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Sample records for anthonomus grandis coleoptera

  1. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

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    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2016-12-12

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m(2), planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  2. Genetic diversity of Brazilian natural populations of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major cotton pest in the New World.

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    Martins, W F S; Ayres, C F J; Lucena, W A

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five RAPD loci and 6 isozyme loci were studied to characterize the genetic variability of natural populations of Anthonomus grandis from two agroecosystems of Brazil. The random-amplified polymorphic DNA data disclosed a polymorphism that varied from 52 to 84% and a heterozygosity of 0.189 to 0.347. The index of genetic differentiation (GST) among the six populations was 0.258. The analysis of isozymes showed a polymorphism and a heterozygosity ranging from 25 to 100% and 0.174 to 0.277, respectively. The genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations obtained by isozyme data was 0.544. It was possible to observe rare alleles in the populations from the Northeast region. The markers examined allowed us to distinguish populations from large-scale, intensive farming region (cotton belts) versus populations from areas of small-scale farming

  3. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

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    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  4. Método de diagnóstico para el monitoreo de resistencia a insecticidas en poblaciones de "picudo del algodonero", Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae A diagnostic test for insecticide resistance monitoring in "cotton boll weevil" Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae populations

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    Teodoro Stadler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El control de las poblaciones de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, por debajo de su umbral de daño económico durante el ciclo del cultivo del algodón, se realiza en forma efectiva hasta el momento, a través de insecticidas de síntesis. La presión selectiva de las aplicaciones extensivas e intensivas de insecticidas hace imperativa la detección temprana de focos de resistencia a los mismos, en función de un correcto manejo del fenómeno. Se desarrolló un método de diagnóstico de resistencia para A. grandis a partir de la técnica "vial test", que fue adaptada en forma de "kit" para el monitoreo rápido y sencillo de los focos de resistencia en el campo. La toxicidad (CL99, para calcular la concentración discriminante (CD del insecticida y la preparación del "kit", se obtiene a partir de bioensayos de laboratorio con una cepa normal susceptible de A. grandis. Se determinó la vida media de los insecticidas dentro de los viales por CIPAC MT 46, para establecer una fecha de vencimiento del "kit". La CD y el método en su conjunto fueron validados a través de ensayos a campo. El "kit", usado en el monitoreo de resistencia en el campo, fue especialmente diseñado para ser utilizado en las condiciones geográficas, económicas y socio-culturales presentes en la región algodonera argentina. La implementación de esta técnica permitirá conseguir la información necesaria, y así obtener una apropiada alternancia de insecticidas. Como consecuencia, se prevé una reducción de impacto ambiental de las prácticas agronómicas en el control de plagas en algodón.The in-season control of the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman is done by insecticide application, which so far is the only effective way to reduce boll weevil populations to levels below economic significance. The extensive and intensive control actions with insecticides cause selective pressure on pest populations. Thus, to achieve an accurate insecticide resistance

  5. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

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    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  6. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

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    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  7. Towards Coleoptera-specific high-throughput screening systems for compounds with ecdysone activity: development of EcR reporter assays using weevil (Anthonomus grandis)-derived cell lines and in silico analysis of ligand binding to A. grandis EcR ligand-binding pocket.

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    Soin, Thomas; Iga, Masatoshi; Swevers, Luc; Rougé, Pierre; Janssen, Colin R; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-08-01

    Molting in insects is regulated by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones. Several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists are on the market as insecticides. These ecdysone agonists are dibenzoylhydrazine (DBH) analogue compounds that manifest their toxicity via interaction with the ecdysone receptor (EcR). Of the four commercial available ecdysone agonists, three (tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide and chromafenozide) are highly lepidopteran specific, one (halofenozide) is used to control coleopteran and lepidopteran insects in turf and ornamentals. However, compared to the very high binding affinity of these DBH analogues to lepidopteran EcRs, halofenozide has a low binding affinity for coleopteran EcRs. For the discovery of ecdysone agonists that target non-lepidopteran insect groups, efficient screening systems that are based on the activation of the EcR are needed. We report here the development and evaluation of two coleopteran-specific reporter-based screening systems to discover and evaluate ecdysone agonists. The screening systems are based on the cell lines BRL-AG-3A and BRL-AG-3C that are derived from the weevil Anthonomus grandis, which can be efficiently transduced with an EcR reporter cassette for evaluation of induction of reporter activity by ecdysone agonists. We also cloned the almost full length coding sequence of EcR expressed in the cell line BRL-AG-3C and used it to make an initial in silico 3D-model of its ligand-binding pocket docked with ponasterone A and tebufenozide.

  8. Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae

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    Daniela de Cassia Bená

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae. The third instar larva and the pupa of Anthonomus vis Clark, 1992 are described and illustrated, based upon specimens collected in the Serra de São José, Tiradentes, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The species was previously known from the type series collected in the states of Amapá and Pará. Comparisons with the larva and pupa of A. grandis Boheman, 1843 and A. monostigma Champion, 1903 are included. The larvae of A. vis live as inquilines in the galls induced by a species of momphid moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae in the stems of Leandra aurea (Cham. Cogn. (Melastomataceae.

  9. Toxicity to cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.

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    de P G Gomes, Angélica; Dias, Simoni C; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Furtado, José R; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Franco, Octávio L

    2005-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Adult A. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. The predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. The present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) and its effects against A. grandis. This inhibitor, named CaTI, was purified by using affinity Red-Sepharose Cl-6B chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC (Vydac C18-TP). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses, showed a unique monomeric protein with a mass of 12,877 Da. Purified CaTI showed significant inhibitory activity against larval cotton boll weevil serine proteinases (78%) and against bovine pancreatic trypsin (73%), when analyzed by fluorimetric assays. Although the molecular mass of CaTI corresponded to alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitors masses, no inhibitory activity against insect and mammalian alpha-amylases was observed. In order to observe CaTI in vivo effects, an inhibitor rich fraction was added to an artificial diet at different concentrations. At 1.5% (w/w), CaTI caused severe development delay, several deformities and a mortality rate of approximately 45%. These results suggested that CaTI could be useful in the production of transgenic cotton plants with enhanced resistance toward cotton boll weevil.

  10. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Eller, Fred; Palmquist,Debra

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about a...

  11. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Eller, Fred J.; Debra E. Palmquist

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about ...

  12. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

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    Eller, Fred J; Palmquist, Debra E

    2014-11-18

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  13. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency

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    Fred J. Eller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  14. Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi herbst. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae).

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    Innocenzi, P J; Hall, D R; Cross, J V

    2001-06-01

    The strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi, is a major pest of strawberries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. As part of a project to develop noninsecticidal control methods, the pheromone system of this species was investigated. Comparison of volatiles produced by field-collected, overwintering individuals of each sex led to identification of three male-specific compounds--(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (cis)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)cyclobutaneethanol, and 2-(1-methylethenyl)-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol (lavandulol)--in amounts of 6.1, 1.2, and 0.82 microg/day/ male. The first two compounds are components of the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandlure II and grandlure I, respectively. Grandlure I was the (1R,2S)-(+) enantiomer and lavandulol was a single enantiomer, although the absolute configuration was not determined. Trace amounts of the other two grandlure components (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure III) and (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure IV) were also detected. (E,E)-1-(1-Methylethyl)-4-methylene-8-methyl-2,7-cyclo-decadiene (germacrene-D), a known volatile from strawberry plants, Fragaria ananassa, was collected in increased amounts in the presence of pheromone-producing weevils. Male weevils only produced pheromone on F. ananassa and not on scented mayweed, Matracaria recutita, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, although these are known food sources. In field trials using various combinations of synthetic grandlures I, II, III, and IV and lavandulol, significantly more weevils were caught in traps baited with blends containing grandlure I and II and lavandulol than in those baited with blends without lavandulol or unbaited controls. Addition of grandlure III and IV had no significant effect on attractiveness. Horizontal sticky traps were found to be more effective than vertical sticky traps or standard boll weevil traps. In mid-season females

  15. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

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    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  16. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

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    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program.

  17. Effect of Different Lignocellulosic Diets on Bacterial Microbiota and Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in the Gut of the Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

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    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Soria, Marcelo; Salvador, Ricardo; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Campos, Eleonora; Brodie, Eoin L.; Talia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Cotton boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, are omnivorous coleopteran that can feed on diets with different compositions, including recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. We characterized the changes in the prokaryotic community structure and the hydrolytic activities of A. grandis larvae fed on different lignocellulosic diets. A. grandis larvae were fed on three different artificial diets: cottonseed meal (CM), Napier grass (NG) and corn stover (CS). Total DNA was extracted from the gut samples for amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the gut microbiota followed by Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes and a small number of unclassified phyla in CM and NG microbiomes. In the CS feeding group, members of Spirochaetes were the most prevalent, followed by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bray–Curtis distances showed that the samples from the CS community were clearly separated from those samples of the CM and NG diets. Gut extracts from all three diets exhibited endoglucanase, xylanase, β-glucosidase and pectinase activities. These activities were significantly affected by pH and temperature across different diets. We observed that the larvae reared on a CM showed significantly higher activities than larvae reared on NG and CS. We demonstrated that the intestinal bacterial community structure varies depending on diet composition. Diets with more variable and complex compositions, such as CS, showed higher bacterial diversity and richness than the two other diets. In spite of the detected changes in composition and diversity, we identified a core microbiome shared between the three different lignocellulosic diets. These results suggest that feeding with diets of different lignocellulosic composition could be a viable strategy to discover variants of hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown systems. PMID:28082962

  18. Toxicidad de insecticidas sobre Catolaccus hunteri Crawford (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoide de Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

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    Murillo Hernández, Juan Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Cuando no se puede evitar el uso de insecticidas es recomendable que la propuesta de manejo de sus plagas incluya el efecto de dichos insecticidas sobre los enemigos naturales (EN). En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de la residualidad y la toxicidad letal y subletal de los insecticidas beta-cyfluthrin, bifenazate, clorantraniliprol, flonicamid, spirotetramat y thiametoxam sobre Catolaccus hunteri, un ectoparasitoide del picudo del chile, Anthonomus eugenii. En las evaluaciones se emp...

  19. Structure and development of ovaries in the weevil, Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga). II. Germ cells of the trophic chamber.

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    Swiatek, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the germ cell cluster formation in Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Curculionidae) has revealed that both linear and branched clones of cystocytes occur in the pupa stage. In the branched clones a poorly developed polyfusome is formed and cystocytes with maximally 3 intercellular bridges were found. In the linear clones the polyfusomes are absent. Further divisions of cystocytes produce exclusively linearly arranged cells. Just after metamorphosis (Imago-A stage), the process of the germ cell membrane reduction starts. Only 2 groups of cells retain cell membranes: i.e the most anteriorly localized group of cystocytes and the posteriorly located presumptive oocytes. The former cells divide mitotically during the summer. As a result an anterior-posterior gradient of the syncytialization process arises in the Imago-B stage (females preparing for hibernation). In the sexually mature females (Imago-C) the trophic chamber consists of a huge syncytial area with numerous nurse cell nuclei embedded in a common cytoplasm, and posteriorly located young oocytes surrounded by prefollicular cells. In the light of recent hypothesis concerning the germ cell cluster formation and telotrophy anagenesis in Polyphaga the significance of the presented results is discussed.

  20. Structure and development of ovaries in the weevil, Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga). I. Somatic tissues of the trophic chamber.

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    Swiatek, P

    2001-01-01

    In developing ovarioles of Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Curculionidae) the trophic chambers (tropharia) are relatively large and consist of clusters (clones) of germ cells and various somatic tissues. Each ovariole is enclosed within an outer epithelial sheath (tunica externa). Throughout the pupal phase, the growth of this sheath is accelerated and precedes the development of the rest of the ovariole. As a result, the epithelial sheath proliferates anteriorly and forms an elongated "sleeve" that during the later stages of development becomes gradually filled by the growing tropharium. In the early pupal stage, a few terminal filament cells are observed in contact with the anterior end of the tropharium. These cells are separated from the rest of the trophic chamber by a transverse septum, which maintains continuity with the basal lamina. Beneath the basal lamina there is a layer of inner sheath cells, whereas inside the tropharium there are interstitial cells. These two types of cell differ morphologically in a mature ovary but they retain, until the end of the imago-B stage, a similar ultrastructure testifying to their common origin. At the posterior end of the tropharium, from the imago-B stage on, many young oocytes, surrounded by prefollicular cells, are observed. This is the so-called neck region of the tropharium. Extraction with Triton X-100 detergent showed that in a mature trophic chamber there are only individual microtubules arranged along the projections of interstitial cells. This indicates that the cytoskeleton elements (microfilaments and microtubules) participate only to a very limited extent in the spatial organisation of the tropharium in A. pomorum.

  1. Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, F J; Bartelt, R J; Shasha, B S; Schuster, D J; Riley, D G; Stansly, P A; Mueller, T F; Shuler, K D; Johnson, B; Davis, J H; Sutherland, C A

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the identification of an aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii and field trials of a synthetic pheromone blend. Volatile collections and gas chromatography revealed the presence of six male-specific compounds. These compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques as: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid (geranic acid), and (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). The emission rates of these compounds from feeding males were determined to be about: 7.2, 4.8, 0.45, 0.30, 2.0, and 0.30µg/male/day, respectively. Sticky traps baited with a synthetic blend of these compounds captured more pepper weevils (both sexes) than did unbaited control traps or pheromone-baited boll weevil traps. Commercial and laboratory formulations of the synthetic pheromone were both attractive. However, the commercial formulation did not release geranic acid properly, and geranic acid is necessary for full activity. The pheromones of the pepper weevil and the boll weevil are compared. Improvements for increasing trap efficiency and possible uses for the pepper weevil pheromone are discussed. A convenient method for purifying geranic acid is also described.

  2. Susceptibility of pepper weevil (anthonomus eugenii cano) (coleoptera: curculionidae) to seven insecticides in rural areas of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalía Servín Villegas; José. L. García Hernández; Armando Tejas Romero; José L. Martínez Carrillo; M. A. Toapanta

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility of the pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii), collected from Baja California Sur, Mexico, to seven insecticides was determined. Acontact, residual exposition method was used to obtain the lethal concentrations fifty (LC50) and the diagnostic concentration (LC95) of organophosphates (OF), carbamates (CA), pyrethroids (PIR), and organochlorine (OC) insecticides used to control pepper weevils from two agricultural areas (Los Planes and Todos Santos) in Southern Baja California Pe...

  3. ANTHONOMUS RUBI (HERBST, 1795 (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE A NEW DANGEROUS PEST IN THE ECOLOGICAL CROPS OF STRAWBERRY IN THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MANOLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania mostly of 70% of strawberry ecological plantations were cultivated with specific commercial cultivars like Premial, Red Gauntlet, Dana and Elsanta. In the last years became to be cropped cultivars with increased resistance to various pest insects, specially in the first stages of vegetation period like Honeoye, Elsanta, Camorosa, Marmolada, Chandler, Darselect, Clery and Sonata. On the little individual farms with small surfaces the cultivars Senga Sengana, Marmolada, Elsinore should be the primary source of infestation with Anthonomus rubi.A study of distribution, density and the degree attack of Anthonomus rubi was carried out in the period 2006-2007 in the Vidra and Comana localities, Giurgiu district in the southern part of Romania. The study and observations that was made showed that this species is increased in density in the new ecological plantations of strawberry from some individual farms. The strawberry blossom weevil is not a common pest of strawberry plantations in Romania but some cultivars cropped in ecological system became more sensitive to the weevil attack by increasing in density. Observations and researches were carried out on 4 cultivars and showed that the degree of damage caused by A. rubi depends of cultivar morphological characteristics (small fruits or phenophases (time of ripening and duration of budding and blossoming.

  4. The cold-hardiness of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) and Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera, Rhizophagidae)%红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens(Coleoptera,Scolytidae)和大唼蜡甲 Rhizophagus grandis(Coleoptera,Rhizophagidae)的耐寒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建兴; 杨忠岐; Jean-Claude Gregoire

    2009-01-01

    Dendroctonus valens LeConte(Red turpentine beetle,RTB) was recently found in outbreak in China.Its elder instars and mature larvae mainly over-winter under the roots of the pine stumps and standing trees in China.The cold tolerant capabilities of the pest was estimated in the laboratory by SU-per-cooling points (SCP) and short-term lower lethal temperatures (LLT).The results show that the lowest mean super-cooling point of the RTB over-wintering larvae is-11.98 ± 2.55℃ and it is a species of tolerant-freezing insect.The SCP of RTB is significantly different between different geographical populations,the elder stage larvae have lower cold-hardiness than younger ones,but no significantly different between the larvae in early winter and later winter.The RTB larvae could spend its life in winter below the atmospheric temperie temperature which being lower more than-23.5℃ at least.In contrast,Rhizophagus grandis Gyll.,as a predator of Dendroctonus micans,was introduced to China against RTB since 2001.The mean SCP of Rhizophagus grandis larva is-l8.05 ±2.76℃ which being lower temperature more than ones of any stage of RTB.%红脂大小蠹 Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Red turpentine beetle,RTB)是近年来在中国爆发的入侵生物,在我国主要以老熟幼虫在油松伐桩和立木的根部越冬.室内测定昆虫的过冷却点(SCP)和短时间致死低温(LLT)是评价昆虫耐寒能力的重要方法.实验结果显示,红脂大小蠹越冬幼虫的平均过冷却点为一11.98±2.55℃,是一种耐冰冻的昆虫.红脂大小蠹的过冷却点在不同地理分布区的种群问有明显差异,老熟幼虫的过冷却点明显低于低龄幼虫,在越冬前和越冬后的幼虫问没有明显差异.红脂大小蠹幼虫在冬季至少町以忍受-23.5℃的大气温度安全越冬.从2001年开始引入我国的云杉大小蠹的捕食者大唼蜡甲(Rhizophagus grandis cyll.)幼虫的过冷却点为-18.05±2.76℃,低于红脂大小蠹所有虫态

  5. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  6. Patogenicidade e viabilidade de Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae Var. anisopliae e Metarhizium anisopliae Var. acridium ao Anthonomus grandis (Boheman) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae amplamente distribuídos em todas as regiões do mundo podem ser isolados de insetos, solo e de outros substratos. Essas espécies apresentam variabilidade genética e habilidades sobre diferentes insetos-praga. Patogenicidade e virulência sobre diversos artrópodes têm sido observadas com a variação de atividades enzimáticas e características genéticas dos isolados. A ação desses agentes está relacionada com as condições climáti...

  7. Molecular diagnostic for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on amplification of three species-specific microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W

    2009-04-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.

  8. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  9. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap distance from cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Once populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) are suppressed, eradication programs rely on pheromone trap-based monitoring for timely detection of weevil populations in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Delayed detection may increase the costs of remedial treatments, and permit rep...

  10. White grubs, Holotrichia rustica and Holotrichia mucida (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) as pests of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin Kulkarni; Sanjay Paunikar; Kailash Chandra Josh; John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    Field observations were carried out between 2002 and 2005 on bio-ecology of white grubs infesting teak (Tectona grandis Linn, f.) seedlings at Ramdongari Forest Nursery, Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra, Nagpur in central India. The study collected the data required for an integrated pest management strategy against the white grubs. The species damaging teak seedlings were Holotrichia rustica (Burmeister) and H. mucida Gyllenhal. The beetles (adults) of both these species began to emerge just after the pre-monsoon showers and when the relative humidity had risen rapidly over several days, but before the first monsoon rains. While the adults fed and mated on naturally growing bushes of Ziziphus jujuba, Z. mauritiana, Z. xylopyra, Acacia leucophloea and A. catechu immediately after the emergence from the teak beds in the nursery, the immature stages (grubs) of both species fed on roots of the teak seedling, leading to plant death. This is the first report of (i) damage caused to teak seedlings by grubs of H. rustica and H. mucida, and (ii) of Z jujuba and Z mauritiana being hosts for the beetles of H. mucida and H. rustica. It is also the first detailed report on the field bio-ecology of the H. rustica and H. mucida as major pests of teak. White grubs are among the toughest-to-manage pests of economic importance and information presented here on the pest incidence and damage of H. rustica and H. mucida is important to researchers and nursery field managers for the management of these pests on teak.

  11. Continued pheromone release by boll weevils (Coleoptera: curculionidae) following host removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  12. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Weber; Rowley, Daniel L.; Greenstone, Matthew H.; Athanas, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laborator...

  13. 红脂大小蠹的捕食性天敌——大唼蜡甲发育和温度的关系研究%Study on the Relationship between Growth and Environmental Temperature of Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae), An Important Predator of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建荣; 丁保福; 唐艳龙; 赵建兴; 杨忠岐

    2010-01-01

    @@ 大唼蜡甲(Rhizophagus grandis Gyllenhal) 属鞘翅目唼蜡甲科(Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae),是云杉大小蠹(Dendroctonus micans Kugelann)(鞘翅目:小蠹科)(Coleoptera:Scolytidae)的主要捕食性天敌,其成虫和幼虫均可捕食云杉大小蠹的卵、幼虫和蛹,在自然调节这种重要害虫的种群数量上发挥着重要作用[1-2].云杉大小蠹原分布于前苏联,我国黑龙江、辽宁、青海、甘肃、四川省也有分布,从上世纪初逐渐向西、向南扩散至欧洲的法国、英国,现分布于欧亚大陆的几乎所有的云杉(Picea spp.)的针叶林中.其天敌大唼腊甲随后也跟随云杉大小蠹的扩散而逐步迁移,但自然传播的速度很慢,种群数量较低,在云杉大小蠹新传入区很难达到自然控制的程度.为此,欧洲一些国家开展了大唼腊甲的引进、人工繁殖和释放防治云杉大小蠹的研究.如早在1963年格鲁吉亚就研究利用其防治云杉大小蠹[3].上世纪中后期,云杉大小蠹在欧洲大发生,严重危害挪威云杉(Picea abies (L.) Karst.).为了防治这种重要的蛀干害虫,比利时从上世纪50年代起就开展了利用大唼腊甲生物防治云杉大小蠹的研究.1978年,英国和法国等国家先后从比利时引进大唼蜡甲,取得了良好的控制效果[4-5].随后美国也引进大唼腊甲防治黑脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus terebrans Olivier)[6].

  14. Genetic Profiling to Determine Potential Origins of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Captured in a Texas Eradication Zone: Endemicity, Immigration, or Sabotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five specimens of adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, were captured nearly simultaneously in pheromone traps clustered near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone in late summer 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earl...

  15. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  16. MODIFICACIÓN AL PROCESO DE PRODUCCIÓN MASIVA DE LOS PARASITOIDES Catolaccus grandis Y Catolaccus hunteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Reyes-Rosas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de modificar la tecnología de producción masiva de Catolaccus grandis y Catolaccus hunteri, himenópteros parasitoides de Anthonomus grandis el picudo del algodonero en Tamaulipas, México en el 2002. Se determinó la eficiencia del papel toalla para el secado de manos, en el sellamiento de cápsulas moldeadas en cera de hidrocarburos y poliolefina (LCHP, donde se confina al huésped, y evaluar la efectividad del gorgojo del garbanzo Callosobruchus maculatus como hospedante facticio para la cría de ambos parasitoides. Hubo producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri utilizando C. maculatus como huésped y el papel toalla fue efectivo para sellar los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP. La producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri mediante C. maculatus, contribuyó a incrementar la seguridad y facilidad del proceso, además de una significativa reducción de costos. El papel toalla en el sellado de los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP, redujo en un 50% por m2 los costos del proceso, sin afectar la eficiencia del parasitismo y emergencia de C. grandis.

  17. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Cliff G. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether ...

  18. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald C; Rowley, Daniel L; Greenstone, Matthew H; Athanas, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laboratory comparisons suggest that L. juncta, the presumptive original host, best supports the development of the parasitoid larval L. grandis, based on 43.6% successful emergence of the adult carabid parasitoid, compared to 11.5% from the two other Leptinotarsa species. L. grandis adults accept eggs and larvae of all 3 Leptinotarsa species as adult food. Naive, newly-emerged adults show no preference when presented the 3 species of third-instar larvae, which they consume at a mean rate of 3.3 per day, a rate which does not differ significantly by sex, larval host, or weight at emergence. When presented with equal amounts by weight of the 3 species of Leptinotarsa eggs, such adults consume the equivalent of 23.0 L. decemlineata eggs per day, with consumption of L. juncta eggs 67% higher by weight than L. decemlineata consumption. Insight into the biotic and abiotic limitations on L. grandis should aid in determining its potential for suppression of Colorado potato beetle by biological control in diverse agroecosystems.

  19. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  20. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  1. FCH_Crenichthys_baileyi grandis_19850927

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Hiko White River springfish (Crenichthys baileyi grandis) occur. "Nevada, Lincoln County. Each of...

  2. Strade, ferrovie e grandi rischi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scira Menoni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nell’articolo il rapporto tra sistemi di accessibilità (ferroviaria e stradale e grandi rischi viene affrontato da due diverse prospettive. La prima vede tali sistemi come esposti e vulnerabili a diverse forme di pericolosità naturale; la seconda li considera invece quali potenziali fonti di pericolo, indagando in particolare il trasporto di sostanze pericolose. Per quanto riguarda la prima parte dell’articolo, ovvero l’analisi di vulnerabilità delle infrastrutture di trasporto a diversi agenti naturali, verranno esplicitati i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica, sistemica e organizzativa. A sostegno della modellazione proposta, si fa riferimento sia alla letteratura internazionale sia al metodo sviluppato presso il Politecnico di Milano, nei suoi ultimi sviluppi. Interessa infatti presentare un metodo relativamente semplice da utilizzare a scala vasta per poi scendere nel dettaglio necessario laddove le priorità individuata a grande scala ne indichino la necessità. Tra i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica si indicheranno gli elementi maggiormente critici per diversi tipi di sollecitazione (sismica, vulcanica, alluvionale, etc.; per quanto attiene ai fattori di vulnerabilità sistemica si considerano le interdipendenze tra reti e sistemi (inclusi gli altri servizi a rete; per quanto attiene alla vulnerabilità organizzativa si indicheranno le difficoltà nel produrre un sistema integrato di allertamento, che consenta ad esempio di chiudere tratti di strada quando questi vengano segnalati come imminentemente interessati da un dato evento estremo. Infine si indicheranno i danni che il sistema di accessibilità può subire e le ripercussioni di questi sul territorio di interesse. Nella seconda parte viene trattato un particolare tipo di trasporto, quello delle sostanze pericolose, differenziando opportunamente tra ferroviario e stradale. Il ribaltamento del punto di vista comporta la necessità di identificare in modo puntuale i fattori di

  3. Micropropagation of Eucalyptus grandis and nitens using tissue culture techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furze, M.J.; Creswell, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with nodal explants of E. grandis and E. nitens seedlings and E. grandis coppice shoots showed that a large number of plants can be produced from a single explant using micropropagation. The percentage of micropropagated shoots that formed roots was about 90% for E. grandis and 80% for E. nitens. For both species, about 90% of the rooted shoots survived after hardening off. 9 references.

  4. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  5. I Grandi Eventi: il caso spagnolo

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Il tema dell’articolo verte sulle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali generate dai grandi eventi in Spagna in relazione all’implementazione/trasformazione dei sistemi di trasporto durante gli stessi. A tale scopo l’articolo analizza i risultati, sia finali che attesi, delle trasformazioni degli ultimi 15 anni in Spagna in occasione di questi eventi straordinari. Nello specifico si analizzano cinque casi-studio: Barcellona ed i Giochi Olimpici del 1992, Siviglia e l’Es...

  6. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned.

  7. Flavonoids in Adaptation of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis Introduced in West Siberia (Novosibirsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova E.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols in leaves of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis plants introduced in Western Siberia (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk during the growing season in the greenhouse and the open ground were studied for the first time. The ranges of flavonoid fractions and individual flavonoids contents in a favorable environment and during periods of temperature drops and frost were established. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse and in the open ground B. grandis subsp. grandis leaves were characterized by relatively low content of the sum of flavonoids (up to 10.1 mg/g. During periods of temperature drops in the greenhouse it was decreased (down to 5.2 mg/g, and in conditions of more considerable temperature drops and frost in open ground it was increased by several times (up to 28.3 mg/g. During the period of the action of stress factors content of the sum of flavonoid aglycones in the leaves was increased both in the greenhouse (including quercetin, luteolin and in the open ground (including quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, in the open ground content of major constituent, luteolin 8-C-glucoside (orientin, was increased. The most significant transformations during the growing season were observed in the O-glycosides and free aglycones fractions, their contents of compounds and composition were varied. Four O-glycosides, including isoquercitrin, are detected only in the leaves of open ground plants.

  8. Sublethal effects of malathion on boll weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) fecundity when maintained on cotton squares or artificial diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOHN SCOTT ARMSTRONG; ALLAN T. SHOWLER; MAMOUDOU SETAMOU; SHOIL GREENBERG

    2006-01-01

    Mated 3-day-old female boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman,reared from field-infested cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) squares were topically treated with an estimated LD50 of malathion (2μg) to assess its effects on fecundity, oviposition, and body fat condition. Two different food sources, cotton squares and artificial diet, were assessed in malathion-treated and nontreated (control) weevils. The LD50 caused ≈ 50%mortality in the square-fed malathion treatment, but the artificial diet-fed malathion-treated weevils were less susceptible. LD50 survivors fed on the squares produced ≥ 9 times more chorionated eggs in the ovaries and oviposited≥ 19-fold more than survivors fed artificial diet, regardless of the malathion treatment. Boll weevils that survived a 2μg LD50 malathion and also fed squares were ≈ 4.5-fold leaner than diet-fed weevils. Our findings demonstrate that non-resistant boll weevils surviving a sublethal dose of malathion will reproduce without any delay or significant loss in fecundity, and the food source for which boll weevils are maintained when conducting these assays will directly affect the results. The significance of these findings and how they are related to the final stages of eradicating the boll weevil from the US are discussed.

  9. Pharmacognosy of Coccinia grandis:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamilselvan N; Thirumalai T; Elumalai EK; Balaji R; David E

    2011-01-01

    Traditional system of medicine consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Coccinia grandis belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a rapidly growing, perennial climber or trailing vine. Traditionally different parts of this plant namely the roots, leaves and fruits are used in folklore medicine for several purposes like jaundice, diabetes, wound healing, ulcers, stomach ache, skin disease, fever, asthma, cough. The leaf and its constituents have been reported to possess hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. This review provides adequate information to develop suitable therapeutics out of these plant parts.

  10. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina R. Seal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peppers (Capsicum spp. are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm. However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  11. florescimento precoce em eucalyptus grandis1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Silva Domingues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few available tools in eucalyptus breeding to accelerate the selection of superior genotypes, and one of the main tools to improve this process is the use of molecular markers linked to traits of interest. Using “Bulked Segregant Analysis”, we evaluated 81 RAPD molecular markers in a Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden progeny that segregates for early flowering, and one marker was identified as related to this trait. This RAPD marker was converted into a Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR, which was then evaluated in a F1 progeny, and validated in other progenies that presents this trait. The SCAR marker was informative in the progeny in which one of the parental was the donor of the band, with an efficiency of 60%. These results describe the first SCAR marker developed for eucalypt and confirm this technique as a useful molecular tool for forestry breeding which could be employed to locate markers linked to other silvicultural traits.

  12. I Grandi Eventi: il caso spagnolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Giovanna Trifiletti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Il tema dell’articolo verte sulle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali generate dai grandi eventi in Spagna in relazione all’implementazione/trasformazione dei sistemi di trasporto durante gli stessi. A tale scopo l’articolo analizza i risultati, sia finali che attesi, delle trasformazioni degli ultimi 15 anni in Spagna in occasione di questi eventi straordinari. Nello specifico si analizzano cinque casi-studio: Barcellona ed i Giochi Olimpici del 1992, Siviglia e l’Esposizione Universale del 1992, Bilbao e la realizzazione del Museo Guggenheim (landmark architettonico nel 1997, Valencia e la Coppa America del 2007 e infine Saragozza e l’Expo del 2008 dove è stata realizzata una nuova stazione dell’Alta Velocità. Le occasioni, colte al volo dalle città spagnole, hanno modificato il volto dell’intero paese e negli ultimi quindici anni la Spagna si è dotata non solo di un nuovo grande patrimonio architettonico e di nuovi modelli di città, ma principalmente si è dotata di un sistema di trasporto (aeroporti, porti, metropolitane e strade moderno ed efficiente.

  13. Anthonomus quadrigibbus Say,1831%检疫性有害生物——苹果花象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤; 张俊华; 陈乃中

    2012-01-01

    Anthonomus quadrigibbus is one of the most economically important forestry pests.It can cause destructive damage to apple(Malus domestica),pear(Pyrus spp.) and cherries(Prunus spp.),reduce yield prodution,make fruits unpalatable,and have a negative effect on market profits.This paper gives a general introduction of its geographic distribution,hosts,morphology,biology,impact,control,etc.For there is no A.quadrigibbus in China,it is of great significance to prevent this pest by learning more about its damage characteristic and diffusion path.%苹果花象是具有重要经济意义的林业害虫,对苹果、梨和樱桃生产能造成毁灭性损失,严重降低寄主果实的产量和质量,影响市场竞争能力。本文主要介绍了苹果花象的地理分布、寄主、形态特征、生物学特性、经济影响、防治措施等内容。该虫在我国尚无分布,深入研究该虫的危害特点和扩散途径等,对防治该虫有重要意义。

  14. I caratteri tipicizzanti il paesaggio dei grandi laghi lombardi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Busi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I sei grandi laghi lombardi costituiscono un distretto, posto tra l’alta pianura del Po e le Alpi, con spiccate caratteristiche paesistiche. L’ambiente fisico e biologico (ed, in particolare, la vegetazione e l’opera plurisecolare dell’uomo hanno infatti connotato il territorio con componenti la cui organica giustapposizione manifesta paesaggi che, ad un tempo, hanno forte unitarietà territoriale e spinta individualità. I grandi laghi lombardi costituiscono pertanto un importante patrimonio culturale e paesaggistico che necessita, per la sua conservazione e valorizzazione, di adeguata attenzione e sensibilità.

  15. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  16. Reproductive potential of field-collected overwintering boll weevils (Coleoptera" Curculionidae) fed on pollen in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Greenberg; G.D.Jones; J.J.Adamczyk, Jr.; F.Eischen; J.S.Armstrong; R.J.Coleman; M.Sétamou; Tong-Xian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Bobeman), females collected from pheromone traps in September, November and January, fed for 1, 3, and 5 weeks on plant pollens, and then provided cotton squares, was determined in the laboratory at 27 ± 1℃, 65% RH, and a photoperiod 13 : 11 (L : D) h.Duration of pollen feeding by overwintering boll weevils did not significantly influence egg and feeding punctures, or puncture ratios (egg to total punctures) for any of the three months of parent weevil collections when provided cotton squares on a daily basis.However, punctures and puncture ratios are significantly different when comparing mean data between months of boll weevil collections. When boll weevils were provided with cotton squares daily, the pre-ovipositional periods of female parents captured in September, November and January were 5, 9 and 14 days, respectively. The rate of eggs by females was significantly lower during November and January than September. Female parents collected in September produced a significantly higher percentage of eggs yielding adult progeny than those collected in November and January. Life table parameters indicated that net reproductive rate (R_o) of boll weevil females collected in September was 1.2-fold higher than those collected in November and 10.7-fold higher than those collected in January. Except for testes size, no differences in male reproductive parameters were observed during the cotton-free period compared with males captured during mid-cotton (June). The number of oocytes in the ovarioles and the number of oocytes containing yolk were significantly lower during September, November and January compared with June. The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil females collected in different months is an important consideration in determining the success of any control strategy.

  17. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  18. Cafe Grandis kõlab lautomuusika / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Corelli Musicu salongiõhtutel festivali "Fiesta de la Guitarra" raames esineb trio koosseisus Stewart McCoy (lautomängija), Robert Staak (lautomängija) ja Maria Staak (laulja), esinejatest. Esitatakse renessansiaja autorite lautoduette ja -laule. Kontsert 8. nov. Pärnu hotellis sarjas "Café Grandi muusikasalong"

  19. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  20. Survival of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)adults after feeding on pollens from various sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOIL M. GREENBERG; GRETCHEN D. JONES; FRANK EISCHEN; RANDY J.COLEMAN; JOHN J. ADAMCZYK, JR; TONG-XIAN LIU; MAMOUDOU SETAMOU

    2007-01-01

    The survival of overwintering boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman),adults on non-cotton hosts in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas was examined from 2001 to 2006. The success of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program, which was reintroduced into the LRGV in 2005, depends on controlling overwintering boll weevil populations. Laboratory studies were conducted using boll weevil adults that were captured in pheromone traps from September through March. The number of adults captured per trap declined significantly in the field from fall to the beginning of spring (3.5-7.0-fold). The proportion of trapped males and females did not differ significantly. The mean weight of boll weevil adults captured in September was 13.3 mg, while those of captured adults from November to February were significantly lower and ranged from 6.7 to 7.8 mg. Our results show that boll weevil adults can feed on different plant pollens. The highest longevity occurred when adults were fed almond pollen or mixed pollens (72.6 days and 69.2 days, respectively)and the lowest when they fed on citrus pollen or a non-food source (9.7 days or 7.4 days,respectively). The highest adult survival occurred on almond and mixed pollens [88.0%-97.6% after 1st feeding period (10 days), 78.0%-90.8% after 3rd feeding period (10 days), 55.0%-83.6% after 5th feeding period (10 days), and 15.2%-32.4% after 10th feeding period (10days)]. The lowest adult survival occurred on citrus pollen [52.0%-56.0% after 1st feeding period (10 days), 13.3% after 3rd and 5th feeding periods (10 days), and 0 after 6th feeding period (10 days)]. Pollen feeding is not a behavior restricted to adult boll weevils of a specific sex or physiological state. Understanding how boll weevil adults survive in the absence of cotton is important to ensure ultimate success of eradicating this pest in the subtropics.

  1. Grandi Eventi: indicatori di classificazione e incidenza sui sistemi urbani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available I grandi eventi sono ritenuti una opportunità per le città in quanto sono uno straordinario catalizzatore di investimenti mirati alla trasformazione della città. L’azione dei grandi eventi non è confinata solo nel periodo di svolgimento dell’evento stesso ma si estende ad un periodo molto più ampio, prima e, soprattutto, dopo il suo termine. Nell’organizzazione delle manifestazioni più recenti le trasformazioni urbane hanno interessato in modo sempre maggiore parti già in precedenza urbanizzate, al punto che l’evento diviene l’occasione per trasformare la città costruita e per modificarne il profilo. Il paper approfondisce l’argomento della classificazione degli eventi e del loro impatto sul sistema urbano sviluppandosi in tre parti. Nella prima si analizzano due tipologie di grandi eventi (le esposizioni internazionali e i giochi olimpici con l’obiettivo di pervenire ad una definizione condivisa. Nella seconda parte si identificano i più importanti fattori ed indicatori per l’analisi di questa specifica categoria di avvenimenti. Infine, nella terza parte, si approfondiscono i fattori connessi all’impatto sul sistema urbano e all’organizzazione della sua mobilità. In particolare, viene approfondito il concetto di “effetto pulsar”, ossia gli effetti moltiplicativi sulla evoluzione urbana dipendenti dalla organizzazione di eventi multipli in parallelo o in sequenza. Uno degli elementi più negativi connessi alla organizzazione di un grande evento è la dispersione nel tempo dei benefici acquisiti grazie ad esso; per evitare ciò è necessario che l’evento sia seguito da politiche strategiche continue in modo da preservare i vantaggi acquisiti.

  2. Beschermde kevers in Nederland (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, J.

    2003-01-01

    Protected beetles in the Netherlands (Coleoptera) The status of all by law protected beetles of the Netherlands is discussed. Several specimens of Cerambyx cerdo are known from the Netherlands, but all of these are considered to have been imported with oak-wood. Taking the European distribution into

  3. Study on Machining Properties of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. Grandis: Ⅰ. Planing and Sanding Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xinyi; JIANG Xiaomei; GAO Jianmin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    The research method in this paper is based on the standard of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Planing and sanding are selected to study the machining properties of E. Urophylla × E. Grandis plantation wood. Moreover, the reasons for machining defects are analyzed. The results show E. Urophylla × E. Grandis planted in south China is a good species with a great potential for solid wood utilization.

  4. [Community features of Sacrabaeoida larvae in Stipa grandis steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinmin, Liu; Ning, Wu

    2004-09-01

    The study showed that in the Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, there were 4 families and 9 species of Scarabaeoidea larvae, among which, the numbers of species and individuals of Melolonthidae were more than those of other families. The important value of the dominant species in Scarabaeoidea larvae community were Trematodes tenebrioides > Serica orientalis > Amphimallon solstitialis > Cyriopertha arcuata. Based on the features of their seasonal dynamics, they could be classified into three kinds. The first kind was that their density peak occurred in spring and autumn, such as Serica orientalis. Cyriopertha arcuata belonged to the second kind, and its density had no obvious fluctuation through all the year. Trematodes tenebrioides and Amphimallon solstitialis could be classified into the third kind, and their density peak all occurred in autumn. The biodiversity index of Scarabaeoidea larvae community was relatively higher in autumn than in spring and summer. Although the richness of Scarabaeoidea larvae populations was not lower in spring, their composition was very simple.

  5. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of potential transpiration models to simulate transpiration rates in areas prone to soil water deficits leads to overestimates of water use as the soil dries. Therefore, I carried out studies on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. I hypothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict what fraction of potential transpiration was taking place at a given time. Site 1 supported a stand of 3-year-old E. grandis trees, whereas 9-year-old trees were growing on Site 2, situated 2 km away. At each site, plastic sheeting was laid over the ground to prevent soil water recharge and thereby allow the roots in the soil to induce a continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I found that modeling the water balance of deep rooting zones is impractical for the purpose of simulating nonpotential transpiration rates because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanism and the water retention characteristics of the deep subsoil strata. I conclude that predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits from the soil water balance is not feasible at these sites.

  6. Five types of olfactory receptor neurons in the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi: selective responses to inducible host-plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichão, Helena; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Araújo, Jorge; Mustaparta, Hanna

    2005-02-01

    Plants release hundreds of volatiles that are important in the interaction with herbivorous animals, but which odorants are detected by which species? In this study, single receptor neurons on the antenna of the oligophagous strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi were screened for sensitivity to naturally produced plant compounds by the use of gas chromatography linked to electrophysiological recordings from single cells. The narrow tuning of the neurons was demonstrated by responses solely to a few structurally related sesquiterpenes, aromatics or monoterpene hydrocarbons out of hundreds of plant constituents tested. We present five olfactory receptor neuron types, identified according to one primary odorant i.e. the compound to which the neurons are most sensitive. These odorants, (-)-germacrene D, (-)-beta-caryophyllene, methyl salicylate, E-beta-ocimene and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, present in the intact strawberry plant, are induced in higher amounts by weevil feeding. This suggests that these compounds can provide information about the presence of conspecifics. We used protocols especially designed to allow comparison with previously investigated species. Striking similarities, but also differences, are demonstrated between receptor neuron specificity in the strawberry weevil and moths.

  7. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  8. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, P. J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research, Division of Forest Science and Technology, Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1996-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa were studied to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. It was expected that by defining this relationship, modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict the fraction of transpiration taking place at any given time. As part of the experimental procedure soil water recharge was prevented by plastic sheeting, thus allowing the roots in the soil to induce continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed only moderate drought stress; trees at both sites extracted water down to eight meters and more, below the surface. These results suggest that because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanisms and other related factors, soil water balance studies are not useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits at these sites. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

  10. Sewage sludge as substrate for Tectona grandis L. seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge is a waste from sewage treatment plants, which can be used in formulations of substrates for seedling production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different proportions of sewage sludge, soil and commercial substrate on the growth characteristics of Tectona grandis seedlings in tubes of 120 cm³ volume capacity. The sewage sludge used came from the STP's Cachoeiro de Itapemirim / ES. The seedlings were grown in the forest nursery / CCA / UFES. The statistical design used in the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. The treatments constituted of sewage sludge : commercial substrate: soil (v: v: v, which corresponded to 20:70:10 (T1, 40:50:10 (T2, 60:30:10 (T3, 80 : 10:10 (T4, 90:0:10 (T5 and the control treatment with 0:90:10 (T6. All variables assessed were significant at the 5% level of probability. The control (T6 showed results statistically equal to or lower than the treatments T3 with 60% of sewage sludge concentration (T3. It follows then that the use of sewage sludge in seedling production is feasible and promising, however, used in a proper proportion.

  11. Cassia grandis Linn. f. seed galactomannan: structural and crystallographical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Harsha; Kapoor, Virendra P

    2003-09-01

    Cassia grandis is a small or medium sized tree, found in abundance throughout India. The seeds contain about 50% endosperm gum and possess the characteristics of becoming a potential source of seed gum. The purified polysaccharide has been characterized as a pure galactomannan having a mannose-galactose ratio of 3.15; molecular weight (Mw) 80,200; polydispersity (Mw/Mn), 1.35 and intrinsic viscosity [eta], 848 mL/g. Methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 13C NMR studies confirm that the polysaccharide has the basic structure of legume galactomannans consisting of a beta-(1-->4)-linked main mannan backbone to which galactose units are attached at O-6. The orthorhombic lattice constants of the hydrated gum are as follows: a=9.00, b=24.81, c=10.30 A. The crystallographic data establish that the probable space group symmetry of the unit cell is P2(1)2(1)2. The results are in contradiction to earlier reports (Indian J. Chem. 16B (1978) 966; J. Indian Chem. Soc. 55 (1978) 1216) in which a non-galactomannan polysaccharide structure has been assigned having a main chain of (1-->4)-linked galactose and mannose units in the molar ratio 6:3, where 50% of the galactose units branched with two galactose and one mannose through 1-->3 linkage.

  12. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcio de Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of São Paulo State.Two sampling procedures were used, systematic grading and unencumbered systematic. For each plot from the two samples, thefollowing dendrometric characteristics were measured: volume, quadratic average diameter, basal area and average height of thedominant trees. For each one of these characteristics, anisotropic and isotropic semi variogrammes were built, in order toevaluate the spatial continuity structure. The semi variogrammes were built using the moment estimator method. The mainauthorized functions were adjusted to the experimental semi variogrammes, by The Minimum Square Method. The behavior of thespatial continuity was evaluated through the degree of spatial dependence and of the assigned semi variogrammes for the fourcharacteristics, in the appraised sampling methods, respectively. All appraised characteristics presented spatially structured,independently of the appraised sampling procedure. The continuity structure of the four characteristics was isotropic, i.e., thevariance among pairs of points depends on the separation vector h. Therefore, unidirectional semi variogrammes can be built forall appraised characteristics. The results suggest that, in forest inventory, the spatial component should be considered, i.e., plotsshould not be treated separately.

  13. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  14. Effect of thermal modification on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis. Boards were taken from 30-year-old E. grandis trees. The boards were thermally modified at 180 °C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation at UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The results showed that thermal modification caused: (1 decrease of 6.8% in the density at 0% equilibrium moisture content of mature wood; (2 significant decreases of 14.7% and 35.6% in the maximum volumetric swellings of juvenile and mature woods, respectively; (3 significant decreases of 13.7% and 21.3% in the equilibrium moisture content of juvenile and mature woods, respectively. The influence of thermal modification in juvenile wood was lower than in mature wood and caused greater uniformity in the physical variations between these types of wood in E. grandis.

  15. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in

  16. [Isolation and identification of Metarhizium from Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' GAP base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weisi; Xu, Jiang; Qiao, Haili; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiangming; Qin, Rongmin; Cheng, Huizhen

    2012-04-01

    A type of entomopathogenic fungus of soil in Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' production base was isolated and identified with morphological and molecular biological methods, including pathogenesis, spore characteristic and ITS sequence analysis were conducted. The results showed that eighteen entomopathogenic fungi strains were isolated from the Tenebrio molitor infected in the soil samples, which were identified as Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. Based on results above, we concluded that there was quantity of Metarhizium resources in this area. These provided the useful information for controlling some pests of C. grandis by using these strains of fungus.

  17. Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis roots and soils in Thailand plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Chaiyasen

    Full Text Available Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts.

  18. Chemical components of cold pressed kernel oils from different Torreya grandis cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Li, Wangling; Zeng, Maomao; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Shangwei; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The chemical compositions of cold pressed kernel oils of seven Torreya grandis cultivars from China were analyzed in this study. The contents of the chemical components of T. grandis kernels and kernel oils varied to different extents with the cultivar. The T. grandis kernels contained relatively high oil and protein content (45.80-53.16% and 10.34-14.29%, respectively). The kernel oils were rich in unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic (39.39-47.77%), oleic (30.47-37.54%) and eicosatrienoic acid (6.78-8.37%). The kernel oils contained some abundant bioactive substances such as tocopherols (0.64-1.77mg/g) consisting of α-, β-, γ- and δ-isomers; sterols including β-sitosterol (0.90-1.29mg/g), campesterol (0.06-0.32mg/g) and stigmasterol (0.04-0.18mg/g) in addition to polyphenols (9.22-22.16μgGAE/g). The results revealed that the T. grandis kernel oils possessed the potentially important nutrition and health benefits and could be used as oils in the human diet or functional ingredients in the food industry.

  19. A Multivariate Study on Genetic Variation in Teak (Tectona grandis (L.))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Dahl; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Suangtho, V.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic differentiation between populations of teak (Tectona grandis (L.)) was examined in 9 quantitative characters and 10 allozyme loci. Large differences between populations were revealed in the quantitative traits. Regional patterns were revealed by multivariate analysis of the data, but ther...

  20. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis.

  1. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  2. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  3. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  4. Fertirrigation in production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis during winter and summer

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    Simone Fernandes Ciavatta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies correlating the splitting of fertigation with the development and quality of tree seedlings in different production systems and periods of the year are fundamental to optimize inputs and minimization of the production cycle. Thus we conducted this study aimed to check the influence of the split of fertigation in the development and quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in winter and summer periods. The fertilization through the irrigation system by capillarity was split on: one, two, three or six times in the week, maintaining the total amount of nutrients applied. We concluded that the most effective fertigation for the development and quality of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis were six and one times in the week for the period of winter and summer, respectively, demonstrating the need for adequacy of fertigation managements according to the period of year.

  5. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    Berenice K. de Alcântara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al, a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  6. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

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    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  7. Cloning and structural analysis of a haemocyanin from the Stonefly Perla grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochetti, Romolo; Belardinelli, Mariacristina; Guerra, Laura; Buonocore, Francesco; Fausto, Anna Maria; Caporale, Carlo

    2006-12-01

    We characterized two subunits of a putative haemocyanin from the stonefly species Perla grandis. In particular, we cloned and sequenced the corresponding cDNAs and studied their expression in different insect stages. Moreover, using the deduced amino acid sequences, homology studies were performed both on their primary and tertiary structures. 3-D molecular modelling data showed that the residues involved in the oxygen transport and subunits contacts were located in spatial positions preserving the functionality of the molecule. Despite it was paradigmatically affirmed that insects do not have respiratory proteins, our data suggest that the haemocyanin could be involved in the respiratory mechanisms of P. grandis. As far as we know, this is the first haemocyanin 3-D structure described and analyzed in insects.

  8. Callogenesis in stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden showing resilience in oxide calluses

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    Regina Paula Willemen Pereira

    Full Text Available Callogenesis was achieved using growth regulators at different concentrations to obtain the best characteristics regarding the calluses texture aspect with the main objective to produce friable calluses from stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis. Stem segments of approximately 1 cm were excised from 30-day seedlings. The treatments were prepared based on the MS medium added with TDZ alone or combined with AIA; 2,4-D; ANA. Each treatment consisted of five repetitions with five explants per plate. After 210 days of in vitro culture, the calluses were evaluated visually and by manipulation for texture. The explants that did not produce calluses were those exposed to treatments with 2,4-D 50.0 µM; TDZ 3.0 µM and in absence of a growth regulator (control.The best protocols for maintenance of friable calluses of stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis under the conditions performed in this work were those using only TDZ.

  9. Assessment of the antidiabetic potential of Cassia grandis using an in vivo model

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    Sandesh R Lodha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. grandis (Family: Leguminosae were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by a glucose tolerance test, in normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed that they significantly lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in the glucose tolerance test. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after three hours, at a dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage of protection given by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 32.72 and 46.42%, respectively. In the long-term treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring the blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides on the tenth day. Both the extracts showed a significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide. These results showed that the Cassia grandis possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  10. Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood

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    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the effect of thermal rectification on physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood at different levels of temperature and time. Samples of Eucalyptus grandis wood (10 × 10 × 200 mm were heat-treated at 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C during 4 and 8 hours. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and untreated samples were determined by static bending tests. The physical properties were determined by weight loss and swelling tests. The results showed that modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, weight loss, volumetric swelling and linear swelling were affected significantly by the thermal rectification. However, the length of exposure influenced just weight loss, while the temperature influenced all the studied properties of heat-treated wood. More significant modifications with treatments at a temperature of 200 °C or higher were found in the properties of heat-treated wood.

  11. The oropharyngeal morphology in the semiaquatic giant Asian pond turtle, Heosemys grandis, and its evolutionary implications.

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    Monika Lintner

    Full Text Available The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids-independently from other amniotes-and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct-but compared to testudinids rather small-anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles.

  12. Growth Process of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis Stand Based on Logistic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the most valuable cultivated forest genus in the tropical and subtropical areas nowadays. It has been a challenge for foresters to model growth due to the genetic variations, management regimes, and multiple products generated from the plantations. In this paper, Logistic equation was used to study the stock growth process of E. urophylla × E. grandis plantation at age of 14 with 6 spacing treatments. And the biological interpretation of the parameters of Logistic equation was analyzed. The re...

  13. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

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    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  14. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  15. MANEJO DO SOLO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM ARGISSOLO

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    Juliana Prevedello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest species cultivation with rapid growth in Brazil has increased, mainly due to the diverse use of its wood and climate adaptation. The cultivation with minimum tillage in the forest sector stands out a way to increase productivity, combined with the maintenance of biodiversity and soil conservation. This study was conducted at the experimental area of State Foundation for Agricultural Research - Research Center for Forestry in Santa Maria - RS, with aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil tillage methods on soil physical properties and on initial development of Eucalyptus grandis, in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. Four soil management practices were compared: no-tillage; chisel tillage; chisel tillage plus harrowing and; rotary tillage (rotary tiller, installed in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil under no-tillage conditioned lower initial growth of eucalyptus due higher soil penetration resistance and bulk density, when compared with treatments with mobilization. The root distribution analysis in soil, despite being a qualitative method, was effective in demonstrating the effect of soil tillage for the Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The soil tillage with mobilization resulted in a higher initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis. The chisel tillage effects in the soil physical properties persisted after one year of soil tillage.

  16. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments.

  17. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  18. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of methanol extract of Tectona grandis flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran S; Rajini kanth B; Rajasekaran A; Manisenthil Kumar KT

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of Tectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers (METGF) in animal models to support its traditional use. Methods:Acute toxicity study was performed to determine the toxicity level of METGF in mice and rats. Carrageenan (1%w/w) was administered and inflammation was induced in sub-plantar region of rat paw. Analgesia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6%v/v acetic acid in mice to assess peripheral analgesic action of METGF. Also, hot-plate was used to induce pain in mice to evaluate central analgesic action of METGF. Results: Oral administration of METGF in rat and mice did not produce any toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg dose level. In carrageenan induced inflammation, administration of METGF (100 and 200 mg/kg) as well as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) reduced rat paw edema significantly at 3, 4 and 5 h. Both the doses of METGF showed significant inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing responses. In thermally induced analgesia models, administration of METG at dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased reaction time compared to control animals. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds and tannins in METGF. Conclusions: Present study, for the first time, confirms the anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of METGF and it supports the traditional use of T. grandis flowers.

  19. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis

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    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the fertilization in the amount and quality of the produced wood is one of the questions to be considered in the research of the Eucalyptus grandis. The present work aimed to evaluate the fertilization effect in the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis. The population of Eucalyptus grandis was 21 years old and was managed under the system of selective thinning, with application of fertilizers. The factors used in this study were: presence or absence of fertilizers, two positions of log and five radial positions. The influences of the factors and of their combinations were evaluated regarding to compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in static banding. The compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity had been influenced by the factors: fertilizer and radial positions of the log. There was also an increase in the direction of the pith-bark in all studied properties. A good positive relationship was found to exist among the compression strength, the shear, the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity with radial position.

  20. Bioindication Potential of the Coleoptera

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    Belitskaya Mariya Nikolaevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Different families of Coleoptera ambiguously respond to the pollution of SPZs with industrial emissions. For example, the SPZ of Volgograd aluminum plant has the changing biodiversity of insect communities at different distances from the pollution source. The increasing level of pollution is accompanied by the reduction in species abundance. At a distance of 200 m a special ecological zone with the specific composition of the entomofauna was formed. It is significantly different from other habitats. No Cerambycidae species may survive in the zone of maximum pollution, and the number of Curculionidae species is reduced significantly. The number of Cerambycidae decreases by more than 40 % in the presence of even minimal contamination. The most sensitive bioindicators are represented by such insects as Cerambycidae, Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae. Changes in the indices can be described by the function y = arctan (x, where x is the distance from the pollution source (in meters. The specificity of this function is to identify levels of possible changes of species richness and numerical abundance of communities. On the basis of trigonometric functions describing the changes in the species composition and abundance, the authors offered the method for assessing the quality of the environment in SPZs. The use of three families of insects opens up prospects of differentiation zones of technogenic pressure.

  1. Occurrence and linkage between secreted insecticidal toxins in natural isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinasse, Sylvain; Chaufaux, Josette; Buisson, Christophe; Perchat, Stéphane; Gohar, Michel; Bourguet, Denis; Sanchis, Vincent

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the occurrence and linkage between secreted insecticidal virulence factors in natural populations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). We carried out a survey of 392 Bt strains isolated from various samples originating from 31 countries. The toxicity profile of the culture supernatants of these strains was determined individually against Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera) and Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera). We analyzed beta-exotoxin I production and searched for the genes encoding Vip1-2, Vip3, and Cry1I toxins in 125 of these strains. Our results showed that these insecticidal toxins were widespread in Bt but that their distribution was nonrandom, with significant linkage observed between vip3 and cry1I and between vip1-2 and beta-exotoxin I. Strains producing significant amounts of beta-exotoxin I were more frequently isolated from invertebrate samples than from dust, water, soil, or plant samples.

  2. Impacts of grazing and mowing on reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in a semi-arid area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui GAO; YuBao GAO; XingDong HE

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance can affect biomass allocation of plants, but can it influence plant reproductive behavior? To address this issue, we performed field plant community investigations and explored the reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in response to grazing and mowing treatments at Maodeng pasture of Xilinguole League of Inner Mongolia, China during 2007-2009. The results showed that, with a similar niche width for the two plant species under mowing and grazing treatments, mowing significantly increased the ratio of ramet to genet number of S. krylovii and the carbon to nitrogen ratio of S. grandis, and grazing significantly decreased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller biomass of S. grandis and increased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. krylovii. Regression analysis showed that the significantly positive effect of root to shoot biomass ratio was stronger on the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. grandis than on that of S. krylovii. These results indicated that grazing and mowing influenced the reproductive manner and the process of sexual reproduc-tion of S. grandis and S. krylovii.

  3. Using morphometrics, in situ observations and genetic characters to distinguish among commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species; a redescription of Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 (Antipatharia : Antipathidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Daniel [University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu; Toonen, Robert J. [Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Kaneohe, HI; Brugler, Mercer R. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; France, Scott C. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Montgomery, Anthony D. [Honolulu State Department Land and Natural Resources, HI

    2010-01-01

    The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27-127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ color photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three color morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish among the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi Opresko, 2009. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana Opresko, 1996 from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis (Gray, 1860), hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.

  4. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  5. New longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Serbia

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    Pil Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent data (Ilić, 2005 indicate the presence of 245 longhorn beetle species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Serbia. Not included in the mentioned publication, the following five species should be added to the list: Cortodera discolor Fairmaire, 1866; Stenopterus similatus Holzschuh 1979; Chlorophorus aegyptiacus (Fabricius, 1775; Agapanthia osmanlis (Reiche, 1858; Agapanthia maculicornis (Gyllenhal, 1817 (Pil and Stojanović in press. A total number of 250 species are presently known for the Serbian longhorn beetle fauna.

  6. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

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    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  7. PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis EM SUBSTRATOS ORGÂNICOS ALTERNATIVOS

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    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the disposal of urban and agro-industries waste have become essential for the possibility of their use in forest seedling production and the environmental impact that would be caused by improper disposal. The study was developed to evaluate the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings submitted to different types and combinations of urban and agro-industrial organic substrates. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 10 treatments consisting of different substrates and proportions combinations of them (100% organic compost urban waste (COLU, 100% organic compost of the agro-industrial residue (CORA; 100% commercial substrate; 25% (COLU+ 75% Commercial; 25% CORA +75% Commercial; 25% COLU + 75% soil; 50% COLU +50% Commercial; 50% CORA +50% Commercial; 50% Commercial + 50% soiland 100% Soil and 12 repetitions. It was evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, length between node, fresh weight of shoot and root dry mass of shoots and roots, total dry weight, main root length, root system length, root volume, average root radius, specific surface area of the root system and stability of clod.The substrates containing organic compost urban show great potential for use as alternative substrates for the production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of commercial substrate to organic compost allows the urban growth of root and the shoot of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of 50% commercial substrate and 50% organic compound of agro-industrial waste provide more stem diameter growth compared to treatments containing soil or over the organic compound of agro-industrial waste.

  8. Localization and transcriptional responses of Chrysoporthe austroafricana in Eucalyptus grandis identify putative pathogenicity factors

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    Ronishree Mangwanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysoporthe austroafricana is a fungal pathogen that causes the development of stem cankers on susceptible Eucalyptus grandis trees. Clones of E. grandis that are partially resistant and highly susceptible have been identified based on the extent of lesion formation on the stem upon inoculation with C. austroafricana. These interactions have been used as a model pathosystem to enhance our understanding of interactions between pathogenic fungi and woody hosts, which may be different to herbaceous hosts. In previous research, transcriptomics of host responses in these two clones to C. austroafricana suggested roles for salicylic acid and gibberellic acid phytohormone signalling in defense. However, it is unclear how the pathogen infiltrates host tissue and which pathogenicity factors facilitate its spread in the two host genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate these two aspects of the E. grandis-C. austroafricana interaction and to test the hypothesis that the pathogen possesses mechanisms to modulate the tree phytohormone-mediated defenses. Light microscopy showed that the pathogen occurred in most cell types and structures within infected E. grandis stem tissue. Notably, the fungus appeared to spread through the stem by penetrating cell wall pits. In order to understand the molecular interaction between these organisms and predict putative pathogenicity mechanisms of C. austroafricana, fungal gene expression was studied in vitro and in planta. Fungal genes associated with cell wall degradation, carbohydrate metabolism and phytohormone manipulation were expressed in planta by C. austroafricana. These genes could be involved in fungal spread by facilitating cell wall pit degradation and manipulating phytohormone mediated defense in each host environment, respectively. Specifically, the in planta expression of an ent-kaurene oxidase and salicylate hydroxylase in C. austroafricana suggests putative mechanisms by which the pathogen can

  9. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit;

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  10. Influence of Planting Spacing on Mechanical Properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Planted in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENSON; Michael

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand influence of planting spacing on mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla planted as a potential species for solid wood products in China. Four trees at age of 13 were selected from each of 6 groups of planting spacing and a total of 24 sampling trees were selected from the Dongmen Forestry Center of Guangxi Province in China. Furthermore, a one-meter-long log from each tree was cut into small blocks for wood properties testing. MOE, MOR and co...

  11. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

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    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  12. Magnesium Alleviates Adverse Effects of Lead on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Ultrastructural Alterations of Torreya grandis Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Song, Lili; Müller, Karin; Hu, Yuanyuan; Song, Yang; Yu, Weiwu; Wang, Hailong; Wu, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+) toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+) toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis) seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm), root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations on the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. All measurements were tested by a one-way ANOVA for the effects of treatments. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The generated results

  13. Magnesium alleviates adverse effects of lead on growth, photosynthesis and ultrastructural alterations of Torreya grandis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg2+ has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+ toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+ toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm, root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations in the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The gener¬ated results may have important implications for understanding the

  14. Antraquinonas e naftoquinonas do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandi (Verbenaceae Anthraquinones and naphtoquinones from the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae reforestation specimen

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    Rafael Y.O. Moreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato hexânico do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae, através de procedimentos fitoquímicos clássicos, levou ao isolamento das naftoquinonas lapachol e desidro-a-lapachona e das antraquinonas tectoquinona e obtusifolina. As estruturas das substâncias foram caracterizadas através da análise de métodos espectrométricos de RMN. Este é o primeiro estudo fitoquímico de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis, no Brasil, sendo o objetivo principal deste trabalho a comprovação da presença de tectoquinona em espécimes cultivados.The hexane extract of the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae afforded two anthraquinones and two naphtoquinones. Their caracterizations were obtained through NMR spectroscopic techniques. This is the first phytochemical study of the bark of Tectona grandis reforestation specimen in Brazil. The main interest in this work is proving the presence of tectoquinone in reforestation specimen.

  15. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

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    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  16. Effects of potassium and sodium supply on drought-adaptive mechanisms in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Christina, Mathias; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; de Cassia Piccolo, Marisa; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; e Moreira, Rildo Moreira; Krusche, Alex Vladimir; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Nouvellon, Yann

    2014-07-01

    A basic understanding of nutrition effects on the mechanisms involved in tree response to drought is essential under a future drier climate. A large-scale throughfall exclusion experiment was set up in Brazil to gain an insight into the effects of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) nutrition on tree structural and physiological adjustments to water deficit. Regardless of the water supply, K and Na supply greatly increased growth and leaf area index (LAI) of Eucalyptus grandis trees over the first 3 yr after planting. Excluding 37% of throughfall reduced above-ground biomass accumulation in the third year after planting for K- supplied trees only. E. grandis trees were scarcely sensitive to drought as a result of the utilization of water stored in deep soil layers after clear-cutting the previous plantation. Trees coped with water restriction through stomatal closure (isohydrodynamic behavior), osmotic adjustment and decrease in LAI. Additionally, droughted trees showed higher phloem sap sugar concentrations. K and Na supply increased maximum stomatal conductance, and the high water requirements of fertilized trees increased water stress during dry periods. Fertilization regimes should be revisited in a future drier climate in order to find the right balance between improving tree growth and limiting water shortage.

  17. Genetic effects of rainforest fragmentation in an early successional tree (Elaeocarpus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, M; Jones, R; Hunter, J

    2004-12-01

    Rainforests in Australia and around the world have been extensively cleared and degraded. It is essential to recognize the changes in population diversity and dynamics that follow habitat fragmentation if better conservation and management strategies are to be developed. This study is an investigation of the medium term (over 100 years) effects of rainforest fragmentation on a long-lived, early successional tree species within a habitat matrix that includes various types of fragmented and undisturbed sites. Five microsatellite loci were used to assess the level and distribution of genetic variation across the southern range of Elaeocarpus grandis (Elaeocarpaceae). In all, 21 sites were sampled to provide a direct comparison between fragmented and undisturbed populations. Overall levels of diversity (A=3.4, He=0.568, f=0.094) were higher than those of closely related endemic species, but lower than those recorded across other rainforest trees. No significant genetic structure was detected across this species, suggesting the existence of efficient dispersal and colonization mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of gene flow. Rainforest fragments, and in particular those within the extensively cleared Big Scrub, show a trend for increased inbreeding levels caused by a loss of heterozygosity within juvenile cohorts. However, the overall rate of genetic decline within fragmented rainforests appears to be more subtle in E. grandis than across other species. A combination of ecological attributes and evolutionary history is likely to have contributed to this outcome and need to be considered in future rainforest restoration projects.

  18. Mast Cell Stabilizing,Antianaphylactic and Antihistaminic Activity of Coccinia grandis Fruits in Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Coccinia grandis Linn(Curcubitaceae)is a climber herb cultivated throughout India.In traditional medicine fruits have been used to treat leprosy,fever,asthma,bronchitis and jaundice.In present study,ethanol extract of C.grandis fruit(ECGF)at 100,125 and 150 mg·kg-1,i.p.,was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing,antianaphylactic and antihistaminic activity using egg albumin induced mast cell degranulation in mice;passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and clonidine induced catalepsy in mice respectively.ECGF at(100-150 mg·kg-1,i.p.)significantly protected egg albumin induced degranulations of mast cells and caused reduction of blue dye leakage in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in dose dependently.The treatment ECGF also inhibited clonidine induced catalepsy in dose dependent manner.Phytochemical studies observed presence of saponin,steroids,alkaloids,flavonoids and glycosides.In conclusion ECGF possesses mast cell stabilizing;anti anaphylactic and antihistaminic potential which might be used in treatment of asthma.

  19. Use of glass transition temperature for stabilization of board's cracks of Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fred W. Calonego

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus grandis logs temperatures were determined and correlated with the board's cracks during steaming. Thermocouples were inserted in the logs center, registering their temperatures during steaming at 90"C. The logs were sawed and the board's cracks measured. It was concluded that: (1 the logistic S-shaped curve explains the logs temperature variation; (2 the logs with diameter of 20 to As temperaturas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis, durante a vaporização, foram determinadas e correlacionadas com as rachaduras das tábuas. Nos centros das toras foram inseridos termopares e registradas suas temperaturas durante a vaporização à 90"C. As toras foram desdobradas e as rachaduras das tábuas mensuradas. Concluiu-se que: (1 o modelo estatístico sigmoidal logístico explica a variação da temperatura nas toras; (2 as toras com 20 a <25, 25 a <30 e 30 a <35 cm de diâmetro apresentaram, respectivamente, 84,2"C, 73,1"C e 45,8"C ao final da vaporização; e (3 as rachaduras foramsignificativamente menores nas toras que atingiram a temperatura de transição vítrea.

  20. Light intensity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis L. f. seedlings

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    Caio C. P. Leal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effects of the luminosity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis seedlings. Thus, in a substrate composed by topsoil + wood powder (1:1 the seedlings were grown into plastic tubets containing 0.3 dm3 of such substrate, or into plastic pots containing 1.0 dm3 of the same substrate, and subjected to 50 and 25% shading or full sunlight. The assessments were performed every two weeks by measuring plant height and stem diameter, during eight weeks period. At the end of this period, the leaf area, dry mass of shoots and roots, the ratio between height of plant/diameter of stem, and the Dickson quality index were also assessed. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with treatments arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial [3 luminosity levels (50, 25% shading and full sunlight x 2 types of containers (plastic tubets and clay pots] with four replicates of 10 seedlings each. Means were compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability level and adjustments for the non-linear regression polynomial curves for the assessed characteristics were computed in function of time. Shadings of 25 and 50% were the best alternatives to luminosity; and the tubets were the most suitable containers for production of Cassia grandis seedlings.

  1. Characterization and rheological study of the galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Barros, Wilson; Santos, Gustavo R C; Correia, Maria T S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2014-04-15

    Galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation, presented a yield of 36 ± 8%. The polysaccharide has a constant mannose/galactose ratio (2.44:1). Methylation analysis, one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the polysaccharide has a central core composed of 4-linked β-mannose units, with branches of galactose, linked to the carbohydrate core through α(1-6) linkage. The amorphous nature of the galactomannan was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Rheological characterization exhibited Newtonian plateaus followed by shear-thinning zones characteristic of polymer solutions up to 1.5% (w/v) and above this value the system exhibited yield stress associated with a weak gel. Adjusting stress-strain curves confirmed a 1.6% (w/v) as the galactomannan concentration value for the sol-gel transition. These results indicate that the galactomannan extracted from C. grandis seeds presents rheological characteristics suitable for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries.

  2. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

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    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  3. Estimate of the density of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden using near infrared spectroscopy

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    Silviana Rosso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to estimate wood density of Eucalyptus grandis. For that, 66 27-year-old trees were logged and central planks were removed from each log. Test pieces 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size were removed from the base of each plank, in the pith-bark direction, and subjected to determination of bulk and basic density at 12% moisture (dry basis, followed by spectral readings in the radial, tangential and transverse directions using a Bruker Tensor 37 infrared spectrophotometer. The calibration to estimate wood density was developed based on the matrix of spectra obtained from the radial face, containing 216 samples. The partial least squares regression to estimate bulk wood density of Eucalyptus grandis provided a coefficient of determination of validation of 0.74 and a ratio performance deviation of 2.29. Statistics relating to the predictive models had adequate magnitudes for estimating wood density from unknown samples, indicating that the above technique has potential for use in replacement of conventional testing.

  4. Pathogenic Interactions Between Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Cultivars of Pummelo (Citrus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, H; Ozaki, K; Tsuyumu, S

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT The aggressiveness of strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on seven Citrus species, including Citrus sinensis (navel orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. unshiu (Satsuma mandarin), C. junos (Yuzu), C. aurantifolia ('Mexican' lime), C. tachibana (Tachibana), and C. grandis (pummelo: 'Otachibana', 'Banpeiyu', and 'Anseikan'), were assessed by comparing lesion expansion and growth in planta, using a prick inoculation method. The existence of two groups distinct in aggressiveness was demonstrated on the pummelo cultivars, whereas the remaining species tested were uniformly susceptible. The two groups of strains were distinct in lesion expansion and growth in planta; however, both caused canker lesions on the 'Otachibana' pummelo. The sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phages Cp1 and Cp2 was associated with differences in aggressiveness. Namely, all the strains sensitive to Cp2 but resistant to Cp1 were aggressive to 'Otachibana', whereas all the strains sensitive to Cp1 but resistant to Cp2 were weakly aggressive. When a repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction amplification was carried out by enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus (ERIC) sequences (ERIC1R and ERIC2) as the primers, these two groups were also distinguishable by the presence or absence of a 1.8-kb DNA fragment among otherwise identical fragments. The 1.8-kb fragment was amplified only from the strains aggressive to C. grandis.

  5. Quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis planted at three locations

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    Cláudio Angeli Sansígolo

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus grandis is one of the most popular species to use as raw material for pulp production in Brazil, as it provides excellent pulping, bleaching and papermaking results. The main objective of this study is to examine the quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis, at age 4 years approximately, planted in three different soils, two of which being low fertility and one being a superior fertility soil, and their reflections on wood quality and pulping results. Chemical analyses of the soils followed guidelines developed by Raij et al. (2001, while physical and chemical properties of the wood followed ABTCP, TAPPI and ABNT standards. Chemical analyses of the soils pointed to lower fertility in Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada as opposed to higher fertility in Fazenda Mendes União. Results revealed stronger tendencies for the stand grown in the less fertile soils (Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada in comparison to the stand grown in more fertile soil (Fazenda Mendes União as to: higher wood and bark basic density, lower height and dry matter content, higher bark content, lower extractives content and higher holocellulose content, higher total and screened yields from pulping, lower specific wood consumption/t of pulp, and higher tear and tensile indices at low refining levels.

  6. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India ...

  7. Mycorrhizal symbionts of Pisonia grandis and P. sechellarum in Seychelles: identification of mycorrhizal fungi and description of new Tomentella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvi, Triin; Tedersoo, Leho; Abarenkov, Kessy; Beaver, Katy; Gerlach, Justin; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2010-01-01

    Nyctaginaceae includes species that are predominantly non-mycorrhizal or form arbuscular or ectomycorrhiza. Root-associated fungi were studied from P. grandis and P. sechellarum roots collected respectively on the islands of Cousin and Silhouette in Seychelles. In addition fungal sporocarps were collected from the sampling area. Fungal symbionts were identified from the roots by anatomotyping and rDNA sequencing; sporocarps collected were examined microscopically and sequenced. Three distantly related ectomycorrhizal fungal species belonging to Thelephoraceae were identified from the roots of P. grandis. Sporocarps also were found for two symbionts and described as new Tomentella species. In addition Tomentella species collected from other Seychelles islands were studied and described as new species if there was no close resemblance to previously established species. P. sechellarum was determined to be an arbuscular mycorrhizal plant; three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species were detected from the roots. P. grandis is probably associated only with species of Thelephoraceae throughout its area. Only five Tomentella species are known to form ectomycorrhiza with P. grandis and they never have been found to be associated with another host, suggesting adaptation of these fungi to extreme environmental conditions in host's habitat.

  8. Evaluating variations of physiology-based hyperspectral features along a soil water gradient in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Aardt, van J.; Main, R.; Majeke, B.

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing is viewed as a cost-effective alternative to intensive field surveys in assessing site factors that affect growth of Eucalyptus grandis over broad areas. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing to discriminate between site qualities in E.

  9. Interspecific hybridization and inbreeding effect in seed from a Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clonal orchard in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campinhos Eduardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We used allozyme markers to estimate the amount of natural hybridization between Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla in a 7.4-hectare commercial hybrid-seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This orchard was planted in 1982 using a honeycomb design, with each hexagonal plot containing one E. grandis tree surrounded by six E. urophylla trees. There were 267 replicated hexagonal plots in the orchard. Seeds were harvested from the E. grandis clone only. The multilocus outcrossing rate estimated for the E. grandis clone averaged 70.2%, ranging from 33.0 to 99.0% among individual trees. Contaminant pollination, inferred from progeny genotypes containing alleles not present in the seven parental clones, accounted for 14.4% of the hybrid seed. Contaminant pollen was attributed to neighboring eucalyptus stands isolated from the orchard by a 400-m wide belt of native forest. Inbred and hybrid progenies were identified by their allozyme genotypes and transplanted to the field. Field growth of inbred progeny was 30% lower than that of hybrid plants at two and three years of age.

  10. HPTLC METHOD OF QUANTITATION OF BIOACTIVE MARKER CONSTITUENT PINITOL IN EXTRACTS OF PISONIA GRANDIS (R.BR

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    G. Poongothai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pisonia grandis R.Br. is an evergreen medicinal plant in the four O'clock family of Nyctaginaceae. Leaves, stems and root of this plant are extensively used by tribals in India to prepare several folk medicines to treat rheumatism, arthritis and diabetes. Recently pinitol has been reported from the leaves of Pisonia grandis and thus the present study was designed to quantify this antidiabetic molecule in the various extracts of leaves of Pisonia grandis by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. The calibration curve of a stabilized HPTLC method was linear in the range of 1.5 to 7.0µg per spot and the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9718, thus exhibiting good linearity between concentration and area. The limit of quantification (LOQ and limit of detection (LOD was found to be 1.5 and 1.2 µg respectively. The present study also revealed that among all the extracts, PGSX3 and PGSX4 contain more than 8 µg of pinitol per milligram of extract and thus exhibited chloroform: methanol mixture (9:1 and 100 % ethanol are found to be effective solvents to extract pinitol from Pisonia grandis. This is the first report on quantitation of pinitol by HPTLC.

  11. Brotación in vitro de yemas de teca (Tectona grandis L. f. Sprouting buds in vitro teak (Tectona grandis L. f.

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    Fabiana Rojas Parajeles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La teca (Tectona grandis L.f. es una especie maderable exótica introducida a Costa Rica para la siembra de plantaciones comercial por la alta demanda de su madera, su rápido crecimiento y su alta calidad. Inicialmente se utilizó la semilla como único material de siembra y la pobre calidad de muchas de las plantaciones impulsó el inicio de programas de mejora genética. La propagación clonal tomó mucha importancia en estos programas y el cultivo in vitro se convirtió en una herramienta valiosa para la propagación masiva de los árboles élites. Por lo anterior, este trabajo se enfocó en evaluar el efecto de varias concentraciones de dos reguladores de crecimiento, bencilaminopurina (BA y ácido indolacético (AIB, solos y en combinación, en la brotación de yemas dormantes y formación de callos de teca. Tanto el análisis estadístico como la observación visual mostraron que el tratamiento que consistió de 0,005 mg/l de AIA fue el mejor para incrementar la brotación de las yemas y para disminuir la formación de callo.Teak (Tectona grandis L. f. is an exotic timber species introduced to Costa Rica for commercial plantations due to the high demand for its wood, rapid growth and high-quality. Initially the seed was use as the only planting material, but the poor quality of many of the plantations resulted in the initiation of genetic improvement programs. The introduction of clonal propagation in these programs and the establishment of in vitro culture techniques became import tools for mass propagation of the selected elite trees. On the foregoing, this work focused on assessing the effect of several concentrations of two growth regulators, benzylaminopurine (BA and indole acetic acid (AIB, alone and in combination, in the budding of dormantes buds and callus formation of teak. Both the statistical analysis and the visual observation showed that the treatment consisted of 0.005 mg/l of IAA was the best to increase the budding of the

  12. Organogênese de explante foliar de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Organogenesis of the leaf explant of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

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    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tia-diazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no desempenho da propagação in vitro por organogênese de explante foliar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura e coloração dos calos, em razão dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento dos três genótipos foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante foliar. Os piores resultados de calejamento foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento BAP (0,1 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP em que 8% dos calos formados a partir de explantes foliares regeneraram gemas, com número médio destas formadas por calo igual a 4,2.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine e NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid on the in vitro propagation by organogenesis from foliar explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Depending on the clone used, there were singular responses to growth regulators treatment regarding callusing intensity, texture and color. The best results of the three genotypes used were observed with the TDZ (0.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment, where 100% of the foliar explants presented callus. The worst results were observed with the BAP (0.1 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment. Subsequently, considering the regeneration process, the best response was achieved with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, in which 8% of the calli regenerated buds, with an average of 4.2 buds per explant.

  13. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

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    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  14. Aboveground nutrient components of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. grandis in semiarid Brazil under the nature and the mycorrhizal inoculation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcela C. Pagano; Antonio F. Bellote; Maria R. Scotti

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the aboveground biomass, nutrient content and the percentages of mycorrhizal colonization in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis plantations in the semiarid region (15° 09' S 43° 49' W) in the north of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. Results show that the total above-ground biomass (dry matter) was 33.6 Mg·ha-1 for E. camaldulensis and 53.1 Mg·ha-1 for E. grandis. The biomass of the stem wood, leaves, branches, and stem bark for E. camaldulensis accounted for 64.4%, 19.6%, 15.4%, and 0.6% of the total biomass, respectively (Table 2); meanwhile a similar partition of the total above-ground biomass was also found for E. grandis. The dry matter of leaves and branches of E. camaldulensis accounted for 35% of total biomass, and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S in leaves and branches accounted for 15.5%, 0.7%, 12.3%, 22.6%, 1.9%, and 1.4% of those in total above-ground biomass, respectively. In the trunk (bark and wood), nutrient accumulation in general was lower. Nutrient content of E. grandis presented little variation compared with that of E. camaldulensis. Wood localized in superior parts of trunk presented a higher concentration of P and bark contained significant amounts of nutrients, especially in E. grandis. This indicated that leaving vegetal waste is of importance on the site in reducing the loss of tree productivity in this semi-arid region. The two species showed mycotrophy.

  15. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

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    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  16. Necrobiont Coleoptera North-West Caucasus

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    Sergey Viktorovich Pushkin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex necrobionts of the alpine girdle of Northwest Caucasus is described ecologically. The specific composition of groups is circumscribed. The legitimacies of creation necrobionts of the complex from a type of a landscape and taxonomic of an accessory of a corpse are detected. Studying of regional features ¬of formation necrobionts complexes has, both scientific, and practical -interest. Throughout 20 years we studied fauna and ecological features necrobiont Coleoptera mountain landscapes of Northwest Caucasus and -adjoining areas of Ciscaucasia.

  17. PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis EM SUBSTRATOS ORGÂNICOS ALTERNATIVOS

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    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815745Estudos referentes ao descarte de resíduos orgânicos urbanos e agroindustriais tornaram-se imprescindíveis pela possibilidade de seu uso na produção de mudas florestais e pelo impacto ambiental que seria provocado pelo descarte inadequado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis submetidas a diferentes tipos e combinações de substratos orgânicos urbano e agroindustriais. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos constituídos por diferentes substratos e proporções de combinação dos mesmos (100% Composto Orgânico de Lixo Urbano (COLU; 100% Composto Orgânico de Resíduo Agroindustrial (CORA; 100% Substrato Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Comercial; 25% CORA + 75% Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Solo; 50% COLU + 50% Comercial; 50% CORA + 50% Comercial; 50% Comercial + 50% Solo e 100% Solo e 12 repetições. Avaliaram-se altura da planta, diâmetro do colo, número de folhas, comprimento entre nós, massa fresca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca total, comprimento da raiz principal, comprimento do sistema radicular, volume do sistema radicular, raio médio das raízes, área superficial específica do sistema radicular e estabilidade de torrão. Os substratos contendo composto orgânico de lixo urbano apresentam grande potencialidade de uso como substratos alternativos na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de substrato comercial ao composto orgânico de lixo urbano possibilita crescimento do sistema radicular e parte aérea das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de 50% de substrato comercial e 50% composto orgânico de resíduo agroindustrial proporciona maior crescimento de diâmetro de caule em relação aos tratamentos contendo solo ou em relação ao composto orgânico de res

  18. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  19. The evolution of asymmetric genitalia in Coleoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Paulien; van Beek, Rick; Hoogenboom, Tamara; zu Schlochtern, Melanie Meijer

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of asymmetry in male genitalia is a pervasive and recurrent phenomenon across almost the entire animal kingdom. Although in some taxa the asymmetry may be a response to the evolution of one-sided, male-above copulation from a more ancestral female-above condition, in other taxa, such as Mammalia and Coleoptera, this explanation appears insufficient. We carried out an informal assessment of genital asymmetry across the Coleoptera and found that male genital asymmetry is present in 43% of all beetle families, and at all within-family taxonomic levels. In the most diverse group, Cucujiformia, however, genital asymmetry is comparatively rare. We also reconstructed the phylogeny of the leiodid tribe Cholevini, and mapped aspects of genital asymmetry on the tree, revealing that endophallus sclerites, endophallus, median lobe and parameres are, in a nested fashion, increasingly unlikely to have evolved asymmetry. We interpret these results in the light of cryptic female choice versus sexually antagonistic coevolution and advocate further ways in which the phenomenon may be better understood. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821530

  20. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

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    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from the Peel of Chinese Torreya grandis Fort

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    Tao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the peel essential oil of Torreya grandis fort obtained by cold pressing and steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. 62 constituents accounting for 99.6% of the total pressed oil were identified while 59 compounds accounting for 99.4% of the steam distilled oil were identified. Limonene (35.6–37.1%, α-pinene (20.1–24.1%, and δ-carene (3.3–3.9 were the major constituents. Others include γ-carene (3.8-3.9%, germacrene D (2.5–2.9%, and β-farnesene (2.7-2.8%.

  2. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  3. Quantification by allometric equations of carbon sequestered by Tec-tona grandis in different agroforestry systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avinash Jain; S. A. Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Non destructive methods for quantification of carbon seques-tration in tropical trees are inadequately developed. We described a stan-dardized method for estimating carbon stock in teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.). We developed linear allometric equations using girth at breast height (GBH), height and age to quantify above ground biomass (AGB). We used AGB to estimate carbon stock for teak trees of different age groups (1.5, 3.5, 7.5, 13.5, 18.5 and 23.5 years). The regression equation with GBH, y=3.174x-21.27, r2=0.898 (p teak-wheat (56.92%)>teak-wild oat (54.94%)>teak-gram (37.15%)>teak-ashwagandha (11.86%). The results from GBH-based regression equations provided satisfactory estimates of carbon stock in tropical trees.

  4. Wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus caribaea estimated by colorimetry

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    Patrícia Gomes Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-destructive technologies has been very effective in characterization and evaluation of wood quality. This study aimed to characterize the technologically wood of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus grandis by Colorimetry. The study was conducted at the University of Brasilia (UNB in Physics and Engineering Laboratory the Laboratory of Forest Products/LPF - Brazilian Forest Service (SFB. Species were subjected to standard tests of basic density, shrinkage and bending. For the colorimetric determination of the parameters it was used a spectrophotometer according to the methodology adopted by Camargos (1999. The radial surface of the wood is most suitable for the collecting of the colorimetric parameters and prediction of properties. Property best estimated by this technique was the density, followed by modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR.

  5. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

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    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  6. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Fang, Bo; Zhao, Qiyang; Jiao, Bining; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-10-15

    China is one of the most important diversity centres of the genus Citrus L. and is particularly rich in pummelo germplasm. In this study, the flavonoids in the peels and pulps of 28 Chinese local pummelos and four grapefruits were determined by optimised Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide anion methods. We found that naringin was the predominant flavonoid in pummelo, while naringin and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in grapefruit. The fruit peels of Citrus paradisi cvs. Rio Red and Cocktail had the highest contents of naringin (9871.69mg/kg FW) and neohesperidin (7011.15mg/kg FW), respectively. Overall, C. paradisi cvs. Cocktail, Rio Red and Changshanhuyou, Citrus grandis cvs. 28-19, Chandler, and Hongxinyou contained more flavonoids and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities and are potentially good sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  7. Incidence and management of white grub, Schizonycha ruficollis on seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NITIN KULKARNI; KAILASH CHANDRA; PRAFULLA NARAHAR WAGH; KAILASH CHANDRA JOSHI; RAM BHAJAN SINGH

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was conducted annually from 2002 to 2005 between the second week of May and the end of September on the incidence of scarab beetle, Schizonycha ruficollis (Fabricius) in a teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nursery at Ramdongari, Nagpur, India.The immature stages, that is white grubs of the scarab beetle damaged 14%-52% of teak seedlings in the nursery beds, whereas the adult of the species, that is scarab beetles, were recorded on three new host trees (Ziziphus xylopyra, Acacia catechu and A.leucophloea) in addition to the reported hosts such as ziziphus (Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana). Beetles of the S. ruficollis started emerging from the nursery beds just after the pre-monsoon showers and continued for 10-18 days. While beetle of S. ruficollis defoliated tree hosts available in the surroundings, the immature stages of the beetle caused major damage by feeding on root systems of teak seedlings with symptoms of wilting and mortality in forest nursery beds. The result of chemical and biological treatments for the management of grubs of S. ruficollis in nursery beds indicated phorate 10% granular at the rate of 20 g/m2 and chlorpyriphos 20% emulsifiable concentrate at the rate of 5.0 mL/m2 to be effective. Grubs of S. ruficollis have not been recorded previously as a major pest of teak (T. grandis). This is also the first report on occurrence of S. ruficollis adults on tree hosts such as Z. xylopyra, A. catechu and A.leucophloea. White grubs being pests of economic importance and the toughest insects to manage, information given in this paper on incidence, pest status and management of Schizonycha ruficollis is of importance to researchers and forest nursery managers.

  8. Effect of the fractions of Coccinia grandis on Ethanol-Induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats

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    M Umamaheswari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the various fractions of hydromethanol extract of the leaves of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. The leaves of this species is used in traditional medicine for treating jaundice, bronchitis, skin eruptions, burns, rheumatism, syphilis, gonorrhoea, etc. Cerebral oxidative stress was induced in rats by the administration of 20% ethanol (5 ml/100 g b.w. for 28 days. The pet-ether (PEF, chloroform (CF, ethylacetate (EAF and residual (RF fractions at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. were simultaneously administered with ethanol orally for 28 days. Vitamin E at a dose of 100 mg/kg orally was used as the standard. Administration of ethanol resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid and lipid levels. In addition, there was a significant elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides and a reduction in the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the brain. Simultaneous administration of the fractions prevented the enzymatic leakage and the rise in uric acid and lipid levels. All the fractions (except the residual fraction prevented the peroxidative damage caused by ethanol, which is evidenced from the improved antioxidant potential. Further, histopathological examination of the brain tissue revealed that the fractions offered significant protection against ethanol toxicity. Among the fractions tested, the chloroform fraction exhibited appreciable antioxidant property, which was almost comparable with the standard Vitamin E. These results suggest that the leaves of Coccinia grandis exhibit significant antioxidant activity in ethanol-treated rats.

  9. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  10. Simulated drift effect of glyphosate in different parts of Eucalyptus grandis plantsEfeito da deriva simulada de glyphosate em diferentes partes da planta de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Renata Rocha Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphoste on Eucalyptus grandis, through the application of low doses in different parts of the plant. The experimental design was a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments were glyphosate application at 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g a.e. ha-1 of the commercial formulation Scout®. Three forms of application were used: applying on leaf, on stem, and on the entire plant (leaf + stem. For leaf application, stems were covered with plastic ribbons to protect them from the solution; the same was made with plants that were sprayed on stems, covering leaf with plastic bag. The application was carried out in an armed stationary spray tips XR 11002 VS, with 183 KPa pressure in volume of 200 L ha-1. The eucalyptus plants receiving applications in leaves and whole plant (leaves + stem showing effects of intoxication are more intense about the plants that received the stem applications only. However, there may be increases in height growth and total dry mass of eucalyptus plants in applications of 30 g a.e. ha-1 glyphosate.No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphoste em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio da aplicação de doses reduzidas em diferentes partes da planta. Utilizouse o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g e.a.ha-1 de glyphosate, da formulação comercial Scout®. A aplicação foi realizada de três formas: aplicação sobre as folhas, no caule e na planta inteira (folha + caule. Para a aplicação nas folhas o caule foi coberto com fitas plásticas para evitar que fosse atingido pela solução, e o mesmo foi feito com as plantas que receberam pulverização no caule, cobrindo as folhas com saco plástico. A aplicação foi realizada em um pulverizador estacionário, munido de pontas XR 11002 VS, com pressão de 183

  11. Danos visuais e anatômicos causados pelo glyphosate em folhas de Eucalyptus grandis Visible and anatomic damages caused by glyphosate in Eucalyptus grandis leaves

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    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A sintomatologia é um dos principais critérios adotados para avaliar os danos causados por fatores bióticos e abióticos em plantas. Contudo, aspectos microscópicos são necessários na compreensão dos mecanismos de intoxicação e no diagnóstico precoce da injúria. Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de quatro formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® sobre a morfoanatomia foliar de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis (UFV01, UFV02, UFV03, UFV04, UFV05 e UFV06. Após a aplicação do glyphosate na dose de 129,6 g ha-1, acompanhou-se diariamente o surgimento de sintomas, e aos 14 dias coletaram-se amostras de folhas aparentemente sadias para as análises microscópicas. Todos os clones apresentaram cloroses e necroses a partir do quarto dia de exposição, independentemente da formulação utilizada. O clone UFV04 não apresentou injúrias anatômicas. Nos demais clones, os herbicidas ocasionaram plasmólise, colapso celular, hipertrofia e formação de tecido de cicatrização, porém não foram diagnosticadas variações na espessura das folhas. Visualmente, o Roundup transorb® foi o herbicida que provocou maior intoxicação nas plantas. Anatomicamente, plantas expostas ao Roundup NA® apresentaram maior número de danos. O clone UFV06 foi o mais sensível à ação das formulações testadas, considerando-se tanto a análise visual quanto a anatômica. Os resultados confirmam o valor diagnóstico da análise visual e prognóstico da anatomia vegetal, sendo o estudo conjunto desses parâmetros fundamental para avaliar a sensibilidade entre os clones e o potencial fitotóxico de herbicidas.Symptomatology is one of the most important criteria used to determine the damages caused by biotic and abiotic factors in plants. However, microscopic aspects are needed to elucidate intoxication mechanisms and early injury diagnosis. This work aimed to evaluate the

  12. Eficiência das minicepas e microcepas na produção de propágulos de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Efficiency of ministumps and microstumps of Eucalyptus grandis clones for minicutting and microcutting production

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    Miranda Titon

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência dos jardins clonais nas técnicas de microestaquia e miniestaquia de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, quanto a sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva das microcepas e minicepas em coletas sucessivas de microestacas e miniestacas. As microcepas utilizadas foram oriundas de mudas rejuvenescidas por micropropagação, mediante subcultivos in vitro, e as minicepas, de miniestacas oriundas de plantas propagadas pelo método da estaquia convencional (macroestaquia. As minicepas e as microcepas apresentaram desempenho similar, tendo sido observado, para ambas, elevada taxa de sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva de material para propagação vegetativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of clonal gardens in the microcutting and minicutting techniques of four Eucalyptus grandis clones regarding the survival, vigor and productive capacity of the microstumps and ministumps in successive collections of microcuttings and minicuttings. The microstumps were obtained from rejuvenated tissue explants through subculture in vitro, and the ministumps by minicuttings derived from conventional rooted cuttings. The ministumps and microstumps of E. grandis exhibited similar performance, i.e., high survival rate, vigor and productive capacity of vegetative propagation material.

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DA SUPERFÍCIE DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden TRATADA TERMICAMENTE

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    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge and sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190ºC. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good, except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad. The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  14. Effect of Hexaflumuron on gustation and reproduction of adult boll weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of hexaflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory against boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, captured in pheromone-baited traps for gustatory response and reproduction of the insect. Hexaflumuron is an insect growth regulator which inhibits chitin synthesis and disrupts inse...

  15. René Descartes, the Robots and the Soul in the debate between Tommaso Ceva and Guido Grandi

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    Alfredo Serrai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Descartes outlined human intelligence as a divine gift, albeit in a system governed by universal laws of physics and mathematics. In the eighteenth century the camaldolite Guido Grandi and Tommaso Ceva, both mathematicians, had a dispute about the interpretation of the Cartesian model of human intelligence. This case provides an opportunity to retrace the path of a speculative techno-philosophical question concerning the human possibility to equipping robots with the ability to experience a self-consciousness.

  16. Addenda and Corrigenda to the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, volumes 7 and 8 (Curculionoidea

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    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Additions, corrections, comments and nomenclatural novelties for the volumes 7 and 8 of the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera are provided. For the exact authorship of these check the text. One new species is described: Mecinus tavaresi Caldara & Fogato, sp. nov. from Portugal and Spain. New synonymies are: Compsapoderus (Compsapoderus erythropterus (Gmelin, 1790 = Attelabus intermedius Hellwig, 1795, syn. nov.; Paroplapoderus (Erycapoderus angulipennis (Kolbe, 1886 = Paroplapoderus (Erycapoderus angulipennis shaanxinsis Legalov, 2004, syn. nov. (Attelabidae; Aspidapion (Koestlinia aeneum (Fabricius, 1775 = Aspidapion (Koestlinia motschulskyi (Hochhuth, 1847, syn. nov., Taeniapion rufescens (Gyllenhal, 1833 = Taeniapion notatum (Wagner, 1912, syn. nov. (Apionidae; Larinus (Larinomesius scolymi (Olivier, 1807 = Curculio teres Hellwig, 1795, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Lixus paraplecticus (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio phellandrii Linnaeus, 1764, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Curculio alternans Hellwig, 1795= Curculio alternans Herbst, 1795, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Sibinia lyrata Faust, 1889= Sibinia attalica var. judea Pic, 1901, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Phyllobius (Metaphyllobius pomaceus Gyllenhal, 1834= Curculio prasinus Olivier, 1791, syn. nov. (Curculionidae. New homonymies are: Attelabus intermedius Hellwig, 1795 (non Attelabus intermedius Illiger, 1794; Baris marshalli Ramesha & Ramamurthy, 2011 (non Baris marshalli Hustache, 1938. New replacement names are: Baris ramamurthyi Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Baris bimaculata Pajni & Kohli, 1990 (non Hustache, 1932; Archarius (Archarius kwonleeanus Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Archarius (Archarius parvus (Kwon & Lee, 1990 (non Archarius (Archarius parvus (Hong & Wang, 1987, a fossil species; Curculio (Curculio zhangianus Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Curculio (Curculio helleri Pelsue & Zhang, 2002 (non Curculio (Curculio helleri (Voss, 1932; Lixus trichromus Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Lixus

  17. A comparative assessment on regeneration status of indigenous woody plants in Eucalyptus grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiferaw Alem; Tadesse Woldemariam

    2009-01-01

    Diversity, density and species composition of naturally regenerated woody plants under Eucalyptus grandis plantation and the adjacent natural forest were investigated and compared. Twenty plots, with an area of 20 m× 20 m for each, were established in both of E. Grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest, independently. In each plot, species name, abundance, diameter and height were recorded. Numbers of seedling were collected in five sub-plots (4 m2) within each major plot. A total of 46 species in the plantation, and 52 species in the natural forest, which belongs to 36 families were recorded. The diversity of species (H') is 2.19 in the plantation and 2.74 in the natural forest. The density of understory woody plant was 3842 stems/ha in the plantation and 4122 stems/ha in the natural forest. The densities of seedlings in the natural forest and the plantation were 8101 stems/ha and 4151 stems/ha, respectively. High similarity of woody species composition was found between the natural forest and the plantation. The E. Grandis plantation was found favoring the regeneration and growth of Millitia ferruginia and Coffea arabica in a much better way than other underneath woody species.

  18. Investigating inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion by Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Inyang, Michael Anietie; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin; Nwaokorie, Ikechi Thaddeus; Adidi, Emmanuel Amanogho; Owoeye, Taiwo Felicia; Nwakudu, Kelechukwu Chinedu; Akinlabu, Deborah Kehinde; Gabriel, Olanrewaju Oyewale; Taiwo, Olugbenga Samson; Awotoye, Olufisayo Adebola

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion (MIC) of metals by Tectona grandis based Fe (iron) Nanoparticle material was investigated. For this, extract was obtained from the leaf of Tectona grandis and this was employed as precursor for synthesizing the Fe-nanoparticle material. From this, the synthesized plant extract based nanoparticle material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM+EDS) instrument. The developed Fe bio-nanoparticle material was then employed for sensitivity and/or resistance study application against different strains of microbes that are known to induce microbiologically-influenced-corrosion, in metallic materials, and for this, microbial growth inhibition effect was compared with that from a commercial antibiotic employed as control. Results showed that the Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle exhibited good inhibition effects on the growth of many of the MIC inducing microbes investigated. Sensitivity measures of zone of inhibition against the growth of MIC inducing microbial strains either outperformed or compares well with that obtained from the commercial antibiotic control, in the study. These results indicate positive prospect on the suitability of Fe bio-nanoparticle for corrosion inhibition applications for the protection of metals against microbiological corrosion influencing environment.

  19. Evidence for salicylic acid signalling and histological changes in the defence response of Eucalyptus grandis to Chrysoporthe austroafricana

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    Zwart, Lizahn; Berger, Dave Kenneth; Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2017-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are cultivated for forestry and are of economic importance. The fungal stem canker pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana causes disease of varying severity on E. grandis. The Eucalyptus grandis-Chrysoporthe austroafricana interaction has been established as a model system for studying Eucalyptus antifungal defence. Previous studies revealed that the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) affects the levels of resistance in highly susceptible (ZG14) and moderately resistant (TAG5) clones. The aims of this study were to examine histochemical changes in response to wounding and inoculation as well as host responses at the protein level. The anatomy and histochemical changes induced by wounding and inoculation were similar between the clones, suggesting that anatomical differences do not underlie their different levels of resistance. Tyloses and gum-like substances were present after inoculation and wounding, but cell death occurred only after inoculation. Hyphae of C. austroafricana were observed inside dead and living cells, suggesting that the possibility of a hemibiotrophic interaction requires further investigation. Proteomics analysis revealed the possible involvement of proteins associated with cell death, SA signalling and systemic resistance. In combination with previous information, this study forms a basis for future functional characterisation of candidate genes involved in resistance of E. grandis to C. austroafricana. PMID:28349984

  20. Allelopathic effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla on pathogenic fungi and pest insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study on the allelopathic effects and chemical components of the essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla shows that the leaf oil emulsion of E.grandis × E.urophylla can inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum,Pyriculerie grisea,Glorosprium musa rum and Phytophthora capsici.Pupation and feeding of the pest insects Spodopteralitura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hubner are shown to be affected with restraining effects which increase with the increasing levels of oil concentration.A GC/MS analysis of the leaf oil indicated that the main components,with a relative content of≥3%,were alloocimene (43.22%),α-pinene (13.63%),γ-terpinene (5.49%),(E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (3.58%),β-fenchyl alcohol (4.58%),and 2-amino-3,5-dicyano-6-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-pyridine (3.67%).Terpenes played an important role in the inhibitory effects of E.grandis × E.urophylla essential oil on pathogenic fungi and pest insects.Poor biodiversity of eucalyptus plantations is a function of allelopathy.

  1. Feeding ecology of the copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis near the lower interface of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.

    Feeding ecology of the calanoid copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis collected in the Arabian Sea at one station during the Spring Intermonsoon and during the Southwest Monsoon of 1995 was studied with transmission electron microscopy of gut-contents. Highest abundances of these animals occurred from ˜400 to 1100 m, near the lower interface of the oxygen minimum zone and at the inflection point where oxygen starts to increase. We expected that their gut-contents would include particles and cells that had sunk relatively undegraded from surface waters as well as those from within the oxygen minimum zone, and that gut-contents would differ between the Spring Intermonsoon and the more productive SW Monsoon. Overall, in both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis was omnivorous, and consumed a variety of detrital particles, prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs, gram-negative bacteria including metal-precipitating bacteria, aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, microheterotrophs, virus-like particles and large virus-like particles, as well as cuticle and cnidarian tissue. Few significant differences in types of food consumed were seen among life stages within or among various depth zones. Amorphous, unidentifiable material was significantly more abundant in guts during the Spring Intermonsoon than during the late SW Monsoon, and recognizable cells made up a significantly higher portion of gut-contents during the late SW Monsoon. This is consistent with the Intermonsoon as a time when organic material is considerably re-worked by the surface water microbial loop before leaving the euphotic zone. In both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis had consumed what appeared to be aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, similar to those we had previously found in gut-contents of several species of zooplankton from the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical Pacific. By intercepting sinking material, populations of Lucicutia aff. L. grandis act as a filter for carbon

  2. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  3. High-throughput gene and SNP discovery in Eucalyptus grandis, an uncharacterized genome

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    Pappas Georgios J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benefits from high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology may be most apparent for species with high societal or economic value but few genomic resources. Rapid means of gene sequence and SNP discovery using this novel sequencing technology provide a set of baseline tools for genome-level research. However, it is questionable how effective the sequencing of large numbers of short reads for species with essentially no prior gene sequence information will support contig assemblies and sequence annotation. Results With the purpose of generating the first broad survey of gene sequences in Eucalyptus grandis, the most widely planted hardwood tree species, we used 454 technology to sequence and assemble 148 Mbp of expressed sequences (EST. EST sequences were generated from a normalized cDNA pool comprised of multiple tissues and genotypes, promoting discovery of homologues to almost half of Arabidopsis genes, and a comprehensive survey of allelic variation in the transcriptome. By aligning the sequencing reads from multiple genotypes we detected 23,742 SNPs, 83% of which were validated in a sample. Genome-wide nucleotide diversity was estimated for 2,392 contigs using a modified theta (θ parameter, adapted for measuring genetic diversity from polymorphisms detected by randomly sequencing a multi-genotype cDNA pool. Diversity estimates in non-synonymous nucleotides were on average 4x smaller than in synonymous, suggesting purifying selection. Non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (Ka/Ks among 2,001 contigs averaged 0.30 and was skewed to the right, further supporting that most genes are under purifying selection. Comparison of these estimates among contigs identified major functional classes of genes under purifying and diversifying selection in agreement with previous researches. Conclusion In providing an abundance of foundational transcript sequences where limited prior genomic information existed, this

  4. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

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    Garcia Tzintzuni I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and

  5. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Eucalyptus grandis

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    Denis L. G. Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  6. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very

  7. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

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    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las especies forestales de rápido crecimiento cultivadas en Uruguay de mayor importancia económica es el Eucalyptus grandis. Trabajos anteriores reportan propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera juvenil y adulta proveniente de plantaciones de esta especie en diferentes regiones del país. Sin embargo, dado que no se dispone de datos científicos nacionales sobre su durabilidad natural, en este trabajo fue evaluada madera de E. grandis obtenida de dos plantaciones de 16 años de edad con semilla del mismo origen, de dos sitios, Rivera y Río Negro. Se estudió la durabilidad natural del duramen externo e interno siguiendo los métodos de la norma EN 350-1, tomando Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 como especie de referencia. Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio para determinar la resistencia a la descomposición fúngica (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor y Serpula lacrymans y a las termites (Reticulitermes spp. siguiendo las normas EN 113 y EN 118, respectivamente. Se realizaron ensayos de campo de estacas, de doble capa y cámara fúngica, los cuales aún están en curso, por lo que en el presente trabajo se presentan resultados parciales. Los perfiles radiales de densidad básica revelaron que la madera del duramen externo no era adulta, sino madera de transición. En general, el duramen de E. grandis mostró una mayor durabilidad que el híbrido Populus.El E. grandis se clasificó como moderadamente o seriamente atacado por Reticulitermes spp. Según EN 350-1, la madera juvenil de E. grandis puede considerarse como “moderadamente durable” ante la pudrición parda provocada por G. trabeum, mientras que la madera de transición puede describirse como “durable”. La madera de transición mostró en relación a la madera juvenil una mayor resistencia al G. trabeum, una susceptibilidad levemente menor a las termites y mejor desempeño en el campo luego de 17 meses de exposición. El sitio de la plantación no

  8. Clave de las especies de Conoderus Grupo II (Coleoptera: Elateridae Key of the species of Conoderus Group II (Coleoptera: Elateridae

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    Marta E. Guzmán De Tomé

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se presenta una reseña histórica, diagnosis y clave de identificación de 33 especies exclusivamente neotropicales, del género Conoderus Eschscholtz 1829 Grupo II, (Coleoptera, Elateridae proporcionando, datos de su distribución e ilustraciones de cuatro especies representativas de la región.ABSTRACT. An identification of 33 species of Conoderus Group II, Eschscholtz 1829 (Coleoptera, Elateridae with full diagnosis, distribution, with representative illustrations of four species of the neotropical region.

  9. New species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from Colombia and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A

    2015-12-02

    Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.

  10. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  11. Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lignina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a* e matriz amarelo (b* da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos.

  12. EFEITO DO DESBASTE NAS RACHADURAS DE TOPO DAS TORAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

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    Rômulo Trevisan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of thinning in the end splits of the logs of the Eucalyptus grandis at 18 years of age. There was analyzed a thinning experiment, located in the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, installed in randomized blocks with four repetitions. The seven treatments were defined according to the number of thinnings applied and ranged from zero to six interventions. The trees were selected, in each treatment, on the basis of the Assmann’s dominant diameter and the central diameter of tree, being referred to as dominant and central trees, respectively. After cutting down the selected the logs were located between the DBH (diameter at breast height and 25% positions, 25% and 50%; 50% and 75%; 75% and 100% of the commercial height, for the end split study. The results indicate that the average end splits of the logs in the dominant and central trees was higher at the second log sampled, suggesting that sectioning should be carried in conjunction with techniques that minimize the growth stress, especially when this is performed near the half of the commercial height. The thinning induced variation in the logs end split, both for dominant and central trees; however, there was no clear positive or negative trend, leading to the conclusion that changes in growth rate did not af fect these parameters uniformly.

  13. LOG BREAKDOWN OF Eucalyptus grandis WITH CHAINSAW, PART 1 – OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSISi

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    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810558The aim of this work was to analyze the operational performance of chainsaw log breakdown of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill, taking into account small scale use, e.g., in small farms, using yield and efficiency as evaluation tools. The specific aim was to analyze the behavior of yield and efficiency in five diametric classes: 20.0-25.9cm, 26.0-28.9 cm, 29.0-31.9 cm, 32.0-34.9 cm and 35.0-41.0 cm. According to the results obtained, the chainsaw log breakdown had a satisfactory operational behavior, with average yield and efficiency of 58,5% and 0.55m³/operator/h, respectively. However, the feasibility of such technique is restricted to small scale use. Diametric class 3 (29.0-31.9 cm presented the best yield (66.6% because it was the one that presented the best adequacy between log diameter and products. It is suggested for further researches the development of specific sawing diagrams per diametric class, in addition to the reduction of class ranges, aiming the yield increase. The average breakdown time spent per log was the same for classes 3, 4 and 5, resulting that the latter presented the best efficiency, 0.82 m³/operator/h.

  14. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

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    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha−1 and 86% higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  15. Fractionation of Eucalyptus grandis chips by dilute acid-catalysed steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Alexandre; Mathias, Alvaro L; Wypych, Fernando; Ramos, Luiz P

    2003-01-01

    Steam explosion of Eucalyptus grandis has been carried out under various pretreatment conditions (200-210 degrees C, 2-5 min) after impregnation of the wood chips with 0.087 and 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4. This study, arranged as a 2(3) factorial design, indicated that pretreatment temperature is the most critical variable affecting the yield of steam-treated fractions. Pretreatment of 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4-impregnated chips at 210 degrees C for 2 min was the best condition for hemicellulose recovery (mostly as xylose) in the water soluble fraction, reaching almost 70% of the corresponding xylose theoretical yield. By contrast, lower pretreatment temperatures of 200 degrees C were enough to yield steam-treated substrates from which a 90% cellulose conversion was obtained in 48 h, using low enzyme loadings of a Celluclast 1.5 1 plus Novozym 188 mixture (Novo Nordisk). Release of water-soluble chromophores was monitored by UV spectroscopy and their concentration increased with pretreatment severity. The yield of alkali-soluble lignin increased at higher levels of acid impregnation and pretreatment temperatures. Thermoanalysis of these lignin fractions indicated a pattern of lignin fragmentation towards greater pretreatment severities but lignin condensation prevailed at the most drastic pretreatment conditions.

  16. Probability density functions for description of diameter distribution in thinned stands of Tectona grandis

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    Julianne de Castro Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fatigue life, Frechet, Gamma, Generalized Gamma, Generalized Logistic, Log-logistic, Nakagami, Beta, Burr, Dagum, Weibull and Hyperbolic distributions in describing diameter distribution in teak stands subjected to thinning at different ages. Data used in this study originated from 238 rectangular permanent plots 490 m2 in size, installed in stands of Tectona grandis L. f. in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The plots were measured at ages 34, 43, 55, 68, 81, 82, 92, 104, 105, 120, 134 and 145 months on average. Thinning was done in two occasions: the first was systematic at age 81months, with a basal area intensity of 36%, while the second was selective at age 104 months on average and removed poorer trees, reducing basal area by 30%. Fittings were assessed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. The Log-logistic (3P, Burr (3P, Hyperbolic (3P, Burr (4P, Weibull (3P, Hyperbolic (2P, Fatigue Life (3P and Nakagami functions provided more satisfactory values for the k-s test than the more commonly used Weibull function.

  17. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad [Food Science Program, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  18. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  19. SEEDLINGS ESTABLISHMENT OF Eucalyptus grandis MYCORRHIZATED WITH Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 IN SANDY SOIL

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    Andréa Hentz de Mello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and the initial growth of mycorrhizated eucalypts with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 ectomycorrhizal fungus, after its transplant to area subject to the arenization process in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The area was divided into four blocks, each one with four treatments (fertile turf with and without mycorrhizae, Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae. Each parcel was composed of 16 seedlings arranged in four lines in the spacing of 1,5 m x 1,5 m, totalizing in each block 64 seedlings. 90 days after the planting in the field, the eucaliptus seedlings produced in turf with fungus in the fertile substratum presented a survival rate of 100 %, whereas for those produced in fertile turf without fingi, the survival rate was 92 %. The seedlings produced in the Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae had a survival rate varying around 98 and 89 %, respectively. The produced seedlings with turf and fungus showed significant differences in height and stem diameter. This study showed that the Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in substratum fertile turf and inoculated with the Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 isolated may maintain good development and establishment in the field.

  20. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND PESTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF COCCINIA GRANDIS (L. VOIGT

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    Md. Faruk Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activities of Coccinia grandis roots extract. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method against some pathogenic microorganisms. Cytotoxicity was determined using brine shrimp lethality bioassay method. The plant extract was screened for pesticidal activity towards Sitophilus oryzae adults. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was also studied against test organisms, using serial dilution technique to determine the antibacterial potency. In antibacterial screening, large inhibition zones were observed against the tested gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea and Stapphylococcus aureus and gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae bacteria. In antifungal screening, the extract showed moderate antifungal activities against the tested fungi (Candida albicans and Colletotrichum falcatum. In cytotoxicity activity test, LC50 (lethal concentration, 50% of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 15.00µg/ml. The plant extract also showed moderate pesticidal activities towards S. oryzae adults. These results suggested that the plant extract has significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, moderate antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activity towards the tested fungi, brine shrimp nauplii and S. oryzae adults, respectively.

  1. Características de vigas laminadas coladas confeccionadas com madeira de teca (Tectona grandis

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a influência do adesivo, das gramaturas e dos tempos de prensagem nas propriedades mecânicas de vigas laminadas coladas, confeccionadas com madeira de teca (Tectona grandis. As vigas foram produzidas com cinco lamelas, sendo duas da classe de módulo de elasticidade dinâmico, classe 1 - MOEd C1 nas faces, e três da classe 2 - MOEd C2 no miolo. Para a colagem, utilizou-se o adesivo à base de resorcina-fenol-formaldeído (RFF, com gramaturas de 350 e 450 g.m- 2, e tempos de prensagem de 5 e 8 horas. Para o adesivo à base de emulsão polimérica de isocianato (EPI, a colagem foi realizada com gramaturas de 180 e 220 g.m- 2, e tempos de prensagem de 3 e 4 horas. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas das vigas indicaram que não houve uma relação bem definida dos efeitos das variáveis de estudo nas propriedades de flexão estática. As vigas coladas com o adesivo RFF tiveram maior resistência da linha de cola em comparação às vigas coladas com o adesivo EPI.

  2. Métodos de captura para formigas em pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Jardel Boscardin

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar três métodos de coleta de formigas em uma área de pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis em Santa Maria-RS. Foram realizadas amostragens de março a agosto de 2011, utilizando-se armadilha de solo (AS, isca atrativa à base de patê de fígado de frango (IA e extração por Funil de Berlese (FB, sendo seis repetições por tratamento em cada data de coleta. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da aplicação de glifosato, tendo sido realizados controles das plantas infestantes: na linha e na entrelinha de plantio (T1; em faixa de um metro paralela à linha de plantio e de um metro na parte central da entrelinha, sem controle (T2; em faixa de meio metro paralela à linha de plantio (T3, e a testemunha, sem controle de plantas infestantes (T4. A partir dos resultados obtidos, os métodos demonstraram ser complementares entre si, sugerindo a utilização de mais de um método na captura de formigas.

  3. PARTICLEBOARDS PRODUCED WITH Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden POLYSTYRENE AND POLYETHYLENE THEREPHTHALATE PARTICLES

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    Antônio da Silva Maciel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the properties of wood particleboards, containing particles of polystyrene (PS and polyethylene therephthalate (PET. Particleboards were produced with 0%, 25% or 50% of polystyrene and 100%, 75% or 50% of Eucalyptus grandis particles. Additional boards were produced with two amounts of PET/PS (5/20% or 10/40% and 75% or 50% wood particles. As binding agents three amounts (0%, 4% or 6% of urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde adhesive and three amounts of polystyrene in toluene solution (0%, 4% or 6% were used. One-layer boards, measuring approximately 400,0 x 400,0 x 10,0 mm with density approximately equal to 0,60 g/cm3, were produced. Internal bond, modulus of rupture and elasticity, screw withdrawal, as well water absorption and thickness swelling, after 24 hours of immersion were determined. All mechanical boards’ properties were superior to the established by ANSI/A 208.1-1993 standards. All wood/plastic particleboards absorbed more water then those observed in commercial boards. However the observed thickness swelling was quite similar to the values of commercial wood particleboards. Boards in which the solution of polystyrene was applied were, in general, presented the best values for all properties.

  4. Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis L.F. from different provenances using microsatellite markers

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    Berenice Kussumoto Alcântara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the main timber species in the world with high economic value, famous for its beauty, strength and durability. The objective of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity of teak genotypes used in Brazilian plantations. Nine microsatellite primers were used to assess 60 teak genotypes, including 33 genotypes from seeds of plantations and 14 clones from Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and 13 clones from Honduras, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast and Solomon Islands. Two groups of genotypes were detected using the Bayesian Structure analysis: 80% were placed in group 1, represented by genotypes from Cáceres and one from Malaysia, and 20% allocated in group 2, composed of clones from India, Solomon Islands, Malaysia and Honduras and the clones from the Ivory Coast. Most of the genetic variability (73% was concentrated within groups according to AMOVA analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated for the two groups obtained in the analysis of Structure. Moderate genetic diversity was found, with 4.1 alleles per locus, on average, and an average heterozygosity of 0.329, which was lower than the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.492. Group 1 showed the lowest values for these parameters. Suggestions were made concerning the identification of contrasting genotypes to be used as parents in breeding programs.

  5. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  6. EFFECT OF LOG STEAMING ON THE REDUCTION OF DEFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH GROWTH STRESS OF Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fred Willians Calonego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate log steaming effect on the reduction of defects associated with residual growth stress of Eucalyptus grandis wood. There were used logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm, from the Horto Florestal, Manduri, São Paulo. Half of the logs was steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity. Subsequently, the logs were live sawn and the defects resulting from the growth stresses in logs of various diameter were measured. The results indicate that log steaming provided the release of a great part of the growth stresses, without eliminating them completely, showing, nevertheless, that this treatment is feasible and advisable for growth stress relief; the boards coming from heated logs of 20 to <25 cm presented, in general, larger defect reduction, showing that the smaller the log diameter the higher the efficiency of steam treatment at 90ºC of temperature during 20 hours.

  7. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

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    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  8. Optimum extraction process of polyphenols from Bridelia grandis stem bark using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusotti, Gloria; Ngueyem, Tatiana Adrienne; Biesuz, Raffaela; Caccialanza, Gabriele

    2010-06-01

    Euphorbiaceae barks are known to contain an appreciable amount of polyphenolic compounds responsible for several biological activities. Preliminary extraction from Bridelia grandis stem bark afforded high content of polyphenols, determined by spectrophotometric methods such as Folin-Ciocalteu (for total phenols, TP) and n-butanol-HCl (for condensed tannins, CT). A preliminary Plackett-Burman screening design was used to identify the key factors that influence the TP and CT extraction. Between all the variables known to influence the extraction from vegetable matrixes, six were selected; maceration was chosen as traditional extraction methodology. To investigate the effect of solvents and extraction method, methanol, acetone 70% (v/v in water), centrifugation and ultrasound were chosen. A full factorial design 2(3) was applied to optimize the extraction procedure. The responses were obtained analyzing the extracts for their TP and CT contents determined by the above-mentioned spectrophotometric methods. The results confirm that, within the explored domain, the optimum solvent is methanol and the optimum method is one-cycle centrifugation. Finally, it was also compared with the effect of maceration on the considered responses. It has never given results better than centrifugation, whereas in the case of CT it represents an advantage to employ a three-cycle centrifugation instead of one.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ANATOMY AND DRYING IN Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus urophylla WOOD

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying is an important step to using wood and anatomical characteristics influence this process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between anatomy and wood drying. Samples with 2 x 2 x 4 cm were obtained from eight Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clones at 1.3 m height to evaluate the anatomy and drying in climate chamber during 15 days. Cell wall fraction was established as the parameter that best correlated with drying, the Pearson correlation coefficient between this parameter and moisture was -0.8986, -0.6580, 0.9216, 0.8743, 0.7131 and 0.8727 for saturated wood, and after 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 days of drying, respectively. The frequency and vessel size, as well as the height and width of the rays showed low relation with wood drying. Wood anatomy, mainly the cell wall fraction, influences moisture losses and should be considered in wood drying programs.

  10. Noteworthy records of Hispines from Belize (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F C Naczi; Staines, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly, Cephaloleia fulvolimbata Baly, Cephaloleia ruficollis Baly, Chalepus amabilis Baly, Chalepus brevicornis (Baly), Chalepus pici Descarpentries and Villiers, Microrhopala erebus (Newman), Octhispa bimaculata Uhmann, Octotoma championi Baly, Pseudispa tuberculata Staines, Sceloenopla erudita (Baly), Stenispa guatemalensis Uhmann, Sumitrosis gestroi (Weise), and Sumitrosis terminatus (Baly) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) are new country records of hispine c...

  11. Elmidae Curtis, 1830 (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Byrrhoidea) of the Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Melissa Ottoboni; Dos Passos, Maria Ines Da Silva; Fonseca-Gessner, Alaíde Aparecida; Froehlich, Claudio Gilberto

    2013-10-29

    A bibliography of significant taxonomic papers on Elmidae (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Byrrhoidea), and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their geographic distributions are provided. Forty-seven genera and 430 valid species are included. Maps show the geographic distribution of the genera by country.

  12. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  13. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  14. One-step column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution followed by automatic separation of volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides from Citrus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hui; Hao, Rui-Lin; Chen, Ya-Fei; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2014-02-15

    Citrus grandis Tomentosa is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. Its functional components include volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides which cannot be effectively extracted through traditional methods. A column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution was developed for one-step extraction of all bioactive substances from C. grandis. Dried material was loaded into a column with petroleum ether: ethanol (8:2, PE) and sequentially eluted with 2-fold PE, 3-fold ethanol: water (6:4) and 8-fold water. The elutes was separated into an ether fraction containing volatiles and an ethanol-water fraction containing flavonoids and polysaccharides. The later was separated into flavonoids and polysaccharides by 80% ethanol precipitation of polysaccharides. Through this procedure, volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides in C. grandis were simultaneously extracted at 98% extraction rates and simply separated at higher than 95% recovery rates. The method provides a simple and high-efficient extraction and separation of wide range bioactive substances.

  15. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  16. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera records for Canadа

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    Hume Douglas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion loti (Kirby, 1808; Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808 (both Brentidae; Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881; Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876; Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873; Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758; Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832; Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876; Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892; Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876; Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836; Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875; Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876; Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916; Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801; Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866 (all Curculionidae. In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae; Northwest Territories – Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927 (Brentidae; Nunavut – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae; Alberta – Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae; Saskatchewan – Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae; Manitoba – Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837; Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876; Scolytus

  17. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  18. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L. J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

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    M. A. A. K. Munasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117 5.56, <0.05. Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117 6.77, <0.05 and two hours (F(1,117 5.28, <0.05 postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5 and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9 was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings.

  19. Proline content and protein patterns in Eucalyptus grandis shoots submitted to high and low temperature shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline content and protein patterns changes in response to temperature shocks of both acclimated and non acclimated E. grandis shoots cultivated in vitro were investigated. Analysis of soluble proteins through SDS-PAGE and proline were carried out after 12h at 12ºC (cold acclimation or 33ºC (heat acclimation, and immediately after temperature shocks at 41ºC and 0ºC. Analyses were also performed 24h after the temperature shocks (recovery period. Temperature treatment at 0ºC did not change soluble protein patterns both in acclimatized and non acclimatized plants, whereas cold temperature induced high proline levels, which kept relatively high after recovery period. Three novel, probably HSPs, proteins (90.5, 75 and 39 kDa were observed in both acclimated and non acclimated plants submitted to high temperatures. Plants exposed at 41ºC were able to recover from heat shocks after 24h, whereas they did not recover completely from cold shocks. The effect of the acclimation period on the recovering (homeostasis varied depending on the parameter evaluated, and type and duration of the temperature shock.As respostas às mudanças de temperatura de plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas de E. grandis cultivadas in vitro foram avaliadas considerando alterações dos níveis de prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Análises de proteínas solúveis através de SDS-PAGE e prolina foram realizadas após 12h a 12ºC (aclimatação ao frio ou a 33ºC (aclimatação ao calor, e imediatamente depois dos choques térmicos a 41ºC e 0ºC. Análises também foram realizadas após um período de 24h depois dos choques térmicos (período de recuperação. O tratamento de temperatura a 0ºC não alterou o padrão de proteínas nas plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas, entretanto a temperatura baixa induziu altos níveis de prolina, que se mantiveram relativamente altos após o período de recuperação. Três novas proteínas (90,5, 75 e 39 kDa, provavelmente

  20. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J. (Iowa State)

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  2. PRODUÇÃO DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM DIFERENTES INTENSIDADES DE DESBASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Mainardi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes intensidades de desbaste sobre a produção Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden implantado no ano de 1981, em espaçamento inicial de 3,0 x 2,0 metros, na região de Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudado com delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições e quatro tratamentos: testemunha, sem desbastes, manutenção de 40%, 50% e 60% da área basal da testemunha, constando-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. A produção máxima (756,3 m3cc/ha foi obtida na testemunha, sem desbaste, que não diferiu estatísticamente de 639,6 m3cc/ha, obtido no tratamento com manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha, porém diferiu dos tratamentos com manutenção de 50% e 40% da área basal da testemunha. A redução da área basal incrementou a concentração das freqüências nas maiores classes de diâmetro, deslocando a distribuição para a direita, porém com perdas expressivas de produção total e acréscimo significativo no diâmetro. A manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha permitiu as menores perdas de produção, cerca de 15,4%, e um ganho de 6,4cm ou 23,9% em incremento diamétrico das árvores remanescentes quando comparado com a testemunha, sem desbaste.

  3. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with ‘King’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on ‘Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis ‘Washington Navel’ x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity. PMID:28208159

  4. PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS OF PROCESSOR WORKING IN STANDS OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Carlos Tarnowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a time study was conducted with the objective of adjusting equations to estimate the time of activities, productivity, operational costs and the production of the processor used in a harvest operation of stands of Eucalyptus grandis in plain topography in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The operational cycle of the processor consisted of the time spent to process a tree, and was divided in to stages, which were assessed using the methotodology of single activity times. The sampling unit was the operational cycle of the machine. The statistical analysis was based on regression analysis considering the selection procedure “stepwise”. With the adjusted equations it was possible to estimate the productivity of the machine taking into account the of tree diameter. Considering an operational efficiency of 70 % under the circumstances of the study, the productivity of the processor was 25,8 m3 cc/h, the operational costs 47,90 US$/h and the production costs 1,86 US$/m3 cc. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the time of tree processing has varied directly according to the diameter increase diameter; the preparation time, contrary to the processing time, only shows a weak correlation with tree diameter; productivity of the processor is directly proportional to tree diameter, when expressed in volume and inversely proportional when expressed in tree number; the costs per cubic meter of wood processed varies inversely with of increased diameter; from the operational costs, fixed costs had the highest proportion followed by the variable costs, administrative costs and costs for manpower; the production costs of the processor decreased exponentially with increasing tree diameter.

  5. COMBINATION OF TWO NON-INDUSTRIAL METHODS ON THE PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Eucalyptus grandis FENCE POSTS

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of the combination of two non-industrial methods to treat fence posts of Eucalyptus grandis, on the penetration and retention of water borne preservative. Thus, four fences with 2.20 m in length were treated by replacement of sap and simple diffusion alone and other four ones have combined the two techniques, with water-borne CCB 50% preservative at a concentration of 3.5%. After each treatment condition, the pieces were seasoned in the shade for 30 days. Disks were taken at 0.60 and 1.60 m from the base of the pieces which had one side sanded for analysis of the penetration of the preservative using a solution of chrome azurol S. From the same parts, test specimens were also manufactured in diametrically opposed positions with dimensions of approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal to analyze the retention of the element copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and boron by visible spectrophotometry with azomethine-H, also known as colorimetry. The retention values obtained were compared with the minimum recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards – ABNT for water borne preservatives which is 6.5 kg of active ingredients per m³ of wood. The penetration achieved by the combined method was considered sufficient for non-industrial treatment, while the retention values were higher than the retention of at least 6.5 kg of active ingredients / m³ of treated wood in all positions and portions evaluated.

  6. Polyamines and transglutaminase activity are involved in compatible and self-incompatible pollination of Citrus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Alessandra; Antognoni, Fabiana; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Distefano, Gaetano; Las Casas, Giuseppina; La Malfa, Stefano; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Pollination of pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) pistils has been studied in planta by adding compatible and self-incompatible (SI) pollen to the stigma surface. The pollen germination has been monitored inside the pistil by fluorescent microscopy showing SI altered morphologies with irregular depositions of callose in the tube walls, and heavy callose depositions in enlarged tips. The polyamine (PA) content as free, perchloric acid (PCA)-soluble and -insoluble fractions and transglutaminase (TGase) activity have been analyzed in order to deepen their possible involvement in the progamic phase of plant reproduction. The conjugated PAs in PCA-soluble fraction were definitely higher than the free and the PCA-insoluble forms, in both compatible and SI pollinated pistils. In pistils, pollination caused an early decrease of free PAs and increase of the bound forms. The SI pollination, showed highest values of PCA-soluble and -insoluble PAs with a maximum in concomitance with the pollen tube arrest. As TGase mediates some of the effects of PAs by covalently binding them to proteins, its activity, never checked before in Citrus, was examined with two different assays. In addition, the presence of glutamyl-PAs confirmed the enzyme assay data and excluded the possibility of a misinterpretation. The SI pollination caused an increase in TGase activity, whereas the compatible pollination caused its decrease. Similarly to bound PAs, the glutamyl-PAs and the enzyme activity peaked in the SI pollinated pistils in concomitance with the observed block of the pollen tube growth, suggesting an involvement of TGase in SI response.

  7. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  8. Influence of 6-Benzyladenine and gelling agent on the reduction of hyperhydricity in Tectona grandis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Quiala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Running title: Controlling hyperhydricity in teakInfluencia de la 6-Bencilaminopurina y el agente gelificante en la reducción de la hiperhidricidad en Tectona grandis L. Abstract:  The influence of different factors on shoot proliferation and the occurrence of hyperhydricity in teak (Tectona grandis L. have been studied. Four concentrations of BA (2.22, 4.44, 6.66 and 8.88 µM and a control treatment with 0 BA were examined. Aiming at reducing the costs during commercial propagation by using gelrite in stead of agar, the use of both gelling agent in the proliferation and hyperhydricity was tested. In order to evaluate if hyperhydricity can be reduced by increasing the gelrite concentration in the culture medium, three concentrations (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g l-1 were tested in combination with 4.44 µM BA.  The proliferation and occurrence of hyperhydricity during 21 successive subcultures were evaluated. The highest proliferation was achieved in the treatments with 6.66 or 8.88 µM BA. They yielded 5.22 and 5.56 shoots/explant, respectively. But also, the highest percent of hyperhydric shoots was achieved in this treatment. Gelrite resulted in a higher proliferation, but also an almost two times higher hyperhydricity as compared to agar-solidified media. Satisfactory reduction in hyperhydricity (18% was achieved with 3.0 g l-1 gelrite. However, the successive subcultures onto proliferation in this treatment favored hyperhydricity compromising shoot quality and its competence to proliferate. In vitro teak plants were ex vitro rooted and then transferred to greenhouse conditions for acclimatization; ten weeks after transfer they were ready for field plantation.Key words: cytokinin; forestry; micropropagation; morpho-physiological disorder; teakAbbreviations: BA- 6-Benzyladenine, MS- Murashige and Skoog basal medium, IBA- Indole-3-butyric acid, ANA-Naphtalene acetic acidResumen: Se estudió la influencia de diferentes factores en la proliferaci

  9. Optimizing Culture System of Ri T-DNA Transformed Roots for Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhong-hai; TONG Rui-jian

    2006-01-01

    Genetic transformation experiments of the different explants from Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes were carried out in darkness or in light. The optimizing culture system of Ri T-DNA transformed roots for C. grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You was constructed as follows: After the ventral wounded striations on the single activation cotyledon were inoculated by A. rhizogenes A4 (logarithmic period), they were cocultured at (25 ± 2)℃ in darkness for 25-30 days; some transformed roots were generated from wounded striations of most cotyledons. The genetically transformed ratio is (83 ± 11)%. Axenic Ri T-DNA transformed roots (hairy roots) were harvested after five subcultures. Explants were activated on MT medium. The MS medium was used for subculture of transformed roots. Mass Ri T-DNA transformed roots in which the hormone was produced independently were harvested from this optimizing culture system. White, fresh Ri T-DNA transformed roots were (1.14 ± 0.07) cm long, (0.73 ± 0.04) mm wide, and the growth direction of transformed roots was negative geotropism.

  10. MICOBIOTA ASSOCIADA À MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN DURANTE A SECAGEM AO AR LIVRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi o de acompanhar a secagem ao ar livre da madeira serrada de Eucalyptus grandis conduzida na região de Lavras, MG e identificar a micobiota associada à madeira em diversas fases da secagem. As tábuas foram cortadas de oito toras de 3,0 m de comprimento, oriundas de três árvores, com 27 anos de idade, plantadas em área experimental da UFLA. Dos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis ao ar livre, iniciada em janeiro, consumiu 158 dias até atingir umidade próxima a 12,5%. A curva de secagem foi representada por uma equação logarítmica com coeficiente de determinação (R2 igual a 98,3%. Os fungos causadores de bolores superficiais e de manchas tiveram maior ocorrência no início da secagem. As mais altas freqüências de fungos, verificadas no início da secagem, foram observadas para Penicillium spp. e Pestalotiopsis sp. O fungo Lentinus lepideus ocorreu com maior freqüência no final da secagem.

  11. Contenido de los nutrientes básicos en Catolaccus grandis Burks criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAUJO LÚCIA HELENA AVELINO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los niveles de carbohidratos, proteínas solubles y aminoácidos libres de larvas, pupas hembras y adultos hembras de Catolaccus grandis (Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodón envenenadas por hembras del parasitoide y por larvas de primer instar del parasitoide. Esto estudio fue conducido en la Unidade de Investigación de Control Biologico de Plagas del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de la América, en Weslaco, Texas. Las 20 muestras de cada uno de los tres estados de desarrollo: tercer instar larval, pupas hembra y adultos hembra del parasitoide C. grandis, fueron separadas y pesadas individualmente y se cuantió el contenido de carbohidratos totales, proteínas solubles totales y aminoácidos libres criados en diferentes sustratos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la existencia de patrones metabólicos significativamente distintos de estos nutrientes básicos.

  12. A four-domain Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from Solen grandis is implicated in immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong; Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Xiangquan; Liu, Meijun; Yang, Dinglong; Xu, Jie; Hu, Xiaoke

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) serves as a negative regulator in immune signal pathway by restraining the activities of serine proteinase (SP) and plays an essential role in the innate immunity. In the present study, a Kunitz-type SPI was identified from the mollusk razor clam Solen grandis (designated as SgKunitz). The full-length cDNA of SgKunitz was of 1284 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp. The ORF encoded four Kunitz domains, and their amino acids were well conserved when compared with those in other Kunitz-type SPIs, especially the six cysteines involved in forming of three disulfide bridges in each domain. In addition, the tertiary structure of all the four domains adopted a typical model of Kunitz-type SPI family, indicating SgKunitz was a new member of Kunitz-type SPI superfamily. The mRNA transcripts of SgKunitz were detected in all tested tissues of razor clam, including muscle, mantle, gonad, gill, hepatopancreas and hemocytes, and with the highest expression level in gill. When the razor clams were stimulated by LPS, PGN or β-1, 3-glucan, the expression level of SgKunitz mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated (P inhibitor of SP involving in the immune response of S. grandis, and provided helpful evidences to understand the regulation mechanism of immune signal pathway in mollusk.

  13. Genome scans for divergent selection in natural populations of the widespread hardwood species Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) using microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhijiao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Fagen; Weng, Qijie; Zhou, Chanpin; Li, Mei; Li, Jie; Huang, Huanhua; Mo, Xiaoyong; Gan, Siming

    2016-01-01

    Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs. Using three FST outlier detection methods, a total of 58 outlying SSRs were collectively identified as loci under divergent selection against three non-correlated climatic variables, namely, mean annual temperature, isothermality and annual precipitation. Using a spatial analysis method, nine significant associations were revealed between FST outlier allele frequencies and climatic variables, involving seven alleles from five SSR loci. Of the five significant SSRs, two (EUCeSSR1044 and Embra394) contained alleles of putative genes with known functional importance for response to climatic factors. Our study presents critical information on the population diversity and structure of the important woody species E. grandis and provides insight into the adaptive responses of perennial trees to climatic variations. PMID:27748400

  14. α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Phenolic Extracts from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Bark

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    Ping Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of different extracts and fractions from Eucalyptus. grandis × urophylla bark (EB against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities. The ethyl acetate extract (EB-E showed the highest activity among others. Seven fractions were derived from EB-E; among them EB-E-7 showed the highest significant inhibition of both enzymes, with IC50 of 1.40±0.18 and 1.72±0.12 μg/mL, respectively. EB-E and its active fraction EB-E-7 showed highest contents of total phenolics: 178.79±4.68 and 920.4±5.46 mg GAEag−1, respectively. HPLC-MS analysis of EB-E-7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid, quercetin-glucuronide, quercetin-3-α-rhamnopyranoside, and ellagic acid rhamnoside as major compounds, together with smaller concentrations of myricetin-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-hexoside, myricetin-3-α-arabinofuranoside, and isorhamnetin. Therefore, the phenolic compounds from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urograndis bark potently inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, having potential in prevention of hyperglycemia.

  15. 桉树枝瘿姬小蜂危害巨园桉的研究%Study on Leptocybe invasa's Hazard to Eucalyptus grandis × E.tereticonis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 王缉健; 刘宇; 罗基同; 蒋金培; 吴耀军

    2010-01-01

    桉树枝瘿姬小蜂(Leptocybe invasa Fish er & La salle)在巨园桉(E.grandis×E.tereticornis)DH201-2不同生长阶段和不同生长高度均能侵入定居,并产生大量虫瘿,对巨园桉危害严重.

  16. Produção de Eucalyptus grandis Hhill ex Maiden em diferentes intensidades de desbaste.

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    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O efeito de diferentes intensidades de desbaste sobre a produção Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden implantado no ano de 1981, em espaçamento inicial  de 3,0 x 2,0 metros, na região de Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudado com delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições e quatro tratamentos: testemunha, sem desbastes, manutenção de 40%, 50% e 60% da área basal da testemunha, constando-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. A produção máxima (756,3 m3cc/ha foi obtida na testemunha, sem desbaste, que não diferiu estatísticamente de 639,6 m3cc/ha, obtido no tratamento com manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha, porém diferiu dos tratamentos com manutenção de 50% e 40% da área basal da testemunha. A redução da área basal incrementou a concentração das freqüências nas maiores classes de diâmetro, deslocando a distribuição para a direita, porém com perdas expressivas de produção total e acréscimo significativo no diâmetro. A manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha permitiu as menores perdas de produção, cerca de 15,4%, e um ganho de 6,4cm ou 23,9% em  incremento  diamétrico  das  árvores  remanescentes quando comparado com a testemunha, sem desbaste.

  17. Trophic discrimination factor of nitrogen isotopes within amino acids in the dobsonfly Protohermes grandis (Megaloptera: Corydalidae) larvae in a controlled feeding experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Hayashi, Fumio; Sasaki, Yoko; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2017-03-01

    The trophic discrimination factor (TDF) of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids, between a stream-dwelling dobsonfly larva (Protohermes grandis: Megaloptera; Corydalidae) and its diet (chironomid larvae), was determined in controlled feeding experiments. Last-instar larvae of P. grandis were collected from the Yozawa-gawa River, central Japan, and reared in the laboratory. After fed to satiation for 1 month, one group of larvae was each fed one living chironomid larva per day for 4 weeks, while a second group was starved for 8 weeks. The larvae were harvested at intervals and the nitrogen isotopic composition of glutamic acid (δ(15)NGlu) and phenylalanine (δ(15)NPhe) were determined to calculate TDF. The mean TDF of satiated and starved larvae were 7.1‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 3) and 7.3‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 5), respectively. Thus, the TDF for P. grandis larvae in this study was similar to that reported for other arthropods (approximately 7‰) and was independent of satiation or starvation. A previous study of wild P. grandis larvae, based on the δ(15)NGlu and δ(15)NPhe values, estimated its trophic position (TP) as approximately 2.0 ± 0.1 (n = 5), a low value close to that of algivores, although they are generally characterized as carnivores (usually accepted as TP ≥ 3). The TDF for P. grandis larvae suggests that their low TPs in nature were caused by incorporation of vascular plant-derived amino acids (with a different δ(15)N profile from that of algae) and not by an unusually low TDF or by the effects of the satiation/starvation on amino acid metabolism.

  18. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-11-26

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.

  19. Invasions by ladybugs, ladybirds, and other predatory Coleoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Edward W.; Soares, António O.; Yasuda, Hironori

    2011-01-01

    Copyright © International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2011. Species of predatory Coleoptera have become abundant in new geographic regions recently, raising concerns for invaded ecosystems. We address this topic by focusing on invasive alien ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae; known also as ladybugs). Humans appear directly or indirectly responsible for all or most ladybird invasions. Factors hypothesized to have promoted ladybird invasions include genetic diversity (e.g., for ...

  20. Nocturnal Migration of Coleoptera: Carabidae in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Vertical-looking radar (VLR) has allowed long-term automatic monitoring of the altitudinal and temporal dynamics of high-flying insect populations. To investigate whether ground beetle, insect of Coleoptera, was capable of migrating and its migration pattern by taking advantages of capability of the VLR for long-term real-time automatic monitoring, the migration of Coleoptera ground beetle was investigated by setting up radar observation points, making long-term observation using the VLR and related supplementary equipment, and analyzing low altitude air current and large area circulating current in combination with the meteorological data. Information obtained in 2005 and 2006 showed that the seasonal activities of ground beetles traps of trap lamps were mainly from late June to late August, peak period was mainly in August, seasonal traps of high-altitude lamps and ground lamps were featured by sudden increase and sudden decrease; in peak period, the height of radar echo point could be as high as 600 m, while it was mainly below the height of 450 m; night activities mainly occurred from 20:00 to 22:00, in very few nights, radar echo could last until about 04:00, changes in numbers of ground beetles within the searchlights were consistent with radar echo intensity; ground beetle images were successfully trapped in the sweep nets carried by captive balloons at the height of 200 m. Some species of Carabidaes had some degrees of migration, thus providing the foundation for investigating the migration of Coleoptera insects.

  1. Sex- and Size-Related Patterns of Carrion Visitation in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-12-28

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on successional patterns of adult insects is largely limited, due to the lack of potential PMI markers. Sex and size of adult insects could be easily used for such estimation. In this study, sex- and size-related patterns of carrion attendance by adult insects were analyzed in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). For both species, abundance of males and females changed similarly during decomposition. A slightly female-biased sex ratio was recorded in N. littoralis. Females of N. littoralis started visiting carcasses, on average, one day earlier than males. There was a rise in size of males of N. littoralis at the end of decomposition, whereas for females of both species and males of C. maxillosus, no size-related patterns of carrion visitation were found. Current results demonstrate that size and sex of adult carrion beetles are poor indicators of PMI.

  2. Estados inmaduros de Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini Immature stages of Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini

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    Jhon César Neita-Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y se ilustran por primera vez la larva de tercer estadio y la pupa de Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini. Se aportan datos sobre la biología de la especie y su distribución en Colombia. Se proporciona una clave para la identificación de las larvas de tercer estadio conocidas de las especies del género Ancognatha Erichson.The third instar larva and pupa of Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini are described and illustrated for the first time. New data on larval biology and distribution of the species in Colombia are included. A key to the known third stage larvae of Ancognatha Erichson is provided.

  3. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  4. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  5. Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Gava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas

  6. Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla

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    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17

  7. Behavior of Eucalyptus grandis and E. cloeziana seedlings grown in arsenic-contaminated soil Comportamento de mudas de E. grandis E. eucalyptus cloeziana cultivadas em solo contaminado por arsênio

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    Roseli Freire Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been considered the most poisonous inorganic soil pollutant to living creatures. For this reason, the interest in phytoremediation species has been increasing in the last years. Particularly for the State of Minas Gerais, where areas of former mining activities are prone to the occurrence of acid drainage, the demand is great for suitable species to be used in the revegetation and "cleaning" of As-polluted areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill Maiden and E. cloeziana F. Muell, for phytoremediation of As-polluted soils. Soil samples were incubated for a period of 15 days with different As (Na2HAsO4 doses (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg dm-3. After 30 days of exposure the basal leaves of E. cloeziana plants exhibited purple spots with interveinal chlorosis, followed by necrosis and death of the apical bud at the 400 mg dm-3 dose. Increasing As doses in the soil reduced root and shoot dry matter, plant height and diameter in both species, although the reduction was more pronounced in E. cloeziana plants. In both species, As concentrations were highest in the root system; the highest root concentration was found in E. cloeziana plants (305.7 mg kg-1 resulting from a dose of 400 mg dm-3. The highest As accumulation was observed in E. grandis plants, which was confirmed as a species with potential for As phytoextraction, tending to accumulate As in the root system and stem.O arsênio (As tem sido considerado o poluente inorgânico de solo mais tóxico para os seres vivos, razão pela qual o interesse por espécies indicadoras e fitorremediadoras tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Particularmente para o Estado de Minas Gerais, que apresenta áreas remanescentes de atividade mineradora sujeitas à ocorrência de drenagem ácida, existe grande demanda por espécies com potencial para serem utilizadas na revegetação e "limpeza" de substratos contaminados por esse metaloide. Este

  8. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera of Iran

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    MR Nikbakhtzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids are Mylabris impressa, M. guerini, Muzimes iranicus, Alosimus smyrnensis and Epicauta sharpi. Most cases of linear dermatitis in this country occur in areas bordering the Caspian Sea. This problem is caused by beetles of the genus Paederus which are present as adults from mid-April to October with particularly high incidences from May to August. Fars (in southern Iran ranks second in number of cases of insect-induced dermatitis. The third major region in which this type of dermatitis has been recorded is Hamedan Province, in the west of the country. Meloid dermatitis showed its highest severity in 2001, when a considerable number of patients sought medical help in Toyserkan and Nahavand counties. New cases of skin blistering were reported along the Persian Gulf coast and the agent was identified as Epicauta sharpi (Coleoptera: Meloidae. In all these regions, it was observed that recorded cases of lesions coincided precisely with the yearly peaks of the beetles. Paederus fuscipes and P. kalalovae are the predominant species along the Caspian Sea shore. It appears that P. fuscipes is homogeneously distributed throughout the Caspian Sea region while the distribution of the other species is more irregular. Paederus fuscipes is probably the major agent that causes linear dermatitis in northern Iran. Whereas this disease is a rural difficulty in the south, mainly in villages or small towns, it is an urban problem in northern provinces along the Caspian Sea shore

  9. Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

  10. Compósitos de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polipropileno e polietileno de alta e baixa densidades Composites of Eucalyptus grandis wood, polypropylene, and high and low-density polyethylene particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Gomes Milagres

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades de painéis fabricados com mistura de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polietileno de alta densidade, polietileno de baixa densidade e polipropileno. Empregaram-se duas formulações adesivas (uréia-formaldeído e uréia-formaldeído contendo 0,5% de epóxi. De modo geral, as propriedades dos painéis foram afetadas pela composição das partículas. Os painéis com melhores propriedades foram fabricados com 75% de partículas de madeira e 25% de partículas de polietileno de alta densidade. A adição de epóxi ao adesivo uréico aumentou os valores do módulo de ruptura, dureza Janka, e reduziu o inchamento, em espessura, de alguns painéis. As propriedades mecânicas da maioria dos painéis, exceto o módulo de elasticidade, ultrapassaram os valores mínimos estabelecidos na norma ANSI/A1-208/93.The objective of this work was to establish the properties of particleboards fabricated with blends of Eucalyptus grandis, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene particles. Two adhesives formulations were used (urea-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde plus 0,5% of epoxy adhesive. Panel properties were affected by particle composition. Panels with best properties were fabricated with 75% of wood particles and 25% of high density polypropylene. The addition of epoxy to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved of the values of modulus of rupture, hardness and reduced the amount of thickness swelling. Except for the modulus of elasticity, board properties meet grade M-2 ANSI/A1-208/93 requirements.

  11. Mutantes morfológicos de algodoeiro herbáceo como fonte de resistência ao bicudo Morphological mutants of upland cotton as source of boll weevil resistance

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    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três características morfológicas mutantes de linhagens de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch., isoladas ou combinadas no mesmo genótipo, como fonte de resistência ao bicudo, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, sob infestação natural, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2´3 com um tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Em teste com chance de escolha, a característica bráctea frego foi a que apresentou maior redução no dano de oviposição pelo bicudo (34,71%, em relação ao equivalente normal. A folha "okra" reduziu o dano apenas quando associada à bráctea frego (40%. A combinação das três características mutantes na mesma planta proporcionou a menor porcentagem de botões com dano de oviposição (23,13%.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of three morphological mutants of upland cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutm L. r. latifolium Hutch., isolated or in combination in the same cotton genotype, as a source of resistance to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. The experiment was carried out in the field, under natural infestation, with a completely randomized block design arranged in a factorial 2´3 plus an additional treatment, with four replications. In a multiple choice test, the character mutant frego bract presented the higher reduction on boll weevil oviposition damage (34.71%, in relation to the normal equivalent. The okra leaf reduced the boll weevil damage only when associated with frego bract (40%. The combination of the three mutant characters in the same plant presented the least square percent with oviposition damage (23.13%.

  12. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

  13. Flavonoid profiles of immature and mature fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck (Dangyuja) and overall contribution to the antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Semin; Yi, Song; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2015-04-01

    Citrus fruits are a valuable functional food and their peel is used in East Asian folk medicine. In this study, the polar components of the fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared with reported data. Among the 13 characterized compounds, eight flavonoids and one coumarin were identified for the first time in fruit tissues. The total amount of the identified components was the largest for the immature fruit peel, followed by mature fruit peel, mature fruit flesh, and immature fruit flesh. Naringin (2) and neohesperidin (3) were particularly rich in all samples. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracted from fruit tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of the fruit peels was significantly higher than that of the fruit flesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  15. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol extract ofTectona grandis flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramaniam Ramachandran; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; KT Manisenthil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract ofTectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers(METGF)in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats to supports its traditional use.Methods: Acute toxicity study of METGF was carried out in rat to determine its dose for the antidiabetic study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was performed to evaluateMETGF effect on elevated blood glucose level. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration ofSTZ(60 mg/kg, ip.) and it was confirmed 72 h after induction.METGF was orally given to the diabetic rats up to28 days and blood glucose level were estimated each week. On28 day of the experiment, diabetic rats were sacrificed after the blood collection for the biochemical parameters analysis and liver, kidney was collected to determine antioxidants levels.Results:In acute toxicity,METGFdid not show toxicity and death up to a dose 2 000mg/kg in rats. Administration ofMETGF 100 and200mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) reduced blood glucose levels inOGTTand STZ-induced diabetic rats. Both doses ofMETGF treatment significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 andP<0.05) increased body weight, serum insulin, haemoglobin (Hb) and total protein levels in diabetic rats. Also,MEGTF treatment reduced elevated glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c) and other biochemical parameters levels significantly (P<0.001) in diabetic rats. Altered lipid profiles and antioxidants levels were reversed to near normal in diabetic rats treated withMETGF. Conclusions: These results concluded that METGF possesses antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity which supports its traditional use.

  16. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE TECA (Tectona grandis

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    SILVA, Carla Vanessa Moraes da

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pest insects with potential damages and losses on teak plantation, Tectona grandis, is relevant due to the economic criterion which requires high costs for managing. Therefore, the necessity of knowing about the insect fauna of plant protection importance has gained importance, such as the soil termite, field cricket, black cutworm, Saúva-lemon, Caterpillars-to-teak, Catepillar-queimadeira and others that reduce the production. Thus, this study aimed to add to the existing literature new information about the biological and morphological aspects, damages and methods to control the major pests of Teak, which may assist the crop management. A presença de insetos-pragas com potencial de dano e de perdas na cultura da teca, Tectona grandis, é relevante devido ao critério econômico que requer altos custos com seu manejo. Sendo assim, acentua-se a necessidade do conhecimento sobre a entomofauna de importância fitossanitária para a cultura, tais como o cupim do solo, grilo-comum, lagarta-rosca, saúva-limão, lagarta-da-teca, lagarta-queimadeira e demais coleobrocas que reduzem sua produção. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi acrescentar à bibliografia existente novas informações sobre os aspectos biológicos, morfológicos, injúrias e táticas de controle das principais pragas da cultura da Teca, as quais podem auxiliar no manejo da cultura.

  17. Potensi Kayu Perkakas dan Kayu Bakar Jenis Jati (Tectona grandis di Hutan Rakyat Desa Natah, Gunung Kidul

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    Ris Hadi Purwanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Potentials  of Merchantable Timber and Firewod of Teak (Tectona grandis in Natah Village Community Forest , Gunungkidul The potential of merchantable timber and firewod of teak (Tectona grandis in Desa Natah community forest was estimated by developing allometric equations method. To establish the allometric equation 350 sample trees were measured to determine the relationships between tree height (H and diameter breast height (D. Thirty trees of various sizes were cut to measure the merchantable timber and firewood volume. The raw merchantable timber volume of teak in the community forest was defined as the ligneous material contained in the bole and branches which both with a diameter of at least 10cm. The result showed that D (taken at about 1.3m above the ground was a good predictor of H with r2 over 0.9672. When D was combined with H, r2 was improved somewhat for the merchantable timber volume, suggesting the growth patterns of tree dimensions were colesy interdependent. A standing stock of the merchantable timber and firewood volume of teak in the community forest was then estimated based on the allometric relations. Proportions of the merchantable timber and firewood volume were 66.91% and 33.09% of total wood volume per tree, respectively. The potential of merchantable timber and firewood volume in these community forest were 13.501 m3/ha and 8.686 m3/ha, respectively, with a basal area of 1.887 m2/ha. Based on the basal area, Desa Natah community forests of teak could be classified into extremely sparse of stands category.

  18. MODELOS PREDICTIVOS DE BIOMASA AÉREA DE Eucalyptus grandis PARA EL NORESTE DE ARGENTINA

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    Rosa Angela Winck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes intereses industriales, energéticos y ambientales han motivado el análisis de las distintas posibilidades de aprovechamiento de la biomasa forestal, este tema está adquiriendo un creciente protagonismo, por lo que la cuantificación de la biomasa aérea de estos sistemas forestales constituye un primer paso fundamental e ineludible. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar modelos que permitan estimar la biomasa de los diferentes compartimentos aéreos de Eucalyptus grandis . Para ello se emplearon datos de 41 árboles provenientes de rodales de diferentes edades, entre 4 y 32 años, ubicados en la región NE de Argentina. Se tomaron 23 individuos ubicados en la Zona Norte y Alta de Misiones (zona 1 y 18 en el Sur de Misiones y NE de Corrientes (zona 2. Se determinó la biomasa de hojas, ramas menores a 5 cm, ramas mayores a 5 cm, total de ramas, fuste y biomasa total del árbol. Para el ajuste de modelos se tomaron diversas variables independientes, el diámetro a la altura de pecho (dap, la altura total del árbol (h, el producto (dap 2 *h y la variable “ dummy” (zona. Para el caso de la biomasa de ramas y de hojas, debido a que no se lograron resultados satisfactorios con el empleo de estas variables, se examinaron modelos que adicionaban índice de sitio, factor de espaciamiento, diámetro en la base de la copa verde (dbcv, altura hasta la base de la copa verde (hbcv, longitud de copa verde (lcv, el área transversal de albura en la base de copa verde (g Alb bcv y diferentes combinaciones de estas variables. Los modelos fueron seleccionados en base al coeficiente de determinación y el error cuadrático medio. Para la biomasa de ramas menores a 5 cm, ramas mayores a 5 cm, total de ramas, fuste y total, los mejores modelos fueron los que incorporaron como variables regresoras, el diámetro a la altura de pecho, la altura total del árbol y la variable “ dummy” (zona. Para la biomasa de hojas, las variables, edad,

  19. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  20. Parasitylenchus sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) parasitizing field populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, Susanne; Poinar, George O. Jr.; Dimitrova, Desislava V.;

    2011-01-01

    Adults of the invasive harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), were found to be parasitized by nematodes (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) in Denmark. The nematodes were identified as Parasitylenchus sp. Major morphological characters of the nematodes did not differ...

  1. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  2. Apostasimerini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Baridinae). Rectification of authorship, year of publication, rank, and taxa included

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following nomenclatural changes are proposed in the Coleoptera, Curculionidae: the author of Apostasimerini is Schoenherr (1844), not Lacordaire (1866); Madopterini Lacordaire, 1866 is demoted to subtribe of Apostasimerini; Erirhinus mourei Bondar, 1943 is a new synonym of Apostasimerus serriros...

  3. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  4. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated.

  5. A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Giorgi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil. Scymnobius pernambucensis sp. nov. from Pernambuco, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This is the third species of this genus recorded from Brazil.

  6. Correlações dendroclimatológicas do Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na região de Rio Claro, RJ

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    Bruna Roque Ugulino de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial forests plantation contributes decisively to generate socio-economic and environmental benefits, providing sustainability at the forest-based industries. The Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden stand out as one of the most cultivated species for reforestation in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between precipitation and wood production for 23-year old Eucalyptus grandis from a commercial plantation in Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The annual increment of wood was determined by the X-ray densitometry, which provides a detailed wood density profile in radial direction for each sample. One year of the tree life was considered because this the period for the formation of two consecutive latewood rings formation, which corresponds to two high density peaks. The results showed a positive correlation between precipitation data and annual increment of wood, revealing the dendroclimatology potential of this species in this region.

  7. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  8. Physicochemical properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil%金柚柚籽及其油脂的理化性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏梅; 谢婧

    2015-01-01

    Citrus grandis var. Jinyu see d oil was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and the physicochemi-cal properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil were analyzed. The results showed that the mass of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed accounted for 10. 3% of the total fruit mass and its crude fat content reached 34. 6%. Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil presented golden color, high transparency, good fluidity at room temperature, natural flavor and taste of shaddock. The relative density, moisture and volatile matter content, refractive index, acid value, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were 0. 963 ± 0. 025 5, (0. 071 ± 0. 009 8)%,1. 454 ± 0. 038 1, (1. 273 ± 0. 103 1) mgKOH/g, (169. 75 ± 0. 483 0)mgKOH/g, (133. 3 ± 0. 066 7)gI/100 g and (4. 25 ± 0. 711 0)mmol/kg, respectively. The GC analysis result indicated that the content of unsaturated fatty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was 67. 6%, containing linoleic acid(39. 3%), oleic acid(24. 7%) and linolenic acid(3. 6%). The saturated fat-ty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were mainly palmitic acid(27. 6%) and stearic acid(3. 9%). Therefore, Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was suitable for being developed as edible oil.%采用索氏抽提法制备金柚柚籽油,并对金柚柚籽及其油脂进行理化性质分析。结果表明:金柚柚籽质量占全果总质量10.3%,柚籽粗脂肪含量高达34.6%。柚籽油色泽金黄、室温下流动性好、透明度高、有油脂固有气味和滋味,并具有一定柚子气味;相对密度0.963±0.0255,水分及挥发物含量(0.071±0.0098)%,折光指数1.454±0.0381,酸值(KOH)(1.273±0.1031)mg/g,碘值(I)(133.3±0.0667) g/100 g,皂化值(KOH)(169.75±0.4830)mg/g,过氧化值(4.25±0.7110)mmol/kg;气相色谱法分析结果显示,柚籽油中不饱和脂肪酸含量为67.6%,主要是亚油酸(39.3%)、油酸(24.7%)、亚麻酸(3.6%);饱

  9. Urbanistica d'occasione. Grandi eventi ed esperienze di rigenerazione urbana della città post-industriale nel Regno Unito

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La ricerca affronta il rapporto tra eventi culturali e Grandi Eventi nelle dinamiche di rigenerazione urbana delle aree della città post-moderna e post-industriale. L’evento non è valutato solo in quanto catalizzatore del cambiamento, ma anche e soprattutto in quanto progetto di trasformazione integrata, che costituisca una strategia di condivisione e promozione di immaginari radicati e interconnessi, legati ai significati e alle potenzialità dei territori interessati. In particolar modo, ess...

  10. The tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru

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    Luis Figueroa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.

  11. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-05-12

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.

  12. Fossil history of Mesozoic weevils (Coleoptera:Curculionoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei A.Legalov

    2012-01-01

    The first synopsis of Mesozoic weevils (Curculionoidea: Coleoptera) is presented.Changes of family,genera and species abundance during the Mesozoic revealed three distributional patterns.The Jurassic (Karatau) fauna was dominated by the Nemonychidae.During the Early Cretaceous (beginning at the Jurassic/Cretaceous border),the Ithyceridae was the prevalent group with a significant role played by the Nemonychidae.In the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian and Turonian),the major groups were the Curculionidae and Brentidae.Obviously,the change of weevil fauna during this period was due to the expansion of the angiosperms,which provided multiple niches in their vegetative and reproductive organs for weevil development.

  13. An annotated catalogue of the Buprestidae of Iran (Coleoptera: Buprestoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Hassan; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Bellamy, Charles L

    2015-07-08

    An annotated taxonomic catalogue of the jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of Iran is given. Original descriptions and recent revisionary or catalogue data are included along with the distribution, both within and outside of Iran, ecological data and host plant associations, junior synonyms, and comments. A complete bibliography completes the catalogue. In total 428 species and 52 subspecies of jewel beetles belonging to 6 subfamilies (Julodinae, Polycestinae, Galbellinae, Chrysochroinae, Buprestinae, and Agrilinae), 20 tribes, and 38 genera are known from Iran including doubtful records and 4 nomina nuda. It is likely that the number of jewel beetle species from Iran will be between 460-480 and possibly even more species.

  14. Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich(Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschoal C. Grossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae. The South American genus Altitatiayus Weinreich is revised and now includes six species, A. rotundatus (Boileau, A. ruficollis (Lüderwaldt, A. godinhorum (Bomans & Arnaud, A. dulceae (Bomans & Arnaud, A. trifurcatus (Grossi & Racca-Filho and A. koikei sp. nov. (Minas Gerais, Brazil. All species are described and illustrated. For the first time male and female genitalia are illustrated for five species and observations on the behavior of two species are included.

  15. Determination of Coleoptera fauna on carcasses in Ankara province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Senem; Sert, Osman

    2009-01-10

    In this study, 40 species from Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Dermestidae, Silphidae, Nitidulidae and Cleridae families of Coleoptera which were found in 12 pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were identified and recorded during a one-year period at the Hacettepe University Beytepe Campus located in Ankara, Turkey. According to the duration of their presence on the carcasses, 22 of these species were accepted to be important in decomposition. Their distribution over the months and the duration of their presence in the various decomposition stages over the seasons were determined.

  16. BESOUROS COPRÓFAGOS (COLEOPTERA; SCARABAEIDAE) COLETADOS EM PIRACICABA, SP

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES, S. R.; MARCHINI,L.C.

    1998-01-01

    Através do uso de armadilhas "pitfall" iscadas com massa fecal fresca de bovinos, realizou-se a coleta de besouros coprófagos (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae), durante o período de 15 de abril de 1995 a 17 de fevereiro de 1996, em área de pastagem ao lado de confinamento de bovinos, em Piracicaba, SP. Coletou-se um total de 11 espécies distribuidas nos gêneros Aphodius, Ataenius, Trichillum, Eurysternus, Dichotomius e Canthon. Os besouros coprófagos de comportamento endocoprídeo representaram 72,73...

  17. Effects of Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizers Applications on Eucalyptus grandis Growth and Soil Conditions Efeito da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano Compostado e de Adubos Minerais no Solo e na Produtividade de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Forest plantations have been studied as a potential ecosystem able to absorb organic residues as fertilizers or soil conditioners. This study evaluate the effects of the application of composted organic waste and mineral fertilizers in a Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden plantation with 86 months of age in Neossolo Quartzarênico. It was analyzed wood production, litter decomposition and the physical and chemical changes in the soil properties. It was observed that the municipal composted organic wastes resulted in an increase of 45.6% in wood volume, as compared to the control. It also increase the velocity of the litter
    decomposition on average of 28% and 16% for leaves and twigs respectively, increasing the pH level values and the availability of water in the soil (from 13% to 25% more available water in the first layer of the soil, 0 -10 cm. 
    As florestas têm sido estudadas como ecossistemas aptos à absorver resíduos orgânicos, utilizados como fertilizantes e condicionadores do solo. Este trabalho avaliou no Município de Itatinga, SP, em Neossolo Quartzarênico, os efeitos da aplicação de lixo urbano compostado e da adubação mineral em plantações de Eucalyptus grandis com 86 meses de idade. Foram analisadas as produtividades de madeira, a decomposição da serapilheira e as propriedades químicas e físicas do
    solo. Verificou-se que a aplicação de lixo urbano aumentou a produtividade de E. grandis com relação à testemunha, com um ganho de 45,6 % no volume cilíndrico de madeira. O solo com aplicação de lixo urbano apresentou um menor tempo de decomposição da serapilheira, em média com reduções de 28 % para folhas e de 16 % para galhos, com aumentos no pH e na água disponível no solo de 13 % a 25 %, na camada de 0 a 10 cm de profundidade, que podem justificar a maior
    produção de madeira obtida no final da rotação, em

  18. RESISTÊNCIA BIOLÓGICA DA MADEIRA TRATADA DE Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus cloeziana A FUNGOS APODRECEDORES EM ENSAIOS DE LABORATÓRIO

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    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was converted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA. Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  19. Calcium and potassium silicates and the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio e o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Itamar Antonio Bognola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of silicate is a practice that has been frequently adopted in annual crops, although few studies have been conducted in order to verify its efficiency in forest tree species. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of calcium and potassium silicates in the growth of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in Alambari county, State of São Paulo. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with eight treatments, three replications and 25 plants per plot, maintained at the field capacity moisture level. Seedlings were planted in plastic tubes using local substrate, basic fertilization and silicates. Diameter, height and fresh and dry biomass of the seedlings were determined 150 days after silicates treatments were applied. The use of silicates either in the substrate or through foliar application, in the production of eucalypt seedlings has proven to be inadequate when the substrate presents a balanced basic composition in terms of nutrients and pH.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.83

    O uso de silicato é uma prática que vem sendo adotada com frequência em culturas anuais, muito embora poucos trabalhos tenham sido realizados com intuito de verificar sua eficiência em espécies florestais arbóreas. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio no crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Município de Alambari, SP. O delineamento usado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos, três repetições e 25 plantas por parcela, sendo mantidas na umidade de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram plantadas em tubetes de plástico, utilizando substrato local, com adubação básica e silicatos. Diâmetro de colo, altura e biomassa verde e seca das mudas foram determinados 150 dias após a

  20. Avaliação de um modelo de distribuição diamétrica ajustado para povoamentos de Tectona grandis submetidos a desbaste Evaluation of a diametric distribution model adjusted for thinned Tectona grandis stands

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    Gilciano Saraiva Nogueira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, do ponto de vista do realismo biológico, um modelo de distribuição diamétrica, bem como a eficiência do método dos ingressos porcentuais para determinação da idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste de povoamentos de teca (Tectona grandis L. f.. A avaliação consistiu em comparar as idades técnicas de desbaste obtidas pelo método dos ingressos porcentuais, as distribuições diamétricas projetadas para idades futuras e o comportamento da distribuição remanescente, após algumas simulações de desbaste, com a tendência lógica esperada. Pôde-se concluir que o modelo de distribuição diamétrica proposto gera estimativas que seguem uma tendência lógica do ponto de vista biológico e que o método dos ingressos porcentuais é adequado para determinar a idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste.The objective of this study was to evaluate, under the biological point of view, a diametric distribution model. Another objective was to evaluate the efficiency of the percentage of entries method to determine the technical age for the first and second thinning in teak (Tectona grandis L. f. stands. This evaluation was carried out by comparing the technical thinning ages obtained by the percentage of entries method, the diametric distributions projected for future ages and the behavior of the remaining distribution, after some thinning simulations, with the expected logical tendency. It was be concluded that the proposed diametric distribution model generates estimates which follow a logical tendency, biologically speaking and that the percentage of entries method is suitable to determine the technical age of the first and second thinning.

  1. Efeito do tempo de armazenamento de minestacas no enraizamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Effect of storage time of minicuttings on the rooting of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

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    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento de miniestacas no processo de enraizamento de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6 x 4, constituído de seis tratamentos (estaqueamento após a coleta e estaqueamento após o armazenamento em câmara fria por 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 dias e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações do porcentual de enraizamento e crescimento das miniestacas enraizadas em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e a pleno sol. Concluiu-se que o plantio das miniestacas logo após a coleta no minijardim clonal foi o que proporcionou melhor resposta ao enraizamento nos quatro clones estudados, sendo observado efeito negativo do armazenamento dos propágulos, mesmo quando realizado por curto período de tempo.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the storage time of minicuttings on the rooting process of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden carried on in a hydroponic system in small gutters. The experimental design used was of random plots, in a factorial arrangement 6 x 4, constituted by six treatments (cutting after collection, cutting after storage in cold chamber per 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. Evaluations of the rooting percentage and growth of the rooted minicuttings in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun were made. It was concluded that planting the minicuttings right after the collection in the clonal miniorchard had the best rooting response for the four clones studied and also that there was a negative effect of the storage, even when stored for a short

  2. Nutrients Comparative Study in Seeds of Torreya yunnanensis and Torreya grandis%云南榧子和香榧子营养成分比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马长乐; 周稚凡; 李向楠; 付荣; 黄晓霞; 李靖

    2015-01-01

    香榧种植已经成为浙江诸暨等地山区农民的主要经济来源,而云南榧子还未得到有效的开发利用.对云南榧子和香榧子的蛋白质、粗脂肪和矿质元素含量进行了测定和比较研究,采用凯式定氮法测定了两种榧子蛋白质含量,结果显示香榧子蛋白含量较云南榧子蛋白含量高;采用索氏提取法测定了两种榧子粗脂肪含量,结果显示云南榧子的粗脂肪含量低于香榧子;采用ICP-OES法测定了两种榧子20种矿质元素含量,结果显示两种榧子均富含矿质元素K、Mg、P、Ca、Na、Fe、Mn、Cu、S、Zn、Se,均为典型的高钾低钠食品.%Torreya grandis plant had become main economic sources for mountain farmers such as zhuji in Zhejiang province, whereas seeds of Torreya yunnanensis had not been effectively used. Protein, crude fat and mineral elements content in seeds of T.yunnanensis and T. grandis were determined and compared in this study. Kjeldahl method was used to determine the protein content , and results showed that protein content in seeds of T. grandis was higher than that in T.yunnanensis. Soxhlet extraction method was used to determine the crude fat content, and results showed that crude fat content in seeds of T.yunnanensis was less than that in T. grandis. Twenty mineral elements of seeds were determined by ICP-OES. Results showed that seeds of T.yunnanensis and T. grandis were both rich in mineral elements K, Mg, P, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, S, Zn and Se. They were typical high potassium and low sodium dried fruits.

  3. Características tecnológicas da madeira de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis.

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    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  4. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

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    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  5. Possible origin of B chromosome in Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia

    2016-08-01

    B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair.

  6. Evaluation of soil nutrients under Eucalyptus grandis plantation and adjacent sub-montane rain forest%巨桉(Eucalyptus grandis)植被和其相邻的山地雨林中土壤营养的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiferaw Alem; Tadesse Woldemariam; Jindrich Pavlis

    2010-01-01

    研究评价巨桉(Eucalyptus grandis)植被和其相邻的山地雨林中土壤营养状况.在研究地建立了20个样方,每个小样方为20 m×20 m.在每个小样方内对土壤进行5个样点的采样(4角和中心点).把每个小样方的不同点采集的士样进行混合,并独立放置.分析结果表明,巨桉植被和其相邻的山地雨林中土壤指标(全N、有效P、可交换性K、Ca和 Mg含量),pH值以及全碳含量)没有明显的变化.但两种林地土壤中的粘土颗粒和可交换性N含量有明显的变化.与巨 桉植被相邻的山地雨林中土壤指标比较表明,巨桉植被有提高十壤营养和全碳含量的作用.

  7. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  8. Influência do aspecto nutricional de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden na preferência alimentar da lagarta desfolhadora Eupseudosoma involuta (Lepidoptera - Arctiidae Influence of nutritional status of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden on defoliating caterpillar Eupseudosoma involuta (Lepidoptera - Arctiidae dietary preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria da Silva Carmo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se o consumo de folhas de mudas de eucalipto por insetos herbívoros pode ser influenciado pela condição nutricional a que essas plantas estão submetidas. Para tal, mudas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden foram mantidas em soluções nutritivas, constituindo tratamentos diferenciados entre si pela presença e ausência dos macronutrrientes nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, além da solução completa e da testemunha, sendo este último tratamento constituído somente por água destilada. Após as plantas estarem submetidas às diferentes condições de nutrição por 30 dias, suas folhas foram arrancadas e oferecidas como dieta a lagartas de Eupseudossoma involuta (Lepidoptera - Arctiidae. Decorridas 20 horas do início do período de alimentação, o restante da dieta de folhas foi pesado. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros altura e número de folhas das mudas de E. grandis antes e depois de submetidas aos tratamentos, bem como o peso das folhas antes e depois de serem oferecidas aos insetos. Concluiu-se que houve preferência alimentar das lagartas em função da nutrição com que as plantas de E. grandis eram mantidas.This work aimed at investigating whether the consumption of eucalyptus seedling leaves by a herbivorous insect can be affected by the nutritional condition to which these plants have been submitted. To do so, leaves of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings (9 months old kept for 30 days in several nutrient solutions, were offered to Eupseudossoma involuta (Lepidoptera - Arctiidae caterpillars. Nutrient solutions differed from each other by the presence/absence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Control treatments consisted of a complete solution (N, P, K present and a treatment consisting of distilled water. The following parameters were measured: size and number of E. grandis leaves before and after having submitted to the treatments and leaf weight before and after they

  9. Arthropods of Rose Atoll with special reference to ants and Pulvinaria Urbicola Scales (Hempitera Coccidae) on Pisonia Grandis trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Pendleton, Frank; Schmaedick, Mark; Ernsberger, Kelsie

    2014-01-01

    Rose Atoll, at the eastern end of the Samoan Archipelago, is a small but important refuge for seabirds, shorebirds, and sea turtles. While the vertebrate community is relatively well-studied, the terrestrial arthropod fauna, and its role in ecosystem function, are poorly known. Arthropods may be influencing the decline of Pisonia grandis, an ecologically important tree that once dominated the 6.6 ha of land on Rose Atoll. Reasons for the decline are not fully understood but a facultative relationship between two invasive arthropods, the soft scale Pulvinaria urbicola and ants, likely has contributed to tree death. The primary objectives of this study were to systematically survey the terrestrial arthropod fauna and identify ant species that tend scales on Pisonia. Using an array of standard arthropod collecting techniques, at least 73 species from 20 orders were identified, including nine ant species. Of the ants collected, only Tetramorium bicarinatum and T. simillimum were observed tending scales on Pisonia. No known natural enemies of Pulvinaria scales were found, suggesting little predation on scale populations. Treatment of Pisonia with the systemic insecticide imidacloprid failed to eliminate Pulvinaria scales, although short-term suppression apparently occurred. The arthropod fauna of Rose Atoll is dominated by exotic species that likely have a significant impact on the structure and function of the island’s ecosystem.

  10. ESTABELECIMENTO A CAMPO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis MICORRIZADAS COM Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 EM SOLO ARENOSO

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    Andréa Hentz de Mello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and the initial growth of mycorrhizated eucalypts with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 ectomycorrhizal fungus, after its transplant to area subject to the arenization process in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The area was divided into four blocks, each one with four treatments (fertile turf with and without mycorrhizae, Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae. Each parcel was composed of 16 seedlings arranged in four lines in the spacing of 1,5 m x 1,5 m, totalizing in each block 64 seedlings. 90 days after the planting in the field, the eucaliptus seedlings produced in turf with fungus in the fertile substratum presented a survival rate of 100 %, whereas for those produced in fertile turf without fingi, the survival rate was 92 %. The seedlings produced in the Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae had a survival rate varying around 98 and 89 %, respectively. The produced seedlings with turf and fungus showed significant differences in height and stem diameter. This study showed that the Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in substratum fertile turf and inoculated with the Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 isolated may maintain good development and establishment in the field.

  11. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn.

  12. Molecular characterization of a distinct bipartite Begomovirus species infecting ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, K; Satya, V K; Mohankumar, S; Karthikeyan, G

    2016-02-01

    A distinct bipartite begomovirus was found to be associated with the mosaic disease on ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India. The complete DNA A and DNA B components were cloned by rolling circle amplification. Genome organization of this virus is found to be typical of Old World bipartite begomovirus. The association of betasatellite component with this virus is absent. The closest nucleotide identity of 73.4 % was seen with the Loofa yellow mosaic virus (LYMV-[VN]-AF509739) suggesting that it is a new virus species Coccinia mosaic virus (CoMoV-Ivy gourd [TN TDV Coc1]) and distantly related to the other known begomoviruses. The DNA B component shared a maximum identity of 55 % with that of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In the phylogenetic analysis, CoMoV-Ivy gourd form cluster separate from other begomoviruses. Recombination analysis showed that there was no recombination event in the genome. This is the distinct begomovirus infecting ivy gourd.

  13. Efeito dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano, associados ao regulador de crescimento AIB (ácido indolbutírico na propagação vegetativa pelo enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal realizado em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constituído de quatro concentrações para cada cofator e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações na casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e ao sol nas miniestacas enraizadas. Concluiu-se que o triptofano (0,8 mg L-1 e a hidroquinona (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicados associados ao AIB, melhoraram o enraizamento em três clones dos quatro clones avaliados; enquanto a prolina (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicada associada ao AIB, promoveu melhoria expressiva no enraizamento das miniestacas nos quatros clones estudados, evidenciando ser entre os cofatores testados o mais eficiente.

  14. Forma de tronco e sortimentos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Maiden para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 No presente trabalho foi estudada a forma de tronco do Eucalyptus grandis Maiden para a determinação de volume e formação de sortimentos de madeira em duas classes: serraria, compreendendo toras com diâmetro na ponta fina superior a 30 cm com casca e com comprimentos de 4,20 m, 3,40 m e 2,60 m, priorizando a formação de sortimentos com o maior comprimento; indústria, para troncos ou porções deste com diâmetros entre 7 e 30 cm com casca. A forma de tronco foi ajustada por um polinômio do 5 grau, tendo como variável dependente os diâmetros relativos (di /d e independente as alturas relativas (hi/h, apresentando bom ajuste e boa precisão estatística, permitindo estimar o volume absoluto e relativo dos sortimentos por integração da função de forma.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were installed at the height of 1.30 meters (DBH to monitor the diameter growth every 14 days, for 26 months. After measuring growth, the trees were felled and wood discs were removed at the DBH level to determine the radial density profile through x-ray microdensitometry and then re-scale the average values every 14 days. Climatic variables for the monitoring period were obtained and grouped every 14 days. The effect of the climate variables was determined by maximum and minimum growth periods in assessing trunk growth. These growth periods were related with precipitation, average temperature and relative air humidity. The re-scaled wood density values, calculated using the radial growth of the tree trunks measured accurately with steel dendrometers, enabled the determination of the relationship of small changes in wood density and the effect of the climatic variations and growth rate of eucalyptus tree trunks. A high sensitivity of the wood density to variation in precipitation levels was found.

  16. Cloning and characterization of gene-resistant analogs (RGAs) involved in rust (Puccinia psidii) resistance in Eucalyptus grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcelo Luiz Laia; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Sergio Hermnio Brommonschenkel; Shinitiro Oda; Eduardo Jose de Melo; Inae Marie de Arau jo Silva; Janana Fernandes Goncalves; Ariadne Marques

    2015-01-01

    Disease-resistant genes play an important role in defending against a variety of pathogens and insect pests in plants. Most of the disease-resistant genes encode pro-teins with conserved leucine rich repeat and nucleotide binding site domains. In this study, we cloned and char-acterized gene-resistant analogs (RGAs) from Eucalyptus grandis using degenerate PCR, with primers specifically targeting these two domains. The amplified fragments were cloned into the pGEM-T vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. Among the 90 clones obtained, 13 were sequenced and compared with each other and with previ-ously identified gene-resistant diseases. A BLASTX search in GenBank revealed high similarities among the con-served domains of these cloned genes with RGA genes. Some clones, however, showed no significant similarity with DNA sequences in GenBank. Southern blotting ana-lysis identified several polymorphic RFLP loci between distinct genotypes. However, none of them co-segregated with the Puccinia psidii Winter resistance gene 1 (Ppr1) in a population study.

  17. The effects of heat treatment on the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cihad Bal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment can be used to improve the physical properties and durability of wood. The results achieved by heat treatment can be affected significantly by various factors. Juvenile wood and mature wood from the same trunk have different properties, and the effects of heat treatment on their physical properties have not been well defined. Thus, a study to determine the differences in the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of E. grandis after heat treatment was conducted. Samples of both types of wood were treated at temperatures of 120, 150, and 180 oC for durations of 4, 6, and 8 h. The results showed that the physical properties of juvenile and mature wood, e.g., swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point, did not decrease to the same extent. Mass loss of mature wood was higher than that of juvenile wood. Generally, percentage decreases of volumetric swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point of juvenile wood were more affected than those of mature wood.

  18. INFLUENCE OF ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND EXTRACTIVES CONTENT WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden IN QUALITY BONDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987561The study aimed to anatomically characterize and to quantify the total extractives in different positions of the log of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with 18 years of age and to assess their influence on the shear strength and percentage of wood failure in adhesive bonded joints with thermosetting resorcinol-formaldehyde. Histological slides were prepared for an anatomical study and determined the total extractive content. The preparation of bonded joints was made according to ASTM D 2339-98(2000. It was used the correlation coefficient of Pearson, 1% probability by t test to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical and extractives content with the quality of the glued joints. It was found that there was a correlation between the shear strength with the following characteristics: vessel diameter, wall width, length and width of the fiber, the width of the radius and total extractives content. For the percentage of wood failure, there was a correlation between this with the following characteristics: the frequency of vessels, thickness of the heat of fiber, and high frequency of lightning. Both the radial direction as in the longitudinal direction of the logs there was change in the values found for the measurement of the anatomical elements, the total amount of extractives, the shear test strength and the percentage of wood failure.

  19. Genetic and morphological variation in natural teak (Tectona grandis) populations of the Western Ghats in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.M. Sreekanth; M. Balasundaran; P.A. Nazeem

    2014-01-01

    Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is a popular hardwood species native to South and South-East Asia. The possible association of ampli-fied fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker with morphological variables of eleven important characters viz. girth at breast height (GBH), height of tree, bole height, branch knots, presence of fluting, spiral stem, leaf hair, leaf length/breadth ratio, branching pattern, bark colour and petiole shape for nine natural populations comprising 180 genotypes of teak (9 populations × 20 trees). The phenogram constructed using Euclidean distances for the eleven morphological characters showed that the populations were not grouped according to their geographical origin. The Mantel’s test for pairwise correlation between Euclidean distances of different morphological variables and genetic distances from AFLP data revealed that only petiole character (r =0.269; p =0.046) and height of tree (r=0.200;p=0.001) were significantly correlated with that of AFLP data matrix. The nine populations in this study covered a geographic area of about 1000 km stretch along the Western Ghat of South India. A test of correlation between genetic and geographic distance matrices revealed a significant positive correlation (r=0.475;p=0.009). The lack of perfect congruence between morphological and molecular data except for geo-graphic distance, tree height and petiole character suggested that the morphological system might be useful for the morphotypes management but not appropriate to study the genetic structure of the teak populations.

  20. Multitissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey T; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-05-21

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish ( Fundulus grandis ) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL) and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine, and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA, also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast.

  1. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  2. Axial variations in anatomical properties and basic density of Eucalypt urograndis hybrid (Eucalyptus grandis 3 E. urophylla) clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S K Sharma; S R Shukla; S Shashikala; V Sri Poornima

    2015-01-01

    We studied two clones of Eucalypt urograndis hybrid (Eucalyptus grandis 9 E. urophylla), GR283 and GR330, grown in Tumkur district of Karnataka (India), and felled 5–6 years old three trees of each clone. We recorded axial variations in heartwood content, bark properties, wood density and anatomical characteristics of wood including fibre length, fibre diameter, fibre wall thickness, lumen diameter, vessel frequency, vessel diameter and vessel element length. Clone GR283 had about 10 % heartwood, significantly lower than for clone GR330 (37 %). Basic wood density along the tree height varied significantly within and between the clones. We observed significant variations in fibre length, fibre diameter and wall thickness within and between the two clones. Vessel frequency and vessel element length did not vary but vessel diameter differed significantly between the clones. With a greater proportion of sapwood, clone GR283 can be utilized for paper and pulp applications. Clone GR330 had a higher proportion of heartwood and lower wood density and, hence, is more suitable for light-weight material applications.

  3. Influência do vermicomposto na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large area of planted forest with species of the genus Eucalyptus and its uses for multiple purpose, its cultivation has an economic importance in Brazil. The use of substratum with good physic-chemical characteristics is an important point for the quality of the produced seedlings. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of vermicompost in containers with capacity of about 50 cm3 of substratum. The current study was conducted in a greenhouse with Eucalyptus grandis from January to April in 1997. The substratum used for seedlings production was the soil from horizon A (0-20 cm of São Pedro Unit Mapping (yellow red Podzolic with different vermicompost quantities (0; 5.0; 10.0; 15.0 and 20.0 cm3. The vermicompost was produced from red-worm from California (Eisenia foetida Savigny with cow dung. After 100 days, the results of development for the same seedlings were different depending on doses of vermicompost. It was verified that quantities over 15.0 cm3 (30% of vermicompost per container are not recommended for the seedling production.

  4. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  5. Efeito alelopático de plantas daninhas e concentrações de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens no desenvolvimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Allelopathic effect of weeds and concentrations of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar possível efeito alelopático de 18 espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis, realizaram-se dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, dentre 18 espécies de plantas daninhas testadas, Brachiaria decumbens (BRADC demonstrou acentuada capacidade de reduzir o crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis, quando incorporada ao solo. No segundo experimento avaliou-se o efeito da adição no substrato de concentrações de matéria seca de BRADC sobre o crescimento inicial de mudas de E. grandis. A matéria seca triturada de BRADC foi incorporada ao solo nas concentrações de 0% (testemunha, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% (p/p. Instalou-se também uma réplica do experimento, com adição de idênticas quantidades totais de carbono entre os tratamentos. O ajuste da quantidade de carbono foi feito através da adição de Sphagnum. Extraiu-se a solução do solo por meio de cápsulas de porcelana introduzidas nos vasos quando do transplante das mudas de eucalipto. As soluções foram coletadas ao final do experimento (39 dias após o transplante das mudas, sendo utilizadas para a determinação de pH, condutividade elétrica, potencial osmótico e para análise de teores de nutrientes. As mínimas proporções de BRADC, com efeito inibitório, foram de 0,5 e 1,0%, com e sem Sphagnum, respectivamente. Nestas duas condições, a área foliar média do eucalipto foi reduzida em 24 e 23%, respectivamente. As análises de solução do solo dos tratamentos permitiram concluir que os teores de nutrientes e as características químicas destes foram pouco alterados pelos tratamentos, sendo pouco provável que a redução do crescimento do E. grandis se deva às restrições nas quantidades de nutrientes disponíveis.Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the possible allelopathic effect of 18 weed species on the initial development of eucalyptus

  6. 昆虫产卵抑制素的研究及应用%Progress in the study and application of oviposition deterrents of insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟国玲; 肖春; 龚信文

    2000-01-01

    Many insects left "oviposition markers" on the surface of the eggs or at the egg-laying site after oviposition. It was found that "oviposition markers" were chemical-oviposition deterrents (OVD) produced by female adults,which deterred oviposition at the same sites by conspecific or heterospecific females. It was confirmed that the larvae of many insects could secret OVD. The species in Orthoptera,Lepidoptera,Coleoptera and Diptera could also produce OVD. Many documents confirmed that there were chemicals functioning as OVD in many kinds of plants. A set of techniques for studying OVD such as electrophysiological responses,behavioral responses,and isolation and identification of active compounds has now been developed. The OVD produced by females of Pieris rape,Lasioderma serricorne and Rhagoletis cerasi were identified and synthesized. The chemicals functioning as OVD of Pieris rape and Hylemya spp. were found in many plants. Controlling Rhagoleris cerasi with OVD was a typical example in the application of OVD. In addition,a new variety of cotton that could deter oviposition by females of Anthonomus grandis was also developed. OVD could also be used to study coevolutionary relationship between herbivore insects and plants. We think that study on OVD of insects plays a very important role in decoding the ovipositional behaviors of insects,co-evoluationary relationship between herbiore insects and plants,and developing new types of pest insect-controlling techniques.

  7. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felipe Farias, Davi; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F.; Carvalho, A.F.U.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolutio

  8. Attraction of dispersing boll weevils from surrounding habitats relative to simulated pheromone diffusion from traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to detect populations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), with pheromone traps has contributed significantly in progress toward eradication of the boll weevil. However, new information is needed to aid in the interpretation of trap captures, such as identification of habitats...

  9. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  10. Multidisciplinary Fingerprints: Forensic Reconstruction of an Insect Reinvasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning late August 2007, more than 150 boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, were unexpectedly captured across an extensive area of the Southern Rolling Plains (SRP) eradication zone of West-Central Texas, which was essentially weevil-free since 2003. This outbreak was detected soon after the passag...

  11. 神经网络技术在化橘红两品种识别中的应用%Application of Neural Network in the Discrimination of Two Different Species of Exocarpium Citrus Grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏航; 林励; 黄志煜; 陈永刚; 袁旭江

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish an effective model for the discrimination of Citrus grandis ' Tomentosa' and C. grandis (L.) Osbeck, which are the medicinal plant sources of Exocarpium Citrus Grandis. Methods Twentythree batches of medicinal material samples of Exocarpium Citrus Grandis were collected from different places. Fingerprints of the samples were determined by HPLC, and several variables based on principal component analysis were selected for the establishment of BP neural network model. Results An effective BP neural network model was established. The distinguishing rate was over 91.3%, and the samples of Citrus grandis ' Tomentosa' were all correctly recognized. Conclusion Neural network technology can offer a feasible approach to the effective discrimination of Citrus grandis ' Tomentosa'.%[目的]建立有效区别毛橘红与光橘红2种药材的识别模型.[方法]收集不同产地的23批化橘红药材样品的指纹图谱,采用主成分分析法提取主成分,利用BP神经网络进行模式识别.[结果]建立了有效识别毛橘红和光橘红的神经网络模型,有效识别率超过91.3%,其中毛橘红均能被正确识别.[结论]神经网络技术可有效识别出道地药材毛橘红.

  12. Research of Exocarpium Citri Grandis Fingerprint Based on Self-organization Competitive Neural Network%基于自组织竞争型神经网络的化橘红指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈南迪; 卢丽萍; 汪金玉; 林励

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the self-organization competitive neural network method for identifying the species by the fingerprints of different kinds of Exocarpium Citri Grandis(Cirtus grandis Peel). Methods The fingerprints of different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis were established by fourier transform infrared speetroscopy and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC). And then we used the self-organization competitive neural network model to distinguish the different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis. Results The self-organization competitive neural network for distinguish Exocarpium Citri Grandis of different species was established, and the rate of accuracy for infrared and HPLC fingerprint of the powder and the extract was more than 91.67 % in average. Conclusion The self-organizing competitiveneural network can be used for distinguishing different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis by their fingerprints.%目的 建立不同品种化橘红指纹图谱的自组织竞争型人工神经网络判别方法.方法 采用傅里叶红外光谱法及HPLC法建立不同品种化橘红的指纹图谱,采用自组织竞争型人工神经网络进行模式识别.结果 自组织竞争型神经网络模型对化橘红粉末、提取物红外及HPLC指纹图谱预测平均准确率达91.67%以上.结论 自组织竞争型人工神经网络可有效用于化橘红品种的识别.

  13. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  14. Durabilidade natural de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com Eucalyptus grandis e Bambusa vulgaris em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Natural durability of Eucalyptus grandis and Bambusa vulgaris particleboards under accelerated fungi decay test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento acerca da resistência dos compostos ligno-celulósicos ao ataque de microrganismos é primordial para servir de base à prevenção da deterioração e a correta destinação de emprego do material. Nesse sentido, avaliou-se a resistência natural a fungos apodrecedores de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com partículas de madeira (Eucalyptus grandis e/ou bambu (Bambusa vulgaris. Foram produzidas, em laboratório, chapas aglomeradas nas dimensões 50x50x0,95cm e massa específica pré-estabelecida em 0,70g cm-3, nas proporções de 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100 de madeira e bambu, respectivamente. A massa de partículas representou 91% da massa seca de cada painel, sendo, o restante, formado pelo adesivo ureia-formaldeído (8% e parafina (1%. Para determinação da resistência natural ao ataque de fungos xilófagos, os painéis foram testados em laboratório e utilizados os fungos Gloeophyllum trabeum (podridão parda e Trametes versicolor (podridão branca, de acordo com a ASTM D 2017 (2005. Quanto aos resultados, foi observado que os painéis confeccionados com mistura de partículas de madeira e bambu apresentaram menor resistência ao ataque dos fungos apodrecedores. Painéis que utilizaram apenas bambu ou madeira apresentaram resistência biológica semelhante. Dentre os fungos, T. versicolor atacou mais severamente os painéis.The knowledge about lignocellulosic compounds strength to the attack of microorganisms is essential for preventing deterioration and also for knowing the correct usage of the material. Accordingly it was evaluated the natural resistance of wood panels made of particles of wood (Eucalyptus grandis and/or bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris to decay fungi. Particleboards were produced in laboratory, each of them with dimensions 50x50x0.95cm and density pre-set at 0.70g cm-3, in proportions of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 of wood and bamboo, respectively. The particles mass represented 91% of the

  15. Períodos de interferência de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis Hort. no crescimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden Periods of Commelina benghalensis interference in the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis

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    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, em razão do uso contínuo de mesmos herbicidas e outros métodos de controle, vem se constituindo numa das plantas mais freqüentes em eucaliptais do Estado de São Paulo. Por isso, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos de períodos de controle e convivência dessa planta daninha sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, transplantadas no inverno e no verão. Uma única muda de eucalipto foi transplantada em caixa de cimento-amianto e submetida a períodos crescentes de convivência e de controle da trapoeraba (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias no sujo e no limpo, respectivamente, sendo a densidade de plantas de trapoeraba de 4 plantas.m-2 (nas condições de inverno e verão. Conduziu-se o ensaio por um período de 100 dias após o transplante (DAT, e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 10 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Pelos resultados da altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, biomassa seca e área foliar, verificou-se que o período anterior à interferência (PAI, o total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foram de 20, 60 e 20 a 60 DAT, respectivamente, no inverno. Em condições de verão, o PTPI foi menor que o PAI (10 e 40 DAT, respectivamente. Assim, não foi possível estabelecer o PCPI nessas condições.Commelina benghalensis is becomming the predominant weed invading eucalypts plantations in the State of São Paulo due to the continual use of herbicides and other control methods applied. Considering this, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of presence and control periods of Commelina benghalensis on Eucalyptus grandis initial growth, grew in winter and summer. A single eucalypt seedling was planted in a cement box and submitted to increasing periods of presence and control of Commelina benghalensis (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 days in competition or not

  16. Estudo do tamanho de parcelas experimentais em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill , usando parcelas lineares Determination of the size of experimental plots in eucalyptus grandis hill populations using linear plots

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    Joel Augusto Muniz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas experimentais para Eucalyptus grandis Hill, estimou-se o coeficiente de regressão de Smith, através do método de Hatheway e Williams, para parcelas lineares, a partir de um ensaio em branco com seis anos de idade, instalado no município de Paraibuna, São Paulo. O método considerou as correlações entre as estimativas das variâncias usadas para estimação do coeficiente de heterogeneidade do solo, ponderando os logaritmos das estimativas das variâncias pelos elementos da matriz de informação. As estimativas das variâncias reduzidas à unidade básica foram obtidas através dos componentes de variância associados à análise de variância de um modelo aleatório em classificação hierárquica. O tamanho ótimo da parcela foi determinado considerando-se o número de repetições (r necessário para se obter uma diferença de médias (d, fixada "a priori", a um nível de 80% pelo teste t com 5% de probabilidade, para 10 e 20 tratamentos, utilizando-se um delineamento em blocos casualizados. A estimativa do coeficiente de heterogeneidade do solo foi de 0,949, indicando que as parcelas adjacentes não se mostraram correlacionadas. Os resultados mostraram que, com os valores de d e r fixos, o tamanho da parcela aumenta com o aumento do coeficiente de variação (CV. Para CV e d fixos, o tamanho da parcela reduz com o aumento do número de repetições. Com CV e r fixos, o tamanho da parcela reduz com o aumento das diferenças reais entre médias de tratamentos.The regression coefficient proposed by Smith was estimated in accordance with Hatheway & Williams' method for linear plots to determine the optimal size of experimental plots for Eucalyptus grandis Hill, in a six-year-old uniformity trial located in Paraibuna, São Paulo. To estimate the soil heterogeneity coefficient, the method takes into account the correlation among the variance estimates, weighing the logarithms of the

  17. Caracterização e comparação entre diferentes granulometrias de serragem de Eucalyptus grandis para confecção de briquetes. Characterization and comparison between different sizes of Eucalyptus grandis sawdust for briquettes confection.

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    Bruna Farrapo GONÇALVES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A grande geração de resíduos lignocelulósicos, a partir de processos industriais e da agricultura, torna o uso da biomassa uma fonte de energia térmica viável; sua compactação aumenta sua densidade, seu poder calorífico e sua resistência. O objetivo da pesquisa consistiu na comparação entre briquetes produzidos a partir de diferentes granulometrias de serragens de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = serragem que passou pela peneira de 10 mesh e ficou retida na de 20 mesh (10 a 20; T2 = 20 a 60; T3 = 60 a 100 ; T4 = 10 a 100. As características da matéria-prima mostraram-se viáveis para a produção de briquetes, com teor de umidade de 12%, 88,65% de voláteis, 0,44% de cinzas, 10,80% de carbono fixo e poder calorífico de 4.229 kcal.kg-1. As comparações realizadas entre os tratamentos foram feitas a partir da expansão (diametral e longitudinal e de ensaios de compressão diametral para força máxima e tensão de força máxima dos briquetes. O tratamento T4 foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados nesses testes (1,04%; 15,06%; 90,22 kgf; 0,6714 MPa, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente, a nível de 5% dos outros tratamentos. A produção em larga escala do tratamento T4 viabiliza a produção dos briquetes, pois não é necessário o processo de separação granulométrica.The great generation of lignocellulose wastes from industrial processes and agriculture makes the use of biomass a source of viable thermal energy; its compaction increases its density, its calorific value and its strength. The objective of the research consisted in comparing briquettes produced from different particle sizes of sawdust of Eucalyptus grandis. The treatments were: T1 = sawdust that passed through 10 mesh sieve and was retained on the 20 mesh (10 to 20; T2 = 20 to 60; T3 = 60 to 100; T4 = 10 to 100. The characteristics of the raw material proved feasibility to produce briquettes, with moisture content of 12%, 88.65% of

  18. Consequências da deriva de clomazone e sulfentrazone em clones de E. grandis x E. urophylla Consequences of clomazone and sulfentrazone drift on clones of E. grandis x E. urophylla

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    Ernesto Norio Takahashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos de deriva simulada dos herbicidas clomazone e sulfentrazone em dois clones comerciais de E. grandis x E. urophylla, da Votorantim Celulose e Papel (VCP1 e VCP2. Na simulação, as doses do herbicida clomazone variaram de 0 a 2.000 mL ha-1 e no sulfentrazone, de 0 a 1.500 mL ha-1. As mudas dos dois clones, previamente selecionadas, foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade para 5,0 L. O solo utilizado foi o Neossolo Quartzarênico, sendo a aplicação dos herbicidas realizada 80 dias após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado em cada herbicida foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 8, com três repetições. O efeito do clomazone resultou em folhas novas rosadas, amareladas e, em alguns casos, esbranquiçadas, como um todo ou em parte dela, enquanto as nervuras se mantiveram verdes. Observou-se, também, que as folhas velhas se tornaram mais verdes e grossas. Ocorreu redução nas características de crescimento, variando de 13 a 57%, e as doses consideradas críticas do herbicida clomazone foram de 800 e 1.200 ml ha-1 nos clones VCP1 e VCP2, respectivamente. Com o sulfentrazone, os sintomas da deriva foram necroses generalizadas nas folhas novas e velhas; ao redor da necrose, formaram-se região arroxeada e deformação intensa nas folhas novas e regular nas folhas velhas, bem como houve perda de dominância apical. As características de crescimento indicaram redução de 9 a 66%. A dose crítica desse herbicida foi de 75 ml ha-1 no clone VCP1 e 1.200 ml ha-1 no VCP2. Conclui-se que uma possível deriva dos herbicidas estudados e utilizados em cana-de-açúcar poderá causar prejuízos ao crescimento dos clones avaliados.This research aimed to develop accurate information about the effects of two simulated herbicide drift (clomazone and sulfentrazone on the growth of Votorantim Celulose e Papel Eucalyptus grandis x E. urohylla comercial

  19. Caracterização bromatológica de oito linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Shiitake cultivadas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis Bromatological characterization of Lentinula edodes strains (Shiitake grown on Eucalyptus grandis logs

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    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Lentinula edodes é um alimento de qualidade elevada, sendo rico em proteínas, vitaminas e sais minerais e pobre em calorias e gorduras. No entanto, seu valor nutricional varia em função da linhagem cultivada, do processamento após a colheita, do estágio de desenvolvimento do basidioma e do substrato utilizado. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar bromatologicamente os basidiomas de oito linhagens de L. edodes (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13, inteiros ou em partes (estípete e píleo, produzidos em toras de E. grandis. Verificou-se que tanto as linhagens de L. edodes como as partes dos basidiomas analisados influenciaram nas respostas nutricionais das amostras. O estípete apresentou as maiores médias de fibra bruta e as menores médias de proteína bruta. O píleo, por sua vez, apresentou as maiores médias de cinzas. Nas avaliações de basidiomas inteiros, as maiores médias, quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, foram obtidas nas linhagens LE-95/07, LE-96/17 e LE-96/18. Já a maior média de fibra bruta foi obtida pela linhagem LE-96/13 de L. edodes. O conteúdo de lipídios do píleo e do estípete não variaram entre as linhagens de L. edodes.Lentinula edodes is high quality food which is rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals and poor in calories and fat. However, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain grown, processing after harvest, development stage of basidiomata, and substrate used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to carry out the bromatological characterization of basidiomatas from eight (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13 L. edodes strains, whole or in parts (stalk and pileus, produced in E. grandis logs. We verified that both the L. edodes strains and parts of basidiomatas analyzed influenced nutritional responses of the samples. The stalk presented the highest raw fiber averages and the

  20. Sistema de equações para simulação do crescimento e da produção em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. sem desbaste baseado no modelo de clutter / An equation system to simulate the growth and the yield in stands of unthinned Euclyptus grandis Hill Ex Maiden based on the clutter model

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    César Santana

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste estudo foi desenvolver um sistema de equações baseado no modelo compatível de crescimento e produção de Clutter para projeção do volume futuro em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. conduzidos sob regime ‘pulpwood’. Para tal fim foram utilizados dados provenientes de cento e quarenta e quatro parcelas permanentes do inventário florestal contínuo da empresa, considerando os anos de 1996 a 2002. As parcelas foram locadas em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. plantados entre 1991 e 1994, com espaçamento inicial de 3 x 2 m, localizados na região conhecida como “norte-pioneiro” do estado do Paraná. O modelo de Clutter foi utilizado para simular o crescimento e a produção prognosticando o volume total e o volume comercial. Como resultado, foi construída uma tabela de produção de área basal, volume total e volume comercial, ao longo dos anos para as diferentes classes de sítio. Pelas análises realizadas pode-se concluir que o sistema baseado no modelo de Clutter foi eficiente para estimar a produção futura de povoamentos não desbastados de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. na região nordeste do Paraná.

  1. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Eucalyptus grandis: an intriguing over-representation of stress-responsive DREB1/CBF genes.

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    P B Cao

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses.The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses.The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive.These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia.

  3. Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Brachylophora auricollis (Bruch, 1918 comb. nov. = Pasiphyle auricollis Bruch, 1918, originally described from Argentina (Salta, is redescribed and illustrated. Although with reduced elytra, the genus is transferred from Rhinotragini to Rhopalophorini based on the following characters: eyes well separated in both sexes, frons between eyes depressed and lacking frontal suture; pro-, meso-, and metasternum planar; mesothorax parallel-sided, not at all declivous before mesosternal process; metasternum large, together with mesosternum twice length of prosternum, metepisternum very wide, entire suture separating it from metasternum clearly visible when viewed from below; female ovipositor shortened with short cylindrical styles; and, more generally, structural features of hind legs, and surface ornamentation. Habitus similar to Coremia group. Bolivian specimens were netted as they visited flowers of Croton sp. (Euphorbiaceae.

  4. On the mysterious Hylobius huguenini Reitter, 1891 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae

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    Christoph Germann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During verifications of museum material for the Catalogue of the Palaearctic Coleoptera, the type specimen of Hylobius huguenini Reitter, 1891 conserved in the Hungarian National Museum was examined. The type specimen had been found by Gustav Huguenin in the Emmental region in Switzerland. The species was never found again and remained therefore mysterious. After the examination of the type specimen, it became clear that Hylobius huguenini belongs to the American genus Heilipodus Kuschel, 1955 (comb. nov., and there it ranks as a good species next to Heilipodus goeldii sp. nov., described here, and H. polyspilus (Pascoe, 1889, both from Brazil. The type specimens of Heilipodus goeldii sp. nov. were found in the Emil August Göldi-collection in the Natural History Museum of the Burgergemeinde Bern. 

  5. The genus Leptostylopsis of Hispaniola (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Acanthocinini

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    Steven Lingafelter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The generic differences and similarities between Leptostylus LeConte and Leptostylopsis Dillon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini are discussed. Leptostylopsis is redescribed and the following species are transferred from Leptostylus to Leptostylopsis: Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942, comb. n.; Leptostylopsis poeyi (Fisher 1925, comb. n.; and Leptostylopsis viridicomus (Fisher 1942, comb. n. Leptostylopsis hispaniolae (Fisher 1942 is a syn. n. of Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942. Seven new species of Leptostylopsis from Hispaniola are diagnosed, described, and illustrated: L. basifulvus Lingafelter and Micheli, sp. n.; L. caliginosus Lingafelter and Micheli, sp. n.; L. chlorescens Lingafelter and Micheli, sp. n.; L. humerofulvus Lingafelter and Micheli, sp. n.; L. perfasciatus Lingafelter and Micheli, sp. n.; L. puntacanaensis Lingafelter and Micheli, sp. n.; and L. thomasi Lingafelter and Micheli, sp. n. Redescriptions and distributional data are provided for the six previously described species known from Hispaniola, and a dichotomous key to all thirteen species of Leptostylopsis from Hispaniola is provided.

  6. Tolerance of wheat (Poales: Poaceae) seedlings to wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Ryan W; Froese, Paul S; Carter, Arron H

    2014-04-01

    Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae), the subterranean larval stage of the click beetle, are becoming more prevalent in many cropping systems and posing an increasing economic threat to wheat growers in the Pacific Northwest following the cancellation of the insecticide lindane in 2006. Current insecticide seed treatments alone are not adequate for wireworm control. The objective of this study was to evaluate a diverse set of 163 wheat genotypes for tolerance to wireworm feeding. Entries were planted in replicated field trials over 3 yr and evaluated for their performance when grown in the presence of wireworms. Entries were rated based on survival and given a tolerance score. Results indicated that differences exist among wheat genotypes in their level of tolerance to wireworm feeding. In particular, consistently high-ranking genotypes of interest may be 'BR 18', 'Sonalika', 'Safed Lerma', and 'Hollis'. These genotypes, used in conjunction with other cultural or chemical control methods, may help provide an economic means of controlling wireworms.

  7. Track analysis of the Neotropical Entimini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae

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    Alberto Romo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Track analysis of the Neotropical Entimini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae. Distributional patterns of the species belonging to the tribe Entimini from the Neotropical region were analyzed. Based on a track analysis of 22 species of Entimus, Rhigus, and Phaedropus, for which distributional data were available, two generalized tracks were found. One is located in northern Brazil, corresponding to the Amazonian subregion, and is determined by Phaedropus candidus and Rhigus speciosus. The other is located in southern Brazil, corresponding to the Parana subregion, and is determined by Entimus imperialis, E. excelsus, Phaedropus togatus, Rhigus dejeanii, R. faldermanni, R. horridus, R. lateritus, R. nigrosparsus, and R. tribuloides. The development of the Chacoan subregion is hypothesized to have been the dynamic vicariant event that fragmented the former Amazonian-Parana forest.Análisis de trazos de Entimini Neotropical (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae. Se analizaron los patrones de distribución de la tribu Entimini en la región Neotropical. Con base en un análisis de los trazos de 22 especies de Entimus, Rhigus y Phaedropus, para los cuales se contaba con datos de distribución, se hallaron dos trazos generalizados. Uno se localiza en el norte de Brasil, en la subregión Amazónica, y está sustentado por Phaedropus candidus y Rhigus speciosus. El otro se localiza en el sur de Brasil, en la subregión Paranaense, y está sustentado por Entimus imperialis, E. excelsus, Phaedropus togatus, Rhigus dejeanii, R. faldermanni, R. horridus, R. lateritus, R. nigrosparsus y R. tribuloides. Se hipotetiza que el desarrollo de la subregión Chaqueña constituyó el evento de vicarianza dinámica que fragmentó el antiguo bosque Amazónico-Paranaense.

  8. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

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    E. M. Pires

    Full Text Available Abstract Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL, width (BOW and height (BOH of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width. These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces.

  9. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.

  10. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

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    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  11. The occurrence, prevention and cure of Exocarpium Citri Grandis plant diseases and insect pests%化橘红病虫害的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡岳文; 严振; 丘金裕

    2004-01-01

    化橘红为芸香科植物化州柚(Citrus grandis(L)Osbeck var.tomentosa Hort)以未成熟果实的外果皮入药。近几年来,随着基地化、规模化大面积种植,其病虫害的发生及危害程度亦与日俱增,一些重要害虫已严重影响化橘红的生产和产品质量。

  12. Primer registro para el Perú de Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839 Travassos, 1934 (Trematoda, Diplodiscidae en Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae

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    Patricia Salízar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo registra por primera vez para el Perú a Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839 Travassos, 1934, en la tortuga de río Podocnemis unifilis «taricaya». Los hospederos fueron colectados en las localidades del Río Putumayo, Samiria, Iquitos (Loreto y Manu (Madre de Dios. El material identificado pertenece a la Colección Helmintológica del Departamento de Protozoología, Helmintología e Invertebrados Afines del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

  13. 榧树种质资源调查与评价%Investigation and evaluation of Torreya grandis germplasm resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓建; 黎章矩; 戴文圣; 喻卫武; 曾燕如

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl are a peculiar nut fruit in China. In order to effectively protect, develop and utilize the germplasm resources of this species, a systematic investigation of its germplasm resources in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian provinces was conducted through field investigation, specimen collection, indoor seed examination and ingredient analysis. The results showed that the resources of T. grandis was unevenly distributed and only conserved well in a few regions. The single seed weight, single kernel weight, kernel rate, kernel shape index and nutrient content varied greatly among individual trees, but some superior individual trees in integrated traits and quality had discovered, which could be grouped into seven major varieties and types. Those individual trees with seeds of integrated good traits, good quality, special traits or potential utilization value should be collected and preserved, especially focusing on those of high and stable yield and special high traits. The old trees or their population should be protected.%榧树(Torreyagrandis Fort.ex Lindl)种子是我国特有的著名干果,为了对榧树种质资源进行有效保护和开发利用,采用实地调查、采集标本、室内烤种、成分分析等方法,对浙江、安徽、江西、福建等榧树分布区的种质资源进行了系统研究.结果表明.榧树资源分布不均,仅少数地方资源保存较好;榧树种内性状变异复杂,不同单株间种子的单粒质量、种核单粒质量、出核率、核形指数及营养成分等变异大,存在一些综合性状优良、品质达到或超过香榧的优株:将香榧和榧树中的优良株系、类型分归于7个主要品种和类型.在榧树中应主要收集一些种子具有综合优良性状、特殊性状和有潜在利用价值的单株;香榧则重点在于收集种子高产、稳产、优质和具特殊性状的优株,对古树及古树群也应加以保护.

  14. Construction of allometric relationships to predict growth parameters, stem biomass and carbon of Eucalyptus grandis growing in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts. Tree diameter and total were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values.   Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots.   According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. The carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass.   Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  15. Construction of Allometric Relationships to Predict Growth Parameters, Stem Biomass and Carbon of Eucalyptus grandis Growing in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available             Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts in Sri Lanka. Tree diameter and total height were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values. Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots. According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. Carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass. Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  16. Response of soil mite abundance and diversity to a monospecific timber Tectona grandis plantation in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Kouadio N’DRI, Henri Marc ANDRE, Jan LAGERLÖF, Jérôme Ebagnérin TONDOH,Thierry HANCE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the impact of monospecific Tectona grandis forest plantation on the soil mite abundance and diversity. To achieve these objectives, two sites situated in Ivory Coast were investigated. The first, a primary forest was characterized by a very weak human activities whereas the second, a teak plantation was characterized by a high disturbance performed during the planting. After extracting, sorted and description, 116 mite species were described in the two sites. Mite densities were lower in teak plantation and also higher in the litter and decreased to the depth in both sites. Species richness recorded in teak plantation (52 species was significantly lower compared to primary forest (98 species. The same trend was observed for Oribatida but not for Gamasida. The lower Oribatida (5 vs. 17 and higher Oribatida (24 vs. 41 were recorded respectively in teak plantation and primary forest. Mite Shannon index and evenness were significantly different between sites. High Jaccard index values and the appearance of exclusive species in both habitats showed that the sites are very distinct. Total number of species recorded corresponded to 58%–63% of the total number of species estimated by ACE and Chao 1&2 estimators, indicating that the sampling effort was not sufficient. Mite abundance and diversity varied depending on the characteristics of habitats. Chemical element (Corg, Ctot, Ntot, and SOM values were lower in teak plantation (disturbed habitat and significantly different to primary forest in the topsoil. Apart from litter height, soil depth, pH and C/N ratio, others variables were strongly correlated to mite abundance and diversity [Current Zoology 59 (5: 633–643, 2013].

  17. Photosynthetic pigments and stomatal conductance in ecotypes of copoazu (Theobroma grandi orum Willd. Ex. Spreng K. Schum..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic pigment content and daily stomatal conductance was evaluated in relation to environmental variables in Copoazú (Theobroma grandi orum ecotypes. The ecotypes used were part of the germoplasm bank of the University of the Amazon (Colombia. The study was carried out during the year 2015. Four leaves of the average stratum of four plants were collected for each ecotype, to extract and read at different levels of absorbance and determine the content of photosynthetic pigments. During the hours of 04:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., the stomatal conductance (gs was monitored for environmental variables (relative humidity, air temperature, radiation and vapor pressure de cit (VPD. An analysis of variance was made using the Tukey test, correlations and regressions were made between gs and environmental variables. The contents of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids among ecotypes were different (P<0.0001, the ecotype UA-31 presented the highest values, contrasting with the ecotype UA-37. Concerning gs, the interaction ecotype*hour showed signi cant differences (P<0.0001 .The ecotypes that presented the highest values of gs were UA-67 and UA-039, (P<0.0001, radiation (-0.91, P<0.0001 and DPV (-0.94; P<0.0001 0.0001.The results suggest that ecotypes UA-039 and UA-31 were the most suitable in terms of gaseous exchange and content of photosynthetic pigments.

  18. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  19. Influence of growing location and cultivar on Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of rough rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANK H. ARTHUR; RUSTY C. BAUTISTA; TERRENCE J. SIEBENMORGEN

    2007-01-01

    Long-grain rice cultivars Cocodrie, Wells, and XP 723 grown in three locations (Hazen, MO; Essex and Newport, AR, USA), and medium-grain rice cultivars Bengal and XP 713 grown in two locations (Jonesboro and Lodge Corner, AR, USA), were harvested and assayed for susceptibility to Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), the lesser grain borer, and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the rice weevil, on rice held at 27℃ 57% and 75% relative humidity (RH).Separate samples from the same harvest lots were also analyzed for the physical characteristics of brown rice yield, percentage whole kernels and kernel thickness. Progeny production and feeding damage of R. dominica were significantly different among long-grain cultivars within two of the three locations (P < 0.05), but not for location or RH (P ≥ 0.05), while progeny production of S. oryzae was different among cultivars, location, and RH (P < 0.05). On medium-grain rice, both cultivar and location were significant for progeny production of R. dominica, but not RH, while cultivar and RH were significant for progeny production of S. oryzae, but not location. On both rice types, feeding damage of R. dominica followed the same trends and was always strongly positively correlated with progeny production (P < 0.05), but for S. oryzae there were several instances in which progeny production was not correlated with feeding damage (P ≥ 0.05). Physical characteristics of both rice types were statistically significant (P < 0.01) but actual numerical differences were extremely small, and were generally not correlated with progeny production of either species. Results indicate that the location in which a particular rice cultivar is grown, along with its characteristics, could affect susceptibility of the rice to R. dominica and S. oryzae.

  20. Chromosomal localization of 45S rDNA, sex-specific C values, and heterochromatin distribution in Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Biplab Kumar; Yamamoto, Masashi; Jha, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    Coccinia grandis is a widely distributed dioecious cucurbit in India, with heteromorphic sex chromosomes and X-Y sex determination mode. The present study aids in the cytogenetic characterization of four native populations of this plant employing distribution patterns of 45S rDNA on chromosomes and guanine-cytosine (GC)-rich heterochromatin in the genome coupled with flow cytometric determination of genome sizes. Existence of four nucleolar chromosomes could be confirmed by the presence of four telomeric 45S rDNA signals in both male and female plants. All four 45S rDNA sites are rich in heterochromatin evident from the co-localization of telomeric chromomycin A (CMA)(+ve) signals. The size of 45S rDNA signal was found to differ between the homologues of one nucleolar chromosome pair. The distribution of heterochromatin is found to differ among the male and female populations. The average GC-rich heterochromatin content of male and female populations is 23.27 and 29.86 %, respectively. Moreover, the male plants have a genome size of 0.92 pg/2C while the female plants have a size of 0.73 pg/2C, reflecting a huge genomic divergence between the genders. The great variation in genome size is owing to the presence of Y chromosome in the male populations, playing a multifaceted role in sexual divergence in C. grandis.

  1. Construction of a full-length cDNA library of Solen grandis dunker and identification of defense- and immune-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohua; Liu, Xiangquan; Ren, Lihua; Yang, Jianmin; Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong

    2013-11-01

    The basic genetic characteristics, important functional genes, and entire transcriptome of Solen grandis Dunker were investigated by constructing a full-length cDNA library with the `switching mechanism at the 5'-end of the RNA transcript' (SMART) technique. Total RNA was isolated from the immune-relevant tissues, gills and hemocytes, using the Trizol reagent, and cDNA fragments were digested with Sfi I before being ligated to the pBluescript II SK* vector. The cDNA library had a titer of 1048 cfu μL-1 and a storage capacity of 1.05×106 cfu. Approximately 98% of the clones in the library were recombinants, and the fragment lengths of insert cDNA ranged from 0.8 kb to 3.0 kb. A total of 2038 expressed sequence tags were successfully sequenced and clustered into 965 unigenes. BLASTN analysis showed that 240 sequences were highly similar to the known genes (E-value 80%), accounting for 25% of the total unigenes. According to the Gene Ontology, these unigenes were related to several biological processes, including cell structure, signal transport, protein synthesis, transcription, energy metabolism, and immunity. Fifteen of the identified sequences were related to defense and immunity. The full-length cDNA sequence of HSC70 was obtained. The cDNA library of S. grandis provided a useful resource for future researches of functional genomics related to stress tolerance, immunity, and other physiological activities.

  2. Genome-wide patterns of recombination, linkage disequilibrium and nucleotide diversity from pooled resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping unlock the evolutionary history of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2015-11-01

    We used high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and whole-genome pooled resequencing to examine the landscape of population recombination (ρ) and nucleotide diversity (ϴw ), assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ) and build the highest density linkage maps for Eucalyptus. At the genome-wide level, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed within c. 4-6 kb, slower than previously reported from candidate gene studies, but showing considerable variation from absence to complete LD up to 50 kb. A sharp decrease in the estimate of ρ was seen when going from short to genome-wide inter-SNP distances, highlighting the dependence of this parameter on the scale of observation adopted. Recombination was correlated with nucleotide diversity, gene density and distance from the centromere, with hotspots of recombination enriched for genes involved in chemical reactions and pathways of the normal metabolic processes. The high nucleotide diversity (ϴw = 0.022) of E. grandis revealed that mutation is more important than recombination in shaping its genomic diversity (ρ/ϴw = 0.645). Chromosome-wide ancestral recombination graphs allowed us to date the split of E. grandis (1.7-4.8 million yr ago) and identify a scenario for the recent demographic history of the species. Our results have considerable practical importance to Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), while indicating bright prospects for genomic prediction of complex phenotypes in eucalypt breeding.

  3. Avaliação do método centróide para estudo de adaptabilidade ao ambiente de clones de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Rocha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The intense genotype x environment interaction present in many cultures make studies of adaptability to specific environments an important part of vegetal improvement programs. The different response of genotypes to favorable and unfavorable environments can be studied using methodologies based on three main strategies: analysis of variance, linear regression and non-parametric statistics. This work presents a new methodology for the study of genotype environment interaction, using principal components analysis, in order to facilitate the recommendation of specific genotypes to certain environments. This methodology, called centroid method, consists in the comparison of cartesian distance values between the genotypes and four ideal references using principal components. It differs from methods based in analysis of variance due to the aiming of genotypes according to environment variation and the facility of genotype identification, dispensing the analysis of several parameters as in methods based on regression. In order to exemplify the use of this method an experiment of Eucalyptus grandis planted in random blocks design and four environments was studied. Four clones of general adaptability were identified besides others of specific adaptation that can also be recommended aiming to capitalize the interaction effect. The results of this study were compared with the ones obtained through other methodologies by Eberhart e Russel (1966 and by Lin and Binns (1988 and allows to conclude that the centroid method was efficient in the identification of differentiated performance E. grandis clones; associated to the easiness of recommendation and ordering of the genotypes into specific adaptability groups.

  4. Decoupling of above and belowground C and N pools within predominant plant species Stipa grandis along a precipitation gradient in Chinese steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Ye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of the carbon and nutrient cycles drives the food web structure and biogeochemistry of ecosystems. However, across precipitation gradients, there may be a shift in C and N pools from above- to belowground because of shifting plant stoichiometry and allocation. Here, we present a study which is the first to explicitly compare above- and belowground pool sizes of N and C within predominant plant species along precipitation gradient. We dissected these pools into biomass allocation and nutrient concentrations. Based on previous evidence, biomass allocation to roots should increase with aridity, while leaf [N] should increase. If their effect sizes are equal, they should cancel each other out, and the above- and belowground proportions of the N would remain constant. Along a precipitation gradient in Chinese steppe zone, the effect sizes of the biomass shifts were remarkably consistent among the predominant species, Stipa grandis. The effect sizes of biomass allocation and [N] were equal and the proportion of N of above- and belowground did not change with aridity, but the shift in leaf [C] with aridity was much weaker than the biomass shift, leading to a decrease in the proportion of C belowground at dry sites. Precipitation gradients do decouple the C and N pool of S. grandis along a precipitation gradient in Chinese steppe zone.

  5. Study on essence oils from citrus grandis peel and orange peel extracted by microwave method%微波辐射法提取柚皮、橙皮的挥发油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纯馨; 陈忻; 袁毅桦; 梁少华

    2003-01-01

    The essence oil of citrus grandis peel and orange peel was extracted by the microwave method in this article.The results show that the best condition of extracting is when 100 g peel is extracted at 360 W with n-hexane for 50 s,the obtained rate of pomelo oil is 1.73% and orange oil is 0.65%.

  6. Un nouveau genre, une nouvelle espèce de Torneutini : Gnathopraxithea sarryi nov. sp. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. C. Seabra; Tavakilian, Gérard

    1986-01-01

    Description de #Gnathopraxithea sarryi$, nouveau genre, nouvelle espèce, illustrée par deux photographies, avec son insertion dans la clef des genres de #Torneutini$ (#Coleoptera$, #Cerambycidae$). (Résumé d'auteur)

  7. New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia M. Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries. Feeding by Exoplectra miniata (Germar on extrafloral nectaries of Inga edulis Mart. was observed in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first record of this behavior for Exoplectrini.

  8. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-23

    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  9. Het voorkomen van Carabus auronitens in Oost-Nederland (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, E.; Haken, ten B.

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of Carabus auronitens in the eastern part of the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Carabus auronitens Fabricius, 1792 is a carabid beetle with two distinct (meta)populations in the eastern part of The Netherlands: Achterhoek en Twente. The first recording in the Achterhoek was don

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, B. atomarius L., 1761, B. loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species.

  11. Study on the genus Daptus ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik Je Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A genus Daptus Fischer von Waldheim, 1823 of the tribe Harpalini Bonelli, 1810 (Coleoptera: Carabidae is reported for the first time from Korea, based on the Daptus vittatus Fischer von Waldheim from Incheon, Korea. Redescription of the species and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics, including genitalia characteristics of both sexes, are provided.

  12. A contribution to the rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Paederinae in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, 19 species of rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, belonging to the subfamily Paederinae Fleming 1821, were collected from Mazandaran province, north of Iran, during 2015-2016. Two species, Rugilus angustatus Geoffroy 1758 and Astenus lyonessius (joy 1908 are reported for the first time from Iran.

  13. A new species of Golinca Thomson (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae): first record of the genus for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, M; Silva, F

    2015-02-16

    Golinca trevisani Valois & Silva, new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Trichiini: Incina) from Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, and Amazonas, Brazil is described, representing the first record of the genus Golinca for Brazil. Diagnosis, illustrations of key morphological characters, the first male genitalia description in the genus, and a key for identification of four species of Golinca are provided.

  14. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....

  15. Testing abundance-range size relationships in European carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotze, J.; Niemelä, J.; O'Hara, R.B.; Turin, H.

    2003-01-01

    Four of the eight hypotheses proposed in the literature for explaining the relationship between abundance and range size (the sampling artifact, phylogenetic non-independence, range position and resource breadth hypotheses) were tested by using atlas data for carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

  16. Faunistic study of the aquatic beetles (Coleoptera: Polyphaga of Markazi Province (Central Iran with new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish the presence of 24 aquatic beetle (Coleoptera: Polyphaga species belonging to 13 genera and five families in Markazi Province of Central Iran. Specimens were collected between 2001 and 2005. Eleven species and four genera are recorded from Iran for the first time. The ecological significance of the new records is briefly discussed. .

  17. Diversity of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attracted to avocado, lychee, and essential oil lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and native Persea species (redbay, swampbay). As part...

  18. Chemical Control of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic pest of U.S. trees in the family Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and redbay (P. borbonia). It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal...

  19. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  20. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  1. Effect of light quality on movement of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the effect of red light on night time behaviour of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae). An experiment was conducted in experimental arenas in the autumn of 2008. Beetles were recorded 20 min per hour during a period of 8 hours under red light, near in

  2. Upper lethal temperature limits of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of the egg, larval and adult stages of Anobium punctatum De Geer (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to heat (46-54°C, 25-30% RH) was investigated. The larval stage was found to be most tolerant to heat. Very short exposure (5 min) of the larvae to temperatures of 52°C and above led to 100...

  3. Diapause and post-diapause quiescence demonstrated in overwintering Harmonia axyeidis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe.

  4. EPURAEA DEUBELI REITTER, 1898, A CONFIRMED SAPROXYLIC SAP BEETLE FOR THE ITALIAN FAUNA (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Audisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During ecological investigations on saproxylic beetle communities at Monte Baldo (Veneto, Verona province, two specimens of Epuraea deubeli Reitter, 1898 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae were recently collected. It is the first known sure record of this species in Italy (previously known from Northern, Eastern, and Central Europe, southwards to Austria, and from Western Siberia.

  5. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  6. Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...

  7. Mudanças da fertilidade do solo e crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido Changes in soil fertility and growth of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Rocha

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Antes da recomendação em larga escala de biossólido em plantações florestais, é preciso compreender seus efeitos no solo e na planta. Assim, a fertilidade do solo, o estado nutricional e o crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido foram avaliados em um experimento na Estação Experimental de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (SP, ESALQ/USP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove tratamentos: (1 Testemunha; (2 Adubação mineral; (3 5 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (4 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (5 10 t ha-1 de bios.; (6 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K + P; (7 15 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (8 20 t ha-1 de bios. + K, e (9 40 t ha-1 de bios. + K. Foram analisadas quimicamente amostras de solo (camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm e de folhas. A produção de madeira foi avaliada por meio da colheita e pesagem de árvores. Até 32 meses após a aplicação do biossólido, 36 meses pós-plantio, constataram-se aumentos do pH, dos teores de C orgânico, de P-resina e de Ca trocável nas três camadas, diretamente associados às doses de biossólido aplicadas. Os teores de S-SO4(2- e K trocável diminuíram 13 meses após a aplicação do biossólido e, 19 meses depois, os teores estavam aumentados. O Al trocável diminuiu com o aumento das doses de biossólido, nas três camadas amostradas. A aplicação de biossólido influiu positivamente na nutrição das plantas, proporcionando uma produção de madeira igual à obtida no tratamento que só recebeu adubação mineral (1,5 t ha-1 de calcário dolomítico e, em kg ha-1, 98 de N, 79,5 de P2O5, 165 de K2O, 1,3 de B e 1,2 de Zn, quando a dose de biossólido foi equivalente a 12 t ha-1.Before recommending biosolids at large scale for forest plantations it is necessary to have an ample understanding of its effects on soil and plant. Thus, it was evaluated the soil fertility, nutritional status and growth of a Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized

  8. Comparação do fator de empilhamento sob diferentes condições para madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / A comparison of wood piling factor under different conditions for Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson dos Santos Lisboa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente trabalho tem por objetivo comparar os fatores de empilhamento obtidos em três métodos distintos de empilhamento: 1 empilhamento em cima do caminhão; 2 empilhamento mecânico no pátio da fábrica e 3 empilhamento manual no pátio da fábrica. Os dados empregados são originários de um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis, visando à produção de celulose e pertencente ao GRUPO LWART, situado no município de Lençóis Paulista, SP, cortado aos sete anos de idade através do sistema semi-mecanizado. Foram analisados dados provenientes de vinte pilhas de madeira, formadas por toras de 2,80 m de comprimento e diâmetro mínimo de 6,0 cm. O fator de empilhamento de cada pilha (FE foi obtido pela relação entre o volume da pilha em metros estéreos (st e o correspondente volume sólido em metros cúbicos (m³. O volume sólido (m³ foi obtido pelo método de Smalian. Para calcular o volume estéreo (st para três diferentes métodos de empilhamento foi utilizada uma régua graduada para medir a altura, a largura e o comprimento da pilha. Os três métodos de empilhamento foram comparados estatisticamente a partir de uma análise de variância, considerando um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde os métodos foram considerados tratamentos e as pilhas repetições. Na ocorrência de diferenças significativas entre tratamentos, o teste Tukey foi utilizado para comparar suas médias, considerando um nível de 5% de significância. A análise estatística indicou diferenças significativas entre o método de empilhamento manual ou tratamento 3, dos demais métodos, ou seja, método do empilhamento em cima do caminhão e método de empilhamento mecânico. Conclui-se então, que é errôneo aplicar um fator de empilhamento médio, se houver diferentes formas de empilhar a madeira.AbstractThe research objective has been to compare the wood piling factors obtained from three distinct methods: 1 piling up on the truck; 2 mechanical

  9. The Analysis of MADS box Genes Expressing in the Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.%柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬虎; 潘一山; 王少峰; 邹金美; 陈羡德; 林莹; 王玉玲; 蓝炎阳

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerning the MADS box gene family from the fruitlet (less than 5 days) and the yang leaf of two kinds of pomelo breeding (Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.) using the De novo transcriptomics method. The fruitlet and the yang leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (which was taken as mutant group)and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (which was taken as reference group)were taken as experiment materials, by RNA extraction, reverse transcription, sequencing and assembly Unigene sequences. The MADS box transcription factor family gene annotation results were retrieved from the Nr, Swiss Prot, KEGG and COG the four databases. Adopting digital gene expression label (DGE) technology, the gene transcription abundance in the sample was taken as RPKM value, that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparing the different of the RPKM value between the mutant group and reference group, with the duplication≥2. There were 28 MADS box genes were annotated from the fruitlet and the yang leaf of the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo. There were 25 MADS box genes expressed in the fruitlet from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (FE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (FL), and sixs of them were DEGs. Meanwhile, There were 27 MADS box genes expressed in the leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (LE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (LL), and sevens of them were DEGs. The 28 MADS box gene family was reported eighteens of them in Citrus clementina and twenties of them in Citrus sinensis, respectively, and fives of them have reported neither in Citrus clementina nor in Citrus sinensis, and have not found in the Citrus's other breeding.%以De novo转录组学方法分析柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因家族的基因.以特早熟龙柚(变异型)和琯溪蜜柚(参照型)嫩果(不超过5天)和新叶为材料,经过RNA提取、反转录、测序、组装得到Unigene序列. Unigene序列在 Nr、Swiss-Prot、KEGG 和 COG 四

  10. The effect of quality attributes in determination of price for plantation-grown Teak (Tectona grandis logs in Sri Lanka

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    J.K.P.C. Jayawardhane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the highly demanded timber species in Sri Lanka. When buying teak logs, customers assess their quality by visual appraisal of surface characteristics such as visible defects. Hence, the buyers’ preference for logs with desired attributes is reflected by the price achieved in the market. In this study, we examined the influence of visually observable quality attributes of plantation grown teak logs on their market price. A set of 650 randomly selected teak logs were assessed for dimensions, shape defects, surface defects and end-defects. Length of the log, mid-circumference (under bark, diameter at top-end and butt-end, number of knots per meter, average diameter of the knots, bend fraction, percentage of heartwood, shape of the log, presence of buttress, position of the hollows, presence of felling damages, splits and heart rot were recorded using standard methods. Selling prices of logs were obtained from the records of log storing facilities. By using the multiple linear regressions, a price-quality model was developed to explain the impact of quality attributes on sellingprice. The regression model achieved a strong coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.87. Accordingly, the length, mid-circumference, number of knots per meter, bend fraction, hollow position, presence of buttresses and presence of heart rot were found to have a significant influence on the price. The relative price reduction due to presence of a specific log defect was further examined using the derived price-quality model. The presence of high number of knots had the highest detrimental impact on price, followed by the higher bend fraction, presence of hollows at top end and/or middle of the log, presence of heart rot and presence of buttresses respectively. These findings have implications in the improved management of teak plantations.

  11. Propriedades físicas e mecânicas de painéis LVL de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Hernando Alfonso Lara Palma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar as propriedades físicas e mecânicas de painéis LVL (Laminated veneer lumber confeccionados com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis, provenientes de reflorestamentos da região de Sengés, Paraná - Brasil. Foram confeccionados painéis LVL de 23 lâminas, de dimensões comerciais de 2500 mm de comprimento, 1200 mm de largura e espessura nominal de 50 mm (lâminas de 2,4 mm. Em vigas retiradas dos painéis LVL foram analisadas as propriedades de flexão estática (rigidez e resistência, nas condições de menor inércia (flatwise e de maior inércia (edgewise, compressão paralela, cisalhamento paralelo nos planos L-X e L-Y e densidade, atendendo às prescrições das normas ASTM-D 5456/4761 e ASTM-D 198/143. Os valores médios obtidos para o módulo de elasticidade e resistência à flexão estática foram, respectivamente, 13114 MPa e 88,76 MPa para o ensaio na condição de menor inércia e de, respectivamente, 15871 MPa e 88,63 MPa para o ensaio na condição de maior inércia. A densidade aparente (a 12% de umidade dos painéis LVL e das lâminas foram, respectivamente, 690 kg/ m3 e 649 kg/m3. Os valores médios obtidos nos ensaios de compressão paralela foram 16856 MPa para o módulo de elasticidade e 58,05 MPa para a resistência. Os valores médios da resistência no ensaio de cisalhamento paralelo no plano L-Y e no plano L-X foram 5,96 MPa e 5,91 MPa, respectivamente. Todos esses valores atingiram parcialmente ou ultrapassaram os limites médios de referência estabelecidos para painéis LVL e para a madeira sólida originária, atestando, sobretudo, a qualidade dos painéis produzidos com essa madeira.

  12. 柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬虎[1; 潘一山[1; 王少峰[2; 邹金美[1; 陈羡德[1; 林莹[1; 王玉玲[1; 蓝炎阳[2

    2015-01-01

    以De novo转录组学方法分析柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因家族的基因.以特早熟龙柚(变异型)和琯溪蜜柚(参照型)嫩果(不超过5天)和新叶为材料,经过RNA提取、反转录、测序、组装得到Unigene序列.Unigene序列在Nr、Swiss-Prot、KEGG和COG四大数据库中进行比对,获得MADS box转录因子家族基因注释结果.采用数字基因表达标签(digital gene expression tag,DGE)技术,对样本中基因转录丰度以RPKM值表示,比较处理组和对照组的RPKM值,以倍性变化≥2确定差异表达基因(differentially expressed genes,DEGs).从特早熟龙柚和琯溪蜜柚嫩果和叶片中,总共注释到28个MADS box基因家族基因.在龙柚嫩果(FE)和蜜柚嫩果(FL)中表达的有25个,其中有6个属于差异表达基因.在龙柚叶片(LE)和蜜柚叶片(LL)中表达的有27个,其中有7个属于差异表达基因.注释到的28个MADS box基因家族基因在克莱门特柚(Citrus clementina)和中国甜橙(Citrus sinensis)报道过的分别有18个和20个,其中有5个基因既在中国甜橙和克莱门特柚都没有报道过,也没有发现在其它Citrus物种报道过.

  13. Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpa Pedro Nicolau

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos.

  14. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musaspp. EN COLOMBIA Dryophthorinae Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Associted to Platain and Banana crops (Musaspp. in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA A SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.This synopsis is about beetle&#’;s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

  15. Chaves para a identificação dos principais Coleoptera (Insecta associados com produtos armazenados Keys for the identification of Coleoptera (Insecta associated with stored products

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    Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to identify nine families of Coleoptera commonly found in stored products is presented. Keys for the identification of Anobiidae [Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792, Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus, 1761], Bruchidae [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833], Curculionidae [Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763, S. zeamais Motschulsky, 1885], Silvanidae [Ahasverus advena (Waltl, 1832, Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin, 1892, Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel, 1889, O. surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758] and Tenebrionidae [Gnathocerus cornutus (Fabricius, 1798, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797, T. confusum du Val, 1868] are also provided. These keys cover the most frequent Coleoptera found in stored products, specially grains, and are to the adult stage only. Illustrations of external morphology and general characteristics are provided for each species reported.

  16. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  17. Suscetibilidade de Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae ao enxofre Susceptibility of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae to sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Gonçalves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As criações de Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae são freqüentemente infestadas pelo ácaro Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross e Krantz (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar doses de enxofre, acaricida eficaz contra A. lacunatus, não-prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento de R. dominica. As unidades experimentais foram constituídas de placas de Petri contendo 30 g de grãos de trigo infestados com 30 adultos de R. dominica. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de doses de enxofre sobre os grãos, correspondentes a 0,0; 0,6; 0,9; 1,2; 1,5; 3,0; 6,0; 12,0; 24,0 e 48,0mg i a g-1, em dez repetições. As unidades experimentais foram armazenadas por 60 dias a 30±1°C, 60±5% UR e escotofase de 24h. O desenvolvimento de R. dominica foi afetado pela utilização de doses de enxofre maiores que 3,0mg i a g-1.The laboratory rearing of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae is frequently infested by the parasite mite Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross and Krantz (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae. This study was aimed at evaluating the sulfur doses, an effective acaricide against A. lacunatus, not harmful to the development of with R. dominica. The experimental units were Petri dishes containing 30g of whole wheat grains powdered with the different doses of the sulfur (0.0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, 24.0 and 48.0mg a i g-1 infested with 30 adults of R. dominica, in ten replicates. All treatments were maintained under controlled conditions (30±1°C, 60±5% r h and 24h scotophase for 60 days after the insect infestation. Sulfur doses higher than 3.0mg a i g-1 negatively affected R. dominica development.

  18. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  19. Bruchid (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) ovicidal phenylbutanoid from Zingiber purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, K A Nimal P; Kumar, Vijaya; Saxena, Ramesh C; Ramdas, Puthenveetil K

    2005-08-01

    The larvicidal activity of the dichloromethane extract of Zingiber purpureum Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) rhizome against the second instar of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is shown to be due to 4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-diene. The diene also showed ovicidal activity against the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Most of the eggs laid by bruchids on treated cowpea seeds were transparent, and very few of them contained developing embryos. The few larvae produced from these embryos were unable to penetrate the seed coat and enter the seed. Similar effects were seen when adults were exposed to the compound and then placed on untreated cowpea seeds, suggesting that a new type of maternally mediated ovicidal effect was involved. Coated and impregnated granular formulations of the extract were evaluated for use in the control of bruchid infestation of stored cowpea seeds. Coated granules showed activity similar to that of the crude extract but were found to lose activity rapidly. Impregnated granules were found to be less active than the crude extract.

  20. Strategies of karyotype differentiation in Elateridae (Coleoptera, Polyphaga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marielle Cristina; Rosa, Simone Policena; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Costa, Cleide; Cella, Doralice Maria

    2007-01-01

    The chromosome study of five species of the family Elateridae, belonging to the subfamilies Agrypninae and Elaterinae, and the analysis of the cytogenetic data previously recorded for this family permitted the establishment of the main strategies of karyotypic differentiation that has occurred in the elaterids. In Agrypninae, the three species studied (Conoderus fuscofasciatus, Conoderus rufidens, and Conoderus sp.) showed the male karyotype 2n=16+X0. This karyotypic uniformity detected in these Conoderus species has also been shared with other species of the same genus, differing considerably from chromosomal heterogeneity verified in the subfamily Agrypninae. The use of the C-banding technique in C. fuscofasciatus and Conoderus sp. revealed constitutive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric region of the majority of the chromosomes. In C. fuscofasciatus, additional constitutive heterochromatin were also observed in the long arm terminal region of almost all chromosomes. Among the representatives of Elaterinae, the karyotype 2n=18+Xy(p) of Pomachilius sp.2 was similar to that verified in the majority of the Coleoptera species, contrasting with the chromosomal formula 2n=18+X0 detected in Cardiorhinus rufilateris, which is most common in the species of Elaterinae. In the majority of the elaterids, the chromosomal differentiation has frequently been driven by reduction of the diploid number; but, among the four cytogenetically examined subfamilies, there are some differences in relation to the trends of karyotypic evolution.

  1. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  2. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  3. Níveis de sombreamento na produção e desenvolvimento de mudas Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden Shading levels on production and development of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden seedlings Los niveles de sombra en la producción de plántulas y el desarrollo de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Fereira Santos; Leandro Morais; Augustinho Borsoi; Deonir Secco; Gláucia Cristina Moreira

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de los niveles de sombra en las plántulas de Eucalyptus grandis. Las plántulas fueron sometidas a los siguientes tratamientos: 0%, 18%, 30%, 50% y 70% de atenuación de la radiación solar a través de telas de color negro. El experimento se llevó a cabo en los meses de otoño de 2009 en la en lo vivero municipal de la ciudad de Catanduvas- PR durante un período de 90 días. El diseño experimental f...

  4. Tree-ring variation in teak (Tectona grandis L.) from Allapalli, Maharashtra in relation to moisture and Palmer Drought Severity Index, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somaru Ram; H P Borgaonkar; A A Munot; A B Sikder

    2011-08-01

    We developed a ring-width chronology of teak (Tectona grandis L.) from a moisture stressed area in Maharashtra, India. Bootstrapped correlation analysis indicated that moisture index (MI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) showed better performance rather than same year rainfall over the region. Tree-ring variations were most correlated positively with PDSI during different seasons compared with MI. Significant strong positive correlation with MI, and negative association with temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET) were found during previous and current year post-monsoon (ON). This study shows that the moisture availability during the post-monsoon of the previous year has a significant role in the development of annual growth rings. The reconstructed previous year post-monsoon (−ON) moisture index for the period 1866–1996 indicates 3.5 and 29.3 years periodicities.

  5. Tree-ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) in central India and its relationship with rainfall and moisture index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somaru Ram; H P Borgaonkar; A B Sikder

    2008-10-01

    Tree-ring-width index chronologies of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.)from three sites in central India have been studied for their dendroclimatic potential.The existence of good correlation among the three site chronologies indicates the influence of common forcing factor to the tree growth of the region.Tree growth and climate relationship based on correlation analysis revealed the important contribution of moisture index and rainfall rather than the direct in fluence of the temperature on tree growth during different seasons.Significant positive relationship of moisture index and rainfall during the monsoon months as well as on the annual scale with tree-ring width variations over the region indicates the important role of moisture availability at the root zone.The results suggest that the teak tree-ring chronologies can be used as high resolution proxy for past precipitation and moisture level in the environment.

  6. Himenópteros parasitóides coletados em povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis e mata nativa em Ipaba, estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onice Dall\\u0092Oglio Teresinha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition and frequency of hymenopteran parasitoids were studied in an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex. Maiden plantation and in a native vegetation area with 11 Malaise traps in a transect native vegetation-eucalyptus plantation from March 1997 to March 1998. A total of 2,099 individuals of nine superfamilies and 26 families of this group was collected. The family with the highest number of individuals was Ichneumonidae followed by Braconidae, Scelionidae and Eulophidae with 577, 452, 374 and 185 individuals. Higher number of parasitoids was collected in the vicinity and borders of the native vegetation what demonstrates that fragments of native vegetation intermingled with eucalyptus plantations can be recommended as a strategy for pest management in these plantations.

  7. Report on the Temporary Rearing Technique of Solen grandis Dunker%大竹蛏亲体暂养技术简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯和要; 彭作波; 林玉川; 王君霞

    2004-01-01

    通过对大竹蛏(Solen grandis Dunker)亲蛏(体长9~12 cm,体重45.76±6.78 g)从采捕运输到人工暂养培育的一系列试验工作,结果表明:亲蛏的挑选以体长9~13 cm、活泼健康、肥满度好的3龄个体为最佳.经7天试验,采用细沙作为底质进行亲蛏暂养的效果良好,成活率达98.5%,个体排卵量约300万粒;不铺任何底质暂养的亲蛏,成活率仅16.4%,不能正常排放精卵.

  8. ESTUDIO DE LA VEGETACION NATIVA EN PLANTACIONES DE EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS (MYRTACEAE EN EL NORTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE CORRIENTES, REPUBLICA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo H. Barrett

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Especies de plantas vasculares del sotobosque de Eucalyptus grandis fueron estudiados en los departamentos del nordeste de la provincia argentina de Corrientes. Estas plantaciones fueron situadas las colinas de tierra roja, en los bancos de arena del río y en las dunas de arena fósiles del río Paraná. El inventario incluye 243 taxones nativos que corresponden a 66 familias, 86% pertenecen a la Dicotiledóneas de los cuales la mayoría de ellos (70% son las especies leñosas. Las familias mejor representadas son: Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae y Compositae. El tamaño, el número de especies y los individuos dentro de las especies disminuye de Norte a sudoeste asociado a factores limitantes del suelo y bajas precipitaciones. La mayoría de las dicotiledóneas tienen mecanismos de dispersión relacionados con los animales (49%, principalmente aves, seguido por el viento (25%. Un número importante de especies (64% pertenecen al bosque nativo subtropical húmedo. Many overstory species of this forest compete succesfully with the eucalipts, tales como: Cabralea canjerana, Patagonula americana, Holocalyx balansae, Tabebuia heptaphylla, todas de  importancia comercio regional de madera. También un gran número de especies que viven espontáneamente en condiciones húmedas, se encuentran aparentemente bien adaptados al nuevo entorno. Dado que la mayoría de las especies del sotobosque de plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis vino desde el bosque húmedo nativo, es posible concluir que estas plantaciones crean las condiciones ambientales que favorecen la migración del bosque húmedo en las sabanas y los pastizales de la zona.

  9. EMERGÊNCIA E DESENVOLVIMENTO INICIAL DE PLÂNTULAS DE Cassia grandis L. f. EM FUNÇÃO DE DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Pereira Leal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is aimed to use substrates composed primarily of organic waste in order to reduce costs with chemical fertilizer. In that sense, the experiment was to evaluate different types of substrates for the emergence and early development of seedlings of Cassia grandis L. f. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Departament of Vegetable Sciences of Federal Rural do Semi- Árido (UFERSA, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The substrates used were: sand + carbonized rice husk (in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1, plant sand + wood dust (in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1, plant sand + coconut fiber (in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1, plant sand + chestnut bark (in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 and plant sand (control. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with 13 treatments (combinations of substrates, with four replications of 25 seeds and the means to test for Skot-knot (pr <0.05. We evaluated the following variables: plant emergence, emergence speed, plant height, root length and weight of the aerial part of the plant, root dry mass and total dry mass. According to the results, the substrate plant sand + sawdust (1:1 and plant sand + coconut fiber (1:3 showed higher values, providing better results in emergence, weight of the aerial part of the plant, length of the aerial part of the plant, root dry mass and root length. It was found that the substrate compounds sand plant and chestnut bark (1:3 is harmful to the emergence of seedling of Cassia grandis .

  10. Subcellular partitioning of cadmium in the freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, after separate short-term exposures to waterborne or diet-borne metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie; Hare, Landis [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The dynamics of cadmium uptake and subcellular partitioning were studied in laboratory experiments conducted on Pyganodon grandis, a freshwater unionid bivalve that shows promise as a biomonitor for metal pollution. Bivalves were collected from an uncontaminated lake, allowed to acclimate to laboratory conditions ({>=}25 days), and then either exposed to a low, environmentally relevant, concentration of dissolved Cd (5 nM; 6, 12 and 24 h), or fed Cd-contaminated algae ({approx}70 nmol Cd g{sup -1} dry weight; 4 x 4 h). In this latter case, the bivalves were allowed to depurate for up to 8 days after the end of the feeding phase. As anticipated, the gills were the main target organ during the aqueous Cd exposure whereas the intestine was the initial site of Cd accumulation during the dietary exposure; during the subsequent depuration period, the dietary Cd accumulated in both the digestive gland and in the gills. For the gills, the distribution of Cd among the subcellular fractions (i.e., granules > heat-denatured proteins (HDP) {approx} heat-stable proteins (HSP) > mitochondria {approx} lysosomes + microsomes) was insensitive to the exposure route; both waterborne and diet-borne Cd ended up largely bound to the granule fraction. The subcellular distribution of Cd in the digestive gland differed markedly from that in the gills (HDP > HSP {approx} granules {approx} mitochondria > lysosomes + microsomes), but as in the case of the gills, this distribution was relatively insensitive to the exposure route. For both the gills and the digestive gland, the subcellular distributions of Cd differed from those observed in native bivalves that are chronically exposed to Cd in the field - in the short-term experimental exposures of P. grandis, metal detoxification was less effective than in chronically exposed native bivalves.

  11. The Composition Analysis of Essential Oil from Leaves of Eucalyptus grandis%巨桉叶精油的化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉红; 周贤闯; 周小柳; 黄琼

    2011-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法从100 g巨按叶中提取得到1.26 mL精油,利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用方法分析鉴定了巨按叶精油的主要化学成分.从巨桉叶精油中鉴定出44种化合物,占总流出峰面积的71.087%,巨桉叶精油的主要成分为对伞花烃(26.794%)、α-蒎烯(15.864%)、1,8-按叶油素(6.281%)、α-松油醇(4.100%)、柠檬烯(3.614%)和龙脑(2.519%).%The essential oil of the air-dry leaves from Eucalyptus grandis was obtained by steam distillation and the yield was 1.26 mL oil per 100 g material. The volatile components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS)method. 44 compounds in essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis were identified, amounting to 71.087% of the total area of the peaks. The principal constituents were p-cymene (26.794%), α-pinene (15.864%), 1,8-cineole (6.281%), α-terpineol (4.100%), limonene (3.614%) and borneol(2.519%).

  12. Transcriptomic profiling of differential responses to drought in two freshwater mussel species, the giant floater Pyganodon grandis and the pondhorn Uniomerus tetralasmus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Luo

    Full Text Available The southeastern US has experienced recurrent drought during recent decades. Increasing demand for water, as precipitation decreases, exacerbates stress on the aquatic biota of the Southeast: a global hotspot for freshwater mussel, crayfish, and fish diversity. Freshwater unionid mussels are ideal candidates to study linkages between ecophysiological and behavioral responses to drought. Previous work on co-occurring mussel species suggests a coupling of physiology and behavior along a gradient ranging from intolerant species such as Pyganodon grandis (giant floater that track receding waters and rarely burrow in the substrates to tolerant species such as Uniomerus tetralasmus (pondhorn that rarely track receding waters, but readily burrow into the drying sediments. We utilized a next-generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq approach to examine heat/desiccation-induced transcriptomic profiles of these two species in order to identify linkages between patterns of gene expression, physiology and behavior. Sequencing produced over 425 million 100 bp reads. Using the de novo assembly package Trinity, we assembled the short reads into 321,250 contigs from giant floater (average length 835 bp and 385,735 contigs from pondhorn (average length 929 bp. BLAST-based annotation and gene expression analysis revealed 2,832 differentially expressed genes in giant floater and 2,758 differentially expressed genes in pondhorn. Trancriptomic responses included changes in molecular chaperones, oxidative stress profiles, cell cycling, energy metabolism, immunity, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Comparative analyses between species indicated significantly higher induction of molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal elements in the intolerant P. grandis as well as important differences in genes regulating apoptosis and immunity.

  13. Transcriptomic profiling of differential responses to drought in two freshwater mussel species, the giant floater Pyganodon grandis and the pondhorn Uniomerus tetralasmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yupeng; Li, Chao; Landis, Andrew Gascho; Wang, Guiling; Stoeckel, James; Peatman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The southeastern US has experienced recurrent drought during recent decades. Increasing demand for water, as precipitation decreases, exacerbates stress on the aquatic biota of the Southeast: a global hotspot for freshwater mussel, crayfish, and fish diversity. Freshwater unionid mussels are ideal candidates to study linkages between ecophysiological and behavioral responses to drought. Previous work on co-occurring mussel species suggests a coupling of physiology and behavior along a gradient ranging from intolerant species such as Pyganodon grandis (giant floater) that track receding waters and rarely burrow in the substrates to tolerant species such as Uniomerus tetralasmus (pondhorn) that rarely track receding waters, but readily burrow into the drying sediments. We utilized a next-generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq approach to examine heat/desiccation-induced transcriptomic profiles of these two species in order to identify linkages between patterns of gene expression, physiology and behavior. Sequencing produced over 425 million 100 bp reads. Using the de novo assembly package Trinity, we assembled the short reads into 321,250 contigs from giant floater (average length 835 bp) and 385,735 contigs from pondhorn (average length 929 bp). BLAST-based annotation and gene expression analysis revealed 2,832 differentially expressed genes in giant floater and 2,758 differentially expressed genes in pondhorn. Trancriptomic responses included changes in molecular chaperones, oxidative stress profiles, cell cycling, energy metabolism, immunity, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Comparative analyses between species indicated significantly higher induction of molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal elements in the intolerant P. grandis as well as important differences in genes regulating apoptosis and immunity.

  14. Collection and Storage of Tectona grandis Pollen%柚木花粉收集与贮藏研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂华; 梁坤南; 林明平; 周再知; 马华明

    2012-01-01

    Anthesis pheology, pollen collection, viability determination and storage of Tectona grandis L. f. were introduced and studied,the results showed that pollen can be collected by water culture method and bagged method, the time for pollen collection of Indian provenances and Burma provenances were 9 to 11 o-clock and 11 to 13 o-clock,respectively. The pollen viability rose first and then decreased after anthesis,it have highest viability after anthesis 1. 5 h and no longer viable after 4. 5 h. The pollen viability decreased fast after collected and put in room temperature for wind to dry, it no longer viable after collected 2 h. The viability of pollen stored in 5 ℃ and - 15 ℃ rose first and then decreased, both of the pollen lost viability at 330 day. Both pollen germination rate and pollen tube length of pollen stored in 5 X decreased fast than that of - 15 ℃, pollen storage effect of - 15 ℃ was better than 5 ℃. Pollen stored in - 15 ℃. for 240 day can be used for controlled pollination among different teak provenances or different species of Tectona.%介绍了柚木开花生物学特性,开展了柚木花粉收集、活力测定、贮藏方法及其效果的研究.结果表明:柚木花粉收集可采用水培法和套袋法;不同种源收集花粉时间不同,印度种源和缅甸种源分别为09:~11:00时和11:00~13:00时;花开放后,花粉活力是先升后降,1.5h后花粉活力最强,4.5h后花粉即失去萌发力;随着贮藏时间的延长,5℃和-15℃干燥贮藏花粉的活力逐渐下降,贮藏到330 d,5℃和- 15℃的花粉都失去萌发力;在整个过程中,5℃的花粉萌发率和花粉管长度都比-15℃下降速度快;-15℃柚木花粉的贮藏效果优于5℃;-15℃干燥贮藏240d的柚木花粉,可满足当年柚木花期不同的种源间或柚木属不同种间人工杂交授粉.

  15. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae Application of an alternative technique for physical soil management in cultivation of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of growth of Eucalyptus grandis non-regularization when subjected to the ground. Relying on "Optical Chaos Theory" and starting from the assumption that the reforested

  16. Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Soares Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae. Coleopterans of the family Melolonthidae comprise a large group of species that feed on different food sources, including plant roots, stems, and leaves, in addition to plant materials at different decomposition stages. Several species are found in the genus Leucothyreus, occurring in different regions of Brazil, including the various biomes in the country. Information on the biology of species of the genus Leucothyreus is scarce, therefore, we conducted studies on the biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard, 1850. The period of adult occurrence was determined with a light trap installed between a cropped and pasture area in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Adults collected in the field were used to form insect pairs and the studies were initiated in the entomology laboratory as the adults began ovipositing. Adults were observed flying in the field from October to December. Eggs were obtained as pairs were formed and a colony was established, the embryonic period lasting 14.6 days on average. The larval period in the 1st instar lasted 21.6 days, in the 2nd instar 19.6 days, and in the 3rd instar, 85.6 days. The head capsule width was 1.48 mm in the 1st instar, 2.44 mm in the 2nd, and 3.83 mm in 3rd larval instar. The pupal stage had an average duration of 35.5 days. The egg to adult period lasted 173.3 days. Morphometric information for the larval and adult stages is presented in this study.

  17. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  18. A family of chemoreceptors in Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohatmed Abdel-Latief

    Full Text Available Chemoperception in invertebrates is mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. To date nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of chemoperception in coleopteran species. Recently the genome of Tribolium castaneum was sequenced for use as a model species for the Coleoptera. Using blast searches analyses of the T. castaneum genome with previously predicted amino acid sequences of insect chemoreceptor genes, a putative chemoreceptor family consisting of 62 gustatory receptors (Grs and 26 olfactory receptors (Ors was identified. The receptors have seven transmembrane domains (7TMs and all belong to the GPCR receptor family. The expression of the T. castaneum chemoreceptor genes was investigated using quantification real- time RT-PCR and in situ whole mount RT-PCR analysis in the antennae, mouth parts, and prolegs of the adults and larvae. All of the predicted TcasGrs were expressed in the labium, maxillae, and prolegs of the adults but TcasGr13, 19, 28, 47, 62, 98, and 61 were not expressed in the prolegs. The TcasOrs were localized only in the antennae and not in any of the beetles gustatory organs with one exception; the TcasOr16 (like DmelOr83b, which was localized in the antennae, labium, and prolegs of the beetles. A group of six TcasGrs that presents a lineage with the sugar receptors subfamily in Drosophila melanogaster were localized in the lacinia of the Tribolium larvae. TcasGr1, 3, and 39, presented an ortholog to CO(2 receptors in D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae was recorded. Low expression of almost all of the predicted chemoreceptor genes was observed in the head tissues that contain the brains and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG. These findings demonstrate the identification of a chemoreceptor family in Tribolium, which is evolutionarily related to other insect species.

  19. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  20. Níveis de sombreamento na produção e desenvolvimento de mudas Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden Shading levels on production and development of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden seedlings Los niveles de sombra en la producción de plántulas y el desarrollo de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Fereira Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de los niveles de sombra en las plántulas de Eucalyptus grandis. Las plántulas fueron sometidas a los siguientes tratamientos: 0%, 18%, 30%, 50% y 70% de atenuación de la radiación solar a través de telas de color negro. El experimento se llevó a cabo en los meses de otoño de 2009 en la en lo vivero municipal de la ciudad de Catanduvas- PR durante un período de 90 días. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. La repicage de las plántulas de la semilleira para los tubetes ocurrió treinta días después de la siembra. A los 90 días se evaluó: altura de la parte aérea de las plantas, el número de hojas por planta, el diámetro del cuello, longitud de la raíz, peso fresco y seco de la hoja y cuello de la raíz. Para todas las variables dendrométricas evaluadas el efecto de los tratamientos fue significativo. Para la altura de la parte aérea, los tratamientos de 30 y 50% de sombra fueron superiores a los demás. Ya para el diámetro del cuello y el número de hojas, el tratamiento con pleno sol presento los valores más altos (0,20 y 15,2 g de hojas, respectivamente. Para la variable masa fresca y seca de hojas, cuello y de la raíz el tratamiento con 30% de sombra fue estadísticamente superior a los demás. La atenuación del 30% de la radiación solar ha proporcionado características dendométricas superiores de las plántulas a las variables analizadas para E. grandis.

    The goal of the work was to assess the influence of shading levels on seedling production of Eucalyptus grandis. The seedlings have been subjected to treatments: 0%; 18%; 30%; 50% and 70% attenuation of solar radiation through screens of polyolefins black coloring. The experiment was performed in autumn 2009 in the city hotbed of Catanduvas – PR, during a period of 90 days. The experiment

  1. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada pertanaman salak berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRISNANDARI TITIK MARYATI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2009. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada pertanaman salak berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein. Bioteknologi 6: 80-87. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman lundi putih (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein yang ditemukan di lahan pertanaman salak pondoh di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Pada masing-masing wilayah diambil lima titik sampling. Analisis morfologi lundi putih digunakan metode deskriptif, dan analisis pola pita protein digunakan analisis kualitatif berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita pada gel, dan secara kuantitatif berdasarkan nilai mobilitas relatif protein (RF. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sampel lundi putih di Kabupaten Sleman dan Magelang, berdasar karakter morfologi hanya satu spesies yaitu Holotrichia sp. Karakter pola pita protein sampel lundi putih dari Sleman dan Magelang mempunyai perbedaan jumlah pita protein dan berat molekulnya.

  2. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, Ainsley E; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D

    2009-04-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as 'living jewels', in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles.

  3. Novas espécies de Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae da Bolívia

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas da Bolívia, Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.New species of Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae from Bolivia. New species described from Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.

  4. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musa spp. EN COLOMBIA

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    PAULA A. SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

  5. Tiger Beetles' (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) pupal stage: current state of knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M

    2017-01-26

    The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.

  6. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern

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    SUGIYARTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. This research aims to find out the white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera variability based on the morphological characteristic and protein banding pattern found in ”salak pondoh” farm in Regencies of Sleman, Yogyakarta and Magelang, Central Java. Each area has five sampling points. Morphological analysis on white grub was conducted using descriptive method and analysis on protein banding pattern was conducted using qualitative analysis based on the presence or absent of band pattern on the gel, and qualitatively based on the relative mobility value (Rf of protein. The result indicated that the white grub in Sleman and Magelang, based on morphology characteristic is only one species, namely Holothricia sp. Based on the protein banding pattern, the white grub sample have differences of protein band number and protein molecular weight. Key words: Salacca zalacca, white grub, morphology, protein banding pattern.Abstrak. Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada pertanaman salak berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman lundi putih (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein yang ditemukan di lahan pertanaman salak pondoh di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Pada masing-masing wilayah diambil lima titik sampling. Analisis morfologi lundi putih digunakan metode deskriptif, dan analisis pola pita protein digunakan analisis kualitatif berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita pada gel, dan secara kuantitatif berdasarkan nilai mobilitas relatif protein (RF. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sampel lundi putih di Kabupaten Sleman dan Magelang, berdasar karakter

  7. Wireworms’ Management: An Overview of the Existing Methods, with Particular Regards to Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae

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    Fanny Barsics

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research.

  8. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  9. New distribution record of Cybocephalus kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico

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    Jean Carlos Curbelo-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New distribution record of Cybocephalus Kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico. A new record of Cybocephalus kathrynae T.R. Smith (Cybocephalidae is reported for Puerto Rico. Adults were collected from the flowers of Mammillaria nivosa (Cactaceae on Mona Island Reserve. Prior to this study, this beetle species was only reported for Monroe and Miami-Dade Counties, Florida, USA.

  10. The Alticini (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae) of Sicily: Recent records and updated checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Cosimo Baviera; Maurizio Biondi

    2015-01-01

    This paper compiles an updated checklist of the Sicilian flea beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) by a critical bibliographic screening and adding new material, mainly collected by the first author in the last few decades. The data provided expand the known distribution of many poorly known species in Sicily. An updated checklist of the species recorded from the island, including those based on unpublished data or extracted from recently examined material, is sup...

  11. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Lúcia M. de Almeida; Ivani de Oliveira Negrão Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvo...

  12. A New Seed Beetle Species to the Bulgarian Fauna: Bruchidius siliquastri, Delobel (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae

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    Anelia M. Stojanova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A seed beetle Bruchidius siliquastri DELOBEL, 2007 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae was reared from ripe pods of Cercis siliquastrum (Fabaceae in Bulgaria and this is the first record of the species to the Bulgarian fauna. New host plants of the bruchid species were established on the basis of material collected in Hungary: Cercis occidentalis, Cercis chinensis and Cercis griffithii. A rich hymenopteran complex associated with the seed beetle was reared and comments on it are presented.

  13. A New Seed Beetle Species to the Bulgarian Fauna: Bruchidius siliquastri, Delobel (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Anelia M. Stojanova; Zoltán György; Zoltán László

    2011-01-01

    A seed beetle Bruchidius siliquastri DELOBEL, 2007 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reared from ripe pods of Cercis siliquastrum (Fabaceae) in Bulgaria and this is the first record of the species to the Bulgarian fauna. New host plants of the bruchid species were established on the basis of material collected in Hungary: Cercis occidentalis, Cercis chinensis and Cercis griffithii. A rich hymenopteran complex associated with the seed beetle was reared and comments on it are prese...

  14. Especies mexicanas de Curculionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) asociadas con agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Romo; Morrone, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Se estudiaron las especies de picudos o gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) asociadas con agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae) en México. Se registraron 5 especies asociadas con especies de Agave, Furcraea, Hesperoyucca, Polianthes y Yucca; de éstas, 4 pertenecen a la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Scyphophorus acupunctatus, S. yuccae, Rhinostomus frontalis y Cactophagus spinolae) y 1 a la Baridinae (Peltophorus polymitus). Se presentan diagnosis, ilustraciones y una clave para la identificación de...

  15. Development of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae in larvae of Chaetonyx robustus (Coleoptera: Orphnidae

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    Denis Gradinarov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev, 1934 infects and reproduces in larvae of Chaetonyx robustus Schaum, 1862 (Coleoptera: Orphnidae, isolated from soil of the same habitat. Insects of the family Orphnidae are reported for the first time as hosts of entomopathogenic nematodes. Lack of establishment of natural infected larvae may be due to the lower susceptibility of C. robustus to nematode invasion and random factors related to the spatial distribution of infective juveniles in soil.

  16. Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

  17. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea

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    Paolo Audisio

    2015-04-01

    Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde.

  18. Walking Responses of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to Its Aggregation Pheromone and Odors of Wheat Infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, B J; Cai, L; Faucher, C; Michie, M; Berna, A; Ren, Y; Anderson, A; Chyb, S; Xu, W

    2017-03-03

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a worldwide pest of stored grains. Using "Y"-tube olfactometry we studied the response of T. castaneum to odors from simulated wheat infestations containing conspecifics, and infestations containing the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tribolium castaneum larvae were significantly attracted to odors from all three test species. Tribolium castaneum adults were attracted to grains infested by R. dominica and flour infested by T. castaneum but repelled from grains infested by S. granarius. Further behavioral analysis with pheromones showed that T. castaneum were significantly attracted to their aggregation pheromone, dimethyldecanal (DMD), but not to the R. dominica aggregation pheromone, a mixture of dominicalure 1 and 2. Female T. castaneum adults were attracted to ∼50-fold less DMD than larvae and 100-fold less than male adults, suggesting they are more sensitive to DMD. This study improves our understanding of T. castaneum behaviors to infested grain volatile compounds and pheromones, and may help develop new control methods for grain pest species.

  19. 尾巨桉液流特征分析%Analysis on sap flow characteristics of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翠鸣; 黄玉清; 顾大形; 赵平; 张德楠; 姚月锋

    2016-01-01

    Large number of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis plantations have been planted in the southern area of Chi-na, especially in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in the recent years. The influence of water use efficiency in sus-tainable forest development and water resources management has been receiving increasing attention. Therefore, under- standing the water use characteristics is important. The Granier thermal dissipation probe method ( TDP ) is commonly used to monitor tree trunk flow. The sap flow density ( SFD) was monitored in four years E. urophylla × E. grandis plan-tation for one and a half years by Granier TDP at Guangxi Huangmian forest. The change in regularity of SFD, the SFD in trees of different diameters at breast height and the relationship between the SFD and the environmental factors were studied. The results showed that average daily SFD was 830. 1 L . m-2 . d-1 , and the maximum value did not exceed 2 000 L.m-2 .d-1 , when compared with similar studies, these results were relatively low. Because tree trunk was the main part of the plant for water transport, it was necessary to analyze the tree trunk sap flow density( SFD) change at about different diameters at breast height of E. urophylla × E. grandis. There was a positive correlation between SFD and diameter. The SFD was similar when the DBH (diameter at breast height) were in the same diameter class. The SFD varied from tree to tree with different values of maximum and minimum SFD ( 1 300 L . m-2 . d-1 at most ) . This was mainly caused by the different water absorbing capacities of trees. Many studies showed that photosynthetic active radia-tion and vapor pressure deficit( VPD) were the main factors of tree canopy transpiration. The SFD and VPD, photosyn-thetic active radiation ( PAR) displayed similar trend over the study period and exhibited a unimodal curve. The value of SFD was higher in summer and fall, and lower in spring and winter. The relation between SFD and PAR showed signifi

  20. Espécies de Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini ocorrentes na Bolívia Species of Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini occurring in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini occurring in Bolivia. The genus Gorybia (Cerambycinae, Piezocerini consists of 45 described species with seven species recorded from Bolivia. Nine new species are described herein from Bolivia: G. abnormalis sp. nov.; G. alveolata sp. nov.; G. asyka sp. nov.; G. florida sp. nov.; G. inarmata sp. nov.; G. longithorax sp. nov.; G. guenda sp. nov.; G. tuberosa sp. nov. and G. wappesi sp. nov. A key to the species now known to occur in Bolivia is included.

  1. Somatic embryogenesis of Torreya grandis 'Merrillii'%香榧体细胞胚发生的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚进; 黄坚钦; 胡恒康; 裘林艳; 朱旻华; 张启香

    2013-01-01

    以香榧Torreya grandis‘Merrillii’胚为外植体,研究了基本培养基、复合添加物、碳源以及植物生长调节物质对愈合组织形成的影响,筛选出胚性愈合组织诱导和增殖的适宜条件,并初步进行了体细胞胚的诱导与萌发试验.结果表明:Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH)是最佳基本培养基,碳源以蔗糖最好,在SH中添加谷氨酰胺,愈合组织诱导率显著高于其他处理,达50.8%;低浓度的萘乙酸(NAA)或2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-D)能够促进愈合组织的诱导,NAA的促进作用比2,4-D明显,当NAA的质量浓度为0.1 mg·L-1时,愈合诱导率显著高于其他处理,达60.1%;SH+0.1 mg.L-1 NAA+30 g·L-1蔗糖是愈合组织形成的最佳条件,SH+0.05 mg.L-1 NAA+30 g·L-1蔗糖为胚性愈合组织形成和增殖的最适宜培养基;胚性愈合组织在添加有脱落酸(ABA)和聚乙二醇(PEG) 6000的SH培养基上,可形成体胚,以1/2SH作为萌发培养基,体胚在1 200 lx光照下的萌发效果比黑暗条件下好.%To establish somatic embryogenesis protocols for Torreya grandis 'Merrillii', immature embryos were used as explants. The effects of different basal mediums (SH, MS, B5), organic additives (glutamine (Glu), casein hydrolysate (CH), myo-inositol), carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, maltose), and plant growth regulators (PGRs) (N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) , Kinetin (KT) , 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) orBA, KT, a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for the initiation of primary callus were tested. Optimal PGRs for induction and proliferation of embryogenic tissue were determined, and a study on somatic embryo induction (SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0.25 mg·L-1 2,4-D, SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 2,4-D and SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 NAA respectively) and germination (SH supplemented with ABA or PEG) was carried out. Results showed that callus initiation frequency for SH supplemented with Glu was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than

  2. Residue trend of imidacloprid in fruits of Citrus grandis%吡虫啉在化橘红果中的残留动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海莉; 程惠珍; 李少南; 陈君; 陈荣敏; 覃蓉敏; 徐常青; 于晶; 徐荣; 李向明

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究低毒内吸性杀虫剂吡虫啉在化橘红果实中的残留动态.方法:在化橘红采果前期,树干基部注射吡虫啉可溶性溶液,施药后定期采集化橘红果实,采用高效液相色谱法测定果实中吡虫啉的残留量.结果:以每厘米树干胸径注入0.8mL吡虫啉药剂后,化橘红果实中的农药残留量始终保持在很低的水平;以每厘米树干胸径注入1.5 mL吡虫啉药剂后,前7 d果实中的农药残留量一直在很低的水平,7 d后迅速上升,14 d时达到高峰,之后逐渐下降,30 d降至0.835 mg·kg-1,低于国内和国际上吡虫啉在柑橘类成果中最大残留限量(MRLs≤1 mg·kg-1).以施用1.5 mL·cm-1吡虫啉药剂对化橘红蛀茎害虫的防治效果最佳.结论:在化橘红果实采收期前30 d,以每厘米树干胸径注入1.5 mL吡虫啉药液,能有效地防治化橘红蛀茎害虫,且果实中的农药残留量始终在安全范围内.%Objective : To study on residue trend of imidacloprid in fruits of Citrus grandis. Methods : It was examined by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) after trunk injection. Results : The residue of imidacloprid remained a low period in fruits of C. grandis after injection with 0. 8 mL · cm-1 diluted of imidacloprid. When the trunk was injected with 1. 5 mL · cm -1 diluted of imidacloprid, the residue level of imidacloprid in fruits increased on the 7th day immediately. And the peak level was detected on the 14th day after the treatment. The level of imidacloprid in fruits was 0. 835 mg · kg-1 in the 30th day, which was lower than MRLs ( 1 mg · kg-1). Conclusions:When imidacloprid through trunk injection was applied to control bore pests of C. grandis,which was diluted with 1. 5 mL · cm -1 ,the safe interval period was more than 30 d.

  3. Grandi e piccoli eventi nelle città di mare per mutamenti urbani sostenibili: i casi studio di Lorient e Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Clemente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In generale, i grandi eventi sono considerati dalle città come la possibilità di realizzare nuove architetture e infrastrutture, per migliorare gli spazi pubblici e dare risonanza internazionale alla città stessa. In molte città contemporanee, la ristrutturazione economica e la riqualificazione urbana posto gli eventi al centro delle strategie di cambiamento.Spesso, tuttavia, questi interventi richiedono un tempo molto breve e investimenti elevati, che non sempre hanno un effetto duraturo nel tempo, con edifici e spazi che, dopo l'evento, si trasformano in spazi pubblici inutilizzati o edifici che devono essere riqualificati.Le città costiere rappresentano un campo privilegiato di analisi per approfondire le dinamiche dei processi di sviluppo e di rigenerazione connessi ad eventi.Alcune città hanno potenziato la propria identità marittima sviluppando attività legate alla vela, eventi sportivi velici e la nautica da diporto, promuovendo la crescita sociale ed economica, nonché la riqualificazione delle aree dismesse. Il recupero di questa identità è il punto di partenza per migliorare la qualità urbana e attrarre grandi eventi, sviluppando la competitività in un circolo virtuoso.L'immagine di queste città è migliorata, a livello locale, nazionale e internazionale, promuovendo processi di riqualificazione che hanno coinvolto i responsabili politici, gli utenti della città e gli stakeolders.Nei casi di successo, i grandi e i piccoli eventi rappresentano tessere di un mosaico più ampio, una visione della città fondata sulla identità marittima e il progetto di riqualificazione del waterfront è stato in grado di rafforzare le relazioni con le aree urbane esistenti.Il saggio propone due casi di studio europei, le città di Lorient e Valencia, mettendo in evidenza il ruolo della pianificazione a lungo termine nei processi di rigenerazione.La città di Lorient, in linea con la sua storia, ha iniziato un processo di rigenerazione

  4. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-07-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  5. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of the Extracts and Chemical Constituents of an Endemic Turkish Plant, Salsola grandis

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    Nurgün Küçükboyacı

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salsola is one of the largest and most important genera in the family Chenopodiaceae. Salsola species are used for their anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anthelmintic and antipruritic effects and also as diuretic in traditional medicines worldwide. The aim of the present study is to assess the activity potential of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds from the aerial parts of and Salsola grandis, an endemic species in Turkey in a scientific platform. The effects of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds were investigated using in vivo experimental models of inflammation and pain in mice, and also total phenolic content of the plant was determined. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced paw edema and for the assessment of antinociceptive activity, p-benzoquinone-induced nociception tests in mice were employed. The crude ethanol extract of the plant was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts, namely n-hexane, CHCl 3, EtOAc, n-BuOH and remaining water subextracts. Further studies were carried out on the bioactive n -BuOH subextract. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures from active fraction , ten flavonoids, i sorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside(1, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2,quercetin-3-O-metylether (3,tiliroside (4, isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide (5, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6,quercetin-3-O-galactoside (7, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (8,quercetin (9 and manghaslin (10, and two oleanane-type saponins, momordin II b (11 andmomordin II c (12, and one amino acid derivative compound, N-acetyltryptophan (13 were isolated, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of 1 , 4, 6, 7 and 12 were investigated firstly in this study, and 4 and 7 were found to have the most potent inhibitory activity in used models. The present study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive

  6. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M

    2016-02-01

    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer.

  7. Especies mexicanas de Curculionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera asociadas con agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae Mexican species of Curculionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera associated to agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Romo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las especies de picudos o gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociadas con agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae en México. Se registraron 5 especies asociadas con especies de Agave, Furcraea, Hesperoyucca, Polianthes y Yucca; de éstas, 4 pertenecen a la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Scyphophorus acupunctatus, S. yuccae, Rhinostomus frontalis y Cactophagus spinolae y 1 a la Baridinae (Peltophorus polymitus. Se presentan diagnosis, ilustraciones y una clave para la identificación de las 5 especies de curculiónidos asociados con agaves. Se establecen las siguientes sinonimias: Sphenophorus validus LeConte, 1858 = Cactophagus spinolae (Gyllenhal, 1838; y Zygops polymitus seminiveus LeConte, 1884, Z. p. leopardinus Desbrochers, 1891 y Z. p. suffusus Casey, 1892 = Peltophorus polymitus Boheman, 1845.Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated with agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae from Mexico are analyzed. Five species were recorded associated with species of Agave, Furcraea, Hesperoyucca, Polianthes, and Yucca. Four of these species belong to the subfamily Dryophthorinae (Scyphophorus acupunctatus, S. yuccae, Rhinostomus frontalis, and Cactophagus spinolae and 1 belongs to the subfamily Baridinae (Peltophorus polymitus. Diagnoses, illustrations and a key are presented for identifying the 5 species of weevils found on agaves. The following synonymies are established: Sphenophorus validus LeConte, 1858 = Cactophagus spinolae (Gyllenhal, 1838; and Zygops polymitus seminiveus LeConte, 1884, Z. p. leopardinus Desbrochers, 1891, and Z. p. suffusus Casey, 1892 = Peltophorus polymitus Boheman, 1845.

  8. Key to larvae of the South American subfamilies of weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea Clave para larvas de las subfamilias sudamericanas de gorgojos (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

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    ADRIANA E. MARVALDI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from South America are classsified into seven families and 28 subfamilies as follows: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae and Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae and Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae and Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae and Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae and Platypodinae. A dichotomous key for the larval stage is provided for identification of the families and subfamilies of Curculionoidea present in South America. The key is based on external morphological characters and contains data on larval feeding habitsLos gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea de Sudamérica están clasificados en siete familias y 28 subfamilias como se muestra a continuación: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae y Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae y Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae y Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae y Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae y Platypodinae. Se brinda una clave dicotómica para el estado de larva de Curculionoidea en Sudamérica, para su determinación a nivel de familias y subfamilias. La clave está basada sobre caracteres morfológicos externos y se presentan además datos de hábitos alimentarios

  9. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced.

  10. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects.

  11. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  12. Influência da idade e da posição ao longo do tronco na composição química da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden Influence of age and position along the trunk on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou a variação da composição química na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos, proveniente de talhões comerciais. As amostras foram coletadas de tr��s discos, retirados da base e das extremidades das duas primeiras toras, de 3 m cada uma, de 16 árvores (quatro para cada idade, totalizando 48 discos. Os valores médios dos teores de holocelulose, lignina e extrativos foram de 69, 27 e 4%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os teores de extrativos e lignina aumentaram com a idade, com maiores concentrações nos discos próximos da base; verificou-se, também, que o teor de holocelulose diminuiu com a idade, com maiores concentrações nos discos retirados nas regiões superiores do tronco.The objective of this work was to study the chemical composition variation of the Eucalyptus grandis wood, of four different ages (10,14,20 and 25 years, from commercial stands. The samples were removed from three disks taken from the base and top of the first two 3 m logs, from sixteen trees (four per age, totalizing fourty-eight discs. The mean values of holocellulose, lignin and extractive contents were 69, 27 and 4%, respectively. The extractive and lignin contents increased with age, with greater concentrations near the base; the holocellulose content also decreased with age with greater concentrations in discs removed from the upper parts of the trunk.

  13. Influência de idade e da posição radial nas dimensões das fibras e dos vasos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden Influence of age and radial position on fiber and vessel dimensions of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a variação das dimensões das fibras e dos vasos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis com quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos, proveniente de talhões comerciais. A amostragem do material na árvore foi feita através da coleta de três discos, retirados da base e das extremidades das duas primeiras toras, ambas com o comprimento comercial de 3 m. De cada disco, retiraram-se cinco amostras, de dimensões 1,0 x 1,0 x 1,0 cm, tomadas de pontos eqüidistantes, correspondentes a 0; 25; 50; 75; e 100% da seção, no sentido radial medula-casca, fazendo-se a medição das fibras e dos vasos. Verificou-se, em todos os parâmetros, o efeito da idade e da variação radial, no sentido medula-casca, à exceção da largura e do diâmetro do lume das fibras; todos os demais parâmetros apresentaram correlação positiva.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of wood quantitative anatomical characteristics (fibers and vessels of Eucalyptus grandis of four different ages (10, 14, 20 and 25 years, obtained from commercial stands. Tree material sampling was collected from three disks in the bottom and top of the first two logs, both three m long. Five samples were collected from each disc at the pith-to-bark direction at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the radii. In all cases, age and pith-to-bark direction were observed to have a marked influence on all the assays, except for fiber lumen diameter and width; all the other parameters showed a positive correlation.

  14. The tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) subfamily of Eucalyptus grandis: Characterization of EgTIP2, a root-specific and osmotic stress-responsive gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcela I; Bravo, Juliana P; Sassaki, Flávio T; Severino, Fábio E; Maia, Ivan G

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins have important roles in various physiological processes in plants, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, a gene encoding a root-specific tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) from Eucalyptus grandis (named EgTIP2) was investigated. The root-specific expression of EgTIP2 was validated over a panel of five eucalyptus organ/tissues. In eucalyptus roots, EgTIP2 expression was significantly induced by osmotic stress imposed by PEG treatment. Histochemical analysis of transgenic tobacco lines (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) harboring an EgTIP2 promoter:GUS reporter cassette revealed major GUS staining in the vasculature and in root tips. Consistent with its osmotic-stress inducible expression in eucalyptus, EgTIP2 promoter activity was up-regulated by mannitol treatment, but was down-regulated by abscisic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that EgTIP2 might be involved in eucalyptus response to drought. Additional searches in the eucalyptus genome revealed the presence of four additional putative TIP coding genes, which could be individually assigned to the classical TIP1-5 groups.

  15. Morphological parameters and genetic diversity of progenies from seed production areas and unimproved stands of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Lyngdoh; Geeta Joshi; G. Ravikanth; R. Vasudeva; R. Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    We compared morphological and genetic attributes of prog-eny obtained from three seed production areas (SPAs) and three corre-sponding unimproved stands (UIS) of teak (Tectona grandis L.f) at three broad teak growing regions in the state of Karnataka, India. In general, seed morphological parameters such as seed weight, seed size and seed emptiness were significantly superior in SPAs compared to UISs. Seed germination percentage was also higher in seeds from SPAs. Seedling performance measured at two monthly intervals for six months was ob-served to be superior in SPAs at two of the three regions compared. Although the genetic diversity of progeny of SPAs was lower than UIS at all regions, the values were moderately high. Germination percent was positively correlated with fruit weight and kernel weight per seed, while diversity indices were negatively correlated with fruit weight, fruit di-ameter and kernel weight per seed. SPAs proved important as a source of moderately improved planting material with no severe threat to the ge-netic diversity of future plantations.

  16. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla NA QUALIDADE DA POLPA BRANQUEADA

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    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  17. Stomatal Conductance and Chlorophyll Characteristics and Their Relationship with Yield of Some Cocoa Clones Under Tectona grandis, Leucaena sp., and Cassia surattensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An optimum physiological condition will support high yield and quality of cocoa production. The research was aimed to study the effects of stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content related to cocoa production under three shade regimes.This research was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station, elevation of 45 m above sea level with D climate type based on Schmidt & Fergusson. Cocoa trees which were planted in 1994 at a spacing of 3 X 3 m were used in the study planted by using split plot design. The shade tree species were teak (Tectona grandis, krete (Cassiasurattensis, and lamtoro (Leucaena sp. as the main plots, and cocoa clones of Sulawesi 01,Sulawesi 02, KKM 22 and KW 165 as sub plots. This study showed that there was interaction between cocoa clone and shade species for stomatal conductance where stomatal diffusive resistance of KKM 22 was the best under Leucaena sp.and Cassiasurattensis with the values of 1.38 and 1.34 s.cm -1, respectively. The highest chlorophyll content, stomatal index and transpiration values was under Leucaena sp. shade. There was positive correlation between chlorophyll content and transpiration with pod yield of cocoa. The highest yield and the lowest bean count wereobtainedon Sulawesi 01 clone under Leucaenasp. shade.Keywords: stomatal conductance, transpiration, diffusive resistance, shades trees, clones,pod yield

  18. Effect of thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of wood from Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Moura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment (thermal rectification is a process in which technological properties of wood are modified using thermal energy, the result of which is often value-added wood. Thermally treated wood takes on similar color shades to tropical woods and offers considerable resistance to destructive microorganisms and climate action, in addition to having high dimensional stability and low hygroscopicity. Wood samples of Eucalyptus grandis were subjected to various thermal treatments, as performed in presence (140ºC; 160ºC; 180ºC or in absence of oxygen (160ºC; 180ºC; 200ºC inside a thermal treatment chamber, and then studied as to their chemical characteristics. Increasing the maximum treatment temperatures led to a reduction in the holocellulose content of samples as a result of the degradation and volatilization of hemicelluloses, also leading to an increase in the relative lignin content. Except for glucose, all monosaccharide levels were found to decrease in samples after the thermal treatment at a maximum temperature of 200ºC. The thermal treatment above 160ºC led to increased levels of total extractives in the wood samples, probably ascribed to the emergence of low molecular weight substances as a result of thermal degradation. Overall, it was not possible to clearly determine the effect of presence or absence of oxygen in the air during thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of the relevant wood samples.

  19. Efeito da vaporização de toras na redução dos defeitos associados a tensões de crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate log steaming effect on the reduction of defects associated with residual growth stress of Eucalyptus grandis wood. There were used logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm, from the Horto Florestal, Manduri, São Paulo. Half of the logs was steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity. Subsequently, the logs were live sawn and the defects resulting from the growth stresses in logs of various diameter were measured. The results indicate that log steaming provided the release of a great part of the growth stresses, without eliminating them completely, showing, nevertheless, that this treatment is feasible and advisable for growth stress relief; the boards coming from heated logs of 20 to <25 cm presented, in general, larger defect reduction, showing that the smaller the log diameter the higher the efficiency of steam treatment at 90ºC of temperature during 20 hours.

  20. Identification of differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. during the pre-symbiotic phase of the ectomycorrhizal association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Coelho, Irene; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Costa, Maurício Dutra; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    The pre-symbiotic phase that precedes physical contact between symbionts is a crucial phase in determining their compatibility, allowing the formation of the ectomycorrhiza. A subtractive cDNA library representing the differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. in the pre-symbiotic phase was constructed using fungal mycelia obtained through the in vitro mycorrhization technique. The fungus was cultured in the presence of Eucalyptus grandis roots, but with no contact between the hyphae and the root system of the host plant. Genes that code for proteins related to carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms, transcription, and protein synthesis, cellular communication, signal transduction, stress response, transposons, and proteins related to the biogenesis of cell components were identified among the 131 expressed sequence tags. Expression of the genes that code for acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, a voltage-dependent protein from the selective ion channel, and hydrophobin was evaluated by the RT-qPCR technique, confirming the activation of these genes in this phase of the association.

  1. Espécies de Pisolitus sp. na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden em solo arenoso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Andreazza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a ação de isolados de fungos ectomicorrízicos nativos de São Francisco de Assis, na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, em solo arenoso, na presença de dois níveis de fósforo. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação num bifatorial (4 x 2 x 3, três tratamentos de fungos ectomicorrízicos ( FSE- S, F1-RS e Pt Silv.1 e uma testemunha, dois níveis de fósforo (natural ou existente no solo (8 mg.kg-1 e adição de 30 mg.kg-1 de fósforo, em três repetições. Avaliaram-se a massa verde da parte aérea e radicial, massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, diâmetro do colo, comprimento e área superficial específica radicial, colonização micorrízica e teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. A adição de fungos ectomicorrízicos nativos na produção de mudas apresentou resultados melhores do que os demais tratamentos aplicados, em solo arenoso.

  2. Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynen, Martina; Fick, Jerker; Jonsson, Micael; Klaminder, Jonatan; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems.

  3. Albucacrispa and A. grandis (Hyacinthaceae: Omithogaloideae, two new species of subgenus Albuca, the rediscovery of A. albucoides (sub­ genus Osmyne, and the identity of A. reflexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Albuca crispa is a new species of section Falconera series Trianthera with crispulate leaves from the Great Karoo, known  at least since 1947 but overlooked until now. A second new species. A grandis. from the southwestern Cape was previously included in  A. fragrans Jacq. (section  Falconera series  Falconera. It is a robust species that flowers in winter and early spring and the styles are rugulose with ± isodiametric epidermal cells, unlike typical  A. fragrans which is a more slender species flowering in early summer and with derived, smooth styles with fusiform epidermal cells. The recent discovery of a flowering population matching the type of A. albucoides (Aiton J.C.Manning & Goldblatt (subgenus Osmyne allows for a full description and illustration of this poorly know n and taxonomically neglected species that has often been included in A. suaveolens (Jacq. J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. Lastly, examination of the type  of A. reflexa Krause & Dinter from Namibia shows it to be conspecific w ith Drimia indica (Roxb. Jessop.

  4. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  5. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...

  6. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  7. Leaf beetles are ant-nest beetles: the curious life of the juvenile stages of case-bearers (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although some species of Cryptocephalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been documented with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for almost 200 years, information on this association is fragmentary. This contribution synthesizes scattered literature to determine the patterns in ant host use. Some degr...

  8. El picudo del algodonero en la Argentina: Principales resultados e implicancias de los estudios moleculares The cotton boll weevil in Argentina: Main results and implications of the molecular studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía A. Lanteri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Después de diez años del primer registro del picudo del algodonero, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, en la Argentina, el insecto ha llegado a la zona algodonera del Chaco. Los estudios moleculares realizados sobre poblaciones de la Argentina, Brasil y Paraguay, y posibles poblaciones fuente de EE.UU y México, han aportado información relevante para el control de la plaga. Se aplicaron las técnicas de RAPD (Polimorfismos del ADN Amplificados al Azar y de secuenciación de los genes mitocondriales de la Citocromo Oxidasa I y II, las cuales permitieron identificar dos linajes principales de picudos: a linajes con escasa o nula variabilidad medida en términos de heterocigosis y diversidad haplotípica, considerados colonizadores recientes, y asociados con ambientes xerófilos y cultivos de algodón (provincia de Formosa; b linajes con una elevada variabilidad y diversidad haplotípica, considerados ancestrales, y asociados con áreas de vegetación nativa de la selva misionera (Parque Nacional Iguazú. Se supone que ambos linajes tendrían diferentes orígenes, adaptaciones y preferencias de huéspedes, y que en este momento se estarían hidridando en zonas de ecotono. Se postula que el picudo se hallaría presente en América del Sur como consecuencia de una dispersión natural asociada principalmente con sus huéspedes silvestres de los géneros Gossypium y Cienfuegosia, probablemente desde el Pleistoceno. Por otra parte no se descarta la posibilidad de una o más introducciones desde EE.UU. hacia Brasil, mediante el comercio del algodón. Se destaca la importancia del cultivo extensivo del algodón, y de la deforestación y formación de corredores entre fragmentos de selva, para explicar la dispersión rápida de la plaga durante los últimos 20 años, en áreas algodoneras y/o no algodoneras pero afectadas por serios disturbios ambientales, como por ejemplo la provincia de Misiones.Ten years after the first record of

  9. Redescrição e transferência do gênero Fregolia Gounelle, 1911 para Callidiopini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Jose Ricardo M. Mermudes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Redescription and transference of the genus Fregolia Gounelle, 1911 to Callidiopini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The genus Fregolia is transferred from Cleomenini Lacordaire, 1869 to Callidiopini Lacordaire, 1869. The genus and its type species, Fregolia listropteroides Gounelle, 1911, the only known species to the genus, are redescribed including characters of the mouth pieces, endosternites, wing venation, and male and female terminalia.

  10. Veranderingen in de lijst van Nederlandse snuitkevers: Simo hirticornis vervalt voor onze fauna en S. variegates wordt toegevoegd (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman, T.

    2002-01-01

    Changes to the Dutch list of weevils: Simo hirticornis to be deleted and S. variegatus to be added (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Some years ago Palm (1995) discovered that the weevil ‘Simo hirticornis’ was a mixture of two species: S. hirticornis en S. variegatus. Dutch material from institutional co

  11. Microcenoscelis n. gen. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Ulomini) from tropical Africa, with description of a blind species from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawaller, Wolfgang

    2015-10-05

    Microcenoscelis n. gen. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Ulomini) caeca n. sp. is described from Zimbabwe, a small and completely blind species. A second known species, however with completely developed eyes, and originally described as Uloma minuscula Ardoin, 1969, was also placed in the new genus. Microcenoscelis n. gen. seems to be mostly related to the genera Cenoscelis Wollaston, 1867, and Cneocnemis Gebien, 1914.

  12. Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...

  13. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees of urban Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...

  14. Nuevos datos de distribución de los Cholevinae hipogeos del Atlas marroquí (Coleoptera, Leiodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresneda, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available New distribution data for the hypogean Cholevinae from the Moroccan Atlas (Coleoptera, Leiodidae The authors report new findings on the distribution of Speonemadus maroccanus (Jeannel, 1936, Nargus (Demochrus rufipennis (Lucas, 1846, Choleva (Choleva kocheri Henrot, 1962 and Catops fuscus fuscoides Reitter, 1909. The geonemy of these species is updated and the research is illustrated with maps of their distribution.

  15. A NOVEL CADHERIN-LIKE GENE FROM WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM, DIABROTICA VIRGIFERA VIRGIFERA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE), LARVAL MIDGUT TISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...

  16. Description and phylogeny of a new microsporidium from the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1766 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host ...

  17. Seasonal flight activity and distribution of metallic woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) collected in North Carolina and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...

  18. Biology and natural enemies of Agrilus fleischeri (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a newly emerging destructive buprestid pest in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The jewel beetle Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a newly emerging major pest of poplar trees (Populus spp.) in northeast China and is responsible for the poplar mortality throughout its distribution range. In order to determine how to manage this pest effectively, we stud...

  19. Effects of starvation and mating status on the activity of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Vermeer, K.M.C.A.; Verbaarschot, P.; Jong, de P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flea beetles are characterized by their tendency to jump. They can also fly. First, the effects of starvation on flight activity in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were determined. After starving P. nemorum for five days a greater number of individuals of both sex

  20. Effect of temperature on reproduction and embryonic development of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L., (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Sørensen, Helle; Bligaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. Despite the importance of this pest, detailed information on reproduction to predict risk of crop damage is lacking. This study investigates the effect of temperature...

  1. Book review: Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...

  2. From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

  3. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite markers in the root-gall-forming weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...

  4. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  5. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in diet mixtures comprised of four dif...

  6. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  7. Release and distribution of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of air potato (Dioscorea bulbilfera: Dioscoreaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...

  8. Records of unsuccessful attack by Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on broadleaf trees of questionable suitability in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...

  9. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  10. [Invasions of Paederus sabaeus (Coleoptera Staphylinidae) in central Africa. 1. Entomological and epidemiological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchenier, L; Mouchet, J; Cros, B; Legall, P; Cosnefroy, J Y; Quézédé, P; Chandenier, J

    1994-01-01

    In May 1993, at the end of the rainy season, outbreaks of Paederus sabaeus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) were recorded in Brazzaville (Congo), Kinshasa (Zaire), Franceville and Libreville (Gabon) and even in Bangui (CAR) at the North of the equator. A short review of previous outbreaks in Africa and on vesicant substances is given by the authors. These beetles are attracted to neon lights and they rest on the walls or on the skin of the occupants. When the insects are crushed on the bare skin their haemolymph liberate pederine and related vesicant components which provocate dermatitis. The insects disappeared spontaneously after three to four weeks.

  11. Bioluminescence emissions of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Gohain Barua; S Hazarika; N M Saikia; G D Baruah

    2009-09-01

    We recorded the in vivo emission and time-resolved spectra of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae). The emission spectrum shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for this particular species is 55 nm, which is significantly narrower than the in vivo half-widths reported till now. The time-resolved spectrum reveals that a flash of about 100 ms duration is, in fact, composed of a number of microsecond pulses. This suggests that the speed of the enzyme-catalysed chemiluminescence reaction in the firefly for the emission of light is much faster than was previously believed.

  12. Ancient hastisetae of Cretaceous carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in Myanmar amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George; Poinar, Roberta

    2016-11-01

    Hastisetae are extremely elaborate and intricate insect setae that occur solely on dermestid larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The present work characterizes hastisetae found in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar and compares them to hastisetae found on extant dermestid larvae. The presence of hastisetae in Myanmar amber shows that lineages of dermestid beetles had already developed hastisetae by the mid-Cretaceous and their presence allows us to follow the evolutionary development of this particular arthropod structure over the past 100 million years. Hastisetae attached to a parasitic wasp in the same piece of amber indicates that ancient dermestid beetles used their hastisetae for defense, similar to their function today.

  13. Evaluating Alpha and Beta Taxonomy in Ant-Nest Beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Paussini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fattorini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated completeness, accuracy, and historical trend of the taxonomic knowledge on the myrmecophilous ground beetle tribe Paussini (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Paussinae. Accumulation curves for valid names and synonyms of species, subgenera, and genera were modelled using logistic functions. Analyses of trends in synonymies suggest that few currently accepted taxa will be recognized to be synonymous in the future. This may indicate that Paussini are a taxonomically relatively stable tribe of carabid beetles. However, this result might also be due to the lack of recent taxonomic work in some biogeographical regions.

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPECIES OF BEETLES (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA FROM WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera between in wheat crops from Tişiţa, in Vrancea county. The observations were made in a crop of wheat in 2013, who were placed the soil traps type Barber, during the two months, May and June. It was used three variants: • Variant 1 - consumption wheat untreated • Variant 2 - consumption wheat treaty • Variant 3 - treated wheat seed The gathering of samples from the traps was done periodically, every 12-15 days. The most species frequent gathered was: Pentodon idiota, Epicometis hirta, Opatrum sabulosum, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nemorum, Tanymecus dilaticollis.

  15. An annotated checklist of click-beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platia, Giuseppe; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-07-11

    The fauna of Iranian Elateridae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) is summarized in this paper. In total 245 species from 58 genera and 7 subfamilies Agrypninae Candèze (13 genera, 36 species), Cardiophorinae Candèze (4 genera, 55 species), Cebrioninae Latreille (2 genera, 6 species), Dendrometrinae Gistel (13 genera, 28 species), Elaterinae Leach (23 genera, 104 species), Lissominae Laporte (1 genus, 1 species) and Negastriinae Nakane & Kishii (2 genera, 15 species) are listed in literature as the fauna of Iran. Totally 74 species are endemic to Iran.

  16. Espécies de Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini ocorrentes na Bolívia

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    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini occurring in Bolivia. The genus Gorybia (Cerambycinae, Piezocerini consists of 45 described species with seven species recorded from Bolivia. Nine new species are described herein from Bolivia: G. abnormalis sp. nov.; G. alveolata sp. nov.; G. asyka sp. nov.; G. florida sp. nov.; G. inarmata sp. nov.; G. longithorax sp. nov.; G. guenda sp. nov.; G. tuberosa sp. nov. and G. wappesi sp. nov. A key to the species now known to occur in Bolivia is included.

  17. Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Morón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico. Larvae of four species of Cyclocephala are described for the first time based on specimens collected in Mexican localities: C. barrerai Martínez, 1969 from Puebla, C. sinaloae Howden & Endrödi, 1966 from Sinaloa, C. fasciolata Bates, 1888 from Veracruz, and C. jalapensis Casey, 1915 from Hidalgo. Larva of C. lunulata Burmeister, 1847, is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Diagnostic structures are illustrated and the differences and similarities of each species with other previously described larvae of the genus are commented.

  18. Development of an attractant-baited trap for Oxythyrea funesta Poda (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuts, József; Imrei, Zoltán; Töth, Miklós

    2008-01-01

    In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.

  19. An annotated checklist of the aquatic Polyphaga (Coleoptera) of Egypt I. Family Hydraenidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Mohamed; Cueto, Juan Antonio Régil; Valladares, Luis F

    2014-10-16

    Data from previous literature were used to compile a checklist of the Egyptian fauna of Hydraenidae (Coleoptera). The checklist includes data on the type localities, type specimens, descriptors, distributions and previous literature for 15 valid species belonging to 3 genera (Hydraena, Limnebius and Ochthebius). Ochthebius was represented by 13 species, while Hydraena and Limnebius were represented only by a single species for each of them. The present study provides a summary that can serve as the basis for future progress in the knowledge of the Egyptian Hydraenidae. 

  20. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  1. Inconspicuous structural coloration in the elytra of beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.

  2. PITYOPHAGUS QUERCUS REITTER, 1877, A NEW SAPROXYLIC SAP BEETLE FOR THE ITALIAN FAUNA (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae

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    Paolo Audisio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During ecological investigations on saproxylic beetle communities of central Italy (Latium, at Bosco Polverino (a mixed evergreen/deciduous forest fragment dominated by cork oaks, and at Allumiere (a small fragment of beech forest surrounded by turkey oak stands, the authors found three specimens of Pityophagus quercus Reitter, 1877 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae. These are the first known records of this species in Italy, and the first one in association with an evergreen oak, Quercus suber. This discovery led us to review both bionomical and faunistic data so far available on this exceedingly rare and poorly known species.

  3. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

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    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  4. DAPSA GEMINA AUDISIO & DE BIASE, 1996, A NEW SPECIES OF THE EUROPEAN FAUNA (Coleoptera, Endomychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Audisio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During entomological research carried out in the Pontine Islands (central Italy, Latium, Latina province, Dapsa gemina Audisio & De Biase, 1996 (Coleoptera, Endomychidae, previously known only from coastal areas of NE Algeria, has been recorded in Italy and in Europe for the first time. This new record suggested the authors to shortly discuss the possible scenario of a relatively recent, late Pleistocene passive transportation of Dapsa gemina and of the related D. obscurissima Pic, 1904 (sharing a very similar disjunct geographic distribution by marine drift of masses of vegetal debris from North Africa.

  5. On the family- and genus-series nomina in Gyrinidae Latreille, 1810 (Coleoptera, Adephaga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B

    2013-10-29

    All available genus- and family- group nomina for the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) are listed along with original citation, original and current status, type nominal taxon with method of designation, and known synonymies and incorrect subsequent spellings. The nomina included follow the most current classification. Discussion is provided clarifying numerous nomenclatural problems with original spellings, correct authorship and type designation. Dineutini Ochs, 1926 syn. nov. is found to be a junior homonym of Dineutini Desmarest, 1851, and Enhydrini Régimbart, 1882 syn. nov. and its justified emendation Enhydrusini (Anonymous 2012) are here synonymized with Dineutini Desmarest, 1851.

  6. Bioluminescence emissions of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Gohain Barua; S Hazarika; N M Saikia; G D Baruah

    2009-06-01

    We recorded the in vivo emission and time-resolved spectra of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae). The emission spectrum shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for this particular species is 55 nm, which is significantly narrower than the in vivo half-widths reported till now. The time-resolved spectrum reveals that a flash of about 100 ms duration is, in fact, composed of a number of microsecond pulses. This suggests that the speed of the enzyme-catalysed chemiluminescence reaction in the firefly for the emission of light is much faster than was previously believed.

  7. Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae

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    Marianna V. P. Simões

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae. The male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824 are described and illustrated for the first time. The male reproductive system shows no difference from the subfamily pattern, which is a tubular well-developed median lobe; "Y", "V" or T-shaped tegmen; reduced pygidium; internal sac membranous and tubular; flagellum generally well developed needle-like structured and gastral spiculum absent. However, the female differs from the pattern proposed for Stolas in two aspects: ovary with 28 ovarioles and a reduced ampulla with indistinct velum.

  8. Australian marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 2. Pachycyphon, a new genus of presumably terrestrial Australian Scirtidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The genus Pachycyphon is erected for marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. The following species are included: P. corpulentus sp. n., P. crassus sp. n., P. elegans sp. n., P. funicularis sp. n., P. gravis sp. n., P. monteithi sp. n., P. obesus sp. n., P. pinguis sp. n., P. serratus sp. n., P. turgidus sp. n. (the type species). Females are wingless and have fossorial ovipositors, a terrestrial larval life is therefore hypothesized. Pachycyphon is compared with other genera, especially probable relatives from temperate rainforests in southeastern Australia.

  9. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nitu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalãu" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous,9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous,125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- andnecrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalãu primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slãtioara,Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles(Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing ofspecies richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  10. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the Northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nițu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalău" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous, 9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous, 125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- and necrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalău primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slătioara, Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles (Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing of species richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  11. Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB, fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³ e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³. Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 e ASTM-D 1037 (1991. Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 e CSA 0437-93 (1993. As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993. A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular, foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura. Somente a resistência

  12. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Brasília e no Laboratório de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Brasília, DF. Foram estudadas duas espécies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confecção de peças mobiliárias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades físicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecânicas (flexão estática e dureza extremamente positivas para a indústria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e máquinas, além de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar ótima aceitação do móvel fabricado com a espécie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades físicas e mecânicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta características desejadas para indústria moveleira. A sua coloração cinza oliva é uma opção para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espécie deverão ser tomados durante operações com máquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricação de piso.

  13. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.

  14. 基于电子舌技术对不同年份的化橘红的识别%Discrimination of Exocarpium Citri Grandis in Different Years Based on Electronic Tongue Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊萧萧; 王鲁峰; 徐晓云; 潘思轶; 王可兴

    2012-01-01

    不同年份的化橘红功效和价格均存在差异,为了快速识别未知橘红样品的年份,采用电子舌对2001~2010年的10个样品和一个盲样进行了分析.对原始数据采用主成分分析和判别因子分析.结果表明:主成分分析可以将不同年份的样品进行有效的区分,判别因子分析可以更好地区分不同年份的样品,并能进行盲样识别.在模式识别中,判别因子分析法的识别结果均优于主成分分析法,前者2个判别因子的累计方差贡献量达到了99.929%.电子舌可以较好地区分不同年份的化橘红,改进后有望应用于化橘红的快速检测.%The effect and price vary in Exocarpium Citri Grandis of different years. Ten samples of Exocarpium Citri Grandis produced from 2001 to 2010 were analyzed with electronic tongue to discriminate their ages. The study shows that both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Factor Analysis (DFA) can be used to discriminate samples of different years with the latter mathod being more accurate. In the pattern recognition, the result of DFA is also more accurate than PCA with the fact that its conmulative contribution of 2-dimentional principal component reached as high as 99.929%. In conclusion, electronic tongue can be utilized as an effective way to discriminate the age level of Exocarpium Citri Grandis. The results of this study suggest the possibility of application of the propsed method in the rapid detection and analysis of Exocarpium Citri Grandis in the process of production, sales, and other related fields.

  15. Variación en la resistencia de clones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) ante la infección de la roya (Olivea tectonae Rac.) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Arguedas-Gamboa, Marcela; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica; Murillo-Gamboa, Olman; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica; Ayuso, Federico; Expomaderas S.A.; Madrigal, Oscar; Expomaderas S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó una evaluación de resistencia de diferentes clones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) ante la infección de la roya (Olivea tectonae Rac.), en el jardín clonal de la empresa Expomaderas S.A., San Carlos, Costa Rica. Se evaluaron la incidencia clonal y la incidencia y severidad de la infección de 83 clones seleccionados de árboles plus en tres regiones geográficas de la zona norte del país: a) Los Chiles (San Emilio), b) Upala (Canalete), y c) El Concho (Pocosol, San Carlos) y Altamira d...

  16. Influence of a step-change in metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn) on metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning in a freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis: A long-term transplantation experiment between lakes with contrasting ambient metal levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bonneris, Emmanuelle [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Bayer S.A.S., Bayer CropScience, 16 Rue Jean-Marie Leclair, CP 90106, F 69266 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Michaud, Annick [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Direction des Évaluations environnementales, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 675, boul. René-Lévesque Est, 6e étage, Québec, QC G1R 5V7 (Canada); Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette [Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We transferred freshwater bivalves from a reference lake to a Cd and Zn contaminated lake. ? Changes in metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning were followed over time (up to 860 d). ? Metal detoxification strategies differed between target organs (gills vs. digestive gland). ? The ability to handle Cd is inherent in P. grandis, not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation. -- Abstract: The objective of the present field experiment was to identify detoxification responses in the gills and digestive gland of a freshwater unionid bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, subjected to a step-change in metal exposure. Adult bivalves were transferred from a reference site (Lake Opasatica) and a metal-contaminated lake (Lake Héva) to a second contaminated lake (Lake Vaudray) in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Changes in organ metal concentrations, in the subcellular distribution of metals and in metallothionein concentrations were followed over time (t = 0, 132, (400) and 860 days). At each collection time and for each bivalve, the gills and digestive gland were excised and gently homogenized; six sub-cellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation and analyzed for their Cd, Cu and Zn content, and metallothionein was quantified independently. Metal detoxification strategies were shown to differ between target organs: in the gills, incoming metals were sequestered largely in the granules, whereas in the digestive gland the same metals primarily accumulated in the cytosol, in the metallothionein-like protein fraction. These metal-handling strategies, as employed by the metal-naïve bivalves originating in the reference lake, closely resemble those identified in free-living P. grandis chronically exposed in the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that the ability to handle incoming metals (Cd in particular) is inherent in P. grandis and is not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation of the bivalve to metal-contaminated environments. The

  17. Ensayos de trabajabilidad de Tectona grandis L.f. de 11 años de edad proveniente de dos sitios de crecimiento en plantaciones del Atlántico y el Pacífico de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados de ensayos comparativos de trabajabilidad de la madera de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) procedente de plantaciones forestales de 11 años de edad de dos regiones geográficas de Costa Rica (Atlántica y Pacífica). Tanto en la región Atlántica (Pococí) como en la región Pacífica (Parrita), se seleccionaron dos sitios, uno de mayor crecimiento (Sitio 1) y otro de menor crecimiento (Sito 2). Los ensayos incluyeron cepillado, lijado, taladrado y torneado. S...

  18. Gestión de la fertilidad de suelos y la nutrición de plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) en América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Moya, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    La teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) ha sido tradicionalmente considerada como una madera preciosa en los países del SE Asiático, de donde es originaria, pero durante las últimas décadas ha alcanzado especial relevancia en el sector internacional de las maderas tropicales duras de buena calidad. La especie ha sido ampliamente establecida en América Central, donde tiene una gran importancia socioeconómica, tanto por el impacto de las grandes empresas multinacionales que gestionan grandes plantacione...

  19. Efficacies of spinosad and a combination of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin against phosphine-resistant Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, N S; Opit, George P; Talley, J; Jones, C L

    2013-10-01

    Highly phosphine-resistant populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have recently been found in Oklahoma grain storage facilities. These findings necessitate development of a phosphine resistance management strategy to ensure continued effective use of phosphine. Therefore, we investigated the efficacies of two grain insecticides, namely, spinosad applied at label rate of 1 ppm and a mixture of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin applied at label rates of 3 and 0.5 ppm, respectively, against highly phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum. Adult mortality and progeny production suppression of spinosad- or chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture-treated wheat that had been stored for 2, 84, 168, 252, and 336 d posttreatment were assessed. We found that both spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin were effective against phosphine-resistant R. dominica and caused 83-100% mortality and also caused total progeny production suppression for all storage periods. Spinosad was not effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum; the highest mortality observed was only 3% for all the storage periods. Chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum only in treated wheat stored for 2 and 84 d, where it caused 93-99% mortality. However, chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective and achieved total suppression of progeny production in T. castaneum for all the storage periods. Spinosad was not as effective as chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture at suppressing progeny production of phosphine-resistant T. castaneum. These two insecticides can be used in a phosphine resistance management strategy for R. dominica and T. castaneum in the United States.

  20. 大竹蛏胚胎发生及稚贝发育基本特征%Basic Characteristics of Embryogenesis and Juvenile Development of Solen grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杨平; 陈爱华; 姚国兴; 张志伟; 张曹进; 张雨

    2012-01-01

    Under the artificial breeding conditions, the embryogenesis and juvenile development of Solen grandis were observed by light microscopy. The results indicated that the embryonic and larval development of S. Grandis included the following stages: zygote, embryo cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochosphere, d-larvae, and finally juvenile. After 20 - 24 hours of fertilization, D-larvae appeared at the average daily water temperature of 22. A°C . It took 5-7 days to develop to juvenile, and the juvenile became the adult shellfish after 38 days when the shell length-width ratio was 2. 60. The accumulated temperature from zygote to attachment was 3 088. 79-5 005. 19℃·h. After juvenile developed outlet pipe, its intake pipe appeared, and at last the two pipes transformed into one pipe with diplopore. The regression equation of shell length and shell height was y = 150. 37 e0.002 7χ,χ: shell height ( μm) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 =0.985 5, P <0.01. The regression equation of shell length and day old was y = 143. 38e0.0916χ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 = 0. 979 5 , P < 0. 01. The regression equation of shell height and day old was y = 33. 979 x - 15. 450 ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell height (μm) , R2 =0.987 3, P<0. 01.%在人工培育条件下,对大竹蛏(Solengrandis)胚胎发生及稚贝发育进行显微观察,探究大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育规律.结果表明,大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育过程为:受精卵、卵裂、囊胚期、原肠期、担轮幼虫、D形幼虫、稚贝.在日平均水温为22.4℃时,受精后20~24h发育成D形幼虫,5~7d变态为稚贝,38d稚贝已具备成贝形态,壳长壳高比为2.60.从受精卵到附着所需积温为3088.79~5005.19℃·h.稚贝先形成出水管,后形成进水管,最终形成“一管双孔”.壳长与壳高关系式为y=150.37e0.0027x,x为壳高(μm),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9855,P<0.01;壳长与日龄关系式为y=143.38e0.0916x,x为日龄(d),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9795,P<0

  1. Estudio comparativo del proceso de secado de Eucalyptus grandis en dos secaderos solares ubicados en diferentes zonas y un secado natural a la intemperie durante el invierno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl De Castro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En la siguiente nota técnica se presentan los resultados de tres ensayos de secados de tablas de Eucalyptus grandis de 27 mm de espesor, realizados durante los meses de invierno. Dos de ellos fueron realizados en secaderos solares tipo semi invernadero (ubicados en Paysandú y en Montevideo, y uno fue realizado secando a la intemperie (en Montevideo.Se registraron las condiciones de humedad relativa y temperatura del aire durante los tres ensayos y se compararon los resultados obtenidos. El secado solar realizado en Paysandú tuvo una duración de 95 días y se logró un contenido de humedad medio (CHM final en base seca de 10,5 %. El secado solar realizado en Montevideo duró 80 días y se llegó a un CHM final de 10,5 %. El secado a la intemperie realizado también en Montevideo tuvo lugar a lo largo de 80 días y se obtuvo un CHM final de 22,1 %. Se obtuvieron resultados similares para ambos secados solares, teniendo en cuenta las diferencias de diseño, de ubicación y de capacidad. Comparando los secados solares con el secado a la intemperie, los primeros llevaron la madera de verde (CHM de 105 % aprox. hasta un CHM de 22 % en la mitad de tiempo. Según los resultados obtenidos, es posible reemplazar el secado ala intemperie por un secado solar y lograr así acortar los tiempos de secado a un bajo costo.AbstractIn the following report, the results of three drying runs made during winter with boards of Eucalyptus grandis 27 mm thick are shown. Two of them took place in solar kilns, semi-greenhouse type (located in Montevideo and Paysandú, and the third took place outdoors (located in Montevideo. The relative humidity and temperature conditions of the three drying runs were registered and the results obtained were compared. The solar drying in Paysandú lasted 95 days, and achieved a final average moisture content (AMC of 10,5 % in dry basis. The other solar drying which took place in Montevideo lasted 80 days and achieved a final AMC of 10

  2. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Martin; Garnas, Jeff; Wingfield, Michael J; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Pillay, Kerry-Anne; Slippers, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters). Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  3. Parâmetros cinéticos de adesivos produzidos a partir de taninos de Anadenanthera peregrina e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crise do petróleo, na década de 70, pesquisas tiveram o objetivo de substituir parcial ou totalmente os adesivos convencionais, à base de petróleo. Uma forma de substituição foi a utilização de fontes naturais, como os taninos, provenientes de algumas espécies arbóreas. Porém, os taninos apresentam algumas limitações de uso, que podem ser superadas através da sulfitação e da hidrolise ácida. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da hidrólise ácida e sulfitação de taninos extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Anadenanthera peregrina, nos parâmetros cinéticos dos adesivos tânicos, através da técnica de calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC. Os taninos foram hidrolisados com ácido acético ou ácido clorídrico a 10N, empregando-se três valores de pH e três tempos de reação. A sulfitação foi realizada em solução de sulfito de sódio, à 5%, em três tempos de reação. A energia de ativação, entalpia e temperatura de cura dos adesivos foram reduzidas pela hidrólise e sulfitação dos taninos, porém apresentaram banda larga de polimerização. O tempo de reação dos taninos não teve efeito sobre os parâmetros cinéticos.

  4. 尾巨桉萌芽林定株高度试验研究%Research on Growth of Eucalyptus urophylla x E.grandis Coppice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    音振兴; 李文栋; 余洋

    2012-01-01

    对尾巨桉4种萌芽高度(0.5 m、1.0m、1.5 m和2.0 m)进行定株除萌,结果表明:各处理之间树高、胸径生长差异均显著;以萌芽高度为1.5~2.0 m时定株除萌林木生长较好,8个月生2m定株除萌的萌芽林平均树高、平均胸径达5.30m、4.12 cm。考虑生产成本,定株除萌高度以1.5 m为佳。%Growth of Eucalyptus urophylla x E.grandis coppice sprouts were assessed following 4 different singling treatments, which involved singling when sprout heights averaged around 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 m. Significant differences were found in average heights and DBHs among treatments. The treatments of singling when sprouts reached 1.5 and 2.0 m were judge to give the best results. Singling at a sprout height of 2.0 m provided an average height and DBH at about 8 months after singling of 5.30 m and 4.12 cm respectively. Based on costs, singling at a sprout height of 1.5 m is preferred.

  5. Combinação de dois métodos não industriais no tratamento preservativo de moirões de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of the combination of two non-industrial methods to treat fence posts of Eucalyptus grandis, on the penetration and retention of water borne preservative. Thus, four fences with 2.20 m in length were treated by replacement of sap and simple diffusion alone and other four ones have combined the two techniques, with water-borne CCB 50% preservative at a concentration of 3.5%. After each treatment condition, the pieces were seasoned in the shade for 30 days. Disks were taken at 0.60 and 1.60 m from the base of the pieces which had one side sanded for analysis of the penetration of the preservative using a solution of chrome azurol S. From the same parts, test specimens were also manufactured in diametrically opposed positions with dimensions of approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal to analyze the retention of the element copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and boron by visible spectrophotometry with azomethine-H, also known as colorimetry. The retention values obtained were compared with the minimum recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards - ABNT for water borne preservatives which is 6.5 kg of active ingredients per m³ of wood. The penetration achieved by the combined method was considered sufficient for non-industrial treatment, while the retention values were higher than the retention of at least 6.5 kg of active ingredients / m³ of treated wood in all positions and portions evaluated.

  6. Eefeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em algumas propriedades da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em algumas propriedades da madeira de Tectona grandis oriundas de plantações entre 7 e 15 anos de idade, localizadas nas regiões Norte e Noroeste da Costa Rica, as quais apresentam dois tipos de clima (tropical seco e tropical úmido e com grande variedade de fertilidade de solo. As análises do solo consistiram no estudo de suas propriedades físicas (porcentagem de argila, limo e areia, densidade aparente, porcentagem de retenção de água e de água útil, retenção 15 Bar e 0,33 Bar e propriedades químicas (pH, acidez e conteúdo de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, Fe e Mn. As contrações tangenciais e radiais foram as propriedades da madeira mais correlacionadas com as características do solo, seguidas da porcentagem de cerne, medula e casca e teor de umidade na condição verde. A propriedade de menor correlação foi a densidade básica, enquanto a contração volumétrica não foi correlacionada com nenhuma propriedade do solo. Os coeficientes de correlação foram altamente significativos (a = 0,05, embora baixos valores (<0,67 foram encontrados, provavelmente influenciados pela ampla variedade das condições de clima e de solo amostrados. As propriedades físicas e químicas do solo não apresentaram influência expressiva nas propriedades da madeira de teca. Assim, apesar da grande variedade de solos existente na Costa Rica, a Teca pode ser cultivada comercialmente em todos eles sem que ocorram grandes variações nas propriedades da madeira.

  7. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kemler

    Full Text Available The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters. Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  8. GROWTH AND ARCHITECTURE OF ROOT SYSTEMS OF PLANTS OF Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. GRANDIS AND E. PELLITA WERE EVALUATED AFTER THE PLANTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Leles

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings were produced according to two methodologies: pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. A mixture of decomposed sugar-cane bagasse (60% and industrial sugar-cane plant residues (40% were used as substrate. The blocks were made by pressing the humid substrate in metallic moulds with the dimensions of 60 x 40 x 20 cm (lenght, width and height and pressure of 10 kgf/cm2 for 15 minutes. Under this load the blocks height was reduced to 10 cm. They were placed in wooden boxes with screen bottom. The stiff plastic tubes had circular section 12 cm high, with volume capacity of 50 cm3. The seeds were sown in the blocks 5 cm apart, by means of a spatula. At the end of nursey phase, the seedlings were planted the field. After 2, 6 and 10 months of planting, the height and the diameter at the ground level were evaluated. At the age of 10 months it was also evaluated the number of laterals root and deformatiom cofficient the three plants for treatment. Two months after planting, the plants originated from the pressed blocks showed growth highly signifficant in relation to those of the stiff plastic tubes. At 10 months, of age only Eucalyptus grandis seedlings showed significant difference concerning to height and diameter at the ground level between plants produced by pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. For the three species, the pressed blocks seedling showed higher number of lateral roots and smaller number of root deformation coefficents in comparision to the plants from the stiff tubes.

  9. RAPD analysis of genetic variability in a multiprovenance base population of Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden Variabilidade genética através da técnica RAPD de uma população-base multiprocedências de Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Meire Maximino Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability among individuals of a base population of Eucalyptus grandis and to build a molecular marker database for the analyzed populations. The Eucalyptus grandis base population comprised 327 individuals from Coff's Harbour, Atherton and Rio Claro. A few plants came from other sites (Belthorpe MT. Pandanus, Kenilworth, Yabbra, etc.. Since this base population had a heterogeneous composition, the groups were divided according to geographic localization (latitude and longitude, and genetic breeding level. Thus, the influence of those two factors (geographic localization and genetic breeding level on the genetic variability detected was discussed. The RAPD technique allowed the evaluation of 70 loci. The binary matrix was used to estimate the genetic similarity among individuals using Jaccard's Coefficient. Parametric statistical tests were used to compare within-group similarity of the means. The obtained results showed that the base population had wide genetic variability and a mean genetic similarity of 0.328. Sub-group 3 (wild materials from the Atherton region showed mean genetic similarity of 0.318. S.P.A. (from Coff's Harbour region had a mean genetic similarity of 0.322 and was found to be very important for maintenance of variation in the base population. This can be explained since the individuals from those groups accounted for most of the base population (48.3% for it. The base population plants with genetic similarity higher than 0.60 should be phenotypically analyzed again in order to clarify the tendency of genetic variability during breeding programs.Este estudo visou avaliar a variabilidade e distância genética dentro de uma população-base de melhoramento genético de Eucalyptus grandis. A avaliação da variabilidade genética tem como objetivos principais analisar a base genética da população-base e montar um banco de dados marcadores moleculares da população em an

  10. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL)...

  11. Organogênese in vitro a partir de explante caulinar na regeneração de clones de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden X E. urophylla S. T. Blake In vitro regeneration from stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones through organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar a regeneração in vitro por organogênese a partir de explante caulinar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, foram avaliados os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tiadiazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. De modo geral, pôde-se observar resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura, coloração e grau de oxidação dos calos, em função dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento foram dos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante caulinar. Houve a formação de estruturas nodulares compactas, principalmente na extremidade dos explantes caulinares, sendo essas regiões responsáveis pela regeneração de gemas adventícias. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.With the objective of testing in vitro regeneration through organogenesis from stem explants of three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, the effects of the growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-ilurea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine and NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid were evaluated. In general, a differentiated clone response in relation to intensity, texture, color and oxidation degree of calli was observed due to growth regulator treatments. The best results in callus formation were recorded for the treatments with the combination TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 and ANA (0,1 mg L-1, achieving 100% of callus formation from the stem explants. Compact node structures appeared mainly in the extremities of the stem explants, being those areas responsible for the regeneration of adventitious buds. The best regeneration response was obtained with 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.

  12. Efeito da acetilação das partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e da inclusão de partículas de polietileno e de embalagens cartonadas nas propriedades de chapas de aglomerado Effect of particle acetylation of Eucalyptus grandis wood and the inclusion of particles of polyethylene and cardboard packaging of properties in crowded plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vitor Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da acetilação das partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e da inclusão de partículas de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e de alta densidade (PEAD e de embalagens cartonadas nas propriedades de chapas de aglomerado. As partículas de madeira foram produzidas em laboratório a partir de toras que foram desdobradas em tábuas, convertidas em baguetas, depois em flocos e, finalmente, transformadas em partículas. Embalagens cartonadas e de polietino de alta e baixa densidades foram coletadas em depósitos de material reciclável e processadas em moinho de martelo. A acetilação foi realizada em autoclave com controle de pressão e temperatura. A acetilação promoveu significativa estabilização dimensional dos painéis, entretanto diminuiu algumas propriedades mecânicas. A adição de polietileno reduziu as propriedades mecânicas, em especial a flexão estática (MOR e MOE, porém, de modo geral, melhorou a estabilidade dimensional dos painéis, independentemente do tipo de partícula. No entanto, a adição de embalagens cartonadas reduziu a resistência mecânica e promoveu maior adsorção de vapor de água, inchamento em espessura e expansão linear, tanto nas chapas contendo partículas acetiladas quanto naquelas que não as continham.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus grandis particles acetylation and the addition of polyethylene of low (pebd and high density (pead and paperboard particles in the properties particleboard. Wood particles were produced in laboratory from logs that were split into plaks, baguettes and then converted into flakes and finally transformed into particles. Paperboard and polyethylene collected in recyclable material stores and processed in a hammer mil. Acetylation was performed in autoclave with pressure and temperature control. Wood particles acetylation promoted a significant stabilization of the particleboards but

  13. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musa spp. EN COLOMBIA

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    SEPULVEDA-CANO PAULA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN

    Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

    Palabras clave: picudos, plátano, banano, Polytus, Colombia.

    ABSTRACT

    This synopsis is about beetle’s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

    Key words: weevils, plantain, banana, Polytus, Colombia.

  14. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera

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    Jiyu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings. When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  15. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada agroekosistem salak pondoh di Gunung Merapi berdasarkan pola pita isozim

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    SRI WARDANI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Wardani S, Sugiyarto. 2009. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleopterapada agroekosistem salak pondoh di Gunung Merapi berdasarkan pola pita isozim.Bioteknologi 6: 49-54. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui karakteristik lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera didasarkan pada pola pita isozim. Penelitian morfologi dilakukan di Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Sampel diambil dari lima tempat dengan ketinggian yang berbeda dimana lima sampel diambil dari setiap lokasi. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah elektroforesis gel poliakrilamida (PAGE menggunakan jenis vertikal. Sistem enzim yang digunakan adalah peroksidase dan esterase untuk mendeteksi pola pita isozim. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat variasi pola pita isozim lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada agroekosistem salak pondoh di lereng Gunung Merapi (peroksidase di stasiun II dan IV sedangkan esterase di stasiun III dan V. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat variasi genetik pada populasi lundi putih pada agroekosistem salak pondoh di lereng Gunung Merapi. Kondisi lingkungan juga berpengaruh terhadap munculnya variasi pola pita isozim karena setiap lokasi memiliki kondisi lingkungan yang berbeda.

  16. Phylogenetically informative rearrangements in mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, and monophyly of aquatic elateriform beetles (Dryopoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Vogler, Alfried P

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial gene order in Coleoptera has been thought to be conservative but a survey of 60 complete or nearly complete genomes revealed a total of seven different gene rearrangements (deletions, gene order reversals), mainly affecting tRNA genes. All of these were found to be limited to a single taxon or a subclade of Coleoptera. The phylogenetic distribution of a translocation of tRNA(Pro) in three species of elateriform beetles was investigated further by sequencing three nearly complete mitochondrial genomes (Dascillidae, Byrrhidae, Limnichidae) and ten additional individuals for a ∼1370 bp diagnostic fragment spanning the relevant region. Phylogenetic analysis consistently recovered the monophyly of families previously grouped in the contentious superfamily Dryopoidea, a group of approximately 10 beetle families with mainly aquatic lifestyles. The Byrrhidae (moss beetles) were not part of this lineage, although they may be its sister group, to recover the widely accepted Byrrhoidea. The tRNA(Pro) translocation was present in all members of Dryopoidea, but not in any other Elateriformia, providing independent support for this lineage and for a single origin of aquatic habits.

  17. Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae

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    Marianna V. P. Simões

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae. The male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824 are described and illustrated for the first time. The male reproductive system shows no difference from the subfamily pattern, which is a tubular well-developed median lobe; "Y", "V" or T-shaped tegmen; reduced pygidium; internal sac membranous and tubular; flagellum generally well developed needle-like structured and gastral spiculum absent. However, the female differs from the pattern proposed for Stolas in two aspects: ovary with 28 ovarioles and a reduced ampulla with indistinct velum.Sistema reprodutivo masculino e feminino de Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae. O sistema reprodutivo do macho e fêmea de Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824 são descritos pela primeira vez. Neste estudo, foi observado que o macho não diverge do padrão proposto para a subfamília, que é edeago tubular e bem desenvolvido; tégmen em forma de "Y", "V" ou "T"; pigídio reduzido; saco interno membranoso e tubular; flagellum geralmente bem desenvolvido, em forma de agulha e espículo gastral ausente. Por outro lado, o sistema reprodutor feminino diverge do padrão usual proposto para o gênero Stolas em dois aspectos: ovário com 28 ovaríolos e ampola reduzida com velum não distinto.

  18. 沙田柚无机焦磷酸酶基因的 cDNA 克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of inorganic pyrophosphatase gene from Citrus grandis var.shatianyu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦新民; 万珊; 李惠敏; 覃屏生; 张渝

    2015-01-01

    related)and non-self(genetically unrelated)pollen.Inorganic pyrophosphatase(IPPase)play important roles in regu-lating the growth and development in plants.In order to better understand the mechanism of IPP gene in the self-in-compatibility of Citrus grandis var.shatianyu ,the inorganic pyrophosphatase gene of C .grandis var.shatianyu was cloned and physicochemical properties of pyrophosphatase were analyzed.The total RNA was isolated from style of C .grandis var.shatianyu used the total RNA Purification System(Invitrogen)and following the manufacture′s pro-tocols.According to the EST sequence(internal fragment of inorganic pyrophosphatase gene)in suppression subtrac-tive hybridization libraries of C .grandis var.shatianyu style,4 specific primers 5′-GSP1,5′-nGSP1,3′-GSP2 and 3′-nGSP2 were designed for amplifying 3-RACE and 5-RACE of the gene.The full-length sequences of cDNA of inor-ganic pyrophosphatase gene were obtained from suppression subtractive hybridization libraries of C .grandis var.shatianyu style by the SMART-RACE PCR method.A comparison of the similarity of the full-length cDNA se-quence of the inorganic pyrophosphatase gene was performed in the GenBank database used the BLAST program.DNAman software was used for mino acid sequence and homology analysis.Prediction of molecular weight, isoeletric point(pI)and hydrophobicity were performed by using on line software ExpASy and DNAman.A 150 bp band in 3-RACE,and a 900 bp band in 5-RACE were cloned by nested and non nested PCR method.For the full-length cDNA sequences,the middle sequence,3-RACE and 5-RACE sequence of the inorganic pyrophosphatase gene were spliced and formed the full-length cDNA sequences.As a result,the cDNA of inorganic pyrophosphatase was 1 136 bp in length containing an 654 bp open reading frame(ORF),which encoded a protein of 217 amino acids with a 170 bp 5 untranslated region(5 UTR)and a 321 bp 3 UTR.The sequence of the cloned cDNA of the inorganic pyro-phosphatase from C .grandis

  19. 尾巨桉纯林土壤化感效应的生物评价%Bioassay of Allelopathic Effects of Pure Forest Soil of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建; 王凌晖; 秦武明

    2011-01-01

    用不同浓度的尾巨桉(Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis)纯林土壤水浸提液处理菜心(Brassica parachinensis)、白菜(B.pekineinsis)、水稻(Oryza sativa)、萝卜(Raphanus sativus)的种子和幼苗,综合评价尾巨桉纯林土壤的化感作用.结果表明,尾巨桉纯林土壤对所选作物有化感作用,浸提液浓度不同,其化感效应不同,受体植物不同,化感效应差别也较大,浓度越低化感作用越小,而随着溶液浓度的增大化感抑制作用逐渐增强.%Solutions of water extract of the soil of pure Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis forest were applied on the seeds and seedlings of Brassica parachinensis, B. pekinensis, Oryza sativa, and Raphanus sativus to comprehensively evaluate the allelopathic effects of the soil. Allelopathic effects of the soil to the selected crops were found, and exhibited concentration dependency. Differences in the degrees of allelopathy among different crops were also found.

  20. Fator de cubicação para toretes de Eucalyptus grandis e sua variação com o tempo de exposição ao ambiente

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    Marcos Vinicios Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes the express wood volume in stere needs to be converted into cubic meter. This is possible estimating a cubication factor (Fc. With the objective of determining the Fc for Eucalyptus grandis and its variation in wood pieces of different lengths of 1 and 2,3m due to time of exposure to the environment, in the summer and in the winter, six stacks of woodpiles were made in the dimensions 3x2x1m and six piles in the dimensions 3x2x2, 3m, installed in the summer and in the winter. Medium Fcc´s obtained by the reason of volumes presented smaller variation in comparison to the ones obtained by angular counting. The statistical analysis indicated difference (α < 5% in the variables of the main effect, that is: in the climatic station (F = 18.72, in the time of exhibition (F = 6.51 and in the length of the stacks (F = 35.18. The analysis of the correlation indicated that Fc was also influenced by the top cracks, by the humidity of the wood and by the atmospheric variability. The average values of Fcc´s indicated a stabilization after ninety days of the installation of the piles. The stacks of Eucalyptus grandis presented dimensional variation when exposed to the atmosphere, making the Fc to vary in the time of exhibition at environment.