated increase of estimated ultrasonic speed with reduction of moisture content. This relationship showed to be valid for the wood from green to the end of the drying process, and the best determination coefficients were found in the eucalypt wood (R² = 81%. Although no influence of the species in the ultrasonic speed has been observed, this one was influenced by the wood specific gravity and by the drying temperature. The effect of the specific mass was directly proportional for the pinus wood. Opposite effect was observed in eucalypt wood. The ultrasonic speed tended to decrease as drying temperature increased for both species. Results suggest that this method presents good potential for the control of the drying process.

  3. Produção de chapas de partículas orientadas “OSB” de Eucalyptus grandis com diferentes teores de resina, parafina e composição em camadas.

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    Setsuo Ivakiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência dos seguintes parâmetros de processo de produção sobre as propriedades das chapas "OSB": composição das chapas em camadas cruzadas com proporções face-miolo-face de 30-40-30 e 20-60-20 em relação à composição homogênea; e, quantidades de 3, 4,5 e 6,0% de resina fenol-formaldeído, com incorporação de 0,5 e 1,0% de emulsão de parafina. Os resultados demonstraram que a composição das chapas, com a relação 20-60-20, apresentou melhor balanço das propriedades de flexão estática entre os sentidos de ensaios paralelo e perpendicular ao plano da chapa. A quantidade de 6,0% de resina foi a que resultou em melhores propriedades físico-mecânicas das chapas "OSB". A produção de chapas "OSB" de Eucalyptus grandis, com 4,5 e 6,0% de resina fenol-formaldeído, superou as exigências mínimas de propriedades mecânicas das chapas "OSB" referendadas pela norma canadense CSA 0437-0 (1993.

  4. Quality assessment of essential oils of Citrus Grandis peel obtained by different extraction methods%不同方法提取的柚皮精油质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊荣; 曾新安; 关昕

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil of Citrus Grandis peel was obtained by steam distillation,organic solvent extraction and supercritical(carbon dioxide)extraction methods,respectively.The physical and chemical properties as well as the major functional group were compared and identified.It could be concluded from the results that the quality of the essential oil obtained by steam distillation was better than that obtained by the other two extraction methods.%利用水热法、超临界萃取法、有机溶剂萃取三种不同的方法从沙田柚皮中提取柚皮精油,比较了提取出的三种精油的理化指标、香气特征,并且对精油的主要官能团进行了鉴定。通过对柚皮精油进行综合评价,得出最佳的提取方法。结果表明用水热法提取的精油香气比较纯正,精油含量较高,而且生产成本投资较少,综合评价值最高。

  5. Cold Resistance Nutrient Characters with Ten Kinds of Fungus in Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis%桉树内生菌对尾巨桉幼苗抗寒生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢安强; 洪伟; 吴承祯

    2012-01-01

    E. urophylla X E. grandis seedlings were inoculated with 10 strains of eucalyptus endophytic fungi by irrigating the fungus suspension, and then subjected to low temperature stress 30 days later. The results showed that compared with the control the soluble sugar (SS) content increased by 41.11%, 11. 11% , 32.78% , 38. 89% and 6.67% in treatment 1,8,5,7,10, respectively. The soluble protein (SP) content was 14.90%, 0.72%, 10.94%, 3.37% , 24.40% and 0.36% higher in treatment 1,2,5,6,7,10 than that in the control. The proline content was 28.77% ,22. 11% ,20. 16% ,11.25% ,5.48% and 1.57% higher in treatment 5,7,1,2,4,9 than that in the control. The chlorophyll content was 9. 52% ,7. 48% ,7. 48% ,6. 80% ,5. 44% ,3. 40% ,3. 40% ,2. 72% ,2. 04% and 2. 04% higher in treatment 6,8,10,1,9,5,7,4,2,3 than that in the control. After being inoculated with strain 1 of the fungus, the cold-resistant capability of eucalyptus was much improved in terms of nutrition characteristics. However, the more physiological characteristics may be needed to determine whether the fungus can be applied in production.

  6. AVALIAÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DE PAINÉIS MDF DE MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis CONFECCIONADOS EM LABORATÓRIO E EM LINHA DE PRODUÇÃO INDUSTRIAL

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    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MDF panels of Eucalyptus grandis wood fibers were made in either experimentally in a laboratory or on an industrial production line. In order to analyze the influence of the production condition, the anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of the panels were determined. The wood refining induced the transversal rupture of the transversal fiber wall. The MDF panels obtained from the industrial production line presented less swelling in thickness and absorption values and improved mechanical properties in the requirements of bending strength, module of elasticity and surface resistance. For laboratory MDF panels, it was possible to verify a statistically significant correlation between bending strength and module of elasticity, medium density and internal bond and swelling in thickness and absorption. This tendency was also true for the MDF panels obtained in real conditions of production, however without statistical significance. By comparing the quality properties of MDF panels produced in the laboratory with those obtained in real conditions of production, it was sought to standardize the established variables for obtaining panels on a small scale, as well to make possible the safe transfer and divulgation of information obtained in the laboratory.

  7. INFLUÊNCIA DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS ANATÔMICAS E DO TEOR DE EXTRATIVOS TOTAIS DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden NA QUALIDADE DA COLAGEM

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    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to anatomically characterize and to quantify the total extractives in different positions of the log of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with 18 years of age and to assess their influence on the shear strength and percentage of wood failure in adhesive bonded joints with thermosetting resorcinolformaldehyde. Histological slides were prepared for an anatomical study and determined the total extractive content. The preparation of bonded joints was made according to ASTM D 2339-98(2000. It was used the correlation coefficient of Pearson, 1 % probability by t test to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical and extractives content with the quality of the glued joints. It was found that there was a correlation between the shear strength with the following characteristics: vessel diameter, wall width, length and width of the fiber, the width of the radius and total extractives content. For the percentage of woodfailure, there was a correlation between this with the following characteristics: the frequency of vessels, thickness of the heatof fiber, and high frequency of lightning. Both the radial direction as in the longitudinal direction of the logs there was change in the values found for the measurement of the anatomical elements, the total amount of extractives, the shear test strength and the percentage of wood failure.

  8. Insulin-Mimetic Action of Rhoifolin and Cosmosiin Isolated from Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Leaves: Enhanced Adiponectin Secretion and Insulin Receptor Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Cells

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    Yerra Koteswara Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (red wendun leaves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting these actions and its active compounds. Two flavone glycosides, rhoifolin and cosmosiin were isolated for the first time from red wendun leaves and, identified these leaves are rich source for rhoifolin (1.1%, w/w. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, rhoifolin and cosmosiin showed dose-dependent response in concentration range of o.oo1–5 μM and 1–20 μM, respectively, in biological studies beneficial to diabetes. Particularly, rhoifolin and cosmosiin at 0.5 and 20 μM, respectively showed nearly similar response to that 10 nM of insulin, on adiponectin secretion level. Furthermore, 5 μM of rhoifolin and 20 μM of cosmosiin showed equal potential with 10 nM of insulin to increase the phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β, in addition to their positive effect on GLUT4 translocation. These findings indicate that rhoifolin and cosmosiin from red wendun leaves may be beneficial for diabetic complications through their enhanced adiponectin secretion, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β and GLUT4 translocation.

  9. 大竹蛏5个野生群体遗传多样性的微卫星分析%Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity of five wild populations of Solen grandis (Dunker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志伟; 张雨; 陈爱华; 张志勇; 陆勤勤; 张朝晖; 姚国兴; 蔡永祥; 吴杨平; 曹奕

    2015-01-01

    The grand jackknife clam Solen grandis (Dunker, 1861) is a commercial marine bivalve that is found in coastal waters of China, Japan, and Korea from the shallow subtidal to depths of 20 m. It has high nutritive and medical value according to traditional Chinese medicine. In addition, it is adaptable and has high growth rates and great market potential. Currently, this clam is only available from natural sources. Over the last few decades, however, overfishing and environmental pollution have caused dramatic declines in natural stocks of S. grandis, and production is low and unstable. Fortunately, methods of artificial breeding and cultivation of the jackknife clam are developing. Previous studies on S. grandis focused primarily on morphological and ecological characteristics, allozyme analysis, and evalua-tion of its nutrition components. Little is known about the molecular ecology of S. grandis or its genetic background. Thus, it is important to evaluate genetic differences among populations along the coast of China. In this study, 14 mi-crosatellite DNA markers were used to examine the genetic diversity and differentiation among five wild populations of the grand jackknife clam. A total of 150 samples were collected from Dandong (DD) in Liaoning Province, Qinhuang-dao (QHD) in Hebei Province, Rizhao (RZ) in Shandong Province, Lyusi (LS) in Jiangsu Province, and Beihai (BH) in Guangxi Province. Comparisons of 199 alleles among the five populations showed that, in the fourteen loci, polymor-phism information content (PIC)values ranged from 0.696 to 0.853 with high polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 8 to 22 and the average number (AM) and richness(AR) of alleles were 14.2 and 11.05, respectively. Ex-pected (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged 0.769–0.826 and 0.809–0.858, respectively, suggesting high levels of genetic diversity in all populations. Only the Sg16 locus in the DD population deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

  10. Methods for Simultaneous Evaluation of Productivity, Adaptability and Genotypic Stability in Eucalyptus grandis Progeny Trials in the State of Sao Paulo Avaliação Simultânea de Produtividade, Adaptabilidade e Estabilidade Genotípica de Eucalyptus grandis em Distintos Ambientes do Estado de São Paulo

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    José Elidney Pinto Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The estimated Harmonic Mean for Genetic Values (MHVG, Relative Performance of Genetic Values (PRVG and the Harmonic Mean of Relative Performance of Genetic Values (MHPRVG were used as measures to provide and facilitate the interpretation of genotypic stability and adaptability of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. The different criteria were applied as alternatives to the simulation of selection for productivity, stability, adaptability, as well as for the joint value of these attributes together. The estimates were generated by using the mixed model, assuming genetic effects to be random. The software SELEGEN-REML/BLUP was used to evaluate progeny trials and to estimate statistical parameters. The best trees to be used in seedling and clonal orchards were identified. Fifty three half-sib families from three Australian provenances were tested in the municipalities of Mogi Guaçu, Boa Esperança do Sul and Caçapava, in the State of São Paulo. Compact family blocks designs were used, involving variable numbers of replicates, with six-trees linear plots, in a 3 x 2 m spacing. Two types of data transformation were tried in order to evaluate their efficiency in the reduction of the genetic, environmental and phenotypic variances. MHVG, PRVG and MHPRVG statistics proved to be useful in simulations for the selection of individuals with the attributes considered, providing options for choosing strategies and criteria by considering different values for the estimated genetic gains. The joint analysis of experiments in different locations confirmed that substantial gains can be obtained in DBH through individual selection based on their genetic values. This can be achieved by either thinning the trial, which leads to the formation of a seedling seed orchard or vegetative propagation of the best individuals, in order to establish a clonal seed orchard. The genetic correlation between locations indicated that a

  11. Effects of Fertilization on Shoot Growth and Fruit Yield of Torreya grandis%施肥对香榧枝梢生长和结实量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕; 刘千玲; 陈田甜; 刘桂华

    2015-01-01

    We determined the shoot growth and fruit yield of Torreya grandis with different amount of fertilization in the first and second year, and studied the effect of fertilization on the shoot growth and fruit yield of I.grandis.The rapeseed cake had no effect on new growth shoot in the first year , while the relationship between the amount of composite fertilization and the production of new shoot in the first year was pronounced , the production of new shoot in the first year was initially in-creased and then decreased with increment amount of composite fertilization , and over-fertilization of composite fertilizer would inhibit the growth of new shoot .The growth of new shoot in the second year , fruit production in two years would not increase with the rapeseed and composite fertilization endlessly , however, the maximum new shoot growth and fruit output was reached at the optimal ( minimum) rate of fertilization based on the tree size .The bigger trees required greater amount of optimal ( minimum) fertilization to achieve the maximum growth of new shoot and fruit yield .For the trees of same size with equal amount of fertilization , rapeseed fertilizer had less facilitation effect on new shoot growth in the first year than composite fertilizer , but rapeseed fertilizer promoted shoot growth more prominently in the following year .Two fertilizers didn’ t have obvious divergence for the promotion of fruit yield in the first year , while rapeseed cake had a more positive impact on the fruit output than composite fertilizer in the second year .%采用田间试验的方法,对不同大小树体的香榧进行了施肥试验,分析施肥对香榧树的新梢生长和结实量的影响。结果表明:菜籽饼肥对当年新梢的生长没有产生显著影响;当年新梢生长量随复合肥施肥量的增加呈现先增加后略降的变化规律,过量施用复合肥会对新梢当年生长量产生抑制影响。翌年新梢生长量以及当年和翌年

  12. Cloning and sequence analysis of citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the root of ‘Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis)%酸柚根系CS和PEPC基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林通; 林郑和; 陈立松

    2012-01-01

    Total RNA was extracted from root of ' sour pummelo' ( Citnus grandis) by hot borate method. The sequence of conserved region, 3' RACE product and 5' RACE product of citrate synthase (CS) and phosphoenolpyruvate cariboxylase (PEPC) genes were obtained by RT-PCR and RACE. The full-length cDNA of CS was 1217 bp, which contained a 1413 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 472 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 52.487 ku and an isoelectric point of 6.9, a 67 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a277 bp 3'-UTR. An alignment of deduced amino acid sequence of CS gene from ' sour pummelo' with other plants showed ihey shared high homeology (85.4% -99.6%). The full-length cDNA of PEPC was 3307, which contained a 2604 bp ORF encoding 868 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 99.569 ku and an isoelectric point of 6.68, a 431 bp 5'-UTR and a 269 bp 3'-UTR. An alignment of deduced amino acid sequence of PEPC gene from sour pummelo with other plants showed they shared high homeology (85.8% -95.7%).%以酸柚(Citrus grandis)根系为材料,利用热硼酸法提取了根系总RNA,并逆转录成cDNA,利用PCR和RACE技术相继得到柠檬酸合酶基因(CS)和磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶基因(PEPC)的保守区、3′端和5′端.酸柚根系CS基因全长1760bp,开放读码框有1413bp,编码472个氨基酸,氨基酸序列相对分子质量为52.487 ku,等电点为6.9,亲水指数为-0.199;5′端非编码区为67 bp,3′端非编码区为277 bp;推导的氨基酸经序列比对,发现与其他物种具有很高的同源性(85.4% -99.6%).酸柚根系PEPC基因全长3307bp,开放读码框有2604 bp,编码868个氨基酸,氨基酸序列相对分子质量为99.569ku,等电点为6.68,亲水指数为-0,398;5′端非编码区为431 bp,3′端非编码区为269 bp,推导的氨基酸经序列比对,发现与其他物种具有很高的同源性(85.8% - 95.7%).初步确定克隆到的为酸柚根系CS和PEPC基因,登

  13. Estudio de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, trabajabilidad y secado de la teca (Tectona grandis L.f de Puerto libertador (Córdoba.

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    Betancur Salgado Carlos A.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Productos Forestales " Héctor Anaya López" de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín. Dado el interés de la Empresa Reforestadora del Caribe, por conocer las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, trabajabilidad y secado de la madera de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. ; de cuya especie la Empresa estableció en Noviembre de 1987, una plantación en el municipio de Puerto libertador (Córdoba. Las propiedades físicas que se evaluaron fueron; peso especifico (verde, seco al aire, básico, anhidro y ajustado al 12 % de contenido de humedad, contracción y contenido de humedad. En lo relacionado a las propiedades mecánicas, se realizaron ensayos de flexión estática, compresión paralela a las fibras, compresión perpendicular al las fibras, cizallamiento, dureza, extracción de clavos e impacto; los ensayos se llevaron a cabo tanto en estado verde (CH>30% como en estado seco al aire (CH<15%. La madera presentó peso especifico anhidro (0.57 g/ cm3 , ubicándose dentro del grupo de maderas medianamente pesadas, las propiedades mecánicas de la especie se colocaron en el rango de algo medianas a medianas. Al comparar estos resultados con los estudios reportados para la especie, no se observo diferencia alguna. Los ensayos de trabajabilidad se realizaron en estado seco al aire (CH<15%, evaluando la respuesta de la madera al cepillado, moldurado y taladrado. Los defectos que se presentaron en cepillado fueron grano arrancado, grano velloso y en relieve, siendo de mayor importancia el último, debido a que los demás, se pueden eliminar fácilmente mediante lijado.

  14. Optimization of Extraction Technology for Inositol from Exocarpium Citri Grandis%正交试验法优选化橘红中肌醇提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈地灵; 陈振兴; 林励; 吴泽青; 吴俊生

    2012-01-01

    [目的]优选化橘红中肌醇最佳提取工艺.[方法]以乙醇浓度、料液比和提取温度为考察因素,采用高效液相一蒸发光散射检测器(HPLC-ELSD)色谱法测定化橘红中肌醇含量,采用正交试验法优选化橘红中肌醇最优提取工艺.[结果]化橘红中肌醇最佳提取工艺为体积分数70%乙醇、料液比1∶20、提取温度100℃、每次时间45 min、提取2次.[结论]本研究优选得到的提取工艺稳定、提取率高,可用于化橘红中肌醇的提取.%Objective To optimize the extraction technology for the inositol from Exocarpium Citri Grandis. Methods With ethanol concentration, the ratio of material to solvent and extracting temperature as factors, the extraction technology for the inositol from Exocarpium Citri Crandis was optimized by orthogonal design and through the determination of inositol content by high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). Results The optimal extraction technology was as follows; 70% ethanol, the ratio of material to solvent being 1:20, extraction at 100℃, for 45 min and extraction twice. Conclusion The extraction technology is steady, extraction percentage is higher and the technology is suitable for the extraction of inositol from Exocarpium Citri Crandis.

  15. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE PARTÍCULAS ORIENTADAS “OSB” DE Eucalyptus grandis COM DIFERENTES TEORES DE RESINA, PARAFINA E COMPOSIÇÃO EM CAMADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência dos seguintes parâmetros de processo de produção sobre as propriedades das chapas “OSB”: composição das chapas em camadas cruzadas com proporções face-miolo-face de 30-40-30 e 20-60-20 em relação à composição homogênea; e, quantidades de 3, 4,5 e 6,0% de resina fenol-formaldeído, com incorporação de 0,5 e 1,0% de emulsão de parafina. Os resultados demonstraram que a composição das chapas, com a relação 20-60-20, apresentou melhor balanço das propriedades de flexão estática entre os sentidos de ensaios paralelo e perpendicular ao plano da chapa. A quantidade de 6,0% de resina foi a que resultou em melhores propriedades físico-mecânicas das chapas “OSB”. A produção de chapas “OSB” de Eucalyptus grandis, com 4,5 e 6,0% de resina fenol-formaldeído, superou as exigências mínimas de propriedades mecânicas das chapas “OSB” referendadas pela norma canadense CSA 0437-0 (1993.

  16. 大针茅根际AM真菌的分子鉴定及不同放牧强度对AM侵染的影响%Identification of Arbuscular mycorrhiza Fungi of Stipa grandis and Infecting Effects under Grazing Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹路; 索培芬; 韩冰; 赵萌莉; 海丽丽

    2015-01-01

    大针茅(Stipa grandis P.Smirn.)是我国北方典型草原上的建群种或优势种植物,具有重要的饲用价值.大针茅根系能够形成丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhiza,AM).采集围栏区的大针茅根系,根据18S rDNA序列鉴定大针茅根系中的AM真菌为球囊霉属(Glomus)的根内球囊霉(G.intraradices).通过对轻度放牧区、中度放牧区、重度放牧区和未放牧的对照区(30年围栏草场)大针茅根系AM真菌侵染情况的分析,发现不同放牧强度下菌丝侵染率和总侵染率都不存在显著性差异.放牧利用总体降低了丛枝的侵染率.放牧强度影响AM真菌泡囊结构在大针茅根系中的发育,轻度和中度放牧促进AM真菌泡囊的形成,而重度放牧则显著抑制.放牧强度对大针茅AM真菌的影响主要体现在AM真菌营养的交换和繁殖方面,AM真菌光合产物的减少属于中性反应,对碳的需求相对较少,这可能也是大针茅具有较强耐牧性的原因之一.

  17. 干旱胁迫对巨桉幼树生长及光合特性的影响%Effects of Drought Stress on Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Eucalyptus Grandis Saplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光良; 罗杰; 胡红玲; 胡庭兴; 陈洪; 王锐

    2015-01-01

    To study effects of drought stress on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis saplings, a pot experiment kept under continuous drought was performed. Growth and photosynthetic parameters of the saplings were monitored once every two days after irrigation, that is, on D2, D4, D6, D8, D10, D12, D14 and D16, while the sam-pling with normal irrigation as DO. Results show that ( 1) during the first 6 days, although growth of the saplings in ground diameter and plant height declined, it did not differ much from that on D0 ( P>0. 05);however, with the stress going on ( D8-D16) , the growth of the saplings in ground diameter and plant height dropped significantly. ( 2) with the stress going on, the content of chlorophyll a ( Chl a) in the saplings decreased significantly ( P0. 05) , but were getting much lower from D4 than those on D0( P<0. 05);(3) with the stress going on, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) of the saplings decreased significantly ( P<0. 05) while intercellular CO2 concentration ( Ci ) decreased first and then in-creased;(4) with the stress going on, apparent quantum yield(YAQ), RuBP apparent carboxylation rate (Ec), light sat-uration point(Lsp) and CO2saturation point(Csp) of the saplings were all on declining trends, while light compensation point(Lcp), CO2 compensation point(Ccp) on rising ones and maximum net photo-syntheticrate(Pmax)was on a declining one. In summary, with the drought stress aggravating, the content of photosynthetic pigments in the saplings decreased;stomata closed partly;photosynthetic organs were damaged to some extent, thus greatly reducing the saplings′ability to use light and CO2 and their photosynthetic rate, and consequently suppressing growth of the E. grandis saplings.%采用盆栽和持续干旱的方法,研究了干旱胁迫(以2 d为1个处理期,随干旱处理时间延长分别记为D2、D4、D6、D8、D10、D12、D14、D16,正常浇水记为D0)

  18. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Leaf Litter Decomposition in a Plantation of Eucalyptus grandis, in a Rainy Region of West China%模拟氮沉降对华西雨屏区巨桉林凋落叶分解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红玲; 张健; 刘洋; 涂利华; 向元彬

    2011-01-01

    2008 -01-2010 - 01,对华西雨屏区巨桉人工林进行氮沉降模拟试验,氮沉降水平分别为对照(CK,0 gN·m-2a-1)、低氮(5 g N·m-2a-1)、中氮(15 g N·hm-2a-1)和高氮(30 g N·m-2a-1),把年施氮量分12等份,每月下旬对各处理施氮( NH4 N03),探讨氮沉降持续增加对巨桉凋落叶分解和养分释放过程的影响,及巨桉凋落叶分解过程中是否存在限制值.结果表明:巨桉凋落叶在分解初期存在一个质量快速损失的淋溶期,而分解后期(14个月以后)质量损失极其缓慢,残留凋落物处于较稳定状态;氮沉降显著抑制了巨桉凋落叶后期分解,并且低氮处理抑制作用最强,但氮沉降对凋落物养分释放过程无明显影响;自然分解状态下,巨桉凋落叶分解限制值大约为90% (CK),而氮沉降使得这一限制值降低,并且低氮(限制值大约为72%)与对照之间差异达到显著水平.%To detect the effects of nitrogen deposition on leaf litter decomposition of Eucalyptus grandis, and investigate whether there is a limit value in the decomposition process, a field experiment simulating nitrogen deposition was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010 in a plantation of E. grandis, which is located at a Rainy Region of West China. The levels of nitrogen deposition included control (CK, 0 g N·m-2a-1) , low nitrogen (5 g N·m-2a-1) , medium nitrogen (15 g N·m-2a-1) and high nitrogen (30 g N·m-2a-1). The total annual amount of nitrogen (NH4NO3) application was divided into 12 equal parts, and each part was added to the corresponding N-treated plot by the end of each month started from January of 2008. Results indicated that there was a leaching period at the early stages of leaf litter decomposition of E. grandis. Mass loss became very slow at the late stages after 14 months decomposition, and hereafter the litter was relatively stable. N deposition inhibited the decomposition of litter at the late stages and the inhibiting effect in

  19. 基于蜥蜴干扰的大针茅草原补偿生长研究%STUDIES OF LIZARD INTERFERENCE ON COMPENSATORY GROWTH OF STIPA GRANDIS STEPPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涵越; 聂梅; 张景慧; 黄永梅

    2014-01-01

    Ecological monitoring experience in Maodeng Pasture Field Ecology Observation Area near Xilinhot city was applied to analyze differences in three plots (control,fenced,lizard)to study effects of lizard activity on biodiversity,community structure,community biomass and biomass of dominant species of steppe in Inner Mongolia,China.Data showed that lizard activity increased total above-ground biomass and diversity significantly (Plizard plot>control plot;For Stipa grandis it was control plot>lizard plot>fenced plot.Line transect method was used to reveal a linear relationship between number of lizard caves and lizard habitat patch perimeter.%基于内蒙古锡林郭勒盟大针茅草原毛登牧场的生态监测,进行实地采样,通过对围封样地、大针茅样地、蜥蜴样地进行对比,研究蜥蜴活动对大针茅草原地上生物量、物种多样性、植物个体形态的干扰作用,进而探讨蜥蜴干扰对不同植物类群补偿效应的影响.结果表明,蜥蜴活动对大针茅草原地上总生物量增加的影响极显著(P<0.01),对大针茅草原生物多样性增加的影响显著(P<0.05).大针茅和羊草个体生物量在样地间存在差异,羊草生物量由大到小排序为围封样地、蜥蜴样地、大针茅样地;大针茅生物量由大到小排序为大针茅样地、蜥蜴样地、围封样地.通过样线法对蜥蜴活动的生境状况进行调查,表明蜥蜴活动所在生境的斑块的周长与聚集的洞穴的个数成线性关系.

  20. 大花绿绒蒿内生真菌 Neurospora sp.DHLRH-F次级代谢产物研究%Secondary metabolites of endophytic fungus Neurospora sp. DHLRH-F from Meconopsis grandis Prain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梅香; 胡谷平; 陈彬; 徐爱国; 普布多吉; 蒋思萍; 王军

    2016-01-01

    To study the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungus Neurospora sp.DHLRH -F from Meconopsis grandis Prain from Tibet,its fermentation products were isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH -20,ODS -1 8 column chromatography,and HPLC.The structures of obtained compounds were identified by NMR and MS analysis,and the absorption spectrums of the compounds-iron (Ⅱ)or i-ron (Ⅲ)were investigated by UV /Vis spectroscopy,respectively.The results showed that three polyphe-nols were isolated from the fermentation compounds of Neurospora sp.DHLRH -F.Their structures were identified as 2 -chloro -6 -methoxybenzene -1 ,4 -diol (1),6 -epi -5′-hydroxy-mycosporulone (2),and mycophenolic acid (3);compound 1 was a new natural product and showed a certain complex-ation ability for iron (Ⅲ).We firstly reported about secondary metabolites of endophytic fungus from Meconopsis Vig..%为了研究藏药大花绿绒蒿内生真菌 Neurospora sp.DHLRH -F 的次级代谢产物,采用硅胶、C -18反相硅胶、Sephadex LH -20等柱色谱及 HPLC 技术对其发酵物进行了系统分离;采用波谱分析技术进行化合物结构鉴定;采用光度法研究所得化合物对 Fe2+,Fe3+的络合能力。结果从大花绿绒蒿内生真菌 Neurospora sp.DHL-RH -F 的发酵物中分离得到3个多羟基化合物,分别鉴定为2-氯-6-甲氧基间苯二酚(1)、6-epi -5′-hy-droxy -mycosporulone (2)、霉酚酸(3)。本文是首次关于绿绒蒿属植物内生真菌次级代谢产物研究的报道;分离得到的化合物1是新天然产物,有一定的络合 Fe3+能力。

  1. Avaliação comparativa de iscas atrativas a partir da riqueza de espécies de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae numa floresta de Eucalyptus grandis, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Boscardin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar diferentes iscas atrativas, buscando eficiência quanto à riqueza de espécies de formigas epigéicas, potenciais bioindicadores da qualidade ambiental, em uma área antropizada, com Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden (Myrtaceae, com 16 anos, e aproximadamente cinco hectares, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram realizadas utilizando-se cinco tipos de iscas: sardinha com óleo (SO, sardinha com tomate (ST, patê de frango (FR, patê de fígado de frango (FG e atum sólido (AT distribuídas aleatoriamente na área, em intervalos de cinco metros, com cinco repetições, totalizando 25 unidades experimentais, amostradas a cada estação do ano, de novembro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Após 60 minutos de exposição, todo o material presente sobre a armadilha foi recolhido e acondicionado em recipientes com álcool 70 % e em seguida, encaminhado ao laboratório de entomologia para separação em morfo-espécies para posterior identificação. Coletaram-se 3072 indivíduos, distribuídos em 14 espécies pertencentes a oito gêneros e quatro subfamílias. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as riquezas médias observadas de espécies nas iscas (DMS = 2,3252 ; g.l. = 19, p > 0,05. A isca constituída de sardinha com óleo apresentou maior riqueza média observada de espécies (SM = 5,75, porém a isca a base de patê de fígado de frango apresentou maior riqueza de espécies (S = 13, sendo que, Pseudomyrmex termitarius ocorreu somente nestas duas. Das espécies amostradas, nenhuma apresentou preferência por uma única isca atrativa específica, espécies de Brachymyrmex, Camponotus, Pheidole, Wasmannia e Solenopsis foram comuns nas cinco iscas. Portanto, no momento da escolha de uma das iscas avaliadas para a realização da amostragem de formigas epigéicas, sugere-se ponderar, além da riqueza específica, a não- presen

  2. Analysis on Fatty Acid and Unsaponifiable Matter in Torreya grandis var.merriii Seed Oil%香榧籽油的脂肪酸及不皂化物组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛丽影; 吴晓琴; 张英

    2011-01-01

    香榧为我国特产的名贵干果,试验对其籽油的脂肪酸及不皂化物采用GC/MS进行了定性定量分析,结果确定香榧籽油脂肪酸组成以亚油酸与油酸为主,质量分数分别为39.60%与35.40%,其次为棕榈酸(10.24%).一种特殊脂肪酸,金松酸(顺5,11,14-二十碳三烯酸),质量分数达8.65%.另外,香榧籽油的不皂化物组成以β-谷甾醇和β-生育酚为主,含量分别为1.10 mg/g和0.51 mg/g.本研究为香榧籽油作为高档功能性油脂的开发利用提供了基础数据.%The seed of Chinese torreya ( Torreya grandis var. merriii) is a special rare native nut in China. This research focused on the fatty acid and unsaponifiable matter composition of its seed oil determined by GC/MS. Results showed that linoleic acid and oleic acid were most abundant with mass fraction of 39.60% and 35.40% ,followed by palmitic acid ( 10.24% ) and sciadonic acid ( all -cis - 5,11,14 - eicosatrienoic acid,8.65% ). Sciadonic acid is an unusual fatty acid, which is first reported in Torreya seed oil in China. In other side, β -sitosterol and β -tocopherol were main unsaponifiable components with respective contents of 1.10 mg/g and 0.51 mg/g. These data would be helpful for the further development and utilization of Chinese torreya seed oil as functional food.

  3. 新干特早柚GPAT基因5'端克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequencing Analysis of the 5' Fragment of GPAT Gene from Citrus grandis cv. Xingantezaoyou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴波; 刘勇

    2009-01-01

    Citrus maxima cv. Xingantezaoyou' s GPAT gene of 5' end fragment was isolated from the leaf by means of 5 ' - RACE technology. The cDNA fragment is 832 bp long ( GenBank Accession No: DQ193970). The nucleotide sequence analysis showed that these sequences of GPAT 5' end fragment are greatly different from those of other plants. The best nucleotide similarity to Citrus unshiu was 98.9% but those Carthamus tinctorius, Arabidopsis thaliana ,Elaeis guineensis, Pisum sativum and Viciafaba were 62.5% ,54.6% , 48.2% ,47.4% and 46.9% respectively. The deduce amino acids sequence analysis showed the similarity to Carthamus tinctorius,Arabidopsis thaliana, Elaeis guineensis,Pisum sativum and Capsicum annuum were 51.6% , 60% ,45.1% ,48% and 52.3%. The amino acid sequences of GPAT gene has genera specificity because the similarity of amino acid sequences to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is only 18.9%.%采用5'-RACE技术从新干特早柚(Citrus grandis cv. Xingantezaoyou)叶片中克隆出一条长832 bp的GPAT基因5'端cDNA片段(GenBank 登录号:DQ193970).序列分析结果表明:该cDNA片段序列与其它科属植物的GPAT基因序列的同源性差异较大,除与同类植物--温州蜜柑(Citrus unshiu)的同源性高达98.9%,与红花(Carthamus tinctorius)、拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)、非洲油棕榈(Elaeis guineensis)、豌豆(Pisum sativum)、蚕豆(Vicia faba)的同源性分别为62.5%、54.6%、48.2%、47.4%、46.9%;其所编码的氨基酸序列与红花、拟南芥、非洲油棕榈、豌豆、辣椒的同源性分别为51.6%、60%、45.1%、48%、52.3%,与细菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)的同源性仅为18.9%,说明GPAT基因的氨基酸序列具有种属特异性.

  4. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J; Steele, C L; Croteau, R

    1997-08-29

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and diterpene (C20) synthases from conifers more closely than other monoterpene synthases from angiosperm species. This similarity between extant monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of gymnosperms is surprising since functional diversification of this enzyme class is assumed to have occurred over 300 million years ago. Wound-induced accumulation of transcripts for monoterpene synthases was demonstrated by RNA

  5. Agrupamento de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em função das variáveis dendrométricas e das caracteristicas tecnológicas da madeira.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merielen de Carvalho Lopes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a possibilidade de agrupar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden em função das variáveis dendrométricas e fenotípicas e das características tecnológicas da madeira. As 63 árvores matrizes selecionadas, em um povoamento comercial do litoral norte do estado do Rio Grande do Sul foram abatidas e classificadas quanto às características fenotípicas e dendrométricas. Depois disso, retiraram-se discos na base, no diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, e a 25, 50, 75 e 100% da altura comercial, destinados à determinação da massa específica básica. Das duas primeiras toras seccionadas acima do DAP, foram retiradas, paralelamente à medula, as tábuas destinadas à avaliação qualitativa da madeira serrada. Por meio da análise de agrupamento, as árvores matrizes foram reunidas em quatro grupos distintos e classificadas com base na tendência em desenvolver rachaduras de topo nas tábuas e toras. No grupo I, classificaram-se as árvores com menor tendência a apresentar rachaduras de topo das tábuas, enquanto que nos grupos II e III, reuniram-se as árvores com menor tendência a rachaduras de topo das toras; e por fim, no grupo IV, classificaram-se as árvores com maior tendência a rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas. Através da aplicação da análise discriminante, foi possível identificar cinco variáveis com poder de discriminação dos grupos (DAP, porcentagem estimada de rachaduras, relação altura/diâmetro, tipo de casca e percentual volumétrico de alburno e três funções discriminantes. A técnica de análise de agrupamento e análise discriminante possibilitou o agrupamento das árvores semelhantes, a identificação das variáveis de seleção e a discriminação das funções que permitem alocar novas árvores nos grupos formados.

  6. Cloning of EuPOD gene from Eucalyptus grandis×E. tereticornis and its expression analysis infected by Calonectria pseudoreteaudii%EuPOD基因克隆与焦枯病菌胁迫表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽贞; 杨婕; 叶小真; 陈慧洁; 李慧敏

    2016-01-01

    植物过氧化物酶是植物体内活性氧清除过程中的关键酶之一,在植物的抗逆性中发挥着重要作用。以对焦枯病菌高抗品系尾细桉为材料,克隆得到一个 POD 基因序列,并命名为 EuPOD,通过实时荧光定量聚合酶链式反应( qRT ̄PCR)检验该基因在尾细桉叶片中的表达。结果表明该基因cDNA长999 bp,其编码蛋白由332个氨基酸组成;基于氨基酸序列的系统进化树分析表明, EuPOD在进化上与蓖麻、可可、苹果的同源基因亲缘关系较近,相似性达到了75%,与拟南芥的相似性达到65%,与水稻的相似性较低,只有48%。 EuPOD在桉树焦枯病菌侵染后不同时间所受诱导表达量不同,在12 h的表达量达到高峰。%Peroxidase( POD) is one of the key enzymes responsible for removal of reactive oxygen in plant, and plays a crucial role in stress response. In this study, a POD gene was cloned from the Calonectria resistant clone Eucalyptus grandis×E. tereticornis, and named as EuPOD. The expression of EuPOD gene in the leave was tested by qRT ̄PCR. The cDNA sequence of EuPOD were 999 bp, and encoded a protein consisting of 332 amino acids. A phylogenic tree was constructed based on the protein sequence. It showed that EuPOD was relatively close to homologous gene from Ricinus communis L., Theobroma cacao L., Malus domestica Borkh. Their sequence similarity were over 75%. EuPOD had more than 65% sequence similarity with Arabidopsis thaliana, and 48% to Oryza sativa Japonica Group. QRT ̄PCR analysis showed that the expression level of EuPOD increased after infection by C. pseudoreteaudii, and up to a peak after 12 h.

  7. 尾巨桉3个无性系继代增殖培养研究%Multiplication Subculture of Three Clones of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石前; 李飞宇; 梁秀莉; 邓冬丽; 李丽芳; 兰俊

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究尾巨桉3个无性系继代增殖培养技术,为尾巨桉苗木快速繁殖提供理论依据。[方法]以尾巨桉3个无性系DH32-26、DH32-29、DH32-28为试验材料,筛选最佳的植物生长调节剂组合、凝固剂、暗培养天数和培养瓶,达到较高的继代增殖系数。[结果]3个无性系继代增殖培养时最适的植物生长调节剂组合为:DH32-26(6-BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L);DH32-28(6-BA 0.4 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L);DH32-29(6-BA 0.3 mg/L+NAA0.2 mg/L);DH32-26的继代增殖系数在凝固剂为卡拉胶和琼脂的培养基中差异不大,DH32-28、DH32-29的继代增殖系数在以卡拉胶作为凝固剂的培养基中比在以琼脂作为凝固剂的培养基中有所提高,在生根培养过程中,以卡拉胶作为凝固剂的培养基远比用琼脂作为凝固剂的培养基诱导出根好;继代增殖初期DH32-26、DH32-28需用黑布进行全暗遮光5~10 d,而DH32-29不需全暗培养;用广口瓶继代增殖培养DH32-29可降低苗木生产成本,但DH32-26、DH32-28不适合用广口瓶进行继代增殖培养。[结论]要提高无性系继代增殖系数,需要选取最优的植物生长调节剂组合、凝固剂、暗培养天数和培养瓶。%Objective] To research the multiplication subculture technology of three clones of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis, and to pro-vide theoretical foundation for the rapid propagation of E. urophylla × E. grandis seedlings. [ Method] With three clones (DH32-26, DH32-29, DH32-28) as the test materials, the optimal combination of regulators was screened, as well as the coagulator, dark culture days and culture flask. Thus, multiplication coefficient was relatively high. [Result] The optimal combination of plant growth regulators for subculture of three clones were DH32-26(6-BA 0. 5 mg/L + NAA 0. 2 mg/L), DH32-28(6-BA 0. 4 mg/L + NAA 0. 2 mg/L) and DH32-29(6-BA 0. 3 mg/L +NAA 0. 2 mg/L). DH32-26 multiplication coefficient showed no significant differences

  8. Simulación del impacto de diferentes regímenes de cosecha sobre el capital de nutrientes e indicadores económicos en plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis del NE de Entre Ríos, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Goya

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect on soil productivity of harvesting forestry products deserved special attention in last years. Consequently, it is necessary to establish quantitative indices of environmental and economic impact for the different management stages. The decision of planting forestry trees is dependent on financial indicators; high costs may change investor decision. Maintaining soil nutrient stock as a baseline for productivity support may be an indicator of ecological sustainability; however, it can increase costs. Our objective was to answer the following: (i How each harvest scenario affect the nutrient stability of plantations? (ii Which of the alternative scenarios is of higher financial value at present? And (iii Does the present scenario of higher financial value persist if, for maintaining ecological sustainability, we conserve or replace the nutrients exported during harvest? We simulated different types of harvest and crop residue treatments in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis of 8 and 11 years old. Nutrient export in different scenarios was quantified and ecological stability indices -Plantation Stability Index (PEI-, and financial indices –Present Net Worth, Soil Expectation Value and Internal Rate of Return - were analyzed considering the cost of nitrogen replacement. The scenario of total harvest and residue burning gave losses of 491 and 369 kgN.ha-1 for 8 and 11 years rotation, respectively. PEI have shown that complete tree harvest and residue burning cause the highest ecological impact with index values superior to 2.5 (>0.5= instability; economic indices lowered when soil nutrients are recovered through fertilization inputs. Revenues reduction may affect the decision of planting commercial trees, alerting and stimulating to improve harvest practices at harvest and post-harvest stages. RESUMEN El efecto de la cosecha de productos forestales sobre la productividad edáfica ha adquirido singular atención últimamente. Por

  9. Overview of the teak silviculture in Brazil and perspectives for genetic improvement O cenário nacional da silvicultura de teca (Tectona grandis L. f. e perspectivas de melhoramento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Schnell e Schuhli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The teak (Tectona grandis L. f. wood properties direct an intense process of domestication and plantation outside its original habitat. The interest in the species as an alternative for the traditional forest plantations in Brazil is growing. This review contributes with the recovery of technical and scientific information regarding teak aiming the subsequent proposition of a genetic breeding program. In this paper it is presented a brief review of the silvicultural methods for the species in Brazil. The positive perspectives and the main risks related to the teak plantation were explored. In  general, in the most recent genetic improvement  programs the employment of clones was a common strategy. The initial emphasis of the improvement programs were the growth rate and wood property (generally density. As for other species the proper choice of the selection methods resides in observing the genetic variances (additive and non-additive, herdability (broad and narrow, and the genetic correlations among characters. As in other forest  breeding programs the conversion of progeny tests in seedling seed orchards is common for a faster seed production and development of commercial clones
    or clonal seed orchards.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.217

    As propriedades da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis L. f regem um intenso processo de domesticação e cultivo em regiões além de seu habitat natural. O interesse na espécie como alternativa aos plantios florestais tradicionais no Brasil vem crescendo. Esta revisão contribui com o processo de resgate da  informação técnicocientífica sobre a teca com vistas à elaboração de um programa de melhoramento. Neste documento, é apresentada uma breve revisão sobre os métodos silviculturais para a espécie no Brasil. Foram explorados aspectos positivos inerentes ao cultivo assim como os principais riscos. De forma geral, verificou-se que os programas recentes de

  10. Massa específica básica e massa seca de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis sob o efeito do espaçamento de plantio e da posição axial no tronco.

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Goulart; Clovis Roberto Haselein; Juarez Martins Hoppe; Jorge Antônio Farias; Dalva T. Pauleski

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foram investigadas a massa específica básica e a massa seca de madeira e de casca de Eucalyptus grandis W Hill ex-Maiden em função de 12 espaçamentos de plantio. A madeira foi retirada de árvores procedentes de unidades experimentais da AFUBRA com idade aproximada de 10 anos. Foram utilizadas 36 árvores (três por parcela) nos ensaios. Discos na base, DAP, 25, 50, 75 e 100% da altura comercial foram retirados de cada árvore para determinação da massa específica básica da madeir...

  11. Effect of Extractives on Color Changes of Eucalyptus urophyll a ×Eucalyptus grandis and Its SpectrumA nalysis%溶剂抽提物对尾巨桉热变色的影响及光谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高姗; 陈瑶; 高建民

    2015-01-01

    为探讨溶剂抽提物对尾巨桉热变色的影响,在过热蒸气条件下对抽提物进行热处理,之后采用冷水、热水、乙醇、甲醇、丙酮、正己烷等6种溶剂对热处理前后的尾巨桉木粉进行抽提,对热处理前后经过抽提的木粉进行色度指数的测定和红外光谱分析,并对抽提物进行紫外光谱分析。结果表明:①极性溶剂抽提物对尾巨桉颜色及其热处理后颜色变化影响较大,其中热水抽提物对颜色的影响最显著;②抽提物热处理后共轭结构增加,共轭体系能量降低,吸收带延伸至可见光范围,是木材受热后颜色加深的重要原因;③热处理后,尾巨桉木粉ΔL倡为负值,即颜色变深,木材颜色均匀美观,可提高利用价值。%Overheating steam treatment can darken the color of Eucalyptus urophylla×Eucalyptus grandis wood and make it look like precious wood, which can improve its utility value.For studying the effect of overheating steam treatment on discolora-tion of Eucalyptus urophylla ×Eucalyptus grandis wood, we extracted the wood powder before and after heating treatment with cold water, hot water, alcohol, methyl alcohol, and acetone and n-hexane, and measured the color parameters of the samples before and after extracted.We used ultraviolet absorption spectrum and the FTIR spectra to evaluate chemical changes of extractives and wood powder.Polar solvents extract was more effective on color and color changes of E.grandis wood powder after heat treatment.Hot water extraction had the most important influence on wood color.The important rea-sons of color deepen after heat treatment were:after heat treatment, the conjugated structures of extractives increased, and the energy of conjugated system decreased, and the absorption band extended to the visible light range.After heat treat-ment,ΔL* value of E.urpoh ylla×E.grandis wood powder was negative, which meant the color was deepen, and the

  12. 桉树枝瘿姬小蜂危害林巨园桉DH201-2近自然生长研究%Study on the Approx-natural Growth of Eucalyptus grandis × E.tereticornis DH201-2 Attacked by Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦建林; 何震; 梁一萍; 兰海东; 樊开印

    2013-01-01

    选择桉树枝瘿姬小蜂(Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle)高感品系巨园桉(Eucalyptus grandis×E.tereticornis) DH201-2,研究其受桉树枝瘿姬小蜂危害后在近自然条件下生长情况.结果表明:连续5年内树高、胸径和材积保持生长,5年生林分平均树高、胸径和材积生长量分别达到12.9m、8.4 cm和57.31847 m3/hm2.

  13. 尾巨桉3-羟基-3-甲基戊二酰CoA还原酶基因的克隆及表达分析%Molecular Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of the Gene Encoding HMG-CoA Reductase from Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭江; 孙一铭; 宋锋; 李鹏; 饶灿; 孙敏

    2011-01-01

    @@ 尾巨桉(Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis)属于桃金娘科(Myrtaceae)桉属(Eucalyptus)速生树种之一,其油腺细胞能够产生1,8-桉叶素、B-桉叶醇和α-蒎烯等主要成分的挥发性精油.%The gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) was cloned by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends ( RACE ) method from the leaf tissue of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis. The gene was designated EuHMGR1 and its GenBank accession number is GQ915611. The full-length EuHMGR1 cDNA was 1 955 bp, containing a 1 560 bp open reading frame(ORF) which encodes a peptide of 519 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55 ku. The predicted EuHMGR1 showed 74% ,72% ,72% ,70% and 70% identities with Cyclocarya paliurus,Gossypium hirsutum,Hevea brasiliensis,Tilia miqueliana and Nicotiana tabacum by Blast P on-line NCB1. Tissue expression profile analysis by Real-Time quantitative PCR indicated EuHMGR1 expression was the highest in branch, followed by leaf and no expression in root. Through constructing the prokaryotic expression vector pQE-30-EuHMGR1 into Escherichia coli M15 strain, the recombinant EuHMGR1 protein about 55 ku was successfully obtained by IPTG induction.

  14. Crescimento e absorção de fósforo em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis associadas a fungos micorrízicos em diferentes doses de fósforo e potenciais de água do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Fernandes

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a produção de parte aérea (MS, a absorção (CP e a eficiência de utilização de fósforo (EUP por plantas de Eucalyptus grandis inoculadas com Glomus etunicatum (Ge e, ou, Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt, em diferentes combinações entre doses de P e potenciais hídricos do solo (ψ, utilizando-se técnica de raízes subdivididas em vasos geminados, em casa de vegetação. Um dos vasos do conjunto geminado continha os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial de duas doses de P (P60 e P120, correspondentes a adições de 60 e 120 mg dm-3 de solo, três ψ (-10, -40 e -300 kPa e quatro tratamentos com inóculos fúngicos (não inoculado, Ge, Pt, Ge + Pt. Outro vaso do conjunto continha 4,5 litros de solução nutritiva, sem P. Independentemente da dose de P adicionada, a colonização por Ge foi reduzida com a diminuição do ψ. Quanto à colonização por Pt, observou-se ausência de resposta a ψ em P60 e aumento em P120. A colonização ectomicorrízica foi reduzida quando Pt foi inoculado concomitantemente a Ge. Aumentos do CP, em função do incremento do ψ, foram observados em P60 e P120. No entanto, MS e EUP responderam positivamente à elevação de ψ apenas em P120. A inoculação isolada com Ge não apresentou efeito sobre as plantas, nas combinações entre ψ e P. A colonização por Pt apresentou efeitos diferenciados sobre as plantas, dependendo das condições de ψ e P no solo. Na combinação P60 e -300 kPa, correspondente à situação de menor disponibilidade de P, observou-se efeito deletério da colonização por Pt, isolada ou concomitantemente com Ge, sobre a EUP das plantas. Efeitos positivos da inoculação isolada com Pt sobre o CP foram observados nas combinações entre P120 e ψ de -10 kPa e -40 kPa, embora apenas na segunda situação este maior CP tenha sido acompanhado de incremento da MS.

  15. 巨尾桉韧皮部周皮形成过程的研究%Study on the periderm forming process in Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla phloem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜明; 陈瑞英; 陈居静; 于再君

    2013-01-01

    周皮具有重要的保护作用和商业价值,采用石蜡切片法对4年生巨尾桉韧皮部周皮形成过程的微观结构进行研究.结果表明:周皮形成于每年的2月下旬至5月上旬,距树皮外表面900 μm深度附近的位置,并随树龄增长而加深.依据细胞形态结构特征和发生顺序,将周皮形成过程划分为6个阶段.(1)细胞脱分化前:将会形成周皮的位置,细胞处于相对静止状态;(2)细胞脱分化期:将会形成周皮的位置,细胞发生脱分化,逐步恢复分裂能力;(3)木栓形成层形成期:脱分化后的细胞开始分裂,形成木栓形成层并逐渐连续;(4)木栓层形成期:木栓形成层向外分生木栓层,向内分生栓内层;(5)径向伸展层形成期:木栓形成层发生径向伸展,变异为径向伸展层;(6)木栓层细胞分离期:部分木栓层细胞发生脱落,落皮层从局皮上分离.在径向伸展层形成期,木栓形成层细胞径向壁发生先破裂解体再重构的现象,为细胞伸展过程中的细胞壁化学键断裂学说提供了直观证据.%Periderm has important role in protection and high values in commerce.The microstructure of pefiderm forming process in 4 years old Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla phloem was studied by paraffin method,the results showed as follows.The periderm formed from late February to early May every year,it lay about 900 μm under outermostlayer,and became deeper with age.Based on the cell morphological structure features and sequence,the periderm forming process was divided into six stages.(1) Before cell dedifferentiating stage,the parenchymal cells where periderm would emerge were static.(2) At cell dedifferentiating stage,the parenchymal cells were dedifferentiating to regain fission ability.(3) Cork cambium forming stage,the parenchymal cells were dividing to forming cork cambium.(4)Cork forming stage,the cork cambium dividing cork cells outward and phelloderm inward.(5) Radial expanded layer forming stage

  16. Optimization design based on kinetic model and extraction process of pectin from pomelo (Citrus grandis L.Osbeck) fruit peel%柚果皮果胶浸提过程及动力学分析优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周存山; 余筱洁; 马海乐; 王允祥; 韩平

    2013-01-01

    以琯溪蜜柚果皮为原料,采用果胶酸解浸提法,基于果胶在浸提过程中包括原果胶转变为果胶、果胶从组织扩散到溶剂、果胶大分子降解等进程,以同步串联反应法构建果胶浸提动力学模型,获得基于浸提工艺优化和果胶同步降解影响的浸提动力学方程,进而进行模型验证分析及参数优化.有效性(残差分析及F检验)检验表明:该模型可应用于分析柚果皮果胶浸提动力学过程,在温度70 ~ 90℃,浸提过程表观活化能Ea为31.34kJ· mol-1;优化分析获得在浸提液pH =2.0,浸提温度90℃,浸提时间90.25 min,料液质量与体积比为1:40时,柚果皮果胶浸提得率11.83%,此结果与正交设计优化结果吻合.%The pectin extraction of pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) fruit peel was investigated by the method of acid hydrolysis. The kinetic model of the processes of protopectin hydrolysis to pectin, pectin diffusion from tissue to solvent, degradation of some pectin macromolecules was established by synchronous series reaction method to estimate the most important mass transfer coefficients. Based on the effects of degradation and extraction of pectin, and optimization of simultaneous extraction conditions, the kinetic equations were obtained to realize model validation and optimization parameter. The validations of residual error analysis and F test show that the model can be applied to the kinetic analysis of pectin extraction from pomelo fruit peel. The apparent activation energy of extraction process is 31. 34 kJ·mol-1 at temperature of 70 - 90 ℃ . According to the optimization analysis, the pectin extraction yield from pomelo fruit peel is 11. 83% of dried peel at the optimized conditions with pH value of 2. 0,extraction temperature of 90 ℃ , extraction time of 90 min and solid to liquid ration of 1 : 40. The optimization condition and the maximum yield from kinetic model are confirmed by the results from orthogonal experiment.

  17. 巨尾桉单宁的提取分离及其抗菌抗氧化性能%Extraction and Separation of Tannins from Eucalyptus Grandis x E.urophylla and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄增; 刘雄民; 库咏峰; 黄红铭; 殷勇

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction was adopted to extract tannins from Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The crude extract tannins was purified by the macroporous resin adsorption. The antimicrobial activity of tannins on multiple common bacteria was studied by way of filter paper method, and the oxidation resistance of the samples was studied by way of three different systems. Tannin in crude extract was 4. 01% and increased to 53. 12% when it was chromatographied by macroporous resin. Tannins had strong inhibition on the 7 kinds of bacteria activity but exhibited no distinct inhibition on Excherichia coli. Minimum antimicrobial mass concentration of the purified tannins on Staphyloccocus aureus, Yeast and Shigella was 1.0 g/L,and the antimicrobial activity against Live Bacillus Cereus Preparation and Salmonella was stronger than that against positive control. The maximum scavenging rates of crude tannins and purified tannins for H2O2 were 80. 00% and 89. 12% respectively when the mass concentration was 0. 50 g/L,and their IC50 were 0. 11 g/L and 0. 12 g/L, respectively. The maximum scavenging rates of Vc, crude tannins and purified tannins for DPPH o were 98. 43% ,88. 97% and 92. 21% respectively. When the mass concentration was 4. 00 g/L,the highest scavenging rate of crude tannins and purified tannins for o OH were 87.52% and 94. 32% respectively.%采用超声波辅助法提取了巨尾桉叶中的单宁,大孔树脂吸附法纯化了粗提物,考察了提取物对8种常见菌种的抑制作用和对H2O2、DPPH·和·OH的清除作用.结果表明,巨尾桉单宁的提取得率为4.01%;经树脂分离纯化后单宁质量分数达到53.12%;巨尾桉单宁对除大肠杆菌外的供试菌种均有较强的抑制作用,纯化后的单宁对金黄色葡萄球菌、酵母菌和痢疾杆菌的最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)均为1.0 g/L,对蜡状芽孢杆菌和沙门氏菌的抑制作用优于阳性对照物;粗提物、纯化物在质最浓度为0.50 g

  18. Effects of endophytic fungus in eucalyptus on the cold resistance of the seedling of E. urophylla × E. grandis%桉树内生菌对尾巨桉幼苗抗寒性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢安强; 洪伟; 吴承祯; 封磊; 林晗; 李键; 范海兰

    2011-01-01

    Ten kinds of endophytic fungus in eucalyptus were inoculated in the seedling of E. urophylla ×E. grandis by applying fungus liquid, the experiment of low temperature stress was carried thirty days later. The results showed that in comparison with control group the semilethal temperature of treatment group 1,7,5,6,9,3,2 and 8 decreased by 2.71,2.28, 1.98, 0.77, 0.61, 0.61,0.26 and 0.08 ℃, respectively; the activities of POD of treatment group 1,7,10,5,8,2,6,4 increased by 35.40%, 22.52%, 12.11%,12.11% ,10.04%, 8.23%, 4.04% and 0.62%, respectively; the activities of SOD of treatment group 1,3,4,5,7 and 8 increased by 36.39%, 6.79%, 0.06%, 4.97%, 12.98% and 8.25% respectively; the content of MDA of treatment 5,7,1,4 and 9 decreased by 40.40%, 29.08%, 28.86%, 4.88% and 1.78%, respectively. The results indicated that the cold resistance of eucalyptus increased greatly by inoculating with No. 1 endophytic fungus of eucalyptus.%采用菌液浇施方法对尾巨桉幼苗接种10株桉树内生菌,接种30d后进行低温胁迫.结果表明,处理1、7、5、6、9、3、2、8的半致死温度分别比对照下降了2.71、2.28、1.98、0.77、0.61、0.61、0.26、0.08℃.植株在低温条件下,处理1、7、10、5、8、2、6、4的POD活性分别比对照提高了35.40%、22.52%、12.11%、12.11%、10.04%、8.23%、4.04%和0.62%;处理1、3、4、5、7、8的SOD活性分别比对照提高了36.39%、6.79%0.06%、4.97%、12.98%和8.25%;处理5、7、1、4、9的MDA含量分别比对照下降了40.40%、29.08%、28.86%、4.88%和1.78%.表明菌种1可提高桉树的抗寒能力.

  19. 巨桉第二代育种群体遗传变异及早期选择研究%Genetic Variation and Early Selection of the Second Generation Breeding Population of Eucalyptus grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰俊; 吴永富; 石前; 付淼; 吴兵; 陈东林

    2012-01-01

    A study on genetic variation and early genetic selection was carried out in the second generation breeding population of Eucalyptus grandis at the age of 3.2 years at Guangxi Dongmen state - owned Forest Farm. The study showed that the differences between families in tree height (HT), diameter at breast height (DBH), ratio of HT to DBH (H/D) and individual tree volume (VOL) were highly significant. For the best families, mean HT reached 10.1 m, DBH 9.3 cm, H/D 1.1 and VOL 0. 0446 m3. Growth traits were found to be under low genetic control with individual tree heritability (hi2) for HT being 0.31, for DBH 0.31, for H/D O. 16 and for VOL O. 26. A total of 12 superior families were selected, with the estimated genetic gain reaehing 18.9% for HT, 19.5% for DBH and 42.2% for VOL. Three hundred superior individual trees were selected and the estimated genetie gain with these was 15.4% for HT, 16.7% for DBH and 36.7% for VOL.%对广西东门林场3.2年生巨桉第二代育种群主要生长性状进行遗传变异和早期遗传型选择研究表明:家系平均树高、胸径、高径比和单株材积分别为10.1m、9.3cm、1.1和0.0446m3,且各指标在不同家系水平上存在极显著差异。树高、胸径、高径比和单株材积均受到相对较弱的遗传控制,遗传力分别为0.31、0.31、0.16和0.26,估算的遗传力均在合理范围之内。通过有效的遗传型选择,筛选出优良家系12个,树高、胸径和单株材积的遗传增益分别为18.9%、19.5%和42.2%;筛选出优良单株300个,树高、胸径和单株材积的遗传增益分别为15.4%、16.7%和36.7%,遗传增益显著。

  20. Molecular diagnostic for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on amplification of three species-specific microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W

    2009-04-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.

  1. Uksed avab Cafe Grandi muusikasalong / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    18.mail avab agentuur Corelli Music Pärnu hotellis Victoria uue muusikasalongi Café Grand kontserdiga "Saksa radadel", 13. juulil esineb tshellokvartett C.-JAM ja 15. juulil ansambel Corelli Consort (vt. www.corelli.ee)

  2. Liberación/mineralización de nitrógeno y fósforo en hojarasca de Eucalyptus grandis y leguminosas herbáceas en distintos suelos: relación con la calidad física y química del residuo, y efecto sobre el crecimiento de plantas jóvenes de eucalipto

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz, María Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Las limitaciones nutricionales para el crecimiento de E. grandis, debido a la baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P) son comunes, y controlan la productividad de las plantaciones. El tipo de cosecha y el manejo de sus residuos son factores que inciden en el impacto de las plantaciones sobre la fertilidad del suelo. La fertilización química, si bien permite la incorporación de nutrientes, puede provocar distintos perjuicios, por lo que en el ámbito forestal la retención de los resi...

  3. Efeitos da Correção de Dados na Redução da Heterogeneidade das Variâncias Genética, Ambiental e Fenotípica em Testes de Progênies de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden Effects of Different Data Transformation Methods on the Reduction of the Genetic, Environmental and Phenotypic Variance in the Progeny Trial of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elidney Pinto Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar duas formas de correção ou padronização de dados de crescimento de plantas e avaliar a sua eficiência na redução da heterogeneidade das variâncias genética, ambiental e fenotípica presentes em testes de progênies de Eucalyptus grandis W. ex Maiden. Cinqüenta e três progênies de três procedências australianas foram testadas nos municípios paulistas de Mogi Guaçu, Boa Esperança do Sul e Caçapava, sob delineamento de blocos de famílias compactadas, com número de repetições variáveis por local e parcelas lineares de seis plantas cada, no espaçamento de 3 m x 2 m. O programa computacional SELEGEN-REML/BLUP foi utilizado para as análises  genéticas e identificação dos melhores indivíduos e progênies para compor uma população de melhoramento e seu respectivo uso em pomares de sementes por mudas ou clonais. A correção de dados efetuada pela razão (hi/him entre a raiz quadrada da herdabilidade no local i e a média das raízes quadradas das herdabilidades, considerando a análise conjunta de locais, apresentou maior eficiência quando comparada à não correção ou correção de dados feita pelo desvio padrão fenotípico ( f sˆ, usualmente empregado. Adicionalmente, os resultados das análises conjuntas de locais confirmaram que ganhos de alta magnitude podem ser obtidos para o crescimento em diâmetro, com a seleção de indivíduos baseada nos seus valores genéticos, tanto pelo desbaste dos testes, transformando-os opcionalmente em pomares de sementes por mudas, como por meio da propagação vegetativa dos melhores indivíduos para um pomar clonal de sementes. Em função dos valores obtidos para a correlação genética entre os locais, uma única População Selecionada e um único Pomar Clonal de Sementes podem ser estabelecidos ao atendimento de regiões representativas dos três locais experimentais testados, implicando em economia de tempo e

  4. 10个柚木种源27年生长与适应性%Growth and adaptability of ten provenances of Tectona grandis at 27-year-old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁坤南; 赖猛; 黄桂华; 林明平; 周再知; 马华明

    2011-01-01

    海南省乐东尖峰岭柚木Tectona grandisl0个种源27年生的生长与适应性研究结果表明:在适应性方面种源间保存率存在极显著差异,27年生印度种源3071和3074的保存率仍达到92.34%,而泰国4个种源保存率最低仅有4.95%~39.6%,与印度种源3071和3074以及对照种源8204差异达极显著;在生长方面,种源间树高、单株材积差异显著,印度3070和3071种源是树高和胸径生长最好的两个种源,比对照种源分别提高了16.7%~17.6%和28.9%~32.5%;泰国4个种源树高和胸径生长最差;10个种源间每公顷蓄积量差异极显著,其中:27年生印度种源3071每公顷蓄积量最大(430.8m3),年生长量达到15.95m3/hm2,是对照种源的2.25倍,差异极显著;泰国4个种源27年生蓄积量最低8.67~46.92m3·hm-2,3071种源每公顷蓄积量是泰国种源的9.18~49.69倍,差异极显著;种源的树高、胸径和单株材积与原产地纬度呈显著至极显著负相关,保存率与原产地降雨量呈显著正相关;提出了印度种源3071和3074宜在当地发展,而泰国4个种源不宜在当地引种与种植.%The researches on the growth and adaptability of ten provenances of Tectona grandis at 27-year-old at Jianfengling of Ledong Country in Hainan province were carried out.The results show that there existed highly significant differences in survival at 27-year-old among the ten provenances.Provenances of 3071 and 3074 from India showed high adaptability with a survival of 92.34%, while four provenances from Thailand showed poor survival from 4.95% to 39.6%, which were highly significantly different to two Indian provenances (3071 and 3074) and control provenance (8204).In terms of growth, there were significant differences in height growth and volume per tree among 6 provenances.Indian provenances of 3070 and 3071 were the best provenances in height and DBH,which increased by 16.7%~17.6% and 28.9%~32.5% respectively compared with 8204

  5. Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus urophylla ×E. grandis (DH32-29) Seedlings Under Different Cadmium Concentrations%镉胁迫对尾巨桉幼苗生长和生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国粹; 杜阿朋; 李慧; 王志超; 张利丽; 竹万宽; 陈少雄

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the most common heavy metals causing soil contamination problems. Bioremediation is an effective way to rehabilitate soils contaminated with this comp. An pot trial was conducted to measure various morphological and physiological indices of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis (DH32-29) grown under treatments of eight different soil concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) ranging from 10 to 140 mg·kg-1. There were no significant differences found among seedling grown at low concentration (10 mg·kg-1) of Cd and the control (i.e. no Cadmium). Under higher Cd concentrations (>20 mg·kg-1) seedling growth was significantly impacted. As Cd concentration increases, the biomass, chlorophyll content, fluorescent parameter (PSⅡ), maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm), efficiency of PS Ⅱ photochemistry (φPS Ⅱ ), non-photochemical quenching coefficient (Np) and nitrogen balance index (NBI) decreased, photochemical quenching (qP) showed little change, whilst malondialdehyde (MDA) increased. Seedlings of clone DH32-29 show clear visible symptoms of injury at levels above 20 mg·kg-1 and at plant growth stagnated at Cd concentration exceeding 40 mg·kg-1. It was concluded that DH32-29 seedlings can grow normally at lower Cadmium concentrations (≤20 mg·kg-1). But as the concentration increases, above this level, the morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings start to display significant impacts. Surveys of soil Cadmium levels in areas suited to Eucalyptus plantations and related research results in combination with this current study illustrate the potential soil remediation value of DH32-29 for areas where soils are affected by Cd pollution.%以尾巨桉(DH32-29)幼苗为试验材料,以植株的生长指标(苗高、地径、叶面积)、生物量、根冠比、氮平衡指数(NBI)、叶绿素相对含量(SPAD 值)、丙二醛(MDA)含量和叶绿素荧光参数为指标,通过盆栽试验设置8个10~140 mg·kg-1浓度镉(Cd)盐

  6. 醇水体系下尾巨桉抽出物的热解特性研究%Leaching Law and Pyrolysis Characteristics of Extractives from Eucalyptus grandis Pretreatment under Ethanol/Water Solution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 武书彬

    2012-01-01

    采用回转式密封炉在醇水体系下,分别采用水及乙醇-水混合液(醇水体积比1∶4、1∶2、1∶1)4种溶剂对桉木片进行抽提预处理,制得4种不同的抽提物.通过元素分析、溶出物微粒子粒径分析对其进行了基本溶出规律的研究,抽提液中所含的糖类化合物通过HPLC测定,设计TG与Py-GC/MS实验,对不同方式获得的抽出物进行了热分析,对其受热分解特性以及产物的分布进行了考查.结果发现,醇水体系中不同乙醇浓度下抽提液中糖类化合物的GC含量类似,并且抽提物总量也相近;元素分析的结果表明不同浓度醇水抽提物的化学元素含量并没有明显的差异,而与水抽提物相比存在较大的区别,醇水抽提物相对于水抽提物具有较高的C含量及较低的O含量;不同乙醇浓度抽提物溶液之间的微粒子直径也不存在较大的差异,而与水抽提溶液中微粒子的尺寸差别明显.由此推断醇水溶剂中乙醇和水对尾巨桉木片的抽提作用是相对独立的.对于抽提物的热分析表明,不同体系下抽提物所表现出的热解特性存在较大差异,而醇水体系下3种抽提物的热解特性类似;水抽提物(WE)的热解产物主要是酮类、酚类和酸类;醇水抽提物(EWE)的热解产物主要是呋喃、糠醛(醇)、酚类和酮类.%Eucalyptus grandis chips were pretreated under ethanol/water solution system with a sealed helicoid furnace and four extractives were obtained by pure water and ethanol/water mixtures with ratio of 1∶4, 1∶2, 1∶ 1 .respectively. Basic leaching rule was studied through ultimate analysis and micro particle size detection. Sugar content in each extractive was determined by ionic chromatograph analysis, meanwhile TG and Py-GC/MS reveal were designed to reveal the pyrolysis properties of extractives. The results showed that all three extractives from ethanol/water extraction had similar total extractive quality and sugar

  7. 三种整地措施下尾巨桉人工林碳储量及其分配格局%Carbon storage and its distribution in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis plantations under three different soil preparation measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国粹; 陈少雄; 王志超; 张利丽; 杜阿朋

    2016-01-01

    以不炼山+人工穴垦、不炼山+机械带垦和炼山+机械全垦3种不同整地组合下的2.5年生尾巨桉人工林为对象,对其碳储量及其分配格局进行研究。结果表明:(1)3种整地组合下尾巨桉各器官碳含量平均值为44.37%~57.42%,大小顺序为叶>干>枝>根>皮,带垦最大(51.21%),炼山全垦最小(49.95%);不同整地组合尾巨桉人工林林下地被物层的碳含量均无显著差异(P>0.05);土壤层(0~100 cm)碳含量均随土层深度的增大而减小,各层土壤平均碳含量总体趋势表现为带垦>炼山全垦>穴垦。(2)穴垦、带垦、炼山全垦措施下乔木层总碳储量依次为18.01、30.49和23.56 t.hm-2,各器官碳储量大小顺序为干>根>叶>枝>皮;除皮外,其余器官碳储量排序均为带垦>炼山全垦>穴垦。(3)尾巨桉人工林生态系统的总碳储量表现为带垦(197.03 t.hm-2)>炼山全垦(161.16t.hm-2)>穴垦(144.77 t.hm-2);不同整地措施碳储量分配格局均为土壤层>植被层>枯落物层。土壤层和乔木层碳储量均是带垦最大,在整个生态系统碳储量中处于主导地位,占整个系统碳储量在93%以上;不同整地组合措施对枯落物层的碳储量无显著影响。因此,从提高尾巨桉林分系统碳储量方面考虑,在雷州半岛及相似立地条件地区进行尾巨桉人工林造林时宜采取不炼山+机械带垦的整地组合方式。%To evaluate the carbon storages and their allocations in 2. 5-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis (DH-3229) plantation in Guangdong, three kinds of soil preparation(no controlled burning and dig hole, no controlled burning and furrowing, controlled burning and full cultivation) mode were selected, field investigation and indoor analy-sis methods were adopted to measure the carbon content in different organs. The main results were as follow: ( 1) The average carbon content in different organs of DH-3229 was 44.37%-57.42%, and the

  8. Study on Ultrasonic Extraction Technology of Sterol from the Rhizome of Begonia grandis Dry.subsp, sinensis ( A.DC.) Irmsch.%中华秋海棠根茎中甾醇的超声提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽; 黄行健; 凌洁玉

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the ultrasonic extraction technology of sterol from the rhizome of Begonia grandis Dry. Subsp. Sinensis (A. DC. ) Irmsch. . [Method] In this study,the sterol was first extracted from the rhizome of B. Grandis using ultrasonic technology,and then quantitatively analyzed using the advanced Liebennann - Burchard colorimetric method. The single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment were carried out to study the effects of factors including extraction temperature, extraction time and solid - liquid ratio on the yield of sterol. The regression equations to three factors were established by RSREG software in SAS8. 1. In addition, the types of sterols were analyzed using HPLC. [ Result] Results show that the regression equation was significant,the optimal technological conditions of sterol extraction were as follows : extracting temperature was 58℃, extracting time was 57 min, solid - liquid ratio was 1: 44 g/ml. Under these conditions, the content of sterol was 1.80 mg/g in the rhizome of B. Sinensis. [Conclusion] Ultrasonic - assisted technology is an efficient, energy - saving and time -saving method that can be used to extract sterol from the rhizome of B. Grandis. In addition, the analysis of HPLC spectrum reveals that sterol composition in the rhizome of B. Sinensis is complex, including β- sitosterol and other sterols.%[目的]研究中华秋海棠根茎中甾醇的超声提取工艺条件.[方法]使用超声波提取法对中华秋海棠进行提取,利用改进的Liebermarn - Bur chard比色法对秋海棠根茎超声波提取物中的甾醇进行定量分析,研究了料液比、温度、时间和提取溶剂4个因素对秋海棠根茎中甾醇含量的影响,选取提取温度、提取时间和料液比为影响因子,采用3元2次旋转正交设计,对超声提取工艺进行优化,计算回归方程,并进行响应面分析,同时采用高效液相色谱法分析其甾醇种类.[结果]回归方程准确可靠,且拟合情

  9. Allelopathic Sensitivity of Five Economic Species to Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis with Different Ages%5种经济植物对幼龄尾巨桉叶片提取液的化感敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雪; 刘芸; 邵呈龙; 唐小荐; 黄小辉; 吴艳冰; 唐吉芳; 何炳辉

    2011-01-01

    近几年,随着重庆"森林工程"全面启动,重庆西部主要区县充分利用当地有利自然条件,大规模发展速生桉树人工用材林.种植桉树需5年以上才能产生经济效益,因此,开展幼龄林林下种植成为以短养长、提高桉农收益的有效途径.但很多研究发现:桉树不仅具有较强的水、肥竞争力,而且作为一种外来树种,化感作用为其在新生境的生长和繁殖提供了"Novel weapon"(Bais et al.,2003;Hierro et al.,2003;吴锦容等,2005).%In order to guide scientifically planting on forest floor in eucalyptus plantations, screen suitable plants, and understand allelopathic effects of eucalyptus trees with different young ages (1 a, 2 a and 3 a) on the understory species and growth germination rate and seedling growth of five species widely planted in the local region were measured after treatments with different concentration of aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. Grandis treatments with different concentration. The results showed that the leaf extract reduced seed germination rate and inhibited seedling growth of all five species, and had a stronger inhibiting effect on radical than hypocotyl growth. The species tested in this study had different sensitivity to the leaf extract. The inhibition rate of Lolium perenne, Sorghum sudanense, Phaseolus aureus, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max was 56. 85% , 54. 58% , 33. 48% , 20. 81% , 16. 01% , respectively, among which Giycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris were the most insensitive to the leaf extract. The allelopathy of the leaf extract was concentration dependent, increasing with increase of the concentration, and low concentration (0.01 g · mL-1 ) had no significant influence on the species. Furthermore, the allelopathy aqueous leaf extract of E. Urophylla × E. Grandis to the five species had no significant difference with increase of their ages.

  10. Effect of drought stress on mineral nutrient contents in leaves of sdeedling plant of C. tangerina Hort., C. sinensis Osbeck and C. grandis Osbeck%干旱胁迫对实生红橘、甜橙和柚叶中营养元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文涛; 樊卫国

    2007-01-01

    以红橘(Citrus tangerina Hort.)、甜橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)、柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck)实生苗为材料,采用模拟降雨控水长期干旱胁迫的方法,研究了降水量400和800 mm的干旱胁迫对3种柑橘实生苗叶片的N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu、Mn、B元素含量的影响.结果表明:干旱胁迫降低了实生甜橙、红橘和柚的叶片中N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、B元素的含量,增加了叶中Mn元素的含量;实生红橘和柚叶中的Zn含量在降水量400 mm的干旱胁迫下显著降低,而同样的干旱胁迫条件下,实生甜橙叶中的Zn含量极显著地增加了.干旱胁迫降低实生甜橙和红橘叶中N、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、B元素含量的作用相对较大.

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of Growth,Stem Form and Resistance to Leptocybe invasa of Eucalyptus grandis Provenances%不同种源巨桉生长、干形和抗桉树枝瘿姬小蜂的综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张照远; 项东云; 徐建民; 宋贤冲; 陈风帆

    2016-01-01

    对9个不同种源的巨桉进行了桉树枝瘿姬小蜂自然侵害后的受害情况、生长性状和干形调查,结果表明:不同种源的受害程度不同,其中,种源南非1/SAG-TER1受害最为严重,种源南非6/SAG-URO受害最轻;不同种源的生长性状表现出显著差异,种源南非6/SAG-URO的树高、胸径、冠幅等指标均最大,且与种源16892和17907有显著差异;不同种源间巨桉树干通直度、圆满度无显著差异,分枝状况有细微的差异,分枝角度有显著差异。相关性分析表明:不同种源巨桉生长性状和干形性状之间呈显著或极显著相关,幼林树高与受桉树枝瘿姬小蜂侵害状况之间呈显著负相关。通过对不同种源的巨桉进行综合分析评价,种源南非6/SAG-URO的抗性最优,可以作为后续抗性选育的优良种源。%The growth,stem form and resistance to Leptocybe invasa of 9 provenances of Eucalyptus grandis were investigated.The results show that the resistance to Leptocybe invasa among 9 provenances was differ-ent,provenance SOUTH AFRIC 1/SAG-TER1 was the most sensitive and provenance SOUTH AFRIC 6/SAG-URO was the most insensitive.The growth traits had significant differences among different prove-nances,provenance SOUTH AFRIC 6/SAG-URO was the biggest and had significant differences with provenance 16892 and 17907.There was no significant difference of stem straightness and stem fullness a-mong 9 provenances,but slight difference of branch status and significant differences of branching an-gle.The correlation analysis showed that there was significant or extremely significant correlation between growth traits and stem form traits,the correlation between tree height and damage situation was significant-ly negative correlation.According to the comprehensive analysis of Eucalyptus grandis provenances,prove-nance SOUTH AFRIC 6/SAG-URO has the best resistance to Leptocybe invasa and could act as superior

  12. Efeito da idade e posição de amostragem na densidade e características anatômicas da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Effect of age and sampling position on density and anatomical characteristics of wood in eucalyptus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das variações das características da madeira produzida pelas árvores de eucalipto em função da idade e posição no tronco é fundamental para o seu uso adequado. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da idade e das posições longitudinal na densidade básica e radial nas características anatômicas do lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus grandis plantadas no espaçamento 3x2 m e fertilizadas com adubação comercial no plantio, 6º, 12° mês. Foram selecionadas, de acordo com a distribuição de área basal, quinze árvores de eucalipto com 24, 36 e 72 meses de idade, sendo 5 árvores/idade, e cortados discos do lenho a 1,30 m da altura do solo (DAP para as determinações das dimensões das fibras (comprimento, espessura da parede, diâmetro do lume e largura total e vasos (diâmetro tangencial, frequência e área ocupada e em diferentes alturas fixas do tronco para a determinação da densidade básica. A densidade básica do lenho aumentou de 0,43 g.cm-3 para 0,46 g.cm-3 com o avanço da idade das árvores, apresentando um modelo de variação longitudinal, comum as três idades, caracterizado pelo decréscimo da base-3m (0,42-0,49 g.cm-3 0,40-0,46 g.cm-3 e posterior aumento até a extremidade (0,46 g.cm-3 0,54 g.cm-3 do tronco. As dimensões das fibras e dos vasos apresentaram variações tanto em relação à idade quanto no sentido medula-casca. O comportamento e as variações das características do lenho das árvores de eucalipto indicam que o meristema cambial está formando, até este período, o lenho denominado de juvenil.The knowledge of the variations in the wood characteristics produced by eucalyptus trees according to age and sampling positions is essential for its proper use. This study had as objective to evaluate the influence of the age, longitudinal and radial positions on basic density and anatomical characteristics in Eucalyptus grandis wood. The trees were planted in 3x2 m

  13. EFEITO DO COBRE NA POPULAÇÃO DE BACTÉRIAS E FUNGOS DO SOLO, NA ASSOCIAÇÃO MICORRÍZICA E NO CULTIVO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Pinus elliottii Engelm E Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel Tauber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a heavy metal that can have toxic effects on microorganisms and plants. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are able to protect the plant from heavy metal toxicity, but the presence of certain metal concentrations can inhibit the growth of this fungus, damage the mycorrhizal symbiosis and also altering the development of the plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper on soil bacteria and fungus population, as well as the effects on the ectomycorrhizal association in the development of Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus elliottii and Peltophorum dubium seedlings. The survey of the soil microorganism population was carried out in a greenhouse during 60 days and the treatments consisted of applications of copper sulphate (0.7; 0.708; 0.716; 0.724 mg Kg-1 to the soil and to eucalyptus and pinus seedlings. Eucalyptus and Peltophorum dubium seedlings inoculated and not inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke and Massee Cunn (UFSC Pt 116 received copper levels of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1. The height, stem diameter, shoot and root fresh biomass, shoot and root dry biomass and ectomycorrhizal colonization were evaluated at 110 days. Soil bacteria and fungus population were altered by the presence of copper and the eucalyptus and pinus seedlings were not affected by copper addition. The inoculation of the eucalyptus and canafístula seedlings with isolate UFSC Pt 116 favored the height of the plants and the development of shoot and root fresh biomass. According to the results, canafístula was able to form an ectomycorrhizal association with the isolate tested. The eucalyptus and canafístula seedling development was inhibited by copper following inoculation with the UFSC Pt 116 isolate.

  14. The Effect of Different Grazing Intensities on Spatial Distribution of Soil Water-underLeymus Chinensis andStipa Grandis Grassland%不同放牧强度下羊草和大针茅草原土壤含水量的空间变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘磊; 马蕊; 彭扬建; 彭新华; 莫春梦; RainerHorn

    2015-01-01

    近年来不合理的放牧体制造成内蒙古地区土壤退化严重.基于内蒙古草原生态系统研究站建立围封(UG79)、冬季放牧(WG)、持续放牧(CG)和过度放牧(HG)条件下羊草(Leymus chinensis)和大针茅(Stipa grandis)草原试验区研究不同放牧强度和植被覆盖条件下土壤含水量的空间变化.试验共分为5个小区,分布为:LUG79、LWG、LHG、SUG79和SCG.试验利用GPS在每个小区建立1个长135 m,宽105 m,共计100个测量点的空间区域,通过利用HH2 Moisture Meter测量土含水量并研究其空间变化情况.结果表明:降水是引起区域土壤含水量变化的主要因素,是引起土壤含水量空间变异的关键因子.在羊草区,LWG土壤含水量(0.29~0.05 cm3·cm-3)高于LUG79(0.24~0.03 cm3·cm-3),而LHG由于过度放牧导致最小的土壤含水量(0.21~0.01 cm3·cm-3).在大针茅区SCG土壤含水量(0.28~0.07 cm3·cm-3)要大于SUG79区(0.27~0.05 cm3·cm-3).相较于围封而言,SCG和LWG区在适度的持续放牧与冬季放牧方式下能增强土壤对水分的保持能力,说明适度的放牧强度能增加土壤含水量.在围封区域 SUG79 区的土壤含水量高于 LUG79 区的土壤含水量.从地统计分析结果看,每个试验区的土壤含水量空间分布均具有一定的稳定性,其空间结构比均高于97%.但两个围封的UG79区土壤含水量空间分布比放牧的CG、WG和HG试验区更稳定,说明放牧对土壤含水量空间分布的稳定性有一定破坏作用.%The improper grazing manner led to soil deterioration in Inner Mongolia grassland. To understand the change of soil water content and its' spatial distribution, 5 plots: Un-grazed since 1979 (LUG79), winter grazing (LWG) and heavy grazing (LHG) under Leymus Chinensis (L), and Un-grazed since 1979 (SUG79) and continuous grazing (SCG), underStipa Grandis(S) Grassland were investigated by HH2 Moisture Meter. In each plot, a regular sampling grid which covered an area of 105m

  15. Effect of Endotrophic Fungi on Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis and Soil Properties Under Low Phosphorus Stress%内生真菌对低磷胁迫下尾巨桉生理及土壤特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢安强; 洪伟; 吴承祯; 洪滔; 林勇明

    2013-01-01

    10 strains of eucalyptus endophytic fungi were inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis under low phosphorus stress by irrigating with the fungal solution (11 treatments added control treatment),and the experiment with low phosphorus stress was carried 30 days later.The content of soluble protein was measured 15 d,30 d and 45 d consequently after the inoculation,and the chlorophyll content of the seedling leaves and the chemical properties of soil were measured 3 months later.Compared to the CK group,the results showed that the content of soluble protein of the seedlings inoculated with strain G,strain E and strain J under normal phosphorus supply was increased by 27.82%,23.08% and 6.76% ; Under No.1 low phosphorus stress condition the content of soluble protein of the seedlings inoculated with strain G and strain J was 5.24% and 1.00% higher than that of the CK Under No.2 low phosphorus stress condition,the content of soluble protein of seedlings inoculated with strain J,strain E and strain G was 27.62%,22.52% and 21.95% higher than that of the CK.The total chlorophyll content of the seedlings inoculated with strain J,strain E and strain G was 40.67%,36.60% and 32.69% higher than that of the CK.The soil pH value that growing the seedlings inoculated with strain J,strain E and strain G was 5.07%,4.04% and 1.80% lower than the CK,whereas the content of soil phosphatase that growing the seedlings inoculated with strain J,strain E and strain G was 94.50%,88.83% and 88.83% higher than that of the CK Comprehensively speaking,the fungal strain E,strain G and strain J could significantly promote the contents of soluble protein and chlorophyll of Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis seedlings,could increase the activity of phosphatase of the soil and improve the phosphorus absorption of the Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.%通过菌液浇施的方法接种10株桉树内生菌

  16. Occurrence and linkage between secreted insecticidal toxins in natural isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinasse, Sylvain; Chaufaux, Josette; Buisson, Christophe; Perchat, Stéphane; Gohar, Michel; Bourguet, Denis; Sanchis, Vincent

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the occurrence and linkage between secreted insecticidal virulence factors in natural populations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). We carried out a survey of 392 Bt strains isolated from various samples originating from 31 countries. The toxicity profile of the culture supernatants of these strains was determined individually against Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera) and Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera). We analyzed beta-exotoxin I production and searched for the genes encoding Vip1-2, Vip3, and Cry1I toxins in 125 of these strains. Our results showed that these insecticidal toxins were widespread in Bt but that their distribution was nonrandom, with significant linkage observed between vip3 and cry1I and between vip1-2 and beta-exotoxin I. Strains producing significant amounts of beta-exotoxin I were more frequently isolated from invertebrate samples than from dust, water, soil, or plant samples.

  17. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  18. 红脂大小蠹的捕食性天敌——大唼蜡甲发育和温度的关系研究%Study on the Relationship between Growth and Environmental Temperature of Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae), An Important Predator of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建荣; 丁保福; 唐艳龙; 赵建兴; 杨忠岐

    2010-01-01

    @@ 大唼蜡甲(Rhizophagus grandis Gyllenhal) 属鞘翅目唼蜡甲科(Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae),是云杉大小蠹(Dendroctonus micans Kugelann)(鞘翅目:小蠹科)(Coleoptera:Scolytidae)的主要捕食性天敌,其成虫和幼虫均可捕食云杉大小蠹的卵、幼虫和蛹,在自然调节这种重要害虫的种群数量上发挥着重要作用[1-2].云杉大小蠹原分布于前苏联,我国黑龙江、辽宁、青海、甘肃、四川省也有分布,从上世纪初逐渐向西、向南扩散至欧洲的法国、英国,现分布于欧亚大陆的几乎所有的云杉(Picea spp.)的针叶林中.其天敌大唼腊甲随后也跟随云杉大小蠹的扩散而逐步迁移,但自然传播的速度很慢,种群数量较低,在云杉大小蠹新传入区很难达到自然控制的程度.为此,欧洲一些国家开展了大唼腊甲的引进、人工繁殖和释放防治云杉大小蠹的研究.如早在1963年格鲁吉亚就研究利用其防治云杉大小蠹[3].上世纪中后期,云杉大小蠹在欧洲大发生,严重危害挪威云杉(Picea abies (L.) Karst.).为了防治这种重要的蛀干害虫,比利时从上世纪50年代起就开展了利用大唼腊甲生物防治云杉大小蠹的研究.1978年,英国和法国等国家先后从比利时引进大唼蜡甲,取得了良好的控制效果[4-5].随后美国也引进大唼腊甲防治黑脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus terebrans Olivier)[6].

  19. 巨桉凋落叶分解初期对老芒麦幼苗生长和抗性生理的影响%Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter on growth and resistance physiology of Elymus sibiricus in the initial decomposition process of litter in soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪; 胡庭兴; 杨万勤; 吴秀华; 尹丽; 李彬; 米小华; 曾凡明; 弓平

    2011-01-01

    The allelopathic effects of leaf litter (in the initial decomposition process of litter in soil) of Eucalyp tus grandis on growth and resistance physiology of Elymus sibiricus was studied in a pot experiment. Each pot contained 8 kg soil mixed with 0, 25, 50, 100, or 150 g leaf litter. E. sibiricus was sown in September and height, biomass and several indices of resistance physiology were tested at 30, 40, 50, and 90 d after sowing. 1) Height and biomass of E. sibiricus were significantly inhibited after 90 d. 2) The activities of SOD and CAT in leaves of E. sibiricus increased in conditions of low litter content and short decomposition times but were in hibited with higher-contents of litter or longer treatment times. POD was significantly inhibited by different treatments after 90 days. 3) The MDA content rose with the increasing litter content at 50 d, but had de creased in all treatments by 90 d. 4) The soluble carbohydrate content increased considerably, whereas that of soluble protein had considerably reduced by 90 d. 5) The effects of leaf litter decomposition in soil was high at first but then weakened. Faster and stronger allelopathic effects were observed in treatments with higher litter content than those with lower ones. The compound effect of the 150 g treatment was the strongest, while that of 50 -100 g treatments were weaker, and the 25 g treatment was the weakest. On the whole, the leaf litter of E. grandis had a strong allelopathic effect on E. sibiricus in the initial decomposition process of litter in soil.%采用盆栽试验,研究了巨桉凋落叶分解初期对受体植物老芒麦幼苗生长和抗性生理的影响.试验设对照(CK)和4种凋落叶处理,分别将0(CK),25,50,100,150 g巨桉凋落叶与8 kg土壤混合,播种老芒麦.在播种后30,40,50和90 d测定老芒麦株高、生物量和几种抗性生理指标.结果表明,1)凋落叶在施入土壤90 d内,显著抑制了老芒麦幼苗的高生长和生物量;2)在低凋落

  20. Leaf Litter Decomposition and Its Relationship with Soil Properties in Betula alnoides and Eucalyptus urophylla ×E.grandis%西南桦和尾巨桉凋落叶分解及其与土壤性质的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建; 莫慧华; 黄弼昌; 周燕萍; 蔡道雄

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the E.urophylla ×E.grandis stand,the B.alnoides had significantly higher contents of soil or-ganic carbon (SOC),total N,total P,total K as well as higher N /P ratio in 0 -1 0 and 1 0 -20 cm soil depth. However,the litter decomposition had no significant effects on SOC,total K,pH,C /N ratio and N /P ratio in 20-30 cm soil depth.The correlation analysis revealed that the organic C of leaf litter was significantly related to SOC,total N,total P,total K and N /P ratio,whereas the total N of leaf litter was significantly related to soil total N,pH and C /N ratio.[Conclusion]The nutrient contents of leaf litter were found to be significantly correlated with the soil nutrient condition.Compared with the E.urophylla ×E.grandis,the nutrient contents of leaf litter were significantly higher in B.alnoides,and subsequently,faster decomposition rate of leaf litter resulted in high-er soil nutrient contents.%[目的]探讨南亚热带西南桦和尾巨桉人工纯林的凋落叶分解动态及其与土壤化学性质之间的相关关系。[方法]采用原位分解袋法研究凋落叶的分解过程。[结果]表明:西南桦、尾巨桉人工林凋落叶分解系数分别为0.96 a -1和0.88 a -1。在为期12个月的分解试验中,2种凋落叶有机 C 含量在整个分解过程中呈逐渐下降趋势;全K 含量和 C /N 比在分解前期迅速下降,之后趋于平缓;全 N 含量和全 P 含量在整个分解过程中呈逐渐上升趋势;2种凋落叶 N /P 比则呈先升高后下降的趋势。无论是分解前期还是分解后期,凋落叶质量损失与 N 含量均呈显著正相关(前期 R =0.877;后期 R =0.855),与 C /N 均呈显著负相关(前期 R =-0.735;后期 R =-0.697)。与尾巨桉林地土壤性质相比,西南桦凋落叶分解提高了林地010、1020 cm 土壤的有机 C、全 N、全 P、全 K、N /P,对2030 cm 土壤有机 C、全 K、pH 值、C /N、N /P

  1. 巨桉EgrCBF1和EgrCBF2基因的克隆和胁迫响应表达分析%Cloning of EgrCBF1 and EgrCBF2 Genes from Eucalyptus grandis and their Expression under Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京京; 童再康; 黄程前; 程龙军

    2012-01-01

    Two CBF genes named EgrCBFl and EgrCBF2 ( GenBank No. JQ068827 ; JQ068828 ) were isolated from Eucalyptus grandis seedlings under low temperature. Sequence analysis showed that EgrCBFl and EgrCBFl cDNA had 1 062 bp and 1 203 bp, respectively. The two genes encoded 220 and 196 amino acids, separately and both contained an AP2 domain. The results of homology comparison showed that EgrCBFl and EgrCBF2 protein shared 91% and 80% homology with EguCBFla. Spatial expression analyses showed that EgrCBFl expressed mainly in leaves and roots while EgrCBF2 expressed in all leaves, stems and roots. qRT-PCR result of EgrCBFl and EgrCBFl under 0 ℃ ,2 ℃ ,4 ℃ ,6 ℃ , and 8 ℃ revealed that they were both induced by low temperatures and reached the highest level at 2 ℃ . Time course of the genes expressions at 4 ℃ for 2 h,4 h,8 h,24 h,and 48 h showed that their expressions increased at the first and then decreased. Changes in EgrCBFl and EgrCBFl expression under 100 μmol · L-1 ABA, 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl and drought were also analyzed. The results showed EgrCBFl was up-regulated under drought stress and ABA treatment, while the expression of EgrCBF2 increased under drought and salt stress.%从低温诱导的巨桉幼苗中克隆到2条CBF的全长cDNA序列,命名为EgrCBF1和EgrCBF2,全长分别为1 062 bp和1 203 bp,编码220个氨基酸和196个氨基酸,命名为EgrCBF1和EgrCBF2(GenBank登录号分别为:JQ068827; JQ068828),都包含1个AP2结构域.2个基因编码的蛋白都与冈尼桉中CBF蛋白(DQ241820)具有很高的同源性,与EguCBF1a的同源性分别达到了91%和80%.RT-PCR分析表明,EgrCBF1主要在叶和根中表达,而EgrCBF2在叶、茎和根中都有表达.对不同低温条件(0,2,4,6,8℃)和4℃2,4,8,24,48 h处理下EgrCBF1和EgrCBF2的qRT-PCR分析表明:2个基因都受低温诱导,并在2℃时诱导水平达到最高;4℃下随低温时间的延长,它们的诱导表达特性都呈先升后降的趋势.在100 μmol·L-1 ABA,200 mmol

  2. 香榧籽油的超临界萃取及其脂肪酸组成的比较分析研究%Extraction of Oil from Torreya grandis cv.Merrilli Seed with Supercritical CO2 and Comparison of its Fatty Acid with Other Four Vegetable Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙斐; 张星海; 赵粼

    2013-01-01

    The seed of Chinese torreya ( Torreya grandis cv. Merrilli) is a special rare native nut in China. The extraction of torreya seed oil with the supercritical carbon dioxide technique was carried out. Then its fatty acid was analyzed by GC - MS,and compared with olive oil,peanut oil,camellia oil and sesame oil. Results showed that the obtained optimum extraction conditions were under the conditions of pressure 30 Mpa, extraction temperature 50 ℃ , and time 2 h,and extraction yield rate was 16.2%. Iinoleic acid and oleic acid are most abundant with mass fraction of 38.23% and 35.52% ,followed by palmitic acid (7.45% ) and sciadonic acid (7.41% ). Sciadonic acid was an unusual bio -active fatty acid. The fat acid components of torreya seed oil were similar to sesame oil and had the richest varieties among the five vegetable oils analyzed. The MUFA (36.39%) and PUFA (49.80%) in torreya seed oil were relatively balanced. These data would be helpful for the further development and utilization of Chinese torreya seed oil as functional food.%香榧为我国特产的名贵干果,本试验首先采用正交试验研究了超临界二氧化碳萃取香榧籽油的工艺条件;然后对香榧籽油的脂肪酸采用GC/MS进行分析,并与橄榄油、花生油、山茶油、芝麻油的脂肪酸进行比较.结果表明,超临界CO2流体萃取的最佳工艺条件为萃取压力30 MPa,温度50℃,萃取时间2h,萃取率达16.2%;香榧籽油主要含有亚油酸(38.23%)、油酸(35.52%)、棕榈酸(7.45%)、金松酸(7.41%)等10种脂肪酸,金松酸是具有较强生理活性的特殊脂肪酸.香榧籽油主要脂肪酸种类在所检测的5种油中最丰富,其脂肪酸组成与芝麻油较相似,单不饱和脂肪酸与多不饱和脂肪酸较为均衡(36.39%、49.80%).本研究可为香榧籽油作为高档功能性油脂的开发利用提供基础数据.

  3. Leaching Law and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Extractives from Pretreatment of Eucalyptus Grandis Chips with Benzene-Ethanol, Water and Ethanol-Water Solutions%尾巨桉苯醇、水及醇水抽出物的热解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 武书彬

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis extractives were generated by different approaches using benzene/ethanol, water and ethanol/ water solutions respectively. Ultimate analysis and micro particle size detection were carried out to show the basic characteristics of extractives. TG analysis was designed to investigate the initial pyrolysis process of different extractives. Py-GC/MS analysis was adopted to show the detail information about the pyrolysis process and the distribution of the pyrolysis products, The basic characteristics including element composition and micro particle distribution both showed a certain diversity among the extractives. Ultimate analysis results showed a carbon content order as benzene/ethanol extractive (BEE)〉ethanol/water extractive (EWE)〉water extractive (WE) while the oxygen content was on the contrary. It was supposed that distinction of extractive compound species was the cause of element content differences. From the detection of micro particle distribution, the results showed that WE had more lager molecules while BEE showed the opposite tendency. It was considered that ethanol and water acted on the chips separately. be thermal analysis results showed that the diversity of compounds content also caused the differences of pyrolysis characteristics of different extractives. The main pyrolisis products of WE were ketones, phenols and esters, for BEE main pyrolisis products were furans, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and phenols, for EWE main pyrolisis products were furans, phenols and esters.%分别应用苯醇、水及醇水三种抽提溶剂对尾巨桉木片进行抽提,制得三种不同的抽提物。通过元素分析、溶出物微粒子粒径分析对其进行了基本溶出规律的研究;设计TG与Py—GC/MS实验,对不同方式获得的抽出物进行了热分析,对其受热分解特性以及产物的分布进行了考查。结果发现,不同抽提物的化学元素含量存在明显的差异;其中碳元

  4. Capitalismo, socialismo e democrazia e le grandi imprese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The work takes issue with Schumpeter’s Capitalism, socialism and democracy, reviewing it in light of the recent historical evidence. The main thesis of Schumpeter’s book is that widespread concentration processes in modern capitalism, arising from static and dynamic economies of scale, are among the most important phenomena for economic development. As it is well known, Schumpeter believed that capitalism cannot survive and that socialism may work. The author, however, points out that Schumpeter’s view was highly influenced by the phenomena that took place between the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth. However, more recent evidence suggests radical changes in the innovation and competition processes of capitalism.  JEL Codes: P51, L13, B13Keywords: Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism, Economies of scale

  5. Sublethal effects of malathion on boll weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) fecundity when maintained on cotton squares or artificial diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOHN SCOTT ARMSTRONG; ALLAN T. SHOWLER; MAMOUDOU SETAMOU; SHOIL GREENBERG

    2006-01-01

    Mated 3-day-old female boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman,reared from field-infested cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) squares were topically treated with an estimated LD50 of malathion (2μg) to assess its effects on fecundity, oviposition, and body fat condition. Two different food sources, cotton squares and artificial diet, were assessed in malathion-treated and nontreated (control) weevils. The LD50 caused ≈ 50%mortality in the square-fed malathion treatment, but the artificial diet-fed malathion-treated weevils were less susceptible. LD50 survivors fed on the squares produced ≥ 9 times more chorionated eggs in the ovaries and oviposited≥ 19-fold more than survivors fed artificial diet, regardless of the malathion treatment. Boll weevils that survived a 2μg LD50 malathion and also fed squares were ≈ 4.5-fold leaner than diet-fed weevils. Our findings demonstrate that non-resistant boll weevils surviving a sublethal dose of malathion will reproduce without any delay or significant loss in fecundity, and the food source for which boll weevils are maintained when conducting these assays will directly affect the results. The significance of these findings and how they are related to the final stages of eradicating the boll weevil from the US are discussed.

  6. Crescimento de raizes e da parte aérea de clones de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla e de Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp submetidos a dois regimes de irrigação no campo Performance of Eucalyptus spp clones under different levels of soil water availability in the field - root and aboveground growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Gonçalves dos Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou subsidiar a seleção de genótipos de eucalipto para plantio em ambientes com disponibilidade variável de água no solo, através da análise do crescimento de raízes na fase inicial de estabelecimento da planta no campo e de sua associação com o crescimento das plantas adultas. Foram utilizados os clones 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 e 1277 de eucalipto, sob dois regimes de irrigação, a partir de seis meses de idade, em condições de campo, no norte do Estado da Bahia. O experimento foi estabelecido em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. O crescimento em altura aos 38 meses de idade não variou significativamente entre os tratamentos de irrigação, enquanto em diâmetro e volume nessa mesma idade foi significativamente superior nas plantas do tratamento irrigado em relação ao não-irrigado, sendo os clones 1260 e 0321 os mais produtivos. O clone 1277 apresentou menor sensibilidade à deficiência hídrica, o que pode ser atribuído ao intenso crescimento do sistema radicular. O clone 1250 apresentou menor crescimento em altura e diâmetro, possivelmente em razão de apresentar menor crescimento do sistema radicular, o que torna esse clone mais suscetível à deficiência hídrica. Com base nas avaliações realizadas, o clone 1250 não deve ser recomendado para regiões com déficit hídrico acentuado, e os demais clones estudados podem ser estabelecidos em regiões com regime hídrico semelhante ao da região objeto deste estudo, destacando-se os clones 1260 e 0321, por apresentarem maior produção volumétrica. Em condições de déficit hídrico mais acentuado, o clone 1277 é o mais promissor, em razão de não ter apresentado redução no crescimento, quando sob deficiência hídrica acentuada no solo.Below and aboveground growth of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla and one Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp clones identified as 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 and 1277, were studied in the

  7. 巨桉凋落叶分解初期对菊苣生长和光合特性的影响%Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀华; 李羿桥; 胡庭兴; 陈保军; 杨永贵; 陈洪; 胡红玲

    2013-01-01

    From March to May,2010,a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus.Four treatments with different application rate of the leaf litter,i.e.,0 g· pot-1(CK),30 g · pot-1(A1),60 g · pot-1(A2),and 90 g · pot-1(A3),were installed.Each pot contained 12 kg soil mixed with the leaf litter,and then,C.intybus was sown.The growth indicators of the C.intybus were measured at the 30,45,60,and 75 d after sowing,and the photosynthetic characteristics of the C.intybus in treatment A3 were studied after the seedlings third leaf fully expanded.At each measured time,the biomass accumulation and leaf area growth of C.intybus in treatments A1,A2,and A3 were inhibited significantly.At the early stage of the leaf litter decomposition,the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments of the C.intybus seedlings was inhibited significantly,and the inhibition effect was getting stronger with the increasing amount of the leaf litter addition.The diurnal change of the seedlings photosynthetic rate in all treatments showed a bimodal curve with midday depression,the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency had the same variation trend with the net photosynthetic rate,and the total diurnal photosynthesis decreased in the order of CK > A1 > A2 > A3.The GC-MS analysis showed there were 33 kinds of small molecule compounds released gradually with the decomposition of the leaf litter,among which,allelopathic substance terpenoid dominated.%采用盆栽试验,于2010年3-5月在四川农业大学教学科研园区内研究了巨桉凋落叶分解初期对受体植物菊苣幼苗生长和光合特性的影响.试验设置CK (0 g·pot-1)、A1(30 g·pot-1)、A2(60 g·pot-1)和A3 (90 g·pot-1)4个凋落叶施用水平,将各处理的凋落叶分别与12 kg土壤混合后装盆,播种菊苣,分别在播种30、45、60和75 d测定菊苣生长指标,

  8. 重庆尾巨桉林云斑天牛危害程度及影响因素分析%The Difference of Damage Degree of Batocera lineolata in Different Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis Plantations in Chongqing and Its Influencing Factors Research Using Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞帅; 陈本文; 冯磊; 陈桂芳; 马兴权; 白耀宇

    2016-01-01

    云斑白条天牛是尾巨桉的重要蛀干害虫,严重威胁重庆三峡库区等生态经济区的尾巨桉人工林建设.通过对重庆2个区30块不同尾巨桉人工林地云斑天牛越冬期虫情调查,分析了该虫的发生和危害情况,在此基础上利用因子分析方法研究该虫在各地发生和危害程度产生差异的原因.结果表明:云斑白条天牛对重庆尾巨桉的危害在近2年呈爆发趋势,各地发生和危害程度存在显著差异,受害株率为0~57.6%,平均为19.6%,以轻度和重度危害为主,其中最高的为九龙坡金凤镇的57.6%,虫口密度主要集中在20头/株以下,树干上以1~2 m为主.云斑天牛在各地危害与海拔和树龄存在一定相关性,虫口密度与受害树杆胸径呈显著正相关,海拔与虫口密度无相关性,海拔与受害株率呈显著负相关.因子分析结果显示,造成该虫在各地发生和危害巨大差异现象最主要原因受林地是否靠近公路、 人为扰动程度和虫口密度的差异影响,即上述三者组成的第一公因子的总方差贡献率达56%,影响程度大小依次为林地是否靠近公路>人为扰动程度>虫口密度;对个别林地的危害情况还需结合其他影响因素进行综合分析.%Batocera lineolata, an important stem-borer on eucalyptus, affects seriously the development of fast-growing eucalyptus plantations in the Three-Gorges-Reservoir-Area of Chongqing. In this paper, field investigations were conducted during overwintering period at 30 plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis in 2 districts of Chongqing, China, to assess the situations of occurrence and damage of the stem-borer. Furthermore, based on these findings, factor analysis was applied to the analysis of influencing factors of difference in the damage degree caused by the stem-borer among these eucalyptus forestlands. The results showed that the damage of B. lineolata to the eucalyptus had increasing trend of the outbreak in

  9. Mutantes morfológicos de algodoeiro herbáceo como fonte de resistência ao bicudo Morphological mutants of upland cotton as source of boll weevil resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três características morfológicas mutantes de linhagens de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch., isoladas ou combinadas no mesmo genótipo, como fonte de resistência ao bicudo, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, sob infestação natural, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2´3 com um tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Em teste com chance de escolha, a característica bráctea frego foi a que apresentou maior redução no dano de oviposição pelo bicudo (34,71%, em relação ao equivalente normal. A folha "okra" reduziu o dano apenas quando associada à bráctea frego (40%. A combinação das três características mutantes na mesma planta proporcionou a menor porcentagem de botões com dano de oviposição (23,13%.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of three morphological mutants of upland cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutm L. r. latifolium Hutch., isolated or in combination in the same cotton genotype, as a source of resistance to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. The experiment was carried out in the field, under natural infestation, with a completely randomized block design arranged in a factorial 2´3 plus an additional treatment, with four replications. In a multiple choice test, the character mutant frego bract presented the higher reduction on boll weevil oviposition damage (34.71%, in relation to the normal equivalent. The okra leaf reduced the boll weevil damage only when associated with frego bract (40%. The combination of the three mutant characters in the same plant presented the least square percent with oviposition damage (23.13%.

  10. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  11. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  12. Reproductive potential of field-collected overwintering boll weevils (Coleoptera" Curculionidae) fed on pollen in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Greenberg; G.D.Jones; J.J.Adamczyk, Jr.; F.Eischen; J.S.Armstrong; R.J.Coleman; M.Sétamou; Tong-Xian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Bobeman), females collected from pheromone traps in September, November and January, fed for 1, 3, and 5 weeks on plant pollens, and then provided cotton squares, was determined in the laboratory at 27 ± 1℃, 65% RH, and a photoperiod 13 : 11 (L : D) h.Duration of pollen feeding by overwintering boll weevils did not significantly influence egg and feeding punctures, or puncture ratios (egg to total punctures) for any of the three months of parent weevil collections when provided cotton squares on a daily basis.However, punctures and puncture ratios are significantly different when comparing mean data between months of boll weevil collections. When boll weevils were provided with cotton squares daily, the pre-ovipositional periods of female parents captured in September, November and January were 5, 9 and 14 days, respectively. The rate of eggs by females was significantly lower during November and January than September. Female parents collected in September produced a significantly higher percentage of eggs yielding adult progeny than those collected in November and January. Life table parameters indicated that net reproductive rate (R_o) of boll weevil females collected in September was 1.2-fold higher than those collected in November and 10.7-fold higher than those collected in January. Except for testes size, no differences in male reproductive parameters were observed during the cotton-free period compared with males captured during mid-cotton (June). The number of oocytes in the ovarioles and the number of oocytes containing yolk were significantly lower during September, November and January compared with June. The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil females collected in different months is an important consideration in determining the success of any control strategy.

  13. Diflubenzuron Hazards to Fish, Wildlife and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (1(4chlorophenyl)3(2,6difluorobenzoyl)urea), also known as dimilin, is a potent broad spectrum insect growth regulator that interferes with chitin synthesis at time of molting and is effective in controlling immature stages of insects. Diflubenzuron was approved for domestic use in 1976 to control gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), and in 1979 against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis). By 1989 this compound was also registered for domestic use against mosquitos, forest Lepidoptera, mushroom flies, and leaf-eating insect pests of citrus, woody ornamentals, vegetables, and fruit. Diflubenzuron seldom persists for more than a few days in soil and water. When used properly in forest management, it is unlikely to be leached into ground water from the application site. Degradation in water and soil is most rapid when small particle formulations are applied; microorganisms are abundant; and at elevated pH, temperature, and organic loading. Chemical and biological processes initially yield 2,6difluorobenzoic acid and 4chlorophenylurea.

  14. Using an Electronic Nose to Rapidly Assess Grandlure Content in Boll Weevil Pheromone Lures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles P.-C. Suh; Ningye Ding; Yubin Lan

    2011-01-01

    Samples of pheromone lures used in boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis (Boheman),eradication programs are routinely analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) to ensure lures are adequately dosed with grandlure,the synthetic aggregation pheromone produced by male weevils.However,preparation of GC samples is tedious,time consuming,and requires a moderate level of experience.We examined the use of a commercially-available electronic nose (e-nose) for rapidly assessing the grandlure contents of lures.The e-nose was trained to recognize headspace collections of grandlure emitted from new lures and after lures were aged under field conditions for 4 d,7 d,10 d,and 14 d.Based on cross-validation of the training set,the e-nose was 82%accurate in discriminating among the different age classes of lures.Upon sampling headspace collections of pheromone from a different set of field-aged lures,the e-nose was <50% accurate in discriminating 4 d,7 d,and 10 d aged lures from the other ageclasses of lures.However,the e-nose identified new and 14 d aged lure samples with 100% accuracy.In light of these findings,e-nose technology shows considerable promise as an alternative approach for rapidly assessing the initial grandlure contents of lures used in boll weevil eradication programs.

  15. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  16. 昆虫产卵抑制素的研究及应用%Progress in the study and application of oviposition deterrents of insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟国玲; 肖春; 龚信文

    2000-01-01

    Many insects left "oviposition markers" on the surface of the eggs or at the egg-laying site after oviposition. It was found that "oviposition markers" were chemical-oviposition deterrents (OVD) produced by female adults,which deterred oviposition at the same sites by conspecific or heterospecific females. It was confirmed that the larvae of many insects could secret OVD. The species in Orthoptera,Lepidoptera,Coleoptera and Diptera could also produce OVD. Many documents confirmed that there were chemicals functioning as OVD in many kinds of plants. A set of techniques for studying OVD such as electrophysiological responses,behavioral responses,and isolation and identification of active compounds has now been developed. The OVD produced by females of Pieris rape,Lasioderma serricorne and Rhagoletis cerasi were identified and synthesized. The chemicals functioning as OVD of Pieris rape and Hylemya spp. were found in many plants. Controlling Rhagoleris cerasi with OVD was a typical example in the application of OVD. In addition,a new variety of cotton that could deter oviposition by females of Anthonomus grandis was also developed. OVD could also be used to study coevolutionary relationship between herbivore insects and plants. We think that study on OVD of insects plays a very important role in decoding the ovipositional behaviors of insects,co-evoluationary relationship between herbiore insects and plants,and developing new types of pest insect-controlling techniques.

  17. First complete and productive cell culture model for members of the genus Iridovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Susan M; Vigerust, David J; Perales-Hull, Marsha R; Lodhi, Sundus A; Viravathana, Polrit; Bilimoria, Shän L

    2012-11-01

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; the type strain of the genus Iridovirus) replicates productively in larvae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. This study focuses on characterizing productive infections of a boll weevil cell line, BRL-AG-3A (AG3A), starting with CIV reared in the waxworm, Galleria mellonella. We show that CIV can be continually and productively passaged to high titer in AG3A cells. The replication of larval-derived CIV in AG3A was analyzed by observing viral DNA replication and restriction endonuclease digestion profiles, morphogenesis, and infectivity using TCID(50) assays with AG3A as an indicator cell line. The data showed that virus passaged in the AG3A host is stable. AG3A cells are more efficient than previously utilized CF-124T cells from Choristoneura fumiferana. This system constitutes a superior model for cellular and molecular studies on CIV; it represents the first complete, productive cell culture model for the replication of CIV or any member of the genus Iridovirus.

  18. Propagación clonal in vitro de arboles elite de teca (Tectona grandis L. In vitro clonal propagation of elite trees of teak (Tectona grandis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linero Juan Carlos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EI empleo de las técnicas de cultivo de tejidos vegetales para la propagación y el mejoramiento de especies de interés forestal es una importante herramienta de apoyo a los programas de reforestación y establecimiento de huertos semilleros clonales. EI objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en el desarrollo de una metodología para la propagación clonal in vitro de la teca a partir de arboles elite. Como fuente de explantes se emplearon ápices procedentes de brotes epicormicos, los cuales se sembraron en el medio de cultivo de Schenk y Hildebrandt, enriquecido con los microelementos de Bourgin y Nitsch, Bencil Amino Purina (BAP 0,5 mg/L y solidificado con agar. Para la fase de proliferación se empleó el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog con las sales nitrogenadas reducidas a la mitad de su concentración normal. Se evaluaron diferentes concentraciones de BAP (0, 0,1, 0,5 Y 1,0 mg/L. EI mayor coeficiente de multiplicaci6n y mejor calidad de los brotes se logr6 con 0,5 mg/L de BAP.  El enraizamiento se realizó en condiciones ex vitro; se emplearon microesquejes apicales con una longitud pro media de 1,5 a 2,0 cm. Estos se trataron con diferentes concentraciones de AlB (0,250, 500, 1.000, 2.000, 4.000 Y5.000 mg/L, Los mayores porcentajes de enraizamiento y supervivencia de las plantulas se lograron con 4.000 mg/L de AlB. Esta metodología permitió el establecimiento de los arboles en condiciones de campo para apoyar los programas de huertos semilleros clonales y plantaciones a escala comercial de Refocosta.The employment of the techniques of plant tissue culture for the propagation and the genetic improvement of forest trees are importants support tool to the reforestation programs and the establishment of clonal seed orchards. This work's main objective was the development of a methodology for the in vitro clonal propagation of teak, starting from elite trees. As explants source apical shoots from epicormic buds were used, which were placed in the basal medium of Schenk and Hildebrandt supplemented with 0.5 mg/L of BAr, Bourgin and Nitsch micronutrients and solidified with agar. For the proliferation phase it was used the basal medium of Murashige and Skoog with half of the normal NH4N03 and KN03 concentration. Different concentrations of BAP were evaluated (0, 0,1, 0,5 and 1,0 mg/L. The biggest multiplication coefficient and better quality of the buds was achieved with 0.5 mg/L of BAP. The rooting was carried out under ex vitro conditions; were used microcutings between 1.5 and 2.0 em of length. Then, they were treated with different concentrations of IBA (0, 250, 500, 1.000, 2.000, 4.000 and 5.000 mg/L. The biggest rooting percentage and plantlets survival was achieved with 4000 mg/L of IBA. This methodology allowed the establishment of the trees under field conditions to support the programs of clonal seed orchards and operative plantations of Refocosta.

  19. Micromorfologia foliar na análise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfície foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulações comerciais Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI®. Entre os clones não foram identificadas diferenças quanto à tolerância ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas à deriva simulada de Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentagem de intoxicação. Observou-se menor massa seca em plantas expostas ao glyphosate, independentemente da formulação, e menor altura naquelas expostas ao Scout® e ao Roundup transorb®. As características quantitativas da superfície foliar não foram afetadas pelo glyphosate. As alterações micromorfológicas ocorreram na ausência de danos visíveis e foram observadas em ambas as faces da epiderme, em todos os clones avaliados. Danos como erosão e aspecto amorfo das ceras epicuticulares e infestação por hifas fúngicas ocorreram, independentemente da formulação utilizada. A avaliação anatômica da superfície foliar foi relevante para descrição e interpretação dos danos causados pelo glyphosate. Os dados de crescimento e de intoxicação indicam o Zapp QI® como a formulação de menor risco para a cultura do eucalipto quanto aos efeitos indesejáveis da deriva.The effects of commercial glyphosate drift on the leaf surface and growth of eucalypt clones were evaluated. Seedlings of six clones were submitted to 129.6 g ha-1 sub-rate of commercial glyphosate formulations Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI®. No differences in tolerance to glyphosate were observed among the clones. Plants exposed to simulated drift of Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI® presented the highest and lowest intoxication percentages, respectively. Plants exposed to glyphosate reduced dry biomass, regardless of the formulation, and also reduced height of the plants exposed to Scout® and Roundup transorb®. Leaf surface characteristics were not affected by glyphosate application. However, the micromorphological damages occurred prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, and were observed on both faces of the epidermis, in all clones tested. Damages such as erosion and amorphous aspect of epicuticular waxes and infestation of fungal hyphae occurred, independently of the formulation used. The anatomical evaluation of the leaf surface effectively described the damages caused by glyphosate. The growth and intoxication data indicate Zapp QI® formulation as presenting the lowest risk to eucalypt culture, in relation to the undesirable herbicide drift effects.

  20. In vitro wood decay of teak (Tectona grandis by Rigidoporus cf. microporus (Meripiliaceae, Polyporales, Basidiomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarmiento S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of exotic species like teak for industry demands has increased over the last decades in Central America, however its vulnerability to decay by saprophytic fungi has not been well studied. Among these fungi, Rigidoporus spp. have been described as white rotters of dead hardwoods and conifers worldwide. In Costa Rica, R. microporus has been found growing on teak stumps. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of this white rot fungus on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of teak wood from trees of different ages. Six and ten year old sapwood and heartwood samples were used in the assays. Severe anatomical damage and the highest weight and resistance losses were observed on 6 yr. old sapwood samples. There was an increase in the quantity of soluble materials in 1% NaOH (relative values and lignin content in all the samples analyzed, after 3 months exposure and up to the end of the experiment. Mass loss reduction and increased resistance of wood to compressive strength parallel to the grain were related to both the type of wood and the age of the tree. Knowledge of the potential damage that this fungus can cause to teak wood might help in a better selection of wood and developing more effective protection measures against decay in the field or in construction wood.

  1. [Gestire il difficile equilibrio tra esigenze occupazionali e salute pubblica nei grandi siti industriali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversano, M

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pressures affecting Taranto area led institutional commitment to the local Health (LHA) and Environment Agency, which have helped to provide data in support of epidemiological and health impacts evidence.This is relevant in view of the issues related to the public health which led the Apulia Region to enact measures for environmental monitoring of dioxins (Regional Law 44/2008) and protection of food safety (Regional Council Deliberation 1442/2009). The LHA investigated three lines of development: monitoring of food matrices, studies of human biomonitoring and the establishment of local Cancer Registry. Same time to the actions of the Taranto Judiciary, Apulia Region has enacted the RL 24/12, integrating the legislative gap present into the Environmental Authorization procedures, which will allow the Health Damage Assessment, through the correlation between environmental monitoring data, biomonitoring and Cancer Registry. The next step will see the LHA involved in managing effective and feasible prevention initiatives. The Special Health and Environment Plan objective is to monitor the Taranto population health status, to screen the health determinants, to estimate the toxicologically relevant indicators of possible contamination and, if possible, to modify the correlations between risk factors, body burden, and specific diseases.

  2. Basal Root Rot, a new Disease of Teak (Tectona grandis in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal root rot of teak was first reported from Sabak Bernam, Selangor making this the first report of the disease on teak in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungus found associated with the disease was Phellinus noxious. The disease aggressively killed its host irrespective of the host health status. Bark depression at the root collar which was visible from a distance was the characteristic symptom and the main indicator in identifying the disease in the plantation since above ground symptoms of the canopy could not be differentiated from crowns of healthy trees. However, although above ground symptoms were not easily discernible, the disease was already advanced and the trees mostly beyond treatment; 3.4 % of the trees in the plantation were affected and the disease occurred both on solitary trees and in patches. Below ground, infected trees had rotted root systems, mainly below and around the collar region with brown discolored wood and irregular golden-brown honeycomb-like pockets of fungal hyphae in the wood. Pathogenicity tests showed that the fungus produced symptoms similar to those observed in the plantation and killed two year-old teak plants. The disease killed all the inoculated hosts within three months, irrespective of wounded or unwounded treatments.

  3. INDUCTION OF CALLUS FORMATION FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF Citrus grandis (OSBECK FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Binti Zakaria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present work were to study the capability of pomelo's floral tissues to produce callus and to investigate the influence of plant growth regulators on callus induction and development. Various parts of flower namely petal, sepal, style, ovary, pistil and cup base were cultured onto Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium supplemented with different levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 6-Furfurylaminopurine (kinetin. It was found that different parts of flowers favored different levels of hormone for callus induction. The highest formation of callus were obtained from petal and sepal cultured on MS media supplemented with 1.5 mg/l kinetin. A 50 ± 2.3%explants from style and pistil had initiated callus when cultured on MS media supplemented with 0.05 mg/l and 0.10 mg/l BAP, respectively. On the other hand, sucrose agar (SA media alone had managed to induce callus formation from almost every part of the flowers with a success rate between 7.69 ± 0.32 to 50 ± 3.18%. The uncut part of flowers initiated high percentage of callus (14.6 ± 0.35% as shown in the study on petal.

  4. ORIGIN OF ORGANIC SUBSTRATES FOR PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS OF TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André Trazzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810551The utilization of renewable waste as a source of nutrients for forest seedlings production can be a solution to environmental problems, mainly related to the disposal of these materials. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the use of renewable substrates as substrate components in the production of teak seedlings. Seedlings were grown in tubes with a volume capacity of 280 cm³, using for the composition of treatments cattle manure, poultry litter or manure quail associated with subsoil earth and a fraction of 25% of commercial for