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Sample records for anthonomus grandis coleoptera

  1. Migration and dispersal of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in South America

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    Teodoro STADLER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio sobre la dispersión de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, el picudo del algodonero, en Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Bolivia, explora las características ecológicas y fisiológicas que han permitido a este insecto dispersarse y establecerse exitosamente en América del Sur. La plasticidad fenotípica de A. grandis se caracteriza por un tiempo de desarrollo flexible, ciclo de vida multivoltino con generaciones superpuestas, la capacidad de alimentarse con polen de diversas familias botánicas así como de otras fuentes de alimento y por su habilidad para migrar y dispersarse con la ayuda del viento. Todo esto hace de esta especie una plaga clave para el cultivo del algodón. Los cultivos de cítricos en Misiones, Argentina, son posibles sitios para la hibernación de esta especie. En esta región fueron capturadas grandes cantidades de individuos prediapausantes, provenientes de algodonales en post-cosecha en Paraguay, atraídos probablemente por compuestos volátiles de cítricos cultivados en la zona. La quiescencia facultativa que atraviesan los adultos ante condiciones adversas, conlleva a un retraso en el desarrollo que se relaciona con las condiciones desfavorables. Esto sugiere que la hibernación en A. grandis puede ser definida como «oligopausa», una forma intermedia de diapausa. Desde su introducción en Brasil en 1983 y hasta el 2006, el picudo se ha dispersado en dirección sudoeste hacia Argentina, a una velocidad promedio de 61 km año-1. Sin embargo, le ha insumido aproximadamente diez años cruzar 250 km, desde Paraguay hacia el centro de la zona algodonera de Argentina. Este progreso más lento se debe probablemente a las acciones llevadas a cabo en el marco del programa de erradicación del picudo del algodonero, por parte del gobierno de Argentina. La llegada del picudo al área central de cultivo de algodón en la Argentina, así como a otras áreas de cultivo en Paraguay y Argentina, confirma el hecho de que

  2. Genetic diversity of Brazilian natural populations of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major cotton pest in the New World.

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    Martins, W F S; Ayres, C F J; Lucena, W A

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five RAPD loci and 6 isozyme loci were studied to characterize the genetic variability of natural populations of Anthonomus grandis from two agroecosystems of Brazil. The random-amplified polymorphic DNA data disclosed a polymorphism that varied from 52 to 84% and a heterozygosity of 0.189 to 0.347. The index of genetic differentiation (GST) among the six populations was 0.258. The analysis of isozymes showed a polymorphism and a heterozygosity ranging from 25 to 100% and 0.174 to 0.277, respectively. The genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations obtained by isozyme data was 0.544. It was possible to observe rare alleles in the populations from the Northeast region. The markers examined allowed us to distinguish populations from large-scale, intensive farming region (cotton belts) versus populations from areas of small-scale farming

  3. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

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    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:23949716

  4. Método de diagnóstico para el monitoreo de resistencia a insecticidas en poblaciones de "picudo del algodonero", Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae A diagnostic test for insecticide resistance monitoring in "cotton boll weevil" Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae populations

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    Teodoro Stadler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El control de las poblaciones de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, por debajo de su umbral de daño económico durante el ciclo del cultivo del algodón, se realiza en forma efectiva hasta el momento, a través de insecticidas de síntesis. La presión selectiva de las aplicaciones extensivas e intensivas de insecticidas hace imperativa la detección temprana de focos de resistencia a los mismos, en función de un correcto manejo del fenómeno. Se desarrolló un método de diagnóstico de resistencia para A. grandis a partir de la técnica "vial test", que fue adaptada en forma de "kit" para el monitoreo rápido y sencillo de los focos de resistencia en el campo. La toxicidad (CL99, para calcular la concentración discriminante (CD del insecticida y la preparación del "kit", se obtiene a partir de bioensayos de laboratorio con una cepa normal susceptible de A. grandis. Se determinó la vida media de los insecticidas dentro de los viales por CIPAC MT 46, para establecer una fecha de vencimiento del "kit". La CD y el método en su conjunto fueron validados a través de ensayos a campo. El "kit", usado en el monitoreo de resistencia en el campo, fue especialmente diseñado para ser utilizado en las condiciones geográficas, económicas y socio-culturales presentes en la región algodonera argentina. La implementación de esta técnica permitirá conseguir la información necesaria, y así obtener una apropiada alternancia de insecticidas. Como consecuencia, se prevé una reducción de impacto ambiental de las prácticas agronómicas en el control de plagas en algodón.The in-season control of the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman is done by insecticide application, which so far is the only effective way to reduce boll weevil populations to levels below economic significance. The extensive and intensive control actions with insecticides cause selective pressure on pest populations. Thus, to achieve an accurate insecticide resistance

  5. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

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    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  6. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

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    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  7. Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae

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    Daniela de Cassia Bená

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae. The third instar larva and the pupa of Anthonomus vis Clark, 1992 are described and illustrated, based upon specimens collected in the Serra de São José, Tiradentes, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The species was previously known from the type series collected in the states of Amapá and Pará. Comparisons with the larva and pupa of A. grandis Boheman, 1843 and A. monostigma Champion, 1903 are included. The larvae of A. vis live as inquilines in the galls induced by a species of momphid moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae in the stems of Leandra aurea (Cham. Cogn. (Melastomataceae.

  8. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

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    Gomes José E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  9. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

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    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  10. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

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    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  11. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil

  12. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

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    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  13. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

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    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  14. ANTHONOMUS RUBI (HERBST, 1795 (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE A NEW DANGEROUS PEST IN THE ECOLOGICAL CROPS OF STRAWBERRY IN THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

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    Traian MANOLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania mostly of 70% of strawberry ecological plantations were cultivated with specific commercial cultivars like Premial, Red Gauntlet, Dana and Elsanta. In the last years became to be cropped cultivars with increased resistance to various pest insects, specially in the first stages of vegetation period like Honeoye, Elsanta, Camorosa, Marmolada, Chandler, Darselect, Clery and Sonata. On the little individual farms with small surfaces the cultivars Senga Sengana, Marmolada, Elsinore should be the primary source of infestation with Anthonomus rubi.A study of distribution, density and the degree attack of Anthonomus rubi was carried out in the period 2006-2007 in the Vidra and Comana localities, Giurgiu district in the southern part of Romania. The study and observations that was made showed that this species is increased in density in the new ecological plantations of strawberry from some individual farms. The strawberry blossom weevil is not a common pest of strawberry plantations in Romania but some cultivars cropped in ecological system became more sensitive to the weevil attack by increasing in density. Observations and researches were carried out on 4 cultivars and showed that the degree of damage caused by A. rubi depends of cultivar morphological characteristics (small fruits or phenophases (time of ripening and duration of budding and blossoming.

  15. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

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    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  16. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  17. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  18. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap distance from cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Once populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) are suppressed, eradication programs rely on pheromone trap-based monitoring for timely detection of weevil populations in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Delayed detection may increase the costs of remedial treatments, and permit rep...

  19. White grubs, Holotrichia rustica and Holotrichia mucida (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) as pests of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin Kulkarni; Sanjay Paunikar; Kailash Chandra Josh; John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    Field observations were carried out between 2002 and 2005 on bio-ecology of white grubs infesting teak (Tectona grandis Linn, f.) seedlings at Ramdongari Forest Nursery, Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra, Nagpur in central India. The study collected the data required for an integrated pest management strategy against the white grubs. The species damaging teak seedlings were Holotrichia rustica (Burmeister) and H. mucida Gyllenhal. The beetles (adults) of both these species began to emerge just after the pre-monsoon showers and when the relative humidity had risen rapidly over several days, but before the first monsoon rains. While the adults fed and mated on naturally growing bushes of Ziziphus jujuba, Z. mauritiana, Z. xylopyra, Acacia leucophloea and A. catechu immediately after the emergence from the teak beds in the nursery, the immature stages (grubs) of both species fed on roots of the teak seedling, leading to plant death. This is the first report of (i) damage caused to teak seedlings by grubs of H. rustica and H. mucida, and (ii) of Z jujuba and Z mauritiana being hosts for the beetles of H. mucida and H. rustica. It is also the first detailed report on the field bio-ecology of the H. rustica and H. mucida as major pests of teak. White grubs are among the toughest-to-manage pests of economic importance and information presented here on the pest incidence and damage of H. rustica and H. mucida is important to researchers and nursery field managers for the management of these pests on teak.

  20. Boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) continue to release pheromone following host removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  1. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings. PMID:18330118

  2. MODIFICACIÓN AL PROCESO DE PRODUCCIÓN MASIVA DE LOS PARASITOIDES Catolaccus grandis Y Catolaccus hunteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Reyes-Rosas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de modificar la tecnología de producción masiva de Catolaccus grandis y Catolaccus hunteri, himenópteros parasitoides de Anthonomus grandis el picudo del algodonero en Tamaulipas, México en el 2002. Se determinó la eficiencia del papel toalla para el secado de manos, en el sellamiento de cápsulas moldeadas en cera de hidrocarburos y poliolefina (LCHP, donde se confina al huésped, y evaluar la efectividad del gorgojo del garbanzo Callosobruchus maculatus como hospedante facticio para la cría de ambos parasitoides. Hubo producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri utilizando C. maculatus como huésped y el papel toalla fue efectivo para sellar los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP. La producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri mediante C. maculatus, contribuyó a incrementar la seguridad y facilidad del proceso, además de una significativa reducción de costos. El papel toalla en el sellado de los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP, redujo en un 50% por m2 los costos del proceso, sin afectar la eficiencia del parasitismo y emergencia de C. grandis.

  3. Selective breeding for increased pheromone production in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, uses an aggregating pheromone to attract females, after which mating often occurs. Sterile boll weevil release programs depend upon this phenomenon to produce sterile matings with feral females. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the individual sterile male and thereby reduce the number of sterile males required per hectare, a selective-breeding system was used to increase the total pheromone produced by individual male boll weevils. This breeding program increased the total pheromone production by individual male boll weevils to 4.5 times that of the parent population. After irradiation-induced sterilization, there remained 2.2 times more pheromone produced by the selected strain. Therefore, these sterile weevils should be about 2.2 times more attractive to feral females than the parent weevils now in use, and they have the potential to reduce the number of sterile males required in a sterile release program

  4. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  5. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; Leonardo L. P. de Macedo; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (throu...

  6. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through cotton gin trash fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-10-01

    There is concern that cotton gins may serve as loci for reintroduction of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, to eradicated or suppressed zones when processing weevil-infested cotton from neighboring zones. Previous work has shown that virtually all weevils entering the gin in the seed cotton will be removed before they reach the gin stand. Those not killed by the seed cotton cleaning machinery will be shunted alive into the trash fraction, which passes through a centrifugal trash fan before exiting the gin. The objective of this study was to determine survival potential of boll weevils passed through a trash fan. Marked adult weevils were distributed in gin trash and fed through a 82.6-cm (32.5-in.) diameter centrifugal fan operated across a range of fan-tip speeds. A small number of boll weevils were recovered alive immediately after passage through the fan, but all were severely injured and did not survive 24 h. In another experiment, green bolls infested with both adult- and larval-stage weevils were fed through the fan. Several teneral adults survived 24 h, and there was no evidence that fan-tip speed affected either initial survival of weevils, or the number of unbroken boll locks that could harbor an infesting weevil. Thus, designating a minimum fan-tip speed for ensuring complete kill is not possible for the boll weevil. Experiments suggest that a device installed in a gin that partially crushes or cracks bolls open before entering a trash fan will increase mortality, possibly enough that further precautions would be unnecessary. PMID:15568350

  7. Potential for transport of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to the cotton gin within cotton modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Norman, John W; Knutson, Allen E

    2004-06-01

    There is concern that cotton gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones serving customers in adjacent infested zones may serve as a site for boll weevil reintroductions if weevils are transported alive inside cotton modules. We surveyed fields in three distinct areas of Texas and found that weevils can be present in large numbers in cotton fields that have been defoliated and desiccated in preparation for harvest, both as free adults and as immatures inside unopened bolls. Harvested cotton taken from module builders indicated that approximately = 100-3700 adult boll weevils were packed inside modules constructed at the sampled fields. Marked weevils were forced through a laboratory field cleaner (bur extractor) commonly mounted on stripper-harvesters, and 14% were recovered alive in the seed cotton fraction and lived at least to 24 h. Survival of weevils placed inside modules declined over time up to 7 d, but the magnitude of the decline varied with experimental conditions. In one experiment, 91% of the weevils survived to 7 d, whereas under harsher environmental conditions, only 11% survived that long. Together, our results indicate that when cotton is harvested in an infested area, boll weevils likely will be packed alive into cotton modules, and many will still be alive by the time the module is fed into the gin, at least up to 7 d after the module's construction. PMID:15279274

  8. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through the seed cotton cleaning process in the cotton gin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-08-01

    There is concern that gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones may become points of reintroduction when they process cotton grown in a neighboring infested area. We estimated boll weevil survival through two typical machine sequences used in commercial cotton gins to clean and dry the seed cotton in advance of the gin stand, as well as separately through two incline cylinder cleaners or one or two tower dryers operating at different temperatures. Large numbers of laboratory-reared adult boll weevils were marked with fluorescent powder, fed into the test system, and recovered with the assistance of blacklights. We found no evidence of survival through the seed cotton cleaning systems even when the dryers were not heated, or when passed separately through the two incline cleaners alone. Upper confidence limits (95%) were calculated for the observed zero recoveries based on sample size and the binomial distribution, and these represent the statistical worst-case (i.e., highest) survival potential. Survival through heated tower dryers declined rapidly to zero at higher temperatures, especially when two dryers were running. Although we conclude that the potential for survival of weevils in the seed cotton to the gin stand is zero or close to zero, a small percentage of live weevils was recovered in the green boll/rock trap, which may represent the greatest threat of reintroduction at the gin. Escape of live weevils with the gin trash is also possible, and studies addressing this issue will be presented elsewhere. PMID:15384344

  9. Wirkung von Frühjahrsapplikationen mit Kaolin gegen Obstschädlinge im Frühjahr Dysaphis plantaginea, Anthonomus pomorum, Hoplocampa testudinea

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Fragestellung: Prüfung von Kaolin gegen im Frühjahr auftretende Obstschädlinge (Dysaphis plantaginea, Anthonomus pomorum, Hoplocampa testudinea) Verfahren: • Kontrolle • Kaolin (Surround 3%; 15l pro Behandlung=1l/Baum) 3 Behandlungen: 30.03.(Stadium C3), 05.04. (D), 12.04.2005 (D-E)

  10. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned. PMID:17046244

  11. Sublethal effects of malathion on boll weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) fecundity when maintained on cotton squares or artificial diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOHN SCOTT ARMSTRONG; ALLAN T. SHOWLER; MAMOUDOU SETAMOU; SHOIL GREENBERG

    2006-01-01

    Mated 3-day-old female boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman,reared from field-infested cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) squares were topically treated with an estimated LD50 of malathion (2μg) to assess its effects on fecundity, oviposition, and body fat condition. Two different food sources, cotton squares and artificial diet, were assessed in malathion-treated and nontreated (control) weevils. The LD50 caused ≈ 50%mortality in the square-fed malathion treatment, but the artificial diet-fed malathion-treated weevils were less susceptible. LD50 survivors fed on the squares produced ≥ 9 times more chorionated eggs in the ovaries and oviposited≥ 19-fold more than survivors fed artificial diet, regardless of the malathion treatment. Boll weevils that survived a 2μg LD50 malathion and also fed squares were ≈ 4.5-fold leaner than diet-fed weevils. Our findings demonstrate that non-resistant boll weevils surviving a sublethal dose of malathion will reproduce without any delay or significant loss in fecundity, and the food source for which boll weevils are maintained when conducting these assays will directly affect the results. The significance of these findings and how they are related to the final stages of eradicating the boll weevil from the US are discussed.

  12. Pharmacognosy of Coccinia grandis:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamilselvan N; Thirumalai T; Elumalai EK; Balaji R; David E

    2011-01-01

    Traditional system of medicine consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Coccinia grandis belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a rapidly growing, perennial climber or trailing vine. Traditionally different parts of this plant namely the roots, leaves and fruits are used in folklore medicine for several purposes like jaundice, diabetes, wound healing, ulcers, stomach ache, skin disease, fever, asthma, cough. The leaf and its constituents have been reported to possess hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. This review provides adequate information to develop suitable therapeutics out of these plant parts.

  13. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil. PMID:26719592

  14. Anthonomus quadrigibbus Say,1831%检疫性有害生物——苹果花象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤; 张俊华; 陈乃中

    2012-01-01

    Anthonomus quadrigibbus is one of the most economically important forestry pests.It can cause destructive damage to apple(Malus domestica),pear(Pyrus spp.) and cherries(Prunus spp.),reduce yield prodution,make fruits unpalatable,and have a negative effect on market profits.This paper gives a general introduction of its geographic distribution,hosts,morphology,biology,impact,control,etc.For there is no A.quadrigibbus in China,it is of great significance to prevent this pest by learning more about its damage characteristic and diffusion path.%苹果花象是具有重要经济意义的林业害虫,对苹果、梨和樱桃生产能造成毁灭性损失,严重降低寄主果实的产量和质量,影响市场竞争能力。本文主要介绍了苹果花象的地理分布、寄主、形态特征、生物学特性、经济影响、防治措施等内容。该虫在我国尚无分布,深入研究该虫的危害特点和扩散途径等,对防治该虫有重要意义。

  15. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  16. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  17. Adult Diapause in Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hodek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies dealing with adult (reproductive diapause in the Coleoptera are reviewed, as a kind of supplement to the classic compendia. In the first two sections, the general characteristics of adult diapause are described and principal terms explained. Original articles dealing with 19 species from nine coleopteran families (Coccinellidae, Chrysomelidae, Bruchidae, Curculionidae, Carabidae, Silphidae, Scolytidae, Scarabaeidae, and Endomychidae are reviewed. Finally attempts are made at generalisations from the papers reviewed, and hypotheses on diapause evolution are inferred. A polyphenic character of diapause is a prominent feature in C. septempunctata and L. decemlineata, but has been found also in other Coleoptera and in insects generally and often generates voltinism heterogeneity within populations.

  18. Potential for escape of live boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) into cottonseed, motes, and cleaned lint at the cotton gin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-12-01

    Reintroductions of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, into areas of the United States where it has been eradicated or suppressed are very expensive to mitigate. There is concern that a cotton gin in an eradication zone may serve as a site of boll weevil reintroductions when processing cotton harvested in a neighboring infested zone. Similarly, there is a question whether weevil-free areas can safely import gin products, such as cottonseed and baled lint, from infested areas without risking an introduction. Many countries require fumigation of imported U.S. cotton bales to protect against boll weevil introductions, costing the U.S. cotton industry millions of dollars annually. In previously reported experiments, we quantified the potential for boll weevils to survive passage through precleaning machinery in the gin. In this study, we quantified survival potential of boll weevils passing through the gin stand and segregating into the cottonseed, mote, or lint fractions. We also examined boll weevil survival when passed with ginned lint through a lint cleaner. We present a flow chart of experimentally determined survival potentials of boll weevils passing through the various subprocesses of the gin, from which one can calculate the risk of a live boll weevil reaching any point in the process. Our data show that there is virtually no chance of a boll weevil being segregated alive into the cottonseed or of one surviving in the lint to approach the bale press. Therefore, quarantine or fumigation of cottonseed and cotton bales to guard against boll weevil introductions is unnecessary. PMID:15666727

  19. Reproductive potential of field-collected overwintering boll weevils (Coleoptera" Curculionidae) fed on pollen in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Greenberg; G.D.Jones; J.J.Adamczyk, Jr.; F.Eischen; J.S.Armstrong; R.J.Coleman; M.Sétamou; Tong-Xian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Bobeman), females collected from pheromone traps in September, November and January, fed for 1, 3, and 5 weeks on plant pollens, and then provided cotton squares, was determined in the laboratory at 27 ± 1℃, 65% RH, and a photoperiod 13 : 11 (L : D) h.Duration of pollen feeding by overwintering boll weevils did not significantly influence egg and feeding punctures, or puncture ratios (egg to total punctures) for any of the three months of parent weevil collections when provided cotton squares on a daily basis.However, punctures and puncture ratios are significantly different when comparing mean data between months of boll weevil collections. When boll weevils were provided with cotton squares daily, the pre-ovipositional periods of female parents captured in September, November and January were 5, 9 and 14 days, respectively. The rate of eggs by females was significantly lower during November and January than September. Female parents collected in September produced a significantly higher percentage of eggs yielding adult progeny than those collected in November and January. Life table parameters indicated that net reproductive rate (R_o) of boll weevil females collected in September was 1.2-fold higher than those collected in November and 10.7-fold higher than those collected in January. Except for testes size, no differences in male reproductive parameters were observed during the cotton-free period compared with males captured during mid-cotton (June). The number of oocytes in the ovarioles and the number of oocytes containing yolk were significantly lower during September, November and January compared with June. The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil females collected in different months is an important consideration in determining the success of any control strategy.

  20. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  1. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  2. Cafe Grandis kõlab lautomuusika / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Corelli Musicu salongiõhtutel festivali "Fiesta de la Guitarra" raames esineb trio koosseisus Stewart McCoy (lautomängija), Robert Staak (lautomängija) ja Maria Staak (laulja), esinejatest. Esitatakse renessansiaja autorite lautoduette ja -laule. Kontsert 8. nov. Pärnu hotellis sarjas "Café Grandi muusikasalong"

  3. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:26876518

  4. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    José Marcio de Mello; João Luís Ferreira Batista; Marcelo Silva de Oliveira; Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro Júnior

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of S...

  5. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  6. El picudo del algodonero en la Argentina: Principales resultados e implicancias de los estudios moleculares The cotton boll weevil in Argentina: Main results and implications of the molecular studies

    OpenAIRE

    Analía A. Lanteri; Confalonieri, Viviana A.; M. Amalia Scataglini

    2003-01-01

    Después de diez años del primer registro del picudo del algodonero, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), en la Argentina, el insecto ha llegado a la zona algodonera del Chaco. Los estudios moleculares realizados sobre poblaciones de la Argentina, Brasil y Paraguay, y posibles poblaciones fuente de EE.UU y México, han aportado información relevante para el control de la plaga. Se aplicaron las técnicas de RAPD (Polimorfismos del ADN Amplificados al Azar) y de secuenciación d...

  7. Survival of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)adults after feeding on pollens from various sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOIL M. GREENBERG; GRETCHEN D. JONES; FRANK EISCHEN; RANDY J.COLEMAN; JOHN J. ADAMCZYK, JR; TONG-XIAN LIU; MAMOUDOU SETAMOU

    2007-01-01

    The survival of overwintering boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman),adults on non-cotton hosts in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas was examined from 2001 to 2006. The success of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program, which was reintroduced into the LRGV in 2005, depends on controlling overwintering boll weevil populations. Laboratory studies were conducted using boll weevil adults that were captured in pheromone traps from September through March. The number of adults captured per trap declined significantly in the field from fall to the beginning of spring (3.5-7.0-fold). The proportion of trapped males and females did not differ significantly. The mean weight of boll weevil adults captured in September was 13.3 mg, while those of captured adults from November to February were significantly lower and ranged from 6.7 to 7.8 mg. Our results show that boll weevil adults can feed on different plant pollens. The highest longevity occurred when adults were fed almond pollen or mixed pollens (72.6 days and 69.2 days, respectively)and the lowest when they fed on citrus pollen or a non-food source (9.7 days or 7.4 days,respectively). The highest adult survival occurred on almond and mixed pollens [88.0%-97.6% after 1st feeding period (10 days), 78.0%-90.8% after 3rd feeding period (10 days), 55.0%-83.6% after 5th feeding period (10 days), and 15.2%-32.4% after 10th feeding period (10days)]. The lowest adult survival occurred on citrus pollen [52.0%-56.0% after 1st feeding period (10 days), 13.3% after 3rd and 5th feeding periods (10 days), and 0 after 6th feeding period (10 days)]. Pollen feeding is not a behavior restricted to adult boll weevils of a specific sex or physiological state. Understanding how boll weevil adults survive in the absence of cotton is important to ensure ultimate success of eradicating this pest in the subtropics.

  8. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  9. 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia d´Avila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. has a social, cultural and economic importance in the southern states of Brazil. The pure stands of this culture was responsible for the increase of many species of insects. Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae is considered the main pest from an economic viewpoint because of its difficult control and potential for damage. The larval phase occurs inside the twings and trunks, what makes more difficult to deal with its detention and management. Cultural and mechanical management are the most indicated, such as collection of adults, prunning and burning of plant parts damaged by the insect, balanced nutrition, adequate plant density and maintenance of areas with native vegetation or also the introduction of policulture. These strategies may increase the agroecossystem balance and thus a reduction of the insect-pest to an aceptable level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assemble and the discuss the information on the bioecology and management of erva-mate borer.

  10. Study on Machining Properties of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. Grandis: Ⅰ. Planing and Sanding Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xinyi; JIANG Xiaomei; GAO Jianmin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    The research method in this paper is based on the standard of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Planing and sanding are selected to study the machining properties of E. Urophylla × E. Grandis plantation wood. Moreover, the reasons for machining defects are analyzed. The results show E. Urophylla × E. Grandis planted in south China is a good species with a great potential for solid wood utilization.

  11. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of potential transpiration models to simulate transpiration rates in areas prone to soil water deficits leads to overestimates of water use as the soil dries. Therefore, I carried out studies on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. I hypothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict what fraction of potential transpiration was taking place at a given time. Site 1 supported a stand of 3-year-old E. grandis trees, whereas 9-year-old trees were growing on Site 2, situated 2 km away. At each site, plastic sheeting was laid over the ground to prevent soil water recharge and thereby allow the roots in the soil to induce a continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I found that modeling the water balance of deep rooting zones is impractical for the purpose of simulating nonpotential transpiration rates because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanism and the water retention characteristics of the deep subsoil strata. I conclude that predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits from the soil water balance is not feasible at these sites.

  12. Devolatilisation kinetics and pyrolytic analyses of Tectona grandis (teak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, A O; Lasode, O A; McDonald, A G

    2014-03-01

    Devolatilisation kinetics and pyrolytic analyses were carried out on Tectona grandis (teak) using iso-conversional methods (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Starink) and analytical Py-GC/MS technique respectively. Proximate and elemental analyses were also performed and they showed that the ash and C contents and the HHV were 0.7%, 49.6% and 19.8MJ/kg respectively. Biomass sample was subjected to multiple heating rates (5-35K/min) in thermogravimetric experiments and kinetic parameters were evaluated from the non-isothermal TGA curves. The activation energy (E) varied between 222 and 300kJ/mol as a function of degree of conversion. Similarly, the pre-exponential frequency factor (A) varied between 9.6×10(17) and 9.55×10(24)min(-1). Analytical Py-GC/MS showed the presence of CO2, acetic acid, furan+2-butanone, levoglucosan, trans-coniferyl alcohol and lignin derivatives. The proportion of phenolic compounds identified was more than one-third with isoeugenol, acetoguaiacone, and 4-vinylguaiacol showing dominance. PMID:24486938

  13. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  14. Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

  15. Sewage sludge as substrate for Tectona grandis L. seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge is a waste from sewage treatment plants, which can be used in formulations of substrates for seedling production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different proportions of sewage sludge, soil and commercial substrate on the growth characteristics of Tectona grandis seedlings in tubes of 120 cm³ volume capacity. The sewage sludge used came from the STP's Cachoeiro de Itapemirim / ES. The seedlings were grown in the forest nursery / CCA / UFES. The statistical design used in the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. The treatments constituted of sewage sludge : commercial substrate: soil (v: v: v, which corresponded to 20:70:10 (T1, 40:50:10 (T2, 60:30:10 (T3, 80 : 10:10 (T4, 90:0:10 (T5 and the control treatment with 0:90:10 (T6. All variables assessed were significant at the 5% level of probability. The control (T6 showed results statistically equal to or lower than the treatments T3 with 60% of sewage sludge concentration (T3. It follows then that the use of sewage sludge in seedling production is feasible and promising, however, used in a proper proportion.

  16. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, P. J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research, Division of Forest Science and Technology, Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1996-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa were studied to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. It was expected that by defining this relationship, modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict the fraction of transpiration taking place at any given time. As part of the experimental procedure soil water recharge was prevented by plastic sheeting, thus allowing the roots in the soil to induce continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed only moderate drought stress; trees at both sites extracted water down to eight meters and more, below the surface. These results suggest that because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanisms and other related factors, soil water balance studies are not useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits at these sites. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcio de Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of São Paulo State.Two sampling procedures were used, systematic grading and unencumbered systematic. For each plot from the two samples, thefollowing dendrometric characteristics were measured: volume, quadratic average diameter, basal area and average height of thedominant trees. For each one of these characteristics, anisotropic and isotropic semi variogrammes were built, in order toevaluate the spatial continuity structure. The semi variogrammes were built using the moment estimator method. The mainauthorized functions were adjusted to the experimental semi variogrammes, by The Minimum Square Method. The behavior of thespatial continuity was evaluated through the degree of spatial dependence and of the assigned semi variogrammes for the fourcharacteristics, in the appraised sampling methods, respectively. All appraised characteristics presented spatially structured,independently of the appraised sampling procedure. The continuity structure of the four characteristics was isotropic, i.e., thevariance among pairs of points depends on the separation vector h. Therefore, unidirectional semi variogrammes can be built forall appraised characteristics. The results suggest that, in forest inventory, the spatial component should be considered, i.e., plotsshould not be treated separately.

  18. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in

  19. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  20. Chemical components of cold pressed kernel oils from different Torreya grandis cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Li, Wangling; Zeng, Maomao; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Shangwei; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The chemical compositions of cold pressed kernel oils of seven Torreya grandis cultivars from China were analyzed in this study. The contents of the chemical components of T. grandis kernels and kernel oils varied to different extents with the cultivar. The T. grandis kernels contained relatively high oil and protein content (45.80-53.16% and 10.34-14.29%, respectively). The kernel oils were rich in unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic (39.39-47.77%), oleic (30.47-37.54%) and eicosatrienoic acid (6.78-8.37%). The kernel oils contained some abundant bioactive substances such as tocopherols (0.64-1.77mg/g) consisting of α-, β-, γ- and δ-isomers; sterols including β-sitosterol (0.90-1.29mg/g), campesterol (0.06-0.32mg/g) and stigmasterol (0.04-0.18mg/g) in addition to polyphenols (9.22-22.16μgGAE/g). The results revealed that the T. grandis kernel oils possessed the potentially important nutrition and health benefits and could be used as oils in the human diet or functional ingredients in the food industry. PMID:27173552

  1. A Multivariate Study on Genetic Variation in Teak (Tectona grandis (L.))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Dahl; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Suangtho, V.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic differentiation between populations of teak (Tectona grandis (L.)) was examined in 9 quantitative characters and 10 allozyme loci. Large differences between populations were revealed in the quantitative traits. Regional patterns were revealed by multivariate analysis of the data, but ther...

  2. Governo del territorio e grandi trasformazioni nella regione urbana milanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  Lo studio analizza le grandi trasformazioni in atto nella “regione urbana” milanese, esaminando gli strumenti, le strategie e le politiche seguite. Per “regione urbana” si intende un territorio che non fa riferimento a relazioni gerarchiche di tipo centro-periferico, bensì determina relazioni multi direzionali, a differenza dell’area metropolitana che viene definita in base a relazioni di dipendenza (economica, sociale, funzionale, ecc. di agglomerati esterni rispetto ad un capoluogo. La regione urbana milanese è uno dei poli economici e produttivi più attivi a livello nazionale ed europeo, tuttavia tale territorio è caratterizzato da una ridotta qualità urbana e ambientale e da fenomeni di polarizzazione e di frammentazione sociale in aumento, che hanno ripercussioni negative sulle prospettive di sviluppo dell'area. I più recenti strumenti di pianificazione dell’area milanese fanno riferimento alla coesione territoriale, cercando di disegnare una nuova struttura per il territorio frammentato e diffuso, consolidando il policentrismo della regione urbana, favorendo il riconoscimento di aggregazioni intermedie, al cui interno ricercare integrazione del sistema dei servizi, identità e appartenenze di area. Per attivare una politica di riqualificazione a livello urbano e territoriale, risulta fondamentale seguire forme di coordinamento tra i vari livelli di pianificazione. Particolare attenzione viene posta al problema della mobilità che richiede strategie particolari non solo del traffico quale effetto indotto, ma anche delle cause che lo producono, con riferimento specifico alla distribuzione sul territorio delle diverse attività, ad un corretto equilibrio tra insediamenti residenziali, produttivi e terziari. È necessario, dunque, individuare strumenti e procedure, capaci di perseguire un equilibrio dinamico tra i flussi attratti dalle attività insediate e i flussi “sostenibili” dalle infrastrutture di trasporto

  3. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera. PMID:26911160

  4. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  5. Modelos de predição para sobrevivência de plantas de Eucalyptus grandis Prediction models of Eucalyptus grandis plant survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telde Natel Custódio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar modelos de predição de plantas sobreviventes de Eucalyptus grandis. Utilizaram-se os seguintes modelos: modelo linear misto com os dados transformados, utilizando-se as transformações angular e BOX-COX; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição binomial e funções de ligação logística, probit e complemento log-log; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica. Os dados são provenientes de um experimento em blocos ao acaso, para avaliação de progênies maternas de Eucalyptus grandis, aos 5 anos de idade, em que a variável resposta são plantas sobreviventes. Para comparação dos efeitos entre os modelos foram estimadas as correlações de Spearman e aplicado o teste de permutação de Fisher. Foi possível concluir que, o modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica se ajustou mal aos dados e que as estimativas para os efeitos fixos e predição para os efeitos aleatórios, não se diferenciaram entre os demais modelos estudados.The objective of this work was to compare models for prediction of the survival of plants of Eucalyptus grandis. The following models were used: linear mixed model with the transformed data, by utilizing the angular transformations and BOX-COX; generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution and logistic functions, probit and complement log-log links; generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function. The data came from a randomized block experiment for evaluation of Eucalyptus grandis maternal progenies at five years old, in which the variable response are surviving plants. For comparison of the effects among the models the correlations of Spearman were estimated and the test of permutation of Fisher was applied. It was possible to conclude that: the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and

  6. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  7. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  8. Fertirrigation in production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis during winter and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fernandes Ciavatta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies correlating the splitting of fertigation with the development and quality of tree seedlings in different production systems and periods of the year are fundamental to optimize inputs and minimization of the production cycle. Thus we conducted this study aimed to check the influence of the split of fertigation in the development and quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in winter and summer periods. The fertilization through the irrigation system by capillarity was split on: one, two, three or six times in the week, maintaining the total amount of nutrients applied. We concluded that the most effective fertigation for the development and quality of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis were six and one times in the week for the period of winter and summer, respectively, demonstrating the need for adequacy of fertigation managements according to the period of year.

  9. Assessment of the antidiabetic potential of Cassia grandis using an in vivo model

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    Sandesh R Lodha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. grandis (Family: Leguminosae were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by a glucose tolerance test, in normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed that they significantly lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in the glucose tolerance test. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after three hours, at a dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage of protection given by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 32.72 and 46.42%, respectively. In the long-term treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring the blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides on the tenth day. Both the extracts showed a significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide. These results showed that the Cassia grandis possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  10. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

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    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  11. DENDROCLIMATOLOGY CORRELATIONS OF Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN OF RIO CLARO, RJ STATE - BRAZIL

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    Bruna Roque Ugulino de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial forests plantation contributes decisively to generate socio-economic and environmental benefits, providing sustainability at the forest-based industries. The Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden stand out as one of the most cultivated species for reforestation in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between precipitation and wood production for 23-year old Eucalyptus grandis from a commercial plantation in Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The annual increment of wood was determined by the X-ray densitometry, which provides a detailed wood density profile in radial direction for each sample. One year of the tree life was considered because this the period for the formation of two consecutive latewood rings formation, which corresponds to two high density peaks. The results showed a positive correlation between precipitation data and annual increment of wood, revealing the dendroclimatology potential of this species in this region.

  12. Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood

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    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the effect of thermal rectification on physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood at different levels of temperature and time. Samples of Eucalyptus grandis wood (10 × 10 × 200 mm were heat-treated at 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C during 4 and 8 hours. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and untreated samples were determined by static bending tests. The physical properties were determined by weight loss and swelling tests. The results showed that modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, weight loss, volumetric swelling and linear swelling were affected significantly by the thermal rectification. However, the length of exposure influenced just weight loss, while the temperature influenced all the studied properties of heat-treated wood. More significant modifications with treatments at a temperature of 200 °C or higher were found in the properties of heat-treated wood.

  13. Bioindication Potential of the Coleoptera

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    Belitskaya Mariya Nikolaevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Different families of Coleoptera ambiguously respond to the pollution of SPZs with industrial emissions. For example, the SPZ of Volgograd aluminum plant has the changing biodiversity of insect communities at different distances from the pollution source. The increasing level of pollution is accompanied by the reduction in species abundance. At a distance of 200 m a special ecological zone with the specific composition of the entomofauna was formed. It is significantly different from other habitats. No Cerambycidae species may survive in the zone of maximum pollution, and the number of Curculionidae species is reduced significantly. The number of Cerambycidae decreases by more than 40 % in the presence of even minimal contamination. The most sensitive bioindicators are represented by such insects as Cerambycidae, Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae. Changes in the indices can be described by the function y = arctan (x, where x is the distance from the pollution source (in meters. The specificity of this function is to identify levels of possible changes of species richness and numerical abundance of communities. On the basis of trigonometric functions describing the changes in the species composition and abundance, the authors offered the method for assessing the quality of the environment in SPZs. The use of three families of insects opens up prospects of differentiation zones of technogenic pressure.

  14. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

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    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  15. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  16. Growth Process of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis Stand Based on Logistic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the most valuable cultivated forest genus in the tropical and subtropical areas nowadays. It has been a challenge for foresters to model growth due to the genetic variations, management regimes, and multiple products generated from the plantations. In this paper, Logistic equation was used to study the stock growth process of E. urophylla × E. grandis plantation at age of 14 with 6 spacing treatments. And the biological interpretation of the parameters of Logistic equation was analyzed. The re...

  17. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre; Adriano Wagner Ballarin; Hernando Lara Palma

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume). The materi...

  18. Formulasi Sediaan Lipstik Menggunakan Ekstrak Daun Jati (Tectona grandis L.f.) Sebagai Pewarna

    OpenAIRE

    Erinda, Nonie

    2011-01-01

    The young teak leaf (Tectona grandis L.f.) have long been used traditionally by the people as a dye fabrics, mats, and also food. The young teak leaf contain natural pigments, one of which is the class of anthocyanin, namely phelargonidine. Researches made formulation of lipstick by using the natural pigments which contained in young teak leaf. Lipstick formulation comprised of several components such as cera alba, lanolin, vaseline alba, cetaceum, cetyl alcohol, oleum ricini, propylene g...

  19. The oropharyngeal morphology in the semiaquatic giant Asian pond turtle, Heosemys grandis, and its evolutionary implications.

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    Monika Lintner

    Full Text Available The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids-independently from other amniotes-and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct-but compared to testudinids rather small-anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles.

  20. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M J S

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypot...

  1. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments. PMID:27343456

  2. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis

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    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the fertilization in the amount and quality of the produced wood is one of the questions to be considered in the research of the Eucalyptus grandis. The present work aimed to evaluate the fertilization effect in the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis. The population of Eucalyptus grandis was 21 years old and was managed under the system of selective thinning, with application of fertilizers. The factors used in this study were: presence or absence of fertilizers, two positions of log and five radial positions. The influences of the factors and of their combinations were evaluated regarding to compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in static banding. The compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity had been influenced by the factors: fertilizer and radial positions of the log. There was also an increase in the direction of the pith-bark in all studied properties. A good positive relationship was found to exist among the compression strength, the shear, the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity with radial position.

  3. MANEJO DO SOLO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM ARGISSOLO

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    Juliana Prevedello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest species cultivation with rapid growth in Brazil has increased, mainly due to the diverse use of its wood and climate adaptation. The cultivation with minimum tillage in the forest sector stands out a way to increase productivity, combined with the maintenance of biodiversity and soil conservation. This study was conducted at the experimental area of State Foundation for Agricultural Research - Research Center for Forestry in Santa Maria - RS, with aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil tillage methods on soil physical properties and on initial development of Eucalyptus grandis, in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. Four soil management practices were compared: no-tillage; chisel tillage; chisel tillage plus harrowing and; rotary tillage (rotary tiller, installed in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil under no-tillage conditioned lower initial growth of eucalyptus due higher soil penetration resistance and bulk density, when compared with treatments with mobilization. The root distribution analysis in soil, despite being a qualitative method, was effective in demonstrating the effect of soil tillage for the Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The soil tillage with mobilization resulted in a higher initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis. The chisel tillage effects in the soil physical properties persisted after one year of soil tillage.

  4. Antiproteolytic and leishmanicidal activity of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt leaf extract against Leishmania donovani promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Partha; Paik, Dibyendu; Pramanik, Asmita; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), development of alternative safe therapeutic strategy is gaining paramount wherein natural components of plant origin have prominence. We explored Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, a medicinal plant known in traditional folk medicine, for its antileishmanial efficacy. SDS-PAGE analysis of the C. grandis leaf extract (Cg-Ex) showed few protein bands about 14-66 kDa among which three (64.8, 55.8 and 15.3 kDa) were identified as serine protease inhibitors by reverse zymography. Since the virulence of Leishmania is also attributed by serine proteases, objective of the present study was to evaluate in vitro antileishmanial activity of Cg-Ex, targeting Leishmania donovani serine protease(s). Inhibition study of Cg-Ex in gelatin-zymogram and spectrophotometric assay revealed its strong inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin rather than chymotrypsin, and also showed significant inhibition of L. donovani serine protease(s). Further, studies with Cg-Ex were extended to estimate its antileishmanial efficacy with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) at 308.0 ± 2.42 μg/ml along with significant morphological alterations. The results have demonstrated the potential of the serine protease inhibitor rich fraction of the C. grandis leaf extract against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26669017

  5. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  6. Dinâmica do enraizamento de microestacas e miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Rooting dynamics of microcuttings and minicuttings of Eucalyptus grandis clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Titon

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a dinâmica de enraizamento de microestacas e miniestacas, mediante o acompanhamento da emissão e do desenvolvimento de raízes de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram utilizadas microestacas provenientes de brotações coletadas em plantas rejuvenescidas por micropropagação e miniestacas oriundas de brotações coletadas de miniestacas enraizadas originadas de mudas propagadas pelo processo de estaquia convencional. Os resultados indicaram a maior habilidade de enraizamento das microestacas em relação às miniestacas, evidenciada através do número de raízes/estaca, comprimento total de raiz/estaca, comprimento da maior raiz/estaca, comprimento médio de raízes/estaca e peso de matéria seca de raízes.The aim of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of microcutting and minicutting techniques during rooting process, by monitoring root emergence and development in microcuttings and minicuttings of four Eucalyptus grandis clones. Microcuttings were obtained from in vitro rejuvenated plant-derived sprouts, whereas minicuttings from rooted sprouts derived from plants propagated through conventional cutting technique. The results suggest the greater rooting ability of the microcuttings as compared to the minicuttings, evidenced by the number of roots/cuttings, total root/cutting length, largest root/cutting length, mean length of roots/cutting and dry weight of roots.

  7. Comparisons between two economically valuable forest species (Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda in relation to seed behaviour under controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to analyze seed behaviour under controlled deterioration and estimate viability equations for forest species Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda. Desired moisture content levels were achieved from initial values after either rehydration over water or drying over silica gel, both at 25 ºC. Seed sub samples with 8 moisture contents each for E. grandis (1.2 to 18.1%, initial value of 11.3% and P. taeda (1.5 to 19.5%, initial value of 12.9% were sealed in laminate aluminium-foil packets and stored in incubators maintained at 40, 50 and 65 ºC. The seeds from these species exhibited true orthodox and sub-orthodox storage behaviour, respectively, however E. grandis showed higher seed storability, probably due to a different seed chemical composition. Lowest moisture content limits estimated for application of the viability equations at 65 ºC were 4.9 and 4.1 mc for E. grandis and P. taeda, on equilibrium with ±20% RH. The viability equation estimated quantified the response of seed longevity to storage environment well with K E = 9.661 and 8.838; C W = 6.467 and 5.981; C H = 0.03498 and 0.10340; C Q = 0.0002330 and 0.0005476, for E. grandis and P. taeda, respectively.

  8. Impacts of grazing and mowing on reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in a semi-arid area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui GAO; YuBao GAO; XingDong HE

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance can affect biomass allocation of plants, but can it influence plant reproductive behavior? To address this issue, we performed field plant community investigations and explored the reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in response to grazing and mowing treatments at Maodeng pasture of Xilinguole League of Inner Mongolia, China during 2007-2009. The results showed that, with a similar niche width for the two plant species under mowing and grazing treatments, mowing significantly increased the ratio of ramet to genet number of S. krylovii and the carbon to nitrogen ratio of S. grandis, and grazing significantly decreased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller biomass of S. grandis and increased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. krylovii. Regression analysis showed that the significantly positive effect of root to shoot biomass ratio was stronger on the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. grandis than on that of S. krylovii. These results indicated that grazing and mowing influenced the reproductive manner and the process of sexual reproduc-tion of S. grandis and S. krylovii.

  9. Using morphometrics, in situ observations and genetic characters to distinguish among commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species; a redescription of Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 (Antipatharia : Antipathidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Daniel [University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu; Toonen, Robert J. [Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Kaneohe, HI; Brugler, Mercer R. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; France, Scott C. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Montgomery, Anthony D. [Honolulu State Department Land and Natural Resources, HI

    2010-01-01

    The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27-127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ color photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three color morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish among the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi Opresko, 2009. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana Opresko, 1996 from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis (Gray, 1860), hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.

  10. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  11. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinski, Ilara G F; Moon, David H; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD(+) for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  12. THE DENSITY AND SHRINKAGE BEHAVIOR OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD SUBMITTED TO DIFERENT TEMPERATURES OF THERMORETIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    José Otávio Brito; José Nivaldo Garcia; Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior; Antonio Maria das Chagas Pessoa; Paulo H. Müller da Silva

    2006-01-01

    This research deals with the evaluation of the behavior of thermorectificated wood of Eucalyptus grandis, in relation itsdensity and shrinkage. To evaluate these aspects, it was used a totally random experimental outline, with 5 treatments (A - woodthermorectificated (wt) at 120 ºC; B wt at 140 ºC; C wt at 160 ºC; D wt at 180 ºC; E - wt at 200 ºC) and 30 replications. The resultsindicated that, in statistical terms, the density of wood thermally treated is not different from that obtained fro...

  13. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn.) and Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi; Efemena Dickens Dolor; Ebere Mercy Okechukwu

    2007-01-01

    A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlin...

  14. SEASONAL INCREMENT IN TRUNK DIAMETER OF Eucalyptus grandis TREES APPLYING DENDROMETER BANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Sette Junior; Mario Tomazello Filho; José Luis Lousada; Jean Paul Laclau

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987557The present work aimed to evaluate the seasonal increment in diameter of Eucalyptus grandis trees for 24 months and its relationship with the climatic variables and fertilization with nitrogen and with sewer mud. The trees were planted in the spacing of 3x2 m and fertilized with nitrogen (planting, 6, 12, 18 months) and sewer mud (planting and 8 months). 20 trees were selected by treatment according witch the distribution of basal area and installed dendr...

  15. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  16. Influence of Planting Spacing on Mechanical Properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Planted in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENSON; Michael

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand influence of planting spacing on mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla planted as a potential species for solid wood products in China. Four trees at age of 13 were selected from each of 6 groups of planting spacing and a total of 24 sampling trees were selected from the Dongmen Forestry Center of Guangxi Province in China. Furthermore, a one-meter-long log from each tree was cut into small blocks for wood properties testing. MOE, MOR and co...

  17. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit;

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  18. Efeito de antioxidantes no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart; Aloisio Xavier; José Maria Moreira Dias

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos antioxidantes ácido ascórbico, carvão ativado e polivinilpirrolidona (PVP) no enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal desenvolvido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. Experimentalmente, foram testadas cinco concentrações de ácido ascórbico, quatro de carvão ativado e sete de PVP, nos quatro clones estudados. Foram realizadas avaliações quant...

  19. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  20. Antraquinonas e naftoquinonas do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandi (Verbenaceae Anthraquinones and naphtoquinones from the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae reforestation specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Y.O. Moreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato hexânico do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae, através de procedimentos fitoquímicos clássicos, levou ao isolamento das naftoquinonas lapachol e desidro-a-lapachona e das antraquinonas tectoquinona e obtusifolina. As estruturas das substâncias foram caracterizadas através da análise de métodos espectrométricos de RMN. Este é o primeiro estudo fitoquímico de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis, no Brasil, sendo o objetivo principal deste trabalho a comprovação da presença de tectoquinona em espécimes cultivados.The hexane extract of the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae afforded two anthraquinones and two naphtoquinones. Their caracterizations were obtained through NMR spectroscopic techniques. This is the first phytochemical study of the bark of Tectona grandis reforestation specimen in Brazil. The main interest in this work is proving the presence of tectoquinone in reforestation specimen.

  1. Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  2. Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  3. Light intensity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis L. f. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C. P. Leal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effects of the luminosity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis seedlings. Thus, in a substrate composed by topsoil + wood powder (1:1 the seedlings were grown into plastic tubets containing 0.3 dm3 of such substrate, or into plastic pots containing 1.0 dm3 of the same substrate, and subjected to 50 and 25% shading or full sunlight. The assessments were performed every two weeks by measuring plant height and stem diameter, during eight weeks period. At the end of this period, the leaf area, dry mass of shoots and roots, the ratio between height of plant/diameter of stem, and the Dickson quality index were also assessed. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with treatments arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial [3 luminosity levels (50, 25% shading and full sunlight x 2 types of containers (plastic tubets and clay pots] with four replicates of 10 seedlings each. Means were compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability level and adjustments for the non-linear regression polynomial curves for the assessed characteristics were computed in function of time. Shadings of 25 and 50% were the best alternatives to luminosity; and the tubets were the most suitable containers for production of Cassia grandis seedlings.

  4. Characterization and rheological study of the galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Barros, Wilson; Santos, Gustavo R C; Correia, Maria T S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2014-04-15

    Galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation, presented a yield of 36 ± 8%. The polysaccharide has a constant mannose/galactose ratio (2.44:1). Methylation analysis, one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the polysaccharide has a central core composed of 4-linked β-mannose units, with branches of galactose, linked to the carbohydrate core through α(1-6) linkage. The amorphous nature of the galactomannan was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Rheological characterization exhibited Newtonian plateaus followed by shear-thinning zones characteristic of polymer solutions up to 1.5% (w/v) and above this value the system exhibited yield stress associated with a weak gel. Adjusting stress-strain curves confirmed a 1.6% (w/v) as the galactomannan concentration value for the sol-gel transition. These results indicate that the galactomannan extracted from C. grandis seeds presents rheological characteristics suitable for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor from leaves of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, L Shilpa; Murugan, K

    2011-05-01

    Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor isolated from Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. has been reported. A 14.3 kDa protease inhibitor (PI) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation (20-85% saturation), sephadex G-75, DEAE sepharose column and trypsin-sepharose affinity chromatography from the leaves of C. grandis. The purity was checked by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. PI exhibited marked growth inhibitory effects on colon cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PI was thermostable and showed antimicrobial activity without hemolytic activity. PI strongly inhibited pathogenic microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Eschershia coli, Bacillus subtilis and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, Mucor indicus, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Examination by bright field microscopy showed inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation. Morphologically, PI treated fungus showed a significant shrinkage of hyphal tips. Reduced PI completely lost its activity indicating that disulfide bridge is essential for its protease inhibitory and antifungal activity. Results reported in this study suggested that PI may be an excellent candidate for development of novel oral or other anti-infective agents. PMID:21615062

  6. Amino Acid Content, Fatty Acid Profile and Radical Scavenging Capacities of Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtisam G. Doka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan, the unripe (green fruits of Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt. (Cucurbitaceae are eaten raw as salads or cooked by either boiling or frying in oil. In this study the amino acid content, fatty acid profile and radical scavenging capacities of the raw and boiled fruits were determined. The total amino acids ranged from 7736 mg/100 g in raw fruits to 7766 mg/100 g in boiled fruits and with the exception of leucine, boiling did not cause significant difference in the essential amino acids content (32.5% of the fruits. Boiling caused significant (p<0.05 change in the amount of the total saturated (from 38.04% in raw fruits to 14.156% in boiled ones and unsaturated fatty acids (from 57.59% in raw fruits to 85.774% in boiled ones. Moreover, boiling caused significant (p<0.05 losses of vitamin C by 73% and polyphenols by 70.6 % contents. The high antioxidant activity of the raw fruits (IC50 22 mg/L, determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, was declined dramatically upon boiling. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that fruits of C. grandis could have health beneficial effect and their consumption in the raw state is preferable.

  7. Effects of potassium and sodium supply on drought-adaptive mechanisms in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Christina, Mathias; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; de Cassia Piccolo, Marisa; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; e Moreira, Rildo Moreira; Krusche, Alex Vladimir; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Nouvellon, Yann

    2014-07-01

    A basic understanding of nutrition effects on the mechanisms involved in tree response to drought is essential under a future drier climate. A large-scale throughfall exclusion experiment was set up in Brazil to gain an insight into the effects of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) nutrition on tree structural and physiological adjustments to water deficit. Regardless of the water supply, K and Na supply greatly increased growth and leaf area index (LAI) of Eucalyptus grandis trees over the first 3 yr after planting. Excluding 37% of throughfall reduced above-ground biomass accumulation in the third year after planting for K- supplied trees only. E. grandis trees were scarcely sensitive to drought as a result of the utilization of water stored in deep soil layers after clear-cutting the previous plantation. Trees coped with water restriction through stomatal closure (isohydrodynamic behavior), osmotic adjustment and decrease in LAI. Additionally, droughted trees showed higher phloem sap sugar concentrations. K and Na supply increased maximum stomatal conductance, and the high water requirements of fertilized trees increased water stress during dry periods. Fertilization regimes should be revisited in a future drier climate in order to find the right balance between improving tree growth and limiting water shortage.

  8. Mast Cell Stabilizing,Antianaphylactic and Antihistaminic Activity of Coccinia grandis Fruits in Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Coccinia grandis Linn(Curcubitaceae)is a climber herb cultivated throughout India.In traditional medicine fruits have been used to treat leprosy,fever,asthma,bronchitis and jaundice.In present study,ethanol extract of C.grandis fruit(ECGF)at 100,125 and 150 mg·kg-1,i.p.,was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing,antianaphylactic and antihistaminic activity using egg albumin induced mast cell degranulation in mice;passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and clonidine induced catalepsy in mice respectively.ECGF at(100-150 mg·kg-1,i.p.)significantly protected egg albumin induced degranulations of mast cells and caused reduction of blue dye leakage in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in dose dependently.The treatment ECGF also inhibited clonidine induced catalepsy in dose dependent manner.Phytochemical studies observed presence of saponin,steroids,alkaloids,flavonoids and glycosides.In conclusion ECGF possesses mast cell stabilizing;anti anaphylactic and antihistaminic potential which might be used in treatment of asthma.

  9. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

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    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  10. Use of glass transition temperature for stabilization of board's cracks of Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fred W. Calonego

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus grandis logs temperatures were determined and correlated with the board's cracks during steaming. Thermocouples were inserted in the logs center, registering their temperatures during steaming at 90"C. The logs were sawed and the board's cracks measured. It was concluded that: (1 the logistic S-shaped curve explains the logs temperature variation; (2 the logs with diameter of 20 to As temperaturas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis, durante a vaporização, foram determinadas e correlacionadas com as rachaduras das tábuas. Nos centros das toras foram inseridos termopares e registradas suas temperaturas durante a vaporização à 90"C. As toras foram desdobradas e as rachaduras das tábuas mensuradas. Concluiu-se que: (1 o modelo estatístico sigmoidal logístico explica a variação da temperatura nas toras; (2 as toras com 20 a <25, 25 a <30 e 30 a <35 cm de diâmetro apresentaram, respectivamente, 84,2"C, 73,1"C e 45,8"C ao final da vaporização; e (3 as rachaduras foramsignificativamente menores nas toras que atingiram a temperatura de transição vítrea.

  11. Interspecific hybridization and inbreeding effect in seed from a Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clonal orchard in Brazil

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    Campinhos Eduardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We used allozyme markers to estimate the amount of natural hybridization between Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla in a 7.4-hectare commercial hybrid-seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This orchard was planted in 1982 using a honeycomb design, with each hexagonal plot containing one E. grandis tree surrounded by six E. urophylla trees. There were 267 replicated hexagonal plots in the orchard. Seeds were harvested from the E. grandis clone only. The multilocus outcrossing rate estimated for the E. grandis clone averaged 70.2%, ranging from 33.0 to 99.0% among individual trees. Contaminant pollination, inferred from progeny genotypes containing alleles not present in the seven parental clones, accounted for 14.4% of the hybrid seed. Contaminant pollen was attributed to neighboring eucalyptus stands isolated from the orchard by a 400-m wide belt of native forest. Inbred and hybrid progenies were identified by their allozyme genotypes and transplanted to the field. Field growth of inbred progeny was 30% lower than that of hybrid plants at two and three years of age.

  12. Organogênese de explante foliar de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Organogenesis of the leaf explant of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

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    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tia-diazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no desempenho da propagação in vitro por organogênese de explante foliar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura e coloração dos calos, em razão dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento dos três genótipos foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante foliar. Os piores resultados de calejamento foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento BAP (0,1 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP em que 8% dos calos formados a partir de explantes foliares regeneraram gemas, com número médio destas formadas por calo igual a 4,2.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine e NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid on the in vitro propagation by organogenesis from foliar explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Depending on the clone used, there were singular responses to growth regulators treatment regarding callusing intensity, texture and color. The best results of the three genotypes used were observed with the TDZ (0.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment, where 100% of the foliar explants presented callus. The worst results were observed with the BAP (0.1 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment. Subsequently, considering the regeneration process, the best response was achieved with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, in which 8% of the calli regenerated buds, with an average of 4.2 buds per explant.

  13. Brotación in vitro de yemas de teca (Tectona grandis L. f. Sprouting buds in vitro teak (Tectona grandis L. f.

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    Fabiana Rojas Parajeles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La teca (Tectona grandis L.f. es una especie maderable exótica introducida a Costa Rica para la siembra de plantaciones comercial por la alta demanda de su madera, su rápido crecimiento y su alta calidad. Inicialmente se utilizó la semilla como único material de siembra y la pobre calidad de muchas de las plantaciones impulsó el inicio de programas de mejora genética. La propagación clonal tomó mucha importancia en estos programas y el cultivo in vitro se convirtió en una herramienta valiosa para la propagación masiva de los árboles élites. Por lo anterior, este trabajo se enfocó en evaluar el efecto de varias concentraciones de dos reguladores de crecimiento, bencilaminopurina (BA y ácido indolacético (AIB, solos y en combinación, en la brotación de yemas dormantes y formación de callos de teca. Tanto el análisis estadístico como la observación visual mostraron que el tratamiento que consistió de 0,005 mg/l de AIA fue el mejor para incrementar la brotación de las yemas y para disminuir la formación de callo.Teak (Tectona grandis L. f. is an exotic timber species introduced to Costa Rica for commercial plantations due to the high demand for its wood, rapid growth and high-quality. Initially the seed was use as the only planting material, but the poor quality of many of the plantations resulted in the initiation of genetic improvement programs. The introduction of clonal propagation in these programs and the establishment of in vitro culture techniques became import tools for mass propagation of the selected elite trees. On the foregoing, this work focused on assessing the effect of several concentrations of two growth regulators, benzylaminopurine (BA and indole acetic acid (AIB, alone and in combination, in the budding of dormantes buds and callus formation of teak. Both the statistical analysis and the visual observation showed that the treatment consisted of 0.005 mg/l of IAA was the best to increase the budding of the

  14. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

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    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  15. Aboveground nutrient components of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. grandis in semiarid Brazil under the nature and the mycorrhizal inoculation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcela C. Pagano; Antonio F. Bellote; Maria R. Scotti

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the aboveground biomass, nutrient content and the percentages of mycorrhizal colonization in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis plantations in the semiarid region (15° 09' S 43° 49' W) in the north of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. Results show that the total above-ground biomass (dry matter) was 33.6 Mg·ha-1 for E. camaldulensis and 53.1 Mg·ha-1 for E. grandis. The biomass of the stem wood, leaves, branches, and stem bark for E. camaldulensis accounted for 64.4%, 19.6%, 15.4%, and 0.6% of the total biomass, respectively (Table 2); meanwhile a similar partition of the total above-ground biomass was also found for E. grandis. The dry matter of leaves and branches of E. camaldulensis accounted for 35% of total biomass, and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S in leaves and branches accounted for 15.5%, 0.7%, 12.3%, 22.6%, 1.9%, and 1.4% of those in total above-ground biomass, respectively. In the trunk (bark and wood), nutrient accumulation in general was lower. Nutrient content of E. grandis presented little variation compared with that of E. camaldulensis. Wood localized in superior parts of trunk presented a higher concentration of P and bark contained significant amounts of nutrients, especially in E. grandis. This indicated that leaving vegetal waste is of importance on the site in reducing the loss of tree productivity in this semi-arid region. The two species showed mycotrophy.

  16. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  17. UN NUOVO DUVALIUS DELLA SICILIA (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE

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    Paolo Magrini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nella presente nota viene descritta una nuova specie e una nuova linea filetica di Duvalius della Sicilia. La nuova linea filetica si distingue da quelle già note per i seguenti caratteri: elitre assolutamente piatte e spianate; angoli omerali retti, con apice arrotondato; linea basale delle elitre suborizzontale; capo di grandi dimensioni; dente distale della mandibola destra grande e nettamente distanziato dai due mesiali; edeago e lamella copulatrice di piccolissime dimensioni. La nuova specie risulta ben diversa dagli altri Duvalius noti, non solo siciliani, per i caratteri riportati nel testo. La lamella copulatrice del maschio presenta un apice trifido, con il fanero mediano più grande e più lungo dei due laterali.

  18. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

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    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  19. MORFOANATOMIA DA RIZOGÊNESE ADVENTÍCIA EM MINIESTACAS DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

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    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to accomplish the histological analysis of the events involved in the adventitious rooting pattern of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones. The mini-cuttings were collected from a mini-stump and the rooting experiments were set up under mini-hedge indoor semi-hydroponics by means of intermittent flooding fertirrigation. For histological analyses, the proximal ends of the mini- cuttings were collected after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 days after planting them at greenhouse. After fixation with FAA 70% , the samples were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and infiltrated overnight in metracrilate resin, and finally embedded in resin. It was verified the endogenous origin of adventitious root primordia from vascular cambium, and in some cases, the formation and proliferation of calli at the proximal end of the mini-cuttings within 8 to 12 days.

  20. Quantification by allometric equations of carbon sequestered by Tec-tona grandis in different agroforestry systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avinash Jain; S. A. Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Non destructive methods for quantification of carbon seques-tration in tropical trees are inadequately developed. We described a stan-dardized method for estimating carbon stock in teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.). We developed linear allometric equations using girth at breast height (GBH), height and age to quantify above ground biomass (AGB). We used AGB to estimate carbon stock for teak trees of different age groups (1.5, 3.5, 7.5, 13.5, 18.5 and 23.5 years). The regression equation with GBH, y=3.174x-21.27, r2=0.898 (p teak-wheat (56.92%)>teak-wild oat (54.94%)>teak-gram (37.15%)>teak-ashwagandha (11.86%). The results from GBH-based regression equations provided satisfactory estimates of carbon stock in tropical trees.

  1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from the Peel of Chinese Torreya grandis Fort

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    Tao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the peel essential oil of Torreya grandis fort obtained by cold pressing and steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. 62 constituents accounting for 99.6% of the total pressed oil were identified while 59 compounds accounting for 99.4% of the steam distilled oil were identified. Limonene (35.6–37.1%, α-pinene (20.1–24.1%, and δ-carene (3.3–3.9 were the major constituents. Others include γ-carene (3.8-3.9%, germacrene D (2.5–2.9%, and β-farnesene (2.7-2.8%.

  2. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

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    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  3. INFLUENCE OF BOARDS DIAMETRICAL POSITION AND STEAMING ON THE DRYING DEFECTS OF Eucalyptus grandis.

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    Fred Willians Calonego

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the Eucalyptus grandis drying defects acting on boards diametrical position and on log steaming. Half of the logs, with diameter from 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35cm, were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature. Subsequently, the logs (control and steamed were sawn. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln pilot and the resulting defects from the drying process were measured. The results indicate that: (1 the boards coming from control logs presented different magnitude defects in function of the diametrical position. The split and spring to increase in direction to pith, the bow to increase in direction to bark and cupping were bigger in intermediary boards; (2 the boards coming from steamed logs presented a reduction from drying defects in function of logs diameter and its more homogeneous index in the pith-bark direction.

  4. Incidence and management of white grub, Schizonycha ruficollis on seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NITIN KULKARNI; KAILASH CHANDRA; PRAFULLA NARAHAR WAGH; KAILASH CHANDRA JOSHI; RAM BHAJAN SINGH

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was conducted annually from 2002 to 2005 between the second week of May and the end of September on the incidence of scarab beetle, Schizonycha ruficollis (Fabricius) in a teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nursery at Ramdongari, Nagpur, India.The immature stages, that is white grubs of the scarab beetle damaged 14%-52% of teak seedlings in the nursery beds, whereas the adult of the species, that is scarab beetles, were recorded on three new host trees (Ziziphus xylopyra, Acacia catechu and A.leucophloea) in addition to the reported hosts such as ziziphus (Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana). Beetles of the S. ruficollis started emerging from the nursery beds just after the pre-monsoon showers and continued for 10-18 days. While beetle of S. ruficollis defoliated tree hosts available in the surroundings, the immature stages of the beetle caused major damage by feeding on root systems of teak seedlings with symptoms of wilting and mortality in forest nursery beds. The result of chemical and biological treatments for the management of grubs of S. ruficollis in nursery beds indicated phorate 10% granular at the rate of 20 g/m2 and chlorpyriphos 20% emulsifiable concentrate at the rate of 5.0 mL/m2 to be effective. Grubs of S. ruficollis have not been recorded previously as a major pest of teak (T. grandis). This is also the first report on occurrence of S. ruficollis adults on tree hosts such as Z. xylopyra, A. catechu and A.leucophloea. White grubs being pests of economic importance and the toughest insects to manage, information given in this paper on incidence, pest status and management of Schizonycha ruficollis is of importance to researchers and forest nursery managers.

  5. Lignoanatomical variation in seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden treated with growth regulators

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    Regina Paula Willemen Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of growth regulators GA3 and BAP on lignification and consequently on the diameter of fibers in Eucalyptus grandis plants at age six months. Anatomical, biochemical and genetic studies after exogenous application of growth regulators during the development phase have been increasingly explored. Some of these studies have achieved progress regarding the interaction of plant hormones with the anatomy and the lignification process in plants. The application of growth regulators GA3 and BAP was done separately or combined in the following concentrations: GA3 (49.13 μM and 98.26 μM, BAP (111 μM and 222 μM, using seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis at age up to six months. Chemical and anatomical analyses were performed on the stem segment of plants subjected to treatment. To quantify lignin content by the Klason method, samples were subjected to removal of extractives and proteins. To measure fiber diameter, once dissociated, samples were analyzed by optical microscopy. The lignin content ranged between 23.37% and 29.64% and fiber diameter ranged between 13.33 µm and 20.39 µm. From results it was possible to visualize, with the G[1]C[1] treatment (49.13 μM of GA3 with 111µM of BAP that lignin content dropped by 21.2% in relation to the control treatment, and that fiber diameter had the smallest increase in relation to other treatments.

  6. Simulated drift effect of glyphosate in different parts of Eucalyptus grandis plantsEfeito da deriva simulada de glyphosate em diferentes partes da planta de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Maria Renata Rocha Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphoste on Eucalyptus grandis, through the application of low doses in different parts of the plant. The experimental design was a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments were glyphosate application at 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g a.e. ha-1 of the commercial formulation Scout®. Three forms of application were used: applying on leaf, on stem, and on the entire plant (leaf + stem. For leaf application, stems were covered with plastic ribbons to protect them from the solution; the same was made with plants that were sprayed on stems, covering leaf with plastic bag. The application was carried out in an armed stationary spray tips XR 11002 VS, with 183 KPa pressure in volume of 200 L ha-1. The eucalyptus plants receiving applications in leaves and whole plant (leaves + stem showing effects of intoxication are more intense about the plants that received the stem applications only. However, there may be increases in height growth and total dry mass of eucalyptus plants in applications of 30 g a.e. ha-1 glyphosate.No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphoste em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio da aplicação de doses reduzidas em diferentes partes da planta. Utilizouse o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g e.a.ha-1 de glyphosate, da formulação comercial Scout®. A aplicação foi realizada de três formas: aplicação sobre as folhas, no caule e na planta inteira (folha + caule. Para a aplicação nas folhas o caule foi coberto com fitas plásticas para evitar que fosse atingido pela solução, e o mesmo foi feito com as plantas que receberam pulverização no caule, cobrindo as folhas com saco plástico. A aplicação foi realizada em um pulverizador estacionário, munido de pontas XR 11002 VS, com pressão de 183

  7. Danos visuais e anatômicos causados pelo glyphosate em folhas de Eucalyptus grandis Visible and anatomic damages caused by glyphosate in Eucalyptus grandis leaves

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    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A sintomatologia é um dos principais critérios adotados para avaliar os danos causados por fatores bióticos e abióticos em plantas. Contudo, aspectos microscópicos são necessários na compreensão dos mecanismos de intoxicação e no diagnóstico precoce da injúria. Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de quatro formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® sobre a morfoanatomia foliar de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis (UFV01, UFV02, UFV03, UFV04, UFV05 e UFV06. Após a aplicação do glyphosate na dose de 129,6 g ha-1, acompanhou-se diariamente o surgimento de sintomas, e aos 14 dias coletaram-se amostras de folhas aparentemente sadias para as análises microscópicas. Todos os clones apresentaram cloroses e necroses a partir do quarto dia de exposição, independentemente da formulação utilizada. O clone UFV04 não apresentou injúrias anatômicas. Nos demais clones, os herbicidas ocasionaram plasmólise, colapso celular, hipertrofia e formação de tecido de cicatrização, porém não foram diagnosticadas variações na espessura das folhas. Visualmente, o Roundup transorb® foi o herbicida que provocou maior intoxicação nas plantas. Anatomicamente, plantas expostas ao Roundup NA® apresentaram maior número de danos. O clone UFV06 foi o mais sensível à ação das formulações testadas, considerando-se tanto a análise visual quanto a anatômica. Os resultados confirmam o valor diagnóstico da análise visual e prognóstico da anatomia vegetal, sendo o estudo conjunto desses parâmetros fundamental para avaliar a sensibilidade entre os clones e o potencial fitotóxico de herbicidas.Symptomatology is one of the most important criteria used to determine the damages caused by biotic and abiotic factors in plants. However, microscopic aspects are needed to elucidate intoxication mechanisms and early injury diagnosis. This work aimed to evaluate the

  8. Use of vermicompost as a substrate for the production of Eucalyptus grandis and Corymbia citriodora seedlings Utilização de vermicomposto como substrato na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis e Corymbia citriodora

    OpenAIRE

    Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Gustavo Schiedeck

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the vermicompost efficiency in the seedlings of two eucalyptus species production. The experiment was developed in greenhouse conditions, substrate constituted by different vermicompost proportions and peat for the E. grandis and C. citriodora seedling production. The experimental design was entirely casualized with seven treatments and eight repetitions. After 100 days of experiment were evaluated: seedli...

  9. Eficiência das minicepas e microcepas na produção de propágulos de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Efficiency of ministumps and microstumps of Eucalyptus grandis clones for minicutting and microcutting production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Titon

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência dos jardins clonais nas técnicas de microestaquia e miniestaquia de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, quanto a sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva das microcepas e minicepas em coletas sucessivas de microestacas e miniestacas. As microcepas utilizadas foram oriundas de mudas rejuvenescidas por micropropagação, mediante subcultivos in vitro, e as minicepas, de miniestacas oriundas de plantas propagadas pelo método da estaquia convencional (macroestaquia. As minicepas e as microcepas apresentaram desempenho similar, tendo sido observado, para ambas, elevada taxa de sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva de material para propagação vegetativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of clonal gardens in the microcutting and minicutting techniques of four Eucalyptus grandis clones regarding the survival, vigor and productive capacity of the microstumps and ministumps in successive collections of microcuttings and minicuttings. The microstumps were obtained from rejuvenated tissue explants through subculture in vitro, and the ministumps by minicuttings derived from conventional rooted cuttings. The ministumps and microstumps of E. grandis exhibited similar performance, i.e., high survival rate, vigor and productive capacity of vegetative propagation material.

  10. AVALIAÇÃO DA SUPERFÍCIE DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden TRATADA TERMICAMENTE

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    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge and sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190ºC. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good, except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad. The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr; Mario Tomazello F; José Luis Lousada; Domingos Lopes; Jean Paul Laclau

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were instal...

  12. Entomofauna associated to stands of teak (Tectona grandis) located in the south of Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Benigno Paes; Pedro Lício Loiola; Winy Agnolette Capelini; Lorenzo Lube dos Santos; Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Junior

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous forests are susceptive to the occurrence of population’s boom of forest pests. Among them, the beetles are considered important economically, not only for the actual damages to the stand, but mainly for the difficulty of control. This work aimed to carry out a population survey of insects, mainly of xylophagous, in stands of Tectona grandis. Twenty ethanolic traps and 30 wood samples of teak were installed in two stands in the municipalities of Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, ...

  13. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao-Mei Ru; Jian-Hua Liu; Ping Shao; Jin-Zhe He

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest e...

  14. Allelopathic effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla on pathogenic fungi and pest insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study on the allelopathic effects and chemical components of the essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla shows that the leaf oil emulsion of E.grandis × E.urophylla can inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum,Pyriculerie grisea,Glorosprium musa rum and Phytophthora capsici.Pupation and feeding of the pest insects Spodopteralitura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hubner are shown to be affected with restraining effects which increase with the increasing levels of oil concentration.A GC/MS analysis of the leaf oil indicated that the main components,with a relative content of≥3%,were alloocimene (43.22%),α-pinene (13.63%),γ-terpinene (5.49%),(E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (3.58%),β-fenchyl alcohol (4.58%),and 2-amino-3,5-dicyano-6-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-pyridine (3.67%).Terpenes played an important role in the inhibitory effects of E.grandis × E.urophylla essential oil on pathogenic fungi and pest insects.Poor biodiversity of eucalyptus plantations is a function of allelopathy.

  15. A comparative assessment on regeneration status of indigenous woody plants in Eucalyptus grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiferaw Alem; Tadesse Woldemariam

    2009-01-01

    Diversity, density and species composition of naturally regenerated woody plants under Eucalyptus grandis plantation and the adjacent natural forest were investigated and compared. Twenty plots, with an area of 20 m× 20 m for each, were established in both of E. Grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest, independently. In each plot, species name, abundance, diameter and height were recorded. Numbers of seedling were collected in five sub-plots (4 m2) within each major plot. A total of 46 species in the plantation, and 52 species in the natural forest, which belongs to 36 families were recorded. The diversity of species (H') is 2.19 in the plantation and 2.74 in the natural forest. The density of understory woody plant was 3842 stems/ha in the plantation and 4122 stems/ha in the natural forest. The densities of seedlings in the natural forest and the plantation were 8101 stems/ha and 4151 stems/ha, respectively. High similarity of woody species composition was found between the natural forest and the plantation. The E. Grandis plantation was found favoring the regeneration and growth of Millitia ferruginia and Coffea arabica in a much better way than other underneath woody species.

  16. Effect of Hexaflumuron on gustation and reproduction of adult boll weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of hexaflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory against boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, captured in pheromone-baited traps for gustatory response and reproduction of the insect. Hexaflumuron is an insect growth regulator which inhibits chitin synthesis and disrupts inse...

  17. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  18. Comparison of Flavonoid Compounds in the Flavedo and Juice of Two Pummelo Cultivars (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck from Different Cultivation Regions in China

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    Mingxia Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different cultivation regions on the pattern and content of flavonoids in two pummelo cultivars (C. grandis L. Osbeck in China. Results showed that similar patterns of flavonoids were observed in the flavedo or juice of each pummelo cultivar from these cultivation regions, whereas the individual flavonoid content showed unique characteristics. Naringin, the predominant flavanone glycoside, showed the highest content in both flavedo and juice of C. grandis “Guanximiyu” from the Pinghe of Fujian (FJ cultivation region compared with the Dapu of Guangdong (GD and Nanbu of Sichuan (SC regions. However, its content in the flavedo of C. grandis “Shatianyu” from the Pingle of Guangxi (GX was significantly lower than in the GD and SC regions. Vicenin-2 appeared to be the dominant flavone C-glycoside in the flavedo of both cultivars, and the lowest content was observed in the flavedo of C. grandis “Guanximiyu” from the SC region. However, C. grandis “Shatianyu” contained the highest content of vicenin-2 in the flavedo from SC region. Similarly, the predominant flavone O-glucoside, rhoifolin, showed the highest content in C. grandis “Guanximiyu” from the GD and FJ regions, whereas C. grandis “Shatianyu” in SC region showed the highest content of rhoifolin. Cluster analysis suggested that genotype played a primary role in determining the flavonoid profiles of pummelo cultivars, whereas regional differences significantly affected the flavonoid distribution of pummelo cultivars potentially via affecting the direction of flavonoid accumulation in pummelo.

  19. Cross-resistance in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations resistant to dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziolor, Elias M; Dubansky, Benjamin; Burggren, Warren W; Matson, Cole W

    2016-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) in Houston, Texas is an aquatic environment with a long history of contamination, including polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. Populations of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) from the HSC have adapted to resist developmental cardiac deformities caused by dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Contaminants in the HSC have acted as a strong selective pressure on resident Gulf killifish populations. Rapid adaptation can lead to fitness costs, some as a direct result of the mechanisms involved in the adaptive process, whereas other adaptations may be more general. To explore potential fitness costs, we evaluated two Gulf killifish populations with documented resistance to DLC-induced cardiac teratogenesis (Patrick Bayou and Vince Bayou), and one previously characterized reference population (Gangs Bayou). We also characterized a previously unstudied population from Galveston Bay as an additional reference population (Smith Point). We tested the sensitivity of F1 larvae from these four populations to two classes of pesticides (pyrethroid (permethrin) and carbamate (carbaryl)) and two model pro-oxidants (tert-butyl hydroquinone (tBHQ) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH)). In addition, we explored their responses to hypoxia and measured resting metabolic rates (M.O2). Both adapted populations were cross-resistant to the toxicity of carbaryl and both pro-oxidants tested. There were no population differences in sensitivity to permethrin. On the other hand, one reference population (Gangs Bayou) was less sensitive to hypoxia, and maintained a lower M.O2 . However, there were no differences in hypoxia tolerance or resting metabolic rate between the second reference and the two adapted populations. This investigation emphasizes the importance of including multiple reference populations to clearly link fitness costs or

  20. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Eucalyptus grandis

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    Denis L. G. Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  1. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

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    Garcia Tzintzuni I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and

  2. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very

  3. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

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    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las especies forestales de rápido crecimiento cultivadas en Uruguay de mayor importancia económica es el Eucalyptus grandis. Trabajos anteriores reportan propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera juvenil y adulta proveniente de plantaciones de esta especie en diferentes regiones del país. Sin embargo, dado que no se dispone de datos científicos nacionales sobre su durabilidad natural, en este trabajo fue evaluada madera de E. grandis obtenida de dos plantaciones de 16 años de edad con semilla del mismo origen, de dos sitios, Rivera y Río Negro. Se estudió la durabilidad natural del duramen externo e interno siguiendo los métodos de la norma EN 350-1, tomando Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 como especie de referencia. Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio para determinar la resistencia a la descomposición fúngica (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor y Serpula lacrymans y a las termites (Reticulitermes spp. siguiendo las normas EN 113 y EN 118, respectivamente. Se realizaron ensayos de campo de estacas, de doble capa y cámara fúngica, los cuales aún están en curso, por lo que en el presente trabajo se presentan resultados parciales. Los perfiles radiales de densidad básica revelaron que la madera del duramen externo no era adulta, sino madera de transición. En general, el duramen de E. grandis mostró una mayor durabilidad que el híbrido Populus.El E. grandis se clasificó como moderadamente o seriamente atacado por Reticulitermes spp. Según EN 350-1, la madera juvenil de E. grandis puede considerarse como “moderadamente durable” ante la pudrición parda provocada por G. trabeum, mientras que la madera de transición puede describirse como “durable”. La madera de transición mostró en relación a la madera juvenil una mayor resistencia al G. trabeum, una susceptibilidad levemente menor a las termites y mejor desempeño en el campo luego de 17 meses de exposición. El sitio de la plantación no

  4. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

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    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  5. Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lignina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a* e matriz amarelo (b* da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos.

  6. PARTICLEBOARDS PRODUCED WITH Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden POLYSTYRENE AND POLYETHYLENE THEREPHTHALATE PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio da Silva Maciel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the properties of wood particleboards, containing particles of polystyrene (PS and polyethylene therephthalate (PET. Particleboards were produced with 0%, 25% or 50% of polystyrene and 100%, 75% or 50% of Eucalyptus grandis particles. Additional boards were produced with two amounts of PET/PS (5/20% or 10/40% and 75% or 50% wood particles. As binding agents three amounts (0%, 4% or 6% of urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde adhesive and three amounts of polystyrene in toluene solution (0%, 4% or 6% were used. One-layer boards, measuring approximately 400,0 x 400,0 x 10,0 mm with density approximately equal to 0,60 g/cm3, were produced. Internal bond, modulus of rupture and elasticity, screw withdrawal, as well water absorption and thickness swelling, after 24 hours of immersion were determined. All mechanical boards’ properties were superior to the established by ANSI/A 208.1-1993 standards. All wood/plastic particleboards absorbed more water then those observed in commercial boards. However the observed thickness swelling was quite similar to the values of commercial wood particleboards. Boards in which the solution of polystyrene was applied were, in general, presented the best values for all properties.

  7. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

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    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  8. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application

  9. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils. PMID:16332132

  10. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND PESTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF COCCINIA GRANDIS (L. VOIGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruk Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activities of Coccinia grandis roots extract. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method against some pathogenic microorganisms. Cytotoxicity was determined using brine shrimp lethality bioassay method. The plant extract was screened for pesticidal activity towards Sitophilus oryzae adults. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was also studied against test organisms, using serial dilution technique to determine the antibacterial potency. In antibacterial screening, large inhibition zones were observed against the tested gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea and Stapphylococcus aureus and gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae bacteria. In antifungal screening, the extract showed moderate antifungal activities against the tested fungi (Candida albicans and Colletotrichum falcatum. In cytotoxicity activity test, LC50 (lethal concentration, 50% of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 15.00µg/ml. The plant extract also showed moderate pesticidal activities towards S. oryzae adults. These results suggested that the plant extract has significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, moderate antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activity towards the tested fungi, brine shrimp nauplii and S. oryzae adults, respectively.

  11. Emission characteristics of carbon dioxide in the semiarid Stipa grandis steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yun-she; QI Yu-chun; LIU Ji-yuan; Manfred Domroes; LIU Li-xin; GENG Yuan-bo; LIU Xing-ren; YANG Xiao-hong; LI Ming-feng

    2006-01-01

    Using the static opaque chamber method, the soil respiration rates (SR) were measured through the continuous experiments in situ in semiarid Stipa grandis steppe in Xilin River Basin of Inner Mongolia, China from June 2001 to June 2003, in parallel, the difference between the SR and the ecosystem respiration rates (TER) were compared. The results indicated that the seasonal variations of the SR and TER were obvious with higher emissions in growing season and a relatively low efflux level in non-growing season, furthermore, the negative effluxes were found in the (ANOVA) indicated that the difference between the annual average TER and SR did not reach the significance level of 0.05. The TER was under similar environmental controls as SR, in growing seasons of drought years, the variations of soil moisture at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth could account for 79.1%-95.6% of the changes of the SR and TER, but in non-growing season, more than 75% of the variations of the SR and TER could be explained by the changes of the ground temperature of soil surface layers.

  12. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-11-01

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  13. SEASONAL INCREMENT IN TRUNK DIAMETER OF Eucalyptus grandis TREES APPLYING DENDROMETER BANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987557The present work aimed to evaluate the seasonal increment in diameter of Eucalyptus grandis trees for 24 months and its relationship with the climatic variables and fertilization with nitrogen and with sewer mud. The trees were planted in the spacing of 3x2 m and fertilized with nitrogen (planting, 6, 12, 18 months and sewer mud (planting and 8 months. 20 trees were selected by treatment according witch the distribution of basal area and installed dendrometer bands at a 1.3 meter. The results showed a clear effect of the climatic variables on the seasonal increment in diameter of trees, being observed a delay period (lag of 28 days for the answer of the trees in relation to the climatic variables. Regading to the fertilization effect, it was observed that the increment of trunk diameter was higher in the eucalyptus trees with organic in relation to mineral fertilization with nitrogen.

  14. Wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis dominant and average trees submitted to drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Telles de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined, in trees of dominant and average diameter, the influence of air seasoning followed by kiln drying in the sawn wood quality of 14 years old stand of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, located in Capivari do Sul municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling of trees was performed after a pilot inventory on the basis of the dominant and average diameter at breast height (DBH. After cutting down the trees, there were selected the logs located between the DBH and 25% of commercial height. The logs were then sawn using into boards that were submitted to air seasoning from green up to 18% of moisture content, followed by kiln drying until 13% of moisture content. End checking and board crook were evaluate after sawing, following air seasoning and kiln drying. The results indicate that, both for dominant and average trees, end checking and board crook were not influenced by different wood process stage. However, the contrast between dominant and average trees shows that the magnitude of defects is higher in the average trees.

  15. EFFECT OF LOG STEAMING ON THE REDUCTION OF DEFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH GROWTH STRESS OF Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate log steaming effect on the reduction of defects associated with residual growth stress of Eucalyptus grandis wood. There were used logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm, from the Horto Florestal, Manduri, São Paulo. Half of the logs was steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity. Subsequently, the logs were live sawn and the defects resulting from the growth stresses in logs of various diameter were measured. The results indicate that log steaming provided the release of a great part of the growth stresses, without eliminating them completely, showing, nevertheless, that this treatment is feasible and advisable for growth stress relief; the boards coming from heated logs of 20 to <25 cm presented, in general, larger defect reduction, showing that the smaller the log diameter the higher the efficiency of steam treatment at 90ºC of temperature during 20 hours.

  16. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhisheng; Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level. PMID:24349825

  17. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad [Food Science Program, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  18. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  19. Estudo da compatibilidade entre a madeira e as cascas de Eucalyptus grandis e cimento portland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Akira Mori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As características dos painéis cimento-madeira podem ser prejudicadas em virtude da incompatibilidade química do cimento com alguns materiais lignocelulósicos que podem inibir a "pega" do cimento. Porém, este efeito pode ser minimizado com tratamentos químicos dos materiais. As diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus podem ser promissoras como matéria-prima na produção desse tipo de painel, principalmente os resíduos gerados na forma de cascas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a compatibilidade química da madeira e cascas tratadas e não-tratadas quimicamente de Eucalyptus com o cimento Portland. O tratamento químico das cascas foi realizado com solução de hidróxido de sódio. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis apresentou uma aptidão moderada ao cimento, as cascas tratadas, alta aptidão e as cascas não-tratadas, aptidão extremamente baixa. Verificou-se a influência positiva do tratamento químico nas cascas, possibilitando futuramente sua incorporação na manufatura de painéis cimento-madeira.

  20. Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis L.F. from different provenances using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kussumoto Alcântara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the main timber species in the world with high economic value, famous for its beauty, strength and durability. The objective of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity of teak genotypes used in Brazilian plantations. Nine microsatellite primers were used to assess 60 teak genotypes, including 33 genotypes from seeds of plantations and 14 clones from Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and 13 clones from Honduras, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast and Solomon Islands. Two groups of genotypes were detected using the Bayesian Structure analysis: 80% were placed in group 1, represented by genotypes from Cáceres and one from Malaysia, and 20% allocated in group 2, composed of clones from India, Solomon Islands, Malaysia and Honduras and the clones from the Ivory Coast. Most of the genetic variability (73% was concentrated within groups according to AMOVA analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated for the two groups obtained in the analysis of Structure. Moderate genetic diversity was found, with 4.1 alleles per locus, on average, and an average heterozygosity of 0.329, which was lower than the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.492. Group 1 showed the lowest values for these parameters. Suggestions were made concerning the identification of contrasting genotypes to be used as parents in breeding programs.

  1. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  2. Optimization of acid hydrolysis from the hemicellulosic fraction of Eucalyptus grandis residue using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canettieri, Eliana Vieira; de Moraes Rocha, George Jackson; de Carvalho, João Andrade; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically and with dilute or concentrate mineral acids. The present study used dilute sulfuric acid as a catalyst for hydrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis residue. The purpose of this paper was to optimize the hydrolysis process in a 1.4 l pilot-scale reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature and residue/acid solution ratio on the hemicellulose removal and consequently on the production of sugars (xylose, glucose and arabinose) as well as on the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid). This study was based on a model composition corresponding to a 2(3) orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the hydrolysis conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylose extraction from hemicellulose of residue. The considered optimum conditions were: H(2)SO(4) concentration of 0.65%, temperature of 157 degrees C and residue/acid solution ratio of 1/8.6 with a reaction time of 20 min. Under these conditions, 79.6% of the total xylose was removed and the hydrolysate contained 1.65 g/l glucose, 13.65 g/l xylose, 1.55 g/l arabinose, 3.10 g/l acetic acid, 1.23 g/l furfural and 0.20 g/l 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. PMID:16473004

  3. Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, K.

    2003-01-01

    Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera) Data are presented on the distribution of selected species from two coleopteran families chosen to represent a random slice of the British fauna. The species have been chosen as exhibiting extremes of range chang

  4. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  5. Noteworthy records of Hispines from Belize (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Naczi, Robert F. C.; Charles L. Staines

    2011-01-01

    Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly, Cephaloleia fulvolimbata Baly, Cephaloleia ruficollis Baly, Chalepus amabilis Baly, Chalepus brevicornis (Baly), Chalepus pici Descarpentries and Villiers, Microrhopala erebus (Newman), Octhispa bimaculata Uhmann, Octotoma championi Baly, Pseudispa tuberculata Staines, Sceloenopla erudita (Baly), Stenispa guatemalensis Uhmann, Sumitrosis gestroi (Weise), and Sumitrosis terminatus (Baly) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) are new country records of hispine c...

  6. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  7. Equilibrium and kinetic studies for the biosorption system of copper(II) ion from aqueous solution using Tectona grandis L.f. leaves powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solution by Tectona grandis L.f. was studied in a batch adsorption system as a function of pH, metal ion concentration, adsorbent concentration and adsorbent size. The biosorption capacities and rates of copper(II) ions onto T. grandis L.f. were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Temkin adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Biosorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 15.43 mg/g of copper(II) ion on T. grandis L.f. leaves powder. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as ΔGo, ΔHo, and ΔSo were calculated indicating that this system was a spontaneous and exothermic process

  8. One-step column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution followed by automatic separation of volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides from Citrus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hui; Hao, Rui-Lin; Chen, Ya-Fei; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2014-02-15

    Citrus grandis Tomentosa is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. Its functional components include volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides which cannot be effectively extracted through traditional methods. A column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution was developed for one-step extraction of all bioactive substances from C. grandis. Dried material was loaded into a column with petroleum ether: ethanol (8:2, PE) and sequentially eluted with 2-fold PE, 3-fold ethanol: water (6:4) and 8-fold water. The elutes was separated into an ether fraction containing volatiles and an ethanol-water fraction containing flavonoids and polysaccharides. The later was separated into flavonoids and polysaccharides by 80% ethanol precipitation of polysaccharides. Through this procedure, volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides in C. grandis were simultaneously extracted at 98% extraction rates and simply separated at higher than 95% recovery rates. The method provides a simple and high-efficient extraction and separation of wide range bioactive substances.

  9. Construction of Fluorescence Deinococcus grandis and Its Stability%荧光抗辐射菌的构建及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠振力; 叶子期; 方俐晶; 王家刚

    2012-01-01

    A shuttle expression vector pZTGL2 of Deinococcus bacteria - E. coli was inserted into D. grandis, the luciferase marked D. grandis was constructed and its stability was analyzed. The result showed that D. grandis had fluorescence activity, and there were no differences observed in the optimal culture temperature and biological characters between luciferase-marked D grandis and non-marked D. grandis. The stability of luciferase-marked D. grandis was studied for 14 d after continuous culture in chloramphenicol-free broth. The results indicated that there was no significant fluorescence difference between luciferase-marked D. grandis that continuous cultured in chloramphenicol-free broth and no continuous culture, and no resistance change was observed for luciferase-marked D. grandis against gamma irradiation. This study suggested that the luciferase-marked D. grandis was successfully constructed, and luciferase-naarked D. grandis still had good structural stability after continuous culture for 14 d in chloramphenicol-free broth. Fig 4, Tab 1, Ref 18%将构建的抗辐射菌属-大肠杆菌间的泛用穿梭表达载体pZTGL2导入抗辐射菌Deinococcus grandis,进行了荧光标识抗辐射菌的构建及其在没有抗生素的非选择性培养基中继代培养后的稳定性分析.结果表明,导入泛用穿梭表达载体pZTGL2后的D.grandis具有荧光活性,荧光标识的D.grandis在没有抗生素的培养基中经14d继代培养后的最佳培养温度及其生长状况等生物学特性与未标识的D.grandis没有明显差异进一步对荧光标识D.grandis在非选择性培养基中经14d继代培养后的稳定性进行了调查,结果表明:荧光标识的D.grandis在没有抗生素的培养基中经过14d的继代培养后的荧光活性与没有经过继代培养的荧光标识的D.grandis无显著差异,而且也没有改变荧光标识的D.grandis对y-射线的抗性.由以上结果认为:成功构建了荧光标识的抗辐射菌D.grandis,

  10. MICROPROPAGACIÓN DE EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) EN EL SISTEMA DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) micropropagation in a temporary immersion system

    OpenAIRE

    Dagoberto Castro R.; Justo González O.

    2002-01-01

    Se describe un nuevo procedimiento para la multiplicación in vitro mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal de plantas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) procedentes de árboles elite. La mayor eficiencia de multiplicación se estableció a una frecuencia óptima de inmersión cada 12 h con una duración de 3 min. La aplicación adicional de un flujo de aire fresco cada 6 h durante 3 min disminuyó la hiperhidratación de las plantas durante el proceso. Este procedimiento comprendió dos...

  11. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  12. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    José E Gonçalves; Maria M. P. Sartori; Alcides L. Leão

    2009-01-01

    O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU) e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos ma...

  13. Compósitos de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polipropileno e polietileno de alta e baixa densidades Composites of Eucalyptus grandis wood, polypropylene, and high and low-density polyethylene particles

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Gomes Milagres; Benedito Rocha Vital; Ricardo Marius Della Lúcia; Alexandre Santos Pimenta

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades de painéis fabricados com mistura de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polietileno de alta densidade, polietileno de baixa densidade e polipropileno. Empregaram-se duas formulações adesivas (uréia-formaldeído e uréia-formaldeído contendo 0,5% de epóxi). De modo geral, as propriedades dos painéis foram afetadas pela composição das partículas. Os painéis com melhores propriedades foram fabricados com 75% de partículas de mad...

  14. An experiment using neutron activation analysis and a rare earth element to mark cotton plants and two insects that feed on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on insect dispersal and other behaviors can benefit from using markers that will not alter flight and fitness. Rare earth elements, such as samarium (Sm), have been used as ingested markers of some insects and detected using neutron activation analysis (NAA). In this study, samarium nitrate hexahydrate was mixed into artificial diet for boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at different dosages and in water used to irrigate cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Samarium was detected in adult boll weevils fed on the samarium-labeled diet, but not after 5 or 10 days of being switched to non-labeled diet, even if the insects were given labeled diet for as long as 7 consecutive days. Introduced in irrigation water, 1% samarium (m/m) was detectable in cotton squares and leaf tissue. However, boll weevil adults fed samarium-labeled squares did not retain detectable levels of samarium, nor did boll weevil adults reared to adulthood from samarium-labeled squares. Fourth instar beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), fed on samarium-labeled cotton leaves obtained enough samarium for NAA detection, but adult moths reared from them did not have detectable amounts of samarium. Although samarium can be useful as a marker when insects are presented with a continuous pulse of the label, elements that are assimilated by the insect would be more useful if a continuous infusion of the marker cannot be provided

  15. Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel on Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Induced Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Baniya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (CGO peel extract in rats. Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel extract was evaluated for protection against cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body wt., i.p. and doxorubicin (15 mg/kg body wt., i.p. induced cardiotoxicity in male albino rats. Biomarkers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and creatinine kinase (CK-MB along with heart weight index and antioxidant enzymes was considered to determine the cardioprotective property. Histopathological study was also carried out on heart of experimental animals. The CGO peel extract was found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannin as chemical constituents. Cyclophosphamide (CYP and doxorubicin (DOX treated groups exhibited significant increase in LDH, ALT, AST, ALP, TC, TG and CK-MB level and decrease in catalase (CAT, superoxide dimutase (SOD when compared to control group. Pretreatment with different doses of CGO significantly reduced the serum biomarkers and increased the tissue antioxidant level when compared to DOX and CYP alone treated groups. Moreover, treatment with CGO also improved CYP induced changes in histopathology of heart which may be due to its antioxidant property. The Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck exerted protective effect against CYP and DOX induced cardiotoxicity in rats, which may be due its lipid lowering and antioxidant properties. These findings might be helpful to understand the beneficial effects of CGO extract against myocardial injury although further study is needed to confirm its mechanism.

  16. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L. J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. K. Munasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117 5.56, <0.05. Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117 6.77, <0.05 and two hours (F(1,117 5.28, <0.05 postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5 and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9 was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings.

  17. Filtration and clearance rates of Anadara grandis juveniles (Pelecypoda, Arcidae) with different temperatures and suspended matter concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Voltolina, Domenico; Cordero-Esquivel, Beatriz

    2006-09-01

    The mangrove cockle Anadara grandis (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) is a potential candidate for aquaculture and for bioremediation of aquaculture effluents in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Laboratory-produced spat are available, but there is no information on their responses to the range of environmental conditions to which they might be subject during the growth cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the filtration and clearance rates ofA. grandis spat (shell length 9.50+/-0.37 mm) with a food concentration (7.5 mgxl(-1)) at four different temperatures (22, 25, 28 and 31 degrees C, with pH=7.5+/-0.2 and O2 concentration of 6.4+/-0.5 mgxl(-1); experiment one); and with a temperature (25 degrees C) and five concentrations of suspended matter (from 7.5 to 29 mgxl(-1) and pH and O2 values of 7.9+/-0.2 and 6.8+/-0.4 mgxl(-1); experiment two). Filtration and clearance rates were highest at 25 degrees C and significantly different (p.05). In the second experiment filtration increased according to the amount of food available, but there were no significant differences (p>.05) between 7.5 and 11 mgxl(-1) and from 22.4 to 29 mgxl(-1). The trend was similar for clearance, and in this case significant differences were found (p<.05) between 7.5, 22.4 and 29 mgxl(-1). Filtration at 31 degrees C was close to 80% at the optimum temperature of 25 degrees C, which indicates that A. grandis is a good candidate for tropical aquaculture. Clearance increased with high concentrations of suspended solids, but the production of biodeposits could be a source of environmental concern. Therefore, the possibility of using this species for bioremediation of aquaculture effluents should be studied with larger specimens and at higher seston concentrations. PMID:18491618

  18. Het voorkomen van de glanskevers van het genus Caprophilus in Nederland (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude, de J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of nitidulid beetles of the genus Carpophilus in the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Some species of the genus Carpophilus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) may act as pests of stored products like cocoabeans, peanuts, dried fruits like figs and dates, imported from tropical or subtropi

  19. Balance hidrológico y flujo de nutrientes asociados al agua en plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis, en Concordia (Entre Ríos)

    OpenAIRE

    Tesón, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    En la Provincia de Entre Ríos hay 90048 ha forestadas con eucaliptos, de las cuales el 90% lo están con Eucalyptus grandis. Estas plantaciones reemplazan comunidades de vegetación natural como los pastizales con isletas de árboles (monte) y el bosque (monte) abierto, como así también a otros usos de la tierra como plantaciones de cítricos, actividades agrícolas y pecuarias. A pesar de la importancia de Eucalyptus grandis, no existen en la zona suficientes estudios hidrológicos y de nutrientes...

  20. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Munasinghe, M. A. A. K.; Abeysena, C.; Yaddehige, I. S.; T. Vidanapathirana; Piyumal, K. P. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka) leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal cont...

  1. Proline content and protein patterns in Eucalyptus grandis shoots submitted to high and low temperature shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline content and protein patterns changes in response to temperature shocks of both acclimated and non acclimated E. grandis shoots cultivated in vitro were investigated. Analysis of soluble proteins through SDS-PAGE and proline were carried out after 12h at 12ºC (cold acclimation or 33ºC (heat acclimation, and immediately after temperature shocks at 41ºC and 0ºC. Analyses were also performed 24h after the temperature shocks (recovery period. Temperature treatment at 0ºC did not change soluble protein patterns both in acclimatized and non acclimatized plants, whereas cold temperature induced high proline levels, which kept relatively high after recovery period. Three novel, probably HSPs, proteins (90.5, 75 and 39 kDa were observed in both acclimated and non acclimated plants submitted to high temperatures. Plants exposed at 41ºC were able to recover from heat shocks after 24h, whereas they did not recover completely from cold shocks. The effect of the acclimation period on the recovering (homeostasis varied depending on the parameter evaluated, and type and duration of the temperature shock.As respostas às mudanças de temperatura de plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas de E. grandis cultivadas in vitro foram avaliadas considerando alterações dos níveis de prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Análises de proteínas solúveis através de SDS-PAGE e prolina foram realizadas após 12h a 12ºC (aclimatação ao frio ou a 33ºC (aclimatação ao calor, e imediatamente depois dos choques térmicos a 41ºC e 0ºC. Análises também foram realizadas após um período de 24h depois dos choques térmicos (período de recuperação. O tratamento de temperatura a 0ºC não alterou o padrão de proteínas nas plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas, entretanto a temperatura baixa induziu altos níveis de prolina, que se mantiveram relativamente altos após o período de recuperação. Três novas proteínas (90,5, 75 e 39 kDa, provavelmente

  2. PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS OF PROCESSOR WORKING IN STANDS OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Carlos Tarnowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a time study was conducted with the objective of adjusting equations to estimate the time of activities, productivity, operational costs and the production of the processor used in a harvest operation of stands of Eucalyptus grandis in plain topography in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The operational cycle of the processor consisted of the time spent to process a tree, and was divided in to stages, which were assessed using the methotodology of single activity times. The sampling unit was the operational cycle of the machine. The statistical analysis was based on regression analysis considering the selection procedure “stepwise”. With the adjusted equations it was possible to estimate the productivity of the machine taking into account the of tree diameter. Considering an operational efficiency of 70 % under the circumstances of the study, the productivity of the processor was 25,8 m3 cc/h, the operational costs 47,90 US$/h and the production costs 1,86 US$/m3 cc. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the time of tree processing has varied directly according to the diameter increase diameter; the preparation time, contrary to the processing time, only shows a weak correlation with tree diameter; productivity of the processor is directly proportional to tree diameter, when expressed in volume and inversely proportional when expressed in tree number; the costs per cubic meter of wood processed varies inversely with of increased diameter; from the operational costs, fixed costs had the highest proportion followed by the variable costs, administrative costs and costs for manpower; the production costs of the processor decreased exponentially with increasing tree diameter.

  3. Larger drupe size and earlier geminants for better seedling attributes of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Jijeesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Massive plantation establishment programme in the tropics hasled to an ever-increasing demand for good quality planting stock of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.. Although drupe size in teak is positively correlated with seedling growth much less is known about the combined effect of drupe size and time of emergence on the performance of the seedlings.The drupes were divided in 3 diameter categories (i.e. 9-12, 12-15and 15-18 mm and the number of germinants were weekly counted forfour weeks. The resulted seedlings were planted in poly bags containingrooting medium of soil and sand (1:1 ratio. Results of the study indicated that the seedling emergence was largest during second week irrespective of drupe size. Seedlings from 15-18 mm diameter class drupes recorded the highest seedling attributes followed by 12-15 mm and 9-12 mm classes.However, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate were highest in the seedlings obtained from 9-12 mm class drupes. With a few exceptions, first week emergents recorded the highest seedling attributes followed by second, third and fourth week germinants. Cluster analysis of the seedling attributes identified the seedlings belonging to 15-18 mm drupe size and emerging during first week as superior. But, considering the largest number of drupes in 12-15 mm size class, peak germination during second week after sowing, price of planting stock and cost of nursery operation per unit of planting, second week germinants of 12–15 mm size drupes can also be recommended for raising seedlings in plantation programmes of teak.

  4. Larger drupe size and earlier geminants for better seedling attributes of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Jijeesh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Massive plantation establishment programme in the tropics has led to an ever-increasing demand for good quality planting stock of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.. Although drupe size in teak is positively correlated with seedling growth much less is known about the combined effect of drupe size and time of emergence on the performance of the seedlings. The drupes were divided in 3 diameter categories (i.e. 9-12, 12-15 and 15-18 mm and the number of germinants were weekly counted for four weeks. The resulted seedlings were planted in poly bags containing rooting medium of soil and sand (1:1 ratio. Results of the study indicated that the seedling emergence was largest during second week irrespective of drupe size. Seedlings from 15-18 mm diameter class drupes recorded the highest seedling attributes followed by 12-15 mm and 9-12 mm classes. However, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate were highest in the seedlings obtained from 9-12 mm class drupes. With a few exceptions, first week emergents recorded the highest seedling attributes followed by second, third and fourth week germinants. Cluster analysis of the seedling attributes identified the seedlings belonging to 15-18 mm drupe size and emerging during first week as superior. But, considering the largest number of drupes in 12-15 mm size class, peak germination during second week after sowing, price of planting stock and cost of nursery operation per unit of planting, second week germinants of 12 – 15 mm size drupes can also be recommended for raising seedlings in plantation programmes of teak.

  5. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  6. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  7. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J. (Iowa State)

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  8. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  9. Contenido de los nutrientes básicos en Catolaccus grandis Burks criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAUJO LÚCIA HELENA AVELINO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los niveles de carbohidratos, proteínas solubles y aminoácidos libres de larvas, pupas hembras y adultos hembras de Catolaccus grandis (Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodón envenenadas por hembras del parasitoide y por larvas de primer instar del parasitoide. Esto estudio fue conducido en la Unidade de Investigación de Control Biologico de Plagas del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de la América, en Weslaco, Texas. Las 20 muestras de cada uno de los tres estados de desarrollo: tercer instar larval, pupas hembra y adultos hembra del parasitoide C. grandis, fueron separadas y pesadas individualmente y se cuantió el contenido de carbohidratos totales, proteínas solubles totales y aminoácidos libres criados en diferentes sustratos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la existencia de patrones metabólicos significativamente distintos de estos nutrientes básicos.

  10. Optimizing Culture System of Ri T-DNA Transformed Roots for Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhong-hai; TONG Rui-jian

    2006-01-01

    Genetic transformation experiments of the different explants from Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes were carried out in darkness or in light. The optimizing culture system of Ri T-DNA transformed roots for C. grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You was constructed as follows: After the ventral wounded striations on the single activation cotyledon were inoculated by A. rhizogenes A4 (logarithmic period), they were cocultured at (25 ± 2)℃ in darkness for 25-30 days; some transformed roots were generated from wounded striations of most cotyledons. The genetically transformed ratio is (83 ± 11)%. Axenic Ri T-DNA transformed roots (hairy roots) were harvested after five subcultures. Explants were activated on MT medium. The MS medium was used for subculture of transformed roots. Mass Ri T-DNA transformed roots in which the hormone was produced independently were harvested from this optimizing culture system. White, fresh Ri T-DNA transformed roots were (1.14 ± 0.07) cm long, (0.73 ± 0.04) mm wide, and the growth direction of transformed roots was negative geotropism.

  11. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF gene family in Eucalyptus grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    Full Text Available Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation.

  12. MICOBIOTA ASSOCIADA À MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN DURANTE A SECAGEM AO AR LIVRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi o de acompanhar a secagem ao ar livre da madeira serrada de Eucalyptus grandis conduzida na região de Lavras, MG e identificar a micobiota associada à madeira em diversas fases da secagem. As tábuas foram cortadas de oito toras de 3,0 m de comprimento, oriundas de três árvores, com 27 anos de idade, plantadas em área experimental da UFLA. Dos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis ao ar livre, iniciada em janeiro, consumiu 158 dias até atingir umidade próxima a 12,5%. A curva de secagem foi representada por uma equação logarítmica com coeficiente de determinação (R2 igual a 98,3%. Os fungos causadores de bolores superficiais e de manchas tiveram maior ocorrência no início da secagem. As mais altas freqüências de fungos, verificadas no início da secagem, foram observadas para Penicillium spp. e Pestalotiopsis sp. O fungo Lentinus lepideus ocorreu com maior freqüência no final da secagem.

  13. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  14. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-11-26

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.

  15. Large carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) in Western Europe: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic context and investigations. However, some Silphidae present the desirable characteristics of some Diptera used in postmortem estimates and thus may extend the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). We review here the taxonomy and distribution of Western Palearctic Silphidae. The anatomical and...

  16. Large carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) in Western Europe: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeirsschieter, J.; Verheggen, F.; Lognay, G.; Haubruge, E.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic context and investigations. However, some Silphidae present the desirable characteristics of some Diptera used in postmortem estimates and thus may extend the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). We review here the taxonomy and distribution of Western Palearctic Silphidae. The anatomical and ...

  17. Nocturnal Migration of Coleoptera: Carabidae in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Vertical-looking radar (VLR) has allowed long-term automatic monitoring of the altitudinal and temporal dynamics of high-flying insect populations. To investigate whether ground beetle, insect of Coleoptera, was capable of migrating and its migration pattern by taking advantages of capability of the VLR for long-term real-time automatic monitoring, the migration of Coleoptera ground beetle was investigated by setting up radar observation points, making long-term observation using the VLR and related supplementary equipment, and analyzing low altitude air current and large area circulating current in combination with the meteorological data. Information obtained in 2005 and 2006 showed that the seasonal activities of ground beetles traps of trap lamps were mainly from late June to late August, peak period was mainly in August, seasonal traps of high-altitude lamps and ground lamps were featured by sudden increase and sudden decrease; in peak period, the height of radar echo point could be as high as 600 m, while it was mainly below the height of 450 m; night activities mainly occurred from 20:00 to 22:00, in very few nights, radar echo could last until about 04:00, changes in numbers of ground beetles within the searchlights were consistent with radar echo intensity; ground beetle images were successfully trapped in the sweep nets carried by captive balloons at the height of 200 m. Some species of Carabidaes had some degrees of migration, thus providing the foundation for investigating the migration of Coleoptera insects.

  18. Estados inmaduros de Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini Immature stages of Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon César Neita-Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y se ilustran por primera vez la larva de tercer estadio y la pupa de Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini. Se aportan datos sobre la biología de la especie y su distribución en Colombia. Se proporciona una clave para la identificación de las larvas de tercer estadio conocidas de las especies del género Ancognatha Erichson.The third instar larva and pupa of Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini are described and illustrated for the first time. New data on larval biology and distribution of the species in Colombia are included. A key to the known third stage larvae of Ancognatha Erichson is provided.

  19. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  20. Efeito da hidrólise ácida dos taninos de Eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex Maiden nas propriedades dos adesivos tânicos Effect of the acid hydrolyses of Eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex Maiden tannins in the properties of the tannic adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Benedito Rocha Vital; Pedro Gustavo Ulisses Frederico; Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos; Wagner Patrício de Sousa Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da hidrólise ácida sobre as propriedades e resistência ao cisalhamento dos adesivos de taninos, extraídos a partir da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. Os adesivos foram sintetizados com taninos hidrolisados, empregando-se quatro valores de pH, três tempos de reação e 10% de formaldeído em relação à massa seca de taninos. Foram produzidas 96 juntas coladas, constituídas de duas lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. As resistên...

  1. Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17

  2. Behavior of Eucalyptus grandis and E. cloeziana seedlings grown in arsenic-contaminated soil Comportamento de mudas de E. grandis E. eucalyptus cloeziana cultivadas em solo contaminado por arsênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Freire Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been considered the most poisonous inorganic soil pollutant to living creatures. For this reason, the interest in phytoremediation species has been increasing in the last years. Particularly for the State of Minas Gerais, where areas of former mining activities are prone to the occurrence of acid drainage, the demand is great for suitable species to be used in the revegetation and "cleaning" of As-polluted areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill Maiden and E. cloeziana F. Muell, for phytoremediation of As-polluted soils. Soil samples were incubated for a period of 15 days with different As (Na2HAsO4 doses (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg dm-3. After 30 days of exposure the basal leaves of E. cloeziana plants exhibited purple spots with interveinal chlorosis, followed by necrosis and death of the apical bud at the 400 mg dm-3 dose. Increasing As doses in the soil reduced root and shoot dry matter, plant height and diameter in both species, although the reduction was more pronounced in E. cloeziana plants. In both species, As concentrations were highest in the root system; the highest root concentration was found in E. cloeziana plants (305.7 mg kg-1 resulting from a dose of 400 mg dm-3. The highest As accumulation was observed in E. grandis plants, which was confirmed as a species with potential for As phytoextraction, tending to accumulate As in the root system and stem.O arsênio (As tem sido considerado o poluente inorgânico de solo mais tóxico para os seres vivos, razão pela qual o interesse por espécies indicadoras e fitorremediadoras tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Particularmente para o Estado de Minas Gerais, que apresenta áreas remanescentes de atividade mineradora sujeitas à ocorrência de drenagem ácida, existe grande demanda por espécies com potencial para serem utilizadas na revegetação e "limpeza" de substratos contaminados por esse metaloide. Este

  3. Use of vermicompost as a substrate for the production of Eucalyptus grandis and Corymbia citriodora seedlings Utilização de vermicomposto como substrato na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis e Corymbia citriodora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the vermicompost efficiency in the seedlings of two eucalyptus species production. The experiment was developed in greenhouse conditions, substrate constituted by different vermicompost proportions and peat for the E. grandis and C. citriodora seedling production. The experimental design was entirely casualized with seven treatments and eight repetitions. After 100 days of experiment were evaluated: seedling height, fresh and dry biomass of aerial part, root volume, dry biomass of the root and Dickson quality index (DQI. The treatment constituted by 80% vermicompost and 20% peat presented the highest results in height, root volume and dry mass of the aerial part and roots. For the species C. citriodora was observed that the vermicompost addition to the peat in the proportions from 40% to 80% was shown efficient in the seedlings growth. The treatment constituted by 80% vermicompost and 20% peat provided highest height and dry mass of the aerial part seedlings and the treatment constituted by 60% vermicompost and 40% peat provided highest root volume. The proportions 60% and 80% vermicompost added to the peat increase the E. grandis and C. citriodora seedlings production.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.75

    Avaliou-se a eficiência do vermicomposto na produção de mudas de duas espécies de eucalipto. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se substratos constituídos por diferentes proporções de vermicomposto e turfa para a produção de mudas de E. grandis e C. citriodora. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e oito repetições. Decorridos 100 dias após sua implantação, avaliaram-se os parâmetros: altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea fresca e seca, volume radicular, biomassa das raízes secas e o índice de qualidade de Dickson (IQD. O tratamento constitu

  4. Compósitos de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polipropileno e polietileno de alta e baixa densidades Composites of Eucalyptus grandis wood, polypropylene, and high and low-density polyethylene particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Gomes Milagres

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades de painéis fabricados com mistura de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polietileno de alta densidade, polietileno de baixa densidade e polipropileno. Empregaram-se duas formulações adesivas (uréia-formaldeído e uréia-formaldeído contendo 0,5% de epóxi. De modo geral, as propriedades dos painéis foram afetadas pela composição das partículas. Os painéis com melhores propriedades foram fabricados com 75% de partículas de madeira e 25% de partículas de polietileno de alta densidade. A adição de epóxi ao adesivo uréico aumentou os valores do módulo de ruptura, dureza Janka, e reduziu o inchamento, em espessura, de alguns painéis. As propriedades mecânicas da maioria dos painéis, exceto o módulo de elasticidade, ultrapassaram os valores mínimos estabelecidos na norma ANSI/A1-208/93.The objective of this work was to establish the properties of particleboards fabricated with blends of Eucalyptus grandis, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene particles. Two adhesives formulations were used (urea-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde plus 0,5% of epoxy adhesive. Panel properties were affected by particle composition. Panels with best properties were fabricated with 75% of wood particles and 25% of high density polypropylene. The addition of epoxy to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved of the values of modulus of rupture, hardness and reduced the amount of thickness swelling. Except for the modulus of elasticity, board properties meet grade M-2 ANSI/A1-208/93 requirements.

  5. Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

  6. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

  7. SITE INDEX CURVES AND HYPSOMETRIC RELATIONSHIP FOR Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR THE CAMPOS GERAIS REGION, PARANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida de Souza Retslaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to fit mathematical models for the construction of Site Index curves and to estimate heights at different ages for Eucalyptus grandis in the Campos Gerais region, Parana State. The data used to fit the models came from permanent, temporary plots and pre-harvesting inventory, covering ages from 2.5 to 26.5 years. Several models were tested to represent the sites and the hypsometric relationship. The Site Index curves were constructed by the guide-curve method. For the Site Index, the Chapman-Richards model showed the best fit and precision statistics, generating 5 Site Index curves (range of 5 m with the Chapman-Richards model. The four hypsometric models tested showed satisfactory performance and similar statistics and the inclusion of the variables dominant height or site index did not substantially improve the goodness of fit statistics, but the residues were more homogeneous and closer to zero.

  8. Mutantes morfológicos de algodoeiro herbáceo como fonte de resistência ao bicudo Morphological mutants of upland cotton as source of boll weevil resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três características morfológicas mutantes de linhagens de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch., isoladas ou combinadas no mesmo genótipo, como fonte de resistência ao bicudo, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, sob infestação natural, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2´3 com um tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Em teste com chance de escolha, a característica bráctea frego foi a que apresentou maior redução no dano de oviposição pelo bicudo (34,71%, em relação ao equivalente normal. A folha "okra" reduziu o dano apenas quando associada à bráctea frego (40%. A combinação das três características mutantes na mesma planta proporcionou a menor porcentagem de botões com dano de oviposição (23,13%.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of three morphological mutants of upland cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutm L. r. latifolium Hutch., isolated or in combination in the same cotton genotype, as a source of resistance to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. The experiment was carried out in the field, under natural infestation, with a completely randomized block design arranged in a factorial 2´3 plus an additional treatment, with four replications. In a multiple choice test, the character mutant frego bract presented the higher reduction on boll weevil oviposition damage (34.71%, in relation to the normal equivalent. The okra leaf reduced the boll weevil damage only when associated with frego bract (40%. The combination of the three mutant characters in the same plant presented the least square percent with oviposition damage (23.13%.

  9. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE TECA (Tectona grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Carla Vanessa Moraes da

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pest insects with potential damages and losses on teak plantation, Tectona grandis, is relevant due to the economic criterion which requires high costs for managing. Therefore, the necessity of knowing about the insect fauna of plant protection importance has gained importance, such as the soil termite, field cricket, black cutworm, Saúva-lemon, Caterpillars-to-teak, Catepillar-queimadeira and others that reduce the production. Thus, this study aimed to add to the existing literature new information about the biological and morphological aspects, damages and methods to control the major pests of Teak, which may assist the crop management. A presença de insetos-pragas com potencial de dano e de perdas na cultura da teca, Tectona grandis, é relevante devido ao critério econômico que requer altos custos com seu manejo. Sendo assim, acentua-se a necessidade do conhecimento sobre a entomofauna de importância fitossanitária para a cultura, tais como o cupim do solo, grilo-comum, lagarta-rosca, saúva-limão, lagarta-da-teca, lagarta-queimadeira e demais coleobrocas que reduzem sua produção. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi acrescentar à bibliografia existente novas informações sobre os aspectos biológicos, morfológicos, injúrias e táticas de controle das principais pragas da cultura da Teca, as quais podem auxiliar no manejo da cultura.

  10. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol extract ofTectona grandis flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramaniam Ramachandran; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; KT Manisenthil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract ofTectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers(METGF)in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats to supports its traditional use.Methods: Acute toxicity study of METGF was carried out in rat to determine its dose for the antidiabetic study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was performed to evaluateMETGF effect on elevated blood glucose level. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration ofSTZ(60 mg/kg, ip.) and it was confirmed 72 h after induction.METGF was orally given to the diabetic rats up to28 days and blood glucose level were estimated each week. On28 day of the experiment, diabetic rats were sacrificed after the blood collection for the biochemical parameters analysis and liver, kidney was collected to determine antioxidants levels.Results:In acute toxicity,METGFdid not show toxicity and death up to a dose 2 000mg/kg in rats. Administration ofMETGF 100 and200mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) reduced blood glucose levels inOGTTand STZ-induced diabetic rats. Both doses ofMETGF treatment significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 andP<0.05) increased body weight, serum insulin, haemoglobin (Hb) and total protein levels in diabetic rats. Also,MEGTF treatment reduced elevated glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c) and other biochemical parameters levels significantly (P<0.001) in diabetic rats. Altered lipid profiles and antioxidants levels were reversed to near normal in diabetic rats treated withMETGF. Conclusions: These results concluded that METGF possesses antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity which supports its traditional use.

  11. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated.

  12. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated. PMID:27563272

  13. Parasitylenchus sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) parasitizing field populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, Susanne; Poinar, George O. Jr.; Dimitrova, Desislava V.;

    2011-01-01

    Adults of the invasive harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), were found to be parasitized by nematodes (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) in Denmark. The nematodes were identified as Parasitylenchus sp. Major morphological characters of the nematodes did not differ...

  14. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  15. Apostasimerini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Baridinae). Rectification of authorship, year of publication, rank, and taxa included

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following nomenclatural changes are proposed in the Coleoptera, Curculionidae: the author of Apostasimerini is Schoenherr (1844), not Lacordaire (1866); Madopterini Lacordaire, 1866 is demoted to subtribe of Apostasimerini; Erirhinus mourei Bondar, 1943 is a new synonym of Apostasimerus serriros...

  16. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  17. Primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...

  18. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  19. A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Giorgi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil. Scymnobius pernambucensis sp. nov. from Pernambuco, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This is the third species of this genus recorded from Brazil.

  20. Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich(Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae

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    Paschoal C. Grossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae. The South American genus Altitatiayus Weinreich is revised and now includes six species, A. rotundatus (Boileau, A. ruficollis (Lüderwaldt, A. godinhorum (Bomans & Arnaud, A. dulceae (Bomans & Arnaud, A. trifurcatus (Grossi & Racca-Filho and A. koikei sp. nov. (Minas Gerais, Brazil. All species are described and illustrated. For the first time male and female genitalia are illustrated for five species and observations on the behavior of two species are included.

  1. Papel dos besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera) na Entomologia Forense

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Emanuel dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Esse trabalho apresenta uma revisão do papel que os besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera) desempenham na Entomologia Forense. Discussões sobre ocorrência em cadáveres humanos e carcaças animais, estimativas de Intervalo Pós-Morte (IPM), estudos realizados no Brasil e em outros países, principais famílias de importância forense e aspectos biológicos, ecológicos e biogeográficos das espécies são apresentadas.

  2. Fossil history of Mesozoic weevils (Coleoptera:Curculionoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei A.Legalov

    2012-01-01

    The first synopsis of Mesozoic weevils (Curculionoidea: Coleoptera) is presented.Changes of family,genera and species abundance during the Mesozoic revealed three distributional patterns.The Jurassic (Karatau) fauna was dominated by the Nemonychidae.During the Early Cretaceous (beginning at the Jurassic/Cretaceous border),the Ithyceridae was the prevalent group with a significant role played by the Nemonychidae.In the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian and Turonian),the major groups were the Curculionidae and Brentidae.Obviously,the change of weevil fauna during this period was due to the expansion of the angiosperms,which provided multiple niches in their vegetative and reproductive organs for weevil development.

  3. Physicochemical properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil%金柚柚籽及其油脂的理化性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏梅; 谢婧

    2015-01-01

    Citrus grandis var. Jinyu see d oil was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and the physicochemi-cal properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil were analyzed. The results showed that the mass of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed accounted for 10. 3% of the total fruit mass and its crude fat content reached 34. 6%. Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil presented golden color, high transparency, good fluidity at room temperature, natural flavor and taste of shaddock. The relative density, moisture and volatile matter content, refractive index, acid value, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were 0. 963 ± 0. 025 5, (0. 071 ± 0. 009 8)%,1. 454 ± 0. 038 1, (1. 273 ± 0. 103 1) mgKOH/g, (169. 75 ± 0. 483 0)mgKOH/g, (133. 3 ± 0. 066 7)gI/100 g and (4. 25 ± 0. 711 0)mmol/kg, respectively. The GC analysis result indicated that the content of unsaturated fatty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was 67. 6%, containing linoleic acid(39. 3%), oleic acid(24. 7%) and linolenic acid(3. 6%). The saturated fat-ty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were mainly palmitic acid(27. 6%) and stearic acid(3. 9%). Therefore, Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was suitable for being developed as edible oil.%采用索氏抽提法制备金柚柚籽油,并对金柚柚籽及其油脂进行理化性质分析。结果表明:金柚柚籽质量占全果总质量10.3%,柚籽粗脂肪含量高达34.6%。柚籽油色泽金黄、室温下流动性好、透明度高、有油脂固有气味和滋味,并具有一定柚子气味;相对密度0.963±0.0255,水分及挥发物含量(0.071±0.0098)%,折光指数1.454±0.0381,酸值(KOH)(1.273±0.1031)mg/g,碘值(I)(133.3±0.0667) g/100 g,皂化值(KOH)(169.75±0.4830)mg/g,过氧化值(4.25±0.7110)mmol/kg;气相色谱法分析结果显示,柚籽油中不饱和脂肪酸含量为67.6%,主要是亚油酸(39.3%)、油酸(24.7%)、亚麻酸(3.6%);饱

  4. Régime alimentaire du grand gecko vert de Madagascar, Phelsuma grandis Gray, 1870 sur l'île de La Réunion (Squamata : Gekkonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dervin, Sébastien; Baret, Samuel; Penin, Lucie; Sanchez, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Phelsuma grandis Gray, 1870 est un gecko introduit sur l'île de La Réunion. Le régime alimentaire de ce reptile, considéré comme invasif, a été étudié afin d'évaluer la menace qu'il pourrait représenter pour la faune indigène. Le contenu stomacal de 171 individus a été analysé. À La Réunion, P. grandis se nourrit principalement d'Arthropodes. Les ressources végétales occupent également une part non négligeable de son alimentation et il consomme régulièrement d'autres espèces de geckos. P. gra...

  5. Correlações dendroclimatológicas do Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na região de Rio Claro, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Roque Ugulino de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial forests plantation contributes decisively to generate socio-economic and environmental benefits, providing sustainability at the forest-based industries. The Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden stand out as one of the most cultivated species for reforestation in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between precipitation and wood production for 23-year old Eucalyptus grandis from a commercial plantation in Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The annual increment of wood was determined by the X-ray densitometry, which provides a detailed wood density profile in radial direction for each sample. One year of the tree life was considered because this the period for the formation of two consecutive latewood rings formation, which corresponds to two high density peaks. The results showed a positive correlation between precipitation data and annual increment of wood, revealing the dendroclimatology potential of this species in this region.

  6. Karakterisasi Penyakit Daun pada Pembibitan Enam Klon Hibrid Turunan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita di PT. Toba Pulp Lestari Tbk. Kabupaten Toba Samosir, Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Simorangkir, Esthy Aknesya

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of the disease that attacks the dominant hybrid derivative clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita at nursery locations found in the leaves . Characterization of leaf diseases need to do that aims to characterize the leaf symptoms , the level of intensity and widespread attack , and identify the causes of leaf disease. Observation of leaf symptoms done visually on 6 clones , also conducted extensive computation intensity levels and cause disease Observations conducted macros...

  7. Appraisal of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of extract and fractions from the leaves of Torreya grandis Fort Ex. Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad Khalid; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji; Li, Wei; Yu, Yuhong; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-02-01

    Torreya grandis (Taxaceae) was studied for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Leaves were extracted with 80% ethanol at 80 degrees C for 3h and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol. The aqueous ethanolic extract (aq.EE), ethylacetate fraction (EaF) and butanol fraction (BtF) at the doses of (100 and 200mg/kg, i.g.) body weight were used for study. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity was carried out by acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking time in the first and second phases of mice. The paw edema induced by formalin- and xylene-induced ear edema were used to assess anti-inflammatory activity. It was found that Torreya grandis extract and fractions at the doses of (100 and 200mg/kg, i.g.) were significantly attenuated the writhing responses induced by acetic acid and second phase of pain response induced by subplantar injection of formalin in mice. In addition, these extract and fractions inhibiting the formaldehyde-induced arthritis as well as xylene-induces edema prolifically. From acute oral toxicity studies no mortality was pragmatic even at highest dose (2500 mg/kg, i.g.). Furthermore, our phytochemical studies indicated that the aq. ethanolic extract of leaves contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. The results provide justification for the folkloric uses of Torreya grandis in the treatment of analgesic and inflammatory-based diseases across the China. PMID:19857564

  8. RESISTÊNCIA BIOLÓGICA DA MADEIRA TRATADA DE Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus cloeziana A FUNGOS APODRECEDORES EM ENSAIOS DE LABORATÓRIO

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    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was converted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA. Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden AND Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, AS A SUPPLY FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY

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    Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out at Universidade de Brasília at the Wood Products of Forestry Laboratory (IBAMA, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Two species of eucalypt wood (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus cloeziana were studied to supply the furniture making industry. The wood of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden shows physical properties (density and retractibility and mechanical properties (static bending and hardness very suitable for the industry of wood furniture. Such characteristics are complemented by its excellent behaviour in machining and also good finishing with varnishes. The colour and patterns the wood bring to the consumers a good feeling as well as for the furnitures built with such a species. The wood of Eucalyptus cloeziana, in spite of its mechanical and physical properties higher than those of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, presents good characteristics for the manufacture of furniture. Its grey-olive colouring is consistent with a good choice and taste for the consumers. However, some precaution must be observed during the machining of the wood. This wood’s hardness makes it suitable for parquetry.

  10. Influência do modo de acondicionamento de miniestacas no enraizamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Influency of the conditioning method of mini-cuttings on the rooting of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

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    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do modo de acondicionamento de miniestacas no processo de enraizamento de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5 x 4, constituído de cinco tratamentos (acondicionamento das miniestacas em posição horizontal no recipiente, em posição vertical na vermiculita, em posição vertical na vermiculita+carvão ativado, em posição vertical na vermiculita+Phytus e em posição vertical na vermiculita+PVP e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações na casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e a pleno sol, quanto ao porcentual de enraizamento, altura, diâmetro de colo e massa seca da parte aérea e radicular das miniestacas enraizadas. Concluiu-se que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o acondicionamento das miniestacas em posição vertical na vermiculita, podendo ser associado com PVP, conforme o clone.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influency of the conditioning method on the rooting process of mini-cuttings of four Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones. The mini-cuttings were collected in a mini-clonal hedge carried out in a hydroponic system in small gutters. The experimental design used was of random plots, constituted by five treatments (conditioning of the mini-cuttings in a horizontal position in the container; in a vertical position in vermiculite; in a vertical position in vermiculite+activated carbon; in a vertical position in vermiculite+Phytus, and in a vertical position in vermiculite+PVP and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. Evaluations were made of the rooting percentage, height, diameter of the stem and dry mass of the aerial and root parts

  11. Calcium and potassium silicates and the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio e o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Itamar Antonio Bognola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of silicate is a practice that has been frequently adopted in annual crops, although few studies have been conducted in order to verify its efficiency in forest tree species. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of calcium and potassium silicates in the growth of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in Alambari county, State of São Paulo. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with eight treatments, three replications and 25 plants per plot, maintained at the field capacity moisture level. Seedlings were planted in plastic tubes using local substrate, basic fertilization and silicates. Diameter, height and fresh and dry biomass of the seedlings were determined 150 days after silicates treatments were applied. The use of silicates either in the substrate or through foliar application, in the production of eucalypt seedlings has proven to be inadequate when the substrate presents a balanced basic composition in terms of nutrients and pH.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.83

    O uso de silicato é uma prática que vem sendo adotada com frequência em culturas anuais, muito embora poucos trabalhos tenham sido realizados com intuito de verificar sua eficiência em espécies florestais arbóreas. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio no crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Município de Alambari, SP. O delineamento usado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos, três repetições e 25 plantas por parcela, sendo mantidas na umidade de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram plantadas em tubetes de plástico, utilizando substrato local, com adubação básica e silicatos. Diâmetro de colo, altura e biomassa verde e seca das mudas foram determinados 150 dias após a

  12. Efeito do tempo de armazenamento de minestacas no enraizamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Effect of storage time of minicuttings on the rooting of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento de miniestacas no processo de enraizamento de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6 x 4, constituído de seis tratamentos (estaqueamento após a coleta e estaqueamento após o armazenamento em câmara fria por 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 dias e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações do porcentual de enraizamento e crescimento das miniestacas enraizadas em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e a pleno sol. Concluiu-se que o plantio das miniestacas logo após a coleta no minijardim clonal foi o que proporcionou melhor resposta ao enraizamento nos quatro clones estudados, sendo observado efeito negativo do armazenamento dos propágulos, mesmo quando realizado por curto período de tempo.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the storage time of minicuttings on the rooting process of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden carried on in a hydroponic system in small gutters. The experimental design used was of random plots, in a factorial arrangement 6 x 4, constituted by six treatments (cutting after collection, cutting after storage in cold chamber per 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. Evaluations of the rooting percentage and growth of the rooted minicuttings in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun were made. It was concluded that planting the minicuttings right after the collection in the clonal miniorchard had the best rooting response for the four clones studied and also that there was a negative effect of the storage, even when stored for a short

  13. Avaliação de um modelo de distribuição diamétrica ajustado para povoamentos de Tectona grandis submetidos a desbaste Evaluation of a diametric distribution model adjusted for thinned Tectona grandis stands

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    Gilciano Saraiva Nogueira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, do ponto de vista do realismo biológico, um modelo de distribuição diamétrica, bem como a eficiência do método dos ingressos porcentuais para determinação da idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste de povoamentos de teca (Tectona grandis L. f.. A avaliação consistiu em comparar as idades técnicas de desbaste obtidas pelo método dos ingressos porcentuais, as distribuições diamétricas projetadas para idades futuras e o comportamento da distribuição remanescente, após algumas simulações de desbaste, com a tendência lógica esperada. Pôde-se concluir que o modelo de distribuição diamétrica proposto gera estimativas que seguem uma tendência lógica do ponto de vista biológico e que o método dos ingressos porcentuais é adequado para determinar a idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste.The objective of this study was to evaluate, under the biological point of view, a diametric distribution model. Another objective was to evaluate the efficiency of the percentage of entries method to determine the technical age for the first and second thinning in teak (Tectona grandis L. f. stands. This evaluation was carried out by comparing the technical thinning ages obtained by the percentage of entries method, the diametric distributions projected for future ages and the behavior of the remaining distribution, after some thinning simulations, with the expected logical tendency. It was be concluded that the proposed diametric distribution model generates estimates which follow a logical tendency, biologically speaking and that the percentage of entries method is suitable to determine the technical age of the first and second thinning.

  14. Quebra de dormência em diásporos de teca (Tectona grandis L.f. Break of numbness in diaspores of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tectona grandis L.f. é uma essência florestal exótica de importância econômica e social para o Brasil. As mudas dessa espécie são produzidas através de diásporos constituídos dos frutos com endocarpo e mesocarpo rígidos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de métodos de quebra de dormência na germinação das sementes desta espécie. Para superar a dormência do endocarpo e mesocarpo, os diásporos de teca foram submetidos à imersão em água quente, imersão em ácido sulfúrico (33,5% e imersão em água corrente. Os diásporos foram distribuídos em substrato constituído de areia, e o teste de germinação foi realizado em câmara de germinação com temperatura de 30 ºC, sob luz branca durante oito horas por dia. As avaliações foram feitas diariamente, durante 60 dias. O método de imersão dos diásporos em ácido sulfúrico por três minutos, foi o tratamento mais eficiente, apresentando 73% das sementes germinadas.Tectona grandis L.f. it is an exotic forest essence of economical and social importance to Brazil. The seedlings of that species are produced through diaspores constituted by the fruits with rigid endocarp and mesocarp. The objective of the present work was to analyze the effect of methods of numbness break in the germination of the seeds of this species. To overcome the numbness of the endocarp and mesocarp, the teak fruits were submitted to the immersion in hot water, immersion in sulfuric acid (33,5% and immersion in running water. The diaspores were distributed in substratum constituted of sand, and the germination test was accomplished in germination camera with temperature of 30 ºC, under white light for eight hours a day. The evaluations were made daily, for 60 days. The method of immersion of the diaspores in sulfuric acid for three minutes was the most efficient treatment, presenting 73% of germinated seeds.

  15. Possible origin of B chromosome in Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia

    2016-08-01

    B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair.

  16. Características tecnológicas da madeira de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  17. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  18. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

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    Qiao-Mei Ru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO2 extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE. Therefore, SC-CO2 extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel.

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

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    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were installed at the height of 1.30 meters (DBH to monitor the diameter growth every 14 days, for 26 months. After measuring growth, the trees were felled and wood discs were removed at the DBH level to determine the radial density profile through x-ray microdensitometry and then re-scale the average values every 14 days. Climatic variables for the monitoring period were obtained and grouped every 14 days. The effect of the climate variables was determined by maximum and minimum growth periods in assessing trunk growth. These growth periods were related with precipitation, average temperature and relative air humidity. The re-scaled wood density values, calculated using the radial growth of the tree trunks measured accurately with steel dendrometers, enabled the determination of the relationship of small changes in wood density and the effect of the climatic variations and growth rate of eucalyptus tree trunks. A high sensitivity of the wood density to variation in precipitation levels was found.

  20. Integrated hot-compressed water and laccase-mediator treatments of Eucalyptus grandis fibers: structural changes of fiber and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Long; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-02-18

    Eucalyptus grandis fibers were treated with hot-compressed water (HCW) and laccase mediator to enhance the fiber characteristics and to produce an active lignin substrate for binderless fiberboard production. The composition, morphology, and crystallinity index (CrI) analysis of fibers showed that the HCW treatment increased the CrI and lignin content of the treated fibers through partial removal of hemicelluloses. Simultaneously, the HCW treatment produced some granules and holes on the surface of the fibers, which possibly facilitated the accessibility of the laccase mediator. Milled wood lignins and enzymatic hydrolysis lignins isolated from the control and treated fibers were comparatively characterized. A reduction of molecular weight was observed, which indicated that a preferential degradation of lignin occurred after exposure to the laccase mediator. Quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC and (31)P NMR characterization revealed that the integrated treatment resulted in the cleavage of β-O-4' linkages, removal of G' (oxidized α-ketone) substructures, and an increase in the S/G ratio and free phenolic hydroxyls. PMID:25639522

  1. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  2. INFLUENCE OF ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND EXTRACTIVES CONTENT WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden IN QUALITY BONDING

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    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987561The study aimed to anatomically characterize and to quantify the total extractives in different positions of the log of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with 18 years of age and to assess their influence on the shear strength and percentage of wood failure in adhesive bonded joints with thermosetting resorcinol-formaldehyde. Histological slides were prepared for an anatomical study and determined the total extractive content. The preparation of bonded joints was made according to ASTM D 2339-98(2000. It was used the correlation coefficient of Pearson, 1% probability by t test to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical and extractives content with the quality of the glued joints. It was found that there was a correlation between the shear strength with the following characteristics: vessel diameter, wall width, length and width of the fiber, the width of the radius and total extractives content. For the percentage of wood failure, there was a correlation between this with the following characteristics: the frequency of vessels, thickness of the heat of fiber, and high frequency of lightning. Both the radial direction as in the longitudinal direction of the logs there was change in the values found for the measurement of the anatomical elements, the total amount of extractives, the shear test strength and the percentage of wood failure.

  3. Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone

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    Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

  4. Cloning and characterization of gene-resistant analogs (RGAs) involved in rust (Puccinia psidii) resistance in Eucalyptus grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcelo Luiz Laia; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Sergio Hermnio Brommonschenkel; Shinitiro Oda; Eduardo Jose de Melo; Inae Marie de Arau jo Silva; Janana Fernandes Goncalves; Ariadne Marques

    2015-01-01

    Disease-resistant genes play an important role in defending against a variety of pathogens and insect pests in plants. Most of the disease-resistant genes encode pro-teins with conserved leucine rich repeat and nucleotide binding site domains. In this study, we cloned and char-acterized gene-resistant analogs (RGAs) from Eucalyptus grandis using degenerate PCR, with primers specifically targeting these two domains. The amplified fragments were cloned into the pGEM-T vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. Among the 90 clones obtained, 13 were sequenced and compared with each other and with previ-ously identified gene-resistant diseases. A BLASTX search in GenBank revealed high similarities among the con-served domains of these cloned genes with RGA genes. Some clones, however, showed no significant similarity with DNA sequences in GenBank. Southern blotting ana-lysis identified several polymorphic RFLP loci between distinct genotypes. However, none of them co-segregated with the Puccinia psidii Winter resistance gene 1 (Ppr1) in a population study.

  5. Efeito dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla

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    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano, associados ao regulador de crescimento AIB (ácido indolbutírico na propagação vegetativa pelo enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal realizado em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constituído de quatro concentrações para cada cofator e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações na casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e ao sol nas miniestacas enraizadas. Concluiu-se que o triptofano (0,8 mg L-1 e a hidroquinona (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicados associados ao AIB, melhoraram o enraizamento em três clones dos quatro clones avaliados; enquanto a prolina (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicada associada ao AIB, promoveu melhoria expressiva no enraizamento das miniestacas nos quatros clones estudados, evidenciando ser entre os cofatores testados o mais eficiente.

  6. Multitissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey T; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-05-21

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish ( Fundulus grandis ) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL) and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine, and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA, also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast.

  7. ESTABELECIMENTO A CAMPO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis MICORRIZADAS COM Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 EM SOLO ARENOSO

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    Andréa Hentz de Mello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and the initial growth of mycorrhizated eucalypts with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 ectomycorrhizal fungus, after its transplant to area subject to the arenization process in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The area was divided into four blocks, each one with four treatments (fertile turf with and without mycorrhizae, Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae. Each parcel was composed of 16 seedlings arranged in four lines in the spacing of 1,5 m x 1,5 m, totalizing in each block 64 seedlings. 90 days after the planting in the field, the eucaliptus seedlings produced in turf with fungus in the fertile substratum presented a survival rate of 100 %, whereas for those produced in fertile turf without fingi, the survival rate was 92 %. The seedlings produced in the Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae had a survival rate varying around 98 and 89 %, respectively. The produced seedlings with turf and fungus showed significant differences in height and stem diameter. This study showed that the Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in substratum fertile turf and inoculated with the Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 isolated may maintain good development and establishment in the field.

  8. Axial variations in anatomical properties and basic density of Eucalypt urograndis hybrid (Eucalyptus grandis 3 E. urophylla) clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S K Sharma; S R Shukla; S Shashikala; V Sri Poornima

    2015-01-01

    We studied two clones of Eucalypt urograndis hybrid (Eucalyptus grandis 9 E. urophylla), GR283 and GR330, grown in Tumkur district of Karnataka (India), and felled 5–6 years old three trees of each clone. We recorded axial variations in heartwood content, bark properties, wood density and anatomical characteristics of wood including fibre length, fibre diameter, fibre wall thickness, lumen diameter, vessel frequency, vessel diameter and vessel element length. Clone GR283 had about 10 % heartwood, significantly lower than for clone GR330 (37 %). Basic wood density along the tree height varied significantly within and between the clones. We observed significant variations in fibre length, fibre diameter and wall thickness within and between the two clones. Vessel frequency and vessel element length did not vary but vessel diameter differed significantly between the clones. With a greater proportion of sapwood, clone GR283 can be utilized for paper and pulp applications. Clone GR330 had a higher proportion of heartwood and lower wood density and, hence, is more suitable for light-weight material applications.

  9. The effects of heat treatment on the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of Eucalyptus grandis

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    Bekir Cihad Bal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment can be used to improve the physical properties and durability of wood. The results achieved by heat treatment can be affected significantly by various factors. Juvenile wood and mature wood from the same trunk have different properties, and the effects of heat treatment on their physical properties have not been well defined. Thus, a study to determine the differences in the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of E. grandis after heat treatment was conducted. Samples of both types of wood were treated at temperatures of 120, 150, and 180 oC for durations of 4, 6, and 8 h. The results showed that the physical properties of juvenile and mature wood, e.g., swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point, did not decrease to the same extent. Mass loss of mature wood was higher than that of juvenile wood. Generally, percentage decreases of volumetric swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point of juvenile wood were more affected than those of mature wood.

  10. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn. PMID:26861483

  11. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity. PMID:24472199

  12. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  13. BESOUROS COPRÓFAGOS (COLEOPTERA; SCARABAEIDAE COLETADOS EM PIRACICABA, SP

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    RODRIGUES S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Através do uso de armadilhas "pitfall" iscadas com massa fecal fresca de bovinos, realizou-se a coleta de besouros coprófagos (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae, durante o período de 15 de abril de 1995 a 17 de fevereiro de 1996, em área de pastagem ao lado de confinamento de bovinos, em Piracicaba, SP. Coletou-se um total de 11 espécies distribuidas nos gêneros Aphodius, Ataenius, Trichillum, Eurysternus, Dichotomius e Canthon. Os besouros coprófagos de comportamento endocoprídeo representaram 72,73% das espécies coletadas, sendo estes os de maior ocorrência e a espécie Aphodius lividus parece ser a mais bem adaptada na área estudada.

  14. Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Brachylophora auricollis (Bruch, 1918 comb. nov. = Pasiphyle auricollis Bruch, 1918, originally described from Argentina (Salta, is redescribed and illustrated. Although with reduced elytra, the genus is transferred from Rhinotragini to Rhopalophorini based on the following characters: eyes well separated in both sexes, frons between eyes depressed and lacking frontal suture; pro-, meso-, and metasternum planar; mesothorax parallel-sided, not at all declivous before mesosternal process; metasternum large, together with mesosternum twice length of prosternum, metepisternum very wide, entire suture separating it from metasternum clearly visible when viewed from below; female ovipositor shortened with short cylindrical styles; and, more generally, structural features of hind legs, and surface ornamentation. Habitus similar to Coremia group. Bolivian specimens were netted as they visited flowers of Croton sp. (Euphorbiaceae.

  15. CONDUTÂNCIA ESTOMÁTICA DE EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA E E. GRANDIS, EM RESPOSTA A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ÁGUA NO SOLO E DE CONVIVÊNCIA COM BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND E. GRANDIS STOMATIC CONDUCTANCE IN RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF WATER AND ASSOCIATION WITH BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF

    OpenAIRE

    WILSON DA SILVA; TOCIO SEDIYAMA; ANTÔNIO ALBERTO DA SILVA; FRANCISCO AFFONSO FERREIRA

    1998-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da interferência de Brachiaria brizantha sobre a condutância estomática (gs) de mudas de Eucalyptus citriodora e E. grandis, cultivadas em solos com diferentes níveis de água, em condições de casa de vegetação, entre dezembro de 1995 e fevereiro de 1996. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (2 x 3 x 4): duas espécies de eucalipto (E. citriodora e E. grandis), três níveis de água (20, 23 e 26%) e quatro populações d...

  16. Efeito alelopático de plantas daninhas e concentrações de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens no desenvolvimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Allelopathic effect of weeds and concentrations of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar possível efeito alelopático de 18 espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis, realizaram-se dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, dentre 18 espécies de plantas daninhas testadas, Brachiaria decumbens (BRADC demonstrou acentuada capacidade de reduzir o crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis, quando incorporada ao solo. No segundo experimento avaliou-se o efeito da adição no substrato de concentrações de matéria seca de BRADC sobre o crescimento inicial de mudas de E. grandis. A matéria seca triturada de BRADC foi incorporada ao solo nas concentrações de 0% (testemunha, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% (p/p. Instalou-se também uma réplica do experimento, com adição de idênticas quantidades totais de carbono entre os tratamentos. O ajuste da quantidade de carbono foi feito através da adição de Sphagnum. Extraiu-se a solução do solo por meio de cápsulas de porcelana introduzidas nos vasos quando do transplante das mudas de eucalipto. As soluções foram coletadas ao final do experimento (39 dias após o transplante das mudas, sendo utilizadas para a determinação de pH, condutividade elétrica, potencial osmótico e para análise de teores de nutrientes. As mínimas proporções de BRADC, com efeito inibitório, foram de 0,5 e 1,0%, com e sem Sphagnum, respectivamente. Nestas duas condições, a área foliar média do eucalipto foi reduzida em 24 e 23%, respectivamente. As análises de solução do solo dos tratamentos permitiram concluir que os teores de nutrientes e as características químicas destes foram pouco alterados pelos tratamentos, sendo pouco provável que a redução do crescimento do E. grandis se deva às restrições nas quantidades de nutrientes disponíveis.Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the possible allelopathic effect of 18 weed species on the initial development of eucalyptus

  17. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  18. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate. PMID:26602356

  19. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

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    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  20. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, E M; Nogueira, R M; Pina, D S; Manica, C L M; Faroni, L R A; Moreira, P S A

    2016-04-19

    Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces. PMID:27097085

  1. Track analysis of the Neotropical Entimini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Romo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Track analysis of the Neotropical Entimini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae. Distributional patterns of the species belonging to the tribe Entimini from the Neotropical region were analyzed. Based on a track analysis of 22 species of Entimus, Rhigus, and Phaedropus, for which distributional data were available, two generalized tracks were found. One is located in northern Brazil, corresponding to the Amazonian subregion, and is determined by Phaedropus candidus and Rhigus speciosus. The other is located in southern Brazil, corresponding to the Parana subregion, and is determined by Entimus imperialis, E. excelsus, Phaedropus togatus, Rhigus dejeanii, R. faldermanni, R. horridus, R. lateritus, R. nigrosparsus, and R. tribuloides. The development of the Chacoan subregion is hypothesized to have been the dynamic vicariant event that fragmented the former Amazonian-Parana forest.Análisis de trazos de Entimini Neotropical (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae. Se analizaron los patrones de distribución de la tribu Entimini en la región Neotropical. Con base en un análisis de los trazos de 22 especies de Entimus, Rhigus y Phaedropus, para los cuales se contaba con datos de distribución, se hallaron dos trazos generalizados. Uno se localiza en el norte de Brasil, en la subregión Amazónica, y está sustentado por Phaedropus candidus y Rhigus speciosus. El otro se localiza en el sur de Brasil, en la subregión Paranaense, y está sustentado por Entimus imperialis, E. excelsus, Phaedropus togatus, Rhigus dejeanii, R. faldermanni, R. horridus, R. lateritus, R. nigrosparsus y R. tribuloides. Se hipotetiza que el desarrollo de la subregión Chaqueña constituyó el evento de vicarianza dinámica que fragmentó el antiguo bosque Amazónico-Paranaense.

  2. Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume em plantios de eucalyptus grandis Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume in eucalyptus grandis plantations

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    José Márcio de Mello

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha, 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal.This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and

  3. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

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    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  4. Durabilidade natural de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com Eucalyptus grandis e Bambusa vulgaris em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Natural durability of Eucalyptus grandis and Bambusa vulgaris particleboards under accelerated fungi decay test

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    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento acerca da resistência dos compostos ligno-celulósicos ao ataque de microrganismos é primordial para servir de base à prevenção da deterioração e a correta destinação de emprego do material. Nesse sentido, avaliou-se a resistência natural a fungos apodrecedores de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com partículas de madeira (Eucalyptus grandis e/ou bambu (Bambusa vulgaris. Foram produzidas, em laboratório, chapas aglomeradas nas dimensões 50x50x0,95cm e massa específica pré-estabelecida em 0,70g cm-3, nas proporções de 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100 de madeira e bambu, respectivamente. A massa de partículas representou 91% da massa seca de cada painel, sendo, o restante, formado pelo adesivo ureia-formaldeído (8% e parafina (1%. Para determinação da resistência natural ao ataque de fungos xilófagos, os painéis foram testados em laboratório e utilizados os fungos Gloeophyllum trabeum (podridão parda e Trametes versicolor (podridão branca, de acordo com a ASTM D 2017 (2005. Quanto aos resultados, foi observado que os painéis confeccionados com mistura de partículas de madeira e bambu apresentaram menor resistência ao ataque dos fungos apodrecedores. Painéis que utilizaram apenas bambu ou madeira apresentaram resistência biológica semelhante. Dentre os fungos, T. versicolor atacou mais severamente os painéis.The knowledge about lignocellulosic compounds strength to the attack of microorganisms is essential for preventing deterioration and also for knowing the correct usage of the material. Accordingly it was evaluated the natural resistance of wood panels made of particles of wood (Eucalyptus grandis and/or bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris to decay fungi. Particleboards were produced in laboratory, each of them with dimensions 50x50x0.95cm and density pre-set at 0.70g cm-3, in proportions of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 of wood and bamboo, respectively. The particles mass represented 91% of the

  5. Caracterização bromatológica de oito linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Shiitake cultivadas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis Bromatological characterization of Lentinula edodes strains (Shiitake grown on Eucalyptus grandis logs

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    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Lentinula edodes é um alimento de qualidade elevada, sendo rico em proteínas, vitaminas e sais minerais e pobre em calorias e gorduras. No entanto, seu valor nutricional varia em função da linhagem cultivada, do processamento após a colheita, do estágio de desenvolvimento do basidioma e do substrato utilizado. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar bromatologicamente os basidiomas de oito linhagens de L. edodes (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13, inteiros ou em partes (estípete e píleo, produzidos em toras de E. grandis. Verificou-se que tanto as linhagens de L. edodes como as partes dos basidiomas analisados influenciaram nas respostas nutricionais das amostras. O estípete apresentou as maiores médias de fibra bruta e as menores médias de proteína bruta. O píleo, por sua vez, apresentou as maiores médias de cinzas. Nas avaliações de basidiomas inteiros, as maiores médias, quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, foram obtidas nas linhagens LE-95/07, LE-96/17 e LE-96/18. Já a maior média de fibra bruta foi obtida pela linhagem LE-96/13 de L. edodes. O conteúdo de lipídios do píleo e do estípete não variaram entre as linhagens de L. edodes.Lentinula edodes is high quality food which is rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals and poor in calories and fat. However, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain grown, processing after harvest, development stage of basidiomata, and substrate used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to carry out the bromatological characterization of basidiomatas from eight (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13 L. edodes strains, whole or in parts (stalk and pileus, produced in E. grandis logs. We verified that both the L. edodes strains and parts of basidiomatas analyzed influenced nutritional responses of the samples. The stalk presented the highest raw fiber averages and the

  6. Viabilidade Econômica de Sistemas Silvipastoris com Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum e Tectona grandis no Pará Economical Viability of Silvopastoral Systems with Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum Barneby and Tectona grandis in Para, Brazil

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    Rosana Quaresma Maneschy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Os sistemas silvipastoris (SSPs consistem de um conjunto de metodologias que podem ser consideradas promissoras para recuperar áreas de pastagens degradadas da Amazônia, por integrar o cultivo arbóreo ao pecuária tradicional. Embora já utilizados em pequena escala por produtores inovadores, os SSPs carecem de uma base científica que forneça subsídios técnicos ao seu uso mais amplo, sobretudo quando se trata de justificar a viabilidade econômica desses sistemas. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a viabilidade econômica de SSPs utilizados por produtores no nordeste do Estado do Pará, comparando-os ao monocultivo tradicional. Os sistemas são compostos basicamente pelo paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby ou teca (Tectona grandis L.F., em pastagens de quicuio-da-amazônia (Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweick pastejados por bovinos. A análise de viabilidade econômica foi realizada por meio dos métodos: valor presente líquido (VPL, taxa interna de retorno (TIR e relação benefício/custo (Rb/c, considerando quatro SSPs e o monocultivo de paricá e teca. Os sistemas compostos por teca apresentam maior atratividade econômica do que os com paricá, e dentre eles, os arranjos silvipastoris, em que o gado era próprio, foram considerados de melhor viabilidade que os sistemas em monocultivo ou em que a incorporação animal se dava através do aluguel da pastagem.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.49

    The silvopastoral systems (SPSs have been considered promising to integrate tree crops in livestock production systems and reclain large areas of degraded pastures of the Brazilian Amazon. They are used on small scale by innovative farmers, the SPSs lack a scientific basis to provide technical subsidies to its wider use, especially when it comes to justifying the economic viability of these systems. The objective of this study was to analyze the economical viability of SPSs, established in

  7. Consequências da deriva de clomazone e sulfentrazone em clones de E. grandis x E. urophylla Consequences of clomazone and sulfentrazone drift on clones of E. grandis x E. urophylla

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    Ernesto Norio Takahashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos de deriva simulada dos herbicidas clomazone e sulfentrazone em dois clones comerciais de E. grandis x E. urophylla, da Votorantim Celulose e Papel (VCP1 e VCP2. Na simulação, as doses do herbicida clomazone variaram de 0 a 2.000 mL ha-1 e no sulfentrazone, de 0 a 1.500 mL ha-1. As mudas dos dois clones, previamente selecionadas, foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade para 5,0 L. O solo utilizado foi o Neossolo Quartzarênico, sendo a aplicação dos herbicidas realizada 80 dias após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado em cada herbicida foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 8, com três repetições. O efeito do clomazone resultou em folhas novas rosadas, amareladas e, em alguns casos, esbranquiçadas, como um todo ou em parte dela, enquanto as nervuras se mantiveram verdes. Observou-se, também, que as folhas velhas se tornaram mais verdes e grossas. Ocorreu redução nas características de crescimento, variando de 13 a 57%, e as doses consideradas críticas do herbicida clomazone foram de 800 e 1.200 ml ha-1 nos clones VCP1 e VCP2, respectivamente. Com o sulfentrazone, os sintomas da deriva foram necroses generalizadas nas folhas novas e velhas; ao redor da necrose, formaram-se região arroxeada e deformação intensa nas folhas novas e regular nas folhas velhas, bem como houve perda de dominância apical. As características de crescimento indicaram redução de 9 a 66%. A dose crítica desse herbicida foi de 75 ml ha-1 no clone VCP1 e 1.200 ml ha-1 no VCP2. Conclui-se que uma possível deriva dos herbicidas estudados e utilizados em cana-de-açúcar poderá causar prejuízos ao crescimento dos clones avaliados.This research aimed to develop accurate information about the effects of two simulated herbicide drift (clomazone and sulfentrazone on the growth of Votorantim Celulose e Papel Eucalyptus grandis x E. urohylla comercial

  8. Caracterização e comparação entre diferentes granulometrias de serragem de Eucalyptus grandis para confecção de briquetes. Characterization and comparison between different sizes of Eucalyptus grandis sawdust for briquettes confection.

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    Bruna Farrapo GONÇALVES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A grande geração de resíduos lignocelulósicos, a partir de processos industriais e da agricultura, torna o uso da biomassa uma fonte de energia térmica viável; sua compactação aumenta sua densidade, seu poder calorífico e sua resistência. O objetivo da pesquisa consistiu na comparação entre briquetes produzidos a partir de diferentes granulometrias de serragens de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = serragem que passou pela peneira de 10 mesh e ficou retida na de 20 mesh (10 a 20; T2 = 20 a 60; T3 = 60 a 100 ; T4 = 10 a 100. As características da matéria-prima mostraram-se viáveis para a produção de briquetes, com teor de umidade de 12%, 88,65% de voláteis, 0,44% de cinzas, 10,80% de carbono fixo e poder calorífico de 4.229 kcal.kg-1. As comparações realizadas entre os tratamentos foram feitas a partir da expansão (diametral e longitudinal e de ensaios de compressão diametral para força máxima e tensão de força máxima dos briquetes. O tratamento T4 foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados nesses testes (1,04%; 15,06%; 90,22 kgf; 0,6714 MPa, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente, a nível de 5% dos outros tratamentos. A produção em larga escala do tratamento T4 viabiliza a produção dos briquetes, pois não é necessário o processo de separação granulométrica.The great generation of lignocellulose wastes from industrial processes and agriculture makes the use of biomass a source of viable thermal energy; its compaction increases its density, its calorific value and its strength. The objective of the research consisted in comparing briquettes produced from different particle sizes of sawdust of Eucalyptus grandis. The treatments were: T1 = sawdust that passed through 10 mesh sieve and was retained on the 20 mesh (10 to 20; T2 = 20 to 60; T3 = 60 to 100; T4 = 10 to 100. The characteristics of the raw material proved feasibility to produce briquettes, with moisture content of 12%, 88.65% of

  9. Períodos de interferência de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis Hort. no crescimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden Periods of Commelina benghalensis interference in the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis

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    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, em razão do uso contínuo de mesmos herbicidas e outros métodos de controle, vem se constituindo numa das plantas mais freqüentes em eucaliptais do Estado de São Paulo. Por isso, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos de períodos de controle e convivência dessa planta daninha sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, transplantadas no inverno e no verão. Uma única muda de eucalipto foi transplantada em caixa de cimento-amianto e submetida a períodos crescentes de convivência e de controle da trapoeraba (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias no sujo e no limpo, respectivamente, sendo a densidade de plantas de trapoeraba de 4 plantas.m-2 (nas condições de inverno e verão. Conduziu-se o ensaio por um período de 100 dias após o transplante (DAT, e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 10 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Pelos resultados da altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, biomassa seca e área foliar, verificou-se que o período anterior à interferência (PAI, o total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foram de 20, 60 e 20 a 60 DAT, respectivamente, no inverno. Em condições de verão, o PTPI foi menor que o PAI (10 e 40 DAT, respectivamente. Assim, não foi possível estabelecer o PCPI nessas condições.Commelina benghalensis is becomming the predominant weed invading eucalypts plantations in the State of São Paulo due to the continual use of herbicides and other control methods applied. Considering this, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of presence and control periods of Commelina benghalensis on Eucalyptus grandis initial growth, grew in winter and summer. A single eucalypt seedling was planted in a cement box and submitted to increasing periods of presence and control of Commelina benghalensis (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 days in competition or not

  10. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.

  11. 昆虫产卵抑制素的研究及应用%Progress in the study and application of oviposition deterrents of insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟国玲; 肖春; 龚信文

    2000-01-01

    Many insects left "oviposition markers" on the surface of the eggs or at the egg-laying site after oviposition. It was found that "oviposition markers" were chemical-oviposition deterrents (OVD) produced by female adults,which deterred oviposition at the same sites by conspecific or heterospecific females. It was confirmed that the larvae of many insects could secret OVD. The species in Orthoptera,Lepidoptera,Coleoptera and Diptera could also produce OVD. Many documents confirmed that there were chemicals functioning as OVD in many kinds of plants. A set of techniques for studying OVD such as electrophysiological responses,behavioral responses,and isolation and identification of active compounds has now been developed. The OVD produced by females of Pieris rape,Lasioderma serricorne and Rhagoletis cerasi were identified and synthesized. The chemicals functioning as OVD of Pieris rape and Hylemya spp. were found in many plants. Controlling Rhagoleris cerasi with OVD was a typical example in the application of OVD. In addition,a new variety of cotton that could deter oviposition by females of Anthonomus grandis was also developed. OVD could also be used to study coevolutionary relationship between herbivore insects and plants. We think that study on OVD of insects plays a very important role in decoding the ovipositional behaviors of insects,co-evoluationary relationship between herbiore insects and plants,and developing new types of pest insect-controlling techniques.

  12. Research of Exocarpium Citri Grandis Fingerprint Based on Self-organization Competitive Neural Network%基于自组织竞争型神经网络的化橘红指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈南迪; 卢丽萍; 汪金玉; 林励

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the self-organization competitive neural network method for identifying the species by the fingerprints of different kinds of Exocarpium Citri Grandis(Cirtus grandis Peel). Methods The fingerprints of different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis were established by fourier transform infrared speetroscopy and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC). And then we used the self-organization competitive neural network model to distinguish the different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis. Results The self-organization competitive neural network for distinguish Exocarpium Citri Grandis of different species was established, and the rate of accuracy for infrared and HPLC fingerprint of the powder and the extract was more than 91.67 % in average. Conclusion The self-organizing competitiveneural network can be used for distinguishing different species of Exocarpium Citri Grandis by their fingerprints.%目的 建立不同品种化橘红指纹图谱的自组织竞争型人工神经网络判别方法.方法 采用傅里叶红外光谱法及HPLC法建立不同品种化橘红的指纹图谱,采用自组织竞争型人工神经网络进行模式识别.结果 自组织竞争型神经网络模型对化橘红粉末、提取物红外及HPLC指纹图谱预测平均准确率达91.67%以上.结论 自组织竞争型人工神经网络可有效用于化橘红品种的识别.

  13. Effects of Shading on Torreya grandis Juvenile Stage under Different Tree Species%不同树种遮荫对香榧幼龄期生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仙石玄; 潘建华; 朱小环; 周樟庭; 吴礼栋

    2014-01-01

    为比较不同树种遮荫对香榧幼龄期生长的影响,选择板栗、厚朴、杉木、杨梅4个树种进行林下套种香榧试验,以同种林分林缘裸露的山地种植香榧为对照。结果表明:林下套种香榧,平均成活率均极显著高于对照,不同树种之间成活率差异不显著;新梢年均生长量均极显著高于对照,且板栗林下套种香榧的新梢年均生长量极显著大于其它3个树种。说明以板栗遮荫最有利于香榧幼龄期生长。%The effects of shading on Torreya grandis juvenile stage was studied ,which under four forests ,chestnut ,Magnolia officina-lis,fir and red bayberry.The Torreya grandis in forests edge as control groups.The result showed:Average survival rates of Torreya grandis with sun-shading were higher than the control group significantly (P<0.01),and had no significant difference among four tree species sun-shading treatments.After sun-shading treatments , the Torreya grandis average annual growths of new shoots were higher than the control group significantly ( P <0.01 ) , and chestnut had better shading effect on Torreya grandis average annual growths of new shoots than magnolia officinalis ,fir and red bayberry.Above of all,the model of interplanting Torreya grandis under chestnut forest practicable and worth of popularization.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Eucalyptus grandis: an intriguing over-representation of stress-responsive DREB1/CBF genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Cao

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses.The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses.The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive.These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia.

  15. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  16. Multidisciplinary Fingerprints: Forensic Reconstruction of an Insect Reinvasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning late August 2007, more than 150 boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, were unexpectedly captured across an extensive area of the Southern Rolling Plains (SRP) eradication zone of West-Central Texas, which was essentially weevil-free since 2003. This outbreak was detected soon after the passag...

  17. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felipe Farias, Davi; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F.; Carvalho, A.F.U.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolutio

  18. Influence of growing location and cultivar on Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of rough rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANK H. ARTHUR; RUSTY C. BAUTISTA; TERRENCE J. SIEBENMORGEN

    2007-01-01

    Long-grain rice cultivars Cocodrie, Wells, and XP 723 grown in three locations (Hazen, MO; Essex and Newport, AR, USA), and medium-grain rice cultivars Bengal and XP 713 grown in two locations (Jonesboro and Lodge Corner, AR, USA), were harvested and assayed for susceptibility to Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), the lesser grain borer, and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the rice weevil, on rice held at 27℃ 57% and 75% relative humidity (RH).Separate samples from the same harvest lots were also analyzed for the physical characteristics of brown rice yield, percentage whole kernels and kernel thickness. Progeny production and feeding damage of R. dominica were significantly different among long-grain cultivars within two of the three locations (P < 0.05), but not for location or RH (P ≥ 0.05), while progeny production of S. oryzae was different among cultivars, location, and RH (P < 0.05). On medium-grain rice, both cultivar and location were significant for progeny production of R. dominica, but not RH, while cultivar and RH were significant for progeny production of S. oryzae, but not location. On both rice types, feeding damage of R. dominica followed the same trends and was always strongly positively correlated with progeny production (P < 0.05), but for S. oryzae there were several instances in which progeny production was not correlated with feeding damage (P ≥ 0.05). Physical characteristics of both rice types were statistically significant (P < 0.01) but actual numerical differences were extremely small, and were generally not correlated with progeny production of either species. Results indicate that the location in which a particular rice cultivar is grown, along with its characteristics, could affect susceptibility of the rice to R. dominica and S. oryzae.

  19. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  20. Novos táxons sul-americanos de Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dilma Solange Napp; Ubirajara Ribeiro Martins

    2006-01-01

    Novos táxons sul-americanos de Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Um novo gênero e quatro novas espécies, todos provenientes da Bolívia, são descritos em Compsocerini: Ecoporanga gen. nov., espécie-tipo E. achira sp. nov., Dilocerus brunneus sp. nov., Rierguscha florida sp. nov., procedentes de Santa Cruz e Ethemon iuba sp. nov. proveniente de Cochabamba.New South American taxa of Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). The following new genus and species, all from Bolivia, are describ...

  1. SISTEMA DE CUBICACIÓN PARA ÁRBOLES INDIVIDUALES DE Tectona grandis L. f. MEDIANTE FUNCIONES COMPATIBLES DE AHUSAMIENTO-VOLUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Tamarit Urías; Héctor M. De los Santos Posadas; Arnulfo Aldrete; J. René Valdez Lazalde; Hugo Ramírez Maldonado; Vidal Guerra de la Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Se cons truyó un sistema de cubicación de árbol individual generado a partir de una función segmentada de ahusamiento para plantaciones de Tectona grandis establecidas en Campeche, Tabasco y Chiapas. Se cubicaron 144 árboles de diferentes edades; para cada uno se midió el diámetro con corteza y la altura sobre el fuste a 1 m después del tocón hasta la altura total. Se evaluó el ajuste estadístico de seis funciones segmentadas de ahusamiento y se seleccionó al modelo de Fang como el mejor...

  2. The occurrence, prevention and cure of Exocarpium Citri Grandis plant diseases and insect pests%化橘红病虫害的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡岳文; 严振; 丘金裕

    2004-01-01

    化橘红为芸香科植物化州柚(Citrus grandis(L)Osbeck var.tomentosa Hort)以未成熟果实的外果皮入药。近几年来,随着基地化、规模化大面积种植,其病虫害的发生及危害程度亦与日俱增,一些重要害虫已严重影响化橘红的生产和产品质量。

  3. Cubicación, crecimiento y rendimiento maderable e inventario operativo para Tectona grandis en el sureste de México.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamarit Urias, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Se generó un conjunto de herramientas de silvicultura cuantitativa para apoyar la toma de decisiones en el manejo técnico de plantaciones comerciales de Tectona grandis L. f. (teca) establecidas en el sureste de México. Para estimar el volumen por tipo de producto se construyó un sistema de cubicación a nivel de árbol individual generado a partir de un modelo segmentado de ahusamiento. El modelo fue ajustado en forma simultánea con su respectiva función de volumen comercial como un modelo de ...

  4. Laboratory decomposition of Dalbergia nigra all. ex. benth and Eucalyptus grandis w.hill ex. maiden leaves in forest and eucalypt plantation soils

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende Juliana L. P.; Garcia Queila S.; Scotti Maria Rita M. M. L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the decomposition of D. nigra and E. grandis leaves under laboratory conditions when incubated in soils from Atlantic Forest and from a 40-year-old eucalypt plantation for a year. The obtained values of pH in forest and eucalypt plantation soils were 5.61 and 4.47 and for aluminum 0.32 and 1.89mEqx100, respectively. A great number of microorganisms (total fungi, phosphate solubilising and cellulolytic organisms) were found in forest soil. Litterbag study revealed...

  5. Primer registro para el Perú de Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839 Travassos, 1934 (Trematoda, Diplodiscidae en Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Salízar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo registra por primera vez para el Perú a Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839 Travassos, 1934, en la tortuga de río Podocnemis unifilis «taricaya». Los hospederos fueron colectados en las localidades del Río Putumayo, Samiria, Iquitos (Loreto y Manu (Madre de Dios. El material identificado pertenece a la Colección Helmintológica del Departamento de Protozoología, Helmintología e Invertebrados Afines del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

  6. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  7. Main Chemical Compositions in Aril of Torreya grandis%香榧假种皮中主要化学组成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 古研; 赵振东; 王婧; 毕良武

    2012-01-01

    研究了新鲜香榧假种皮中所含的挥发油、溶剂提取物、单宁物质、非单宁物质、木质素等主要化学组分及其含量。测定了新鲜原料中的挥发性精油的提取率及密度、折光率、比旋光度等物理化学性质。结果表明,新鲜的香榧假种皮精油提取得率按绝干物计算为5.5%,提取精油后残渣用溶剂甲苯提取的收率为19.7%。精油中主要含单萜类化合物,含量74.66%;残渣甲苯提取物主要含二萜类物质,含量78.22%;新鲜香榧假种皮中含有1.8%的单宁物质、18.9%的非单宁类物质、20.1%的木质素;水蒸气蒸馏残渣和溶剂抽提残渣中含木质素分别为17.13%和17.16%。%The volatile oil, solvent extract, tannin, non-tannin, lignin as well as their contents in fresh aril of Torreya grandis were studied in this paper. The yield, density, refractive index, specific rotation and non-volatile mater content of volatile oil from fresh aril of T. grandis were determined. The results showed that a volatile oil was collected from steam distillation of the fresh aril of T. grandis in 5.5 % ( based on the dry matter), and a toluene extractive was gained from the residue after volatile oil distillation in 19.7% (by toluene). The volatile oil contained mainly monoterpene, and the solvent extract contained maninly diterpene. In fresh aril of T. grandis, the contents of tannin material, non-tannin material and lignin were 1.8 %, 18.9 % and 20.1%, respectively. The contents of lignin in the steam distillation residue and solvent extraction residue were 17.13 % and 17.16 %, respectively.

  8. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  9. 榧树种质资源调查与评价%Investigation and evaluation of Torreya grandis germplasm resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓建; 黎章矩; 戴文圣; 喻卫武; 曾燕如

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl are a peculiar nut fruit in China. In order to effectively protect, develop and utilize the germplasm resources of this species, a systematic investigation of its germplasm resources in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian provinces was conducted through field investigation, specimen collection, indoor seed examination and ingredient analysis. The results showed that the resources of T. grandis was unevenly distributed and only conserved well in a few regions. The single seed weight, single kernel weight, kernel rate, kernel shape index and nutrient content varied greatly among individual trees, but some superior individual trees in integrated traits and quality had discovered, which could be grouped into seven major varieties and types. Those individual trees with seeds of integrated good traits, good quality, special traits or potential utilization value should be collected and preserved, especially focusing on those of high and stable yield and special high traits. The old trees or their population should be protected.%榧树(Torreyagrandis Fort.ex Lindl)种子是我国特有的著名干果,为了对榧树种质资源进行有效保护和开发利用,采用实地调查、采集标本、室内烤种、成分分析等方法,对浙江、安徽、江西、福建等榧树分布区的种质资源进行了系统研究.结果表明.榧树资源分布不均,仅少数地方资源保存较好;榧树种内性状变异复杂,不同单株间种子的单粒质量、种核单粒质量、出核率、核形指数及营养成分等变异大,存在一些综合性状优良、品质达到或超过香榧的优株:将香榧和榧树中的优良株系、类型分归于7个主要品种和类型.在榧树中应主要收集一些种子具有综合优良性状、特殊性状和有潜在利用价值的单株;香榧则重点在于收集种子高产、稳产、优质和具特殊性状的优株,对古树及古树群也应加以保护.

  10. Construction of allometric relationships to predict growth parameters, stem biomass and carbon of Eucalyptus grandis growing in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts. Tree diameter and total were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values.   Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots.   According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. The carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass.   Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  11. Construction of Allometric Relationships to Predict Growth Parameters, Stem Biomass and Carbon of Eucalyptus grandis Growing in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available             Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts in Sri Lanka. Tree diameter and total height were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values. Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots. According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. Carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass. Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  12. Response of soil mite abundance and diversity to a monospecific timber Tectona grandis plantation in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Kouadio N’DRI, Henri Marc ANDRE, Jan LAGERLÖF, Jérôme Ebagnérin TONDOH,Thierry HANCE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the impact of monospecific Tectona grandis forest plantation on the soil mite abundance and diversity. To achieve these objectives, two sites situated in Ivory Coast were investigated. The first, a primary forest was characterized by a very weak human activities whereas the second, a teak plantation was characterized by a high disturbance performed during the planting. After extracting, sorted and description, 116 mite species were described in the two sites. Mite densities were lower in teak plantation and also higher in the litter and decreased to the depth in both sites. Species richness recorded in teak plantation (52 species was significantly lower compared to primary forest (98 species. The same trend was observed for Oribatida but not for Gamasida. The lower Oribatida (5 vs. 17 and higher Oribatida (24 vs. 41 were recorded respectively in teak plantation and primary forest. Mite Shannon index and evenness were significantly different between sites. High Jaccard index values and the appearance of exclusive species in both habitats showed that the sites are very distinct. Total number of species recorded corresponded to 58%–63% of the total number of species estimated by ACE and Chao 1&2 estimators, indicating that the sampling effort was not sufficient. Mite abundance and diversity varied depending on the characteristics of habitats. Chemical element (Corg, Ctot, Ntot, and SOM values were lower in teak plantation (disturbed habitat and significantly different to primary forest in the topsoil. Apart from litter height, soil depth, pH and C/N ratio, others variables were strongly correlated to mite abundance and diversity [Current Zoology 59 (5: 633–643, 2013].

  13. [Rapid Identification of Epicarpium Citri Grandis via Infrared Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology Combined with Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sha-sha; Huang, Fu-rong; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Rui-yi; Ma, Zhi-guo

    2015-10-01

    To explore rapid reliable methods for detection of Epicarpium citri grandis (ECG), the experiment using Fourier Transform Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology combined with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network pattern recognition, for the identification of ECG, and the two methods are compared. Infrared spectra and fluorescence spectral images of 118 samples, 81 ECG and 37 other kinds of ECG, are collected. According to the differences in tspectrum, the spectra data in the 550-1 800 cm(-1) wavenumber range and 400-720 nm wavelength are regarded as the study objects of discriminant analysis. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of ECG and MLP Neural Network is used in combination to classify them. During the experiment were compared the effects of different methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV), first-order derivative(FD), second-order derivative(SD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG). The results showed that: after the infrared spectra data via the Savitzky-Golay (SG) pretreatment through the MLP Neural Network with the hidden layer function as sigmoid, we can get the best discrimination of ECG, the correct percent of training set and testing set are both 100%. Using fluorescence spectral imaging technology, corrected by the multiple scattering (MSC) results in the pretreatment is the most ideal. After data preprocessing, the three layers of the MLP Neural Network of the hidden layer function as sigmoid function can get 100% correct percent of training set and 96.7% correct percent of testing set. It was shown that the FTIR/ATR and fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with MLP Neural Network can be used for the identification study of ECG and has the advantages of rapid, reliable effect. PMID:26904814

  14. Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

  15. Genome-wide patterns of recombination, linkage disequilibrium and nucleotide diversity from pooled resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping unlock the evolutionary history of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2015-11-01

    We used high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and whole-genome pooled resequencing to examine the landscape of population recombination (ρ) and nucleotide diversity (ϴw ), assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ) and build the highest density linkage maps for Eucalyptus. At the genome-wide level, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed within c. 4-6 kb, slower than previously reported from candidate gene studies, but showing considerable variation from absence to complete LD up to 50 kb. A sharp decrease in the estimate of ρ was seen when going from short to genome-wide inter-SNP distances, highlighting the dependence of this parameter on the scale of observation adopted. Recombination was correlated with nucleotide diversity, gene density and distance from the centromere, with hotspots of recombination enriched for genes involved in chemical reactions and pathways of the normal metabolic processes. The high nucleotide diversity (ϴw = 0.022) of E. grandis revealed that mutation is more important than recombination in shaping its genomic diversity (ρ/ϴw = 0.645). Chromosome-wide ancestral recombination graphs allowed us to date the split of E. grandis (1.7-4.8 million yr ago) and identify a scenario for the recent demographic history of the species. Our results have considerable practical importance to Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), while indicating bright prospects for genomic prediction of complex phenotypes in eucalypt breeding.

  16. Padrões de miniestacas e sazonalidade na produção de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla S. T. Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chaves Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes padrões de miniestacas no enraizamento e produção de mudas do híbrido do Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S.T. Black no verão e no inverno. Experimentos com cinco clones e 12 diferentes padrões de miniestacas foram conduzidos em duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno. A sobrevivência e enraizamento das miniestacas foram avaliados na saída da casa de vegetação e na saída da casa de sombra e, a pleno sol, a sobrevivência, a altura, o diâmetro do colo, o peso de massa seca da parte aérea e o da raiz. Os resultados indicaram que a manutenção das folhas é importante para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, e as folhas basais obtiveram maiores valores de enraizamento. Mudas produzidas no verão, utilizando miniestacas de 10 cm de tamanho, tiveram maior crescimento. A metodologia de não redução das folhas mostrou-se procedimento adequado para produção de mudas nas duas épocas do ano.

  17. Chromosomal localization of 45S rDNA, sex-specific C values, and heterochromatin distribution in Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Biplab Kumar; Yamamoto, Masashi; Jha, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    Coccinia grandis is a widely distributed dioecious cucurbit in India, with heteromorphic sex chromosomes and X-Y sex determination mode. The present study aids in the cytogenetic characterization of four native populations of this plant employing distribution patterns of 45S rDNA on chromosomes and guanine-cytosine (GC)-rich heterochromatin in the genome coupled with flow cytometric determination of genome sizes. Existence of four nucleolar chromosomes could be confirmed by the presence of four telomeric 45S rDNA signals in both male and female plants. All four 45S rDNA sites are rich in heterochromatin evident from the co-localization of telomeric chromomycin A (CMA)(+ve) signals. The size of 45S rDNA signal was found to differ between the homologues of one nucleolar chromosome pair. The distribution of heterochromatin is found to differ among the male and female populations. The average GC-rich heterochromatin content of male and female populations is 23.27 and 29.86 %, respectively. Moreover, the male plants have a genome size of 0.92 pg/2C while the female plants have a size of 0.73 pg/2C, reflecting a huge genomic divergence between the genders. The great variation in genome size is owing to the presence of Y chromosome in the male populations, playing a multifaceted role in sexual divergence in C. grandis. PMID:25795278

  18. Construction of a full-length cDNA library of Solen grandis dunker and identification of defense- and immune-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohua; Liu, Xiangquan; Ren, Lihua; Yang, Jianmin; Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong

    2013-11-01

    The basic genetic characteristics, important functional genes, and entire transcriptome of Solen grandis Dunker were investigated by constructing a full-length cDNA library with the `switching mechanism at the 5'-end of the RNA transcript' (SMART) technique. Total RNA was isolated from the immune-relevant tissues, gills and hemocytes, using the Trizol reagent, and cDNA fragments were digested with Sfi I before being ligated to the pBluescript II SK* vector. The cDNA library had a titer of 1048 cfu μL-1 and a storage capacity of 1.05×106 cfu. Approximately 98% of the clones in the library were recombinants, and the fragment lengths of insert cDNA ranged from 0.8 kb to 3.0 kb. A total of 2038 expressed sequence tags were successfully sequenced and clustered into 965 unigenes. BLASTN analysis showed that 240 sequences were highly similar to the known genes (E-value 80%), accounting for 25% of the total unigenes. According to the Gene Ontology, these unigenes were related to several biological processes, including cell structure, signal transport, protein synthesis, transcription, energy metabolism, and immunity. Fifteen of the identified sequences were related to defense and immunity. The full-length cDNA sequence of HSC70 was obtained. The cDNA library of S. grandis provided a useful resource for future researches of functional genomics related to stress tolerance, immunity, and other physiological activities.

  19. Comparison of Coleoptera emergent from various decay classes of downed coarse woody debris in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Michael L.; Gimmel, Matthew L.; Harms, Kyle E.; Carlton, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Coleoptera species composition and succession in downed woody debris habitats are poorly known in eastern North America. A photoeclector emergence chamber was used to concentrate Coleoptera that emerged from various decay classes of fine and coarse woody debris (FWD and CWD, respectively) collected in primary and secondary forest sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, USA. A total of 5673 adult beetle specimens, representing 305 lowest identifiable taxa within 227 genera and...

  20. 大针茅根系构型对草地退化的响应%Responses of the root architecture of Stipa grandis to grassland degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳松; 王立群; 张鹏; 梁金华; 王旭峰

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate responses of root architecture of Stipa grandis grown under different grassland degradation levels (light, medium, high and extreme) in Xilin Gol League. The relative completed roots of S. grandis were collected by trenching and analyzed by using the root analysis system of WinRHIZO to determine total root length, root surface area, total root volume, root average diameter, number of root tips, number of furcation and average branching angle, number and length of first vertical root, number and length of first lateral root, number and length of secondary lateral root, number of adventitious root. The data obtained was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and principal component analysis. The results indicated that 1) the number of furcation, the surface area of root and the total length of root were the preferred indexes for analyzing S. grandis' variation to grassland degradation, while the number of furcation had the strongest explanation strength of the indexes to the variation. The cumulative contribution rate of the three root architecture indexes was 90.7%. 2) With the degradation development from light to extreme, the root architecture of S. grandis was obviously miniaturized. This phenomenon was especially obvious in medium degradation grassland. 3) The miniaturized root architecture of S. grandis eventually led to miniaturization of the entire plant, so the role of S. grandis as constructive species in the succession process of the community degradation was gradually weakened and finally replaced by other dominant species.%本研究对锡林郭勒典型草原区轻度、中度、重度和极度4个退化梯度草地中大针茅(Stipagrandis)根系构型进行研究。结果表明,1)根分叉数、根表面积和总根长3个参数是分析大针茅根系构型在不同退化程度草地中变化的主要指标,其中根分又数对该变化的解释力最强,3个参数的累积贡献率为90.7%;2

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  2. Upper lethal temperature limits of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of the egg, larval and adult stages of Anobium punctatum De Geer (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to heat (46-54°C, 25-30% RH) was investigated. The larval stage was found to be most tolerant to heat. Very short exposure (5 min) of the larvae to temperatures of 52°C and above led to 100...

  3. New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia M. Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries. Feeding by Exoplectra miniata (Germar on extrafloral nectaries of Inga edulis Mart. was observed in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first record of this behavior for Exoplectrini.

  4. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-23

    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  5. Study on the genus Daptus ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik Je Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A genus Daptus Fischer von Waldheim, 1823 of the tribe Harpalini Bonelli, 1810 (Coleoptera: Carabidae is reported for the first time from Korea, based on the Daptus vittatus Fischer von Waldheim from Incheon, Korea. Redescription of the species and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics, including genitalia characteristics of both sexes, are provided.

  6. Study on the genus Daptus ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ik Je Choi; Jongok Lim; Jinyoung Park; Ji Hwan Park; Jong Kyun Park

    2016-01-01

    A genus Daptus Fischer von Waldheim, 1823 of the tribe Harpalini Bonelli, 1810 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is reported for the first time from Korea, based on the Daptus vittatus Fischer von Waldheim from Incheon, Korea. Redescription of the species and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics, including genitalia characteristics of both sexes, are provided.

  7. Oxycheila binotata Gray (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae), information on a little known taxon from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kippenhan, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Two specimens of Oxycheila binotata Gray (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) in the Field Museum of Natural History offer additional information on the morphology and distribution of this rare species. One of the specimens, a female, is considered to be the first known specimen of this species.

  8. Diapause and post-diapause quiescence demonstrated in overwintering Harmonia axyeidis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe.

  9. Chaves para a identificação dos principais Coleoptera (Insecta associados com produtos armazenados Keys for the identification of Coleoptera (Insecta associated with stored products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to identify nine families of Coleoptera commonly found in stored products is presented. Keys for the identification of Anobiidae [Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792, Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus, 1761], Bruchidae [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833], Curculionidae [Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763, S. zeamais Motschulsky, 1885], Silvanidae [Ahasverus advena (Waltl, 1832, Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin, 1892, Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel, 1889, O. surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758] and Tenebrionidae [Gnathocerus cornutus (Fabricius, 1798, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797, T. confusum du Val, 1868] are also provided. These keys cover the most frequent Coleoptera found in stored products, specially grains, and are to the adult stage only. Illustrations of external morphology and general characteristics are provided for each species reported.

  10. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musaspp. EN COLOMBIA Dryophthorinae Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Associted to Platain and Banana crops (Musaspp. in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA A SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.This synopsis is about beetle&#’;s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

  11. Study on essence oils from citrus grandis peel and orange peel extracted by microwave method%微波辐射法提取柚皮、橙皮的挥发油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纯馨; 陈忻; 袁毅桦; 梁少华

    2003-01-01

    The essence oil of citrus grandis peel and orange peel was extracted by the microwave method in this article.The results show that the best condition of extracting is when 100 g peel is extracted at 360 W with n-hexane for 50 s,the obtained rate of pomelo oil is 1.73% and orange oil is 0.65%.

  12. The Analysis of MADS box Genes Expressing in the Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.%柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬虎; 潘一山; 王少峰; 邹金美; 陈羡德; 林莹; 王玉玲; 蓝炎阳

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerning the MADS box gene family from the fruitlet (less than 5 days) and the yang leaf of two kinds of pomelo breeding (Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.) using the De novo transcriptomics method. The fruitlet and the yang leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (which was taken as mutant group)and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (which was taken as reference group)were taken as experiment materials, by RNA extraction, reverse transcription, sequencing and assembly Unigene sequences. The MADS box transcription factor family gene annotation results were retrieved from the Nr, Swiss Prot, KEGG and COG the four databases. Adopting digital gene expression label (DGE) technology, the gene transcription abundance in the sample was taken as RPKM value, that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparing the different of the RPKM value between the mutant group and reference group, with the duplication≥2. There were 28 MADS box genes were annotated from the fruitlet and the yang leaf of the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo. There were 25 MADS box genes expressed in the fruitlet from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (FE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (FL), and sixs of them were DEGs. Meanwhile, There were 27 MADS box genes expressed in the leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (LE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (LL), and sevens of them were DEGs. The 28 MADS box gene family was reported eighteens of them in Citrus clementina and twenties of them in Citrus sinensis, respectively, and fives of them have reported neither in Citrus clementina nor in Citrus sinensis, and have not found in the Citrus's other breeding.%以De novo转录组学方法分析柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因家族的基因.以特早熟龙柚(变异型)和琯溪蜜柚(参照型)嫩果(不超过5天)和新叶为材料,经过RNA提取、反转录、测序、组装得到Unigene序列. Unigene序列在 Nr、Swiss-Prot、KEGG 和 COG 四

  13. Comparação do fator de empilhamento sob diferentes condições para madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / A comparison of wood piling factor under different conditions for Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson dos Santos Lisboa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente trabalho tem por objetivo comparar os fatores de empilhamento obtidos em três métodos distintos de empilhamento: 1 empilhamento em cima do caminhão; 2 empilhamento mecânico no pátio da fábrica e 3 empilhamento manual no pátio da fábrica. Os dados empregados são originários de um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis, visando à produção de celulose e pertencente ao GRUPO LWART, situado no município de Lençóis Paulista, SP, cortado aos sete anos de idade através do sistema semi-mecanizado. Foram analisados dados provenientes de vinte pilhas de madeira, formadas por toras de 2,80 m de comprimento e diâmetro mínimo de 6,0 cm. O fator de empilhamento de cada pilha (FE foi obtido pela relação entre o volume da pilha em metros estéreos (st e o correspondente volume sólido em metros cúbicos (m³. O volume sólido (m³ foi obtido pelo método de Smalian. Para calcular o volume estéreo (st para três diferentes métodos de empilhamento foi utilizada uma régua graduada para medir a altura, a largura e o comprimento da pilha. Os três métodos de empilhamento foram comparados estatisticamente a partir de uma análise de variância, considerando um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde os métodos foram considerados tratamentos e as pilhas repetições. Na ocorrência de diferenças significativas entre tratamentos, o teste Tukey foi utilizado para comparar suas médias, considerando um nível de 5% de significância. A análise estatística indicou diferenças significativas entre o método de empilhamento manual ou tratamento 3, dos demais métodos, ou seja, método do empilhamento em cima do caminhão e método de empilhamento mecânico. Conclui-se então, que é errôneo aplicar um fator de empilhamento médio, se houver diferentes formas de empilhar a madeira.AbstractThe research objective has been to compare the wood piling factors obtained from three distinct methods: 1 piling up on the truck; 2 mechanical

  14. Mudanças da fertilidade do solo e crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido Changes in soil fertility and growth of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Rocha

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Antes da recomendação em larga escala de biossólido em plantações florestais, é preciso compreender seus efeitos no solo e na planta. Assim, a fertilidade do solo, o estado nutricional e o crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido foram avaliados em um experimento na Estação Experimental de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (SP, ESALQ/USP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove tratamentos: (1 Testemunha; (2 Adubação mineral; (3 5 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (4 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (5 10 t ha-1 de bios.; (6 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K + P; (7 15 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (8 20 t ha-1 de bios. + K, e (9 40 t ha-1 de bios. + K. Foram analisadas quimicamente amostras de solo (camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm e de folhas. A produção de madeira foi avaliada por meio da colheita e pesagem de árvores. Até 32 meses após a aplicação do biossólido, 36 meses pós-plantio, constataram-se aumentos do pH, dos teores de C orgânico, de P-resina e de Ca trocável nas três camadas, diretamente associados às doses de biossólido aplicadas. Os teores de S-SO4(2- e K trocável diminuíram 13 meses após a aplicação do biossólido e, 19 meses depois, os teores estavam aumentados. O Al trocável diminuiu com o aumento das doses de biossólido, nas três camadas amostradas. A aplicação de biossólido influiu positivamente na nutrição das plantas, proporcionando uma produção de madeira igual à obtida no tratamento que só recebeu adubação mineral (1,5 t ha-1 de calcário dolomítico e, em kg ha-1, 98 de N, 79,5 de P2O5, 165 de K2O, 1,3 de B e 1,2 de Zn, quando a dose de biossólido foi equivalente a 12 t ha-1.Before recommending biosolids at large scale for forest plantations it is necessary to have an ample understanding of its effects on soil and plant. Thus, it was evaluated the soil fertility, nutritional status and growth of a Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized

  15. 柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬虎[1; 潘一山[1; 王少峰[2; 邹金美[1; 陈羡德[1; 林莹[1; 王玉玲[1; 蓝炎阳[2

    2015-01-01

    以De novo转录组学方法分析柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因家族的基因.以特早熟龙柚(变异型)和琯溪蜜柚(参照型)嫩果(不超过5天)和新叶为材料,经过RNA提取、反转录、测序、组装得到Unigene序列.Unigene序列在Nr、Swiss-Prot、KEGG和COG四大数据库中进行比对,获得MADS box转录因子家族基因注释结果.采用数字基因表达标签(digital gene expression tag,DGE)技术,对样本中基因转录丰度以RPKM值表示,比较处理组和对照组的RPKM值,以倍性变化≥2确定差异表达基因(differentially expressed genes,DEGs).从特早熟龙柚和琯溪蜜柚嫩果和叶片中,总共注释到28个MADS box基因家族基因.在龙柚嫩果(FE)和蜜柚嫩果(FL)中表达的有25个,其中有6个属于差异表达基因.在龙柚叶片(LE)和蜜柚叶片(LL)中表达的有27个,其中有7个属于差异表达基因.注释到的28个MADS box基因家族基因在克莱门特柚(Citrus clementina)和中国甜橙(Citrus sinensis)报道过的分别有18个和20个,其中有5个基因既在中国甜橙和克莱门特柚都没有报道过,也没有发现在其它Citrus物种报道过.

  16. Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpa Pedro Nicolau

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos.

  17. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  18. 大鹅观草与蛇河披碱草属间杂种的细胞遗传学研究%Cytogenetic study on intergeneric hybrids between Roegneria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨财容; 张海琴; 沙莉娜; 周永红

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the genomic constitution of Roegneria grandis (2n=4x=28)and to provide cytological evi-dence for the taxonomic treatment of R .grandis ,artificial distant hybridization between R .grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis (2n=4x=28)was carried out.Three F1 hybrid plants were obtained successfully.The general mor-phological appearance of the intergeneric F1 hybrid was intermediate between the Roegneria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis .For estimation of pollen fertility study,pollen grains of hybrids were examined after staining in I2-IK solution.Pollen grains of parental species were highly fertile.The percentage of stained pollen grains of Roegeriagrandis reached 94.6%,and 90.5% pollen grains of Elymus wawawaiensis were fertile.Pollen grains of the hybrid between Roegeria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis were sterile.Chromosome pairing at meiosis metaphase I(MI) of Roegeria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis and their F1 hydrid were analyzed.Meiosis of the parental tetraploid species was quite regular with 14 bivalents.Most of them were ring bivalents.A low frequency of univalent(0.04/cell)was observed in Roegeria grandis .Chromosome pairing at meiosis metaphase I(MI)was observed in 83 MI cells in the F1 hybrid.Meiotic pairing in the F1 hybrid averaged 6.46 bivalents per cell,varying from 5 to 8.7 biva-lents occurred in 35.2% of the MI cells,42.59% of the MI cells had 6 bivalents,and 8 bivalents were observed in several MI cells.All the metaphase I cells contained unpaired chromosomes,ranging from 10 to 18,with a mean of 14.66 univalents per cell.0.14 trivalents per cell were observed.The meiotic configurations of the F1 hybrid were 14.66 I+6.46 II+0.14 III.The chiasmata per cell were 9.83 with C value of 0.35.The results were as follows:(1) Roegeria grandis and Elymus wawawaiensis shared a homologous St genome.The other genome of Roegeria gran-dis was not St or H genome.The genome constitution of R .grandis was not StStg genome;(2)A low frequency of trivalents

  19. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  20. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%. PMID:25427809

  1. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  2. Mapping of QTLs related with wood quality and developmental characteristics in hybrids (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla) Mapeamento de QTLs para características de qualidade da madeira e crescimento em híbridos (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Barros Rocha; Everaldo Gonçalves de Barros; Cosme Damião Cruz; Antônio Marcos Rosado; Elza Fernandes de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed to characterize and identify QTLs for wood quality and growth traits in E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids. For this purpose a RAPD linkage map was developed for the hybrids (LOD=3 and r=0.40) containing 52 markers and 12 linkage groups. Traits related to wood quality and growth were evaluated in the QTL analyses. QTL analyses were performed using chi-square tests, single-marker, interval mapping and composite interval mapping analyses. All approaches led to the identifi...

  3. Padrões de miniestacas e sazonalidade na produção de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla S. T. Black Patterns of mini-cuttings and seasonality in seedlings production Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla Hybrid S. T. Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chaves Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes padrões de miniestacas no enraizamento e produção de mudas do híbrido do Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S.T. Black no verão e no inverno. Experimentos com cinco clones e 12 diferentes padrões de miniestacas foram conduzidos em duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno. A sobrevivência e enraizamento das miniestacas foram avaliados na saída da casa de vegetação e na saída da casa de sombra e, a pleno sol, a sobrevivência, a altura, o diâmetro do colo, o peso de massa seca da parte aérea e o da raiz. Os resultados indicaram que a manutenção das folhas é importante para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, e as folhas basais obtiveram maiores valores de enraizamento. Mudas produzidas no verão, utilizando miniestacas de 10 cm de tamanho, tiveram maior crescimento. A metodologia de não redução das folhas mostrou-se procedimento adequado para produção de mudas nas duas épocas do ano.The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of different patterns of mini-cuttigs on rooting and production of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S. T. Black hybrid in summer and winter. Experiments with five clones and 12 different patterns of mini-cuttings were conducted in two seasons (summer and winter. The survival and rooting were evaluated ate the output greenhouse and output of the shade and in full sun, survival, height, diameter, the dry weight of shoot and root. The results indicated that the maintenance of leaves is important for rooting mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S. T. Black hybrids, and the basal leaves had higher values of rooting. Seedlings produced in summer, using cuttings of 10 cm in size, had higher growth's methodology leaves no reduction procedure proved suitable for seedling production in both seasons.

  4. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium Biomassa e atividade microbiana da serapilheira durante o desenvolvimento inicial de plantios puros e mistos de Eucalyptus grandis e Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  5. Tree-ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) in central India and its relationship with rainfall and moisture index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somaru Ram; H P Borgaonkar; A B Sikder

    2008-10-01

    Tree-ring-width index chronologies of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.)from three sites in central India have been studied for their dendroclimatic potential.The existence of good correlation among the three site chronologies indicates the influence of common forcing factor to the tree growth of the region.Tree growth and climate relationship based on correlation analysis revealed the important contribution of moisture index and rainfall rather than the direct in fluence of the temperature on tree growth during different seasons.Significant positive relationship of moisture index and rainfall during the monsoon months as well as on the annual scale with tree-ring width variations over the region indicates the important role of moisture availability at the root zone.The results suggest that the teak tree-ring chronologies can be used as high resolution proxy for past precipitation and moisture level in the environment.

  6. Tree-ring variation in teak (Tectona grandis L.) from Allapalli, Maharashtra in relation to moisture and Palmer Drought Severity Index, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somaru Ram; H P Borgaonkar; A A Munot; A B Sikder

    2011-08-01

    We developed a ring-width chronology of teak (Tectona grandis L.) from a moisture stressed area in Maharashtra, India. Bootstrapped correlation analysis indicated that moisture index (MI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) showed better performance rather than same year rainfall over the region. Tree-ring variations were most correlated positively with PDSI during different seasons compared with MI. Significant strong positive correlation with MI, and negative association with temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET) were found during previous and current year post-monsoon (ON). This study shows that the moisture availability during the post-monsoon of the previous year has a significant role in the development of annual growth rings. The reconstructed previous year post-monsoon (−ON) moisture index for the period 1866–1996 indicates 3.5 and 29.3 years periodicities.

  7. Report on the Temporary Rearing Technique of Solen grandis Dunker%大竹蛏亲体暂养技术简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯和要; 彭作波; 林玉川; 王君霞

    2004-01-01

    通过对大竹蛏(Solen grandis Dunker)亲蛏(体长9~12 cm,体重45.76±6.78 g)从采捕运输到人工暂养培育的一系列试验工作,结果表明:亲蛏的挑选以体长9~13 cm、活泼健康、肥满度好的3龄个体为最佳.经7天试验,采用细沙作为底质进行亲蛏暂养的效果良好,成活率达98.5%,个体排卵量约300万粒;不铺任何底质暂养的亲蛏,成活率仅16.4%,不能正常排放精卵.

  8. Collection and Storage of Tectona grandis Pollen%柚木花粉收集与贮藏研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂华; 梁坤南; 林明平; 周再知; 马华明

    2012-01-01

    Anthesis pheology, pollen collection, viability determination and storage of Tectona grandis L. f. were introduced and studied,the results showed that pollen can be collected by water culture method and bagged method, the time for pollen collection of Indian provenances and Burma provenances were 9 to 11 o-clock and 11 to 13 o-clock,respectively. The pollen viability rose first and then decreased after anthesis,it have highest viability after anthesis 1. 5 h and no longer viable after 4. 5 h. The pollen viability decreased fast after collected and put in room temperature for wind to dry, it no longer viable after collected 2 h. The viability of pollen stored in 5 ℃ and - 15 ℃ rose first and then decreased, both of the pollen lost viability at 330 day. Both pollen germination rate and pollen tube length of pollen stored in 5 X decreased fast than that of - 15 ℃, pollen storage effect of - 15 ℃ was better than 5 ℃. Pollen stored in - 15 ℃. for 240 day can be used for controlled pollination among different teak provenances or different species of Tectona.%介绍了柚木开花生物学特性,开展了柚木花粉收集、活力测定、贮藏方法及其效果的研究.结果表明:柚木花粉收集可采用水培法和套袋法;不同种源收集花粉时间不同,印度种源和缅甸种源分别为09:~11:00时和11:00~13:00时;花开放后,花粉活力是先升后降,1.5h后花粉活力最强,4.5h后花粉即失去萌发力;随着贮藏时间的延长,5℃和-15℃干燥贮藏花粉的活力逐渐下降,贮藏到330 d,5℃和- 15℃的花粉都失去萌发力;在整个过程中,5℃的花粉萌发率和花粉管长度都比-15℃下降速度快;-15℃柚木花粉的贮藏效果优于5℃;-15℃干燥贮藏240d的柚木花粉,可满足当年柚木花期不同的种源间或柚木属不同种间人工杂交授粉.

  9. Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Soares Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae. Coleopterans of the family Melolonthidae comprise a large group of species that feed on different food sources, including plant roots, stems, and leaves, in addition to plant materials at different decomposition stages. Several species are found in the genus Leucothyreus, occurring in different regions of Brazil, including the various biomes in the country. Information on the biology of species of the genus Leucothyreus is scarce, therefore, we conducted studies on the biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard, 1850. The period of adult occurrence was determined with a light trap installed between a cropped and pasture area in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Adults collected in the field were used to form insect pairs and the studies were initiated in the entomology laboratory as the adults began ovipositing. Adults were observed flying in the field from October to December. Eggs were obtained as pairs were formed and a colony was established, the embryonic period lasting 14.6 days on average. The larval period in the 1st instar lasted 21.6 days, in the 2nd instar 19.6 days, and in the 3rd instar, 85.6 days. The head capsule width was 1.48 mm in the 1st instar, 2.44 mm in the 2nd, and 3.83 mm in 3rd larval instar. The pupal stage had an average duration of 35.5 days. The egg to adult period lasted 173.3 days. Morphometric information for the larval and adult stages is presented in this study.

  10. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  11. A family of chemoreceptors in Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohatmed Abdel-Latief

    Full Text Available Chemoperception in invertebrates is mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. To date nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of chemoperception in coleopteran species. Recently the genome of Tribolium castaneum was sequenced for use as a model species for the Coleoptera. Using blast searches analyses of the T. castaneum genome with previously predicted amino acid sequences of insect chemoreceptor genes, a putative chemoreceptor family consisting of 62 gustatory receptors (Grs and 26 olfactory receptors (Ors was identified. The receptors have seven transmembrane domains (7TMs and all belong to the GPCR receptor family. The expression of the T. castaneum chemoreceptor genes was investigated using quantification real- time RT-PCR and in situ whole mount RT-PCR analysis in the antennae, mouth parts, and prolegs of the adults and larvae. All of the predicted TcasGrs were expressed in the labium, maxillae, and prolegs of the adults but TcasGr13, 19, 28, 47, 62, 98, and 61 were not expressed in the prolegs. The TcasOrs were localized only in the antennae and not in any of the beetles gustatory organs with one exception; the TcasOr16 (like DmelOr83b, which was localized in the antennae, labium, and prolegs of the beetles. A group of six TcasGrs that presents a lineage with the sugar receptors subfamily in Drosophila melanogaster were localized in the lacinia of the Tribolium larvae. TcasGr1, 3, and 39, presented an ortholog to CO(2 receptors in D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae was recorded. Low expression of almost all of the predicted chemoreceptor genes was observed in the head tissues that contain the brains and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG. These findings demonstrate the identification of a chemoreceptor family in Tribolium, which is evolutionarily related to other insect species.

  12. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Siddhartha S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  13. 大针茅和贝加尔针茅营养生长和生殖生长特性分析%Analysis of reproductive and nutritive growth characteristics of Stipa grandis and Stipa baicalensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白丹; 张卓; 周婵; 杨允菲

    2011-01-01

    Quantity characteristics of reproductive and nutritive growth of Stipa grandis and S. baicalensis were studied in the dominant stipa population of Hulunber prairie with random sampling method. The results showed that the variation coefficient of vegetative and reproductive characteristics ranged from 6.9 % to 77.6% for S. grandis and S. baicalensis respectively. The indices of sexual reproduction characteristics of S. baicalensis such as number of spikelet per spike, number of floret per spike, spike weight, the grain number per panicle, seed weight per spike, reproductive allocation II , and nutritive growth characteristics such as plant weight, stream weight,scabbard weight,total leaf weight were greater than those of S. grandis. And these indices were 1. 056 to 4. 327 times more than those of S. grandis. Variance analysis indicated that nutritive and reproductive characteristics were significantly different between S. grandis and S. baicalensis. S. baicalensis inputted more resources to sexual reproduction and vegetative growth than S. grandis. And S. baicalensis has stronger capability of vegetative growth and sexual reproduction to ensure the growth and propagation.%在呼伦贝尔草原观测试验站对针茅优势种群采用随机取样法进行了大针茅和贝加尔针茅生殖分蘖株的营养生长和生殖生长的数量特征研究。结果表明,大针茅和贝加尔针茅营养和生殖生长特性指标的变异系数变化为6.90%~77.60%;贝加尔针茅有性生殖特征,以及营养生长特征,分别是它的1.056-4.327倍;方差分析表明,贝加尔针茅与大针茅的营养和生殖生长特性之间差异显著或极显著。贝加尔针茅投入到有性生殖和营养生长的资源大于大针茅,具有更强的营养生长和有性生殖的能力,保证植株的正常生长和繁殖。

  14. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae Application of an alternative technique for physical soil management in cultivation of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of growth of Eucalyptus grandis non-regularization when subjected to the ground. Relying on "Optical Chaos Theory" and starting from the assumption that the reforested

  15. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, Ainsley E; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D

    2009-04-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as 'living jewels', in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles.

  16. Novos táxons sul-americanos de Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilma Solange Napp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons sul-americanos de Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Um novo gênero e quatro novas espécies, todos provenientes da Bolívia, são descritos em Compsocerini: Ecoporanga gen. nov., espécie-tipo E. achira sp. nov., Dilocerus brunneus sp. nov., Rierguscha florida sp. nov., procedentes de Santa Cruz e Ethemon iuba sp. nov. proveniente de Cochabamba.New South American taxa of Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The following new genus and species, all from Bolivia, are described in Compsocerini: Ecoporanga gen. nov., type species E. achira sp. nov., Dilocerus brunneus sp. nov., Rierguscha florida sp. nov., from Santa Cruz, and Ethemon iuba sp. nov. from Cochabamba.

  17. Laboratory decomposition of Dalbergia nigra all. ex. benth and Eucalyptus grandis w.hill ex. maiden leaves in forest and eucalypt plantation soils Decomposição em laboratório de folhas de Dalbergia nigra e de Eucalyptus grandis em terra de mata e de eucaliptal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. P. Rezende

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the decomposition of D. nigra and E. grandis leaves under laboratory conditions when incubated in soils from Atlantic Forest and from a 40-year-old eucalypt plantation for a year. The obtained values of pH in forest and eucalypt plantation soils were 5.61 and 4.47 and for aluminum 0.32 and 1.89mEqx100, respectively. A great number of microorganisms (total fungi, phosphate solubilising and cellulolytic organisms were found in forest soil. Litterbag study revealed a higher mass loss of the leaves in forest soil in the first four months (c. 30%. In the eucalypt plantation soils loss was observed only after eight months (c. 40%. The initial contents of N and P were greater in D. nigra than in E. grandis leaves, although lignin and cellulose contents were similar. The C/N ratio was higher in E. grandis indicating that its degradation could be slower. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in the decay rates (k among the treatments. Phosphorus, lignina and cellulose were lost at the end of the experiment in all treatments. The results show the differences between decomposition of both species and the influence of forest and eucalypt plantation soils in the decomposition process.O objetivo foi acompanhar a decomposição de folhas de D. nigra e de E. grandis em laboratório, enterradas por 12 meses, em solo de Mata Atlântica e de eucaliptal com 40 anos de plantio. Os valores de pH obtidos para os solos de mata e de eucaliptal foram 5,61 e 4,47 e de alumínio 0,32 e 1,89mEqx100, respectivamente. Um grande número de microrganismos (fungos totais, solubilizadores de fosfato e de celulolíticos foram encontrados no solo de mata. Uma perda de massa significativa foi observada após 4 meses de decomposição nas folhas de ambas espécies no solo de mata (30%, enquanto em solo de eucaliptal esta perda foi observada somente após 8 meses (40%. O conteúdo inicial de N e P em folhas de D. nigra é maior do que nas de

  18. Una especie nueva de Trechisibus de la Argentina (Coleoptera: Carabidae A new species of Trechisibus from Argentina (Coleoptera: Carabidae

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    Sergio Roig-Juñent

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Las Trechini constituyen una tribu de Carabidae distribuida ampliamente en la región Andino Patagónica. A pesar de que existen varias revisiones parciales de esta tribu para la Argentina y Chile, es muy común hallar especies nuevas, debido sobre todo a la prospección de áreas no exploradas. En este aporte se describe una especie nueva del género Trechisibus Jeannel del Cerro Nevado (Mendoza, Argentina. Por sus características morfológicas pertenece al grupo de especies depressus. Se describe e ilustra el adulto de esta especie nueva, se provee una clave para la identificación de las especies del grupo depressus y se discuten algunos aspectos de la distribución de estas especies.ABSTRACT. Trechini is a tribe of Carabidae (Coleoptera widely distributed in the Andean Patagonian region in South America. In spite of several partial revisions of the tribe for Argentina and Chile, it is very common to find new species due to the research of unexplored areas. In the present paper, a new species of the genus Trechisibus Jeannel from the Cerro Nevado (Mendoza, Argentina is described. Based on its morphological features the new species is considered as a member of the depressus group. The adult of the new species is described and illustrated, a key for the identification of the species of the depressus group is provided, and some aspects of the distribution of the group are discussed.

  19. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Renata C. Campos; Malva I. Medina Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the ...

  20. The Leaf-Beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) Feed On Some Weeds In Tokat Province

    OpenAIRE

    Çam, Halit; ATAY, Turgut

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the leaf-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) which causes extensive damage on weeds in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey. Total 9 taxa including 4 species of Chrysomelinae, 1 species of Clytrinae, 1 species of Criocerinae, 2 species of Alticinae and 1 species of Cassidinae were found to be destructive on different weed species. These species were; Entomoscelis adonidis (Pall.) on Sinapis arvensis L., Gastrophysa polygoni (L.) on Polygonum convolvulus L. an...

  1. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  2. Ecological impact of entomopathogenic nematodes used to control the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most economically damaging pests in forestry across Northern Europe. Its larvae develop in coniferous tree stumps on clearfell sites and adult weevils feed on seedlings that are replanted on these sites, causing substantial mortality. As the drive towards achieving the sustainable management of natural resources increases, biological control agents are being considered as an alternative to chemical ...

  3. Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as pests in horticulture: genetics and management options with entomopathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) cause damage with detrimental economic effects to many horticultural crops due to the root feeding of their larvae as well as foliage feeding of their adults. Aside from the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus, which is the best-known pest within this genus, numerous other Otiorhynchus species have been increasingly recognized as pests in recent years. Nocturnal adult weevils and soil-inhibiting larvae are in princip...

  4. Laboratory Rearing of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae): A Predator of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Salom, S. M.; L. T. Kok; Lamb, A B; Jubb, C

    2012-01-01

    Coleopteran species are biological control agents of numerous invasive pests. Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a predaceous, univoltine species, spends the summer aestivating but is active for the rest of the year. Laricobius nigrinus possesses many essential attributes for effective biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The predator must be reared in large numbers for field releases. We describe some of the studies that led to the successful ...

  5. Life History of the Tamarind Weevil, Sitophilus linearis (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Tamarind Seed

    OpenAIRE

    James Adebayo Ojo; Adebayo Amos Omoloye

    2015-01-01

    The tamarind weevil, Sitophilus linearis Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important pest of tamarind and other Caesalpinioideae. Investigating its life history is important in the implementation of management strategy. Its life history was monitored daily to understand its developmental biology on tamarind seed following standard procedures under laboratory conditions of 24–30°C temperature, 60–70% relative humidity, and 12L : 12D photoperiod. The egg incubation period lasted 3.17 ± ...

  6. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology. PMID:26249885

  7. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. This research aims to find out the white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera variability based on the morphological characteristic and protein banding pattern found in ”salak pondoh” farm in Regencies of Sleman, Yogyakarta and Magelang, Central Java. Each area has five sampling points. Morphological analysis on white grub was conducted using descriptive method and analysis on protein banding pattern was conducted using qualitative analysis based on the presence or absent of band pattern on the gel, and qualitatively based on the relative mobility value (Rf of protein. The result indicated that the white grub in Sleman and Magelang, based on morphology characteristic is only one species, namely Holothricia sp. Based on the protein banding pattern, the white grub sample have differences of protein band number and protein molecular weight. Key words: Salacca zalacca, white grub, morphology, protein banding pattern.Abstrak. Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada pertanaman salak berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman lundi putih (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein yang ditemukan di lahan pertanaman salak pondoh di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Pada masing-masing wilayah diambil lima titik sampling. Analisis morfologi lundi putih digunakan metode deskriptif, dan analisis pola pita protein digunakan analisis kualitatif berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita pada gel, dan secara kuantitatif berdasarkan nilai mobilitas relatif protein (RF. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sampel lundi putih di Kabupaten Sleman dan Magelang, berdasar karakter

  8. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Lúcia M. de Almeida; Ivani de Oliveira Negrão Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvo...

  9. Novas espécies de Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae da Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas da Bolívia, Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.New species of Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae from Bolivia. New species described from Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.

  10. Insecticidal Efficacy of Some Lamiaceae Plant Extracts Against Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Kiradoo; Meera Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to screen some plants belonging to family Lamiaceae against Callosobruchus chinensis Linn.. Among fourteen important insect pests of stored grains, the pulse beetle C. chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is one such pest causing considerable damage to stored pulses. The eggs are laid on the host grains; the larvae bore inside and after feeding and pupating emerge out as adults leaving behind damaged hollow seed-grains. Looking into the hazards of chemical insect...

  11. NEW CONTRIBUTION CONCERNING THE MASS REARING OF TANYMECUS DILATICOLLIS GYLL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    MANOLE Traian; Irina IONESCU-MĂLĂNCUŞ; Iuliana ANTONIE; Laurenţiu Constantin REBEGA

    2013-01-01

    Controlled growth in the laboratory of some species of insect’s are justified both scientifically and practically. Due to the economic importance that the corn crop pest Tanymecus dilaticollis Gyll. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) had in Romania like the main pest of maize crops we tried to obtain successive generations under environment controlled of the insect mentioned. In this paper we aim to improve the efficiency of the multiplication of the species with respect to two aspects: attending la...

  12. DIVERSITY OF CARABIDS (COLEOPTERA) ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOWER LURIN RIVER, LIMA, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    ARMANDO VÉLEZ-AZAÑERO; Alfonso Lizárraga-Travaglini

    2013-01-01

    Quarterly samples of beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were taken associated with the lower basin of the Lurín River (Lima-Peru) during the period August 2009 - February 2011, in six sampling points between 5 and 51 masl. Pitfall traps were used and obtained a total of 59 specimens distributed among three tribes, three genera, and four morphospecies. We report the presence of Megacephala, Scarites genus, and Pterostichus with the latter being the predominant genus.

  13. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Tillman; Cottrell, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), Cycloneda munda (Say), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and ...

  14. Biological activities of Allium sativum essential oil against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaubey Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Allium sativum was isolated and investigated for its repellent, insecticidal, ovipositional and egg hatching inhibition activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). A. sativum essential oil repelled bruchid adults at a very low concentration in choice oviposition assay. A. sativum essential oil caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults in a concentration dependent manner. Oviposition potency of C. chinensis adults...

  15. Níveis de sombreamento na produção e desenvolvimento de mudas Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden Shading levels on production and development of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden seedlings Los niveles de sombra en la producción de plántulas y el desarrollo de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Fereira Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de los niveles de sombra en las plántulas de Eucalyptus grandis. Las plántulas fueron sometidas a los siguientes tratamientos: 0%, 18%, 30%, 50% y 70% de atenuación de la radiación solar a través de telas de color negro. El experimento se llevó a cabo en los meses de otoño de 2009 en la en lo vivero municipal de la ciudad de Catanduvas- PR durante un período de 90 días. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. La repicage de las plántulas de la semilleira para los tubetes ocurrió treinta días después de la siembra. A los 90 días se evaluó: altura de la parte aérea de las plantas, el número de hojas por planta, el diámetro del cuello, longitud de la raíz, peso fresco y seco de la hoja y cuello de la raíz. Para todas las variables dendrométricas evaluadas el efecto de los tratamientos fue significativo. Para la altura de la parte aérea, los tratamientos de 30 y 50% de sombra fueron superiores a los demás. Ya para el diámetro del cuello y el número de hojas, el tratamiento con pleno sol presento los valores más altos (0,20 y 15,2 g de hojas, respectivamente. Para la variable masa fresca y seca de hojas, cuello y de la raíz el tratamiento con 30% de sombra fue estadísticamente superior a los demás. La atenuación del 30% de la radiación solar ha proporcionado características dendométricas superiores de las plántulas a las variables analizadas para E. grandis.

    The goal of the work was to assess the influence of shading levels on seedling production of Eucalyptus grandis. The seedlings have been subjected to treatments: 0%; 18%; 30%; 50% and 70% attenuation of solar radiation through screens of polyolefins black coloring. The experiment was performed in autumn 2009 in the city hotbed of Catanduvas – PR, during a period of 90 days. The experiment

  16. CONDUTÂNCIA ESTOMÁTICA DE EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA E E. GRANDIS, EM RESPOSTA A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ÁGUA NO SOLO E DE CONVIVÊNCIA COM BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA WILSON DA; SEDIYAMA TOCIO; SILVA ANTÔNIO ALBERTO DA; FERREIRA FRANCISCO AFFONSO

    1998-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da interferência de Brachiaria brizantha sobre a condutância estomática (gs) de mudas de Eucalyptus citriodora e E. grandis, cultivadas em solos com diferentes níveis de água, em condições de casa de vegetação, entre dezembro de 1995 e fevereiro de 1996. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (2 x 3 x 4): duas espécies de eucalipto (E. citriodora e E. grandis), três níveis de água (20, 23 e 26%) e quatro populações d...

  17. 尾巨桉液流特征分析%Analysis on sap flow characteristics of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翠鸣; 黄玉清; 顾大形; 赵平; 张德楠; 姚月锋

    2016-01-01

    Large number of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis plantations have been planted in the southern area of Chi-na, especially in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in the recent years. The influence of water use efficiency in sus-tainable forest development and water resources management has been receiving increasing attention. Therefore, under- standing the water use characteristics is important. The Granier thermal dissipation probe method ( TDP ) is commonly used to monitor tree trunk flow. The sap flow density ( SFD) was monitored in four years E. urophylla × E. grandis plan-tation for one and a half years by Granier TDP at Guangxi Huangmian forest. The change in regularity of SFD, the SFD in trees of different diameters at breast height and the relationship between the SFD and the environmental factors were studied. The results showed that average daily SFD was 830. 1 L . m-2 . d-1 , and the maximum value did not exceed 2 000 L.m-2 .d-1 , when compared with similar studies, these results were relatively low. Because tree trunk was the main part of the plant for water transport, it was necessary to analyze the tree trunk sap flow density( SFD) change at about different diameters at breast height of E. urophylla × E. grandis. There was a positive correlation between SFD and diameter. The SFD was similar when the DBH (diameter at breast height) were in the same diameter class. The SFD varied from tree to tree with different values of maximum and minimum SFD ( 1 300 L . m-2 . d-1 at most ) . This was mainly caused by the different water absorbing capacities of trees. Many studies showed that photosynthetic active radia-tion and vapor pressure deficit( VPD) were the main factors of tree canopy transpiration. The SFD and VPD, photosyn-thetic active radiation ( PAR) displayed similar trend over the study period and exhibited a unimodal curve. The value of SFD was higher in summer and fall, and lower in spring and winter. The relation between SFD and PAR showed signifi

  18. 香榧坚果生物活性成分与抗氧化研究进展%Recent Advances in Research on Bioactive Compounds and Anfioxidant Activity of Torreya grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴飞; 郜海燕; 陈杭君; 房祥军; 葛林梅

    2012-01-01

    香榧为浙江著名的坚果,其富含多种生物活性成分,诸如油脂、二萜类、多酚类等都具有一定的药用及生物活性。本文综述了香榧的生物活性成分,并探讨其与氧化劣变之间的关系,可为更好的贮存坚果提供借鉴,也为进一步发展利用香榧资源提供参考。%Torreya grandis is a conifer of the Cephalotaxaceae family. It is found only in China, mostly in Zhejiang Province. The seed of Torreya grandis, known as 'Xiangfei', is edible and has been recognized as a valuable tree nut for their high content of various medical and biological active compounds, such as essential fatty acids, polyphenols and diterpenoids. Here we review bioactive compounds in the seeds and discuss their association with oxidative deteriorations during storage with the purpose to provide some reference for better storage and utilization of Torreya grandis seeds.

  19. Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

  20. Somatic embryogenesis of Torreya grandis 'Merrillii'%香榧体细胞胚发生的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚进; 黄坚钦; 胡恒康; 裘林艳; 朱旻华; 张启香

    2013-01-01

    以香榧Torreya grandis‘Merrillii’胚为外植体,研究了基本培养基、复合添加物、碳源以及植物生长调节物质对愈合组织形成的影响,筛选出胚性愈合组织诱导和增殖的适宜条件,并初步进行了体细胞胚的诱导与萌发试验.结果表明:Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH)是最佳基本培养基,碳源以蔗糖最好,在SH中添加谷氨酰胺,愈合组织诱导率显著高于其他处理,达50.8%;低浓度的萘乙酸(NAA)或2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-D)能够促进愈合组织的诱导,NAA的促进作用比2,4-D明显,当NAA的质量浓度为0.1 mg·L-1时,愈合诱导率显著高于其他处理,达60.1%;SH+0.1 mg.L-1 NAA+30 g·L-1蔗糖是愈合组织形成的最佳条件,SH+0.05 mg.L-1 NAA+30 g·L-1蔗糖为胚性愈合组织形成和增殖的最适宜培养基;胚性愈合组织在添加有脱落酸(ABA)和聚乙二醇(PEG) 6000的SH培养基上,可形成体胚,以1/2SH作为萌发培养基,体胚在1 200 lx光照下的萌发效果比黑暗条件下好.%To establish somatic embryogenesis protocols for Torreya grandis 'Merrillii', immature embryos were used as explants. The effects of different basal mediums (SH, MS, B5), organic additives (glutamine (Glu), casein hydrolysate (CH), myo-inositol), carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, maltose), and plant growth regulators (PGRs) (N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) , Kinetin (KT) , 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) orBA, KT, a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for the initiation of primary callus were tested. Optimal PGRs for induction and proliferation of embryogenic tissue were determined, and a study on somatic embryo induction (SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0.25 mg·L-1 2,4-D, SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 2,4-D and SH supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1 NAA respectively) and germination (SH supplemented with ABA or PEG) was carried out. Results showed that callus initiation frequency for SH supplemented with Glu was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than

  1. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-07-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  2. Utilização de águas residuárias provenientes do tratamento biológico de esgotos domésticos na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex. maiden Use of biologically treated wastewater in Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex. maiden seedling production by continuum sub irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Camargo Celentano Augusto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a viabilidade do uso de águas residuárias provenientes de um sistema biológico de tratamento de esgotos domésticos como alternativa à fertirrigação convencional de viveiros florestais, visando à produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis via subirrigação contínua. As variáveis avaliadas foram: altura, diâmetro do coleto, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz, área foliar, razão raiz/parte aérea e concentração nutricional foliar. O desenvolvimento das plantas, em geral, foi superior no tratamento convencional com adubos minerais. A razão raiz/parte aérea foi favorecida no tratamento com água residuária. Os resultados indicaram que a água residuária pode ser utilizada na fertirrigação de viveiros para a produção do Eucalyptus grandis, pois todas as plantas cresceram, sem deficiência ou toxidez aparente. Entretanto, constatou-se que essas mudas necessitavam de um maior tempo no viveiro, em comparação com as produzidas com fertilizantes minerais.This work studied the effect of treated domestic wastewater derived from a biological treatment system as an alternative to nursery conventional fertirrigation for Eucalyptus grandis seedling production. The evaluated variables were: height, basal diameter, shoot and roots dry weight, plant total leaf area, shoot/root ratio and leaf nutritional status of the seedlings. Greater development of seedlings was found when mineral fertilizers were used, but root/shoot ratio was greater when wastewater was used. The results showed that wastewater can be used as an alternative for conventional mineral fertirrigation, considering that all plants grew, without showing any nutritional deficiency or toxicity symptoms. Seedlings fertirrigated with wastewater, however, spend more time in the nursery, when compared to those produced with mineral fertilizers.

  3. Grandi e piccoli eventi nelle città di mare per mutamenti urbani sostenibili: i casi studio di Lorient e Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Clemente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In generale, i grandi eventi sono considerati dalle città come la possibilità di realizzare nuove architetture e infrastrutture, per migliorare gli spazi pubblici e dare risonanza internazionale alla città stessa. In molte città contemporanee, la ristrutturazione economica e la riqualificazione urbana posto gli eventi al centro delle strategie di cambiamento.Spesso, tuttavia, questi interventi richiedono un tempo molto breve e investimenti elevati, che non sempre hanno un effetto duraturo nel tempo, con edifici e spazi che, dopo l'evento, si trasformano in spazi pubblici inutilizzati o edifici che devono essere riqualificati.Le città costiere rappresentano un campo privilegiato di analisi per approfondire le dinamiche dei processi di sviluppo e di rigenerazione connessi ad eventi.Alcune città hanno potenziato la propria identità marittima sviluppando attività legate alla vela, eventi sportivi velici e la nautica da diporto, promuovendo la crescita sociale ed economica, nonché la riqualificazione delle aree dismesse. Il recupero di questa identità è il punto di partenza per migliorare la qualità urbana e attrarre grandi eventi, sviluppando la competitività in un circolo virtuoso.L'immagine di queste città è migliorata, a livello locale, nazionale e internazionale, promuovendo processi di riqualificazione che hanno coinvolto i responsabili politici, gli utenti della città e gli stakeolders.Nei casi di successo, i grandi e i piccoli eventi rappresentano tessere di un mosaico più ampio, una visione della città fondata sulla identità marittima e il progetto di riqualificazione del waterfront è stato in grado di rafforzare le relazioni con le aree urbane esistenti.Il saggio propone due casi di studio europei, le città di Lorient e Valencia, mettendo in evidenza il ruolo della pianificazione a lungo termine nei processi di rigenerazione.La città di Lorient, in linea con la sua storia, ha iniziato un processo di rigenerazione

  4. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M

    2016-02-01

    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer.

  5. Especies mexicanas de Curculionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera asociadas con agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae Mexican species of Curculionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera associated to agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae

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    Alberto Romo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las especies de picudos o gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociadas con agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae en México. Se registraron 5 especies asociadas con especies de Agave, Furcraea, Hesperoyucca, Polianthes y Yucca; de éstas, 4 pertenecen a la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Scyphophorus acupunctatus, S. yuccae, Rhinostomus frontalis y Cactophagus spinolae y 1 a la Baridinae (Peltophorus polymitus. Se presentan diagnosis, ilustraciones y una clave para la identificación de las 5 especies de curculiónidos asociados con agaves. Se establecen las siguientes sinonimias: Sphenophorus validus LeConte, 1858 = Cactophagus spinolae (Gyllenhal, 1838; y Zygops polymitus seminiveus LeConte, 1884, Z. p. leopardinus Desbrochers, 1891 y Z. p. suffusus Casey, 1892 = Peltophorus polymitus Boheman, 1845.Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated with agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae from Mexico are analyzed. Five species were recorded associated with species of Agave, Furcraea, Hesperoyucca, Polianthes, and Yucca. Four of these species belong to the subfamily Dryophthorinae (Scyphophorus acupunctatus, S. yuccae, Rhinostomus frontalis, and Cactophagus spinolae and 1 belongs to the subfamily Baridinae (Peltophorus polymitus. Diagnoses, illustrations and a key are presented for identifying the 5 species of weevils found on agaves. The following synonymies are established: Sphenophorus validus LeConte, 1858 = Cactophagus spinolae (Gyllenhal, 1838; and Zygops polymitus seminiveus LeConte, 1884, Z. p. leopardinus Desbrochers, 1891, and Z. p. suffusus Casey, 1892 = Peltophorus polymitus Boheman, 1845.

  6. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  7. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  8. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of the Extracts and Chemical Constituents of an Endemic Turkish Plant, Salsola grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgün Küçükboyacı

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salsola is one of the largest and most important genera in the family Chenopodiaceae. Salsola species are used for their anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anthelmintic and antipruritic effects and also as diuretic in traditional medicines worldwide. The aim of the present study is to assess the activity potential of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds from the aerial parts of and Salsola grandis, an endemic species in Turkey in a scientific platform. The effects of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds were investigated using in vivo experimental models of inflammation and pain in mice, and also total phenolic content of the plant was determined. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced paw edema and for the assessment of antinociceptive activity, p-benzoquinone-induced nociception tests in mice were employed. The crude ethanol extract of the plant was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts, namely n-hexane, CHCl 3, EtOAc, n-BuOH and remaining water subextracts. Further studies were carried out on the bioactive n -BuOH subextract. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures from active fraction , ten flavonoids, i sorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside(1, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2,quercetin-3-O-metylether (3,tiliroside (4, isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide (5, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6,quercetin-3-O-galactoside (7, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (8,quercetin (9 and manghaslin (10, and two oleanane-type saponins, momordin II b (11 andmomordin II c (12, and one amino acid derivative compound, N-acetyltryptophan (13 were isolated, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of 1 , 4, 6, 7 and 12 were investigated firstly in this study, and 4 and 7 were found to have the most potent inhibitory activity in used models. The present study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive

  9. Funções de afilamento não segmentadas e segmentadas para Tectona grandis na região centro-sul matogrossense Non-segmented and segmented taper models to Tectona grandis in center-southern region of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Fernando Caldeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a acurácia dos modelos polinomiais não segmentados do quinto grau e de Hradetzky de 1976 e os segmentados de Max e Burkhart de1976 e Clark et al. de 1991, na estimativa dos diâmetros ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f., com ajustes para o conjunto total dos dados e por classe de diâmetro, em um povoamento com 16 anos, na região centro- sul matogrossense. A base de dados foi composta por 114 árvores, cubadas pela metodologia de Hohenadl modificada e distribuídas em classes de diâmetro. O ajuste dos modelos foi avaliado em função do coeficiente de determinação corrigido, erro padrão da estimativa e pela distribuição dos resíduos em porcentagem. A acuracidade dos modelos ao longo do fuste foi avaliada pelo desvio, desvio padrão das diferenças, somatório de quadrado dos resíduos relativos e a porcentagem dos resíduos. A Equação de Hradetzky foi a que apresentou o melhor ajuste para estimar os diâmetros ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis tanto para o conjunto total dos dados quanto para as classes de diâmetro com os menores valores nas estatísticas auxiliares, exceto na Classe 3, onde a equação selecionada foi a de Clark et al. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the non-segmented polynomial models of Fifth degree and Hradetzky from 1976 and the segmented models of Max and Burkhart from 1976 and Clark et al. from 1991, in estimating diameters along the stem of Tectona grandis L.f., with adjustments for the full set of data and by diameter class in a 16 years old stand in the center–southern region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The database consisted of 114 trees, scaled by the modified Hohenadl method and distributed in diameter classes. The models adjustments were evaluated according to the adjusted coefficient of determination, standard eError of estimate and distribution of residuals. The accuracy of the models along the stem was evaluated by deviation

  10. Influência da idade e da posição ao longo do tronco na composição química da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden Influence of age and position along the trunk on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou a variação da composição química na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos, proveniente de talhões comerciais. As amostras foram coletadas de tr��s discos, retirados da base e das extremidades das duas primeiras toras, de 3 m cada uma, de 16 árvores (quatro para cada idade, totalizando 48 discos. Os valores médios dos teores de holocelulose, lignina e extrativos foram de 69, 27 e 4%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os teores de extrativos e lignina aumentaram com a idade, com maiores concentrações nos discos próximos da base; verificou-se, também, que o teor de holocelulose diminuiu com a idade, com maiores concentrações nos discos retirados nas regiões superiores do tronco.The objective of this work was to study the chemical composition variation of the Eucalyptus grandis wood, of four different ages (10,14,20 and 25 years, from commercial stands. The samples were removed from three disks taken from the base and top of the first two 3 m logs, from sixteen trees (four per age, totalizing fourty-eight discs. The mean values of holocellulose, lignin and extractive contents were 69, 27 and 4%, respectively. The extractive and lignin contents increased with age, with greater concentrations near the base; the holocellulose content also decreased with age with greater concentrations in discs removed from the upper parts of the trunk.

  11. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...

  12. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  13. Albucacrispa and A. grandis (Hyacinthaceae: Omithogaloideae, two new species of subgenus Albuca, the rediscovery of A. albucoides (sub­ genus Osmyne, and the identity of A. reflexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Albuca crispa is a new species of section Falconera series Trianthera with crispulate leaves from the Great Karoo, known  at least since 1947 but overlooked until now. A second new species. A grandis. from the southwestern Cape was previously included in  A. fragrans Jacq. (section  Falconera series  Falconera. It is a robust species that flowers in winter and early spring and the styles are rugulose with ± isodiametric epidermal cells, unlike typical  A. fragrans which is a more slender species flowering in early summer and with derived, smooth styles with fusiform epidermal cells. The recent discovery of a flowering population matching the type of A. albucoides (Aiton J.C.Manning & Goldblatt (subgenus Osmyne allows for a full description and illustration of this poorly know n and taxonomically neglected species that has often been included in A. suaveolens (Jacq. J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. Lastly, examination of the type  of A. reflexa Krause & Dinter from Namibia shows it to be conspecific w ith Drimia indica (Roxb. Jessop.

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla NA QUALIDADE DA POLPA BRANQUEADA

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    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  15. Espécies de Pisolitus sp. na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden em solo arenoso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Andreazza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a ação de isolados de fungos ectomicorrízicos nativos de São Francisco de Assis, na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, em solo arenoso, na presença de dois níveis de fósforo. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação num bifatorial (4 x 2 x 3, três tratamentos de fungos ectomicorrízicos ( FSE- S, F1-RS e Pt Silv.1 e uma testemunha, dois níveis de fósforo (natural ou existente no solo (8 mg.kg-1 e adição de 30 mg.kg-1 de fósforo, em três repetições. Avaliaram-se a massa verde da parte aérea e radicial, massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, diâmetro do colo, comprimento e área superficial específica radicial, colonização micorrízica e teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. A adição de fungos ectomicorrízicos nativos na produção de mudas apresentou resultados melhores do que os demais tratamentos aplicados, em solo arenoso.

  16. Age trends and correlations of growth and wood properties in clone of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis in Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shi-jun; XU Jian-min; LI Guang-you; Du Zhi-hu; LU Zhao-hua; LI Bao-qi

    2012-01-01

    We assessed growth traits and wood properties of DH32-29,a clone of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis,at age of two to six years in Guangdong in China.Analysis of variance of studied traits showed that there were significant differences (1% level) on all studied traits among ages except for wood basic density.Analysis of age trends of growth traits and wood properties revealed that rotation length of DH32-29 should be more than six years or longer.Phenotypic correlations among traits at individual ages indicated that correlations between growth traits were strongly positive.There was significant change in relationship between growth and wood basic density with increasing age,ranging from -0.03 to -0.54 at 2 and 5 year and 0.003 to 0.3 at 3,4 and 6 year.Correlations between Pilodyn pin penetration and basic density measured on increment cores showed that Pilodyn could rank or group genotypes or sites into density classes,but failure to predict individual tree and individual clone.

  17. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation. PMID:24519224

  18. Efeito da vaporização de toras na redução dos defeitos associados a tensões de crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate log steaming effect on the reduction of defects associated with residual growth stress of Eucalyptus grandis wood. There were used logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm, from the Horto Florestal, Manduri, São Paulo. Half of the logs was steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity. Subsequently, the logs were live sawn and the defects resulting from the growth stresses in logs of various diameter were measured. The results indicate that log steaming provided the release of a great part of the growth stresses, without eliminating them completely, showing, nevertheless, that this treatment is feasible and advisable for growth stress relief; the boards coming from heated logs of 20 to <25 cm presented, in general, larger defect reduction, showing that the smaller the log diameter the higher the efficiency of steam treatment at 90ºC of temperature during 20 hours.

  19. Morphological parameters and genetic diversity of progenies from seed production areas and unimproved stands of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Lyngdoh; Geeta Joshi; G. Ravikanth; R. Vasudeva; R. Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    We compared morphological and genetic attributes of prog-eny obtained from three seed production areas (SPAs) and three corre-sponding unimproved stands (UIS) of teak (Tectona grandis L.f) at three broad teak growing regions in the state of Karnataka, India. In general, seed morphological parameters such as seed weight, seed size and seed emptiness were significantly superior in SPAs compared to UISs. Seed germination percentage was also higher in seeds from SPAs. Seedling performance measured at two monthly intervals for six months was ob-served to be superior in SPAs at two of the three regions compared. Although the genetic diversity of progeny of SPAs was lower than UIS at all regions, the values were moderately high. Germination percent was positively correlated with fruit weight and kernel weight per seed, while diversity indices were negatively correlated with fruit weight, fruit di-ameter and kernel weight per seed. SPAs proved important as a source of moderately improved planting material with no severe threat to the ge-netic diversity of future plantations.

  20. The tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) subfamily of Eucalyptus grandis: Characterization of EgTIP2, a root-specific and osmotic stress-responsive gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcela I; Bravo, Juliana P; Sassaki, Flávio T; Severino, Fábio E; Maia, Ivan G

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins have important roles in various physiological processes in plants, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, a gene encoding a root-specific tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) from Eucalyptus grandis (named EgTIP2) was investigated. The root-specific expression of EgTIP2 was validated over a panel of five eucalyptus organ/tissues. In eucalyptus roots, EgTIP2 expression was significantly induced by osmotic stress imposed by PEG treatment. Histochemical analysis of transgenic tobacco lines (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) harboring an EgTIP2 promoter:GUS reporter cassette revealed major GUS staining in the vasculature and in root tips. Consistent with its osmotic-stress inducible expression in eucalyptus, EgTIP2 promoter activity was up-regulated by mannitol treatment, but was down-regulated by abscisic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that EgTIP2 might be involved in eucalyptus response to drought. Additional searches in the eucalyptus genome revealed the presence of four additional putative TIP coding genes, which could be individually assigned to the classical TIP1-5 groups.

  1. Qualidade e rendimento do carvão vegetal de um clone híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Reis de Assis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the quality and yields of the charcoal of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clone commercially named GG100 for use in iron industry at different ages, plantation sites and spacing. The wood was carbonized in a laboratorial electric furnace (muffle furnace at a heating rate of 1.67 ºC min-1 until the final temperature of 450 ºC, remaining stabilized for 30 min. The gravimetric yield in charcoal, pyroligneous extract, non condensable gases and insoluble tar, proximate and elemental chemical composition, relative apparent density and higher heating value of the charcoal were determined. In general, the charcoal evaluated may be considered homogeneous based on chemical and physical aspects and can be used in the steel sector. The apparent relative density allowed the charcoal samples differentiation produced by the same pyrolysis condition. The results obtained suggest that the density of the charcoal is highly influenced by the wood origin. It was observed that higher values of higher heating values are positively related with carbon content and negatively related with oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and with gravimetric yield in charcoal.

  2. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  3. Effect of thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of wood from Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Moura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment (thermal rectification is a process in which technological properties of wood are modified using thermal energy, the result of which is often value-added wood. Thermally treated wood takes on similar color shades to tropical woods and offers considerable resistance to destructive microorganisms and climate action, in addition to having high dimensional stability and low hygroscopicity. Wood samples of Eucalyptus grandis were subjected to various thermal treatments, as performed in presence (140ºC; 160ºC; 180ºC or in absence of oxygen (160ºC; 180ºC; 200ºC inside a thermal treatment chamber, and then studied as to their chemical characteristics. Increasing the maximum treatment temperatures led to a reduction in the holocellulose content of samples as a result of the degradation and volatilization of hemicelluloses, also leading to an increase in the relative lignin content. Except for glucose, all monosaccharide levels were found to decrease in samples after the thermal treatment at a maximum temperature of 200ºC. The thermal treatment above 160ºC led to increased levels of total extractives in the wood samples, probably ascribed to the emergence of low molecular weight substances as a result of thermal degradation. Overall, it was not possible to clearly determine the effect of presence or absence of oxygen in the air during thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of the relevant wood samples.

  4. Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynen, Martina; Fick, Jerker; Jonsson, Micael; Klaminder, Jonatan; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems. PMID:26762222

  5. Stomatal Conductance and Chlorophyll Characteristics and Their Relationship with Yield of Some Cocoa Clones Under Tectona grandis, Leucaena sp., and Cassia surattensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An optimum physiological condition will support high yield and quality of cocoa production. The research was aimed to study the effects of stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content related to cocoa production under three shade regimes.This research was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station, elevation of 45 m above sea level with D climate type based on Schmidt & Fergusson. Cocoa trees which were planted in 1994 at a spacing of 3 X 3 m were used in the study planted by using split plot design. The shade tree species were teak (Tectona grandis, krete (Cassiasurattensis, and lamtoro (Leucaena sp. as the main plots, and cocoa clones of Sulawesi 01,Sulawesi 02, KKM 22 and KW 165 as sub plots. This study showed that there was interaction between cocoa clone and shade species for stomatal conductance where stomatal diffusive resistance of KKM 22 was the best under Leucaena sp.and Cassiasurattensis with the values of 1.38 and 1.34 s.cm -1, respectively. The highest chlorophyll content, stomatal index and transpiration values was under Leucaena sp. shade. There was positive correlation between chlorophyll content and transpiration with pod yield of cocoa. The highest yield and the lowest bean count wereobtainedon Sulawesi 01 clone under Leucaenasp. shade.Keywords: stomatal conductance, transpiration, diffusive resistance, shades trees, clones,pod yield

  6. Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...

  7. Nuevos datos de distribución de los Cholevinae hipogeos del Atlas marroquí (Coleoptera, Leiodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresneda, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available New distribution data for the hypogean Cholevinae from the Moroccan Atlas (Coleoptera, Leiodidae The authors report new findings on the distribution of Speonemadus maroccanus (Jeannel, 1936, Nargus (Demochrus rufipennis (Lucas, 1846, Choleva (Choleva kocheri Henrot, 1962 and Catops fuscus fuscoides Reitter, 1909. The geonemy of these species is updated and the research is illustrated with maps of their distribution.

  8. Release and distribution of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of air potato (Dioscorea bulbilfera: Dioscoreaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...

  9. A NOVEL CADHERIN-LIKE GENE FROM WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM, DIABROTICA VIRGIFERA VIRGIFERA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE), LARVAL MIDGUT TISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...

  10. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite markers in the root-gall-forming weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...

  11. Sorghum halepense (L.) Persoon (Poaceae), a new larval host for the South American corn rootworm Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabrotica speciosa is a South American corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) the adult of which is a pest on many crop and ornamental plants. The list of known larval hosts, however, is limited to maize, wheat, potatoes and peanuts. In March, 2005, larvae of D. speciosa were found ...

  12. Seasonal flight activity and distribution of metallic woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) collected in North Carolina and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...

  13. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees of urban Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...

  14. Records of unsuccessful attack by Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on broadleaf trees of questionable suitability in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...

  15. First record of the agave snout weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatusGyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae), in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Setliff, Gregory P.; Anderson, Jesse A.

    2011-01-01

    The agave snout weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae), is reported from Puerto Rico for the first time. It was collected on feral sisal, Agave sisalana Perrine (Agavaceae), in the Guánica Dry Forest Reserve in the southwestern part of the island.

  16. Redescrição e transferência do gênero Fregolia Gounelle, 1911 para Callidiopini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ricardo M. Mermudes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Redescription and transference of the genus Fregolia Gounelle, 1911 to Callidiopini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The genus Fregolia is transferred from Cleomenini Lacordaire, 1869 to Callidiopini Lacordaire, 1869. The genus and its type species, Fregolia listropteroides Gounelle, 1911, the only known species to the genus, are redescribed including characters of the mouth pieces, endosternites, wing venation, and male and female terminalia.

  17. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  18. Het lieveheersbeestje Harmonia axyridis in Nederland: een aanwinst voor onze fauna of een ongewenste indringer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, J.; Heijerman, Th.; Wielink, van P.; Loomans, A.

    2004-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands: a gain for the fauna or an unwanted intruder (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)? The coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773), a well-known aphid predator originating from Asia, was found for the first time in the Netherlands (Heilige Landstichting near Nijmegen) i

  19. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  20. Resfriamento artificial para o controle de Coleoptera em arroz armazenado em silo metálico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Noemberg Lazzari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Resfriamento artificial para o controle de Coleoptera em arroz armazenado em silo metálico. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do resfriamento artificial de grãos de arroz para o controle de coleópteros-praga. O ar frio foi insuflado pelo sistema de aeração em um silo metálico com arroz-em-casca. A avaliação do tratamento foi feita quinzenalmente usando armadilhas caladores. As espécies de Coleoptera capturadas foram: Oryzaephilus surinamensis (60%; Cryptolestes ferrugineus (9%; Rhyzopertha dominica (16,5% e Sitophilus spp. (0,5%. Aos 28 dias, a temperatura média da massa de grãos era de 15ºC, e o número médio de insetos havia diminuído 76,8%. A aplicação de ar frio manteve as populações sob controle por aproximadamente 60 dias. Os resultados do monitoramento dos insetos e da temperatura indicaram que um novo ciclo de ar frio deveria ser aplicado nesse período para manter as populações sob controle. Também o manejo adequado da massa de grãos faz-se necessário para garantir resultados satisfatórios do resfriamento artificial.Artificial chilling to control Coleoptera in paddy rice stored in metallic silo. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of artificial chilling for the control of coleopterans in stored paddy rice. The cold air was insufflated through the aeration system of a metallic silo with paddy rice. Evaluation of insect number was made every 15 days using probe traps. The species of Coleoptera captured were: Oryzaephilus surinamensis (60%; Cryptolestes ferrugineus (9%; Rhyzopertha dominica (16.5% and Sitophilus spp. (0.5%. By the 28th day the average temperature of the grain mass was 15ºC, and the mean number of insects decreased 76.8%. The cold air application kept the insect populations under control for approximately 60 days. The results of temperature and insect monitoring indicated that a new cycle of cold air should be applied by that time to keep the populations under

  1. Inconspicuous structural coloration in the elytra of beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.

  2. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  3. Australian marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 2. Pachycyphon, a new genus of presumably terrestrial Australian Scirtidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The genus Pachycyphon is erected for marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. The following species are included: P. corpulentus sp. n., P. crassus sp. n., P. elegans sp. n., P. funicularis sp. n., P. gravis sp. n., P. monteithi sp. n., P. obesus sp. n., P. pinguis sp. n., P. serratus sp. n., P. turgidus sp. n. (the type species). Females are wingless and have fossorial ovipositors, a terrestrial larval life is therefore hypothesized. Pachycyphon is compared with other genera, especially probable relatives from temperate rainforests in southeastern Australia.

  4. Invertebrate fauna (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diplopoda, Isopoda collected in the karst areas of the Aninei - Locvei Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Giurginca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors identified 132 species of invertebrates (14 Oniscidea, 25 Diplopoda,31 Collembola and 62 Coleoptera recently sampled (2001–2006 from the soil and subterranean (MSS and caves environments from the Banat Mountains. Some new,rare and endemic species are discussed. The seasonal changes of the species diversity in the superficial subterranean environments at 0.5 to 1 m in depth are for the first time presented for the Reşiţa – Moldova Nouă synclinorium. The characteristic and preferential species for the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS, belonging to the analyzed taxa, are identified.

  5. Bioluminescence emissions of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Gohain Barua; S Hazarika; N M Saikia; G D Baruah

    2009-09-01

    We recorded the in vivo emission and time-resolved spectra of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae). The emission spectrum shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for this particular species is 55 nm, which is significantly narrower than the in vivo half-widths reported till now. The time-resolved spectrum reveals that a flash of about 100 ms duration is, in fact, composed of a number of microsecond pulses. This suggests that the speed of the enzyme-catalysed chemiluminescence reaction in the firefly for the emission of light is much faster than was previously believed.

  6. Development of an attractant-baited trap for Oxythyrea funesta Poda (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuts, József; Imrei, Zoltán; Töth, Miklós

    2008-01-01

    In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.

  7. A review of the natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned. PMID:24869870

  8. Espécies de Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini ocorrentes na Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini occurring in Bolivia. The genus Gorybia (Cerambycinae, Piezocerini consists of 45 described species with seven species recorded from Bolivia. Nine new species are described herein from Bolivia: G. abnormalis sp. nov.; G. alveolata sp. nov.; G. asyka sp. nov.; G. florida sp. nov.; G. inarmata sp. nov.; G. longithorax sp. nov.; G. guenda sp. nov.; G. tuberosa sp. nov. and G. wappesi sp. nov. A key to the species now known to occur in Bolivia is included.

  9. Bioluminescence emissions of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Gohain Barua; S Hazarika; N M Saikia; G D Baruah

    2009-06-01

    We recorded the in vivo emission and time-resolved spectra of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae). The emission spectrum shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for this particular species is 55 nm, which is significantly narrower than the in vivo half-widths reported till now. The time-resolved spectrum reveals that a flash of about 100 ms duration is, in fact, composed of a number of microsecond pulses. This suggests that the speed of the enzyme-catalysed chemiluminescence reaction in the firefly for the emission of light is much faster than was previously believed.

  10. PITYOPHAGUS QUERCUS REITTER, 1877, A NEW SAPROXYLIC SAP BEETLE FOR THE ITALIAN FAUNA (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae

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    Paolo Audisio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During ecological investigations on saproxylic beetle communities of central Italy (Latium, at Bosco Polverino (a mixed evergreen/deciduous forest fragment dominated by cork oaks, and at Allumiere (a small fragment of beech forest surrounded by turkey oak stands, the authors found three specimens of Pityophagus quercus Reitter, 1877 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae. These are the first known records of this species in Italy, and the first one in association with an evergreen oak, Quercus suber. This discovery led us to review both bionomical and faunistic data so far available on this exceedingly rare and poorly known species.

  11. Redescription of Platynaspis flavoguttata (Gorham (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae and notes on nomenclature of Platynaspis kapuri Chakraborty & Biswas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Poorani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Platynaspis flavoguttata (Gorham (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae is redescribed and the male genitalia are illustrated for the first time. It is also recorded from Sri Lanka for the first time. Platynaspis bimaculata (Hoang, 1983 is a new junior synonym of Platynaspis bimaculata Pang & Mao, 1979 (new synonym. Platynaspis kapuri Chakraborty & Biswas, 2000, the replacement name for Platynaspis bimaculata Pang & Mao, 1979 established by Ukrainsky (2007, is also the new replacement name for Platynaspis bimaculata (Hoang, 1983, as both are junior homonyms of Platynaspis bimaculata Weise, 1888 besides being synonyms. Platynaspis hoangi Ukrainsky (2007 is an unnecessary replacement name for P. bimaculata (Hoang.

  12. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPECIES OF BEETLES (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA FROM WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera between in wheat crops from Tişiţa, in Vrancea county. The observations were made in a crop of wheat in 2013, who were placed the soil traps type Barber, during the two months, May and June. It was used three variants: • Variant 1 - consumption wheat untreated • Variant 2 - consumption wheat treaty • Variant 3 - treated wheat seed The gathering of samples from the traps was done periodically, every 12-15 days. The most species frequent gathered was: Pentodon idiota, Epicometis hirta, Opatrum sabulosum, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nemorum, Tanymecus dilaticollis.

  13. El picudo del algodonero en la Argentina: Principales resultados e implicancias de los estudios moleculares The cotton boll weevil in Argentina: Main results and implications of the molecular studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía A. Lanteri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Después de diez años del primer registro del picudo del algodonero, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, en la Argentina, el insecto ha llegado a la zona algodonera del Chaco. Los estudios moleculares realizados sobre poblaciones de la Argentina, Brasil y Paraguay, y posibles poblaciones fuente de EE.UU y México, han aportado información relevante para el control de la plaga. Se aplicaron las técnicas de RAPD (Polimorfismos del ADN Amplificados al Azar y de secuenciación de los genes mitocondriales de la Citocromo Oxidasa I y II, las cuales permitieron identificar dos linajes principales de picudos: a linajes con escasa o nula variabilidad medida en términos de heterocigosis y diversidad haplotípica, considerados colonizadores recientes, y asociados con ambientes xerófilos y cultivos de algodón (provincia de Formosa; b linajes con una elevada variabilidad y diversidad haplotípica, considerados ancestrales, y asociados con áreas de vegetación nativa de la selva misionera (Parque Nacional Iguazú. Se supone que ambos linajes tendrían diferentes orígenes, adaptaciones y preferencias de huéspedes, y que en este momento se estarían hidridando en zonas de ecotono. Se postula que el picudo se hallaría presente en América del Sur como consecuencia de una dispersión natural asociada principalmente con sus huéspedes silvestres de los géneros Gossypium y Cienfuegosia, probablemente desde el Pleistoceno. Por otra parte no se descarta la posibilidad de una o más introducciones desde EE.UU. hacia Brasil, mediante el comercio del algodón. Se destaca la importancia del cultivo extensivo del algodón, y de la deforestación y formación de corredores entre fragmentos de selva, para explicar la dispersión rápida de la plaga durante los últimos 20 años, en áreas algodoneras y/o no algodoneras pero afectadas por serios disturbios ambientales, como por ejemplo la provincia de Misiones.Ten years after the first record of

  14. Efficacies of spinosad and a combination of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin against phosphine-resistant Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, N S; Opit, George P; Talley, J; Jones, C L

    2013-10-01

    Highly phosphine-resistant populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have recently been found in Oklahoma grain storage facilities. These findings necessitate development of a phosphine resistance management strategy to ensure continued effective use of phosphine. Therefore, we investigated the efficacies of two grain insecticides, namely, spinosad applied at label rate of 1 ppm and a mixture of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin applied at label rates of 3 and 0.5 ppm, respectively, against highly phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum. Adult mortality and progeny production suppression of spinosad- or chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture-treated wheat that had been stored for 2, 84, 168, 252, and 336 d posttreatment were assessed. We found that both spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin were effective against phosphine-resistant R. dominica and caused 83-100% mortality and also caused total progeny production suppression for all storage periods. Spinosad was not effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum; the highest mortality observed was only 3% for all the storage periods. Chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum only in treated wheat stored for 2 and 84 d, where it caused 93-99% mortality. However, chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective and achieved total suppression of progeny production in T. castaneum for all the storage periods. Spinosad was not as effective as chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture at suppressing progeny production of phosphine-resistant T. castaneum. These two insecticides can be used in a phosphine resistance management strategy for R. dominica and T. castaneum in the United States.

  15. Three Boll Weevil Diapause Myths in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonmus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), originated in Mesoamerica but its contemporary distribution extends from the United States Cotton Belt to Argentina, throughout which it is a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. While research on the boll weev...

  16. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Brasília e no Laboratório de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Brasília, DF. Foram estudadas duas espécies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confecção de peças mobiliárias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades físicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecânicas (flexão estática e dureza extremamente positivas para a indústria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e máquinas, além de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar ótima aceitação do móvel fabricado com a espécie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades físicas e mecânicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta características desejadas para indústria moveleira. A sua coloração cinza oliva é uma opção para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espécie deverão ser tomados durante operações com máquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricação de piso.

  17. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.

  18. Analyses on population pattern and endangered causes of endangered species Manglietia grandis Hu et Cheng%濒危植物大果木莲种群格局及濒危原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少瑜; 付玉嫔; 吴涛; 司马永康; 郝佳波; 韩燕

    2012-01-01

    采用径级结构代替年龄结构以及方差均值比率法对木兰科(Magnoliaceae)木莲属(Manglietia Bl.)濒危植物大果木莲(Manglietia grandis Hu et Cheng)种群的年龄结构和种群格局进行了研究,并编制了大果木莲种群的特定时间生命表和存活曲线;结合生殖生物学特征以及遗传多样性研究结果,分析了导致大果木莲濒危的主要原因.根据株高和胸径可分别将大果木莲种群的年龄结构分为5级、高度结构分为6级;在大果木莲的5个年龄结构分级中,成年个体较多,幼年个体较少;其高度结构完整,个体高度主要在20 m以下.种群的方差均值比率为0.838 3,其空间分布格局属于随机分布.根据特定时间生命表可将大果木莲种群的发育分为3个阶段:幼树阶段(年龄级为Ⅱ~Ⅲ级)、成树阶段(年龄级为Ⅲ~Ⅳ级)、老树阶段(年龄级为Ⅳ~Ⅴ级),其中成树阶段个体死亡率最低.大果木莲种群存活曲线接近Deevey Ⅰ型,属于衰退型种群.种群自我更新能力差、种子生产力低下、有性生殖困难、生境片断化导致的基因流受限以及人为干扰是大果木莲濒危的主要原因.针对大果木莲濒危现状和致危原因,提出了相应的保护对策和建议.%Using the way of diameter structure instead of age structure and variance/mean ratio method, the age structure and population pattern of the endangered species Manglietia grandis Hu et Cheng belonging to Manglietia Bl. in Magnoliaceae were studied, and the time-specific life table and survival curve of the species was created. And combining with research results of propagation and genetic diversity, the main endangered causes were analyzed. According to tree height and diameter of breath height, age structure of M. grandis population is divided into five classes and its height structure into six classes. There are more adults and less young trees in five age classes. The height structure of M

  19. Utilização da madeira comercial do hibrido de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na confecção de vigas laminadas coladas

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Ingrid Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de produzir e avaliar o comportamento de vigas laminadas coladas horizontalmente, confeccionadas a partir de tábuas obtidas de madeira comercial de dois clones híbridos de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake x Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, provenientes de plantios do Estado de São Paulo. Essas tábuas foram classificadas de forma mecânica em ensaio de flexão estática não-destrutivo. Algumas propriedades de resistência mecânica e rigidez das tábuas fora...

  20. Influence of a step-change in metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn) on metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning in a freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis: A long-term transplantation experiment between lakes with contrasting ambient metal levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bonneris, Emmanuelle [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Bayer S.A.S., Bayer CropScience, 16 Rue Jean-Marie Leclair, CP 90106, F 69266 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Michaud, Annick [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Direction des Évaluations environnementales, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 675, boul. René-Lévesque Est, 6e étage, Québec, QC G1R 5V7 (Canada); Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette [Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We transferred freshwater bivalves from a reference lake to a Cd and Zn contaminated lake. ? Changes in metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning were followed over time (up to 860 d). ? Metal detoxification strategies differed between target organs (gills vs. digestive gland). ? The ability to handle Cd is inherent in P. grandis, not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation. -- Abstract: The objective of the present field experiment was to identify detoxification responses in the gills and digestive gland of a freshwater unionid bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, subjected to a step-change in metal exposure. Adult bivalves were transferred from a reference site (Lake Opasatica) and a metal-contaminated lake (Lake Héva) to a second contaminated lake (Lake Vaudray) in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Changes in organ metal concentrations, in the subcellular distribution of metals and in metallothionein concentrations were followed over time (t = 0, 132, (400) and 860 days). At each collection time and for each bivalve, the gills and digestive gland were excised and gently homogenized; six sub-cellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation and analyzed for their Cd, Cu and Zn content, and metallothionein was quantified independently. Metal detoxification strategies were shown to differ between target organs: in the gills, incoming metals were sequestered largely in the granules, whereas in the digestive gland the same metals primarily accumulated in the cytosol, in the metallothionein-like protein fraction. These metal-handling strategies, as employed by the metal-naïve bivalves originating in the reference lake, closely resemble those identified in free-living P. grandis chronically exposed in the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that the ability to handle incoming metals (Cd in particular) is inherent in P. grandis and is not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation of the bivalve to metal-contaminated environments. The

  1. Gestión de la fertilidad de suelos y la nutrición de plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) en América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Moya, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    La teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) ha sido tradicionalmente considerada como una madera preciosa en los países del SE Asiático, de donde es originaria, pero durante las últimas décadas ha alcanzado especial relevancia en el sector internacional de las maderas tropicales duras de buena calidad. La especie ha sido ampliamente establecida en América Central, donde tiene una gran importancia socioeconómica, tanto por el impacto de las grandes empresas multinacionales que gestionan grandes plantacione...

  2. CONDUTÂNCIA ESTOMÁTICA DE EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA E E. GRANDIS, EM RESPOSTA A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ÁGUA NO SOLO E DE CONVIVÊNCIA COM BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA WILSON DA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da interferência de Brachiaria brizantha sobre a condutância estomática (gs de mudas de Eucalyptus citriodora e E. grandis, cultivadas em solos com diferentes níveis de água, em condições de casa de vegetação, entre dezembro de 1995 e fevereiro de 1996. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (2 x 3 x 4: duas espécies de eucalipto (E. citriodora e E. grandis, três níveis de água (20, 23 e 26% e quatro populações de B. brizantha (zero, uma, duas e três plantas por vaso. O nível de água nos vasos foi mantido praticamente constante, até a última avaliação do experimento, aos 70 dias após o transplante das mudas, por microtensiômetro e pesagens diárias, com reposições de água evapotranspirada. A mensuração da condutância estomática foi realizada com um analisador de gás infravermelho (IRGA. A presença de B. brizantha cultivada em um mesmo vaso com E. citriodora e/ou E. grandis promoveu redução da condutância estomática dos eucaliptos, independentemente do nível de água no solo. As folhas do terço superior das mudas de E. citriodora e/ou E. grandis cultivadas em um mesmo vaso com e sem B. brizantha, apresentaram maior condutância estomática que aquelas dos terços mediano e inferior, independentemente dos níveis de água no solo e das populações de B. brizantha. Os maiores valores da condutância estomática foram apresentados pelas folhas do terço superior da planta dos eucaliptos quando o nível de água no solo foi de 26% (próximo à capacidade de campo.

  3. 大竹蛏胚胎发生及稚贝发育基本特征%Basic Characteristics of Embryogenesis and Juvenile Development of Solen grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杨平; 陈爱华; 姚国兴; 张志伟; 张曹进; 张雨

    2012-01-01

    Under the artificial breeding conditions, the embryogenesis and juvenile development of Solen grandis were observed by light microscopy. The results indicated that the embryonic and larval development of S. Grandis included the following stages: zygote, embryo cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochosphere, d-larvae, and finally juvenile. After 20 - 24 hours of fertilization, D-larvae appeared at the average daily water temperature of 22. A°C . It took 5-7 days to develop to juvenile, and the juvenile became the adult shellfish after 38 days when the shell length-width ratio was 2. 60. The accumulated temperature from zygote to attachment was 3 088. 79-5 005. 19℃·h. After juvenile developed outlet pipe, its intake pipe appeared, and at last the two pipes transformed into one pipe with diplopore. The regression equation of shell length and shell height was y = 150. 37 e0.002 7χ,χ: shell height ( μm) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 =0.985 5, P <0.01. The regression equation of shell length and day old was y = 143. 38e0.0916χ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 = 0. 979 5 , P < 0. 01. The regression equation of shell height and day old was y = 33. 979 x - 15. 450 ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell height (μm) , R2 =0.987 3, P<0. 01.%在人工培育条件下,对大竹蛏(Solengrandis)胚胎发生及稚贝发育进行显微观察,探究大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育规律.结果表明,大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育过程为:受精卵、卵裂、囊胚期、原肠期、担轮幼虫、D形幼虫、稚贝.在日平均水温为22.4℃时,受精后20~24h发育成D形幼虫,5~7d变态为稚贝,38d稚贝已具备成贝形态,壳长壳高比为2.60.从受精卵到附着所需积温为3088.79~5005.19℃·h.稚贝先形成出水管,后形成进水管,最终形成“一管双孔”.壳长与壳高关系式为y=150.37e0.0027x,x为壳高(μm),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9855,P<0.01;壳长与日龄关系式为y=143.38e0.0916x,x为日龄(d),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9795,P<0

  4. GROWTH AND ARCHITECTURE OF ROOT SYSTEMS OF PLANTS OF Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. GRANDIS AND E. PELLITA WERE EVALUATED AFTER THE PLANTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Leles

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings were produced according to two methodologies: pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. A mixture of decomposed sugar-cane bagasse (60% and industrial sugar-cane plant residues (40% were used as substrate. The blocks were made by pressing the humid substrate in metallic moulds with the dimensions of 60 x 40 x 20 cm (lenght, width and height and pressure of 10 kgf/cm2 for 15 minutes. Under this load the blocks height was reduced to 10 cm. They were placed in wooden boxes with screen bottom. The stiff plastic tubes had circular section 12 cm high, with volume capacity of 50 cm3. The seeds were sown in the blocks 5 cm apart, by means of a spatula. At the end of nursey phase, the seedlings were planted the field. After 2, 6 and 10 months of planting, the height and the diameter at the ground level were evaluated. At the age of 10 months it was also evaluated the number of laterals root and deformatiom cofficient the three plants for treatment. Two months after planting, the plants originated from the pressed blocks showed growth highly signifficant in relation to those of the stiff plastic tubes. At 10 months, of age only Eucalyptus grandis seedlings showed significant difference concerning to height and diameter at the ground level between plants produced by pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. For the three species, the pressed blocks seedling showed higher number of lateral roots and smaller number of root deformation coefficents in comparision to the plants from the stiff tubes.

  5. 野生香榧种实性状变异研究%Variation and Correlativity Analysis of Fruit Characters of Wild Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬; 姚小华; 王开良; 任华东; 常君

    2009-01-01

    通过对安徽黟县、浙江富阳市、建德市3个地区野生香榧种实形态指标进行分析,结果表明:(1)香榧在产地间性状差异较小(仅鲜重出核率表现出显著性差异),变异幅度最大的为建德地区,其次为黟县地区,富阳地区相对较小;(2)产地内株间各项性状均表现出极显著差异,变异幅度最大的是单种重(CV=26.33%),其次为单核重(CV=27.20%),最小的为核径(CV=9.21%);(3)香榧种实的重量与长、径的大小呈极显著线性相关,与长径比相关性不显著;香榧种子的大小和重量与其出核率呈负相关.%Analysis on fruit morphological characters of wild Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii collected from Qianxian County of Anhui province, Fuyang and Jiande city of Zhejiang province resulted that there were no significant differences in 3 producing areas. The largest variation coefficient reca was Jiande, the second oneQiaixian and the last Fuyang. There were extremely significant differences among each individual in each areas, the largest variation ccefficient was seed weight ( CV= 26.33% ), the second one was nut weight (CV = 27.20%), the smallest nut diameter (CV= 9.21 %). Seed weight had evident linear correlation with length and diameter, but no significant relation with length and diameter ratio.

  6. Parâmetros cinéticos de adesivos produzidos a partir de taninos de Anadenanthera peregrina e Eucalyptus grandis

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    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crise do petróleo, na década de 70, pesquisas tiveram o objetivo de substituir parcial ou totalmente os adesivos convencionais, à base de petróleo. Uma forma de substituição foi a utilização de fontes naturais, como os taninos, provenientes de algumas espécies arbóreas. Porém, os taninos apresentam algumas limitações de uso, que podem ser superadas através da sulfitação e da hidrolise ácida. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da hidrólise ácida e sulfitação de taninos extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Anadenanthera peregrina, nos parâmetros cinéticos dos adesivos tânicos, através da técnica de calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC. Os taninos foram hidrolisados com ácido acético ou ácido clorídrico a 10N, empregando-se três valores de pH e três tempos de reação. A sulfitação foi realizada em solução de sulfito de sódio, à 5%, em três tempos de reação. A energia de ativação, entalpia e temperatura de cura dos adesivos foram reduzidas pela hidrólise e sulfitação dos taninos, porém apresentaram banda larga de polimerização. O tempo de reação dos taninos não teve efeito sobre os parâmetros cinéticos.

  7. 尾巨桉萌芽林定株高度试验研究%Research on Growth of Eucalyptus urophylla x E.grandis Coppice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    音振兴; 李文栋; 余洋

    2012-01-01

    对尾巨桉4种萌芽高度(0.5 m、1.0m、1.5 m和2.0 m)进行定株除萌,结果表明:各处理之间树高、胸径生长差异均显著;以萌芽高度为1.5~2.0 m时定株除萌林木生长较好,8个月生2m定株除萌的萌芽林平均树高、平均胸径达5.30m、4.12 cm。考虑生产成本,定株除萌高度以1.5 m为佳。%Growth of Eucalyptus urophylla x E.grandis coppice sprouts were assessed following 4 different singling treatments, which involved singling when sprout heights averaged around 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 m. Significant differences were found in average heights and DBHs among treatments. The treatments of singling when sprouts reached 1.5 and 2.0 m were judge to give the best results. Singling at a sprout height of 2.0 m provided an average height and DBH at about 8 months after singling of 5.30 m and 4.12 cm respectively. Based on costs, singling at a sprout height of 1.5 m is preferred.

  8. Eefeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em algumas propriedades da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis

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    Róger Moya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em algumas propriedades da madeira de Tectona grandis oriundas de plantações entre 7 e 15 anos de idade, localizadas nas regiões Norte e Noroeste da Costa Rica, as quais apresentam dois tipos de clima (tropical seco e tropical úmido e com grande variedade de fertilidade de solo. As análises do solo consistiram no estudo de suas propriedades físicas (porcentagem de argila, limo e areia, densidade aparente, porcentagem de retenção de água e de água útil, retenção 15 Bar e 0,33 Bar e propriedades químicas (pH, acidez e conteúdo de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, Fe e Mn. As contrações tangenciais e radiais foram as propriedades da madeira mais correlacionadas com as características do solo, seguidas da porcentagem de cerne, medula e casca e teor de umidade na condição verde. A propriedade de menor correlação foi a densidade básica, enquanto a contração volumétrica não foi correlacionada com nenhuma propriedade do solo. Os coeficientes de correlação foram altamente significativos (a = 0,05, embora baixos valores (<0,67 foram encontrados, provavelmente influenciados pela ampla variedade das condições de clima e de solo amostrados. As propriedades físicas e químicas do solo não apresentaram influência expressiva nas propriedades da madeira de teca. Assim, apesar da grande variedade de solos existente na Costa Rica, a Teca pode ser cultivada comercialmente em todos eles sem que ocorram grandes variações nas propriedades da madeira.

  9. Efeito do intervalo de tempo entre coleta/preparo e estaqueamento no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

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    Lucas Amaral de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do intervalo de tempo entre coleta/preparo e estaqueamento no enraizamento de miniestacas em quatro clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, arranjo bifatorial com parcelas subdivididas, tendo os intervalos de tempo nas parcelas (0, 2 e 4 horas e clones nas subparcelas (C1, C2, C3 e C4, em três repetições de 192 plantas cada. Avaliou-se o enraizamento e a sobrevivência de miniestacas na saída da casa de vegetação e casa de sombra, a sobrevivência, o crescimento e a qualidade do sistema radicular de mudas aos 50 dias de idade. Em três dos quatro clones estudados, períodos de armazenamento das miniestacas superiores a 2 horas causam redução significativa no percentual de enraizamento e na sobrevivência das mudas aos 50 dias de idade. No entanto, o clone C2 apresenta a máxima eficiência técnica para enraizamento na saída da casa de sombra e para sobrevivência das mudas aos 50 dias, quando suas miniestacas são armazenadas por, respectivamente, 2,3 e 2,5 horas; assim como apresenta maior crescimento em altura, quando armazenadas por 4 horas. Em todos os clones, mudas provenientes de miniestacas armazenadas por 4 horas apresentam qualidade do sistema radicular inferior ao sistema radicular de mudas obtidas a partir de miniestacas com 0 e 2 horas de armazenamento.

  10. [Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-Hua; Li, Yi-Qiao; Hu, Ting-Xing; Chen, Bao-Jun; Yang, Yong-Gui; Chen, Hong; Hu, Hong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    From March to May, 2010, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus. Four treatments with different application rate of the leaf litter, i.e., 0 g x pot(-1) (CK), 30 g x pot(-1) (A1), 60 g x pot(-1) (A2), and 90 g x pot(-1) (A3), were installed. Each pot contained 12 kg soil mixed with the leaf litter, and then, C. intybus was sown. The growth indicators of the C. intybus were measured at the 30, 45, 60, and 75 d after sowing, and the photosynthetic characteristics of the C. intybus in treatment A3 were studied after the seedlings third leaf fully expanded. At each measured time, the biomass accumulation and leaf area growth of C. intybus in treatments A1, A2, and A3 were inhibited significantly. At the early stage of the leaf litter decomposition, the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments of the C. intybus seedlings was inhibited significantly, and the inhibition effect was getting stronger with the increasing amount of the leaf litter addition. The diurnal change of the seedlings photosynthetic rate in all treatments showed a bimodal curve with midday depression, the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency had the same variation trend with the net photosynthetic rate, and the total diurnal photosynthesis decreased in the order of CK > A1 > A2 > A3. The GC-MS analysis showed there were 33 kinds of small molecule compounds released gradually with the decomposition of the leaf litter, among which, allelopathic substance terpenoid dominated. PMID:24175509

  11. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

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    Martin Kemler

    Full Text Available The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters. Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  12. Combinação de dois métodos não industriais no tratamento preservativo de moirões de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of the combination of two non-industrial methods to treat fence posts of Eucalyptus grandis, on the penetration and retention of water borne preservative. Thus, four fences with 2.20 m in length were treated by replacement of sap and simple diffusion alone and other four ones have combined the two techniques, with water-borne CCB 50% preservative at a concentration of 3.5%. After each treatment condition, the pieces were seasoned in the shade for 30 days. Disks were taken at 0.60 and 1.60 m from the base of the pieces which had one side sanded for analysis of the penetration of the preservative using a solution of chrome azurol S. From the same parts, test specimens were also manufactured in diametrically opposed positions with dimensions of approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal to analyze the retention of the element copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and boron by visible spectrophotometry with azomethine-H, also known as colorimetry. The retention values obtained were compared with the minimum recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards - ABNT for water borne preservatives which is 6.5 kg of active ingredients per m³ of wood. The penetration achieved by the combined method was considered sufficient for non-industrial treatment, while the retention values were higher than the retention of at least 6.5 kg of active ingredients / m³ of treated wood in all positions and portions evaluated.

  13. Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoe, Otávio C; Stape, José Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

  14. Phylogenetically informative rearrangements in mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, and monophyly of aquatic elateriform beetles (Dryopoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Vogler, Alfried P

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial gene order in Coleoptera has been thought to be conservative but a survey of 60 complete or nearly complete genomes revealed a total of seven different gene rearrangements (deletions, gene order reversals), mainly affecting tRNA genes. All of these were found to be limited to a single taxon or a subclade of Coleoptera. The phylogenetic distribution of a translocation of tRNA(Pro) in three species of elateriform beetles was investigated further by sequencing three nearly complete mitochondrial genomes (Dascillidae, Byrrhidae, Limnichidae) and ten additional individuals for a ∼1370 bp diagnostic fragment spanning the relevant region. Phylogenetic analysis consistently recovered the monophyly of families previously grouped in the contentious superfamily Dryopoidea, a group of approximately 10 beetle families with mainly aquatic lifestyles. The Byrrhidae (moss beetles) were not part of this lineage, although they may be its sister group, to recover the widely accepted Byrrhoidea. The tRNA(Pro) translocation was present in all members of Dryopoidea, but not in any other Elateriformia, providing independent support for this lineage and for a single origin of aquatic habits.

  15. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  16. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  17. RAPD analysis of genetic variability in a multiprovenance base population of Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden Variabilidade genética através da técnica RAPD de uma população-base multiprocedências de Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden

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    Susi Meire Maximino Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability among individuals of a base population of Eucalyptus grandis and to build a molecular marker database for the analyzed populations. The Eucalyptus grandis base population comprised 327 individuals from Coff's Harbour, Atherton and Rio Claro. A few plants came from other sites (Belthorpe MT. Pandanus, Kenilworth, Yabbra, etc.. Since this base population had a heterogeneous composition, the groups were divided according to geographic localization (latitude and longitude, and genetic breeding level. Thus, the influence of those two factors (geographic localization and genetic breeding level on the genetic variability detected was discussed. The RAPD technique allowed the evaluation of 70 loci. The binary matrix was used to estimate the genetic similarity among individuals using Jaccard's Coefficient. Parametric statistical tests were used to compare within-group similarity of the means. The obtained results showed that the base population had wide genetic variability and a mean genetic similarity of 0.328. Sub-group 3 (wild materials from the Atherton region showed mean genetic similarity of 0.318. S.P.A. (from Coff's Harbour region had a mean genetic similarity of 0.322 and was found to be very important for maintenance of variation in the base population. This can be explained since the individuals from those groups accounted for most of the base population (48.3% for it. The base population plants with genetic similarity higher than 0.60 should be phenotypically analyzed again in order to clarify the tendency of genetic variability during breeding programs.Este estudo visou avaliar a variabilidade e distância genética dentro de uma população-base de melhoramento genético de Eucalyptus grandis. A avaliação da variabilidade genética tem como objetivos principais analisar a base genética da população-base e montar um banco de dados marcadores moleculares da população em an

  18. Organogênese in vitro a partir de explante caulinar na regeneração de clones de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden X E. urophylla S. T. Blake In vitro regeneration from stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones through organogenesis

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    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar a regeneração in vitro por organogênese a partir de explante caulinar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, foram avaliados os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tiadiazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. De modo geral, pôde-se observar resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura, coloração e grau de oxidação dos calos, em função dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento foram dos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante caulinar. Houve a formação de estruturas nodulares compactas, principalmente na extremidade dos explantes caulinares, sendo essas regiões responsáveis pela regeneração de gemas adventícias. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.With the objective of testing in vitro regeneration through organogenesis from stem explants of three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, the effects of the growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-ilurea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine and NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid were evaluated. In general, a differentiated clone response in relation to intensity, texture, color and oxidation degree of calli was observed due to growth regulator treatments. The best results in callus formation were recorded for the treatments with the combination TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 and ANA (0,1 mg L-1, achieving 100% of callus formation from the stem explants. Compact node structures appeared mainly in the extremities of the stem explants, being those areas responsible for the regeneration of adventitious buds. The best regeneration response was obtained with 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.

  19. ESCARABAJOS TIGRE (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE DEL MUSEO ENTOMOLÓGICO FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA TIGER BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE AT THE ENTOMOLOGICAL MUSEUM FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NEW RECORDS

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    Manuel Alejandro Ramírez Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez las especies de escarabajos tigre (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae presentes en el Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG. Se identificaron 167 especimenes distribuidos en ocho géneros y 27 especies, se reportan 24 nuevos registros para diferentes departamentos de Colombia. Se señalan aspectos importantes de la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Además, se presentan comentarios biológicos y de distribución de las especies.Tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae species at the Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG are registered by first time. 167 specimens in 8 genus and 27 species were identified, 24 new records for different Colombian states are reported. Some important aspects of the group’s taxonomy and systematic are pointed. Additionally, species’ biological and distributional comments are presented.

  20. Fator de cubicação para toretes de Eucalyptus grandis e sua variação com o tempo de exposição ao ambiente

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    Marcos Vinicios Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes the express wood volume in stere needs to be converted into cubic meter. This is possible estimating a cubication factor (Fc. With the objective of determining the Fc for Eucalyptus grandis and its variation in wood pieces of different lengths of 1 and 2,3m due to time of exposure to the environment, in the summer and in the winter, six stacks of woodpiles were made in the dimensions 3x2x1m and six piles in the dimensions 3x2x2, 3m, installed in the summer and in the winter. Medium Fcc´s obtained by the reason of volumes presented smaller variation in comparison to the ones obtained by angular counting. The statistical analysis indicated difference (α < 5% in the variables of the main effect, that is: in the climatic station (F = 18.72, in the time of exhibition (F = 6.51 and in the length of the stacks (F = 35.18. The analysis of the correlation indicated that Fc was also influenced by the top cracks, by the humidity of the wood and by the atmospheric variability. The average values of Fcc´s indicated a stabilization after ninety days of the installation of the piles. The stacks of Eucalyptus grandis presented dimensional variation when exposed to the atmosphere, making the Fc to vary in the time of exhibition at environment.

  1. Interferência de herbicidas, associados a um análogo de brassinosteroide, no aparato fotossintético de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Effects of herbicides, associated to a brassinosteroid Analogue, on the photosynthetic apparatus of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings

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    C.M.M. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da aplicação dos herbicidas imazapyr e glyphosate e as suas interações com um análogo espirostânico da castasterona (BB16 no crescimento de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis. Para isso, utilizou-se a aplicação de BB16 (nas concentrações de 0,08 e 0,16 mg L-1: BB16(- e BB16(+, respectivamente, de imazapyr (0,750 kg ha-1 e de glyphosate (1,440 kg ha-1. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo controle, BB16(-, BB16(+, glyphosate, imazapyr, além da interação hormônio-herbicida, em intervalo de 12 h entre a aplicação de BB16 e de cada herbicida, e vice-versa. A mensuração da fluorescência da clorofila a foi realizada diariamente, na terceira folha totalmente expandida, além das avaliações de altura, diâmetro e biomassa seca da parte aérea (BSPA e das raízes (BSR. O controle, BB16(- e BB16(+ diferiram dos demais tratamentos para BSPA, porém, para BSR, altura e diâmetro, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. As médias dos parâmetros de fluorescência, obtidas para os tratamentos que receberam a aplicação dos herbicidas, foram superiores ao controle, BB16(- e BB16(+ até o sétimo dia após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. As mudas que receberam aplicação de glyphosate - este associado, ou não, a BB16(- ou BB16(+ - apresentaram-se necróticas antes do sétimo DAT, enquanto as que receberam imazapyr associado ao BB16 manifestaram apenas as extremidades dos ramos laterais necrosadas. Os herbicidas testados causaram efeitos deletérios no aparato fotossintético de E. grandis; todavia, a partir do sétimo DAT as mudas que receberam a aplicação de imazapyr (com ou sem BB16 não diferiram dos tratamentos controle, BB16(- e BB16(+, quanto aos parâmetros de fluorescência.The effects of the application of imazapyr and glyphosate and their interactions with a spirostanic analogue of castasterone (BB16, on the growth of seedling clones of Eucalyptus grandis were evaluated

  2. Variação genética para os teores dos macro e micronutrientes após aplicação de 2,4-D em progênies de Eucalyptus grandis. Genetic variation in the levels of macro and micronutrients after 2,4-D application on Eucalyptus grandis progenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins FRAGOSO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil triplicou sua produção florestal de eucalipto desde 1970, alcançando médias de 45 m3 .ha-1.ano-1. Muitos avanços técnicos contribuíram para essa produtividade, entre eles a utilização de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas. O produto 2,4-D destaca-se como herbicida seletivo às dicotiledôneas utilizado nas grandes culturas, entre elas está a cultura do eucalipto. O 2,4-D também pode ser usado como regulador vegetal, auxina (Ax, em subdosagem, podendo gerar incrementos nutricionais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento morfológico do vegetal após testes preliminares para obtenção de dosagem ideal, que no presente trabalho foi de 3,75 µL L-1. Assim, o trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a aplicação de auxina em um teste de progênies de Eucalyptus grandis, na fase de mudas, para estimar os parâmetros genéticos das variações dos elementos minerais nas plantas, com base no procedimento REML/BLUP. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com 20 progênies em três repetições, 16 plantas por parcela, totalizando 960 plantas. Como fatores norteadores, após 15 dias da aplicação do produto, foram avaliados os macro e micronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn nos tecidos vegetais da parte aérea. Como resultado, verificou-se que o 2,4-D age como auxina, quando aplicada em subdosagem (3,75 µL L-1, promovendo o desenvolvimento das mudas de E. grandis e permite a expressão da variação genética, sendo que o CVg variou de 1,22% (S a 13,51% (Ca. Apenas os teores de N (43,05%, Fe (56,545% e Cu (58,37% apresentaram acurácias inferiores a 70%. Os maiores coeficientes de variação relativa foram para os teores de Ca (2,0 em relação à escolha de uma variável para a seleção com base nos macronutrientes e Mn (1,16 no caso dos micronutrientes. The forest tree production in Brazil was three times greater than through 70’s decade, reaching the wood volume averages by 45 m3 .ha-1.year-1. Many

  3. In vitro ectomycorrhiza formation by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus in Eucalyptus grandis Formação de ectomicorrizas in vitro por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus em Eucalyptus grandis

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    Maurício Dutra Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of ectomycorrhizas by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. in Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. was studied by in vitro synthesis in Petri dishes. The formation of ectomycorrhizas was observed for all strains tested. Ectomycorrhizas formed by the monokaryotic strains presented a sheath of hyphae around the roots and a Hartig net limited to the epidermis layer, typical of the angiosperm ectomycorrhizas. Colonization rates, a measure of the number of ectomycorrhizas in relation to the total number of lateral root tips, varied from 23 to 62%. Some monokaryotic strains stimulated the formation of lateral roots, promoting increases of up to 109% above the control. The presence of some of the isolates in the in vitro synthesis medium stimulated the production of thicker lateral root tips. The dimensions of the lateral roots tips and ectomycorrhizas varied from one isolate to the next, indicating a variation in their capacity to provoke morphological changes in the host plant roots. The dikaryotic strain M5M11 presented higher values for lateral root yield, number of ectomycorrhizas, and colonization percentage than the corresponding monokaryotic strains, M5 and M11. This indicated the possibility of selecting compatible performing monokaryotic isolates for the yield of superior dikaryotic strains. The set of monokaryotic strains tested varied greatly in their ability to colonize E. grandis roots and cause secondary metabolism-related morphological changes in roots, providing a wealth of model systems for the study of genetic, physiological, and morphogenetic processes involved in Pisolithus-Eucalyptus ectomycorrhiza formation.A formação de ectomicorrizas por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. em Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. foi estudada usando-se o método de síntese in vitro em placas de Petri. A formação de

  4. Especies de Megacerus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae y sus plantas hospederas en Yucatán Megacerus species (Coleoptera: Bruchidae and their host plants in Yucatán

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    Enrique Reyes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra la incidencia de Megacerus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae en semillas de 7 especies de Convolvulaceae de 6 sitios al norte de Yucatán. Las semillas de Ipomoea crinicalyx, I. hederifolia, I. nil, I. triloba, Jacquemontia penthanta, Merremia aegyptia y M. cissoides recolectadas en etapa de dispersión fueron colocadas en sobres limpios de papel y puestas en condiciones de laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los brúquidos. Se obtuvieron 1111 coleópteros pertenecientes a 5 especies: Megacerus (Megacerus cubiculus, M. (M. porosus, Megacerus (M. sp., M. (M. tricolor, y M. (Serratibruchus cubiciformis. Las semillas de I. crinicalyx, M. aegyptia y M. cissoides fueron infestadas principalmente por M. (M. porosus, las de I. hederifolia e I. triloba por M. (M. cubiculus y las de I. nil por M. (M. tricolor. Todos los individuos de Megacerus (M. sp., fueron encontrados en semillas de J. penthanta. En el nivel génerico de hospedero se encontró que las semillas de Ipomoea fueron infestadas principalmente por M. (M. cubiculus y las de Merremia por M. (M. porosus. Estos resultados amplían el rango de plantas hospederas registrado para las especies de Megacerus y resaltan la estrecha asociación que existe entre un linaje de depredadores de semillas Bruchidae y plantas de la familia Convolvulaceae.Seed-attacking by Megacerus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is reported for 7 Convolvulaceae species from 6 sites at the North of Yucatan. Seeds of Ipomoea crinicalyx, I. hederifolia, I. nil, I. triloba, Jacquemontia penthanta, Merremia aegyptia and M. cissoides were collected and placed in clean envelopes under laboratory conditions to collect all bruchids emerged from seeds. A total of 1111 coleopterans were hatched from seeds, and 5 taxa were identify: Megacerus (Megacerus cubiculus, M. (M. porosus, Megacerus (M. sp., M. (M. tricolor, and M. (Serratibruchus cubiciformis. Seeds of I. crinicalyx, M. aegyptia and M. cissoides were attacked mainly by M. (M. porosus; I

  5. Longhorned Beetles Collection of the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey (Coleoptera,Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDİKMEN, Hüseyin; ŞAHİN, Özlem

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, specimens of Cerambycidae were examined in the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of identification of these specimens, thirty-eight species and two subspecies belonging to twenty-eight genera of five subfamilies were determined. With this paper, new faunistic data and some zoogeographical evaluations were presented on longhorned beetles fauna (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Turkey. The faunistic data in the pr...

  6. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  7. Uji Efektifitas Beberapa Insektisida Nabati Terhadap Mortalitas Hama Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera; Curculionidae) Pada Benih Jagung (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Fadillah

    2011-01-01

    Fadillah Subhan, "Test Effectiveness of Some Insecticides Against Plant Pests Sitophilus zeamais Motsch Mortality. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) In the Seed of Corn (Zea mays). "It was under supervised by Yuswani Pangestiningsih and Fatimah Zahara. S. zeamais is a pest of corn in storage that causes substantial yield losses, one of which effective control is the use of botanical insecticides. Testing the effectiveness of some botanical insecticides on mortality of S. zeamais on maize seed plant...

  8. A review of Elocomosta Hansen with a description of a new species with reduced eyes from China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232

  9. Synergistic effects of chlorpyrifos with piperonyl butoxide (pbo) against the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Akter Mst Yeasmin; Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah; ASM Shafiqur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the co-toxicity and co-efficient activity of Chlorpyrifos (Dursban 20EC), an organophosphate and Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) against the lesser meal worm Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (A. diaperinus). Methods: The repellent activity was carried out by the residual film assay technique. Statistically the dose mortality relationship was expressed as a median lethal dose (LD50) by the probit analysis. The regression lines and isoboles were ...

  10. The lectotype of Goliathus drurii Westwood, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) in the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The lectotype of Goliathus drurii Westwood (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) has been located to the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia. Collected in 1775, this specimen represents the second species of Goliathus to be illustrated in European literature, however eluding a proper species description until 1837. This important specimen, overlooked by previous curators, represents another portion of the Dru Drury collections purchased by Alexander McLeay now held in the Macleay Museum. PMID:27615919

  11. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Flori, A.; Coffi, A.; Cros, D.; Glitho, I.; Nodichao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineens...

  12. Natural history of Belonuchus Nordmann spp. and allies (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Heliconia L. (Zingiberales: Heliconiaceae) flower bracts

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard; Barrera, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Adults, and in some species larvae, of several members of Belonuchus Nordmann (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae) and a few related genera seem to be to various degrees consistently associated with flower bracts of the genus Heliconia (Zingiberales: Heliconiaceae). They are predators and eat various dipterous and lepidopterous larvae in that habitat. Adults of at least Belonuchus cephalotes (Sharp) and Odontolinus fasciatus Sharp are able to immerse completely in water to capture larva...

  13. Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF

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    Benedito Rocha Vital

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF. Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity

  14. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM CITRUS GRANDIS PEEL%微波辅助提取柚皮精油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚盛昭; 程江; 杨卓如

    2005-01-01

    进行了微波辅助提取柚皮精油的实验.结果表明,石油醚是微波辅助提取柚皮精油的最佳溶剂,液料质量比、物料含水率、粒度、微波功率等因素对微波辅助提取柚皮精油有较大影响.通过实验得到了柚皮精油提取的最佳工艺条件:物料粒度60目,物料含水率7.4%,总液料质量比14:1,微波功率300W,提取两次,每次微波辐射时间3 min.提取液进行真空浓缩至不再有溶剂蒸出,得精油粗产品.往精油粗产品中加入乙醇溶解,放入-15℃冰箱中冷冻48 h,离心分离去除树脂状物质,过滤,滤液进行真空浓缩后,即得精油,产率约2.09%,精油纯度99.0%.与传统的直接加热提取法相比,微波辅助提取法所用时间仅为直接加热提取法的1/20.%Microwave-assisted extraction(MAE) was used to extract essential oil (EO) from pomelo(Citrus grandis (L.)Osbeck) peel (CGP). Results show that petroleum ether is an optimal solvent and the extraction was affected mainly by stock mass ratio, microwave power, water content and granularity of material. The optimal conditions were obtained. Materials with granularity of 60 mesh and water content of around 7.4 % are suitablefor extraction. Total solvent-material mass ratio is 14: 1. Extraction had to be performed twice with microwave irradiation (300 W) for 3 min each time. Crude EO was obtained after the extracted liquor was concentrated under vacuum. Crude EO was then dissolved with ethanol, frozen at - 15 ℃ for 48 h, and centrifugally separated and filtered to get rid of impurities. The final product EO with yield of 2.09 % and purity of 99.0 % was then obtained after distilling the liquor under vacuum. Compared with direct-heating extraction (DHE), MAE reduced the extracting time up to 1/20.

  15. ANÁLISE SILVICULTURAL E ECONÔMICA DE PLANTIOS CLONAIS E SEMINAIS DE Tectona grandis L.f. EM SISTEMA TAUNGYA1

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    Reginaldo Antonio Medeiros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise silvicultural e econômica de plantios clonais e seminais de Tectona grandis em monocultivo e em sistema taungya com Zea mays, no Município de Figueirópolis D'Oeste, MT. O experimento foi instalado em 2010 e compôs um fatorial 2x2 em blocos casualizados e quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se a altura total (H, o diâmetro a 5 cm (DAB e a 1,3 m (DAP de altura em relação ao nível do solo, a área basal, o volume, a sobrevivência e a estimativa e tendência de crescimento da teca na idade atual e futura, além da produção de silagem do milho. Foram realizadas análises das receitas e custos totais de implantação e manutenção do sistema. Plantas clonais em monocultivo e no sistema Taungya apresentaram maior crescimento em altura total, DAB e DAP em relação às seminais. No monocultivo e no sistema Taungya, a produção (m3 ha-1 de plantas clonais em relação às seminais foi 33 e 30% superior, respectivamente. Os custos com insumos e atividades de implantação da teca foram superiores e os de manutenção, inferiores no sistema Taungya em relação ao monocultivo, tanto para plantios clonais quanto seminais. No sistema Taungya com plantas clonais, o milho reduziu em 21% os custos totais de implantação e manutenção em relação ao monocultivo; nas plantas seminais, a redução foi de 27%. A teca no sistema Taungya cresce menos, porém apresenta tendência de recuperação após a retirada do milho, cuja presença amortiza custos de implantação e manutenção da teca em plantios clonais e seminais.

  16. Study on Infrared Fingerprint of Exocarpium Citri Grandis with Different Species%化橘红药材红外指纹图谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽萍; 林励; 黄爱华; 欧立娟; 汪金玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide theoretical basis and practical methods for the rapid identification of Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) with different species. Methods The fingerprints were established by fourier transform ifrared spectroscopy(FTIR), and then were analyzed by Spectrum v5.0.1 software. Results With normalization of the selected points between 1,820 cm-1 and 950 cm-1 on the FTIR fingerprints of ECG powder, significant differences were shown, and the second derivative spectra of the two different species between 1,800 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 had significant differences, which can be taken as one of the major identical characteristics to distinguish the two species. Conclusion The FTIR fingerprints is effective and feasible for the identification of the two species of ECG.%目的 建立化橘红药材的红外指纹图谱,通过考察不同品种化橘红药材的红外指纹图谱差异,为化橘红药材的快速鉴别提供理论依据和实用方法.方法 采用傅里叶红外光谱法(FTIR)建立不同品种化橘红药材红外指纹图谱,应用Spectrum v5.0.1红外软件对实验数据进行处理.结果 FTIR图谱在1820~950 cm-1范围内选点归一化处理后毛橘红和光橘红差异显著,其在1800~700 cm-1范围内二阶导数谱差异亦显著,可作为两者主要鉴别特征,经处理后的FTIR指纹图谱能有效鉴别两类化橘红药材.结论 红外指纹图谱法鉴别化橘红快速、简便、可行,可有效区分毛橘红和光橘红.

  17. Variación de la densidad básica de la madera de Eucalyptus grandis en arboles de siete años de edad.

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    Arango A. Bibiana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estima la variación de la densidad básica de la madera con la altura de los árboles en clones de Eucalyptus grandis de 7 años de edad, seleccionados en plantaciones forestales de la empresa Smurfit Cartón de Colombia localizadas en los municipios de Restrepo, Pereira y Popayán, encontrándose que la densidad decrece desde la base del árbol hacia el nivel del D.A.P y luego, a partir de este aumenta hacia la copa hasta el 75% de la altura total del árbol. De igual manera se establecen correlaciones entre la densidad básica media de la madera en función de las tres zonas de estudio y los diferentes clones. Se comparan tanto las metodologías empleadas para la determinación de la densidad básica (Norma Tappi 258-om-94 y el Método del Máximo Contenido de Humedad como los diferentes tipos de muestras empleadas para la determinación de la misma (muestras tipo disco de madera y muestras de barreno. El rango de variación de la densidad básica media para las muestras tipo disco de madera fue de 0.40 a 059 g/cm3 y para las muestras de barreno fue de 0.38 a 0.55 g/cm3. Respecto a los métodos para la determinación de la densidad básica media de la madera en muestras de barreno, el método del máximo contenido de humedad mostró una subestimación de aproximadamente 3% de la misma en comparación con los valores obtenidos por el método de la balanza hidrostática.

  18. Modelagem do balanço hídrico em microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    André Quintão Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o número de plantios comerciais de espécies florestais de crescimento rápido vem aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas. Contudo, os possíveis impactos desse aumento sobre os recursos hídricos ainda são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a modelagem do balanço hídrico em uma microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no Leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O trabalho foi realizado em uma microbacia experimental com área total de 40 ha durante o ano hidrológico, compreendido entre outubro de 2009 e setembro de 2010. A principal entrada de água no sistema via precipitação pluvial e os dados meteorológicos foram coletados por uma estação automática instalada no interior da área de estudo. As principais saídas foram estimadas pela equação modificada de Penman-Monteith e pela mensuração do deflúvio gerado na saída da bacia. Do total precipitado (1.123 mm durante o ano, 9% (106 mm retornaram à atmosfera via interceptação, 66% (740 mm via transpiração da cultura e 11% (119 mm pela evaporação do solo, que somados corresponderam à aproximadamente 86% da entrada de água na microbacia. Do deflúvio total gerado (~147 mm, apenas 4,29 mm (0,4% foram convertidos em escoamento superficial. Pode-se concluir que durante o ano hidrológico monitorado o balanço entre as principais entradas e as saídas de água na microbacia foi equalizado, não comprometendo a disponibilidade hídrica natural no curso d'água.

  19. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  20. Carpophilus zeaphilus, a new sap beetle species acclimatized in Italy (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Audisio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carpophilus zeaphilus Dobson, 1969 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae, Carpophilinae is an Afrotropical species that has become widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Mediterranean areas in recent years. The species was first recorded from Europe in Portugal and Spain nearly thirty years ago, and it was later intercepted in Sicily near Trapani in 1991. A few specimens of this species were collected in April, 2015 in a sparsely forested area near Rome, which suggests a recent acclimatization into peninsular Italy. Specimens were taken on flowering trees of Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae, an unusual occurrence for most introduced species of Carpophilinae that are normally associated with rotten fruit and other decomposing vegetal matter.

  1. Beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J

    2014-08-01

    The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.

  2. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Angola: a descriptive catalogue and designation of neotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A

    2013-11-01

    An annotated catalogue of the species and subspecies of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) hitherto known from Angola is given. A total of 89 forms (74 species and 15 subspecies) is recorded from this southwestern country of Africa. Within this assemblage there are 31 endemic forms (33.3%). Some species are represented by only the holotype specimen (some without locality) or the type series. Others were recorded based on a single specimen. Records for six species previously unknow from Angola are given: Foveodromica sp. n. 1, Foveodromica sp. n. 2, Ophryodera rufomarginata bradshawi Péringuey, 1888, Elliptica muata parallelestriata (W. Horn, 1923), Lophyra differens (W. Horn, 1892) and Myriochila jucunda (Péringuey, 1892). A historical review, as well as some considerations on the distribution and conservation status of these beetles in Angola are also presented.

  3. Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

  4. Discovery of mycangia and the associated xylose-fermenting yeasts in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.

  5. Synthesis, antifeedant activity against Coleoptera and 3D QSAR study of alpha-asarone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Magdziarz, T; Dubis, A T

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a set of 56 compounds representing structural derivatives of naturally occurring alpha-asarone as an antifeedants against stored product pests Sitophilus granarius L., Trogoderma granarium Ev., and Tribolium confusum Duv., were subjected to the 3D QSAR studies. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) for 56 compounds, including 15 newly synthesized, were performed using comparative molecular field analysis s-CoMFA and SOM-CoMSA techniques. QSAR was conducted based on a combination of biological activity (against Coleoptera larvae and beetles) and various geometrical, topological, quantum-mechanical, electronic, and chromatographic descriptors. The CoMSA formalism coupled with IVE (CoMSA-IVE) allowed us to obtain highly predictive models for Trogoderma granarium Ev. larvae. We have found that this novel method indicates a clear molecular basis for activity and lipophilicity. This investigation will facilitate optimization of the design of new potential antifeedants. PMID:24601760

  6. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    beetle assemblages. The number of ground beetle individuals and species were significantly the highest in the hawthorn hedges and significantly decreased from the hedges with rowan toward the spruce hedges. The elevated number of ground beetle individuals and species in the hawthorn hedges were due......The role of hedgerows in supporting ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Danish agricultural landscape was examined. Nine old, well established single-row hedges were selected for the study, three each of a native species (hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna), a non-native deciduous one (rowan...... to the forest specialist species, as the number of forest specialist ground beetle individuals and species were significantly higher in the hawthorn hedges compared to the hedges with rowan and spruce. Differences in the number of the grassland and the cropland specialist ground beetle individuals and species...

  7. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-11-27

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.

  8. Cellulose digestion in Monochamus marmorator Kby. (coleoptera: Cerambycidae): role of acquired fungal enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukol, J.J.; Martin, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Larvae of the balsam fir sawyer, Monochamus marmorator Kby. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), contain midgut digestive enzymes active against hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulases from larvae fed on balsam fir wood infected with the fungus, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (Deuteromycetes, Moniliales, Moniliaceae), were found to be identical to those of the cellulase complex produced by this fungus when compared using chromatography, electrophoresis, and isofocusing. When larvae are maintained on a fungusfree diet, their midgut fluids lack cellulolytic activity, and they are unable to digest cellulose. Cellulolytic capacity can be restored by feeding the larvae wood permeated by fungi. We conclude that the enzymes which enable M. marmorator larvae to digest cellulose are not produced by the larvae. Instead, the larvae acquire the capacity to digest cellulose by ingesting active fungal cellulases while feeding in fungus-infected wood.

  9. A importância forense de Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840) (Coleoptera, Silphidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Kraiczyi Kotzko; V. Costa-Silva; E. G. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Oxelytrum discicolle Brullé, 1840 é a espécie mais coletada de Silphidae (Coleoptera) na América Latina, constituindo um indicador forense na região Neotropical. O objetivo do trabalho é reunir informações sobre biologia e distribuição de O. discicolle, além de ferramentas para utilização desse besouro como indicador forense em casos de morte de humanos. O. discicolle é um besouro de grande porte, de cor preta com um colar vermelho. Larvas da espécie são necrófagas, já os adultos são onívoros...

  10. NEW CONTRIBUTION CONCERNING THE MASS REARING OF TANYMECUS DILATICOLLIS GYLL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MANOLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled growth in the laboratory of some species of insect’s are justified both scientifically and practically. Due to the economic importance that the corn crop pest Tanymecus dilaticollis Gyll. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae had in Romania like the main pest of maize crops we tried to obtain successive generations under environment controlled of the insect mentioned. In this paper we aim to improve the efficiency of the multiplication of the species with respect to two aspects: attending larval and multiplication high efficiency. The coefficient value of 20, 90 obtained by us indicate a considerable increase in performance compared to previous attempts multiplication thus increasing your chances of recovery of this method of mass multiplication.

  11. What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jaskula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates.

  12. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  13. Primeiro registro de Chalcodermus bicolor (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em plantios de eucalipto First record of Chalcodermus bicolor in eucalypt plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Molinário de Souza; Norivaldo dos Anjos; Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia; João Bosco da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou relatar, pela primeira vez, o ataque de um besouro podador em plantios de clones híbridos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla vs. E. grandis), localizados nos Estados da Bahia e do Espírito Santo. A espécie foi determinada como sendo Chalcodermus bicolor Fiedler, 1936 (Curculionidae: Molytinae). A fêmea poda os ponteiros e constrói um pequeno orifício onde deposita um único ovo, logo abaixo do ponto de incisão. O eucalipto é o primeiro hospedeiro relatado para esta espé...

  14. Fitossociologia de sub-bosque de cerrado em talhão de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden no município de Bom Despacho-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saporetti Jr. Amilcar Walter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado, o segundo maior bioma brasileiro, apresenta uma crescente área sujeita a impactos variados, o que desperta a necessidade de conservá-lo e desenvolver métodos para seu uso sustentável. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico de regeneração em um Cerrado no município de Bom Despacho - MG e embasar tomadas de decisões para conservação da biodiversidade. Para o estudo foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m em uma área originalmente de Cerrado, que atualmente encontra-se ocupada por um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis. A distribuição das parcelas foi feita sistematicamente. Foram amostradas todas as plantas lenhosas eretas com CAB - ao nível do solo - maior ou igual a 10 cm. A composição florística apresentou 39 espécies, distribuídas em 24 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, com cinco espécies, Myrtaceae, com quatro, e Melastomataceae, com três, seguidas de Annonaceae, Leguminosae Papilionoideae, Nyctaginaceae, Rubiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com duas. A espécie que apresentou o maior VI foi Eucalyptus grandis (42,03%, seguida das Miconia albicans (7,69%, Brosimum gaudichaudii (6,9%, Eugenia dysenterica (4,99%, Qualea grandiflora (3,11% e Xylopia aromatica (3,01%. Das 39 espécies lenhosas nativas encontradas no sub-bosque de Eucalyptus grandis, 27 são peculiares do Cerrado e as demais são acessórias, vindas de florestas da região. Esses dados mostram que o Cerrado está em regeneração.

  15. 巨桉人工林根际可培养土壤微生物数量的季节变化%Seasonal Variation of Rhizosphere Culturable Soil Microorganism Quantity in Eucalyptus grandis Plantation Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔炳华; 蒋勇; 陈绍武; 晋明瑞; 胡开波; 王守强

    2012-01-01

    Researches were conducted on seasonal dynamics of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere culturable soil microorganism quantity in Eucalyptus grandis plantation ecosystem.The result showed that the seasonal dynamics of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil bacteria and actinomyces was generally consistent,which in autumn was significantly higher than in winter,while the fungus quantity was no significant difference between seasons.Soil microorganism in Eucalyptus grandis plantation had an obvious rhizosphere effect(R/S value of 1.40),rhizospheric soil bacteria,fungi and actinomyces quantity were significantly higher than the non-rhizospheric in each season.Rhizosphere aerobic bacteria and fungi quantity of Eucalyptus grandis were significantly higher,rhizosphere soil nutrient index was also mostly better than secondary Cyclobalanopsis glauca forest,and many nutrient indicators reached significant difference.There was a close relationship between rhizosphere microorganisms and rhizosphere soil nutrients,and rhizospheric soil organic matter,hydrolysis N,available P and rhizosphere soil microorganism quantity had a very significant positive correlation.%巨桉人工林生态系统根际与根外可培养土壤微生物数量季节变化研究表明,根际与根外细菌和放线菌季节变化规律基本一致,都表现为秋季显著高于冬季,而真菌数量季节之间差异不显著;巨桉人工林土壤微生物具有明显的根际效应(R/S值为1.40),各季节根际土壤细菌、真菌和放线菌的数量显著高于根外;巨桉人工林根际土壤好气性细菌、真菌数量显著高于毗邻青冈次生林,根际土壤有效养分指标大多显著或极显著高于青冈次生林;根际土壤微生物与根际土壤养分之间存在密切的关系,根际土壤有机质、水解N、速效P与根际土壤微生物数量都呈极显著正相关。

  16. Mapping of QTLs related with wood quality and developmental characteristics in hybrids (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla Mapeamento de QTLs para características de qualidade da madeira e crescimento em híbridos (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to characterize and identify QTLs for wood quality and growth traits in E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids. For this purpose a RAPD linkage map was developed for the hybrids (LOD=3 and r=0.40 containing 52 markers and 12 linkage groups. Traits related to wood quality and growth were evaluated in the QTL analyses. QTL analyses were performed using chi-square tests, single-marker, interval mapping and composite interval mapping analyses. All approaches led to the identification of similar QTLs associated with wood density, cellulose pulp yield and percentage of extractives, which were detected and confirmed by both the interval mapping and composite interval mapping methodologies. Some QTLs regions were confirmed only by the composite interval mapping methodology: percentage of soluble lignin, percentage of insoluble lignin, CBH and total height. Overlapping QTLs regions were detected, and these, can be the result of major genes involved in the regulation and control of the growth traits by epistatic interactions. In order to evaluate the effect of early selection using RAPD molecular data, molecular markers adjacent to QTLs were used genotype selection. The analysis of selection differential values suggests that for all the traits the phenotypic selection at seven years should generate larger genetic gains than early selection assisted by molecular markers and the combination of the strategies should elevate the selection efficiency.O presente trabalho teve como objetivos a caracterização e identificação de QTLs para características de crescimento e de qualidade da madeira em híbridos de eucalipto derivados do cruzamento entre E. grandis e E. urophylla. Para isso foi desenvolvido um mapa de ligação RAPD pouco saturado (LOD = 3 e r = 0,40 contendo 52 marcas e 12 grupos de ligação. Características de qualidade da madeira e características de crescimento foram avaliadas quanto à presença de QTLs. Foram utilizadas

  17. Análise da influência de diferentes tamanhos e composições de amostras no ajuste de uma relação hipsométrica para Eucalyptus grandis Evaluation of the influence of varying sample sizes and composition on the precision of a hypsometric relation for Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Fernandes da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O ajuste de relações hipsométricas a partir de dados oriundos de inventário florestal com o objetivo de estimar o volume de árvores individuais é procedimento comum nas empresas florestais brasileiras. Assim, considerando um conjunto de 481 árvores de Eucalyptus grandis, obtido por meio de um procedimento de inventário florestal, foram simulados diversos tamanhos de amostra, variando de 6 a 204 árvores-amostra. Para cada tamanho de amostra foram feitas 10.000 simulações para cada tamanho de amostra obtidas aleatoriamente. Considerando o exposto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tamanho e da composição das amostras simuladas sobre a precisão de um modelo hipsométrico previamente selecionado. O modelo selecionado teve como variáveis independentes o diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP e a idade, sendo avaliado também o efeito dessas variáveis sobre as estimativas de altura. Ao final, conclui-se que amostras com pelo menos 27 árvores proporcionaram estimativas mais precisas da altura das árvores quando comparadas com amostras menores que esse número. No entanto, amostras maiores que 27 árvores não implicaram ganhos significativos em termos de precisão. Conclui-se também que a variável DAP foi mais importante para estimar a altura do que a variável idade, considerando-se o modelo proposto, sendo a influência da variável idade na estimação da altura maior nas árvores de maior DAP.The adjustment of hypsometric relations using data from forest inventory aiming at the estimation of individual tree volumes is a common task in Brazilian forestry companies. This study used a data set of 481 trees of Eucalyptus grandis from a forest inventory. Simulation was carried out varying sample sizes from 6 to 204 sample-trees. For each sample size it was run 10,000 simulations for each size samples selected randomly. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of sample size and structure on the precision of a

  18. Acúmulo de Nutrientes na Biomassa e na Serapilheira de Eucalyptus grandis em Função da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano e de Nutrientes Minerais Nutrient Accumulation in Eucalyptus grandis Biomass and Litter Using Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Quantidades significativas de resíduos orgânicos são produzidas a cada ano pela população, tornando-se indispensável obter práticas econômicas e seguras para a disposição e utilização destes. A aplicação de resíduos orgânicos em plantios florestais é uma alternativa a ser considerada. Este trabalho avaliou os efeitos da aplicação de lixo urbano e da adubação mineral em Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden sobre o acúmulo de nutrientes na serapilheira e na biomassa aérea das árvores aos 86 meses de idade, em Itatinga, SP, em Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico. Verificou-se, nas pcarcelas experimentais com lixo urbano, maiores valores para biomassa arbórea (36,9 % de ganho com relação à testemunha e maiores conteúdos de N, P, K e Ca no sítio antes do corte das árvores. Após a retirada de madeira (alburno e cerne, observou-se também que com a manutenção das outras partes da árvore nessas parcelas, houve uma maior disponibilização desses nutrientes no sítio, cujos valores foram entre 18 % e 49 % a mais dos conteúdos encontrados para a testemunha, que poderão contribuir para a manutenção da produtividade. Os resultados evidenciaram a importância de se manter a casca das árvores no sítio, pois o descascamento feito no local propiciou, em média, um retorno de 32 % do total de nutrientes acumulados na biomassa aérea. Também, na colheita da madeira, galhos, folhas, ponteiras e serapilheira, devem ser mantidos no campo como um meio de se aumentar o estoque de nutrientes das próximas rotações.
    Large quantities of organic wastes are produced mainly in big cities, annually. There is urgent demand for safe and possible economic practices for its use on forest plantations. This study evaluated the effects of the application of urban waste and mineral fertilizers on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden plantation

  19. Volume de madeira e concentração foliar de nutrientes em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizadas com lodos de esgoto úmido e seco Wood volume and foliar concentration of nutrients in Eucalyptus grandis after wet and dry sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Muller da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, diversos municípios estão construindo estações de tratamento de esgoto (ETEs, e futuramente serão produzidas anualmente milhares de toneladas de lodo para as quais deverá ser dada destinação adequada. O lodo de esgoto tratado (biossólido é o resíduo resultante do tratamento do esgoto urbano, e sua disposição final precisa ser bem planejada devido às implicações sanitárias, ambientais, econômicas e sociais. Apresenta elevado teor de matéria orgânica e de nutrientes e poderia ser utilizado como fertilizante em plantios florestais. Esta pesquisa foi realizada na Estação de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (Universidade de São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de três doses (10, 20 e 30 t ha-1 dos lodos de esgoto úmido (torta e seco (granulado, complementados com K e B e aplicados ao solo nas linhas de plantio em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis. Dezoito meses após a implantação das mudas no campo, o volume dos troncos demonstrou aumento significativo (ao redor de 130% no tocante ao crescimento dos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos úmido e seco em relação à testemunha sem aplicação de fertilizante, bem como teve resultado semelhante ao do tratamento com adubo mineral. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com a aplicação dos biossólidos úmido e seco. Com relação à nutrição mineral, foi observado aumento da concentração dos elementos P, Ca e Zn nas folhas com as maiores doses dos biossólidos, e verificou-se efeito inverso de Mn. As concentrações foliares de todos os nutrientes nos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos mantiveram-se dentro dos limites observados usualmente nas plantações comerciais, não havendo sinais de desequilíbrio nutricional.In Brazil, several municipalities are building waste treatment plants and in the future thousands of tons of sewage sludge will be generated. Sewage sludge is the waste left

  20. Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste, com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in

  1. Eucalipto, madeira serrada, metodologia de amostragem, regressão multivariada. Log sampling of Eucalyptus grandis trees submitted to selection for sawn timber and energy purposes Amostragem de toras de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis selecionadas para finalidades de serraria e energia

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    Paulo Eduardo Telles dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By the assessment of ten technological traits of eucalypt wood for sawn timber and energy purposes,
    it was developed a multivariate statistical procedure in order to determine the sequence of logs to be sampled, in such a way to represent all statistical variation contained within the tree and, accordingly, to establish the appropriate sampling intensity. In the present work, it was used a total of 40 logs from four trees of Eucalyptus grandis provenance Concórdia-SC aged 18 years. By using principal components regression analysis and stepwise selection techniques, it was showed that only two logs, corresponding to the first (0.05 m to 2.60 m and fourth (8.85 m to 11.40 m positions into the tree, contained 99.2 % of the total variation detected originally. In the case of adopting a single log, the recommendation was over the fourth log, which represented 97.5 % of the total
    amount of the original variation. For the referred  population, the statistical procedure contributed substantially to reduce the high time-consuming and financial costs that are normally associated to studies oriented to this goal, without affecting the original statistical information exhibited by the whole group of logs that would be usually sampled.A partir da avaliação de dez características tecnológicas de madeira de eucalipto para fins de serraria e energia, desenvolveu-se procedimento estatístico multivariado para se determinar a seqüência de toras a ser amostrada, de forma a representar acumuladamente toda a variação estatística presente na árvore e, com isso, estabelecer a intensidade adequada de amostragem. Neste estudo, foram utilizadas 40 toras oriundas de quatro árvores de Eucalyptus grandis aos 18 anos de idade procedentes de Concórdia, SC. Com o uso de técnicas de regressão multivariada de componentes principais e seleção por etapas, chegou-se à conclusão que amostrandose apenas duas toras, correspondentes à primeira (0,05 m a 2

  2. Seleção de modelos polinomiais para representar o perfil e volume do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. Selection of polynomial models to represent the profile and volume of the bole of Tectona grandisL.f.

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    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A precisão do volume de um povoamento florestal torna-se importante à medida que as empresas florestais integram verticalmente suas atividades e o resíduo da elaboração de um produto torna-se matéria-prima para outros. Os estudos realizados objetivaram avaliar a acurácia dos modelos polinomiais propostos por Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 e Goulding & Murray (1976, na estimativa dos diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. de quatro povoamentos localizados na microrregião do Baixo Rio Acre e, ainda, testar a identidade do melhor modelo polinomial, avaliando-se a adequação de manter as áreas agrupadas ou segregá-las em grupos menores ou individualmente. A base de dados foi constituída de 159 árvores cubadas rigorosamente. Na avaliação da acurácia dos modelos foram empregadas estatísticas de desvio médio, desvio padrão das diferenças, soma dos quadrados dos resíduos relativos e resíduos percentuais. O modelo Goulding & Murray (1976 gerou as melhores estimativas de diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste, seguido pelos modelos Hradetzky (1976 e Schöepfer (1966. O teste de identidade de modelo mostrou ser mais adequado realizar ajustes independentes para as áreas 1 e 4 e para o subgrupo 2 e 3.The precise estimate of the volume of a forest stand become important as forest enterprises integrate vertically their activities and the residue of the manufacture of a product becomes the raw material for the manufacture of other. The accomplished studies aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the polynomial models proposed by Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 and Goulding & Murray (1976 in the estimate of the diameters and volumes along the bole of Tectona grandis L.f from four stands situated in the Baixo Rio Acre micro region and further, to test the identity of the best polynomial model by evaluating the adequacy of maintaining the grouped areas or segregate them into smaller groups or singly. The data base was

  3. Diversidade de Carabidae (Coleoptera) Amostrados em Áreas de Reflorestamento de Mata Ciliar e Fragmento Florestal, no Estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Quinteiro; José Lopes; Ivan Martins

    2012-01-01

    Carabidae são Coleoptera com a maioria de suas espécies apresentando hábito alimentar predatório. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a diversidade e abundância da família Carabidae (Coleoptera) em áreas de fragmento florestal e em áreas de reflorestamento de mata ciliar, evidenciando a importância deste grupo como indicador da biodiversidade em relação ao sucesso do reflorestamento. Os besouros foram amostrados por meio de armadilhas de solo pitfall, em fragmentos florestais e reflor...

  4. Contribution of a second diameter in estimating individual volume in young stands of Tectona grandis L.f.=Contribuição de um segundo diâmetro na estimação de volume individual de plantios jovens de Tectona grandis L.f.

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    Mateus Niroh Inoue Sanquetta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the individual volume of trees with precision and without bias is a prerequisite of a quality forest inventory. The most common methods are based on application of the average form factor, or on single or double entry equations. This study proposes models with two diameters as independent variables to estimate the commercial volume of Tectona grandis, with a view to improving precision and reducing bias. Thirty-five trees from commercial plantation of 4-5 years old, in the town of Redenção, in the State of Pará, were rigorously cubed using the Smalian method of scaling. Diameters at different heights were correlated with actual volume. Three new volumetric models based on two diameters were proposed, without the addition of tree height as a variable. These models were compared with others, which are traditionally used in forest inventories. The model with the best fit uses the diameter at breast height (dap and at a height of 4.0 m (d4.0 as independent variables. The operational difficulties of using d4.0 are discussed. Models that use the dap and the diameter at 2.0 m (d2.0 were considered the most satisfactory, as they are more accurate and practical than classic models, and operationally more feasible than the model using d4,0. The conclusion was that there are other diameters that are more correlated with volume than dap, and that the introduction of a second diameter improves volume estimates, even without the inclusion of height as a variable.

  5. Nutrient Uptake of Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis Seedlings in Response to Different Nitrogen Exponential Regimes%不同浓度指数施肥方法下尾巨桉幼苗需肥规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华林; 谢耀坚; 彭彦

    2013-01-01

    An exponential fertilization trail was conducted with five dose levels (applying a total of 0,50,100,150,200 mg) of nitrogen to assess the effects on different nitrogen levels on the growth,quality and nutrient status of Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis seedlings.The objective of this study was to reveal the nitrogen demand and determine the optimal nitrogen amount for E.urophylla×E.grandis seedlings.It was indicated that the height,ground diameter,biomass,SPAD value and quality index of seedlings increased with the increase of N supply,up to 100 mg,after then the ground diameter,biomass and quality index were unchanged,but the height and SPAD value remarkably decreased.The biomass of seedling was found positively significant correlation with the height,ground diameter,QI and SPAD value.Critical level approach was used for identifying N,P and K deficiencies of E.urophylla×E.grandis seedlings,and the critical values of N,P and K was 26.6,3.8 and 16.5 g/kg,while their optimal concentrations was ranged from 26.6 to 38.5,3.8 to 5.3,16.5 to 21.4 g/kg,respectively.In conclusion,100mg would be the optimal nitrogen amount for E.urophylla×E.grandis seedlings.%设置每株施N 0、50、100、150、200 mg的5个氮素水平处理,进行尾巨桉幼苗指数施肥试验,探讨不同氮素供应水平对其幼苗生长、质量及养分含量的影响,揭示尾巨桉幼苗的氮素需求特征,确定其适宜施氮量.结果表明:(1)随着施氮量的增加,尾巨桉幼苗的苗高、地径、生物量、SPAD值与苗木质量指数也随之增大,当施氮量大于100 mg株后苗木地径、生物量和苗木质量指数基本趋于稳定,而苗高和SPAD值则显著减小;(2)尾巨桉幼苗的生物量与苗高、地径、SPAD值以及苗木质量指数都存在极显著的正相关;(3)运用临界浓度法确定出尾巨桉幼苗N、P、K含量的临界值分别为26.6、3.8、16.5 g/kg,最适含量范围分别为26.6~38.5、3.8~5.3、16.5~21.4g/kg; (4)综合

  6. Rita De Grandis, Reciclaje cultural y memoria revolucionaria. La práctica polémica de José Pablo Feinmann : Buenos Aires, Biblos, 2006, 239 páginas

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Este estudio sobre la escritura de José Pablo Feinmann —la cual se desarrolla desde la década del setenta hasta el presente— es mucho más que el desentrañamiento de las formas que esa escritura fue adoptando con los años. Lo que se propone y logra Rita De Grandis es establecer las condiciones de producción de los textos, marcados por las tensiones del campo cultural y político de los años setenta, época que se constituye en el punto axial en torno del que giran las polémicas y preocupaciones ...

  7. 巨桉林下马勃分子系统发育的关系%Analysis of Puffballs' Phylogenetic Relationships from Eucalyptus grandis Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘欣; 张健; 朱天辉; 梁洪萍

    2011-01-01

    Mycelia were cultivated from a fruiting body of puffballs which were collected from the Eucalyptus grandis forest, and the genomic DNA was extracted as template. Subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rDNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The phylogenetic tree of puffballs was first built based on different part of ITS region. The results showed that six species of puffballs were cultivated successfully using a PDA medium after comparing the sequences of puffballs fruiting body and mycelium ITS regions. The rDNA-ITS region of different puffballs was 607 bp to 766 bp in length. Analysis of phylogenesis revealed that the Scleroderma had close genetic relationships with Pisolithus , Calvatia , Lycoperdon and Vascellum. The three undetermined species, Scleroderma sp. 11-1, Scleroderma sp.2-2 and Scleroderma sp. 5-2, could probably be S. aurantium. The sequence of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 can be used as an evolutionary marker between different genus, and ITS2 as an evolutionary marker in genus. Thus, this work laid a foundation for studying the ectotrophic mycorrhiza, the mechanisms of action, the classification of puffballs and its exploitation and utilization.%采集巨桉林下马勃子实体,培养其菌丝体,提取子实体及菌丝体基因组DNA,进行rDNA-ITS区序列的扩增、克隆和序列测定,并对rDNA-ITS不同区域作序列分析,首次构建马勃的系统发育树.结果表明:野外采集获得马勃子实体l0种,其中成功培养6种,测序结果表明马勃rDNA-ITS区长度在607~766 bp之间,系统发育分析表明硬皮马勃属(Scleroderma)与豆包菌(Pisolithus)亲缘关系较近,秃马勃属(Calvatia)、马勃属(Lycoperdon)及横膜马勃属(Vascellum)之间亲缘关系较近,ITSl-5.8S rDNA-ITS2区可建立马勃类真菌属间系统发育树,ITS2区可用于建立马勃类真菌属内系统发育树,3个待定种硬皮马勃Scleroderma sp.11-1,Scleroderma sp.2-2和Scleroderma sp.5-2为金黄硬皮马勃(S

  8. UN NUOVO DUVALIUS DELL’UMBRIA, APPARTENENTE A UNA NUOVA LINEA FILETICA (Coleoptera, Carabidae

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    Paolo Magrini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nella presente nota viene descritto Duvalius irmoi n. sp. dell’Umbria (Grotta Lo Sprofondo, N° 420 U/Pg, Monte Tezio, si tratta di una specie anoftalma e depigmentata che probabilmente abita l’MSS più che le cavità tettoniche di ampie dimensioni della zona. La specie presenta una lamella copulatrice di forma singolare, piccola, con una lamina biforcuta conformata a doccia, sormontata da un fanero mediano impari quadrangolare di grandi dimensioni. La struttura singolare della lamella pone questa specie come capostipite di un nuovo gruppo, che denominiamo “gruppo irmoi” e la sua localizzazione all’interno del Triangolo Etrusco (delimitato dai fiumi Arno, Tevere e costa tirrenica e finora privo di nuovi rappresentanti di questo genere fa pensare che ulteriori ricerche in quest’area geografica porteranno al reperimento di nuovi taxa similari. Questo nuovo gruppo si pone a metà strada fra il “gruppo vallombrosus”, diffuso più a nord (Toscana-Romagna e il “gruppo straneoi” diffuso più a sud (Umbria-Lazio-Marche-Abruzzi: la lamina principale dell’endofallo ricorda quella di alcuni Duvalius del “gruppo vallombrosus”, ma è priva del vistoso pacco rotondeggiante di spine presente in questo gruppo (v. iconografia del testo, che è sostituito da un ampio fanero mediano impari, simile a quello di alcune specie del “gruppo straneoi”.

  9. Morphological and cytological studies on hybrid from Roegneria grandis × R. Alashanica(Poaceae:Triticeae)%大鹅观草与阿拉善鹅观草杂种的形态学和细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琴; 周永红; 郑有良; 杨瑞武; 丁春帮

    2002-01-01

    为探讨阿拉善鹅观草R. alashanica Keng的染色体组组成,进行了大鹅观草R. grandis Keng (2n=24,StStYY)和阿拉善鹅观草种间杂交,对这两个种及其杂种F1的形态学、繁育学和减数分裂染色体配对行为进行了研究.结果表明:杂种F1的形态特征介于父母本之间,其花粉母细胞减数分裂染色体平均构型为: 20.40Ⅰ+3.69Ⅱ+0.09Ⅲ+0.04Ⅳ.表明阿拉善鹅观草含有一个修饰的St基因组,即Sta.%Interspecific hybridization was carried out between Roegneria alashanica Keng and Roegneria grandis Keng (2n=24. StStYY). The morphology, fertility and chromosome pairing behavior in meiosis of the parents and their hybrid F1 were studied to determine the genomic constitution of R. alashanica. The F1 hybrid appeared intermadiate between the two parents. The meiotic configuration of the hybrid was 20.40 unvalents + 3.69 bivalents + 0.09 trivalents + 0.04 quadrivalents. The results indicated that R. alashanica has one slightly modified St genome, be designated as Sta.

  10. Agrupamento de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em função das variáveis dendrométricas e das caracteristicas tecnológicas da madeira

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    Merielen Lopes de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this study is to cluster selected trees of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden as a function of phenotypic, dendrometric and wood technology characteristics. In a 27 years old commercial stand, located in the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, 63 selected trees were cut down and classified to the phenotypic and dendrometric characteristics. Then, disks were taken at the base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height, and at the DBH, for basic density determination. From the two first logs above the DBH boards parallel to the pith were taken, with 25mm of thickness, for sawn wood qualitative evaluation. The selected trees were grouped into four distinct groups following cluster analysis. In Group I were classified the trees with a lower tendency of presenting boards with end splits while in Groups II and III were classified the trees with a lower tendency of presenting logs with end splits and, in Group IV were classified the trees with a higher tendency of presenting end splits of the boards and the logs. For these groups, by discriminant analysis, there were identified five variables with real power of discrimination (DBH, estimated log split perimeter, ratio height/diameter (rh/d, type of bark and sapwood volumetric percentage and three discriminant functions. The technique of the multivariate analyze was an efficient method of grouping the selected trees of Eucalyptus grandis. The discriminant analysis enabled the selection of variables with real power of sorting the trees and determinating the discriminant functions that allow the allocation of future trees in the cluster.

  11. Effets de lisière sur la productivité du teck (Tectona grandis L.f.: étude de cas des teckeraies privées du Sud-Bénin

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    Toyi, MS.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge Effects on the Productivity of Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.: a Case Study of Private Teak Plantations in Southern Benin. The present study aims to improve the production of teak wood (Tectona grandis L.f. in private plantations in southern Benin through the application of a central concept in landscape ecology: the edge effect. As teak is an heliophilous species, the hypothesis of a higher wood production in edges was tested on the basis of the basal area. Sixty-two private teak plantations were investigated and 10,667 trees were measured. The stratified sampling scheme in three distinct parts for each plantation (the centre, the edge and the summits permitted to highlight the edge effect on wood production. For each part, a plot was installed and the diameter at breast height (dbh was measured for all trees. The leaf area between the edge and the centre of plantations was measured. Finally, the influence of the spatial configuration of plantations and the direction of each side of these plantations on the production of wood was tested. Results show that the edge effect on the production of teak wood affects four planting lines, the first presenting a production of 150% relative to the centre. We noticed a significant influence of the edge on the leaf area of about 218% relative to the centre. No influence of the direction of the sides of the plantation was observed. The shape of the plantations presents a significant influence on the wood production. These results permitted to propose a planting model included in an agroforestry system that optimizes the production of wood per area and having a succession of two planting lines interrupted by fields.

  12. Locomotor activity of Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae on Chilean sandy beaches Actividad locomotora de Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, enebrionidae en playas arenosas chilenas

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    EDUARDO JARAMILLO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The locomotor activity of the beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae was studied on the surface of the substrate in two sandy beaches of the Chilean coast: one in north central (ca. 29ºS and the other in south central Chile (ca.39ºS. During the summer period of 1991 the circadian locomotor activity was studied in the southern beach, while during that of 1997 in both beaches. To analyze the activity, pitfall traps were used which were ordered along two transects extended between the upper beach and the resurgence zone. The traps were checked (i.e. collection of captured insects every two hours for a total period of 26 hours. The results showed that the adults of P. maculata were mostly active during the night hours, whereas the larvae were active during both, the day and night. Studies carried out in the beach located in south central Chile show that differences in the tidal range (neap vs. spring tides do not affect the activity patterns. During the locomotor activity, adult and larvae move to lower intertidal levels than those usually occupied while buried. Results of laboratory experiments using actographs under conditions of darkness and constant temperature, suggest that adults and larvae of P. maculata presented a circadian rhythm similar to that observed in the field experiments. It is concluded that P. maculata presents a behaviour that appear to be under control of an endogenous rhythm, without showing differences in the circadian rhythm of activity when beaches located at different latitudes are comparedSe estudió la actividad locomotriz del escarabajo Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae sobre la superficie del sustrato de dos playas arenosas de la costa de Chile: una en el centro norte (ca. 29ºS y otra en el centro sur (ca. 39ºS. Durante el período estival de 1991 se estudió la actividad locomotriz circadiana en la playa del centro sur y durante el de 1997 en ambas playas. Para analizar

  13. Tipos de Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) depositados en la colección entomológica del Museo de La Plata Types of Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection

    OpenAIRE

    Analía A. Lanteri; Suárez, Sonia M.; Guadalupe del Río, M.

    2003-01-01

    Esta contribución referida al material tipo de Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) depositado en la colección entomológica del Museo de La Plata, actualiza la información sobre los tipos depositados durante los últimos diez años. Los 111 tipos examinados en este trabajo corresponden a 52 especies asignadas a las siguientes subfamilias: Curculioninae (5 spp.), Cryptorhynchinae (8 spp.), Cyclominae (4 spp.), Entiminae (31 spp.), y Erirhininae (4 spp.). Los autores de las especies son C. ...

  14. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  15. 伊朗北部Golestan省天牛科(鞘翅目)昆虫种类%The species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Golestan province, northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Najmeh SAMIN; Hamid SAKENIN

    2015-01-01

    天牛(鞘翅目Coleoptera:天牛科Cerambycidae)是树木和灌木最重要的害虫.本文记录了伊朗北部Golestan省的天牛种类,总计采集和鉴定了5亚科(Aseminae,Cerambycinae,Lamiinae,Lepturinae和Prioninae)30种天牛.

  16. Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...

  17. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  18. Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juares Fuhrmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológicas. Último instar larval e pupa do Hexoplonini sul-americano Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius, 1899 são descritos, ilustrados e disponibilizadas notas biológicas.

  19. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...

  20. Brood production by Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and growth of its fungal symbiont on artificial diet based on sawdust of different species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Blanford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is among the most important exotic pests of orchards and nurseries in the US. It attacks a wide range of hosts and is difficult to control using conventional insecticides. As part of our studies on the biology and cont...