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Sample records for anther culture response

  1. Anther Culture of Chinese Radish ( Raphanus sativus L. var. Longinnatus Bailey): Response of Different Genotypes to the Embryogenesis and the Traits of Regenerated Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aims were to ① conduct anther culture of Chinese radish varieties; ② observe the development of embryos from anther culture; ③ study the response of different genotypes to embryogenesis in anther culture; ④ observe the morphology of regenerated plantlets; ⑤ analyze the ploidy level of regenerated plantlets arising from the anther culture process. [ Method]Anthers of 15 genotypes with diverse genetic backgrounds of Chinese radish have been cultured in vitro and induced to undergo embryogenesis and plant formation. [Result] Of 15 genotypes evaluated, four produced embryos. The genotype was the main factor to influence the embryogenesis. The morphology and the ploidy of the regenerated plantlets were observed, and the anther-derived plantlets included a mix of haploids, diploids and hexaploids. Of the plants that regenerated from anther embryos 60% were diploid. [ Conclusion] The plantlets had the high ability to double spontaneously.

  2. Response of different genotypes of wheat, rice and black beans to anther, embryo and other tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the basic studies we have been conducting in our laboratory is to establish callus induction and in vitro plant regeneration protocols starting with several tissues of Guatemalan varieties of wheat (Triticum aesticum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and especially black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in order to obtain disease resistance, earliness, and dwarf plants. Wheat anthers and immature embryos of varieties Patzun, Comalapa, Chocoyo, and Xequijel cultured in N6, Potato II, and MS basal media supplemented with auxin and cytokinin gave the best responses in callus induction and plant regeneration. Anthers and mature embryos of indica rice varieties Precozicta and Virginai, when cultured in MS, B5, N6, and Potato II basal media with different hormonal combinations gave a good response in callus induction. However, a satisfactory response in plant regeneration was not obtained. With black beans, when hypocotyls and mature embryos of black bean varieties Quinack Che and Parramos were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and kinetin, more than 60% callus induction was produced. When Quinack Che calli were transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA plus 0.5 mg/l BAP, green points of regeneration were visible in these calli. (author). 34 refs, 28 tabs

  3. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  4. Anther culture studies in W. Murcott mandarin genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız AKA KAÇAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining haploid plants is one of the important tool that shorten the plant breeding process. Anther culture is one of the method used for obtaining haploid plants. Anther culture studies are carried out for several plant species. In the present study, flowers at different sizes of W. Murcott mandarin were collected at the blooming period. Stage of mononuclear microspore of anthers was determined according to method of acetocarmine. Mononuclear microspore stage of anthers was observed in flowers 4-5 mm in diameter. Anther culture experiments were carried out with 4-5 mm in diameter anthers. In this study, temperature pre-treatment was performed at 4˚C and 25˚C for two days. Surface sterilization was performed in flowers and anthers were cultured in nutrient medium N6. Anther culture assays were performed with the three different concentrations of TDZ (0 mg l-1 TDZ, 0.1 mg l-1 TDZ, 0.5 mg l-1 TDZ. Half of anthers were cultured in dark condition while the other half in 16 hours light, 8 hours dark climate room conditions. Anthers containing mononuclear microspore stage were cultured and, changes occurring in the anther explants were discussed in the article.

  5. Attempts to induce haploids in anther cultures of sugar, fodder and wild species of beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Rogozińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, aimed at obtaining beet haploids from anthers, the effect of mineral media, potato and sugar beet extract and p-fluorophenylalanine (PFP in combination with growth substances was tested. Nutrient-starved plants as anther-donors, anther-starvation, cold treatment and photoperiod were also analysed. On all mineral media the anthers produced callus and roots; however, the percentage depended on the combination of growth substances used. The best medium for differentiation was that of Linsmaier and Skoog with 25 µM zeatin or 6-(3-methyl-2-butenylaminopurine with 5 µM naphthalene-l-acetic acid (25.5%. The addition of PFP caused an increase in the percentage of anther differentiation (41.6%. Besides callus and roots on one of the anthers (in ca. 140000 tested, vegetative buds were formed from which numerous plants were obtained (2n. Plant and anther nutrient starvation did not improve the anther response to differentiation, nor did it induce haploid development, similarly as cold treatment of inflorescences or isolated anthers. The anthers of wild species showed lower ability to differentiate than those of sugar or fodder beets. Cytological analyses showed formation of multicellular structures until ca. the 12-th day of anther culture; afterwards, they degenerated.

  6. Using silicon to enhance rice anther culture efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBaoshen; CHENCuixia; YINLiqing; ZHANGJianjun

    1997-01-01

    Silicon is one of essential elements for rice growth. Deficiency of silicon in plants would affect the physiological metabolism of rice.Considering the important role of silicon to rice and no silicon being used in ordinary anther culture medium, we added absorbable silicon at different concentrations into either or both in-duction media (IM), differentiation media(DM) to study the effect of silicon on anther culture efficiency.

  7. Using Anther Culture Method for Flax Breeding Intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Miķelsone, Andra; Grauda, Dace; Stramkale, Veneranda; Ornicāns, Reinis; Rashal, Isaak

    2015-01-01

    Flax breeding is a long and complicated process based on hybridization and following selection of the best plants. Because of possible occasional cross-pollination the development of genetically stable homozygous lines could last more than 15 years. For more rapid creating of initial material for flax breeding anther culture methods for producing doubled haploid (DH) lines could be used successfully. The goal of this study was to develop the best anther culture protocol for producing DH lines...

  8. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Galli; Judith Viégas; Eliane Augustin; Marcia Ines Eckert; João Baptista da Silva

    1998-01-01

    Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, st...

  9. Combined effect of induced mutations and media for improving genetic architecture of brassica through anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and media effect on the anther culture response of two brassica napus varieties (i.e. Pak cheen and Salam) were studied. It was observed that low doses of gamma radiation (100-250 rads) enhanced the anther callusing response of the varieties on both of the cultured media. Different genotypic response was observed in case of plant regeneration. In variety Salam Plant lets were regenerated from the calli treated up to the dose of 750 rads. However, in case of variety Pak-cheen the calli could not be differentiated beyond 100 rads. (author)

  10. Effect of the genotype and gamma irradiation on the anther cultures of a 10x10 diallel cross of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther culture responsiveness, irradiation effect and reciprocal effect were evaluated on ten genotypes (V1-V10) and a 101x0 diallel cross. Gamma irradiation dose of 100 Gy was applied to seeds of parents and F1 cross from which the donor plants were grown. Non-irradiated donor plants were also used for comparison. Anthers were plated on potato-2 callus induction medium and calli formed were transferred to MS medium supplemented with sucrose (3%), indolacetic acid (1.0 mg/L), kinetin (1.0 mg/L), inositol (100 mg/L) and solidified with agar (0.7%). Genotypes showed big differences for callus induction, plant regeneration and anther culturability rate. The most responsive materials were V2, V10 and V5 with 76.0, 27.4 and 10.8 green plants per 100 anthers respectively. No irradiation effect was found for the parents nor the F1 crosses on the pooled data. Mean anther culture response of specific genotypes showed that irradiation significantly increased anther culturability rate of V3 from 0.1 to 27.6 green plants per 100 anthers. No reciprocal effect was observed. (author)

  11. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33% and callus yield (119%, while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively. Seven genotypes (50% had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers of over 10%, with the highest frequency of 21.3% (NS111-95/Sremica. This hybrid produced 12.8 doubled haploid (DH lines per spike used for isolation. In the other genotypes, the number of produced DH lines per spike ranged from 1 (30­Sc.Smoc.88-89/Hays-2 to 11.2 (NS111-95/Ana. As half of the randomly selected genotypes exhibited high green plant regeneration ability and a high production of DH lines per spike, it can be concluded that in vitro anther culture can be successfully used in breeding programs for rapid production of homozygous wheat lines.

  12. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  13. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galli

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via calogênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias.

  14. M8-An effective medium for anther culture of indica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEIChuansheng; ZHANGJinyu; WuGuangnan

    1992-01-01

    A new dedifferentiation medium (MS) was developed, which greatly improved the efficiency of anther culture of indica rive. The percentage of green plantlets for anthers inoculated on M8 medium was 40% higher than that on N6 medium in 6 cultivars and it was 2.6%, on average, on M8 medium in more than 20 cultivars and lines,

  15. Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Marcus Vinicius

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The anther culture technique has been used in breeding programs to obtain haploid plants from hybrid plants of F1 generation and to develop more efficiently wheat cultivars. To study the behavior of dihaploid wheat lines and two check cultivars, IAC-24 and IAC-289, experiments were carried out under sprinkler irrigation at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in an Haplic Acrisol and at Tatuí, SP, Brazil, in a Rhodic Ferrasol, during the years 1999 and 2000. Genotypes were evaluated for grain yield, 100 grain weight, plant height, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm. and lodging. The genotypes were also evaluated under laboratory conditions for their Al+3 toxicity tolerance using nutrient solutions. The line 8, originated from ANA/IAC-24 cross, presented high grain yield, semidwarf plant type, heavy grain, leaf rust resistance and tolerance to Al+3 toxicity. The lines 4, 11, 12 and 14, also presented high tolerance to Al+3 toxicity in association to grain yield above 3.000 kg ha-1. These lines are suitable to be used in breeding programs to develop cultivars for acid soils.

  16. Effect of medium osmotic potential on callus induction and shoot regeneration in flax anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yurong; Dribnenki, Paul

    2004-11-01

    Development of an efficient and cost-effective doubled haploid production system in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the prerequisite for the application of doubled haploid technology in a practical breeding program. Pre-culture of anthers on a medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days before transfer to the same medium containing 6% sucrose for a total of 28 days culture period significantly increased shoot regeneration for all four genotypes evaluated. Moreover, pre-culture of anthers on medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days was sufficient to dramatically reduce the frequency of shoot regeneration from somatic tissues and thereby to increase the frequency of microspore-derived plants in flax anther culture. Furthermore, replacing 15% sucrose with 6% sucrose and 9% polyethylene glycol (PEG), or 3% sucrose and 12% PEG, in pre-culture medium did not significantly affect callus induction and shoot regeneration. The results indicate that sucrose may act as carbon/energy source as well as an osmotic regulator in flax anther culture. Sucrose as an osmotic regulator may be replaced by a non-metabolizable osmoticum: PEG. The implication of this study in flax anther culture and breeding is discussed. PMID:15235814

  17. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica; Kobiljski Boris; Hristov Nikola

    2007-01-01

    Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33%) and callus yield (119%), while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively). Seven genotypes (50%) had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers o...

  18. Improvement of rice anther culture and application of the technique in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for different rice type and varieties in anther culture. The differentiation and regeneration of green plants were obviously improved when the rice anthers at about 30 d after culture on induction medium were irradiated with 20 Gy of γ-rays and calli were cultured on the differentiation medium containing 30 mg/L colchicines. The stimulation effect of γ-irradiation combined with colchicines was much better than that of their single use. Mutation frequency and selective efficiency in M2 were obviously increased by application of the technique

  19. Microspore Embryogenesis Through Anther Culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is a biotechnological method that allows to obtain, in one step, homozygous plants, very important to plant breeding, due to their numerous applications in mutation research, selection, genome sequencing, genetic analysis, and transformation. To induce the microspores, i.e., the immature male gametes, to switch from the normal gametophytic pathway to the sporophytic one, it is necessary to submit them to a type of stress, such as high or low temperature, starvation, or magnetic field. Stress can be applied to the donor plants and/or the floral buds or the anthers or the isolated microspores, before or during the culture. In this chapter, the protocol to induce gametic embryogenesis from anther culture of several cultivars of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. is reported.

  20. Microspore Embryogenesis Through Anther Culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is a biotechnological method that allows to obtain, in one step, homozygous plants, very important to plant breeding, due to their numerous applications in mutation research, selection, genome sequencing, genetic analysis, and transformation. To induce the microspores, i.e., the immature male gametes, to switch from the normal gametophytic pathway to the sporophytic one, it is necessary to submit them to a type of stress, such as high or low temperature, starvation, or magnetic field. Stress can be applied to the donor plants and/or the floral buds or the anthers or the isolated microspores, before or during the culture. In this chapter, the protocol to induce gametic embryogenesis from anther culture of several cultivars of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. is reported. PMID:26619882

  1. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  2. Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M.;

    2014-01-01

    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids...... with the application of multiple stress pre-treatments such as centrifugation and osmotic shock for genotypes of interest in chickpea for their direct use in breeding programs. Four genotypes, ICC 4958, WR315, ICCV 95423 and Arearti were tested for anther culture experiments. The yield was shown to be consistent...... with 3-5 nucleate microspores and 2-7 celled structures with no further growth. To gain a further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the switch from microsporogenesis to androgenesis, bioinformatics tools were employed. The challenges on the roles of such genes were reviewed while an attempt...

  3. Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng-min; ZHAO Yu-kai; WEI Jian-he; ZHAO Li-zi; SUI Chun; ZHANG Zheng; CUI Lu-ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes,anther developmental stages,and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense.Methods The different effects such as four genotypes,plant growth regulators,and temperature condition were compared in the experiments.The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture.Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao(ZCYH),Z4,and Z5 at the early-to middle-uninucleate stages,except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage.Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus,in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH,respectively.No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D).The highest regeneration rate (34.6%)was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA).The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis.Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12)with only one haploid plant(n = 6).Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation,we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue,instead of microspore by histological observations.Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system.This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture orB.chinense.

  4. Pollen—embryogenesis and chromosomal variability in anther culture of Brassica hirta Moench (Sinapis alba L)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAJAJYPS; DMOHAPTRA

    1990-01-01

    The anther cultures of Brassica hirta underwent pollenembryogenesis and callusing,which showed a wide range of chromosome numbers varying from 9 (n=12) to a highly polyploid.For embryogenesis,pretreatment of floral buds in 0.4 M sucrose solution for 72 hrs at 4℃ was superior to freshly cultured anthers.Culture temperature of 30℃ for 14 days before maintenance of cultures at 25℃ was significantly beneficial for embryo yield in comparison to cultures continuously incubated at 25℃.Dark treatment during culture was more effective for pollen-embryo yield.

  5. Antimitotic agents increase the production of doubled-haploid embryos from cork oak anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos, Beatriz; Manzanera, Jose A; Bueno, Maria A

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study is to induce the nuclear DNA duplication of anther-derived embryos of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to obtain doubled-haploid plants. Anther culture of this species produces a low percentage (7.78%) of spontaneous diploids, as assessed by flow cytometry. Therefore, three antimitotic agents, colchicine, oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM), were applied in vitro to anther-derived cork oak haploid embryos from six genotypes at different concentrations and for different treatment durations. Antimitotic toxicity was determined by embryo survival. Efficiency in inducing chromosome doubling of haploid embryos was evaluated by flow cytometry measurements and differences were observed between treatments. Nuclear DNA duplication and embryo survival of cork oak haploid embryos was most efficiently induced with oryzalin 0.01 mM for 48 h. Around 50% diploid embryos were obtained. The rate of chromosome duplication induced by APM 0.01 mM was also acceptable but lower than that induced by oryzalin, regardless of the duration of the treatment. Colchicine 1.3 or 8.8 mM was the least efficient, with the induction of necrosis and only a small rate of nuclear DNA duplication.

  6. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  7. A summary and discussion on rice anther culture techniques%水稻花药培养技术的总结与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季彪俊; 陈启锋; 黄群策; 李维明

    2001-01-01

    Rice anther culture techniques including major physical-chemical factors affecting culture capacity, utilization of genetic characters of anther culture progeny and the key of application of anther culture techniques tobreeding are reviewed. Meanwhile the points which need to be further researched on anther culture techniquesand their application to genetics and breeding are put forward, and the prospects of rice anther culture are discussed.%总结了水稻花药培养(花培)技术中影响培养力的主要理化因素、花培后代遗传特性的利用、花培技术育种应用的关键,分析提出花培技术和遗传育种应用需要深入研究的问题,并对水稻花培的发展作了初步的探讨.

  8. Regeneration of Haploid Plantlet through Anther Culture of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayhanul Kabir KHANDAKAR MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To observe the possibility of producing haploid plants of Chrysanthemum, anthers of three Korean cultivars ‘Yes Morning’, ‘Hi-Maya’, and pot cultivar ‘Peace Pink’ were cultured. Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4 °C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite.  Shoot formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from calli were shifted to basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L gelrite for rooting. The plantlets with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Fifty regenerated plantlets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation by chromosome counting and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar ‘Yes morning’.

  9. Regeneration of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska-Krause, I; Mankowska, G; Lukaszewicz, M; Szopa, J

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. The results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. All the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks to a few months before the regeneration was achieved. Anther cultures were less effective in plant regeneration than somatic cell cultures. However, regenerants derived from anther cells showed valuable breeding features, including increased resistance to fungal wilt. The age of the donor plants and the season they grew in had a noticeable effect on their anther callusing and subsequent plant regeneration. Low temperature had a negative effect and dark pre-treatment a positive effect on callusing and plant regeneration. Different media were most effective for callus induction, shoot induction and rooting. For callus induction two carbon sources (2.5% sucrose and 2.5% glucose) were most effective; for shoots, only sucrose at lower concentration (2%) was effective. Rooting was most efficient in 1% sucrose and reduced (50%) mineral concentration in the medium. It was found that the length of in vitro cultivation significantly increases the ploidy and affects such features as regenerant morphological characteristics, petal colour, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum-induced fungal wilt. The established plant regeneration system provides a basis for the creation of transgenic flax. PMID:12827441

  10. Breeding of a new early season indica rice variety Ganzaoxian 56 by irradiation, anther culture and hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzaoxian 56 is a new early season indica rice variety, which was bred in the College of Agronomy of Jiangxi Agricultural University by the integrative breeding techniques of radiation, anther culture and hybridization. Its main characteristics were as follows: super quality, high yield, high tolerance to heat-forced maturity, suitable maturity and high resistance to rice blast. It was registered by Crop Cultivar Registration Committee of Jiangxi Province on March 19, 2004. The breeding process of Ganzaoxian 56, main characteristics and the value of its exploitation and application were described in this paper. (authors)

  11. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  12. An Observe of "Anther Culture in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro"%《辣椒花药离体培养》评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素文; 黄亚杰; 肖瑜; 张斌

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of reading the existing relative documents about pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) in vitro anther culture, this paper summarizes and comments a newly published article "Anther Culture in Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro" on the Acta Physiol Plant in 2011 from the effects of several main factors on pepper anther culture, plant regeneration ploidy identification and plant chromosome doubling ect. The authors think this article has briefly introduced the present status of pepper in vitro anther culture abroad, and the existing problems, which is of certain reference value.%在阅读已有辣椒花药离体培养相关文献的基础上,从影响辣椒花药培养的几个主要因素、再生植株倍性鉴定及植株染色体加倍等方面,总结并评述了最近国外发表的一篇文章《辣椒花药离体培养》,认为该文章概括了目前国外辣椒花药离体培养的现状及存在的问题,具有一定参考价值.

  13. 芦笋花药愈伤组织诱导技术研究%Preliminary Study on Anther Culture Callus Inducement of Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元国; 李芳; 包艳存

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对芦笋花药愈伤组织诱导培养技术进行详细研究.[方法]以MS为基本培养基,附加外源激素对二倍体花药愈伤组织诱导技术进行研究.[结果]二倍体芦笋花蕾长度为1.5~2.0 mm时,其诱导效果最好;采用5%高糖浓度可显著抑制花药体细胞分裂和提高花粉愈伤组织诱导率;同一品种不同植株花药愈伤组织诱导率差异显著;适合于二倍体花药愈伤组织诱导的激素配比是1.0 mg/LNAA+ 1.0 mg/L BA.[结论]为芦笋的品种改良与选育奠定了基础.%To study anther culture callus inducement of asparagus in detail. [Method] The diploid anther callus inducement was studied by MS as basic medium with exogenous hormone. [ Result] The length of the diploid bud was 1. 5 - 2. 0 mm which induced result best; The high sugar density of 5% can repress the anther somatic cell division remarkably and improved the inducement rate of pollens callus; The callus inducement rate of the same plant with different species differed greatly; The suitable hormone proportion of diploid anther callus was 1.0 mg/L NAA + 1.0 mg/L BA. [ Conclusion] The study will lay a foundation for improvement and breeding of asparagus.

  14. The Callus Induction of Asparagus“Champion” Anther Culture%芦笋“冠军”花药培养愈伤组织的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包艳存; 李书华; 李霞; 李芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to study asparagus“champion” anther culture technique. [Method] Using the F1 hybrid asparagus variety“champion” as the test material, callus induction in tissue culture process and effects of growth regulator on callus differentiation were studied. [Result] The results showed that using 0. 1% mercuric chloride sterilization 5 min, inoculated on the MS solid medium by adding NAA0. 8 mg/L + 6-BA 2. 0 mg/L of darkness first 10 days, and then light culture, anther callus induction rate reached about 16. 5%. [Conclusion] The asparagus“champion” anther culture technical system is established, which will lay a foundation for carrying out asparagus all male breeding.%[目的]研究芦笋“冠军”花药培养技术。[方法]以杂交一代品种“冠军”为试验材料,研究花药组培过程中影响愈伤组织诱导的因素及生长调节剂对愈伤分化成苗的影响。[结果]采用0.1%升汞灭菌5 min,再接种在添加NAA 0.8 mg/L+6-BA 2.0 mg/L的 MS固体培养基上先暗培养10 d,再光照培养,花药愈伤组织诱导率较高,达16.5%左右。[结论]建立了芦笋“冠军”花药培养技术体系,为开展芦笋全雄育种奠定基础。

  15. Study on Influencing Factors of Rice Anther Tissue Culture%水稻花药培养的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文东; 李修平; 李智媛

    2013-01-01

    为更好地研究水稻单倍体育种和转基因技术,加速水稻育种进程,以10份寒地水稻品种为试验材料,采用单因素试验方法,研究培养基的琼脂浓度、激素配比、马铃薯水提取液附加物添加及培养方式等因素对水稻花药培养愈伤组织诱导率的影响,优化寒地水稻品种花药组织培养条件。结果表明:10个品种花药组织培养,愈伤组织诱导率差异明显;在琼脂浓度为0.75%左右时,愈伤组织的诱导率达到最高;培养基中激素配比为KT(2 mg·L-1)+IAA(1 mg·L-1)时诱导效果最佳;培养方式研究中,在双态培养方式下花药愈伤组织诱导率最好,其次为液态培养,再次为固态培养;培养基中添加马铃薯水提取液各处理间差异不显著。%In order to study rice haploid breeding and transgenic technology better and to accelerate the process of rice breeding ,taking 10 rice varieties in cold region as experimental materials ,single factor experiment was a-dopt to study the effect of agar concentration ,hormone conbination ,potatoes water extract ,culture method and other factors on callus induction rate of rice anther culture ,anther tissue culture conditions of rice varieties in cold region was optimized .The results showed that 10 varieties of anther was cultured and the difference of an-ther callus induction rate was obvious .Agar concentration was about 0 .75% ,the callus induction rate reached the highest .When the hormone combination was KT (2 mg·L-1 )+ IAA (1 mg·L-1 ) ,induction effect was the best .The callus induction rate of double layer’s medium culture was the best followed by liquid culture ,again for solid culture .Potatoes water extract addition showed there was no significant difference in different treat-ments .

  16. 植物生长调节剂TDZ在草莓花药培养中的应用%Application of Plant Growth Regulator TDZ in Strawberry Anther Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬东; 张丽; 马洪爱; 陈晓军; 宋玉霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨植物生长调节剂TDE在草莓花药培养中的应用.[方法]采用不同浓度TDZ与NAA植物生长素进行组合,观察其对草莓愈伤组织诱导及其分化的影响.[结果]Ms+TDZ 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L适用于草莓愈伤组织的分化,分化率高达75%,但TDZ时草莓愈伤组织的诱导无显著作用.[结论]该研究结果为草莓通过花药培养途径进行规模生产提供了参考.%[ Objective] The aim was to investigate the application of plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in strawberry anther culture.[ Method ] Different combinations of TDZ and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) auxine with different concentrations were used for induction culture, and then its effect on callus induction and plant regeneration were observed. [ Result] The combination of 1.0 mg/L TDZ + 0.5 mg/L NAA was effective to accelerating the differentiation and regeneration of strawberries, and the differentiation ratio was as high as 75%. However, TDZ showed insignificant effect on strawberries anther induction. [ Conclusion] This research had provided reference for large-scale production of strawberry through anther culture.

  17. Culturally responsive literacy instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Algozzine, Bob; Obiakor, Festus E

    2008-01-01

    Improve reading achievement for students from diverse backgrounds with research-supported practices and culturally responsive interventions in phonemic awareness, phonics/decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.

  18. Chromosome Doubling Technique for Anther Culture of Winter Wheat%小麦花培苗染色体加倍技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽萍; 朱晋云; 李楠

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase chromosome doubling frequency for anther culture of winter wheat, the callus, roots of regenerative plants and tillering node were treated respectively with different concentration of colchicine. The result showed that there were 33.3%~61.5% setting percentage in the treated callus with 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ colchicine soluion. After soaking roots of regenerative plants for 5 hours using 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ colchicine soluion, the average setting percentage reached 37.5%. The setting percentage were over 50% in tillering node soaked for 5~10 hours using 0.04‰ colchicine soluion and 1‰dimethylsulfoxide.%为了提高冬小麦花培苗染色体加倍效率,分别用不同浓度的秋水仙碱对参试的冬小麦材料的花药愈伤组织、再生植株根系和花培苗分蘖节进行了加倍处理。结果表明,用0.02‰和0.05‰秋水仙碱浓度处理的愈伤组织再生植株结实率达33.3%~61.5%。用0.2%的秋水仙碱浸根处理5h,结实株率平均高达37.5%。用0.04%的秋水仙碱1%的二甲亚砜溶液浸泡分蘖节的时间应在5~10h之间较为适宜,结实株率平均可达50%以上。

  19. QTL analysis of the rice seedling cold tolerance in a double haploid population derived from anther culture of a hybrid between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A doubled haploid population,derived from anther culture of Fl hybrid between a typical indica cv.and a japonica cv.has been used to investigate the seedling cold tolerance (SCT) in growth cabinet.By dynamically analyzing every day's survival percentages of the parents and DH lines under 7-d cold plus 9-d normal temperature condition,the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SCT have been mapped based on a molecular linkage map constructed from this population.The results show that two parents had significant differences in SCT and the segregation of SCT in DH lines was basically a continuous distribution with most serious injury on the 6th d of the cold treatment.A total of 4 QTLs for SCT have been identified on chromosomes 1,2,3 and 4 respectively.The additive effects of qSCT-1,qSCT-2 and qSCT-3 have been contributed by the japonica cv JX17,but that of qSCT-4 has been contributed by the indica cv ZYQ8.The mechanism of SCT seems complicated since the above 4 QTLs detected at different stages during the treatment.Further study on the genotypes for these SCT QTLs in the DH lines shows transgressive segregation.It is demonstrated that the lines with stronger SCT over JXl7 have 3-4 loci for SCT.Integration of these QTLs into an appropriate variety may lead to a successful rice breeding program for cold tolerance.

  20. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  1. Responses of different genotypes on development of callus from anther cultures of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uninuclear microspores of 20 different genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were cultivated on three different induction media. Callus formation rates ranged from 1-66% (on average 13% in 1984 and 35% in 1985). The highest percentage of callus formation (66.2) was from F1 of Yugoslavia X Top, cultivated on inductive Murashige and Skoog agar medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid and 10% potato extract. (author)

  2. Haploid Origin of Cork Oak Anther Embryos Detected by Enzyme and RAPD Gene Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno; Agundez; Gomez; Carrascosa; Manzanera

    2000-05-01

    In vitro-induced cork oak (Quercus suber L.) embryos from anther cultures proved to be of haploid origin both by enzyme and RAPD gene marker analysis. The problem considered was to ascertain if embryo cultures originated either from a single haploid cell, from a microspore, or from multiple haploid cells. Therefore, a heterozygotic gene was searched for in the parent tree. The gene coding for shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH1) proved to be heterozygous in the parental tree, and subsequently, these allozymes were screened for the embryos induced in anther cultures from the same tree. Only haploid embryos were found, confirming the microspore origin. Different genotypes were not identified inside each anther by isozyme analysis, probably because of selective pressure for one embryo early in development, but both parental SKDH1 alleles were found in the embryos of different anthers. The banding patterns detected by RAPD markers permitted the identification of multiple microspore origins inside each anther.

  3. 辣椒花药培养影响因素的研究%Research on Factors Influencing Anther Culture of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚明霞; 何铁光; 董文斌; 赵坤; 王益奎; 王日升; 康德贤

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the disinfection effect on six flower buds of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and studied the effects of different genotypes and inoculation amounts on anther culture. The results showed that, the disinfection method used in this study got good effect, and three genotypes were free of contamination, in addition, among the other three, the highest contamination rate was 23.08%. Embryoids could be induced from three genotypes, and the embryoid forming rates were 1.18%-1.38%, however embryoids could not be induced from hot pepper type with small fruits. Callus could be induced from all the six genotypes with callus forming rates of 17.65%-69.44%. Inoculation amount affected the callus induction but had no significant influence on embryoid forming, and as the inoculation amount increased, the callus forming rate was increased by 0.77%-13.67%. In callus subculture, inoculation amount had different effects on callus growth because the difference of genotypes, and neither embryiod nor adventitious bud were differentiated from the calluses of all six genotypes during subculturing for the first time.%以6种基因型辣椒的花蕾为材料,比较了不同基因型辣椒花蕾的消毒效果,辣椒基因型及花药接种量对花药培养的影响。研究结果表明,本试验的消毒方法获得了较好的消毒效果,3个基因型材料均未受污染,其他最高的污染率为23.08%;50%的基因型能诱导出胚状体,出胚率1.18%~1.38%,小果型的辣椒不能诱导出胚状体;所有基因型均能诱导出愈伤组织,出愈率17.65%~69.44%;花药接种量对花药愈伤组织诱导有影响,增大接种量,出愈率上升0.77%~13.67%,但对胚状体诱导影响不明显;在愈伤组织的继代培养中,接种量对其生长的影响因基因型不同而不同,所有基因型的愈伤组织在第一次继代培养中均不能分化出胚状体或不定芽。

  4. Breeding Report of A New Spring Wheat Line 200706 Obtained by Anther Culture%花培春小麦新品系200706选育报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜; 杨随庄; 叶春雷; 欧巧明; 陈玉梁; 罗俊杰; 陈琛

    2015-01-01

    春小麦新品系200706为对矮败小麦轮选群体材料进行花药培养,获得加倍单倍体(DH)纯系材料,再经系谱选育而成。在2011—2012年甘肃省水地春小麦(东片)区域试验中,2 a 10点(次)折合平均产量5386.80 kg/hm2,较对照品种陇春23号增产3.12%,居14个参试品种(系)第3位。该品种株高84.0 cm,穗长8.6 cm,千粒重44.32 g,容重780.1 g/L,生育期106 d。籽粒含粗蛋白141.8 g/kg、湿面筋304 g/kg,沉淀值41.2 mL。经鉴定,苗期对混合菌表现感病,成株期对条中32号表现感病,但严重度和普遍率较低;对条中33号、 CH42、 HY8、水4、水5及混合菌表现免疫。适宜在甘肃中部沿黄灌区、高寒阴湿区和二阴地区及周边生态类型相似地区种植。%200706 is a newly bred spring wheat line by pedigree selection and developed from double haploid (DH) pure lines obtained by culturing the anthers of dwarf abortion wheat population. The average yield is 5 386.8 kg/hm 2, which is 3.12%higher than that of the check Longchun 23 in the regional test and production test in the period 2011—2013 in eastern water land of Gansu. The result shows that the plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight, bulk density and growth period are 84.0 cm, 8.6 cm, 44.32 g, 780.1 g/L and 106 d, respectively. As to quality characters of the variety, the seed crude protein, wet gluten and sedimentation value are 141.8 g/kg, 304 g/kg, and 41.2 mL, respectively. The identification of stripe rust resistance by inoculating of Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici showed 200706 susceptible slightly to mixture races during the seeding stage, susceptible slightly to CY 32, immune to CH 42, CY 33, HY 8, Shui 4, Shui 5 and mixture races at the adult stage. It is suitable to be grown in Central Gansu, including Irrigation Districts Along Yellow River, cold and humid region, semi-arid region of this area and areas under similar ecological conditions.

  5. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  6. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  7. 不同因素对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的影响%Effects of Different Culture Factors on Callus Induction of Watermelon Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迎春; 刘君璞; 邓云; 李卫华; 安国林; 孙德玺

    2015-01-01

    -incubation, plant growth regulators, culture medium,additions, genotype,growth environment and sampling time. The results showed that the effective callus induction rate of HJ001 respectively were 18. 33% and 15. 67% at 4 ℃ for 2 d and 3 d, and there was no significant difference between the two treatments. The effective callus induction rate of HJ001 reached 14. 33% at high temperature pre-cultured 1—3 d,and there was no significant difference among the three treatments. The effective callus induction rate of the remaining two species was low, but had the same trend. The induction efficiency of NAA was better than that of 2,4-D for three varieties. When adding glutamine( Gln ) 70 mg/L and acid hydrolysis casein ( CH ) 500 mg/L in medium, effective callus induction rate were 20 . 33% and 19 . 00% respectively; The buds had high vitality when collected at 6:00—8:00 in the sunny morning in open field,the buds of HJ001 mostly were microspore mononuclear stage when longitudinal diameter of bud was 2—4 mm,transverse diameter was 3—4 mm,sepals glued to petals,petals were closed and dark green,anther color was pale yellow to yellowish green,and there was a little difference among different varieties. Therefore, in the conditions of open field taking samples at 6:00—8:00 in the sunny morning when buds were mononuclear stage and were treated at low temperature for 2—3 d,then inoculating in MS+NAA 1. 0 mg/L+6-BA 2. 0 mg/L+KT 1. 0 mg/L+CH 500 mg/L medium or directly inoculating in MS+NAA 1 . 0 mg/L+6-BA mg/L+KT mg/L+Gln 70 mg/L medium for 1—3 d high temperature pre-culture could get the highest effective callus induction rate,which was the best way for watermelon variety HJ001 to induce anther callus. However,the best way to Xinong No. 8 and Daguoheimeiren anther callus induction sholud be further explored.

  8. Analysis of the Maize dicer-like1 Mutant, fuzzy tassel, Implicates MicroRNAs in Anther Maturation and Dehiscence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterling Field

    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction in plants requires development of haploid gametophytes from somatic tissues. Pollen is the male gametophyte and develops within the stamen; defects in the somatic tissues of the stamen and in the male gametophyte itself can result in male sterility. The maize fuzzy tassel (fzt mutant has a mutation in dicer-like1 (dcl1, which encodes a key enzyme required for microRNA (miRNA biogenesis. Many miRNAs are reduced in fzt, and fzt mutants exhibit a broad range of developmental defects, including male sterility. To gain further insight into the roles of miRNAs in maize stamen development, we conducted a detailed analysis of the male sterility defects in fzt mutants. Early development was normal in fzt mutant anthers, however fzt anthers arrested in late stages of anther maturation and did not dehisce. A minority of locules in fzt anthers also exhibited anther wall defects. At maturity, very little pollen in fzt anthers was viable or able to germinate. Normal pollen is tricellular at maturity; pollen from fzt anthers included a mixture of unicellular, bicellular, and tricellular pollen. Pollen from normal anthers is loaded with starch before dehiscence, however pollen from fzt anthers failed to accumulate starch. Our results indicate an absolute requirement for miRNAs in the final stages of anther and pollen maturation in maize. Anther wall defects also suggest that miRNAs have key roles earlier in anther development. We discuss candidate miRNAs and pathways that might underlie fzt anther defects, and also note that male sterility in fzt resembles water deficit-induced male sterility, highlighting a possible link between development and stress responses in plants.

  9. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong

    2015-01-19

    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  10. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  11. A novel mechanism controls anther opening and closing in Paris polyphylla var. Yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG DingKang; SUN GuiFang; WANG LiFang; ZHAI ShuHua; CEN XiaoJiang

    2009-01-01

    a School of Information Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China The phenomena of anther opening and closing in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch)Hand.-Mazz were described in detail, and the effects of ecological factors on those phenomena related to anther opening, closing and the fly-pollination mechanism were discussed. Anthers of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensls open in the morning and close in the evening every day during an over 20 days' pe-riod of anthesis. Light was detected as the main factor controlling this daily anther opening and closing.Anther opening can be reversed in response to rain and re-opens when rain stops. Relative humidity (RH) has a slight effect on anther opening and closing. Flower spans can be prolonged under labora-tory conditions. This novel behavior of anther is likely to be a mechanism to enhance the male fitness in this species, of which has no inherited structure to protect pollen from the perianth.

  12. Efeitos de meios de cultura na formação de calos a partir de anteras de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. Effects of the culture media on the calli formation from Asparagus officinalis L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Bobrowski

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas auxiliares, como a cultura de anteras, possibilitam melhor eficiência na obtenção de novos genótipos de aspargo. Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas anteras contendo grãos de pólen, no estágio uninucleado, dos híbridos 56x22-8 e 47x22-8, em meio MS, semi-sólido e líquido, com diferentes concentrações de reguladores de crescimento: meio A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 20 g/l sacarose + 20 g/l glicose; meio B - 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 30 g/l sacarose; meio C - 3,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose e meio D - 2,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose. A formação de calos variou com o genótipo e o meio. Os meios líquidos apresentaram melhor eficiência na indução de calos do que os meios semi-sólidos. Para o híbrido 56x22-8 os melhores meios foram o A2 (líquido com 80,5% de indução de calos e dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o meio D1 com 41,6% de calos formados. Para o híbrido 47x22-8, o mais eficiente foi o meio D2 (líquido, com 68,1% de calos formados e, dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o D2, com 15,2%. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas, estatisticamente, entre os meios líquidos nem entre os meios semi-sólidos.Anther culture is an auxiliary technique to obtain new genotypes. In this work, anthers with pollen grains in the uninucleated stage of hybrids 56x22-8 and 47x22-8 were cultured in MS medium, semi-solid and liquid, with different concentrations of growth regulators: medium A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 20 g/l sucrose + 20 g/l glucose; medium B - 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 30 g/l sucrose; medium C - 3,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose and medium D - 2,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose. Callus formation varied with the genotype and the medium. Liquid media showed more efficiency in callus development than the semi-solids. For the hybrids 56x22-8 the best media were the liquid A2 with 80,5% of callus induction and among the semi-solids the D1, with 41

  13. Stamen specification and anther development in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG DaBing; WILSON Zoe A

    2009-01-01

    Male reproductive development is a complex biological process which includes the formation of the stamen with differentiated anther tissues, in which microspores/pollens are generated, then anther dehiscence and subsequently pollination. Stamen specification and anther development involve a number of extraordinary events such as meristem transition, cell division and differentiation, cell to cell communication, etc., which need the cooperative interaction of sporophytic and gametophytic genes. The advent of various tools for rice functional gene identification, such as complete genome sequence, genome-wide microarrays, collections of mutants, has greatly facilitated our understanding of mechanisms of rice stamen specification and anther development. Male sterile lines are critical for hybrid rice breeding, therefore understanding these processes will not only contribute greatly to the basic knowledge of crop developmental biology, but also to the development of new varieties for hybrid rice breeding in the future.

  14. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H; Finer, J J

    1983-11-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. ;Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. PMID:16663273

  15. In Vitro ANTHER CULTURE OF RICE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Pérez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Mejoramiento de Arroz y Maíz del CIFA "Las Torres", en Sevilla, España, auspiciado por un proyecto de investigación, comenzó a desarrollarse un programa de obtención de variedades, que incluía en sus objetivos la utilización del cultivo de anteras de híbridos. Para ello se evaluaron diferentes medios para la formación de callos y regeneración de plantas verdes así como anteras de híbridos F1, provenientes de 15 cruzamientos. Los resultados mostraron que los más altos porcentajes de callos y plantas verdes como proceso continuo fueron obtenidos con los medios N6m y MS respectivamente. La mejor respuesta a la formación de callos fue obtenida por el cruce Puntal/Thaibonnet y regeneración de plantas verdes Doñana/V7876 y Lemont/Newbonnet.

  16. Anther Ontogeny and Microsporogenesis in Helianthus annuus L. (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan ÇETİNBAŞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, anther ontogeny and microsporogenesis were analysed in Helianthus annuus L. The undifferentiated anther is ovoid-shaped and the differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells. Mature anthers are tetrasporangiate. The anther wall is composed of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and plasmodial tapetum. Endothecial cells show no fibrous thickening. Tapetum is amoeboid type with binucleate cells. Epidermal layer remains intact until anther dehiscence; however, middle layer, endothecium and tapetum disappear during development. At the end of regular meiotic division tetrahedral microspore tetrads are formed. Pollen grains are triporate, suboblate and angulaperturate.

  17. Breeding Report of A New Spring Wheat Variety Longchun 31 Obtained by Anther Culture%花培春小麦新品种陇春31号选育报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜; 杨随庄; 叶春雷; 陈玉梁; 欧巧明; 罗俊杰; 王红梅

    2014-01-01

    Longchun 31 was a new spring wheat variety bred by pedigree selection and developed from double haploid(DH) pure lines obtained by culturing the anthers of hybrids of Taigu nuclear sterile wheat . The average yield of Longchun 31 was 4 792.80 kg/hm2 and 0.55% higher than of the check Longchun 23 in the regional test and production test during the period from 2009 to 2011 conducted in eastern water land of Gansu. The plant height,spike length,1 000-grain weight,test weight and growth period of Longchun 31 were 94.3~102 .0 cm,8.5~9.5 cm,31.28~51.00 g,762.96~797.42 g/L and 102~107 d,respectively . As to quality characters of the variety,the seed crude protein,wet gluten,lysine content and sedimentation value were 148.0 g/kg,276.5 g/kg,4.49 g/kg and 56.8 mL,respectively. Identification of stripe rust resistance by inoculating of Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici showed Longchun 31 susceptible slightly to mixture races during the seeding stage,high resistant to CY32,CY33,immune to Hy 8,Shui 4,Shui 7 and mixture during the adult stage;the results of molecular characteration indicated that Longchun 31 carried durable resistance gene Yr18/Lr34 which distribution frequency was low in improved wheat varieties bred in China . It is suitable to cultivate in Central Gansu, including irrigation areas along the Yellow River,cold and humid region,semi-arid region of this area and areas under similar ecological conditions.%春小麦新品种陇春31号是对太谷核不育小麦杂种材料进行花药培养,获得加倍单倍体(DH)纯系材料,再经系谱选育而成。在2009-2011年甘肃省水地春小麦(东片)区域试验中,2 a 10点(次)折合平均产量4792.80 kg/hm2,较对照品种陇春23号减产0.55%,居14个参试品种(系)第2位。该品种株高94.3~102.0 cm,生育期102~107 d。穗长8.5~9.5 cm,千粒重31.28~51.00 g,容重762.96~797.42 g/L。籽粒含粗蛋白148.0 g/kg,湿面筋276.5 g/kg,赖氨酸4.49 g

  18. In vitro Accumulation of Polyphenols in Tea Callus Derived from Anther

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevala, Naga Pavan Kumar; Chevala, Naga Thirumalesh; Dhanakodi, Kirubakaran; Nadendla, Rama Rao; Nagarathna, Chandrashekara Krishnappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tea is an economic important crop with high medicinal value due to rich polyphenols content. In the present research we studied the accumulation of polyphenols of in vitro regenerated callus from anthers. Objective: Callus induction of tea anthers and in vitro accumulation of phenolic compounds from the anther-derived callus. Materials and Methods: Standardization of callus induction for tea anthers. In vitro generated callus was screened for in vivo accumulation of catechins and its isomers were screened by FC reagent staining technique. The methanol extract of dry and green callus obtained were estimated qualitatively by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)–alternative total reflection (ATR) and quantitatively by HPLC method. Results: Anthers inoculated on half strength MS media fortified with 2,4-dichloro acetic acid (2 mg/L), Kn (1 mg/L), and BAP (1 mg/L) induced callus under photoperiod of 9:15 h light. The in vivo histochemical studies revealed the accumulation of polyphenols in the callus. The in vitro generated fresh and dry callus were used for extraction and screened for accumulated polyphenols [galic acid, (+)-catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate, (−)-gallocatechins, (−)-epicatechin gallate] were estimated qualitatively by FTIR–ATR method and quantitatively by HPLC method. Conclusion: The FC staining technique used here helps in localization of polyphenol compounds accumulation in the tissues by instant microscopic studies. The study have scope in large-scale isolation of various medicinally important flavonol by using anther culture. Abbreviations used: HPLC: high pressure liquid chromatography; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; 2,4-D: 2,4-dichloro acetic acid; BAP: N6-benzyl amino purine; kn: kinetin

  19. Androgenic response to preculture stress in microspore cultures of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczuk, S; Sowa, S; Zimny, J

    2006-08-01

    Various stresses such as starvation and cold or heat shocks have been identified as triggers in the induction of the microspore embryogenesis. This study attempts to quantify the effects of different pretreatment conditions for successful microspore culture of malting barley (cv. Scarlett). While the sporophytic microspore development could be induced from treated and nontreated microspores, abiotic stress was essential for embryo formation and plant regeneration. The type of stress treatment applied affected the numbers and the ratios of albino and green plants regenerated, as well as their fertility. The highest number of green plants was obtained after the treatment of anthers in 0.3 M mannitol at 32 degrees C for 24 h before microspore culture. PMID:16937060

  20. Expression and localization of calreticulin in tobacco anthers and pollen tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardi, M.C.; Feron, R.; Navazio, L.; Mariani, P.; Pierson, E.S.; Wolters-Arts, A.M.C.; Knuiman, B.; Mariani, C.; Derksen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The developmental expression pattern and localization of calreticulin were studied in Nicotiana tabacum L. anthers, pollen and pollen tubes. High transcript and protein levels were detected throughout anther development. Immunolocalization of calreticulin in the anthers showed particular dense label

  1. Culturally Responsiveness Frameworks for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherff, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    A schoolteacher recollects her second teaching job experience at a predominately African American high school. She learnt cultural differences in communication, social interaction, ways of responding, and linguistic style.

  2. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Anther Abortion of Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat by Combining Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and cDNA Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Shan Chang; Rong-Hua Zhou; Xiu-Ying Kong; Zeng-Liang Yu; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat (TGMSW; Triticum aestivum L.), a dominant genic male sterile germplasm, is of considerable value in the genetic improvement of wheat because of its stable inherence, complete male abortion, and high cross-fertilization rate. To identify specially transcribed genes in sterile anther, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed with sterile anther as the tester and fertile anther as the driver. A total of 2 304 SSH inserts amplified by polymerase chain reaction were arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from the RNA of forward- and reverse-subtracted anthers. Ninety-six clones were scored as upregulated in sterile anthers compared with the corresponding fertile anthers and some clones were selected for sequencing and analysis in GenBank. Based on their putative functions, 87 non-redundant clones were classified into the following groups: (i) eight genes involved in metabolic processes; (ii) four material transportation genes;(iii) three signal transduction-associated genes; (iv) four stress response and senescence-associated protein genes; (v) seven other functional protein genes; (vi) five genes with no known function; and (vii)another 56 genes with no match to the databases. To test the hybridization efficiency, eight genes were selected and analyzed by Northern blot. The results of the present study provide a comprehensive overview of the genes and gene products involved in anther abortion in TGMSW.

  3. The final split: the regulation of anther dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Zoe A; Song, Jie; Taylor, Benjamin; Yang, Caiyun

    2011-03-01

    Controlling male fertility is an important goal for plant reproduction and selective breeding. Hybrid vigour results in superior growth rates and increased yields of hybrids compared with inbred lines; however, hybrid generation is costly and time consuming. A better understanding of anther development and pollen release will provide effective mechanisms for the control of male fertility and for hybrid generation. Male sterility is associated not only with the lack of viable pollen, but also with the failure of pollen release. In such instances a failure of anther dehiscence has the advantage that viable pollen is produced, which can be used for subsequent rescue of fertility. Anther dehiscence is a multistage process involving localized cellular differentiation and degeneration, combined with changes to the structure and water status of the anther to facilitate complete opening and pollen release. After microspore release the anther endothecium undergoes expansion and deposition of ligno-cellulosic secondary thickening. The septum separating the two locules is then enzymatically lysed and undergoes a programmed cell death-like breakdown. The stomium subsequently splits as a consequence of the stresses associated with pollen swelling and anther dehydration. The physical constraints imposed by the thickening in the endothecium limit expansion, placing additional stress on the anther, so as it dehydrates it opens and the pollen is released. Jasmonic acid has been shown to be a critical signal for dehiscence, although other hormones, particularly auxin, are also involved. The key regulators and physical constraints of anther dehiscence are discussed.

  4. Network Culture, Performance & Corporate Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio M. Brondoni

    2003-01-01

    The growth and sustainability of free market economies highlights the need to define rules more suited to the current condition of market globalisation and also encourages firms to adopt more transparent and accountable corporate responsibility (and corporate social responsibility, namely the relationship between the company, environment and social setting). From a managerial perspective, corporate responsibility is linked to ensure the lasting pursuit of the company mission, seeking increasi...

  5. Culture and Crisis Response in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…

  6. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  7. Sugar and auxin signaling pathways respond to high-temperature stress during anther development as revealed by transcript profiling analysis in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ling; Li, Yaoyao; Hu, Qin; Zhu, Longfu; Gao, Wenhui; Wu, Yuanlong; Ding, Yuanhao; Liu, Shiming; Yang, Xiyan; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-03-01

    Male reproduction in flowering plants is highly sensitive to high temperature (HT). To investigate molecular mechanisms of the response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) anthers to HT, a relatively complete comparative transcriptome analysis was performed during anther development of cotton lines 84021 and H05 under normal temperature and HT conditions. In total, 4,599 differentially expressed genes were screened; the differentially expressed genes were mainly related to epigenetic modifications, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant hormone signaling. Detailed studies showed that the deficiency in S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase1 and the inhibition of methyltransferases contributed to genome-wide hypomethylation in H05, and the increased expression of histone constitution genes contributed to DNA stability in 84021. Furthermore, HT induced the expression of casein kinasei (GhCKI) in H05, coupled with the suppression of starch synthase activity, decreases in glucose level during anther development, and increases in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level in late-stage anthers. The same changes also were observed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GhCKI overexpression lines. These results suggest that GhCKI, sugar, and auxin may be key regulators of the anther response to HT stress. Moreover, phytochrome-interacting factor genes (PIFs), which are involved in linking sugar and auxin and are regulated by sugar, might positively regulate IAA biosynthesis in the cotton anther response to HT. Additionally, exogenous IAA application revealed that high background IAA may be a disadvantage for late-stage cotton anthers during HT stress. Overall, the linking of HT, sugar, PIFs, and IAA, together with our previously reported data on GhCKI, may provide dynamic coordination of plant anther responses to HT stress.

  8. DIAGNOSING THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žana Prutina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary business environment places demands on companies to go beyond economic survival and self-interest and satisfy the needs of various stakeholders. Organizations embark on the path of responsibility and sustainability, but many argue that CSR becomes embedded in an organization when it permeates all aspects of organization, including the organizational culture. Existing organizational culture typologies only provide the framework for analysis within the traditional business paradigm, but they are of limited use in the context of corporate social responsibility. After the analysis of major scholarship in the field, this paper defines CSR culture and identifies four types of organizational cultures based on companies’ CSR orientations, namely CSR-related values and strategy. In order to fully embed CSR culture, CSR has to be both strategic and value driven. This paper explores different CSR orientations and makes recommendations needed in order to achieve the desired state. Furthermore, through exploratory factor analysis, it identifies two cultural elements, CSR values and employee engagement in CSR, which indicate the existence of CSR culture. Identification of these cultural elements is intended to help in analyzing the direct and indirect effect of CSR culture on organizational outcomes, especially employee attitudinal and behavioral outcomes.

  9. Ustilago maydis reprograms cell proliferation in maize anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Kelliher, Timothy; Nguyen, Linda; Walbot, Virginia

    2013-09-01

    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is a ubiquitous pathogen of maize (Zea mays), one of the world's most important cereal crops. Infection by this smut fungus triggers tumor formation in aerial plant parts within which the fungus sporulates. Using confocal microscopy to track U. maydis infection on corn anthers for 7 days post-injection, we found that U. maydis is located on the epidermis during the first 2 days, and has reached all anther lobe cell types by 3 days post-injection. Fungal infection alters cell-fate specification events, cell division patterns, host cell expansion and host cell senescence, depending on the developmental stage and cell type. Fungal effects on tassel and plant growth were also quantified. Transcriptome profiling using a dual organism microarray identified thousands of anther genes affected by fungal infection at 3 days post-injection during the cell-fate specification and rapid cell proliferation phases of anther development. In total, 4147 (17%) of anther-expressed genes were altered by infection, 2018 fungal genes were expressed in anthers, and 206 fungal secretome genes may be anther-specific. The results confirm that U. maydis deploys distinct genes to cause disease in specific maize organs, and suggest mechanisms by which the host plant is manipulated to generate a tumor.

  10. Abundant protein phosphorylation potentially regulates Arabidopsis anther development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Zaibao; You, Chenjiang; Zhang, Xumin; Lu, Jianan; Ma, Hong

    2016-09-01

    As the male reproductive organ of flowering plants, the stamen consists of the anther and filament. Previous studies on stamen development mainly focused on single gene functions by genetic methods or gene expression changes using comparative transcriptomic approaches, especially in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana However, studies on Arabidopsis anther protein expression and post-translational modifications are still lacking. Here we report proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies on developing Arabidopsis anthers at stages 4-7 and 8-12. We identified 3908 high-confidence phosphorylation sites corresponding to 1637 phosphoproteins. Among the 1637 phosphoproteins, 493 were newly identified, with 952 phosphorylation sites. Phosphopeptide enrichment prior to LC-MS analysis facilitated the identification of low-abundance proteins and regulatory proteins, thereby increasing the coverage of proteomic analysis, and facilitated the analysis of more regulatory proteins. Thirty-nine serine and six threonine phosphorylation motifs were uncovered from the anther phosphoproteome and further analysis supports that phosphorylation of casein kinase II, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and 14-3-3 proteins is a key regulatory mechanism in anther development. Phosphorylated residues were preferentially located in variable protein regions among family members, but they were they were conserved across angiosperms in general. Moreover, phosphorylation might reduce activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes and hamper brassinosteroid signaling in early anther development. Most of the novel phosphoproteins showed tissue-specific expression in the anther according to previous microarray data. This study provides a community resource with information on the abundance and phosphorylation status of thousands of proteins in developing anthers, contributing to understanding post-translational regulatory mechanisms during anther development. PMID:27531888

  11. Dealing with Difference: Building Culturally Responsive Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Burridge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally response classrooms is a perennial issue for both teachers and educators. A major challenge for teachers is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings and to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of recent school policies, highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, in particular the approaches by Kalantzis and Cope’s (1999 and Hickling-Hudson (2003. We also draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney metropolitan schools to discuss the need for more greater resource and policy support for progressive teaching approaches that support the development of a more tolerant and inclusive multicultural society. Key words: cultural diversity, schools, teacher education, classroom practice, social inclusion

  12. Culture moderates children's responses to ostracism situations

    OpenAIRE

    Over, Harriet; Uskul, Ayse K.

    2016-01-01

    Across a series of studies, we investigate cultural differences in children’s responses to ostracism situations. Working with the children of farmers and herders, we focus on how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 1a showed that that 3- to 8-year-old children from a socially interdependent farming community estimated ostracism to be less painful than did children from an independent herding community. Study 1b showed that this cultural difference was specific to social pain and ...

  13. DIAGNOSING THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Žana Prutina

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary business environment places demands on companies to go beyond economic survival and self-interest and satisfy the needs of various stakeholders. Organizations embark on the path of responsibility and sustainability, but many argue that CSR becomes embedded in an organization when it permeates all aspects of organization, including the organizational culture. Existing organizational culture typologies only provide the framework for analysis within the traditional business para...

  14. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large volume of literature hypothesizes a direct relationship between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness. Culture data have been collected by the authors and others at nuclear power plants (NPPs) and other organizations that demand high reliability. In this paper, the literature and data are used to explore a critical dimension of the accident response process in an NPP: the transition from an anticipatory strategy to an ad hoc strategy. In particular, the effect of organizational culture on the implementation of each of these strategies is examined

  15. Culture moderates children's responses to ostracism situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Harriet; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-05-01

    Across a series of studies, we investigated cultural differences in children's responses to ostracism situations. Working with the children of farmers and herders, we focused on how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 1a showed that 4- to 8-year-old children from a socially interdependent farming community estimated ostracism to be less painful than did children from an independent herding community. Study 1b showed that this cultural difference was specific to social pain and did not apply to physical pain. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1a and showed that individual differences in parents' level of social interdependence mediated the relationship between cultural group and how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 3 replicated this effect again and showed that children's tendency to recommend seeking social support following ostracism mediated the relationship between cultural group and the perceived pain of being excluded. Finally, Study 4 investigated cultural differences in moral responses to ostracism and showed that children from the farming community punished an individual who ostracized someone else less harshly than did children from the independent herding community. Thus different economic cultures are associated with striking differences in social interdependence and responses to ostracism from early in development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176774

  16. Culturally Responsive Physics Teaching: Content or Conveyance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Taquan Seth

    2011-12-01

    This study, in response to the achievement gap in science and the lack of significant numbers of ethnic minorities in science fields, examined the effects of a Cultural Responsiveness Workshop and intervention on teacher practice, teacher discourse, and student perceptions and connectedness to physics. The sample was comprised of three high school physics teachers---2 teaching five 12th grade sections and one teaching five 9th grade sections of physics---in two separate urban schools in the same section of South Los Angeles. My research design was qualitative and examined eight culturally responsive indicators that, when applied, may increase student engagement and level of connectedness in urban high school physics classrooms: (1) proximity to students, (2) the ways in which they encouraged students, (3) positive reinforcement techniques, (4) modifications for individual learning types, (5) use of children's strengths, (6) scaffolding, (7) displaying an understanding of diverse cultures, and (8) displaying a personal regard for students of diverse cultures. When the study was completed and data was collected, I identified trends in the change in teacher discourse, behaviors, instructional practice, and perceptions of student engagement. My findings, discovered through classroom observations and focus groups, indicated a positive shift in each. Accompanying these shifts were positive shifts in level of student engagement and level of connectedness. There were also the unexpected findings of the need for teachers to receive feedback in a safe collaborative space and the use of culturally responsive teaching as a tool for behavioral management. My study found that there is a definite relationship between the use of the culturally responsive indicators observed, student engagement and student level of connectedness to physics when implemented in urban high school science classrooms.

  17. Toward a More Culturally Responsive General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to characterize culturally responsive teaching; consider how it differs from other pedagogical approaches in music education informed by culture, such as multicultural music education; and offer ideas for making the general music classroom more culturally responsive.

  18. Cultural Fusion: International Teacher Responses to Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, David J.; Reeves, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly diverse classrooms require educators to examine the appropriateness of teaching practices for certain student subgroup populations. With high accountability for schools to account for student achievement inclusively, a growing interest in culturally responsive practices necessitates more investigation of learning and instruction…

  19. Is there 'anther-anther interference' within a flower? Evidences from one-by-one stamen movement in an insect-pollinated plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ming-Xun; Bu, Zhao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The selective pressure imposed by maximizing male fitness (pollen dispersal) in shaping floral structures is increasingly recognized and emphasized in current plant sciences. To maximize male fitness, many flowers bear a group of stamens with temporally separated anther dehiscence that prolongs presentation of pollen grains. Such an advantage, however, may come with a cost resulting from interference of pollen removal by the dehisced anthers. This interference between dehisced and dehiscing anthers has received little attention and few experimental tests to date. Here, using one-by-one stamen movement in the generalist-pollinated Parnassia palustris, we test this hypothesis by manipulation experiments in two years. Under natural conditions, the five fertile stamens in P. palustris flowers elongate their filaments individually, and anthers dehisce successively one-by-one. More importantly, the anther-dehisced stamen bends out of the floral center by filament deflexion before the next stamen's anther dehiscence. Experimental manipulations show that flowers with dehisced anther remaining at the floral center experience shorter (1/3-1/2 less) visit durations by pollen-collecting insects (mainly hoverflies and wasps) because these 'hungry' insects are discouraged by the scant and non-fresh pollen in the dehisced anther. Furthermore, the dehisced anther blocks the dehiscing anther's access to floral visitors, resulting in a nearly one third decrease in their contact frequency. As a result, pollen removal of the dehiscing anther decreases dramatically. These results provide the first direct experimental evidence that anther-anther interference is possible in a flower, and that the selection to reduce such interferences can be a strong force in floral evolution. We also propose that some other floral traits, usually interpreted as pollen dispensing mechanisms, may function, at least partially, as mechanisms to promote pollen dispersal by reducing interferences between

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility and Managing Ethical Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Yeney Widya Prihatiningtias

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that the promotion of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and ethical business conduct is very important. CSR nowadays has become crucial issue as major companies are expected to demonstrate their commitment to society’s values through actions. The current article explains, evaluates, and applies to relevant examples of the narrow, broader socio-economic, as well as broad maximal view of CSR. It also critically describes how organizations can develop ethical cultures and c...

  1. THE SOCIAL-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT: THREATS, OPPORTUNITIES AND RESPONSES

    OpenAIRE

    Буряк Наталья Юрьевна

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author turns to the problems of social-cultural environment: threats, opportunities, responses, and cultural values (primary and secondary). The examples of both primary and secondary cultural values are given in the article as well.

  2. Prediction of anther-expressed gene resulation in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG JiFeng; YANG JingJin; WANG Guan; YU QingBo; YANG ZhongNan

    2008-01-01

    Anther development in Arabidopsis, a popular model plant for plant biology and genetics, is controlled by a complex gene network. Despite the extensive use of this genus for genetic research, little is known about its regulatory network. In this paper, the direct transcriptional regulatory relationships between genes expressed in Arabidopsis anther development were predicted with an integrated bioinformatic method that combines mining of microarray data with promoter analysis. A total of 7710 transcription factor-gene pairs were obtained. The 80 direct regulatory relationships demonstrating the highest con-fidence were screened from the initial 7710 pairs; three of the 80 were validated by previous experi-ments. The results indicate that our predicted results were reliable. The regulatory relationships re-vealed by this research and described in this paper may facilitate further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of anther development. The bioinformatic method used in this work can also be applied to the prediction of gene regulatory relationships in other organisms.

  3. Anther and pollen development: A conserved developmental pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Fernández; Talle, Behzad; Wilson, Zoe A

    2015-11-01

    Pollen development is a critical step in plant development that is needed for successful breeding and seed formation. Manipulation of male fertility has proved a useful trait for hybrid breeding and increased crop yield. However, although there is a good understanding developing of the molecular mechanisms of anther and pollen anther development in model species, such as Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about the equivalent processes in important crops. Nevertheless the onset of increased genomic information and genetic tools is facilitating translation of information from the models to crops, such as barley and wheat; this will enable increased understanding and manipulation of these pathways for agricultural improvement. PMID:26310290

  4. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility and Managing Ethical Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeney Widya Prihatiningtias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that the promotion of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and ethical business conduct is very important. CSR nowadays has become crucial issue as major companies are expected to demonstrate their commitment to society’s values through actions. The current article explains, evaluates, and applies to relevant examples of the narrow, broader socio-economic, as well as broad maximal view of CSR. It also critically describes how organizations can develop ethical cultures and corporate ethics programs for CSR.

  6. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research

  7. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

  8. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1992-08-01

    The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

  9. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events. PMID:26277352

  10. A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava.

  11. Isn't Culturally Responsive Instruction Just Good Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Culturally responsive instruction appears to offer the potential to improve students' academic achievement and chances for success in school. However, it is not easy to see how culturally responsive instruction can be applied, especially in classrooms with students of many different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. In the first section of this…

  12. Defining culturally responsive teaching: The case of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni L. Harding-DeKam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elementary classroom teachers in eight school districts across Colorado, United States, share the knowledge of their students’ home and community life, define culturally responsive mathematics based on the children they instruct, and give examples of how students learn math through culture in their classrooms. Findings from two interviews, classroom observations, and student artifacts reveal that teachers have an intimate cultural knowledge of the students in their classrooms, define culturally responsive mathematical practices consistent with research, use culturally responsive mathematics teaching for authentic learning, and express a need for additional professional development and curriculum support for culturally responsive mathematics instruction. Culturally responsive mathematics is important in elementary classrooms because it allows students to make personal connections to mathematics content.

  13. Culture shapes electrocortical responses during emotion suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Asuka; Moser, Jason S.; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that emotional control is highly valued in Asian culture. However, little is known about how this cultural value might influence emotional processing. Here, we hypothesized that Asians are ‘culturally trained’ to down-regulate emotional processing when required to suppress emotional expressions. Such down-regulation, however, is unlikely for European Americans because their culture values emotional expression (vs control) more. To test these predictions, we adopted the...

  14. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. PMID:26901781

  15. Orchid mating: the anther steps onto the stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2014-01-01

    In a bisexual flower, the male and female organ of which have a space separation, individing into the pistil and stamen. Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollinati...

  16. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  17. Culturally Responsive Social Skill Instruction for Latino Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Correa, Vivian I.; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural friendships and peer interactions are important skills for Latino students to become socially adjusted in U.S. schools. Culturally responsive social skill instruction allows educators to teach essential social skills while attending to the native culture and personal experiences of the students. The present study examined the…

  18. Cultural Responsibility of Cultural Centers%浅论文化馆的文化责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏新天

    2011-01-01

    文化馆的文化责任就是文化馆对社会所承担的提高全民文化素质、加强文化建设,以及所肩负的新的历史时期的文化使命。文化馆的文化责任是从社会视角观察文化馆的功能和要求,属于社会责任范畴。文化馆要用先进文化和科学发展观来确立指导思想,承担起政府给予的为社会各界群众提供文化服务的文化责任。文化馆的文化服务责任主要表现在文化馆信息利用与社会服务方面。文化馆是社会文化利用中心,提供文化服务满足社会各方面利用的需求。%Cultural responsibility of cultural centers is assumed by strengthening the commitment to improve the quality of national culture,and the cultural mission shouldered in the new historical period.Cultural responsibility of cultural centers is observing the features and requirements of the cultural centers from a social perspective,it belongs to social responsibility category.Cultural centers should use the advanced cultural and scientific development concept to establish the guiding ideology,to assume the government to give to the community to provide cultural services to the mass culture of responsibility.Responsibility for cultural services,cultural centers mainly performs in cultural centers using the information and social services.Cultural center is social culture use center,and provide cultural services to meet the needs of all sectors of society.

  19. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  20. Designing for culturally responsive science education through professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.; Crippen, Kent J.

    2016-02-01

    Educational stakeholders across the globe are demanding science education reform that attends simultaneously to culturally diverse students' needs and promotes academic excellence. Although professional development programs can foster science teachers' growth as culturally responsive educators, effective supports to this end are not well identified. This study examined associations between specific Science Teachers are Responsive to Students (STARTS) program activities and United States high school life science teachers' understanding and enactment of culturally responsive science teaching. Findings suggest: (a) critically examining their practices while learning of students' needs and experiences enabled teachers to identify responsive instructional strategies and relevant science topics for culturally responsive teaching; (b) evaluating culturally responsive exemplars while identifying classroom-based needs allowed teachers to identify contextually appropriate instruction, thereby yielding a robust understanding of the purpose and feasibility of culturally responsive science teaching; and (c) by justifying the use of responsive and reform-based instructional strategies for their classrooms, teachers made purposeful connections between students' experiences and science instruction. We propose a set of empirically based design conjectures and theoretical conjectures to generate adaptable knowledge about preparing culturally responsive science teachers through professional development.

  1. Culturally responsive instruction for english language learners with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused on how one teacher's knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy affected her special education instruction. Findings resulted in three major themes that were aligned with the current literature in this area: Cultural Aspects of Teaching Reading, Culturally Relevant Skills-Based Instruction, and Collaborative Agency Time. The results indicated that the success of special education with ELLs at the elementary education level might be dependent on how well the special education teacher integrates culturally responsive instruction with ELLs' cultural and linguistic needs.

  2. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLESIA O. GRYGORIEVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Grygorieva OO, Berezovsjka MA, Dacenko OI. 2015. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 38-42. Two cultures of Chlamydomonas actinochloris Deason et Bold in the lag-phase were exposed to the microwave irradiation. One of them (culture 1 was not treated beforehand, whereas the other (culture 2 was irradiated by microwaves 2 years earlier. The measurement of cell quantity as well as measurement of change of intensities and spectra of cultures photoluminescence (PL in the range of chlorophyll a emission was regularly conducted during the cell cultures development. Cell concentration of culture 1 exposed to the microwave irradiation for the first time has quickly restored while cell concentration of culture 2 which was irradiated repeatedly has fallen significantly. The following increasing of cell concentration of culture 2 is negligible. Cell concentration reaches the steady-state level that is about a half of the cell concentration of control culture. Initially the PL efficiency of cells of both cultures decreases noticeable as a result of irradiation. Then there is the monotonic increase to the values which are significantly higher than the corresponding values in the control cultures. The ratio of the intensities at the maxima of the main emission bands of chlorophyll for control samples of both cultures remained approximately at the same level. At the same time effect of irradiation on the cell PL spectrum appears as a temporary reduction of this magnitude.

  3. Practicing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shawna; Sternod, Brandon M.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of continuous global immigration to the United States, several microcultures coexist within the country. Today's classroom should provide an interface where individuals from different cultural backgrounds have the potential for sharing a rich place of learning--a place where the teacher embraces and celebrates individual differences,…

  4. Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Cotton Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-dong; ZHU Yun-guo; WANG Xiao-ling; ZHU Wei; ZHANG Xiao-quan; XIE Hai-yan; WANG Xue-de

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cell, including superoxide (O2-·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), are thought to be important inducible factors of cell apoptosis if excessively accumulated in cells. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of ROS production and scavenging in anthers of the cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) cotton,CMS line, maintainer, and hybrid F1 anthers, were employed for studying the relationship between CMS and metabolism of ROS, by comparing ROS changes in the sterile and fertile anthers at different developmental stages. The results showed that during the abortion preliminary stage (sporogenous cell division stage), anthers of CMS line had higher contents of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA than those of maintainer or hybrid F1. Simultaneously, the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in scavenging ROS were measured in the anthers of the CMS line,indicating that an increase of ROS in anthers of abortion preliminary stage had an inducible effect on the antioxidant enzymes. But during the abortion peak of CMS anther (pollen mother cell meiosis stage), on the one hand, contents of O2-·,H2O2, and MDA were extraordinarily high in CMS anthers, on the other hand, the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were excessively low, which disrupted the balance between the production and elimination of ROS and led to pollen mother cells apoptosis at this stage. In the following two stages (uninucleate microspore stage and mature pollen stage), the contents of O2-· and H2O2 in the aborted anthers were approximated to contents in the fertile anthers of the maintainer and hybrid F1. However, MDA contents were continuously raised and enzymic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were consistently decreased in sterile anthers, which indicated that ROS still had harmful effects on the anthers after the apoptosis of the male cells. Excessive accumulation of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA and significant reduction of ROS

  5. An Empirical Perspective on the Culture - Corporate Social Responsibility Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Business competition and pressure of European directives put Romanian company in a position to find answers to issues related to long-term survival and development. In this context we believe it is necessary to analyze some of the most important components that should be taken into consideration at the strategic level: national and organizational culture. The results indicate that corporate social responsibility is supported by learning and change-oriented organizational culture, but also by a favorable cultural and national economic framework. Based on these theoretical considerations we intent to emphasize the relationships between national culture / corporate culture and corporate social responsibility (CSR, elaborating an empirical argument by analyzing the results provided by Global 100, an annual project initiated by Corporate Knights Inc. (Davos. Starting with 2005, it has the largest database in the world and an appropriate evaluation methodology that provides a ranking of the top 100 most responsible companies in the world.

  6. Is There ‘Anther-Anther Interference’ within a Flower? Evidences from One-by-One Stamen Movement in an Insect-Pollinated Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Xun Ren; Zhao-Jun Bu

    2014-01-01

    The selective pressure imposed by maximizing male fitness (pollen dispersal) in shaping floral structures is increasingly recognized and emphasized in current plant sciences. To maximize male fitness, many flowers bear a group of stamens with temporally separated anther dehiscence that prolongs presentation of pollen grains. Such an advantage, however, may come with a cost resulting from interference of pollen removal by the dehisced anthers. This interference between dehisced and dehiscing a...

  7. Culturally Responsive Collegiate Mathematics Education: Implications for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…

  8. Culturally Responsive Dance Pedagogy in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Dance has an important place in multicultural education and the development of culturally responsive pedagogy. Through dance, children can explore and express their own and others' cultures and share their stories in ways other than the spoken and written word. This paper presents a case study concerning a professional development programme in…

  9. Microsatellite marker analysis of an anther-derived potato family: skewed segregation and gene-centromere mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chani, Eduard; Ashkenazi, Varda; Hillel, Jossi; Veilleux, Richard E

    2002-04-01

    Segregation patterns of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were investigated in monoploid potato families derived from anther culture. A total of 14 primers developed from the sequences in the database, as well as from a genomic library of potato, was used. Distorted segregation was observed for seven (50%) polymorphic loci among monoploids derived from an interspecific hybrid. Similar distortion was observed for only one of five loci that could be contrasted between the two monoploid families. Segregation distortion was less common in the sexually derived backcross population between the interspecific hybrid and either of its parents. One locus could be putatively linked to a lethal allele because it showed distorted segregation in both monoploid families, a group of 70 heterozygous diploids derived from unreduced gametes through anther culture, and a backcross population. These diploids were used to map the polymorphic SSR markers with respect to the centromeres using half-tetrad analysis. The majority of the SSR loci mapped more than 33 cM from the centromere, suggesting the occurrence of a single crossover per chromosome arm. PMID:11962620

  10. Cultural Consensus Theory: Aggregating Continuous Responses in a Finite Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H.; Strashny, Alex; Romney, A. Kimball

    Cultural consensus theory (CCT) consists of cognitive models for aggregating responses of "informants" to test items about some domain of their shared cultural knowledge. This paper develops a CCT model for items requiring bounded numerical responses, e.g. probability estimates, confidence judgments, or similarity judgments. The model assumes that each item generates a latent random representation in each informant, with mean equal to the consensus answer and variance depending jointly on the informant and the location of the consensus answer. The manifest responses may reflect biases of the informants. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were used to estimate the model, and simulation studies validated the approach. The model was applied to an existing cross-cultural dataset involving native Japanese and English speakers judging the similarity of emotion terms. The results sharpened earlier studies that showed that both cultures appear to have very similar cognitive representations of emotion terms.

  11. Cultural Considerations with Response to Intervention Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Edwards, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Now that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004) has been reauthorized, states have the option of discontinuing the use of IQ-achievement discrepancy formulas and using Response to Intervention (RTI) criteria as part of the special education identification process. This change has dramatic implications for…

  12. Comparative metabolomic analysis of wild type and mads3 mutant rice anthers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guorun Qu; Sheng Quan; Palash Mondol; Jie Xu; Dabing Zhang; Jianxin Shi

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) MADS3 transcription factor regulates the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during late anther development, and one MADS3 mutant, mads3-4, has defective anther wal s, aborted microspores and complete male sterility. Here, we report the untargeted metabolomic analysis of both wild type and mads3-4 mature anthers. Mutation of MADS3 led to an unbalanced redox status and caused oxidative stress that damages lipid, protein, and DNA. To cope with oxidative stress in mads3-4 anthers, soluble sugars were mobilized and carbohydrate metabolism was shifted to amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism to provide substrates for the biosynthesis of antioxidant proteins and the repair of DNA. Mutation of MADS3 also affected other aspects of rice anther development such as secondary metabolites associated with cuticle, cellwal , and auxin metabolism. Many of the discovered metabolic changes in mads3-4 anthers were corroborated with changes of expression levels of correspond-ing metabolic pathway genes. Altogether, this comparative metabolomic analysis indicated that MADS3 gene affects rice anther development far beyond the ROS homeostasis regulation.

  13. Study on Effect of Iron in Anther Media of Early Japonica Rice in Cold Region%寒地早粳花培培养基中铁的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰民; 黄晓群; 王瑞英; 刘传雪; 关世武

    2008-01-01

    In this study, through vitro culturing anthers of 7 F1 progenies of early Japonica rice in cold region on medium with different Fe2+ contents, it was found that Fe2+ content generated greater impacts on the induction rate and green plantlet differentiation. The result demonstrated that if Fe2+ increased from 32 to 40 mg/kg, the induction rate of early Japonica rice anther culture in N6 culture media was more then 1.4 times higher than that in N6 culture media containing 5.6 mg/kg Fe2+. In this concentration range, the induction rate increased with the increase of Fe2+ content, while if the concentration was over this concentration range, the induction rate decreased with the increase of Fe2+, showing single peak distribution. When the Fe2+ was 40 mg/kg in differentiation medium, the differentiation rate decreased dramatically. The green plantlet differentiations of callus which were induced on culture media containing 32-40 mg/kg Fe2+ were different, when they were cultured on MS culture media, and 85.7% materials could increase green plantlet productivity to about 7.8%. Therefore, increasing Fe2+in induction media properly could increase anther culture efficiency of early Japonica rice in cold region.

  14. Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

  15. A Comprehensive Cognitive Behavioral Program for Offenders: Responsible Adult Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, GB; Gibbs, JC; Robbins, M; Langdon, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents Responsible Adult Culture (RAC), a truly comprehensive program for helping offenders to think and act responsibly. It provides the tools of the program with great clarity. In addition to exploring the needs of all offenders, the book addresses the special needs of both female and dual-diagnosis offenders. Responsible thinking means habitually seeing others and situations accurately, rather than in self-serving and egocentrically distorted ways. Because self-centered thinkin...

  16. An Empirical Perspective on the Culture - Corporate Social Responsibility Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru ZAIȚ; Angelica-Nicoleta ONEA; Ruxandra CIULU; Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2013-01-01

    Business competition and pressure of European directives put Romanian company in a position to find answers to issues related to long-term survival and development. In this context we believe it is necessary to analyze some of the most important components that should be taken into consideration at the strategic level: national and organizational culture. The results indicate that corporate social responsibility is supported by learning and change-oriented organizational culture, but also by ...

  17. Anther Development and Pollen Germination of Jackfruit%菠萝蜜花药发育及花粉萌发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铀; 叶春海; 丰锋; 夏春华

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the anther development and pollen germination conditions are the essential elements for a good harvest and high quality of jackfruit. Using paraffin sections and in vitro culture method, the anther development and pollen germination of jackfruit were observed. The results showed that there are four pollen sacs in the jackfruit anther, and there are two types of cytokinesis in the meiotic, namely the continuous type and the simultaneous type, which formed tetrads arranged to be equally bifacial or tetrahedral. Moreover, a great many of tannin was observed to be accumulated in the mature anther epidermal cells. The mixed solution of 160 g · L-1 sucrose and 0.25 g · L- 1 boric acid had an obvious catalytic effect on the jackfruit' s pollen germination, while CaCl2 exerted almost no effect.%研究花药发育过程和花粉萌发条件是菠萝蜜稳产优质的基础.采用石蜡切片和离体培养的方法,对菠萝蜜花药的发育和花粉萌发进行了研究,结果表明:菠萝蜜的花药有4个花粉囊;减数分裂的胞质分裂有连续型和同时型两种形式,形成了等双面体排列和四面体排列的四分体;成熟花药的表皮细胞积累有大量的单宁.160 g·L(-1)的蔗糖和0.25g·L(-1)的硼酸混合溶液对菠萝蜜花粉萌发具有明显的促进作用,CaC12对菠萝蜜花粉萌发作用不明显.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  19. Tribenuron-Methyl Induces Male Sterility through Anther-Specific Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase Leading to Autophagic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lun; Jing, Xue; Chen, Li; Liu, Yingjun; Su, Yanan; Liu, Tingting; Gao, Changbin; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Zou, Jitao; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2015-12-01

    Tribenuron-methyl (TM) is a powerful sulfonylurea herbicide that inhibits branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis by targeting the catalytic subunit (CSR1) of acetolactate synthase (ALS). Selective induction of male sterility by foliar spraying of TM at low doses has been widely used for hybrid seed production in rapeseed (Brassica napus); however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report greater TM accumulation and subsequent stronger ALS inhibition and BCAA starvation in anthers than in leaves and stems after TM application. Constitutive or anther-specific expression of csr1-1D (a CSR1 mutant) eliminated anther-selective ALS inhibition and reversed the TM-induced male sterile phenotype in both rapeseed and Arabidopsis. The results of TM daub-stem experiments, combined with the observations of little TM accumulation in anthers and reversion of TM-induced male sterility by targeted expression of the TM metabolism gene Bel in either the mesophyll or phloem, suggested that foliar-sprayed TM was polar-transported to anthers mainly through the mesophyll and phloem. Microscopy and immunoblotting revealed that autophagy, a bulk degradation process induced during cell death, was elevated in TM-induced male sterile anthers and by anther-specific knockdown of ALS. Moreover, TM-induced pollen abortion was significantly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. These data suggested that TM was polar-transported to anthers, resulting in BCAA starvation via anther-specific ALS inhibition and, ultimately, autophagic cell death in anthers. PMID:26362932

  20. Expression pattern of the coparyl diphosphate synthase gene in developing rice anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ari; Nemoto, Keisuke; Chono, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamagishi, Junko; Maekawa, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2004-08-01

    Rice anthers contain high concentrations of gibberellins A(4) and A(7). To understand their physiological roles, we examined the site of their biosynthesis by analyzing the expression pattern of a gene (OsCPS) encoding coparyl diphosphate synthase in developing rice flowers. Expression was apparent in the anthers 1-2 days before flowering, and CPS mRNA accumulated in the maturing pollen.

  1. Cell biological analyses of anther morphogenesis and pollen viability in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang; Zhang, Zaibao; Jin, Yue; Ma, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Major advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of anther development through a combination of genetic studies, cell biological technologies, biochemical analysis, microarray and high-throughput sequencing-based approaches. In this chapter, we summarize the widely used protocols for pollen viability staining; the investigation of anther morphogenesis by light microscopy of semi-thin sections; TUNEL assay for programmed tapetum cell death; and laser microdissection procedures to obtain specialized cells or cell layers for carrying out transcriptomics.

  2. Culture shapes empathic responses to physical and social pain

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, David; Uskul, Ayse K.; Cooper, N.

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the extent to which cultural background moderates empathy in response to observing someone undergoing physical or social pain. In three studies, we demonstrate that, East Asian and White British participants differ in both affective and cognitive components of their empathic reactions in response to someone else’s pain. Compared with East Asian participants, British participants report greater empathic concern and show lower empathic accuracy. Importantly, f...

  3. Preparing teachers for ambitious and culturally responsive science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Gale

    2013-03-01

    Communities, schools and classrooms across North America are becoming more ethnically, racially, and linguistically diverse, particularly in urban areas. Against this backdrop, underrepresentation of certain groups in science continues. Much attention has been devoted to multicultural education and the preparation of teachers for student diversity. In science education, much research has focused on classrooms as cultural spaces and the need for teachers to value and build upon students' everyday science knowledge and ways of sense-making. However it remains unclear how best to prepare science teachers for this kind of culturally responsive teaching. In attempting to envision how to prepare science teachers with cross-cultural competency, we can draw from a parallel line of research on preparing teachers for ambitious science instruction. In ambitious science instruction, students solve authentic problems and generate evidence and models to develop explanations of scientific phenomenon, an approach that necessitates great attention to students' thinking and sense-making, thus making it applicable to cultural relevance aims. In addition, this line of research on teacher preparation has developed specific tools and engages teachers in cycles of reflection and rehearsal as they develop instructional skills. While not addressing cross-cultural teaching specifically, this research provides insights into specific ways through which to prepare teachers for culturally responsive practices. In my presentation, I will report on efforts to join these two areas of research, that is, to combine ideas about multicultural science teacher preparation with what has been learned about how to develop ambitious science instruction. This research suggests a new model for urban science teacher preparation--one that focuses on developing specific teaching practices that elicit and build on student thinking, and doing so through cycles of individual and collective planning, rehearsal

  4. Fostering Culturally and Developmentally Responsive Teaching through Improvisational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Whyte, Kristin; Delaney, Kate Kresin

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore an effort to rethink curricular decision-making with a group of public pre-K teachers working in a context of curriculum escalation and commitment to play-based pedagogy. Through a professional development program designed to support developmentally and culturally responsive early mathematics, we examine how teachers…

  5. Examining Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Jennifer Jones

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the enactment of culturally responsive teaching practices (Gay, 2010) within two African American elementary teachers' classrooms. Teacher interviews, classroom observations, and classroom documents were collected and analyzed to examine the supports and barriers these teachers encountered as they attempted to…

  6. Culturally Responsive Teaching. Second Edition. Multicultural Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The achievement of students of color continues to be disproportionately low at all levels of education. More than ever, Geneva Gay's foundational book on culturally responsive teaching is essential reading in addressing the needs of today's diverse student population. Combining insights from multicultural education theory and research with…

  7. Examining Preservice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy Doubts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwatu, Kamau Oginga; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Alejandro, Angela Ybarra; Young, Haeni Alecia

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to add to the research on teachers' self-efficacy beliefs by examining preservice teachers' culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy doubts. We examined the tasks that preservice teachers felt least efficacious to successfully execute and explored the reasoning behind these self-efficacy doubts. Consequently, we were…

  8. A Culturally Responsive Counter-Narrative of Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gist, Conra D.

    2014-01-01

    How do you recognize an effective teacher's sociocultural consciousness? Tamara Wallace's and Brenda Brand's argument that sociocultural consciousness is the "brain" of effective culturally responsive instruction for students of color comes at a time when the system of teacher evaluation is being overhauled nationwide.…

  9. Universities' Responses to Globalisation: The Influence of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Sally-Ann; Huisman, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to assess how and why some higher education institutions have responded to aspects of globalisation and, in particular how organisational culture influences universities' responses to globalisation. Using a predominantly qualitative, mixed-methods approach, empirical research was used to explore the impact of globalisation at…

  10. Increasing the Cultural Responsiveness of Family Group Conferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Cheryl; Macgowan, Mark J.; Pennell, Joan; Carlton-LaNey, Iris; Weil, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Child welfare struggles to manage child abuse and neglect and to seek permanency for children, while being culturally responsive to the communities it serves. Family group conferencing, piloted in New Zealand and now used in the United States and other countries, is a strengths-based model that brings together families and their support systems to…

  11. Increasing the cultural responsiveness of family group conferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Cheryl; Macgowan, Mark J; Pennell, Joan; Carlton-LaNey, Iris; Weil, Marie

    2004-04-01

    Child welfare struggles to manage child abuse and neglect and to seek permanency for children, while being culturally responsive to the communities it serves. Family group conferencing, piloted in New Zealand and now used in the United States and other countries, is a strengths-based model that brings together families and their support systems to develop and carry out a plan that protects, nurtures, and safeguards children and other family members. This article describes the model and a culturally competent method for assessing and adapting the model for the African American, Cherokee, and Latino/Hispanic communities in North Carolina. PMID:15124970

  12. 2004-2005 Pilot Test of Two New Culturally Responsive Curriculum Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Christina L.; Hughes, Georgia K.; Holloway, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the pilot testing of two culturally responsive curriculum units (CRCUs) and inform AEL/Edvantia staff about how the units could be improved. Culturally responsive curriculum units are based on five principles of culturally responsive teaching: (1) high expectations; (2) cultural competence; (3) active…

  13. Geoethics and geological culture: awareness, responsibility and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Peppoloni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The international debate in the field of geoethics focuses on some of the most important environmental emergencies, while highlighting the great responsibilities of geoscientists, whatever field they work in, and the important social, cultural and economic repercussions that their choices can have on society. The GeoItalia 2009 and 2011 conferences that were held in Rimini and Turin, respectively, and were organized by the Italian Federation of Earth Science, were two important moments for the promotion of geoethics in Italy. They were devoted to the highlighting of how, and with what tools and contents, can the geosciences contribute to the cultural renewal of society. They also covered the active roles of geoscientists in the dissemination of scientific information, contributing in this way to the correct construction of social knowledge. Geology is culture, and as such it can help to dispel misconceptions and cultural stereotypes that concern natural phenomena, disasters, resources, and land management. Geological culture consists of methods, goals, values, history, ways of thinking about nature, and specific sensitivity for approaching problems and their solutions. So geology has to fix referenced values, as indispensable prerequisites for geoethics. Together, geological culture and geoethics can strengthen the bond that joins people to their territory, and can help to find solutions and answers to some important challenges in the coming years regarding natural risks, resources, and climate change. Starting from these considerations, we stress the importance of establishing an ethical criterion for Earth scientists, to focus attention on the issue of the responsibility of geoscientists, and the need to more clearly define their scientific identity and the value of their specificities.

  14. Cultural responsiveness in EFL teaching: reflections from native instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinarbas H. Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many international students from different parts of the world have been studying at Turkish universities, which creates a multicultural educational setting. Due to the multicultural educational setting, English has become the most widely used language for exchanging and sharing knowledge, therefore many international universities in Turkey put a great emphasis on English language education and offer English preparatory courses to students. In order to succeed at better language education, universities employ native English instructors to provide a richer language experience with cultural components embedded in language content. In this qualitative case study, cultural reflections of native English instructors at a Turkish university were investigated. Individual and focus group interviews were data sources for the study. Findings indicated that cultural responsiveness was considered to be constructed through time, and a necessity of orientation process was emphasized. However, the native instructors’ presumptions cause intolerance and underestimation of the host culture. In addition, educational issues and students’ misbehaviors, such as cheating and calling their instructors by their first name, were attributed to cultural background of the students.

  15. Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Császi, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    In his paper "Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence" Lajos Császi argues that media violence is not a reification of social violence; rather, a popular ritual allowing contemporary societies to sublimate, to substitute, and to discuss aggression in the public sphere. Császi reviews the central questions of contemporary debates about television violence including Stuart Hall's thought on this topic and introduces the ideas of Elias, Geertz, Turner, Bettelhei...

  16. Beyond self-assessment--assessing organizational cultural responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    While there is growing recognition of the need for health care organizations to provide culturally responsive care, appropriate strategies for assessing organizational responsiveness have not been determined. A document review assessment instrument was designed to assess best practice within eight domains, and along seven dimensions of organizational approach to diversity. Results obtained from the pilot of the instrument were congruent with data collected from key informant interviews, a focus group, observational methods and organizational feedback session; however, they were not consistent with self-assessment results at the same site. A larger pilot is required to determine generalizability of results. PMID:19172974

  17. Defining reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis of anther development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanxiao; Tu, Ping; Wang, Kun; Gao, Feng; Yang, Weilong; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is one of the most accurate and widely used methods for gene expression analysis. However, the choice of reference genes for normalization is critical for accurate quantification of gene expression. As development of genomics, mining large-scale datasets such as microarray and RNA-sequencing data becomes a new approach for exploitation of new reference genes. In this study, we analyzed an RNA-sequencing dataset of rice anther and 167 microarray datasets involving different tissues and developing stages of rice anthers and pollens. We selected 12 candidate genes and other 5 reference genes, including ACT1, eEF-1α, GAPDH, Exp2, and CCDC72 used in previous studies, and evaluated their expression in eight tissues and different developmental stages of anthers in rice variety 9311 and Yuetai. UPF3, eIF4A-3, GAPDH, and PPP6 were identified as the most suitable reference genes for qPCR analysis of anther development in rice. The new candidate reference genes showed more stable expression than the traditionally used reference genes. These results provide a set of reliable reference genes for studies in rice anther developmental process. PMID:24492537

  18. My Name Is Not Michael: Strategies for Promoting Cultural Responsiveness in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lisa L.; Hurt, Kara; Lindo, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    With the changing cultural demographics in U.S. classrooms, school counselors must develop innovative approaches to promote culturally responsive school climates and organizational change. A vision is offered of systemic cultural responsiveness and culturally relevant teaching practices that nurture and engage all learners. The role of the school…

  19. Characterization and mapping of a new male sterility mutant of anther advanced dehiscence (t) in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhang; Yunfeng Li; Jian Zhang; Fucheng Shen; Yuanxin Huang; Zhiwei Wu

    2008-01-01

    Anther dehiscence is very important for pollen maturation and release.The mutants of anther dehiscence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) arefew,and related research remains poor.A male sterility mutant of anther dehiscence in advance,add(t),has been found in Minghui 63 and its sterility is not sensitive to thermo-photo.To learn the character of sterilization and the function of the add(t) gene,the morphological and cytological studies on the anther and pollen,the ability of the pistil being fertilized,inheritance of the mutant,and mapping of add(t)gene have been conducted.The anther size is normal but the color is white in the mutant against the natural yellow in the wild-type.The pollen is malformed,unstained,and small in the KI-I2 solution.The anther dehiscence is in advance at the bicellular pollen stage.A crossing test indicated that the grain setting ratio of the add(t) is significantly lower than that of the CMS line 2085A.The ability of the pistil being fertilized is most probably decreased by the add(t) gene.The male sterility is controlled by a single recessive gene of add(t).This gene is mapped between the markers of R02004 (InDel) and RM300 (SSR) on chromosome 2,and the genetic distance from the add(t) gene to these markers is 0.78 cM and 4.66 cM,respectively.

  20. Rice improvement involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plant lets in comparison with the control

  1. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  2. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  3. Shifting perspectives: culturally responsive interventions with latino substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Miguel E; Curry, Shannon J

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, there were 35 million Latinos living in the United States. It is estimated that by 2050 Latinos will comprise 97 million people in the United States, or one-fourth of the U.S. population, establishing this ethnic group as the fastest growing and soon to be largest in the country (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 ). These numbers highlight the need for a multicultural paradigm shift, or the inclusion of culture-specific skills and culturally responsive interventions in psychological practice. Latinos face challenges as a racial/ethnic group that the traditional Euro-American model of treatment neither addresses nor validates. Unfortunately, substance abuse serves a purposeful function for many Latinos as a means of escape from the problems related to the social, environmental, and political structures. The current article adapts the model set forth by Parham ( 2002 ) as a strength-based therapeutic framework for intervention. The following stages are outlined to serve as the basis for most therapeutic encounters with clients from all racial and ethnic groups presenting with substance abuse problems: therapeutic alliance building, culturally appropriate assessment, sociopolitical awareness and liberation, creating collaborative change, and addressing sustainability of change. PMID:25985072

  4. Creating culturally responsive family therapy models and research: introducing the use of responsive evaluation as a method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seponski, Desiree M; Bermudez, J Maria; Lewis, Denise C

    2013-01-01

    Models of marriage and family therapy (MFT) typically reflect Western values and norms, and although cultural adaptations are made, many models/frameworks continue to be inappropriate or inadequate for use with non-Western cultures. Worldwide, therapists are examining ways of using MFT models in a culturally sensitive manner, especially when working with clients who are seen as having minority status or perceived as "other" by the dominant group. This essay suggests the use of responsive evaluation as a theoretically consistent methodology for creating and evaluating culturally responsive therapies. This approach rigorously evaluates each unique client/therapist context, culture, power, needs, and beliefs. We describe responsive evaluation and discuss how each component addresses the research needs of examining culturally responsive family therapies. A case illustration is offered delineating the process of conducting culturally responsive therapy with a Cambodian sample using solution-focused and narrative therapy. PMID:25073841

  5. Hemopoietic cell precursor responses to erythropoietin in plasma clot cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The time dependence of the response of mouse bone marrow cells to erythropoietin (Ep) in vitro was studied. Experiments include studies on the Ep response of marrow cells from normal, plethoric, or bled mice. Results with normal marrow reveal: (1) Not all erythroid precursors (CFU-E) are alike in their response to Ep. A significant number of the precursors develop to a mature erythroid colony after very short Ep exposures, but they account for only approx. 13% of the total colonies generated when Ep is active for 48 hrs. If Ep is active more than 6 hrs, a second population of erythroid colonies emerges at a nearly constant rate until the end of the culture. Full erythroid colony production requires prolonged exposure to erythropoietin. (2) The longer erythropoietin is actively present, the larger the number of erythroid colonies that reach 17 cells or more. Two distinct populations of immediate erythroid precursors are also present in marrow from plethoric mice. In these mice, total colony numbers are equal to or below those obtained from normal mice. However, the population of fast-responding CFU-E is consistently decreased to 10 to 20% of that found in normal marrow. The remaining colonies are formed from plethoric marrow at a rate equal to normal marrow. With increasing Ep exposures, the number of large colonies produced increases. From the marrow of bled mice, total erythroid colony production is equal to or above that of normal marrow. Two populations of colony-forming cells are again evident, with the fast-responding CFU-E being below normal levels. The lack of colonies from this group was compensated in bled mice by rapid colony production in the second population. A real increase in numbers of precursors present in this pool increased the rate of colony production in culture to twice that of normal marrow. The number of large colonies obtained from bled mice was again increased as the Ep exposure was lengthened. (ERB)

  6. Regulation of Arabidopsis Early Anther Development by Putative Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules and Transcriptional Regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jin Sun; Carey LH Hord; Chang-Bin Chen; Hong Ma

    2007-01-01

    Anther development in flowering plants involves the formation of several cell types, including the tapetal and pollen mother cells. The use of genetic and molecular tools has led to the identification and characterization of genes that are critical for normal cell division and differentiation in Arabidopsis early anther development. We review here several recent studies on these genes, including the demonstration that the putative receptor protein kinases BAM1 and BAM2 together play essential roles in the control of early cell division and differentiation. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that BAM1/2 may form a positive-negative feedback regulatory loop with a previously identified key regulator, SPOROCYTELESS (also called NOZZLE),to control the balance between sporogenous and somatic cell types in the anther. Furthermore, we summarize the isolation and functional analysis of the DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM1 (DYT1) gene in promoting proper tapetal cell differentiation. Our finding that DYT1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the bHLH family, as well as relevant expression analyses, strongly supports a model that DYT1 serves as a critical link between upstream factors and downstream target genes that are critical for normal tapetum development and function. These studies, together with other recently published works, indicate that cell-cell communication and transcriptional control are key processes essential for cell fate specification in anther development.

  7. AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of several pathways affecting Arabidopsis anther development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that AtMYB103 has an important role in tapetum development,callose dissolution,and exine formation in A.thaliana anthers.Here,we further characterized its function in anther development by expression pattern analysis,transmission electron microscopy observation of the knockout mutant,and microarray analysis of downstream genes.A total of 818 genes differentially expressed between ms188 and the wild-type were identified by global expression profiling analysis.Functional classification showed that loss-of-function of AtMYB103 impairs cell wall modification,lipid metabolic pathways,and signal transduction throughout anther development.RNA in situ hybridization confirmed that transcription factors acting downstream of AtMYB103 (At1g06280 and At1g02040) were expressed in the tapetum and microspores at later stages,suggesting that they might have important roles in microsporogenesis.These results indicated that AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of Arabidopsis anther development.

  8. History of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on Silene latifolia in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michael C; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the routes of pathogen introduction contributes greatly to efforts to protect against future disease emergence. Here, we investigated the history of the invasion in North America by the fungal pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, which causes the anther smut disease on the white ca

  9. Shifts from specialised to generalised pollination systems in Miconieae (Melastomataceae) and their relation with anther morphology and seed number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, V L G; Fendrich, T G; Smidt, E C; Varassin, I G; Goldenberg, R

    2016-07-01

    Most species in Melastomataceae have poricidal anthers related to specialised bee buzz-pollination, while some have anthers with large openings associated to non-bee pollination systems. We tracked the evolution of anther morphology and seed number on the Miconieae phylogenetic tree to understand the evolutionary shifts in such pollination systems. Anther morphometric data and seed number were recorded for 54 taxa. Pollinators (bees, flies, wasps) were recorded for 20 available species. Ancestral state reconstruction was made using Maximum Likelihood from nrITS sequences. We used phylogenetic eigenvector regressions to estimate phylogenetic signal and the adaptive component for these traits. Species pollinated by bees or bees and wasps tend to have smaller pores and fruits with more seeds. Species pollinated by flies or flies and bees and/or wasps tend to have larger pores and fruits with less seeds. Independent evolution occurred three times for anthers with large pores and twice for fruits with few seeds. We detected a phylogenetic signal in both traits, and negative correlated evolution between them. In actinomorphic small-flowered Miconieae, changes in anther morphology can be related to generalisation in the pollination system incorporating flies and wasps as pollinators and lessening the importance of buzzing bees in such process. Differences in pollen removal and deposition may explain differences in anther morphology and seed number in Miconieae. PMID:26789333

  10. Shifts from specialised to generalised pollination systems in Miconieae (Melastomataceae) and their relation with anther morphology and seed number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, V L G; Fendrich, T G; Smidt, E C; Varassin, I G; Goldenberg, R

    2016-07-01

    Most species in Melastomataceae have poricidal anthers related to specialised bee buzz-pollination, while some have anthers with large openings associated to non-bee pollination systems. We tracked the evolution of anther morphology and seed number on the Miconieae phylogenetic tree to understand the evolutionary shifts in such pollination systems. Anther morphometric data and seed number were recorded for 54 taxa. Pollinators (bees, flies, wasps) were recorded for 20 available species. Ancestral state reconstruction was made using Maximum Likelihood from nrITS sequences. We used phylogenetic eigenvector regressions to estimate phylogenetic signal and the adaptive component for these traits. Species pollinated by bees or bees and wasps tend to have smaller pores and fruits with more seeds. Species pollinated by flies or flies and bees and/or wasps tend to have larger pores and fruits with less seeds. Independent evolution occurred three times for anthers with large pores and twice for fruits with few seeds. We detected a phylogenetic signal in both traits, and negative correlated evolution between them. In actinomorphic small-flowered Miconieae, changes in anther morphology can be related to generalisation in the pollination system incorporating flies and wasps as pollinators and lessening the importance of buzzing bees in such process. Differences in pollen removal and deposition may explain differences in anther morphology and seed number in Miconieae.

  11. Regulatory Role of a Receptor-Like Kinase in Specifying Anther Cell Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Qian, Xiaoling; Chen, Mingjiao; Fei, Qili; Meyers, Blake C; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    In flowering plants, sequential formation of anther cell types is a highly ordered process that is essential for successful meiosis and sexual reproduction. Differentiation of meristematic cells and cell-cell communication are proposed to coordinate anther development. Among the proposed mechanisms of cell fate specification are cell surface-localized Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) and their putative ligands. Here, we present the genetic and biochemical evidence that a rice (Oryza sativa) LRR-RLK, MSP1 (MULTIPLE SPOROCYTE1), interacts with its ligand OsTDL1A (TPD1-like 1A), specifying the cell identity of anther wall layers and microsporocytes. An in vitro assay indicates that the 21-amino acid peptide of OsTDL1A has a physical interaction with the LRR domain of MSP1. The ostdl1a msp1 double mutant showed the defect in lacking middle layers and tapetal cells and having an increased number of microsporocytes similar to the ostdl1a or msp1 single mutant, indicating the same pathway of OsTDL1A-MSP1 in regulating anther development. Genome-wide expression profiles showed the altered expression of genes encoding transcription factors, particularly basic helix-loop-helix and basic leucine zipper domain transcription factors in ostdl1a and msp1 Among these reduced expressed genes, one putatively encodes a TGA (TGACGTCA cis-element-binding protein) factor OsTGA10, and another one encodes a plant-specific CC-type glutaredoxin OsGrx_I1. OsTGA10 was shown to interact with OsGrx_I1, suggesting that OsTDL1A-MSP1 signaling specifies anther cell fate directly or indirectly affecting redox status. Collectively, these data point to a central role of the OsTDL1A-MSP1 signaling pathway in specifying somatic cell identity and suppressing overproliferation of archesporial cells in rice. PMID:27208278

  12. Regulatory Role of a Receptor-Like Kinase in Specifying Anther Cell Identity1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Qian, Xiaoling; Chen, Mingjiao

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, sequential formation of anther cell types is a highly ordered process that is essential for successful meiosis and sexual reproduction. Differentiation of meristematic cells and cell-cell communication are proposed to coordinate anther development. Among the proposed mechanisms of cell fate specification are cell surface-localized Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) and their putative ligands. Here, we present the genetic and biochemical evidence that a rice (Oryza sativa) LRR-RLK, MSP1 (MULTIPLE SPOROCYTE1), interacts with its ligand OsTDL1A (TPD1-like 1A), specifying the cell identity of anther wall layers and microsporocytes. An in vitro assay indicates that the 21-amino acid peptide of OsTDL1A has a physical interaction with the LRR domain of MSP1. The ostdl1a msp1 double mutant showed the defect in lacking middle layers and tapetal cells and having an increased number of microsporocytes similar to the ostdl1a or msp1 single mutant, indicating the same pathway of OsTDL1A-MSP1 in regulating anther development. Genome-wide expression profiles showed the altered expression of genes encoding transcription factors, particularly basic helix-loop-helix and basic leucine zipper domain transcription factors in ostdl1a and msp1. Among these reduced expressed genes, one putatively encodes a TGA (TGACGTCA cis-element-binding protein) factor OsTGA10, and another one encodes a plant-specific CC-type glutaredoxin OsGrx_I1. OsTGA10 was shown to interact with OsGrx_I1, suggesting that OsTDL1A-MSP1 signaling specifies anther cell fate directly or indirectly affecting redox status. Collectively, these data point to a central role of the OsTDL1A-MSP1 signaling pathway in specifying somatic cell identity and suppressing overproliferation of archesporial cells in rice. PMID:27208278

  13. The Utility of Empathy for White Female Teachers' Culturally Responsive Interactions with Black Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Chezare A.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers aiming to become culturally responsive must be concerned with negotiating professional interactions that produce favorable outcomes for the culturally diverse students under their charge. Very few studies offer empirical evidence of empathy's utility in the culturally responsive classroom, especially when the teacher is culturally…

  14. 75 FR 76997 - Public Consultation on Personnel Reliability and Culture of Responsibility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Public Consultation on Personnel Reliability and Culture of... Guidance for Enhancing Personnel Reliability and Strengthening the Culture of Responsibility at the Local... and general public regarding strategies for enhancing personnel reliability and strengthening...

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Organization Culture and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar Moshabaki; Vahab Khalili Shojaei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract   This research deals with the investigating the relationship between organization culture and corporate social responsibility (CSR). (Case Study: Energy Ministry). In this paper, the above-mentioned research split in two parts. First, issues regarding organization culture and organization culture management, then effects of organization culture’s stabilization on corporate social responsibility. The questionnaires list regarding organization culture derivated from Baron and Greenber...

  16. Calogênese in vitro em anteras de coffea arabica L. In vitro callogenesis in anthers of Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednamar Gabriela Palú

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O café é um dos mais importantes produtos do mercado internacional; porém, o tempo gasto e os recursos despendidos são fatores limitantes para o melhoramento do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais. Contudo, a cultura de anteras surge como uma alternativa viável e de curto prazo para solução desses problemas. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se a produção de dihaplóides com a cultura de anteras do cafeeiro (androgênese indireta, buscando um protocolo para a fase de indução de calos. Para tanto, foi efetuada a assepsia dos botões florais e das anteras, que, em seguida, foram inoculadas em meio IC e mantidas no escuro por 8 semanas, sob temperatura de 25ºC ± 1. Para induzir a calogênese em anteras da cv. Acaiá Cerrado, foram testadas as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 mais 2iP (2 mg.L-1 e, para a cv. Rubi, as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1. Foi observado que a maior porcentagem de indução de calogênese em anteras na cv. Acaiá Cerrado ocorre com as combinações de 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1 + cinetina (1,9 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1 + AIB (1 mg.L-1+ 2iP (2 mg.L-1; para cv. Rubi, a combinação de 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1 e cinetina (4 mg.L-1.The coffee is one of the most important products of the international market, however the time and money wasted in breeding programs are limiting factors for its improvement. However, the anther culture appears as a viable alternative for a short time period solution for this problem. This work aimed to obtain the double haploids production from anther cultures of the coffee plant (indirect androgenesis aiming to optimize a protocol calluse induction. For this purpose, asseptic conditions of the flower budsand anthers were accomplished, folowed by inoculationin IC medium and the tissue were kept for eight weeks at 25ºC ± 1 in the dark. To induce

  17. Assessing the Impact of Total Immersion on Cherokee Language Revitalization: A Culturally Responsive, Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Lizette

    This paper illustrates how the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma is exploring a new paradigm of evaluation that is responsive to the claims, concerns, and issues of stakeholders involved. Known as culturally responsive evaluation, this alternative conceived by the Initiative for Culturally Responsive Evaluation (ICRE) is considered more appropriate than…

  18. Radiation Response of Cultured Human Cells Is Unaffected by Johrei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Hall

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Johrei has been credited with healing thousands from radiation wounds after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs in 1945. This alternative medical therapy is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, as are other Energy Medicine modalities that purport to influence a universal healing energy. Human brain cells were cultured and exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation. Experienced Johrei practitioners directed healing intentionality toward the cells for 30 min from a distance of 20 cm and the fate of the cells was observed by computerized time-lapse microscopy. Cell death and cell divisions were tallied every 30 min before, during and after Johrei treatment for a total of 22.5 h. An equal number of control experiments were conducted in which cells were irradiated but did not receive Johrei treatment. Samples were assigned to treatment conditions randomly and data analysis was conducted in a blinded fashion. Radiation exposure decreased the rate of cell division (cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Division rates were estimated for each 30 min and averaged over 8 independent experiments (4 control and 4 with Johrei treatment for each of 4 doses of X-rays (0, 2, 4 and 8 Gy. Because few cell deaths were observed, pooled data from the entire observation period were used to estimate death rates. Analysis of variance did not reveal any significant differences on division rate or death rate between treatment groups. Only radiation dose was statistically significant. We found no indication that the radiation response of cultured cells is affected by Johrei treatment.

  19. Radiation response of cultured human cells is unaffected by Johrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zach; Luu, Tri; Moore, Dan; Yount, Garret

    2007-06-01

    Johrei has been credited with healing thousands from radiation wounds after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs in 1945. This alternative medical therapy is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, as are other Energy Medicine modalities that purport to influence a universal healing energy. Human brain cells were cultured and exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation. Experienced Johrei practitioners directed healing intentionality toward the cells for 30 min from a distance of 20 cm and the fate of the cells was observed by computerized time-lapse microscopy. Cell death and cell divisions were tallied every 30 min before, during and after Johrei treatment for a total of 22.5 h. An equal number of control experiments were conducted in which cells were irradiated but did not receive Johrei treatment. Samples were assigned to treatment conditions randomly and data analysis was conducted in a blinded fashion. Radiation exposure decreased the rate of cell division (cell cycle arrest) in a dose-dependent manner. Division rates were estimated for each 30 min and averaged over 8 independent experiments (4 control and 4 with Johrei treatment) for each of 4 doses of X-rays (0, 2, 4 and 8 Gy). Because few cell deaths were observed, pooled data from the entire observation period were used to estimate death rates. Analysis of variance did not reveal any significant differences on division rate or death rate between treatment groups. Only radiation dose was statistically significant. We found no indication that the radiation response of cultured cells is affected by Johrei treatment. PMID:17549235

  20. The Culturally Responsive Teacher in Class-teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂梅

    2008-01-01

    <正>Successfully teaching students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds requires a new way of looking at teaching that is grounded in an understanding of the role of culture and language in learning.Teachers need to be familiar with constructivist views of learning,develop socio-cultural consciousnessuse instructional strategies.

  1. Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Supports: Considerations for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle; Obiakor, Festus E.

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms are not culturally neutral terrains, but rather are constructed around sets of norms, values, and expected behaviors that are culturally bound. Low tolerance levels and expectations are an indication of the incongruence between the education strategies utilized by teachers and the cultural and linguistic differences of students that are…

  2. Map-Based Cloning of Genes Important for Maize Anther Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Y.; Walbot, V.; Nan, G.

    2012-12-01

    Map-Based cloning for maize mutant MS13 . Scientists still do not understand what decides the fate of a cell in plants. Many maize genes are important for anther development and when they are disrupted, the anthers do not shed pollen, i.e. male sterile. Since the maize genome has been fully sequenced, we conduct map-based cloning using a bulk segregant analysis strategy. Using PCR (polymerase chain reaction), we look for biomarkers that are linked to our gene of interest, Male Sterile 13 (MS13). Recombinations occur more often if the biomarkers are further away from the gene, therefore we can estimate where the gene is and design more PCR primers to get closer to our gene. Genetic and molecular analysis will help distinguish the role of key genes in setting cell fates before meiosis and for being in charge of the switch from mitosis to meiosis.

  3. An anther-specific chalcone synthase-like gene D5 related to rice pollen development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was shown in a previous analysis that D5 gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.) was an anther-specific gene encoding a chalcone synthase-related protein. In this study, D5 gene was found specifically expressed in tapetum cells as well as in the peripheral cells of the vascular bundle of rice anthers by RNA in situ hybridization. In order to study its function, D5 was transformed into rice in both sense and antisense directions driven by a rice Actin 1 promoter. It has been observed that the pollen grains from the antisense D5 transgenic rice plants are abnormal, indicating that D5 plays a critical role in rice pollen development.

  4. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  5. Three Curriculum and Organisational Responses to Cultural Pluralism in New Zealand Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, David

    1990-01-01

    Examines three educational responses to cultural diversity operating in New Zealand schools: incorporation of Maori culture programs in mainstream curriculums, organizational modification to accommodate Maori students, and the development of Maori culture and language immersion programs in primary schools. Application of similar programs to…

  6. Socio-Cultural Norms for Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    Abstract – This paper considers the cultural resources for corporate action tied into stakeholder models, criticizes current stakeholder models, and develops a perspective based in ethics and the political model of the stakeholder. The purpose of this analysis is to lay out models which recognize...... the cultural challenges related to the blurring of the boundaries of the corporation and the needs of different cultural contexts....

  7. An examination of acquiescent response styles in cross-cultural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Fischer; J.R.J. Fontaine; F.J.R. van de Vijver; D.A. van Hemert

    2006-01-01

    Response styles constitute a formidable challenge for cross-cultural research. In this article, three different response styles are discussed (acquiescence, extremity scoring, and social desirability). Acquiescence responding (ARS) is then integrated into a larger classical test theoretical framewor

  8. The Anther Steps onto the Stigma for Self-Fertilization in a Slipper Orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin-Ju; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Huang, Jie; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. However, self-pollination is common in pollinating animal-scarce habitats. In such habitats, self-pollinations require the assistance of a pollinating agent (e.g., wind, gravity, or floral assembly) to transport the pollen grains from the anther onto its own stigma. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollination mechanisms, a new self-pollination process was discovered in the hermaphroditic (i.e., possessing spatially separated male and female organs) flower of a slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum parishii. The anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly steps onto the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly. Conclusions The mode of self-pollination discussed here is a new addition to the broad range of genetic and morphological mechanisms that have evolved in flowering plants to ensure their reproductive success. The present self-contained pollination mechanism is a possible adaptation to the insect-scarce habitat of the orchid. PMID:22649529

  9. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  10. Cross-cultural pragmatics: compliments and compliment responses in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苏

    2012-01-01

    Language and culture are distinctly interdependent;one reflects the other.In cross-cultural communications,it is critical for language users to use and understand the language appropriately in a certain socio-cultural context.This paper aims to compare the similarities and differences of compliments and compliment responses in English and Chinese from the cross-cultural pragmatic perspective.The implications for teaching are also discussed so as to bridge the gap caused by cultural differences and minimize the occurrence of potential cross-cultural pragmatic failures.

  11. Applying Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to the Vocational Training of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Training and learning are the personal process in which individuals interact with social and cultural contexts. Immigrant trainees bring their early educational and life experiences into training classrooms, and their learning is strongly affected by their prior socialization and socio-cultural experiences. Therefore, it is necessary to provide…

  12. Qualifying Sociopolitical Consciousness: Complicating Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Faith-Based Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and faith-based schooling. The author presents a portion of a larger ethnographic research project conducted at a Catholic elementary school that serves a predominantly Latino population in urban Chicago. This work contributes to theories of culturally responsive education by…

  13. Considering Culturally Responsive Teaching, Children, and Place in the Music Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Kimberly Friesen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores how culturally responsive teaching and the concept of children and place relate in the music room. The article begins with a brief explanation of both culturally responsive teaching and children and place. Through the use of anecdotes and ideas to consider, this article provides elementary music teachers with…

  14. Culturally Responsive Teaching as an Ethics- and Care-Based Approach to Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevalier, Rae; McKenzie, Barbara Ann

    2012-01-01

    Research shows culturally responsive teaching affects urban students positively. Current literature is an excellent resource for urban teacher preparation and provides definitions, models, and examples to help preservice teachers recognize the "how" and "what" of culturally responsive teaching. Missing, however, is an accessible, in-depth…

  15. Using Culturally Competent Responsive Services to Improve Student Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates standards blending, the integration of core academic and school counseling standards, as a culturally alert responsive services strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap while also enhancing employability skills and culturally salient career competencies. The responsive services intervention described in this…

  16. Examining Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy in a Preservice Social Studies Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Starker, Tehia V.; Salyers, Beth

    2012-01-01

    In a preexperimental study of preservice practitioners' professional dispositions, we examined the relationship between an innovative culturally responsive teaching model in a social studies methods course and teacher candidates' culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy. Findings indicate preservice teachers exposed to an in-depth culturally…

  17. Nourishing Roots and Inspiring Wings: Building a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Southern Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Druggish, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Richard S. Druggish This qualitative study focused on the need for culturally responsive teaching within the southern Appalachian cultural setting. The specific components of this approach to teaching were based on research findings, theoretical claims from proponents of culturally responsive teaching (e.g. Gloria Ladson-Billings and Geneva Gay), and experiences and personal narratives of educators working with students in southern Appalachia. T...

  18. "Because That's Who I Am": Extending Theories of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to Consider Religious Identity, Belief, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this conceptual article the author explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and religious school contexts. He extends theories of culturally responsive pedagogy to consider how religion, a dimension of student culture that has largely been overlooked in the literature surrounding culturally responsive pedagogy, can inflect…

  19. Characterization of chondrocyte sheets prepared using a co-culture method with temperature-responsive culture inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Mami; Sato, Masato; Yamato, Masayuki; Mitani, Genya; Kutsuna, Toshiharu; Ebihara, Goro; Okano, Teruo; Mochida, Joji

    2016-06-01

    Conventional culture methods using temperature-responsive culture dishes require 4-5 weeks to prepare layered chondrocyte sheets that can be used in articular cartilage repair and regeneration. This study investigated whether the use of synovial tissue obtained from the same joint as the chondrocyte nutritive supply source could more quickly facilitate the preparation of chondrocyte sheets. After culturing derived synoviocytes and chondrocytes together (i.e. combined culture or co-culture) on temperature-responsive inserts, chondrocyte growth was assessed and a molecular analysis of the chondrocyte sheets was performed. Transplantable tissue could be obtained more quickly using this method (average 10.5 days). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining of the three-layer chondrocyte sheets confirmed the significant expression of genes critical to cartilage maintenance, including type II collagen (COL2), aggrecan-1 and tissue metallopeptidase inhibitor 1. However, the expression of COL1, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP13 and A-disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 was suppressed. The adhesive factor fibronectin-1 (FN1) was observed in all sheet layers, whereas in sheets generated using conventional preparation methods positive FN1 immunostaining was observed only on the surface of the sheets. The results indicate that synoviocyte co-cultures provide an optimal environment for the preparation of chondrocyte sheets for tissue transplantation and are particularly beneficial for shortening the required culture period. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23868865

  20. Callus culture and gamma rays treatment used for inducing new breeding material in wheat (Tr. Aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occuring somaclonal variation has been combined with gamma-ray (137Cs) treatment to increase the frequency of new forms of wheat differing from the initial lines. Two winter wheat genotypes 8-61 and 148-133-14 were used in the present study. Donor plants were grown under field conditions. Immature embryos were excised from the sterilized kernels and plated on MS basal medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2.4-D for induction and proliferation of the callus. The following treatments were applied: 1). Control (a natural occuring somaclonal variation). 2). 60 Gy gamma-ray treatment on mature seeds. 3). 6.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on immature seeds. 4). 2 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus 14 days after embryo plating. 5). 0.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus at the end of each plating. The best callusogenesis and regeneration were observed with genotype 8-61 given the treatment 5 followed by control. The genotype 148-133-14 showed a different response. The highest regeneration was obtained in the control followed by the treatments 2 and 5. In order to provide a faster stabilization of the genetic diversity among the regenerated plants, they were used as donors for anther culture. The anthers with microspores at the mid- to late uninucleate stages were excised and planted on potato-2 medium. Callus and embryoids induced from the cultured anthers were transferred to a 190-2 regeneration medium. All regenerants were studied cytologically and the haploids were treated with 0.055 colhicine 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Doubled haploid lines were produced as a result of this experiment. Statistical analysis of the newly released lines showed evidence of differences in plant height, spike shape and other agronomic features. (author)

  1. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  2. The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter OsABCG15 is Required for Anther Development and Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Xiao Niu; Fu-Rong He; Ming He; Ding Ren; Le-Tian Chen; Yao-Guang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Plant male reproductive development is a complex biological process,but the underlying mechanism is not well understood.Here,we characterized a rice (Oryza sativa L.) male sterile mutant.Based on mapbased cloning and sequence analysis,we identified a 1,459-bp deletion in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene,OsABCG15,causing abnormal anthers and male sterility.Therefore,we named this mutant osabcg15.Expression analysis showed that OsABCG15 is expressed specifically in developmental anthers from stage 8 (meiosis Ⅱ stage) to stage 10 (late microspore stage).Two genes CYP704B2 and WDA1,involved in the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids for the establishment of the anther cuticle and pollen exine,were downregulated in osabcg15 mutant,suggesting that OsABCG15 may play a key function in the processes related to sporopollenin biosynthesis or sporopollenin transfer from tapetal cells to anther locules.Consistently,histological analysis showed that osabcg15 mutants developed obvious abnormality in postmeiotic tapetum degeneration,leading to rapid degredation of young microspores.The results suggest that OsABCG15 plays a critical role in exine formation and pollen development,similar to the homologous gene of AtABCG26 in Arabidopsis.This work is helpful to understand the regulatory network in rice anther development.

  3. Confronting Coyote: Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in an Era of Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The trickster, a crucial character in many cultural histories, often slips into people's lives without warning. In the western United States, the trickster frequently manifests himself as Coyote, and he is central in the oral traditions of tribal people, ranching families, and outdoor adventurers alike. Coyote is a complex character that teaches…

  4. Urban Teachers' Use of Culturally Responsive Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dave F.

    2003-01-01

    Gaining students' cooperation in urban classrooms involves establishing an environment where teachers address students' cultural and ethnic needs, as well as their social, emotional, and cognitive needs. This article describes the management strategies of 13 1st- through 12th-grade urban teachers from seven cities throughout the United States.…

  5. Culturally Responsive L2 Education: An Awareness-Raising Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Melina

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multilingual, multiethnic, and multicultural classrooms in varied educational contexts worldwide points to the importance of cultural factors in language education and education in general. In the EFL/ESL classroom of this century, ELT is seen as including much more than purely linguistic aspects as it focuses also on…

  6. Development of a Culturally Responsive Nutrition Promotion Course for Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Gail C.; Beaudoin, Jessica; Rascon, Mayra; Garcia-Vega, Melawhy; Rios-Ellis, Britt

    2013-01-01

    The health of Hispanics is greatly influenced by level of education, socioeconomic status, and access to healthcare (United States Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2011). To address this issue and to reduce health disparities among all ethnic groups, community based interventions with culturally appropriate and linguistically…

  7. Collaborative Voices Exploring Culturally and Socially Responsive Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carmen L.; del Rocio Costa, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This piece shares preservice teachers and instructors reflections on their perceptions of a course on Spanish language arts methods in Puerto Rico. The course was redesigned to focus on interrelated curricular and pedagogical aspects such as literacies as situated social practice, funds of knowledge, popular culture and critical literacy. In…

  8. Cultural dimensions and corporate social responsibility: A cross-country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Skouloudis, Antonis

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has witnessed a surge in recent years but the rate of adoption among national business sectors diverges considerably. In this paper we attempt to frame the influence of national culture on CSR by assessing national CSR penetration under well-established cultural dimensions. We offer new evidence on the influence of cultural specificity - proxied by Hofstede’s model - on the adoption and endorsement of CSR among national business sectors. ...

  9. A primary culture of guinea pig gallbladder epithelial cells that is responsive to secretagogues

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter-Smith, Pamela J.; Abdulkadir, Oluwakemi; Hammonds-Odie, Latanya; Scanlon, Mary; Terrell, Raquel

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a cell culture of guinea pig gallbladder epithelial cells with which to study ion transport. When grown on permeable supports, the cultured epithelia developed a transepithelial resistance (Rt) of ∼500 Ω·cm2. The epithelial cell origin of the cell culture was further confirmed by immunocytochemical localization of cytokeratin. Ionomycin and forskolin increased transepithelial voltage and short-circuit current (Isc) and decreased Rt. The response to ionomycin was transient, w...

  10. The development of a model of culturally responsive science and mathematics teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.; Morales, Amanda R.; Shroyer, M. Gail

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative theoretical study was conducted in response to the current need for an inclusive and comprehensive model to guide the preparation and assessment of teacher candidates for culturally responsive teaching. The process of developing a model of culturally responsive teaching involved three steps: a comprehensive review of the literature; a synthesis of the literature into thematic categories to capture the dispositions and behaviors of culturally responsive teaching; and the piloting of these thematic categories with teacher candidates to validate the usefulness of the categories and to generate specific exemplars of behavior to represent each category. The model of culturally responsive teaching contains five thematic categories: (1) content integration, (2) facilitating knowledge construction, (3) prejudice reduction, (4) social justice, and (5) academic development. The current model is a promising tool for comprehensively defining culturally responsive teaching in the context of teacher education as well as to guide curriculum and assessment changes aimed to increase candidates' culturally responsive knowledge and skills in science and mathematics teaching.

  11. Literature and Lives: A Response-Based, Cultural Studies Approach to Teaching English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey-Webb, Allen

    Telling stories from secondary and college English classrooms, this book explores the new possibilities for teaching and learning generated by bringing together reader-response and cultural-studies approaches. The book connects William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, and other canonical figures to multicultural writers, popular culture,…

  12. The Relationship between Organizational Culture and the Implementation of Response to Intervention in One Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between organizational culture and the implementation of Response to Intervention in one elementary school. It examined issues corresponding to change within a system, with particular attention to those relating to school culture. An ethnographic approach was used to gather data, including the collection of…

  13. Social Justice and Cultural Responsiveness: Innovative Teaching Strategies for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a teaching strategy for group work that enhances the social justice consciousness of course participants by increasing their knowledge of their own cultural identity, worldview, acculturation, privilege, and oppression to improve their cultural responsiveness and understanding of social justice issues. The focus is on group…

  14. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  15. Culturally Responsive Teaching: The Harlem Renaissance in an Urban English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Andrea J.

    2007-01-01

    Andrea J. Stairs advocates culturally responsive teaching, a practice that explicitly highlights "issues of race, ethnicity, and culture as central to teaching, learning, and schooling," and emphasizes the necessity of interrogating the themes of race, power, and privilege in the urban classroom. Stairs observes two student teachers as they…

  16. Prognostic Importance of Intraoperative Cultures for Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Postoperative infectious complications requiring additional antibiotic treatment and prolonged hospitalization can potentially be observed after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Postoperative infectious complications can occur despite a negative preoperative bladder urine culture (UC) and perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. In this study we prospectively evaluated the association of intraoperative cultures with post-PCNL systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Material and ...

  17. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda;

    2012-01-01

    , but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology...

  18. Secondary English Learners: Strengthening Their Literacy Skills through Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    In high school English classrooms where English language learners may be at risk of academic failure, Culturally Responsive Teaching can help educators build an inclusive community in which all students can improve their literacy skills.

  19. Proteome analysis of the wild and YX-1 male sterile mutant anthers of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zheng

    Full Text Available Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX, putative glutamine synthetase (GS, ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS, CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3. Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1, and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility.

  20. A mediterranean japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar improvement through anther culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Serrat, X.; Cardona, M.; Gil, J; Brito, A. M.; Moysset Agustí, Lluïsa; Nogués Mestres, Salvador; Lalanne, E.

    2014-01-01

    Certified seed producers systematically select and propagate registered varieties year after year in order to maintain their uniformity and the original registered cultivar traits. However, natural mutations, spontaneous breeding between varieties and alien grain contamination can introduce undesir- able variability. NRVC 980385 is a temperate japonica rice cultivar (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) first regis- tered in Spain in 2002. In 2005 certification tests detected a plot differing from the...

  1. Cross-Cultural Homestays: An Analysis of College Students' Responses After Living in an Unfamiliar Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Roger M.; Dold, Eugene

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to investigate the effects of a cross-cultural homestay program on students' attitudes and health. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  2. Consumers’ responses to CSR in a cross-cultural setting

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Karaosman; Gustavo Morales-Alonso; Mercedes Grijalvo

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to clarify the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and consumer behaviour in an international setting. Consumers’ responses to CSR activities and the impact on the purchase decision are limited discourses. CSR-based studies in the fashion and apparel industry are also scarce. Therefore, this study attempts to enlighten the subject of how consumers from different countries respond to CSR adopted in the fashion and apparel industry. This study is based on a...

  3. Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education through Culturally Responsive Educational Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette K. Klingner

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a conceptual framework for addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. The cornerstone of our approach to addressing disproportionate representation is through the creation of culturally responsive educational systems. Our goal is to assist practitioners, researchers, and policy makers in coalescing around culturally responsive, evidence-based interventions and strategic improvements in practice and policy to improve students’ educational opportunities in general education and reduce inappropriate referrals to and placement in special education. We envision this work as cutting across three interrelated domains: policies, practices, and people. Policies include those guidelines enacted at federal, state, district, and school levels that influence funding, resource allocation, accountability, and other key aspects of schooling. We use the notion of practice in two ways, in the instrumental sense of daily practices that all cultural beings engage in to navigate and survive their worlds, and also in a technical sense to describe the procedures and strategies devised for the purpose of maximizing students’ learning outcomes. People include all those in the broad educational system: administrators, teacher educators, teachers, community members, families, and the children whose opportunities we wish to improve.

  4. Identification of small RNAs in late developmental stage of rice anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Tomoaki; Kaneko, Fumi; Kazama, Tomohiko; Suwabe, Keita; Suzuki, Go; Makino, Amane; Mae, Tadahiko; Endo, Makoto; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Watanabe, Masao

    2008-06-01

    Small RNAs including microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) are known as repressors of gene expression. There are many plant proteins involved in small RNA-mediated gene silencing, such as Dicer ribonucleases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, most of these proteins have been reported to be absent in the late developmental stage of the plant male gamete, pollen. In order to clarify the existence of the small RNAs during maturation of pollen, we cloned and sequenced small RNAs from rice anthers including tricellular pollen. From fifty six candidates of small RNAs, we identified two known miRNAs (miR166 and miR167), eight potential miRNAs, and ten putative heterochromatic siRNAs (hc-siRNAs). RNA gel blot analyses clearly showed that miR166 and miR167 were accumulated in the uninuclear pollen stage of anther development and remained until the tricellular pollen stage. Our cloning and RNA gel blot analyses of small RNAs led us to propose a possible function of small RNA-mediated gene regulation for the development of male gametes in rice.

  5. From the anther to the proctodeum: Pear (Pyrus communis) pollen digestion in Osmia cornuta larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepi, Massimo; Cresti, Laura; Maccagnani, Bettina; Ladurner, Edith; Pacini, Ettore

    2005-07-01

    Modifications of the pollen grains of Pyrus communis Linneaus that occur during the digestion by Osmia cornuta (Latreille) larvae were studied histochemically. We compared the features of the pollen grains found in the anthers, in the larval cell provisions and in the alimentary canal of the 5th instar larvae. Modifications were already evident in the provisions and consisted of protoplast protrusions through the apertures and a decrease in the number of starch-containing pollen grains. After pollen grains were ingested by the larvae, the protoplast appeared retracted from the pollen wall. Pollen digestion began in the anterior part of the midgut, where we observed: (1) disorganised intine at the apertures; (2) disappearance of DAPI staining of nuclear pollen DNA; (3) fewer pollen grains containing starch than in the anthers; (4) some empty pollen grains. Pollen grains in the proctodeum appeared extremely compressed and crushed. Some grains appeared to be unaffected by the digestive process. We hypothesise that the protrusion of the intine and of the protoplast from the apertures in bee provisions could be considered a kind of pre-treatment necessary to initiate the digestion process in the larval alimentary canal. PMID:16105552

  6. Functional monoecy due to delayed anther dehiscence: a novel mechanism in Pseuduvaria mulgraveana (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chun-Chiu; Scharaschkin, Tanya; Su, Yvonne C F; Saunders, Richard M K

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most genera in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae, Pseuduvaria exhibits a diversity of floral sex expression. Most species are structurally andromonoecious (or possibly androdioecious), although the hermaphroditic flowers have been inferred to be functionally pistillate, with sterile staminodes. Pseuduvaria presents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of floral sex in early-divergent angiosperms, although detailed empirical studies are currently lacking. The phenology and pollination ecology of the Australian endemic species Pseuduvaria mulgraveana are studied in detail, including evaluations of floral scent chemistry, pollen viability, and floral visitors. Results showed that the flowers are pollinated by small diurnal nitidulid beetles and are protogynous. Pollen from both hermaphroditic and staminate flowers are shown to be equally viable. The structurally hermaphroditic flowers are nevertheless functionally pistillate as anther dehiscence is delayed until after petal abscission and hence after the departure of pollinators. This mechanism to achieve functional unisexuality of flowers has not previously been reported in angiosperms. It is known that protogyny is widespread amongst early-divergent angiosperms, including the Annonaceae, and is effective in preventing autogamy. Delayed anther dehiscence represents a further elaboration of this, and is effective in preventing geitonogamy since very few sexually mature flowers occur simultaneously in an individual. We highlight the necessity for field-based empirical interpretations of functional floral sex expression prior to evaluations of evolutionary processes.

  7. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  8. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Practical Strategy to Train Culturally Responsive Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini J. Negi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.

  9. Protocorm development of Epidendrum fulgens (Orchidaceae in response to different saline formulations and culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Gerent Voges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymbiotic technique of orchid seeds germination is an important method of mass production of seedlings. Studies on the best culture conditions for each species are important to obtain seedlings in less time and at lower costs. Current analysis evaluates different consistencies of culture medium, saline formulations and culture conditions on the germination rate and further development of protocorms of Epidendrum fulgens. After 45 days in culture the protocorms were classified into three categories of development. The liquid saline formulation of Murashige and Skoog (1962 (MS provided the highest germination rate (83.5%, and the Knudson formulation (1946 the lowest (10.9%. The different consistencies or conditions or culture conditions did not affect the germination rate percentage, except the Knudson medium, which resulted in the highest rate in response to the gelled consistency. Protocorms cultured in liquid MS medium with or without agitation showed the fastest development.

  10. Digital Citizenship: Developing an Ethical and Responsible Online Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Responsible and ethical use of the Internet is not something that teenagers, in particular, consider to be important, and serious consequences are beginning to emerge as a result of careless and offensive online behaviour. Teachers and teacher-librarians have a duty of care to make students aware of the potentially devastating effects of…

  11. Listener's Preference for Music of Other Cultures: Comparing Response Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the preferences of university and middle school students for non-western music as communicated through a Likert-type scale, manipulation of one dial on a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) during music listening, and manipulation of two dials on a CRDI during music listening. (MJP)

  12. The Culture of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Academic Framework: Some Literary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sandhya Rao

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is swiftly emerging as an integral part of corporate culture and discourse. Associated with notions of responsibility, accountability and community involvement, it remains privileged with concerns that increasingly define the new millennium. Less developed, however, is the relevance of CSR ideas to academic…

  13. Cross-cultural Differences in Compliment Response between China and US

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志远

    2015-01-01

    Compliment response is one of the most commonly used speech acts in social communication.This thesis,through the comparative studies on compliment response between China and America,aims at helping English learners have a profound understanding on compliments in cross-cultural communication.

  14. Stories that Matter: Native American Fifth Graders' Responses to Culturally Authentic Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Angeline P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine textual features in Native American children's literature and Native children's responses to these textual features. Culturally authentic children's literature was used to gain insights into children's perspectives as they engaged in responses within literature circles. This study utilized qualitative…

  15. Irradiation Response of Adipose-derived Stem Cells under Three-dimensional Culture Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ya Rong; PAN Dong; CHEN Ya Xiong; XUE Gang; REN Zhen Xin; LI Xiao Man; ZHANG Shi Chuan; HU Bu Rong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adipose tissue distributes widely in human body. The irradiation response of the adipose cells in vivo remains to be investigated. In this study we investigated irradiation response of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) under three-dimensional culture condition. Methods ASCs were isolated and cultured in low attachment dishes to form three-dimensional (3D) spheres in vitro. The neuronal differentiation potential and stem-liked characteristics was monitored by using immunofluoresence staining and flow cytometry in monolayer and 3D culture. To investigate the irradiation sensitivity of 3D sphere culture, the fraction of colony survival and micronucleus were detected in monolayer and 3D culture. Soft agar assays were performed for measuring malignant transformation for the irradiated monolayer and 3D culture. Results The 3D cultured ASCs had higher differentiation potential and an higher stem-like cell percentage. The 3D cultures were more radioresistant after either high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion beam or low LET X-ray irradiation compared with the monolayer cell. The ASCs’ potential of cellular transformation was lower after irradiation by soft agar assay. Conclusion These findings suggest that adipose tissue cell are relatively genomic stable and resistant to genotoxic stress.

  16. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  17. Performance-based competencies for culturally responsive interprofessional collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Valerie; Lackie, Kelly

    2009-11-01

    This paper will highlight how a literature review and stakeholder-expert feedback guided the creation of an interprofessional facilitator-collaborator competency tool, which was then used to design an interprofessional facilitator development program for the Partners for Interprofessional Cancer Education (PICE) Project. Cancer Care Nova Scotia (CCNS), one of the PICE Project partners, uses an Interprofessional Core Curriculum (ICC) to provide continuing education workshops to community-based practitioners, who as a portion of their practice, care for patients experiencing cancer. In order to deliver this curriculum, health professionals from a variety of disciplines required education that would enable them to become culturally sensitive interprofessional educators in promoting collaborative patient-centred practice. The Registered Nurses Professional Development Centre (RN-PDC), another PICE Project partner, has expertise in performance-based certification program design and utilizes a competency-based methodology in its education framework. This framework and methodology was used to develop the necessary interprofessional facilitator competencies that incorporate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for performance. Three main competency areas evolved, each with its own set of competencies, performance criteria and behavioural indicators.

  18. [Organisational responsibility versus individual responsibility: safety culture? About the relationship between patient safety and medical malpractice law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    The contribution is concerned with the correlations between risk information, patient safety, responsibility and liability, in particular in terms of liability law. These correlations have an impact on safety culture in healthcare, which can be evaluated positively if--in addition to good quality of medical care--as many sources of error as possible can be identified, analysed, and minimised or eliminated by corresponding measures (safety or risk management). Liability influences the conduct of individuals and enterprises; safety is (probably) also a function of liability; this should also apply to safety culture. The standard of safety culture does not only depend on individual liability for damages, but first of all on strict enterprise liability (system responsibility) and its preventive effects. Patient safety through quality and risk management is therefore also an organisational programme of considerable relevance in terms of liability law.

  19. Cultural perspectives on the meaning of corporate social responsibility in a third sector organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Rima

    2009-01-01

    How can Corporate Social Responsibility best be understood, what is its range of application and what insights can culture provide when considering the responsibilities of a third sector organisation? This thesis addresses these questions through ethnographic enquiry conducted in a third sector organization (Groundwork Northumberland). Challenging the rigid conventions which restrict the relevance of Corporate Social Responsibility to the private sector it demonstrates both the contest and co...

  20. Consumers’ responses to CSR in a cross-cultural setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Karaosman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to clarify the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR and consumer behaviour in an international setting. Consumers’ responses to CSR activities and the impact on the purchase decision are limited discourses. CSR-based studies in the fashion and apparel industry are also scarce. Therefore, this study attempts to enlighten the subject of how consumers from different countries respond to CSR adopted in the fashion and apparel industry. This study is based on an exploratory qualitative research for which focus group interviews, including six group discussions with Spanish and Turkish consumers, have been used. The fundamental dimension for sampling was consumers’ interest and knowledge of CSR-related issues. The data were examined by constant comparison analysis. The paper provides empirical insights that suggest that these consumers, regardless of their country of origin, perceive CSR actions as part of companies’ marketing strategies, while overall consumer awareness to CSR is low. Moreover, the criteria, which determine the purchase decision is to be governed by self-interest. A difference between participants from both countries has been found with regard to their demand for more regulation towards CSR. An identified research need in international marketing discipline, is fulfilled in this study.

  1. Ethical control and cultural change (in cultural dreams begin organizational responsibilities)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractEthical control is based on transparent access to the accounts of responsible behaviour on the part of individual and organizational actors. It is usually linked to the idea of a checkpoint: where celibate rules, no sexual interaction can be allowed. However, organizing and managing clim

  2. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed. PMID:23067337

  3. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed.

  4. Contrasting Nephropathic Responses to Oral Administration of Extract of Cultured Penicillium polonicum in Rat and Primate

    OpenAIRE

    Fincham, John E; McHugh, Katharine M.; Peter G. Mantle

    2010-01-01

    Liquid- or solid substrate-cultured Penicillium polonicum administered in feed to rats over several days evokes a histopathological response in kidney involving apoptosis and abnormal mitosis in proximal tubules. The amphoteric toxin is yet only partly characterized, but can be isolated from cultured sporulating biomass in a fraction that is soluble in water and ethanol, and exchangeable on either anion- or cation-exchange resins. After several weeks of treatment renal proximal tubule distort...

  5. Digital Repatriation: Constructing a Culturally Responsive Virtual Museum Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriene Roy、Mark Christal

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:14-18

    This paper describe a project that involved educators and three Native American communities in the construction of a virtual tour now available on the Web site of the National Museum of the American Indian(http://www. conexus.si.edu/. In fall 1998, the Pueblo of Laguna Department of Education, the College of Education and Graduate School of Library and Information Science at The University of Texas at Austin, and the Smithsonians National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI began the first collaboration that brought Native American students, teachers, and cultural representatives to the NMAI George Gustav Heye Center in New York City. The virtual tour makes extensive use of QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR. The panoramas of the exhibition space serve as an interface for accessing the featured objects selected by the students. Clicking on a hot spot over the museum display of a featured object causes the QTVR object to load in a separate Webpage frame accompanied by an interpreted essay written by a student. Clickable floor plans of the exhibition- space offer another method of navigating the virtual tour and accessing the virtual objects.

  6. Cultural responsiveness in long-term-care case management: moving beyond competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister-Rozas, Lisa; Klein, Waldo C

    2009-01-01

    Case mangers must deal with the ever-changing makeup of their client population as well as those who provide managed services to these clients. There is great ethnocultural diversity in the elder population, and statistics contend that it will only increase with time. Similarly, the majority of long-term-care providers have been consistently female and of color. Providing culturally competent services becomes more complex when long-term-care providers and clients possess different identities, countries of origins, and social statuses. This article examines a framework that addresses the complex, multidimensional and bidirectional process that occurs between providers and consumers of any cultural makeup called cultural responsiveness. PMID:19353981

  7. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of

  8. Interferon Response in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection: Lessons from Cell Culture Systems of HCV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects approximately 130-170 million people worldwide. In 2005, the first HCV infection system in cell culture was established using clone JFH-1, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with fulminant HCV infection. JFH-1 replicates efficiently in hepatoma cells and infectious virion particles are released into the culture supernatant. The development of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) systems has allowed us to understand how hosts respond to HCV infection and how HCV evades host responses. Although the mechanisms underlying the different outcomes of HCV infection are not fully understood, innate immune responses seem to have a critical impact on the outcome of HCV infection, as demonstrated by the prognostic value of IFN-λ gene polymorphisms among patients with chronic HCV infection. Herein, we review recent research on interferon response in HCV infection, particularly studies using HCVcc infection systems.

  9. Children’s altruistic behavior in context: The role of emotional responsiveness and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhans, Purva; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Vaish, Amrisha; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behavior in humans is thought to have deep biological roots. Nonetheless, there is also evidence for considerable variation in altruistic behaviors among individuals and across cultures. Variability in altruistic behavior in adults has recently been related to individual differences in emotional responsiveness to fear in others. The current study examined the relation between emotional responsiveness (using eye-tracking) and altruistic behavior (using the Dictator Game) in 4 to 5-year-old children (N = 96) across cultures (India and Germany). The results revealed that increased altruistic behavior was associated with a greater responsiveness to fear faces (faster fixation), but not happy faces, in both cultures. This suggests that altruistic behavior is linked to our responsiveness to others in distress across cultures. Additionally, only among Indian children greater altruistic behavior was associated with greater sensitivity to context when responding to fearful faces. These findings further our understanding of the origins of altruism in humans by highlighting the importance of emotional processes and cultural context in the development of altruism. PMID:27137754

  10. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  11. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  12. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S.

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  13. Materializing Culture - Culturizing Material. On the Status, Responsibilities and Function of Cultural Property Repositories within the Framework of a "Transformative Scholarship"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hilgert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain theoretical streams in the cultural and social sciences that are occasionally subsumed under the term “New Materialism” 2 (see Witzgall, as well as recent social, political, cultural and media technology developments require a theoretical and research-political repositioning of academic object repositories. For it is obvious that under the influence of these multi-layered, partly interwoven processes, the status, responsibilities, as well as the function and spheres of activity of these object or cultural property repositories with research commitment (on the term see section 2 below are currently undergoing long-lasting change. For the respective institutions, these changes not only result in complex challenges regarding contents and structure, but also present extraordinary opportunities for the fulfillment of their academic, social and political responsibilities. The appropriate handling of these challenges and opportunities can substantially contribute to the sharpening of the academic and social profile of these institutions and increase their visibility on both a national and international level.

  14. Exploring the influence of cultural familiarity and expertise on neurological responses to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J

    2003-11-01

    Contemporary music education in many countries has begun to incorporate not only the dominant music of the culture, but also a variety of music from around the world. Although the desirability of such a broadened curriculum is virtually unquestioned, the specific function of these musical encounters and their potential role in children's cognitive development remain unclear. We do not know if studying a variety of world music traditions involves the acquisition of new skills or an extension and refinement of traditional skills long addressed by music teachers. Is a student's familiarity with a variety of musical traditions a manifestation of a single overarching "musicianship" or is knowledge of these various musical styles more similar to a collection of discrete skills much like learning a second language? Research on the comprehension of spoken language has disclosed a neurologically distinct response among subjects listening to their native language rather than an unfamiliar language. In a recent study comparing Western subjects' responses to music of their native culture and music of an unfamiliar culture, we found that subjects' activation did not differ on the basis of the cultural familiarity of the music, but on the basis of musical expertise. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings in relation to the concept of musical universals, cross-cultural stimulus characteristics, cross-cultural judgment tasks, and the influence of musical expertise. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:14681123

  15. Effects of Culture and Gender on Judgments of Intent and Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Fortune, Jennifer L; Liang, Lindie H; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Do different cultures hold different views of intentionality? In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor's distal intent (a focus on a broader goal) and proximal intent (a focus on the mechanics of the act) were manipulated. In Studies 1-2, when distal intent was more prominent in the actor's mind, North Americans rated the actor more responsible than did Chinese and South Asian participants. When proximal intent was more prominent, Chinese and South Asian participants, if anything, rated the actor more responsible. In Studies 3-4, when distal intent was more prominent, male Americans rated the actor more responsible than did female Americans. When proximal intent was more prominent, females rated the actor more responsible. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the literatures on moral reasoning and cultural psychology. PMID:27123858

  16. 3D culture broadly regulates tumor cell hypoxia response and angiogenesis via pro-inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelNero, Peter; Lane, Maureen; Verbridge, Scott S; Kwee, Brian; Kermani, Pouneh; Hempstead, Barbara; Stroock, Abraham; Fischbach, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Oxygen status and tissue dimensionality are critical determinants of tumor angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer and an enduring target for therapeutic intervention. However, it is unclear how these microenvironmental conditions interact to promote neovascularization, due in part to a lack of comprehensive, unbiased data sets describing tumor cell gene expression as a function of oxygen levels within three-dimensional (3D) culture. Here, we utilized alginate-based, oxygen-controlled 3D tumor models to study the interdependence of culture context and the hypoxia response. Microarray gene expression analysis of tumor cells cultured in 2D versus 3D under ambient or hypoxic conditions revealed striking interdependence between culture dimensionality and hypoxia response, which was mediated in part by pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. In particular, interleukin-8 (IL-8) emerged as a major player in the microenvironmental regulation of the hypoxia program. Notably, this interaction between dimensionality and oxygen status via IL-8 increased angiogenic sprouting in a 3D endothelial invasion assay. Taken together, our data suggest that pro-inflammatory pathways are critical regulators of tumor hypoxia response within 3D environments that ultimately impact tumor angiogenesis, potentially providing important therapeutic targets. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of pathologically relevant tissue culture models to study the complex physical and chemical processes by which the cancer microenvironment mediates new vessel formation.

  17. Does culture impact on notions of criminal responsibility and action? The case of spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayesha; Dein, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Multicultural societies such as the United Kingdom are host to people with diverse belief systems and behavioral norms. Whilst a country requires that all members of society conform to standardized legal requirements, cases arise that involve certain complexities related to the cultural or religious context in which a certain action was committed. This paper addresses the impact of culture on notions of criminal responsibility and action. Through a case study of a recent event in the United Kingdom, we explore whether a cultural defense is relevant for contextualizing incidents in which an individual commits a criminal action during an alleged period of spirit possession From this analysis, we suggest that using a cultural defense can aid understanding of an individual's relationship to the society that he or she identifies with and facilitate the practice of justice in a multicultural society.

  18. Does culture impact on notions of criminal responsibility and action? The case of spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayesha; Dein, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Multicultural societies such as the United Kingdom are host to people with diverse belief systems and behavioral norms. Whilst a country requires that all members of society conform to standardized legal requirements, cases arise that involve certain complexities related to the cultural or religious context in which a certain action was committed. This paper addresses the impact of culture on notions of criminal responsibility and action. Through a case study of a recent event in the United Kingdom, we explore whether a cultural defense is relevant for contextualizing incidents in which an individual commits a criminal action during an alleged period of spirit possession From this analysis, we suggest that using a cultural defense can aid understanding of an individual's relationship to the society that he or she identifies with and facilitate the practice of justice in a multicultural society. PMID:27510926

  19. Pre-Service Teacher Disposition Development: Cultural Reciprocity and Responsivity in Early Childhood Special Education Practica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenberg, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative Case Study explored the integrative process of pre-service teachers' disposition development for cultural reciprocity and responsiveness. Over the course of ten months, pre-service teachers completed two Early Childhood Special Education practica in diverse urban communities. The pre-service teachers were placed in public…

  20. "Katherine With-a-K and Little Nato": A Case Study of Culturally Responsible Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parscal, Jeannie N.

    This case study, one of four, is part of a larger study, "Ethnographic Case Studies of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (CRP) of At-Risk Students in Middle School Classrooms." The study provides relevant case literature regarding CRP for the enhancement of preservice teacher education and describes the characteristics of a multicultural classroom in…

  1. Urban Teachers' Professed Classroom Management Strategies: Reflections of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dave F.

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen urban educators teaching from 1st through 12th grade selected from 7 cities across the United States were interviewed in this qualitative research study to determine if the classroom management strategies they use reflect the research on culturally responsive teaching. Participants revealed using several management strategies that reflect…

  2. PLANT CULTURAL SYSTEM FOR MONITORING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A plant culture system incorporating the water-table root-screen method for controlling plant water status was adapted for use in open-top field exposure chambers for studying the effects of drought stress on physiological responses. The daily transpiration rates of the plants we...

  3. The Coconut Wireless Project: Sharing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy through the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Barber, Sharon; Trumbull, Elise; Wenn, Richard

    Beginning in the 1997-98 school year, WestEd staff, with the support of the Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), worked intensively with a group of five Chamorro teachers from Rota Elementary School (Hawaii) to develop culturally responsive, standards-based science units. The larger goal was to develop Web-based case examples of…

  4. Culturally Responsive Education: Developing Lesson Plans for Vietnamese Students in the American Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of the philosophical principles of John Dewey and Culturally Responsive Education in the creation of lesson plans for Vietnamese students in the American Diaspora. Through a Fulbright-Hayes Program a group of teachers from the New York City Public School System and Long Island spent six weeks in Vietnam…

  5. "One of the Small Details That Got Overlooked": School Meals as Response to Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Hazel

    1992-01-01

    Study examined responses to cultural diversity at three British primary schools with Muslim students. At two schools, Muslim students received different meals when meat was served. Interviews with personnel, parents, and students uncovered undesirable, covert, stereotyping effects from the effort. Policies to avoid such effects and increase…

  6. Developing Sociopolitical Consciousness at Freedom Schools: Implications for Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tambra O.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the programmatic ways in which the Children's Defense Fund Freedom Schools[R] program develops culturally responsive teaching practices amongst its summer interns, particularly in the area of developing sociopolitical consciousness. This paper places specific focus on the role that historical knowledge, the acknowledgement…

  7. Initiating Culturally Responsive Teaching for Identity Construction in the Malaysian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    This article presents evidence to the need for Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) to construct students' identity in the Malaysian classrooms. Since an important objective of education is to prepare individuals to exercise efficaciously in their environment, all students in multicultural society could benefit from exposure to CRT (Gay, 2000). In…

  8. SOME INTERCULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - CASE STUDY: ROMANIA AND HOFSTEDE'S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    BALTADOR Lia; BUDAC Camelia; Lucian BELASCU

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is creating the need for new ways of understanding, managing and coping with culture differences. Corporations should take into account these differences when fundamenting their international strategies, even in regard to their business ethic and social responsibility goals. In this article we try to indicate some of the implications that intercultural factors can have on the companies actions regarding CSR.

  9. "Making Her Community a Better Place to Live": Culturally Responsive Urban School Leadership in Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the notion of "culturally responsive leadership" through a historical case study of the life of Gertrude Elise MacDougald Ayer, the first African American woman principal in New York City. I begin by situating Ayer's leadership practice in light of the social and political context of Harlem in the 1930s and early 1940s. Then…

  10. Writing the Male Abuser in Cultural Responses to Domestic Violence in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsland, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…

  11. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  12. Distinguishing Themes of Cultural Responsiveness: A Study of Document-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ellen E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the distinguishing themes of cultural responsiveness in state- and federally-derived document-based learning materials. Two data sources--"Teaching with Documents" articles in Social Education and Document Based Questions on New York State 11th-grade U.S. History and Government Regents exams--were examined using…

  13. Promoting Cultural Responsiveness and Closing the Achievement Gap with Standards Blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, "standards blending"--the integration of core academic and school counseling standards--is demonstrated as a culturally responsive strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap for a group of third-grade African American males. The small-group intervention described resulted in knowledge gains in both the school counseling and…

  14. A Study of Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices of Adult ESOL and EAP Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christy M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how frequently adult education English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teachers in Florida used specific culturally responsive teaching practices and how important they believed those practices were to their teaching. Using Ginsberg and Wlodkowski's…

  15. Culturally Responsive Instructional Leadership: A Conceptual Exploration with Principals of Three New Zealand Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Principals of many New Zealand (NZ) mainstream schools navigate a complex intercultural educational policy environment to address the academic challenges of Maori and Pasifika students. This inquiry sought to explore the concept of "culturally responsive instructional leadership" by studying the knowledge, actions, motives, perceptions,…

  16. The Intersectionality of Culturally Responsive Teaching and Performance Poetry: Validating Secondary Latino Youth and Their Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors draw from culturally responsive teaching and multicultural education to describe performance poetry as an effective strategy for validating secondary aged Latino youths' lived experiences. Supported by teacher modeling and the incorporation of community poets, students created and shared their own powerful poems that…

  17. Measuring Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Conceptualizations of a Culturally Responsive Classroom Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2009-01-01

    With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…

  18. Preservice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy-Forming Experiences: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwatu, Kamau Oginga

    2011-01-01

    The author used an explanatory mixed methods research design. The first phase involved the collection of quantitative data to examine the nature of preservice teachers' (N = 192) culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy beliefs. Follow-up face-to-face interviews were carried out with a subsample selected from Phase 1 participants. These…

  19. Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers culturally responsive practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.

    2012-06-01

    Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.

  20. Culturally responsive middle school science: A case study of needs, demands, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Kelli Ellen

    2007-12-01

    Culturally responsive programming has been proposed as a remedy for the well-documented disconnect between schools and the ethnically and culturally diverse students who attend them. These programs often focus on creating instructional materials and pedagogical practices that are aligned with the knowledges, perspectives and practices of these students. This study builds on that literature and examines the needs, demands, and challenges of developing a culturally responsive health science program for ethnically and culturally diverse urban middle school students. I approached this problem through a content analysis of the intended curriculum and a microethnography of the enacted curriculum. In my analysis of the intended curriculum, I adapted a science textbook analysis instrument created by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to include criteria related to identified features of culturally responsive education. Using these modified analytic criteria, I found that the pilot drafts of the curricular materials excelled in the areas of engaging students in relevant phenomenon but lacked many of these specifically culturally responsive elements. Recommendations were made to redress these deficiencies. In my analysis of the enacted curriculum, I observed in five eighth grade classrooms where the program was being implemented. I used participant observation, audio and video tape recordings, artifacts, and interviews over a six-month period to investigate teacher/student interactions, the social organization of the classrooms, and students' culturally distinctive knowledge resources---or what is sometimes referred to as their "funds of knowledge." I found that the affective interactions between teachers and students were precursors to any reform, and that students and teachers similarly defined these interactions as "teacher care." In addition, I found that the social organization of the classroom often privileged official content and ways of

  1. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60Co γ-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60Co γ-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

  2. Colleges and Cultural Responsibilities%大学的文化责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺一松

    2012-01-01

    Culture is the soul of college and college is the classic of culture.Facing the cultural strategy,colleges are expected to shoulder their responsibilities with new cognition.Inheritance and innovation are categorized as domain of colleges' cultural responsibility,guidance and demonstration as orientation and persistence and consciousness as obligations.Therefore,China has to build and develop genuine colleges,which must undertake their mission and fulfill their duty in changing the development pattern and promoting the scientific development.Based on the socialist college construction with Chinese characteristics and focusing on the requirements of cultural strategy,the paper expounds the cultural responsibilities of Chinese colleges from the perspectives of cognition,domain,orientation and obligation.%文化是大学的灵魂,大学是文化的经典。文化强国战略下,大学要以新的认知担当应有的文化责任。传承与创新是大学的文化责任范畴;引领与示范是大学的文化责任定位;坚守与自觉是大学的文化责任担当。在转变发展方式、推进科学发展的进程中,大学应该肩负起使命,履行好职责,以坚守和自觉担当起文化强国的文化责任。立足中国特色社会主义大学建设,着眼文化强国的战略要求,从认知、范畴、定位和担当几个方面对中国大学的文化责任进行论述。

  3. Ultrastructural studies on the sporogenous tissue and anther wall of Leucojum aestivum (amaryllidaceae) in different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Nuran; Dane, Feruzan

    2012-12-01

    In this study, ultrastructures of anther wall and sporogenous tissue of Leucojum aestivum were investigated during different developmental stages. Cytomictic channels were seen between pollen mother cells during prophase I. Polar distribution was described in the organelle content of pollen mother cells and microspores in early phases of microsporogenesis and also in pollen mitosis. Active secretion was observed in tapetal cells. Previous reports about developmental stages of male gametophyte were compared with the results of this study.

  4. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ildephonse Habarugira; Theo Hendriks; Marie-Christine Quillet; Jean-Louis Hilbert; Caroline Rambaud

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores...

  5. GAMYB controls different sets of genes and is differentially regulated by microRNA in aleurone cells and anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Aya, Koichiro; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Shimada, Yukihisa; Nakazono, Mikio; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Gomi, Kenji; Shimada, Asako; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    GAMYB is a component of gibberellin (GA) signaling in cereal aleurone cells, and has an important role in flower development. However, it is unclear how GAMYB function is regulated. We examined the involvement of a microRNA, miR159, in the regulation of GAMYB expression in cereal aleurone cells and flower development. In aleurone cells, no miR159 expression was observed with or without GA treatment, suggesting that miR159 is not involved in the regulation of GAMYB and GAMYB-like genes in this tissue. miR159 was expressed in tissues other than aleurone, and miR159 over-expressors showed similar but more severe phenotypes than the gamyb mutant. GAMYB and GAMYB-like genes are co-expressed with miR159 in anthers, and the mRNA levels for GAMYB and GAMYB-like genes are negatively correlated with miR159 levels during anther development. Thus, OsGAMYB and OsGAMYB-like genes are regulated by miR159 in flowers. A microarray analysis revealed that OsGAMYB and its upstream regulator SLR1 are involved in the regulation of almost all GA-mediated gene expression in rice aleurone cells. Moreover, different sets of genes are regulated by GAMYB in aleurone cells and anthers. GAMYB binds directly to promoter regions of its target genes in anthers as well as aleurone cells. Based on these observations, we suggest that the regulation of GAMYB expression and GAMYB function are different in aleurone cells and flowers in rice.

  6. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous.

  7. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous. PMID:26955923

  8. Stress and Humoral Innate Immune Response of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata Cultured in Sea Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, Fulvio; Roncarati, Alessandra; Angelucci, Giulia; Fenza, Alessandra; Meluzzi, Adele

    2016-09-01

    Innate and acquired immune responses of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata was studied under normal culture and short-term stressful conditions for 18 months in offshore sea cages in Alghero Bay, Italy. Every 45 d, 50 fish were sampled and divided into two groups: fish in the first group (normal culture conditions) were bled after harvesting; fish in the second group were put into a tank under stressful conditions (crowding and confinement) and bled after 2 h. Innate humoral immunity, such as complement-like, hemagglutination, and lysozyme activities, was determined in the sera of both groups. Pathogen challenge was not performed, but the specific humoral immune response was assessed against the most common pathogens affecting cultured fish in Sardinia. Stressed fish, compared with the control, showed a lower lysozyme activity against Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum, which was not clearly correlated with temperatures. Complement-like activity differed between the first and second half of the study and, at the end of the trial, a slightly higher activity was recorded in the controls than in the stressed fish. Hemagglutination activity was mainly higher in the stressed fish than in control fish. Confinement, crowding, and cold water temperature caused decreased lysozyme activity in short-term stressed Gilthead Seabream compared with those reared normally. The specific humoral immune response, against V. anguillarum, Tenacibaculum mesophilum, Enterococcus Seriolicida, and Aeromonas sobria, fluctuated during the rearing period, particularly during the first year of culture. Received October 12, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27485027

  9. A Comparison of the Policy Response to Cultural Diversity in China and India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽娜

    2015-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the current cultural diversity in China and India with the comparison of policy responses, especially the multiculturalism and language policies, as well as the policies on the workplace. Results show that India enriched and deepened its multiculturalism through the recognition of languages diversity, while China weakened its cultural diversity by popularizing one official language, Mandarin. However, both China and India should do more in practice to make different ethnic groups live and participant as equal partners in the social life.

  10. Small Business Responsiveness and Organizational Culture in the Context of a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael STOICA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between two important variables that define small and medium-sized enterprises: organizational culture and responsiveness. Firms operating in Romania were selected for the study. The country offers a business context with many changes over the last two decades, a challenge and an opportunity for researchers. Results show that the combination of entrepreneurial characteristics and planning and goal oriented managerial styles suits best successful companies. The market-driven type of culture has the best coordination and is best positioned to deliver customer-centered versatility, while adhocracy helps businesses respond fast to changes in the market environment.

  11. Rice CYP703A3, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase, is essential for development of anther cuticle and pollen exine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijia Yang; Zhijing Luo; Wanqi Liang; Dabing Zhang; Di Wu; Jianxin Shi; Yi He; Franck Pinot; Bernard Grausem; Changsong Yin; Lu Zhu; Mingjiao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Anther cuticle and pol en exine act as protective envelopes for the male gametophyte or pol en grain, but the mechanism underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers remains unclear. Previously, a tapetum-expressed CYP703A3, a putative cytochrome P450 fatty acid hydroxylase, was shown to be essential for male fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, the biochemical and biological roles of CYP703A3 has not been characterized. Here, we observed that cyp703a3-2 caused by one base insertion in CYP703A3 displays defective pol en exine and anther epicuticular layer, which differs from Arabidopsis cyp703a2 in which only defective pol en exine occurs. Consis-tently, chemical composition assay showed that levels of cutin monomers and wax components were dramatical y reduced in cyp703a3-2 anthers. Unlike the wide range of substrates of Arabidopsis CYP703A2, CYP703A3 functions as an in-chain hydroxylase only for a specific substrate, lauric acid, preferably generating 7-hydroxylated lauric acid. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression analyses revealed that the expression of CYP703A3 is directly regulated by Tapetum Degeneration Retardation, a known regulator of tapetum PCD and pol en exine formation. Col ectively, our results suggest that CYP703A3 represents a conserved and diversified biochemical pathway for in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid required for the development of male organ in higher plants.

  12. Converging Recommendations for Culturally Responsive Literacy Practices: Students with Learning Disabilities, English Language Learners, and Socioculturally Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Susan V.; Rao, Shaila; Protacio, Maria Selena

    2015-01-01

    This study examines culturally responsive pedagogy across the fields of special education, multicultural literacy education, and teaching English language learners. A systematic review of recommendations identified culturally responsive practices in five key areas: dialogue, collaboration, visual representation, explicit instruction, and inquiry.…

  13. Going against the Grain in an Urban Arizona High School: Secondary Preservice Teachers Emerging as Culturally Responsive Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pablo; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Boozer, April; Clark, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This one year study examines the journey of two preservice urban high-school teachers in Arizona as they enact Culturally Responsive Teaching in a year-long student teaching residency. Factors that influenced their Culturally Responsive Teaching practices are discussed along themes that emerged from interviews and classroom observations.…

  14. Measuring Pre-Service Master's of School Administrator's Candidates' Social Capital as a Predictor of Culturally Responsive Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Alisa; Seigler, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study measured Pre-Service Masters of School Administrators' candidates' social capital as a predictor of culturally responsive leadership. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the MSA Pre-service candidates' social capital and their propensity to become culturally responsive leaders. The 23 participants in…

  15. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  16. Molecular characterization of OsPRP1 from rice, which is expressed preferentially in anthers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaohuai; MAO Aijun; WANG Rong; WANG Tai; SONG Yanru; TONG Zhe

    2003-01-01

    A proline-rich protein-encoding cDNA encoded by a rice gene, OsPRP1, was isolated by PCR-mediated RNA subtraction hybridization strategy and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The deduced protein consists of 224 amino acids with the highest level of proline residue (14.29%). Following the putative signal peptide, OsPRP1 contains two structural domains, of which the N-terminal domain lacks Pro-rich repetitive sequences, and the C-terminal domain has two repetitive proline-rich sequences of 18 amino acid residues with PEPK motifs. Southern blot and sequence analysis show that OsPRP1 exists as four copies in rice genome and is localized in rice chromosome 10. RT-PCR experiments reveal that OsPRP1 is expressed preferentially in spikelets and buds with lower levels in roots and leaves. In situ hybridization indicates that OsPRP1 transcripts are present at high levels in pollen mother cells (PMCs), meiotic PMCs, tapetal cells and vascular bundle cells of flower organs. The expression of OsPRP1 in anthers has temporal specificity. The transcripts are accumulated at high levels in PMCs, at the highest levels in meiotic PMCs and at undetectable levels in uninucleate pollen. In buds the transcripts are only detected in the epidermal cells of coleoptiles and leaf primordial.

  17. Fibroblasts Influence Survival and Therapeutic Response in a 3D Co-Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majety, Meher; Pradel, Leon P; Gies, Manuela; Ries, Carola H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evidence has indicated that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a significant role in tumor progression. Fibroblasts represent an abundant cell population in the TME and produce several growth factors and cytokines. Fibroblasts generate a suitable niche for tumor cell survival and metastasis under the influence of interactions between fibroblasts and tumor cells. Investigating these interactions requires suitable experimental systems to understand the cross-talk involved. Most in vitro experimental systems use 2D cell culture and trans-well assays to study these interactions even though these paradigms poorly represent the tumor, in which direct cell-cell contacts in 3D spaces naturally occur. Investigating these interactions in vivo is of limited value due to problems regarding the challenges caused by the species-specificity of many molecules. Thus, it is essential to use in vitro models in which human fibroblasts are co-cultured with tumor cells to understand their interactions. Here, we developed a 3D co-culture model that enables direct cell-cell contacts between pancreatic, breast and or lung tumor cells and human fibroblasts/ or tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs). We found that co-culturing with fibroblasts/TAFs increases the proliferation in of several types of cancer cells. We also observed that co-culture induces differential expression of soluble factors in a cancer type-specific manner. Treatment with blocking antibodies against selected factors or their receptors resulted in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in the co-cultures. Using our co-culture model, we further revealed that TAFs can influence the response to therapeutic agents in vitro. We suggest that this model can be reliably used as a tool to investigate the interactions between a tumor and the TME.

  18. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N.; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies—observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences. PMID:20388694

  19. Cultural Responsibility of Subjects in Moral Education in Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Chen; Yinglin Li

    2011-01-01

    In a new era, to come to full understanding of the cultural responsibility of subjects in moral education in colleges and universities is an internal demand of modern educational theory for overall development of both teachers and students, and is the premise to play the leading role of teachers and mobilize the subjectivity of university students. At the same time, this also guides the direction for teachers and students to carry out moral education activities in colleges and universities. T...

  20. Salicylic-acid elicited phospholipase D responses in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, B A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J A; Vázquez-Flota, F; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M T

    2015-05-01

    The plant response to different stress types can occur through stimulus recognition and the subsequent signal transduction through second messengers that send information to the regulation of metabolism and the expression of defense genes. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA), which has been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. In this work, we studied the effects of SA treatment on [(32)-P]Pi phospholipid turnover and phospholipase D (PLD) activity using cultured Capsicum chinense cells. In cultured cells, the PIP2 turnover showed changes after SA treatment, while the most abundant phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), did not show changes during the temporal course. SA treatment significantly increased phosphatidic acid (PA) turnover over time compared to control cells. The PA accumulation in cells treated with 1-butanol showed a decrease in messengers; at the same time, there was a 1.5-fold increase in phosphatidylbutanol. These results suggest that the participation of the PLD pathway is a source of PA production, and the activation of this mechanism may be important in the cell responses to SA treatment.

  1. Contrasting Nephropathic Responses to Oral Administration of Extract of Cultured Penicillium polonicum in Rat and Primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Fincham

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid- or solid substrate-cultured Penicillium polonicum administered in feed to rats over several days evokes a histopathological response in kidney involving apoptosis and abnormal mitosis in proximal tubules. The amphoteric toxin is yet only partly characterized, but can be isolated from cultured sporulating biomass in a fraction that is soluble in water and ethanol, and exchangeable on either anion- or cation-exchange resins. After several weeks of treatment renal proximal tubule distortion became striking on account of karyocytomegaly, but even treatment for nearly two years remained asymptomatic. Extract from a batch of solid substrate fermentation of P. polonicum on shredded wheat was incorporated into feed for rats during four consecutive days, and also given as an aqueous solution by oral gavage to a vervet monkey daily for 10 days. Treatment was asymptomatic for both types of animal. Rat response was evident as the typical renal apoptosis and karyomegaly. In contrast there was no such response in the primate; and neither creatinine clearance nor any haematological characteristic or serum component concentration deviated from a control or from historical data for this primate. The contrast is discussed concerning other negative findings for P. polonicum in pigs and hamsters. Renal karyomegaly, as a common rat response to persistent exposure to ochratoxin A, is not known in humans suspected as being exposed to more than the usual trace amounts of dietary ochratoxin A. Therefore the present findings question assumptions that human response to ochratoxin A conforms to that in the rat.

  2. Contrasting nephropathic responses to oral administration of extract of cultured Penicillium polonicum in rat and primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, Peter G; McHugh, Katharine M; Fincham, John E

    2010-08-01

    Liquid- or solid substrate-cultured Penicillium polonicum administered in feed to rats over several days evokes a histopathological response in kidney involving apoptosis and abnormal mitosis in proximal tubules. The amphoteric toxin is yet only partly characterized, but can be isolated from cultured sporulating biomass in a fraction that is soluble in water and ethanol, and exchangeable on either anion- or cation-exchange resins. After several weeks of treatment renal proximal tubule distortion became striking on account of karyocytomegaly, but even treatment for nearly two years remained asymptomatic. Extract from a batch of solid substrate fermentation of P. polonicum on shredded wheat was incorporated into feed for rats during four consecutive days, and also given as an aqueous solution by oral gavage to a vervet monkey daily for 10 days. Treatment was asymptomatic for both types of animal. Rat response was evident as the typical renal apoptosis and karyomegaly. In contrast there was no such response in the primate; and neither creatinine clearance nor any haematological characteristic or serum component concentration deviated from a control or from historical data for this primate. The contrast is discussed concerning other negative findings for P. polonicum in pigs and hamsters. Renal karyomegaly, as a common rat response to persistent exposure to ochratoxin A, is not known in humans suspected as being exposed to more than the usual trace amounts of dietary ochratoxin A. Therefore the present findings question assumptions that human response to ochratoxin A conforms to that in the rat.

  3. Neuromyelitis optica IgG stimulates an immunological response in rat astrocyte cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Howe CL; Kaptzan T; Magaa SM; Ayers-Ringler JR; LaFrance-Corey RG; Lucchinetti CF

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a primary astrocyte disease associated with central nervous system inflammation, demyelination, and tissue injury. Brain lesions are frequently observed in regions enriched in expression of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, an antigenic target of the NMO IgG serologic marker. Based on observations of disease reversibility and careful characterization of NMO lesion development, we propose that the NMO IgG may induce a dynamic immunological response in astrocytes. Using primary rat astrocyte-enriched cultures and treatment with NMO patient-derived serum or purified IgG, we observed a robust pattern of gene expression changes consistent with the induction of a reactive and inflammatory phenotype in astrocytes. The reactive astrocyte factor lipocalin-2 and a broad spectrum of chemokines, cytokines, and stress response factors were induced by either NMO patient serum or purified IgG. Treatment with IgG from healthy controls had no effect. The effect is disease-specific, as serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, Sj gren's, or systemic lupus erythematosus did not induce a response in the cultures. We hypothesize that binding of the NMO IgG to AQP4 induces a cellular response that results in transcriptional and translational events within the astrocyte that are consistent with a reactive and inflammatory phenotype. Strategies aimed at reducing the inflammatory response of astrocytes may short circuit an amplification loop associated with NMO lesion development.

  4. Ethylene is involved in stress responses induced by fusicoccin in sycamore cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Massimo; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2010-11-15

    The phytohormone ethylene is involved in many physiological and developmental processes of plants, as well as in stress responses and in the development of disease resistance. Fusicoccin (FC) is a well-known phytotoxin, that in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, induces a set of stress responses, including synthesis of ethylene. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of ethylene in the FC-induced stress responses of sycamore cells by means of Co(2+), a well-known specific inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis. Co(2+) inhibited the accumulation of dead cells in the culture, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and of the molecular chaperone Binding Protein (BiP) in the endoplasmic reticulum induced by FC. By contrast, Co(2+) was ineffective on the FC-induced accumulation of cells with fragmented DNA, production of H(2)O(2) and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, and only partially reduced the accumulation of regulative 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol. In addition, we compared the effect of FC on the above parameters with that of the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon (2-chloroethane phosphonic acid). The results suggest that ethylene is involved in several stress responses induced by FC in sycamore cells, including a form of cell death that does not show apoptotic features and possibly involves NO as a signaling molecule.

  5. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  6. 湖北麦冬花药愈伤组织诱导及再生植株的获得%Callus induction and plant regeneration of Liriope spicata var. prolifera anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周群; 周健丘; 王小刚; 王菁菁; 李敬文; 陈家春

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the technique of the callus induction from anther and plant regeneration of medicinal plants Liriope spicata var. prolifera. Method: Callus was induced from anther of L. spicata var. prolifera on a MS medium supplemented with different hormones. The squash methods combined with a microscope were used to analyze chromosomes of regenerated plantlets.regenerated plantlets originated from somatic cells. At the same time, the effects of pretreatment of low temperature at 4 ℃ on the callus induction were studied and discussed. Conclusion: This paper sets up the method of tissue culture of anther somatic-cells and intermediate propagation of L. spicata var. prolifera.%目的:探讨药用植物湖北麦冬花药愈伤组织诱导和植株再生条件.方法:以湖北麦冬花药为外植体,采用MS培养基,附加不同的植物激素进行实验.常规压片法结合显微镜进行再生植株染色体的计数分析.结果:MS+2,4-D 1.0 mg·L~(-1)+KT 2.0 mg·L~(-1)诱导愈伤组织效果最好,愈伤组织诱导率可达41.07%.MS+6-BA 1.5~2.0 mg·L~(-1)+NAA0.1~0.3mg·L~(-1)适于不定芽的诱导,不定芽转入附加NAA 0.1~0.3 mg·L~(-1)的1/2 MS的生根培养基上,生根后获得完整的再生植株,再生植株为体细胞起源.同时,讨论了4℃低温预处理对愈伤组织诱导的影响.结论:建立了湖北麦冬花药体细胞组织培养体系和快速繁殖途径.

  7. Low-Dose UVA Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongrong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the mechanism of the adaptive response induced by low-dose ultraviolet A (UVA radiation. Methods. Cultured dermal fibroblasts were irradiated by a lethal dose of UVA (86.4 J/cm2 with preirradiation of single or repetitive low dose of UVA (7.2 J/cm2. Alterations of cellular morphology were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. Cell cycle and cellular apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometer. The extent of DNA damage was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Results. The cultured dermal fibroblasts, with pretreatment of single or repetitive irradiation of 7.2 J/cm2 UVA relieved toxic reaction of cellular morphology and arrest of cell cycle, decreased apoptosis ratio, reduced DNA chain breakage, and accelerated DNA repair caused by subsequent 86.4 J/cm2 UVA irradiation. Compared with nonpretreatment groups, all those differences were significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusions. The adaptation reaction might depend on the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA irradiation. Low-dose UVA radiation might induce adaptive response that may protect cultured dermal fibroblasts from the subsequent challenged dose of UVA damage. The duration and protective capability of the adaptive reaction might be related to the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA Irradiation.

  8. Organotypic Cultures of Intervertebral Disc Cells: Responses to Growth Factors and Signaling Pathways Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Pratsinis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration is strongly associated with low back pain, a major cause of disability worldwide. An in-depth understanding of IVD cell physiology is required for the design of novel regenerative therapies. Accordingly, aim of this work was the study of IVD cell responses to mitogenic growth factors in a three-dimensional (3D organotypic milieu, comprising characteristic molecules of IVD’s extracellular matrix. In particular, annulus fibrosus (AF cells were cultured inside collagen type-I gels, while nucleus pulposus (NP cells in chondroitin sulfate A (CSA supplemented collagen gels, and the effects of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I were assessed. All three growth factors stimulated DNA synthesis in both AF and NP 3D cell cultures, with potencies similar to those observed previously in monolayers. CSA supplementation inhibited basal DNA synthesis rates, without affecting the response to growth factors. ERK and Akt were found to be phosphorylated following growth factor stimulation. Blockade of these two signaling pathways using pharmacologic inhibitors significantly, though not completely, inhibited growth factor-induced DNA synthesis. The proposed culture systems may prove useful for further in vitro studies aiming at future interventions for IVD regeneration.

  9. Quantitative proteome changes in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells in response to plant natriuretic peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2015-06-30

    Proteome changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells in response to the A. thaliana plant natriuretic peptide (PNP), AtPNP-A (At2g18660) were assessed using quantitative proteomics employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). In this study, we characterized temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM AtPNP-A at 0, 10 and 30 min post-treatment. Both concentrations we found to yield a distinct differential proteome signature. The data shown in this article are associated with the article “Plant natriuretic peptides induce a specific set of proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to abiotic stress” by Turek et al. (Front. Plant Sci. 5 (2014) 661) and have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001386.

  10. Differential response of normal and tumour oesophageal explant cultures to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothersill, C.; Cusack, A.; MacDonnell, M.; Hennessy, T.P.; Seymour, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro method is described which allows radiation dose response data to be obtained for samples of oesophageal mucosa obtained from patients undergoing resection for adeno or squamous cell carcinoma. Data are obtained using a growth endpoint from explant cultures and may be expressed in terms of absolute growth inhibition or reduced rate of growth. Radiation dose response curves suggest that cell survival is in the range expected for mammalian cells but that, as is found clinically, tumour cells are far more resistant to radiation than normal cells. The technique provides a means of assessing differential radiation response in normal and tumour tissues from the same patient, as it is unusual for both to be amenable to clonogenic assay.

  11. Quantitative proteome changes in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells in response to plant natriuretic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Turek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteome changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells in response to the A. thaliana plant natriuretic peptide (PNP, AtPNP-A (At2g18660 were assessed using quantitative proteomics employing tandem mass tag (TMT labeling and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. In this study, we characterized temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM AtPNP-A at 0, 10 and 30 min post-treatment. Both concentrations we found to yield a distinct differential proteome signature. The data shown in this article are associated with the article “Plant natriuretic peptides induce a specific set of proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to abiotic stress” by Turek et al. (Front. Plant Sci. 5 (2014 661 and have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001386.

  12. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  13. Within-host competitive exclusion among species of the anther smut pathogen

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    Giraud Tatiana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host individuals represent an arena in which pathogens compete for resources and transmission opportunities, with major implications for the evolution of virulence and the structure of populations. Studies to date have focused on competitive interactions within pathogen species, and the level of antagonism tends to increase with the genetic distance between competitors. Anther-smut fungi, in the genus Microbotryum, have emerged as a tractable model for within-host competition. Here, using two pathogen species that are frequently found in sympatry, we investigated whether the antagonism seen among genotypes of the same species cascades up to influence competition among pathogen species. Results Sequential inoculation of hosts showed that a resident infection most often excludes a challenging pathogen genotype, which is consistent with prior studies. However, the challenging pathogen was significantly more likely to invade the already-infected host if the resident infection was a conspecific genotype compared to challenges involving a closely related species. Moreover, when inter-specific co-infection occurred, the pathogens were highly segregated within the host, in contrast to intra-specific co-infection. Conclusion We show evidence that competitive exclusion during infection can be greater among closely related pathogen species than among genotypes within species. This pattern follows from prior studies demonstrating that genetic distance and antagonistic interactions are positively correlated in Microbotryum. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a likely mechanism of direct competitive interference, and has been shown in some fungi to be effective both within and across species boundaries. For systems where related pathogen species frequently co-occur in the same host populations, these competitive dynamics may substantially impact the spatial segregation of pathogen species.

  14. Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela López-Villavicencio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Population models of host-parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use

  15. In vitro androgenetic cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L., H. albus L. and alkaloid content assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wesołwska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L. and H. albus L. anthers were initiated which resulted in obtaining androgenectic plants and callus cultures. The leaves of these pants and the callus cultures were subjected to analysis (TLC, GC for the presence of alkaloids, derivatives of tropane. In the studied material, alkaloids of different qualitative and quantitative composition from that of ground-grown plants were found.

  16. Response Surface Modelling of Noradrenaline Production in Hairy Root Culture of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant as one of the natural sources for noradrenaline hormone. In this research, hairy root culture of purslane was established by using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. In the following, Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize B5 medium for the growth of P. oleracea L. hairy root line. According to the results, modelling and optimization conditions, including sucrose, CaCl2.H2O, H2PO4 and NO3-/NH4+ concentrations on maximum dry weight (0.155 g and noradrenaline content (0.36 mg.g-1 DW was predicted. These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed the enhancement of noradrenaline production as an application potential for production by hairy root cultures.

  17. Studies in tissue culture of some indigenous rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) accessions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted with the aim of developing separate protocols for callus induction and plant regeneration from different parts of three O. glaberrima accessions indigenous to Ghana. The three O. glaberrima accessions, Guame, N/4 and SARI 1 were assessed for their callus induction and plant regeneration ability from leaf segments, mature dehusked seeds and anthers on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and Skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. For leaf segments, callus was induced on MS supplemented with (0-10) mg/l 2,4-D. Callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) levels tested. Highest callus induction frequency was exhibited at a concentration of 6 mg/l 2,4-D for all accessions tested. Callus obtained was sub-cultured on regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with (1:0-5) mg.l NAA:BAP. Plant regeneration was nil. Instead, prolific root formation was observed. For mature dehusked seeds, callus induction medium consisted of MS supplemented with (0-6) mg/l 2,4-D. All tested accessions exhibited highest callus frequency at 4 mg/l 2,4-D. Similarly callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among concentrations of 2,4-D tested. Calli obtained were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0-2.5) mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and exhibited the highest regeneration frequency on medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. However, callus induced on a concentration of 3 mg/l 2,4-D and sub-cultured on a concentration of 2 mg/l BAP gave the best response n terms of shoot proliferation, growth and root development and therefore were considered to be the optimum concentrations for callus induction and plant regeneration respectively. Plantlet regeneration was achieved only in accession N/4 while Guame and SARI 1 exhibited poor regeneration response. Among the three rice

  18. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells. PMID:27580124

  19. X-ray responses of human colon tumor cells grown in artificial capillary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clone A human colon adenocarcinoma cells were grown in three-dimensional artificial capillary culture (ACC) to determine responses of capillaries treated 3 weeks after tumor cell inoculation with a specific, easily quantifiable cytotoxic agent, ionizing radiation. Changes in extracapillary space (ECS) fluid concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) and the utilization of glucose in circulating medium were monitored after a supralethal radiation dose (90 Gy) of X-rays. Immediately after irradiation, increased levels of LDH and GOT were found that reached maximum levels about four to five times those found in nonirradiated control capillaries at 10-13 days post irradiation and then declined. Patterns of enzyme production appeared to correlate with the numbers of nonviable tumor cells collected from the ECS of the artificial capillaries. In contrast, glucose utilization showed little correlation with either enzyme concentration or dead cell production. In other studies, tumor cells were removed from unirradiated capillaries by trypsinization and used to obtain complete survival curves after graded doses of X-radiation. The dose-response curves obtained indicate that clone A colon tumor cells grown in ACC show a marked decrease in their ability to accumulate sublethal radiation injury as compared to responses of these cells growing exponentially in asynchronous monolayer cultures, to synchronized mid-G1 tumor cells, or to tumor cells in stationary growth phase. These data suggest that ACC is a potentially useful model to study the effects of cytotoxic agents on human tumor cells

  20. Responses to social exclusion in cultural context: evidence from farming and herding communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskul, Ayse K; Over, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    In a series of studies, we investigated the role of economic structures (farming vs. herding) and source of ostracism (close other vs. stranger) in social exclusion experiences. We first confirmed that herders rely on strangers to a greater extent than do farmers for economic success (validation study). Next, we verified that farmers and herders understand the concept of ostracism, and its emotional consequences, in similar ways (Study 1). The studies that followed provided converging evidence that cultural group membership shapes sensitivity and responses to social exclusion. Using different methodologies, in Studies 2 and 3, we showed that, whereas the psychological consequences of ostracism by close others are similar for farmers and herders, herders are more strongly affected by ostracism from strangers. The last two studies demonstrated that herders recommend more affiliative responses to ostracism by strangers than do farmers both to those involved in the ostracism event (Study 4) and to naïve individuals (Study 5). Moreover, Study 5 revealed that the amount of time spent with strangers mediated cultural group differences in the extent to which affiliative and aggressive actions are recommended following social exclusion by strangers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the economic systems on which communities are based shape how their members interact with others and that this, in turn, can shape individuals' responses to social exclusion. PMID:24749821

  1. Sharpening the Lens of Culturally Responsive Science Teaching: A Call for Liberatory Education for Oppressed Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codrington, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    Wallace and Brand's framing of culturally responsive science teaching through the lens of critical race theory honors the role of social justice in science education. In this article, I extend the discussion through reflections on the particular learning needs of students from oppressed cultural groups, specifically African Americans.…

  2. Developing Culturally Responsive Surveys: Lessons in Development, Implementation, and Analysis from Brazil's African Descent Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Merle L.; Tillman, Ayesha S.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable empirical research, along with a growing body of conceptual and theoretical literature, exists on the role of culture and context in evaluation. Less scholarship has examined culturally responsive surveys in the context of international evaluation. In this article, the authors present lessons learned from the development,…

  3. The Dilemma of Cultural Responsiveness and Professionalization: Listening Closer to Immigrant Teachers Who Teach Children of Recent Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys; Tobin, Joseph; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many scholars in the fields of teacher education, multicultural education, and bilingual education have argued that children of recent immigrants are best served in classrooms that have teachers who understand the cultural background and the home language of their students. Culturally knowledgeable and responsive teachers are…

  4. Maternal responsiveness: biological aspects and cultural variations / Responsividade materna: aspectos biológicos e variações culturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Paes Ribas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to critically discuss some biological aspects and cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. It consists of two parts. The first discusses responsiveness and its biological aspects and cultural variations. The second part presents two major research tendencies in the investigations of cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. Our conclusion presents a brief of the critical arguments and highlights the need to recognize that maternal responsiveness is one of the adult-child interaction characteristics that has multiple origins and influences, from which any investigation in this theme must be based on. As a consequence, those initiatives should be included in a wide reference system that involves, for example, biological, contextual, dyads previous history, and cultural variables.

  5. ECHIDNA protein impacts on male fertility in Arabidopsis by mediating trans-Golgi network secretory trafficking during anther and pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-03-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-yellow fluorescent protein) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization.

  6. Microfluidic synthesis of microfibers for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the fabrication of alginate microfibers using a modular microfluidic system for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture. A novel two-dimensional fluid-focusing technique with multi-inlets and junctions was used to spatiotemporally control the continuous laminar flow of alginate solutions. The diameter of the manufactured microfibers, which ranged from 211 µm to 364 µm, could be well controlled by changing the flow rate of the continuous phase. While the model drug, diclofenac, was encapsulated into microfibers, the drug release profile exhibited the characteristic of a proper and steady release. Furthermore, the diclofenac release kinetics from the magnetic iron oxide-loaded microfibers could be controlled externally, allowing for a rapid drug release by applying a magnetic force. In addition, the successful culture of glioblastoma multiforme cells in the microfibers demonstrated a good structural integrity and environment to grow cells that could be applied in drug screening for targeting cancer cells. The proposed microfluidic system has the advantages of ease of fabrication, simplicity, and a fast and low-cost process that is capable of generating functional microfibers with the potential for biomedical applications, such as drug controlled release and cell culture.

  7. Post-transcriptional regulation of neurofibromin level in cultured human melanocytes in response to growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, J; Kaufmann, D; Maier, B; Mailhammer, R; Kuehl, P; Krone, W

    1997-03-01

    Among the symptoms that characterize neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are pigmentation anomalies such as cafe au lait spots. It has been suggested that the reduction of the neurofibromin level in the epidermis of NF1 patients is responsible for the observed signs such as altered melanogenesis and altered density of melanocytes. Our studies show that in cultured normal human melanocytes, the neurofibromin level can be varied in vitro over a wide range by using different culture conditions. The influence of factors that control differentiation and proliferation of melanocytes on neurofibromin levels was studied. Immunoprecipitation followed by western blotting showed a 3- to 4-fold increase of neurofibromin after stimulation by PMA or bFGF, respectively, and a 1.5-fold increase in cells stimulated with steel factor. The increase of neurofibromin was not paralleled by a higher NF1 mRNA level as proved by northern blotting. Pulse-chase experiments with 35S-labeled melanocytes revealed an approximately 3-fold increase in the half-life of neurofibromin in bFGF- or PMA-stimulated cells compared to controls. These results indicate that the neurofibromin level of cultured melanocytes can be regulated by a mechanism independent of NF1 gene transcription and translation, which might influence the degradation rate of the protein.

  8. The role of organic osmolytes in the response of cultured astrocytes to hyperosmolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijab, Samina; Havalad, Suresh; Snyder, Ann K

    2011-09-01

    Idiogenic osmoles are volume-regulatory organic solutes that accumulate within a cell in response to hyperosmolar conditions such as those found in diabetic ketoacidosis or hypernatremic dehydration in infants. Intracellular metabolites known to play this role include certain amino acids and taurine, polyols, and trimethylamines. In this study, in vitro astrocyte cultures prepared from the cerebral cortices of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to graded conditions of hypernatremia (325-375 mOsm/kg), a range that can be observed in vivo, for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell survival and generation of idiogenic osmoles were determined. Next, we assessed the ability of selected exogenous osmoles to protect the cultured cells from the effects of hypernatremia. Significant cell loss occurred after 48 to 72 hours of exposure and was proportional to the degree of hyperosmolarity. Addition of myoinositol (1 mM) to the cultures reduced cell loss resulting from hypernatremia by approximately 50%. In agreement with previous studies, intracellular levels of myoinositol and taurine correlated with the degree of in vitro hypernatremic exposure and play a significant role in increasing survival of astrocytes subjected to hypertonic insult. PMID:20093923

  9. Response of tobacco tissue cultures growing in contact with lunar fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    During the quarantine periods following each Apollo mission to the moon, various biological systems were placed in the presence of lunar material to determine if pathogenic agents were present. Although no detrimental effects resulted, various responses by the several plant systems tested were noted. One such response was the increased pigmentation observed in the callus tissue cultures of tobacco. Further investigations revealed that these tissues grown in the presence of lunar material resulted in as much as a 35% increase in total pigments while differences in fatty acid and sterol concentrations were also noted when compared to the controls. It is believed that these changes brought about by the lunar material can be attributed to a change in the nutritional environment caused by its dissolution.

  10. Effect of dexamethasone on the cytotoxic and enzymatic response of cultured endothelial cells to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to determine (1) whether glucocorticoids directly protected endothelial cells (EC) from radiation and (2) if angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, known to be increased by glucocorticoid, played a role in the EC response to radiation. Confluent monolayers of EC cultured from bovine aorta EC were treated with dexamethasone (10-6 M); after irradiation (5.0 Gy, 60Co γ) ACE and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, DNA and protein contents, and nuclei number were measured. Combined dexamethasone treatment and radiation increased cellular ACE activity at a time when neither agent alone had an effect (24-hr dexamethasone exposure before 5 Gy and assayed 24 hr after 5 Gy). This interaction between radiation and dexamethasone treatment suggests that the glucocorticoid modifies the cell's response to injury. Although this interaction does not ameliorate radiation cytotoxicity, maintenance of ACE levels in injured vessels by hormones may have physiological significance in the hemodynamics of irradiated tissues

  11. Culture and moral judgment: how are conflicts between justice and interpersonal responsibilities resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J G; Bersoff, D M

    1992-04-01

    A 2-session study examined Indian and American adults' and children's (N = 140) reasoning about moral dilemmas involving conflicts between interpersonal and justice expectations. Most Indians gave priority to the interpersonal expectations, whereas most Americans gave priority to the justice expectations. Indians tended to categorize their conflict resolutions in moral terms. In contrast, when Americans gave priority to the interpersonal alternatives, they tended to categorize their resolutions in personal terms. Results imply that Indians possess a postconventional moral code in which interpersonal responsibilities are seen in as fully principled terms as justice obligations and may be accorded precedence over justice obligations. Findings also suggest that a personal morality of interpersonal responsiveness and caring is linked to highly rights-oriented cultural views, such as those emphasized in the United States. PMID:1583583

  12. "Because They Want to Teach You about Their Culture": Analyzing Effective Mentoring Conversations between Culturally Responsible Mentors and Secondary Science Teachers of Indigenous Students in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Te Kotahitanga is an educational reform project in Aotearoa/New Zealand demonstrated to have significantly impacted the participation, achievement, and retention of indigenous Maori students in secondary schools. In this paper, I share results from a study of culturally responsible mentoring at 4 different schools participating in the Te…

  13. Timescale of silver nanoparticle transformation in neural cell cultures impacts measured cell response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Rice, Katherine P.; Schwindt, Rani K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Applied Chemicals and Materials Division (United States); MacCuspie, Robert I. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Materials Measurement Science Division (United States); Jeerage, Kavita M., E-mail: jeerage@boulder.nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Applied Chemicals and Materials Division (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Both serum protein concentration and ionic strength are important factors in nanoparticle transformation within cell culture environments. However, silver nanoparticles are not routinely tracked at their working concentration in the specific medium used for in vitro toxicology studies. Here we evaluated the transformation of electrostatically stabilized citrate nanoparticles (C-AgNPs) and sterically stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a low-serum (∼ 0.2 mg/mL bovine serum albumin) culture medium, while measuring the response of rat cortex neural progenitor cells, which differentiate in this culture environment. After 24 h, silver nanoparticles at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL did not affect adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas silver ions decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1.1 µg/mL or higher. After 240 h, both silver nanoparticles, as well as silver ion, unambiguously decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1 and 1.1 µg/mL, respectively, suggesting particle dissolution. Particle transformation was investigated in 1:10 diluted, 1:2 diluted, or undiluted differentiation medium, all having an identical protein concentration, to separate the effect of serum protein stabilization from ionic strength destabilization. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that particles in 1:10 medium were not surrounded by proteins, whereas particles became clustered within a non-crystalline protein matrix after 24 h in 1:2 medium and at 0 h in undiluted medium. Despite evidence for a protein corona, particles were rapidly destabilized by high ionic strength media. Polyvinylpyrrolidone increased the stability of singly dispersed particles compared to citrate ligands; however, differences were negligible after 4 h in 1:2 medium or after 1 h in undiluted medium. Thus low-serum culture environments do not provide sufficient colloidal stability for long-term toxicology studies with citrate

  14. Timescale of silver nanoparticle transformation in neural cell cultures impacts measured cell response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both serum protein concentration and ionic strength are important factors in nanoparticle transformation within cell culture environments. However, silver nanoparticles are not routinely tracked at their working concentration in the specific medium used for in vitro toxicology studies. Here we evaluated the transformation of electrostatically stabilized citrate nanoparticles (C-AgNPs) and sterically stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a low-serum (∼ 0.2 mg/mL bovine serum albumin) culture medium, while measuring the response of rat cortex neural progenitor cells, which differentiate in this culture environment. After 24 h, silver nanoparticles at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL did not affect adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas silver ions decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1.1 µg/mL or higher. After 240 h, both silver nanoparticles, as well as silver ion, unambiguously decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1 and 1.1 µg/mL, respectively, suggesting particle dissolution. Particle transformation was investigated in 1:10 diluted, 1:2 diluted, or undiluted differentiation medium, all having an identical protein concentration, to separate the effect of serum protein stabilization from ionic strength destabilization. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that particles in 1:10 medium were not surrounded by proteins, whereas particles became clustered within a non-crystalline protein matrix after 24 h in 1:2 medium and at 0 h in undiluted medium. Despite evidence for a protein corona, particles were rapidly destabilized by high ionic strength media. Polyvinylpyrrolidone increased the stability of singly dispersed particles compared to citrate ligands; however, differences were negligible after 4 h in 1:2 medium or after 1 h in undiluted medium. Thus low-serum culture environments do not provide sufficient colloidal stability for long-term toxicology studies with citrate

  15. Effect of genotype, Culture medium and cold pretreatment on another culture of wheat (T. aestivum L.) mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine in the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 1996-1997. The objective was to investigate the effect of genotype, culture medium and cold pretreatment in calli production from anthers. Anthers of four mutant lines obtained from three cvs, (Omid, Tabassi and Roshan) were produced in the Nuclear Agriculture Center and two check cvs, (Omid and Tabassi) were cultured in two media PII and modified C17. Some of the spikes before plating were kept in dark at 4-5 deg C for one week. The result indicated that the genotype of donar plants had a significant effect on the calli and plants formation. Cold pre-treatment and medium type had no effect on the calli formation, but interaction between the two factors was very significant, and the best result was obtained when anthers were cultured in modified C17 medium without cold pre-treatment

  16. Brassinosteroids promote development of rice pollen grains and seeds by triggering expression of Carbon Starved Anther, a MYB domain protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liang, Wanqi; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Mingjiao; Yin, Changsong; Luo, Zhijing; Zhu, Jiaying; Lucas, William J; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-05-01

    Transport of photoassimilates from leaf tissues (source regions) to the sink organs is essential for plant development. Here, we show that a phytohormone, the brassinosteroids (BRs) promotes pollen and seed development in rice by directly promoting expression of Carbon Starved Anther (CSA) which encodes a MYB domain protein. Over-expression of the BR-synthesis gene D11 or a BR-signaling factor OsBZR1 results in higher sugar accumulation in developing anthers and seeds, as well as higher grain yield compared with control non-transgenic plants. Conversely, knockdown of D11 or OsBZR1 expression causes defective pollen maturation and reduced seed size and weight, with less accumulation of starch in comparison with the control. Mechanically, OsBZR1 directly promotes CSA expression and CSA directly triggers expression of sugar partitioning and metabolic genes during pollen and seed development. These findings provide insight into how BRs enhance plant reproduction and grain yield in an important agricultural crop. PMID:25754973

  17. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.: Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildephonse Habarugira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524 and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

  18. Effects of nuclear genomes on anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): morphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  19. Assessing the Impact of the National Cultural Framework on Responsible Corporate Behaviour towards Consumers: an Application of Geert Hofstede`s Cultural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gănescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to define and measure responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers in EU countries by defining an index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers and to establish the impact of Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions on the responsible behaviour of organisations towards consumers. The index uses a specific measurement methodology based on three major components of responsible corporate behaviour towards customers and on content analysis of the Eurostat databases, the RAPEX 2012 Annual Report, the 2012-2013 Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Reporting Initiative database. We used the multifactorial regression and the Wald significance test to demonstrate that organisations operating in countries characterised by low power distance, individualism, femininity, tolerance of unknown and long-term orientation pay more attention to responsible corporate behaviour towards customers. The study highlights theoretical considerations that support the influence of the national cultural framework on responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers. The methodology for calculating the index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers can become a basis of analysis of responsible corporate behaviour towards local consumers or other stakeholders.

  20. Defense/stress responses activated by chitosan in sycamore cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Massimo; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT) is a natural, non-toxic, and inexpensive compound obtained by partial alkaline deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and other arthropods. The unique physiological and biological properties of CHT make this polymer useful for a wide range of industries. In agriculture, CHT is used to control numerous pre- and postharvest diseases on various horticultural commodities. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to CHT as an elicitor of defense responses in plants, which include raising of cytosolic Ca(2+), activation of MAP kinases, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response, synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonate, phytoalexins, and pathogenesis-related proteins. In this work, we investigated the effects of different CHT concentrations on some defense/stress responses of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells. CHT induced accumulation of dead cells, and of cells with fragmented DNA, production of H(2)O(2) and nitric oxide, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, accumulation of regulative 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol and of HSP70 molecular chaperone binding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, accompanied by marked modifications in the architecture of this cell organelle.

  1. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

  2. Short-term cadmium exposure induces stress responses in frog (Pelophylax bergeri) skin organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Francesca; Belia, Silvia; Di Rosa, Ines; Paracucchi, Romina; Rossi, Roberta; La Porta, Gianandrea; Lucentini, Livia; Fagotti, Anna

    2015-12-01

    There have been a few studies on the negative effects of pollutants on amphibian skin, the first structural barrier that interacts with the environment and its potential contaminants. In this study an ex vivo skin organ culture from the amphibian Pelophylax bergeri was used to evaluate cell stress responses induced by short-term exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal known to be an environmental hazard to both humans and wildlife. Histopathological studies were carried out on skin explants using light microscopy and changes in the expression of stress proteins, such as Metallothionein (MT) and Heat shock proteins (HSPs), were investigated by Real-time RT-PCR. Results revealed that amphibian skin reacts to Cd-induced stress by activating biological responses such as morphological alterations and dose- and time-dependent induction of Mt and Hsp70 mRNA expression, suggesting their potential role as biomarkers of exposure to Cd. This work provides a basis for a better understanding of the tissue-specific responses of amphibian skin as a target organ to Cd exposure and its in vitro use for testing potentially harmful substances present in the environment.

  3. Responses of cultured neural retinal cells to substratum-bound laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R; Jerdan, J; Hewitt, A T

    1985-11-01

    The responses of cultured chick embryo retinal neurons to several extracellular matrix molecules are described. Retinal cell suspensions in serum-free medium containing the "N1" supplement (J. E. Bottenstein, S. D. Skaper, S. Varon, and J. Sato, 1980, Exp. Cell Res. 125, 183-190) were seeded on tissue culture plastic surfaces pretreated with polyornithine (PORN) and with one of the factors to be tested. Substantial cell survival could be observed after 72 hr in vitro on PORN pretreated with serum or laminin, whereas most cells appeared to be degenerating on untreated PORN, PORN-fibronectin, and PORN-chondronectin. Cell attachment, although quantitatively similar for all these substrata, was temperature-dependent on serum and laminin but not on fibronectin or untreated PORN. In a short-term bioassay, neurite development was abundant on laminin, scarce on serum and fibronectin, and absent on PORN. No positive correlation between cell spreading and neurite production could be seen: cell spreading was more extensive on PORN and fibronectin than on laminin or serum, while on laminin-treated dishes, spreading was similar for neurite-bearing and non-neurite-bearing cells. Laminin effects on retinal neurons were clearly substratum dependent. When bound to tissue culture plastic, laminin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell attachment and did not stimulate neurite development. PORN-bound laminin, on the other hand, did not affect cell attachment but caused marked stimulation of neurite development, suggesting that laminin conformation and/or the spatial distribution of active sites play an important role in the neurite-promoting function of this extracellular matrix molecule. Investigation of the embryonic retina with ELISA and immunocytochemical methods showed that laminin is present in this organ during development. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro observations are consistent with the possibility that laminin might influence neuronal development in the retina.

  4. Effects of field plot size on variation in white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug for host plant resistance evaluations in Arkansas cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 investigated whether field plot size affects incidence of white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug (TPB) ((Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)) in host plant resistance (HPR) evaluations. The three cotton lines evaluated in the trial included a su...

  5. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order t

  6. Response of human fibroblasts to tantalum and titanium in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostardi, R A; Meerbaum, S O; Kovacik, M W; Gradisar, I A

    1997-01-01

    The loosening of total joint arthroplasties (TKA) with associated osteolysis has been a persistent problem in orthopaedics. Wear debris from prosthetic devices including Titanium (Ti) is involved in this process. Mechanisms for this osteolytic process are unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the biological response of Ti and Tantalum (Ta) on retrieved human fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were retrieved from human volunteers and cultured using standard techniques. Twenty-five (25) ml culture flasks were seeded with cells and when reaching confluency four concentrations of Ti and Ta were added. Their mean size was less than 3 microns for both metals and gram weights were 0.0048. 0.0096, 0.048, and 0.096 gms. After ten (10) days the cells were fixed, stained and photographed. For both Ti and Ta, the lowest concentration had little effect on the cells, while at the two higher concentrations, nearly all of the cell were killed. Since both of the metals tested are considered to be inert with respect to toxicity, these results would suggest that the observed cell death, seen equally for both metals, was due to the size and concentration of the particles and not to the metals tested. Mechanisms are currently being investigated which include mechanical as well as chemical factors. PMID:9731413

  7. NO-mediated hypersensitive responses of rice suspension cultures induced by incompatible elicitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Magnaporthe grisea special races 98-186-1G1 and 97-23-2D1 induce incompatible and compatible reactions respectively with rice "Xiushui". The elicitor from the cell wall of M. grisea race 98-186-1G1, termed IE, strongly induced theHR response in suspension cultures of rice "Xiushui", including increased PAL activity, transcription of pal , pr1, chi, cell death and the generation of NO. The elicitor prepared from the cell wall of M. grisea race 97-23-2D1, named CE, was much less efficient at inducing such effects. The NOS enzyme inhibitors L-NAAand PBITU suppressed the production of NO induced by IE in "Xiushui" rice. The increased PAL activity and transcription of pr1, pal, chi genes induced by IE were blocked by L-NAA, PBITU or CPTIO pretreatment. Direct treatment of rice cultures with the NO donor (SNP) also induced the transcription of pr1, pal and chi genes. These data implicated that NO acted as a signal mediating the HR induced by IE in rice and showed that NO, in combination with H2O2, is necessary for induction of cell death by IE in rice suspension cells.

  8. Identification of QTLs associated with tissue culture response of mature wheat embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Deng, Mei; Lv, Si-Yu; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Qi, Peng-Fei; Li, Wei; Chen, Guo-Yue; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Mature embryo is an excellent explant for tissue culture as it is convenient to be obtained without limitation of growing seasons and development stages. However, regeneration ability of the calli from wheat mature embryos is limited, thus hindering its application. To identify genes associated with the tissue culture response (TCR) of wheat, QTLs for callus induction from mature embryos and callus regeneration were detected using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from the cross between a synthetic hexaploid wheat genotype, SHW-L1 and a commercial cultivar Chuanmai 32. Three QTLs for callus rate were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1D, 5A, and 6D, respectively, with explained phenotypic variation ranging from 10.16 to 11.82 %. One QTL for differentiation rate was detected only with 10.96 % of the phenotypic variation explained. Two QTLs for emergence rate were identified and they were located on 3B and 4A, respectively, with 9.88 and 10.30 % of phenotypic variation. The results presented in this study with those reported previously indicated that group 1, 3, and 5 chromosomes are likely to play important roles in TCR of wheat. PMID:27652125

  9. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  10. A Cultural Memoir of Schooling: Connecting History and Critical Reflection to the Development of Culturally Responsive Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canniff, Julie G.

    2008-01-01

    This study grew out of a course I teach for undergraduate teacher certification candidates ("Education in the United States") in which the final assignment--"A cultural memoir of schooling"--requires students to study the events, policies and stakeholders in American education through the experiences of their extended families. The article…

  11. Facilitating a Culture of Responsible and Effective Sharing of Cancer Genome Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Lillian L.; Lawler, Mark; Haussler, David; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Lewin, Jeremy; Vis, Daniel J.; Liao, Rachel G.; Andre, Fabrice; Banks, Ian; Barrett, J. Carl; Caldas, Carlos; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.; Mao, Mao; Mattison, John E.; Pao, William; Sellers, William R.; Sullivan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean; Ward, Robyn; ZenKlusen, Jean Claude; Sawyers, Charles L; Voest, Emile E.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and affordable tumor molecular profiling has led to an explosion of clinical and genomic data poised to enhance diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of cancer. A critical point has now been reached where analysis and storage of annotated clinical and genomic information in unconnected silos will stall the advancement of precision cancer care. Information systems must be harmonized to overcome the multiple technical and logistical barriers for data sharing. Against this backdrop, the Global Alliance for Genomic Health (GA4GH) was established in 2013 to create a common framework that enables responsible, voluntary, and secure sharing of clinical and genomic data. This Perspective from the GA4GH Clinical Working Group Cancer Task Team highlights the data aggregation challenges faced by the field, suggests potential collaborative solutions, and describes how GA4GH can catalyze a harmonized data sharing culture. PMID:27149219

  12. Bitter reproach or sweet revenge: cultural differences in response to racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth A; Soto, José A; Swim, Janet K; Bernstein, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Culture has been shown to influence response styles. The authors conducted two studies to test the notion that African Americans would be more likely to respond to racism directly, whereas Asian Americans would be more likely to respond indirectly and therefore more subtly. Study 1 showed that Black women subjected to a racist comment from a confederate during an online interaction were more likely than Asian women to verbally reproach the perpetrator. These group differences were not present when the outcome measure was indirect responding--administration of good/bad jellybeans. Study 2 used an online format to demonstrate that Asian women were more likely than Black women to say they would not respond directly to a racist comment. This group difference in unwillingness to confront was significantly mediated by a goal of maintaining peace with their interaction partner. Implications of these findings for the study of discrimination, coping, and well-being are discussed. PMID:22496162

  13. Morphokinetic-related response to stress in individually cultured bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T; Santos, E C; Annes, K; Soares, C A; Leite, R F; Lima, C B; Milazzotto, M P

    2016-09-15

    The kinetics of in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos is related to embryo viability, metabolism, and epigenetic patterns. Therefore, we believe that embryos with different speeds of development also respond differently to stress. In the present study, we performed global metabolic analysis (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF]) of culture media, characterized apoptotic events (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling [TUNEL] and caspase quantitation), and quantified transcript abundance of stress-related gene (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR]) in IVP bovine embryos with different developmental kinetics to investigate possible markers of stress response. For this purpose, embryos were considered "fast" if they presented four or more cells at 40 hours post insemination (hpi). Embryos presenting two cells at this time were classified as "slow". Evaluations were performed at 40 hpi, 112 hpi, and 186 hpi. Metabolome analysis revealed several metabolites differentially represented between groups at all time points related with energy, lipid and amino acids metabolism, and stress response. There was no difference in TUNEL positive cells between groups in any of the time points analyzed. Nevertheless, at 112 hpi, classified as a critical phase because of the genome activation, the amount of caspase 3 and 7 and total caspase were higher in slow when compared to fast group. Transcript abundance analysis of candidate genes (GRP78, HSP60, SOD1, and MORF4L2) was also different among groups. In conclusion, IVP bovine embryos of different development speeds respond differentially to the environmental stress leading to different metabolome patterns and apoptosis activation throughout the culture.

  14. Morphokinetic-related response to stress in individually cultured bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T; Santos, E C; Annes, K; Soares, C A; Leite, R F; Lima, C B; Milazzotto, M P

    2016-09-15

    The kinetics of in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos is related to embryo viability, metabolism, and epigenetic patterns. Therefore, we believe that embryos with different speeds of development also respond differently to stress. In the present study, we performed global metabolic analysis (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF]) of culture media, characterized apoptotic events (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling [TUNEL] and caspase quantitation), and quantified transcript abundance of stress-related gene (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR]) in IVP bovine embryos with different developmental kinetics to investigate possible markers of stress response. For this purpose, embryos were considered "fast" if they presented four or more cells at 40 hours post insemination (hpi). Embryos presenting two cells at this time were classified as "slow". Evaluations were performed at 40 hpi, 112 hpi, and 186 hpi. Metabolome analysis revealed several metabolites differentially represented between groups at all time points related with energy, lipid and amino acids metabolism, and stress response. There was no difference in TUNEL positive cells between groups in any of the time points analyzed. Nevertheless, at 112 hpi, classified as a critical phase because of the genome activation, the amount of caspase 3 and 7 and total caspase were higher in slow when compared to fast group. Transcript abundance analysis of candidate genes (GRP78, HSP60, SOD1, and MORF4L2) was also different among groups. In conclusion, IVP bovine embryos of different development speeds respond differentially to the environmental stress leading to different metabolome patterns and apoptosis activation throughout the culture. PMID:27298151

  15. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Mrinal K.; Sarma, D. K.; B. C. DAS; Deka, P.; Kalita, D.; Dutta, J. B.; Mahato, G.; S Sarma; Roychoudhury, P

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA) in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0) and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days af...

  16. Thermo-responsive polymer aided spheroid culture in cryogel based platform for high throughput drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, J; Kumar, A

    2016-04-21

    In high throughput cell culture, the paradigm is now shifting from 2D to 3D systems. However, in 3D cell culture systems, it is important that the cells form spheroids with robust cell-cell interactions. We fabricated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-gelatin) cryogel scaffolds for cell culture and inserted them into open-ended 96-well plates that formed a drainage and leakage protected, easy to handle high throughput platform. This platform was used to screen for the optimal concentration of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) as an external aid to the formation of cellular spheroids. It was found that hepatic cells (Hep G2) seeded in the presence of 0.03% pNIPAAm formed better hepatic spheroids in terms of morphology (as assessed by microscopic analysis and formation of bile canaliculi-like structures) and functionality by day 5 of culture. An increase of 44.22%, 15.75%, 36.44%, 32.05% and 27.02% was observed in glucose consumption (1.925 mM per day per 10(4) cells), albumin synthesis (164.18 ng per day per 10(4) cells), CYP1A1 (304.92 pg per min per 10(4) cells), CYP2A6 (441.23 nM per min per 10(4) cells) and phase II metabolic activity (386.18 nM per min(-1) per 10(4) cells), respectively, upon using 0.03% pNIPAAm, as compared to the 3D control. The platform was tested with other cells such as breast and lung cancer cells and found to be compatible. The cell spheroids were subjected to drug toxicity screening in cryogel based open-ended platforms. It was observed that the spheroids were more resistant to anticancer drugs, as compared to 2D and 3D controls, with approximately 11%-67% increase in the IC50 values of tamoxifen and paclitaxel. The platform also showed dose dependent and reproducible responses to drugs. PMID:27027476

  17. The ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 histone H3 methyltransferase is required for ovule and anther development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Grini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SET-domain proteins are histone lysine (K methyltransferases (HMTase implicated in defining transcriptionally permissive or repressive chromatin. The Arabidopsis ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 protein (also called SDG8, EFS and CCR1 has been suggested to methylate H3K4 and/or H3K36 and is similar to Drosophila ASH1, a positive maintainer of gene expression, and yeast Set2, a H3K36 HMTase. Mutation of the ASHH2 gene has pleiotropic developmental effects. Here we focus on the role of ASHH2 in plant reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A slightly reduced transmission of the ashh2 allele in reciprocal crosses implied involvement in gametogenesis or gamete function. However, the main requirement of ASHH2 is sporophytic. On the female side, close to 80% of mature ovules lack embryo sac. On the male side, anthers frequently develop without pollen sacs or with specific defects in the tapetum layer, resulting in reduction in the number of functional pollen per anther by up to approximately 90%. In consistence with the phenotypic findings, an ASHH2 promoter-reporter gene was expressed at the site of megaspore mother cell formation as well as tapetum layers and pollen. ashh2 mutations also result in homeotic changes in floral organ identity. Transcriptional profiling identified more than 300 up-regulated and 600 down-regulated genes in ashh2 mutant inflorescences, whereof the latter included genes involved in determination of floral organ identity, embryo sac and anther/pollen development. This was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the chromatin of such genes (AP1, AtDMC1 and MYB99 we observed a reduction of H3K36 trimethylation (me3, but not H3K4me3 or H3K36me2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The severe distortion of reproductive organ development in ashh2 mutants, argues that ASHH2 is required for the correct expression of genes essential to reproductive development. The reduction in the ashh2 mutant of H3K36me3 on down-regulated genes relevant to

  18. Fermentation and growth response of a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium grown under strict anaerobic conditions in continuous culture and amino acid-limited batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorowski, K G; Nisbet, D J; Ha, S D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Ricke, S C

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is a significant hazard to consumer health that is carried asymptomatically in poultry gastrointestinal tracts. Nurmi cultures may prevent Salmonella colonization in young chicks, but the mechanism of competitive exclusion is unclear. Modeling Salmonella's metabolism in pure culture may allow for greater definition in choosing strains for Nurmi cultures. The growth rates and affinity constants of S. typhimurium growing in amino acid-limited conditions were determined in batch culture and compared to primary poultry isolates of cecal strains. Serine and NH4Cl were the best N sources for growth of all organisms tested in this study. The fermentation response of S. typhimurium was also monitored in continuous culture at a slow dilution rate of 0.021 h-1. S. typhimurium was found to adapt to VL media, with trends in protein disappearance, Yglucose, and Yprotein. This may show that amino acid or protein concentrations may be an integral component of the initial establishment of S. typhimurium in the cecum. PMID:9192013

  19. Fermentation and growth response of a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium grown under strict anaerobic conditions in continuous culture and amino acid-limited batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorowski, K G; Nisbet, D J; Ha, S D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Ricke, S C

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is a significant hazard to consumer health that is carried asymptomatically in poultry gastrointestinal tracts. Nurmi cultures may prevent Salmonella colonization in young chicks, but the mechanism of competitive exclusion is unclear. Modeling Salmonella's metabolism in pure culture may allow for greater definition in choosing strains for Nurmi cultures. The growth rates and affinity constants of S. typhimurium growing in amino acid-limited conditions were determined in batch culture and compared to primary poultry isolates of cecal strains. Serine and NH4Cl were the best N sources for growth of all organisms tested in this study. The fermentation response of S. typhimurium was also monitored in continuous culture at a slow dilution rate of 0.021 h-1. S. typhimurium was found to adapt to VL media, with trends in protein disappearance, Yglucose, and Yprotein. This may show that amino acid or protein concentrations may be an integral component of the initial establishment of S. typhimurium in the cecum.

  20. Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurvey conducted among 257 managers in Austria and Slovenia,the findings suggest that strategic issue interpretations of the economiccrisis as well as country differences influence whether firms are usingexternally versus internally-directed strategic responses, and pro-activeversus retrenchment strategies. The differences in strategy deploymentbetween the two countries, however, could not be consistently tracedto differences in the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance, thussuggesting that other country-specific factors like institutional or socialdifferences also play an important role.

  1. 芦笋花药离体培养技术研究%Anther Culture of Asparagus officinalis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新江; 建德锋; 陈刚

    2010-01-01

    [目的]提高芦笋的产量.[方法]以不同阶段的芦笋花蕾为外植体,筛选花粉的最佳生长阶段(即最佳材料),研究不同浓度激素配比对芦笋芽分化及生根的影响.[结果]以花粉处于单核期的花蕾为最佳试材,芽分化的最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 1.0 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为MS+KT 0.1 mg/L+ NAA 0.20 mg/L.[结论]该试验结果为芦笋的快速繁殖奠定了基础.

  2. Primary Investigation in Anther Culture of Welsh Onion%大葱花药培养研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文洁; 张国进; 周联东; 刘喜存; 郭玉霞

    2010-01-01

    探索了大葱花药处于单核晚期的形态指标,并以B5为基本培养基,分别添加2,4-D(2.0~3.0 mg/L)、6-BA(0.5 mg/L)、谷胱甘肽(800 mg/L)等,对大葱花药进行了离体培养.结果表明:32℃热击处理有利于大葱花药诱导愈伤组织;培养集中添加6%浓度的蔗糖,有助于大葱愈伤组织的培养;大葱愈伤组织诱导率较低,且不易分化.

  3. An Investigation of a Culturally Responsive Approach to Science Education in a Summer Program for Marginalized Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Brittany A.

    There have been numerous calls and efforts made to provide states, school districts, and communities needed financial support to increase and enhance access to and opportunities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) related disciplines for marginalized populations (Tyson, Lee, & Hanson, 2007; Caldwell & Siwatu, 2003). As the challenge to better educate students of color and poor students intensifies, the need to provide equitable science learning experiences for all students aimed at scientific literacy and STEM also becomes critical. Thus the need to provide summer science enrichment programs where students engage in scientific experimentation, investigation, and critical thinking are vital to helping students who have been traditionally marginalized achieve success in school science and enter the science career pipeline. This mixed methods study examined the impact of a culturally responsive approach on student attitudes, interests in science education and STEM careers, and basic science content knowledge before and after participation in an upward bound summer program. Quantitative results indicated using a culturally responsive approach to teach science in an informal learning space significantly increases student achievement. Students receiving culturally responsive science instruction exhibited statistically significant increases in their posttest science scores compared to pretest science scores, M = 0.376, 95% CI [0.266, 0.487], t (10) = 7.610, p < 0.001. Likewise, students receiving culturally responsive science instruction had a significantly higher interest in science (M = 1.740, SD = 0.548) and STEM careers, M = 0.597, 95% CI [0.276, 0.919], p = 0.001. The qualitative data obtained in this study sought to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of a culturally responsive approach on students' attitudes, interests in science and STEM careers. Findings suggest providing students the opportunity to do and learn science utilizing a

  4. Assessing autistic traits: cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz; Constantino, John N

    2008-12-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a quantitative measure of autistic traits in 4- to 18-year-olds, which has been used in behavior-genetic, epidemiological and intervention studies. The US standardization demonstrated a single-factor structure and good to excellent psychometric properties. The cross-cultural validity of the German adaptation of the parent-report SRS in a sample of N=1,436 children and adolescents: 838 typically developing and 527 clinical participants (160 with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)) was examined. Internal consistency (0.91-0.97), test-retest reliability (0.84-0.97), interrater reliability (0.76 and 0.95) and convergent validity with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule as well as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Social Communication Questionnaire (0.35-0.58) were satisfactory to good. The SRS total score discriminated between ASD and other mental disorders. SRS scores proved to be sufficiently independent of general psychopathology. Principal component analyses yielded single-factor solutions for the normative and clinical subsamples. In addition, construct validity was ensured by consistent correlations with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Normative SRS total scores for girls and boys as well as values for ASD were lower in the German sample, while scores for conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct disorder combined were higher. Generally, cross-cultural validity of the SRS seems to be sufficiently assured for a large European sample. However, some discrepancies regarding SRS normative and clinical raw score distributions, reliability and validity findings are critically discussed. PMID:19360690

  5. Dose–response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Joshua F. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Beelen, Vincent A. van; Pennings, Jeroen L.A. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H., E-mail: aldert.piersma@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. -- Highlights: ► We examine the effect of two phthalates on gene expression and morphology in WEC. ► MEHP is more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes and dysmorphogenesis. ► MEHP significantly disrupts cholesterol metabolism pathways in a dose-dependent manner. ► Specific phthalate-related mechanisms in WEC are relevant to mechanisms in vivo.

  6. Creation of Culturally Responsive Classrooms: Teachers' Conceptualization of a New Rationale for Cultural Responsiveness and Management of Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    Presently, there are a growing number of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong schools. This article examines teachers' views of the cross-cultural experience of ethnic minority students, their influence on the performance of these students, and how the diverse learning needs of these students are being addressed. Qualitative data were collected…

  7. Leveling the Field Is Not Enough: Promoting Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Teach for America through the Evaluation of Intercultural Competence, Colorblindness, White Racial Identity Attitudes, and the Belief That Culture Matters in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Amber K.

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined constructs and beliefs essential to culturally responsive teachers for the purpose of understanding corps members' needs and promoting culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP) in the Colorado region of Teach for America (TFA). This study employed a transformative, sequential mixed methods design with a theoretical…

  8. Biography-Driven Strategies as the Great Equalizer: Universal Conditions that Promote K-12 Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanning, Cristina A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD students entering our public school system demands a new pedagogical framework for teaching and learning. With its emphasis on all four dimensions of the CLD student biography (sociocultural, linguistic, cognitive, academic, biography-driven culturally responsive teaching (Herrera, 2010 addresses the limited attention currently devoted to second language learning issues in the literature and research related to culturally responsive pedagogy. This study investigates the use of biography-driven instructional (BDI strategies by 58 general education teachers at the elementary and secondary levels with CLD students in their classrooms using the Biography-Driven Performance Rubric, which measures enactment of teaching standards and educational best practices. Findings indicate that the use of BDI strategies can facilitate the practical actualization of culturallyresponsive teaching. Findings also suggest that implementation of BDI strategies can help teachers overcome challenges that are unique to secondary settings as they accommodate the assets and needs of CLD learners.

  9. Theory and Practice of Positive Feminist Therapy: A Culturally Responsive Approach to Divorce Therapy with Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…

  10. Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of…

  11. The Growing Awareness Inventory: Building Capacity for Culturally Responsive Science and Mathematics with a Structured Observation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.; Crippen, Kent J.

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first iteration in the design process of the Growing Awareness Inventory (GAIn), a structured observation protocol for building the awareness of preservice teachers (PSTs) for resources in mathematics and science classrooms that can be used for culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP). The GAIn is designed to develop awareness…

  12. Pre-Service Teachers: Does Cultural Responsiveness Affect Anticipated Self-Determination to Teach in Specific Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation to teach is essential to educating all children in the public schools. This study examined the anticipated self-determination of pre-service teachers to teach in classroom settings that varied in the ethnic and racial composition of the students in the classes. Additionally the cultural responsiveness of participants was measured to…

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

  14. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  15. RESPONSE OF EMBRYOS OF SOME VARIETIES OF RICE FOR THEIR CALLUSING AND DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.SINGH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the main food of most of the countries of the world. To cope with the population explosion, conventional method of rice production seems inadequate. Hense, for this purpose; tissue culture technology has been introduced. Before applying any advanced study, such as anther culture, protoplast culture or genetic engineering etc., it is essential to work on the rice varieties from its embryo level. In this perspective, four varieties of rice had been undertaken for the response of their embryos on different concentrations of 2,4D, for their callusing and upon different concentrations of IAA and KN for differentiation. Out of the four varieties of rice, Tulsi and Kanak embryos showed the best response for their callusing at the strength 6 mg/l of 2,4D - 40% and 22% respectively, which is followed by Pusa-Basmati and Birsa 101 embryos. Almost all the varieties showed their callusing more or less at all the strength of 2,4D taken into investigation. But the strength 6 mg/l was the best strength of 2,4D as upon this strength, all the varieties showed their callusing response. On the other hand, embryo derived callus when transferrred to differentiating medium MS + IAA (2 mg/l + KN(4mg/l gave the best result.

  16. Liquid biopsy and therapeutic response: Circulating tumor cell cultures for evaluation of anticancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Bee Luan; Grenci, Gianluca; Jing, Tengyang; Lim, Ying Bena; Lee, Soo Chin; Thiery, Jean Paul; Han, Jongyoon; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a robust anticancer drug screening system to monitor patients during treatment delays realization of personalized treatment. We demonstrate an efficient approach to evaluate drug response using patient-derived circulating tumor cell (CTC) cultures obtained from liquid biopsy. Custom microfabricated tapered microwells were integrated with microfluidics to allow robust formation of CTC clusters without pre-enrichment and subsequent drug screening in situ. Rapid feedback after 2 weeks promotes immediate intervention upon detection of drug resistance or tolerance. The procedure was clinically validated with blood samples (n = 73) from 55 patients with early-stage, newly diagnosed, locally advanced, or refractory metastatic breast cancer. Twenty-four of these samples were used for drug evaluation. Cluster formation potential correlated inversely with increased drug concentration and therapeutic treatment. This new and robust liquid biopsy technique can potentially evaluate patient prognosis with CTC clusters during treatment and provide a noninvasive and inexpensive assessment that can guide drug discovery development or therapeutic choices for personalized treatment.

  17. Francisella Infection in Cultured Tilapia in Thailand and the Inflammatory Cytokine Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantrakajorn, Sasibha; Wongtavatchai, Janenuj

    2016-06-01

    Francisella infections developed in freshwater Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia Oreochromis spp. farms in Thailand during 2012-2014. The diseased fish were lethargic and pale in color and showed numerous white nodules in their enlarged spleens. Histopathological examination and electron microscopy suggested that the white nodules were multifocal granulomas consisting of coccobacilli within vacuolated cells. Isolation of Francisella-like bacteria was achieved from 42 of 100 samples, while polymerase chain reaction confirmed Francisella infections in all samples. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from samples obtained from three different geographical culture areas revealed more than 99% similarity with F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. The influence of Francisella infection on inflammatory cytokines was determined on splenic cells of fish intraperitoneally injected with the bacteria (0.8 × 10(5) colony-forming units per fish). Infected tilapia showed significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrotic factor-α (TNF-α) within 24 h postinjection (hpi) and for up to 96 hpi. However, down-regulation of an anti-inflammatory gene, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was observed as early as 24 hpi. This investigation demonstrates that an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infection may account for the substantial number of granulomas in fish hematopoietic tissues that was found in the later stage of the disease. Received September 9, 2015; accepted December 13, 2015. PMID:27196982

  18. On Culturally Responsive Teaching of Foreign Languages%外语文化回应教学透视∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹

    2015-01-01

    语言与文化密切相关。从本质上讲,外语教学就是以语言知识讲授为基础的文化教学。作为多元文化教学模式,外语文化回应教学突显语言与文化的互动,强调外语教学的文化立场,回应多元文化差异,旨在培养学习者的跨文化理解能力。在语言环境中审视文化,将语言教学提升至文化理解的层面,顺应了文化多元化的时代发展趋势,是当代外语教学研究的一大突破。%Language and culture are closely related.In essence,foreign language teaching is culture teaching based on language knowledge teaching.As a multicultural teaching mode,culturally respon-sive teaching of foreign language highlights language-culture interaction,attaches proper importance to the cultural stance in foreign language teaching,embraces a diverse cultural background,and culti-vates learners’faculty of cross-cultural understanding.It is a break-through in the study of foreign language teaching to survey culture in its language context and to combine language teaching with cul-ture understanding,which conforms to the multicultural trend of our times.

  19. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Paula

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR\\/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-α expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile.

  20. Baby, you light-up my face: culture-general physiological responses to infants and culture-specific cognitive judgements of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Nakazawa, Jun; Ogawa, Shota; Stival, Rita; Kawashima, Akiko; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H

    2014-01-01

    Infants universally elicit in adults a set of solicitous behaviors that are evolutionarily important for the survival of the species. However, exposure, experience, and prejudice appear to govern adults' social choice and ingroup attitudes towards other adults. In the current study, physiological arousal and behavioral judgments were assessed while adults processed unfamiliar infant and adult faces of ingroup vs. outgroup members in two contrasting cultures, Japan and Italy. Physiological arousal was investigated using the novel technique of infrared thermography and behavioral judgments using ratings. We uncovered a dissociation between physiological and behavioral responses. At the physiological level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant activation (increase of facial temperature) for both ingroup and outgroup infant faces. At the behavioral level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant preferences for ingroup adults. Arousal responses to infants appear to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system and are not dependent on direct caregiving exposure, but behavioral responses appear to be mediated by higher-order cognitive processing based on social acceptance and cultural exposure.

  1. Making sense of climate change risks and responses at the community level: A cultural-political lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainka A. Granderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to better assess, communicate and respond to risks from climate change at the community level have emerged as key questions within climate risk management. Recent research to address these questions centres largely on psychological factors, exploring how cognition and emotion lead to biases in risk assessment. Yet, making sense of climate change and its responses at the community level demands attention to the cultural and political processes that shape how risk is conceived, prioritized and managed. I review the emergent literature on risk perceptions and responses to climate change using a cultural-political lens. This lens highlights how knowledge, meaning and power are produced and negotiated across multiple stakeholders at the community level. It draws attention to the different ways of constructing climate change risks and suggests an array of responses at the community level. It further illustrates how different constructions of risk intersect with agency and power to shape the capacity for response and collective action. What matters are whose constructions of risk, and whose responses, count in decision-making. I argue for greater engagement with the interpretive social sciences in research, practice and policy. The interpretive social sciences offer theories and tools for capturing and problematising the ways of knowing, sense-making and mobilising around risks from climate change. I also highlight the importance of participatory approaches in incorporating the multiplicity of interests at the community level into climate risk management in fair, transparent and culturally appropriate ways.

  2. Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Schröder-Braunstein

    Full Text Available Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease.

  3. Postmortem Adult Human Microglia Proliferate in Culture to High Passage and Maintain Their Response to Amyloid-β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Rezvanian, Aras; Kukreja, Lokesh; Hoveydai, Ramez; Bigio, Eileen H.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; El Khoury, Joseph; Geula, Changiz

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are immune cells of the brain that display a range of functions. Most of our knowledge about microglia biology and function is based on cells from the rodent brain. Species variation in the complexity of the brain and differences in microglia response in the primate when compared with the rodent, require use of adult human microglia in studies of microglia biology. While methods exist for isolation of microglia from postmortem human brains, none allow culturing cells to high passage. Thus cells from the same case could not be used in parallel studies and multiple conditions. Here we report a method, which includes use of growth factors such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, for successful culturing of adult human microglia from postmortem human brains up to 28 passages without significant loss of proliferation. Such cultures maintained their phenotype, including uptake of the scavenger receptor ligand acetylated low density lipoprotein and response to the amyloid-β peptide, and were used to extend in vivo studies in the primate brain demonstrating that inhibition of microglia activation protects neurons from amyloid-β toxicity. Significantly, microglia cultured from brains with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease displayed the same characteristics as microglia cultured from normal aged brains. The method described here provides the scientific community with a new and reliable tool for mechanistic studies of human microglia function in health from childhood to old age, and in disease, enhancing the relevance of the findings to the human brain and neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:27567845

  4. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsella, Paula, E-mail: paula.kinsella@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Howley, Rachel, E-mail: rhowley@rcsi.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Doolan, Padraig, E-mail: padraig.doolan@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clarke, Colin, E-mail: colin.clarke@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Madden, Stephen F., E-mail: maddens@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clynes, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Clynes@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Farrell, Michael, E-mail: michaelfarrell@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Amberger-Murphy, Verena, E-mail: Verena.Murphy@icorg.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  5. Customer’s Responses to Crowded Restaurant Environment: Cross Cultural Differences between American and Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Young; Park, Sangwon

    2008-01-01

    The study aims at demonstrating cultural differences between Americans and Chinese in terms of customer's perceptions and satisfaction of crowded environments within the context of restaurant settings. It has been noted that culture has a substantial impact on customer affection and judgment, and crowding in service environments is a critical antecedent of customer satisfaction. Considering these main themes, this study examined how cultural differences play a role in predicting customer sati...

  6. How cultural capital, habitus and class influence the responses of older adults to the field of contemporary visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew; Goulding, Anna; Whitehead, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    This article explores the responses of 38 older people to contemporary visual art through the results of a 28-month study entitled, Contemporary Visual Art and Identity Construction: Wellbeing amongst Older People. A framework for the analysis is provided by previous work on the consumption of art and by Bourdieu's constructs of cultural capital, habitus and field. Five groups of older people, with a range of different backgrounds, were taken to galleries and their responses were recorded, transcribed and analysed. It is concluded that participants' responses are influenced by their cultural capital, habitus and class-which, in turn, are affected by their life course experiences. Those who could not recognise the field (e.g., did not view contemporary art as "art") created their own meanings that they associated with the artworks. Evidence indicates that group dynamics and class mobility are likewise important. Participants also used the experience to respond to real or anticipated age-associated deficits.

  7. La mujer responsable de la salud de la familia: Constatando la universalidad cultural del cuidado Women in charge of family health-verifying cultural universality of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción Pezo Silva

    2004-11-01

    a family member, the woman takes responsibility for their treatment adopting domestic, mystic practices and/or searches for prompt and effective medical service. The researches also showed that it is the woman who notices alterations in their health pattern. Conclusion: The different cultural contexts have similarities that approximate them and both indicate the need for health care providers' attention towards a kind of care focused on the women considering their culture.

  8. Seeing risk and allocating responsibility: talk of culture and its consequences on the work of patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Julia E

    2014-11-01

    To improve patient safety, hospitals have implemented interventions to change their culture. Although there is great enthusiasm for these interventions at policy and management levels, we know little about how clinicians talk about "culture" as they do the work of quality and safety improvement. This article investigates the way talk of culture arises in situ, showing how it is a trope that can frustrate, obscure, and prevent the collective social action necessary to change practice. The findings are based on a two-year ethnographic case study of a large hospital in the United States that undertook an organization-wide safety improvement initiative. They show that culture is frequently talked about as a behavioral trait of individuals, which makes the identification of social barriers and facilitators difficult. Culture talk can also obscure uncomfortable, yet crucial social phenomena, including history, politics and inequalities in power that may contribute to unsafe care delivery. The consequences of this obscurity are (1) practices that might make care safer are not considered, and (2) responsibility for enacting safe practice is allocated to those with the least authority and capacity to mitigate risk. The article closes by discussing how talk of culture obscures the role of social context and its contribution to risk in patient safety. PMID:25439671

  9. Reversible and Irreversible Drought-Induced Changes in the Anther Proteome of Rice(Oryza sativa L.)Genotypes IR64 and Moroberekan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xiang Liu; John Bennett

    2011-01-01

    Crop yield is most sensitive to water deficit during the reproductive stage.For rice,the most sensitive yield component is spikelet fertility and the most sensitive stage is immediately before heading.Here,we examined the effect of drought on the anther proteome of two rice genotypes:Moroberekan and IR64.Water was withheld for 3 d before heading(3DBH)in well watered controls for 5 d until the flag leaf relative water content(RWC)had declined to 45-50%.Plants were then re-watered and heading occurred 2-3 d later,representing a delay of 4-5 d relative to controls.The anther proteins were separated at 3 DBH,at the end of the stress period,and at heading in stressed/re-watered plants and controls by two-dimensional(2-D)gel electrophoresis,and 93 protein spots were affected reproducibly in abundance by drought during the experiment across two rice genotypes.After drought stress,upon re-watering,expressions of 24 protein spots were irreversible in both genotypes,60 protein spots were irreversible in IR64 but reversible in Moroberekan,only nine protein spots were irreversible in Moroberekan while reversible in IR64.Among them,there were 14 newly drought-induced protein spots in IR64;none of them was reversible on re-watering.However,there were 13 newly drought-induced protein spots in Moroberekan,10 of them were reversible on re-watering,including six drought-induced protein spots that were not reversed in IR64.Taken together,our proteomics data reveal that drought-tolerant genotype Moroberekan possessed better recovery capability following drought and re-watering at the anther proteome level than the drought-sensitive genotype IR64.The disruptions of drought to rice anther development and pollen cell functions are also discussed in the paper.

  10. Abnormal humoral immune responses in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of bone marrow transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, S G; Pahwa, R N; Friedrich, W; O'Reilly, R J; Good, R A

    1982-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating recovery of humoral immunity in vitro after bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute leukemia and severe aplastic anemia. Hemolytic plaque assays were utilized to quantitate pokeweed mitogen-stimulated polyclonal immunoglobulin production and sheep erythrocyte antigen-specific antibody responses in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 39 patients beginning at 1 month, for variable periods up to a maximum of 4 years after marrow transplantation. Three phases were identified: an early period of primary B cell dysfunction with concomitant immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities--i.e., decreased helper and increased suppressor activities; an intermediate phase in which B cell dysfunction could be attributed in large measure to immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities; and a late phase of normal B and T lymphocyte functions. Patients with graft-versus-host disease differed from those without it in that they often did not manifest increased T cell suppressor activity in the early period, and they were noted to have prolonged and profound B and T cell abnormalities in the chronic phase of their disease. In selected patients, simultaneous assessment of ratios of Leu-2 to Leu-3 antigens on T cells by monoclonal antibodies and of immunoregulatory T cell functions revealed a correlation between the two only late in the post-transplant period. These studies provide an insight into the ontogeny of B cell function in the post-transplant period and indicate that in certain situations phenotypic alterations in T cell subsets cannot reliably be used to predict abnormalities in their function in recipients of marrow transplantation. Images PMID:6211673

  11. Dose-response relationship of cadmium or radiation-induced embryotoxicity in mouse whole embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Kiyohito; Kawamata, Akitoshi; Matsuoka, Masato; Wakisaka, Takashi; Fujiki, Yoshishige (Asahi University School of Dentistry, Gifu (Japan))

    1988-12-01

    Mouse embryos of B6C3F/sub 1/ strain were exposed in vitro to 1.2 to 2.2 {mu}M cadmium chloride (Cd) or to 100 to 320 R x-rays, and the effects of the exposure on development were examined after 39 h of culture. Development of embryos was assessed from lethality, formation of the neural tube defect, diameter and protein of yolk sac, crown-rump and head lengths, embryonic protein, and number of somites. Incidence of the neural tube defect increased from 3.4 to 100% by 1.2 to 2.0 {mu}M Cd, while embryo deaths increased from 13.8 to 93.3% by 2.0 to 2.2 {mu}M Cd. Embryonic protein was significantly reduced at the teratogenic range, but the number of somites was only affected by 1.6 to 2.0 {mu}M Cd. X-irradiation at 100 to 320 R induced the neural tube defect in 2.9 to 72.7% of the embryos. An embryolethal effect was observed only at the 320 R dose. Crown-rump and head lengths and embryonic protein were significantly affected at the teratogenic range, but the diameter and protein of yolk sac and number of somites were hardly affected. Cadmium- or radiation-induced response data of both teratogenicity and endpoints indicating inhibition of embryonic development were acceptably fitted to a linear log-probit regression. These regressions suggest that as an estimation of interference in development of embryos, embryonic protein and head length are sensitive endpoints while the number of somites is an insensitive criterion. (author).

  12. A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hofmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  13. ART culture conditions change the probability of mouse embryo gestation through defined cellular and molecular responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarzer, Caroline; Esteves, Telma Cristina; Arau´zo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Le Gac, Séverine; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Do different human ART culture protocols prepare embryos differently for post-implantation development? ... Our data promote awareness that human ART culture media affect embryo development. Effects reported here in the mouse may apply also in human, because no ART medium presently available on the

  14. C. P. Snow's "The Two Cultures": Michael Polanyi's Response and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Struan

    2011-01-01

    C. P. Snow's "The Two Cultures" controversially contrasted science and literature, suggesting that neither scientists nor literary intellectuals have much in common with, and seldom bother speaking to, the other. Responding to Snow, Michael Polanyi argued that specialization has made modern culture, not twofold but manifold. In his major work,…

  15. Cochlear implants and the claims of culture? A response to Lane and Grodin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dena S

    1997-09-01

    Because I reject the notion that physical characteristics constitute cultural membership, I argue that, even if the claim were persuasive that deafness is a culture rather than a disability, there is no reason to fault hearing parents who choose cochlear implants for their deaf children.

  16. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  17. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi

    2008-10-01

    People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.

  18. Anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Populus L.. Differentiation between Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the

  19. Anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Populus L.. Differentiation between Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the

  20. A Case Study of Collaboration Between A Culturally Responsive Urban High School Teacher and A Haitian Teaching Artist

    OpenAIRE

    Childs-Davis, Faith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the collaboration between a teaching artist and a 12th grade English teacher in an urban high school. The study was conducted to document the challenges, benefits and processes involved in the creation and implementation of a culturally responsive arts integrated curriculum. The sample consisted of one classroom of 20 12th grade students, their teacher and a Haitian visual artist. I collected data using classroom observation protocols, teacher and artist interviews, studen...

  1. Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca) in culture conditions

    OpenAIRE

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2014-01-01

    Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, matur...

  2. Responsividade materna: aspectos biológicos e variações culturais Maternal responsiveness: biological aspects and cultural variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Paes Ribas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente alguns aspectos biológicos e variações culturais relativos ao conceito de responsividade materna. Está subdividido em duas partes. A primeira delas trata da responsividade e seus aspectos biológicos e variações culturais. A segunda apresenta duas grandes tendências de pesquisa sobre responsividade materna e variações culturais. As considerações finais sistematizam os argumentos críticos apresentados e destacam que as iniciativas de investigar este tema devem estar pautadas pelo reconhecimento de que a responsividade materna é uma das características das interações adulto-criança que tem origens e influências múltiplas. Nesse sentido, a sua compreensão deve estar incluída em um sistema amplo de referência que envolva, por exemplo, variáveis biológicas, contextuais, da história da díade e culturais.The purpose of this article was to critically discuss some biological aspects and cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. It consists of two parts. The first discusses responsiveness and its biological aspects and cultural variations. The second part presents two major research tendencies in the investigations of cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. Our conclusion presents a brief of the critical arguments and highlights the need to recognize that maternal responsiveness is one of the adult-child interaction characteristics that has multiple origins and influences, from which any investigation in this theme must be based on. As a consequence, those initiatives should be included in a wide reference system that involves, for example, biological, contextual, dyads previous history, and cultural variables.

  3. Effects of Culture and Education on Ethical Responses on Our Global Society

    OpenAIRE

    Comiskey, Christina Pryor; Schutte, Kelli J.; Scarfino, Deborah Reed; Campbell, Tanna White

    2012-01-01

    Two trends that affect communications are prevalent today: a focus on ethics in the U.S. business operations and an increasingly global society and marketplace. This research project brings together these trends to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of culture on ethical education. By surveying students in six countries around the globe, this study was able to get at the divergent cultural frameworks utilized in ethical decision making. The results offer a significant contributi...

  4. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Beatriz de Oliveira; Nahas, Ely

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus , Fusarium verticillioides , and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL) and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL) soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture me...

  5. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz de Oliveira Costa; Ely Nahas

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL) and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL) soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medi...

  6. The parthenocarpic fruit (pat) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) sets seedless fruits and has aberrant anther and ovule development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, A; Taddei, A R; Soressi, G P

    1998-01-01

    Among the different sources of genetic parthenocarpy described in tomato, the mutation referred to as parthenocarpic fruit (pat) is of particular interest because of its strong expressivity and because it confers earlier ripening, higher fruit set and enhanced fruit quality. As a pleiotropic effect, pat flowers have aberrantly developing androecia and reduced male and female fertility. In this work we extend the early description of the pat phenotype by investigating the expression of parthenocarpy in three different environments and by using light and scanning electron microscopy to analyse the development of male and female floral organs. The degree of parthenocarpy was high in the three experimental environments and was characterised by a precocious initiation of ovary growth to pre-anthesis floral stages. Aberrations in anther development were evident at flower bud stages and resulted in shorter, irregular and teratoid organs. Ectopic production of carpel-like structures bearing external ovules was evident in the most severely altered androecia. Analysis of ovule development revealed that a fraction of pat ovules becomes aberrant from very early stages, having defective integument growth. Meiosis was irregular in aberrant ovules and megaspore or gamete production was severely hampered. The described pat syndrome suggests that parthenocarpy in this mutant could be a secondary effect of a gene controlling, at early stages, organ identity and development. PMID:9389668

  7. Rice improvement, involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plantlets in comparison with the control. Irradiation with 30 Gy of rice callus increased also the percentage of regenerated green plantlets. For indica rice, the combination of the suitable dose of gamma rays irradiation on seeds and an improved medium, increased the percentage of callus induction. This approach made it possible to use anther culture in indica rice breeding. Somatic tissue cultures combined with radiation-induced mutagenesis led to the development of a number of promising mutants including some new cytoplasm-nucleus interacting male-sterile lines with almost 100% stigma exertion. Their development would be of practical significance for increasing the genetic diversity for production of hybrid rice. (author)

  8. Alteration of cellular behavior and response to PI3K pathway inhibition by culture in 3D collagen gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fallica

    Full Text Available Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrix (ECM is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS human osteosarcoma and MCF7 human breast cancer cells embedded in type 1 collagen gels. The activation of the important PI3K signaling pathway under these different growth conditions is studied, and the response to inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR with PI103 investigated. Cells grown in 3D gels show reduced proliferation and migration as well as reduced PI3K pathway activation when compared to cells grown in 2D. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that a collagen ECM can protect U2OS cells from PI103. Overall, our data suggests that 3D gels may provide a better medium for investigation of anti-cancer drugs than 2D monolayers, therefore allowing better understanding of cellular response and behavior in native like environments.

  9. Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N.F.; Gurule, D.M.; Carpenter, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth.

  10. TamiR159 directed wheat TaGAMYB cleavage and its involvement in anther development and heat response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis and rice, miR159-regulated GAMYB-like family transcription factors function in flower development and gibberellin (GA signaling in cereal aleurone cells. In this study, the involvement of miR159 in the regulation of its putative target TaGAMYB and its relationship to wheat development were investigated. First, we demonstrated that cleavage of TaGAMYB1 and TaGAMYB2 was directed by miR159 using 5'-RACE and a transient expression system. Second, we overexpressed TamiR159, TaGAMYB1 and mTaGAMYB1 (impaired in the miR159 binding site in transgenic rice, revealing that the accumulation in rice of mature miR159 derived from the precursor of wheat resulted in delayed heading time and male sterility. In addition, the number of tillers and primary branches in rice overexpressing mTaGAMYB1 increased relative to the wild type. Our previous study reported that TamiR159 was downregulated after two hours of heat stress treatment in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Most notably, the TamiR159 overexpression rice lines were more sensitive to heat stress relative to the wild type, indicating that the downregulation of TamiR159 in wheat after heat stress might participate in a heat stress-related signaling pathway, in turn contributing to heat stress tolerance.

  11. Thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted hollow fiber membranes for osteoblasts culture and non-invasive harvest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Meiling, E-mail: zhuangmeiling2006@126.com; Liu, Tianqing, E-mail: liutq@dlut.edu.cn; Song, Kedong, E-mail: kedongsong@dlut.edu.cn; Ge, Dan, E-mail: gedan@dlut.edu.cn; Li, Xiangqin, E-mail: xiangqinli@163.com

    2015-10-01

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) culture system is one of the most important bioreactors for the large-scale culture and expansion of therapeutic cells. However, enzymatic and mechanical treatments are traditionally applied to harvest the expanded cells from HFMs, which inevitably causes harm to the cells. In this study, thermo-responsive cellulose acetate HFMs for cell culture and non-invasive harvest were prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization in the presence of cerium (IV). ATR-FTIR and elemental analysis results indicated that the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was covalently grafted on HFMs successfully. Dynamic contact angle measurements at different temperatures revealed that the magnitude of volume phase transition was decreased with increasing grafted amount of PNIPAAm. And the amount of serum protein adsorbed on HFMs surface also displayed the same pattern. Meanwhile osteoblasts adhered and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs at 37 °C. And Calcein-AM/PI staining, AB assay, ALP activity and OCN protein expression level all showed that PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs had good cell compatibility. After incubation at 20 °C for 120 min, the adhering cells on PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs turned to be round and detached after being gently pipetted. These results suggest that thermo-responsive HFMs are attractive cell culture substrates which enable cell culture, expansion and the recovery without proteolytic enzyme treatment for the application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs exhibited thermoresponsive characteristic. • The OB cells could adhere and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs. • PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs do not significantly impact ALP activity and OCN protein expression level of OB cells. • Cell could be detached from PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs when temperature decreased from 37 °C to 20 °C.

  12. Thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted hollow fiber membranes for osteoblasts culture and non-invasive harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) culture system is one of the most important bioreactors for the large-scale culture and expansion of therapeutic cells. However, enzymatic and mechanical treatments are traditionally applied to harvest the expanded cells from HFMs, which inevitably causes harm to the cells. In this study, thermo-responsive cellulose acetate HFMs for cell culture and non-invasive harvest were prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization in the presence of cerium (IV). ATR-FTIR and elemental analysis results indicated that the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was covalently grafted on HFMs successfully. Dynamic contact angle measurements at different temperatures revealed that the magnitude of volume phase transition was decreased with increasing grafted amount of PNIPAAm. And the amount of serum protein adsorbed on HFMs surface also displayed the same pattern. Meanwhile osteoblasts adhered and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs at 37 °C. And Calcein-AM/PI staining, AB assay, ALP activity and OCN protein expression level all showed that PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs had good cell compatibility. After incubation at 20 °C for 120 min, the adhering cells on PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs turned to be round and detached after being gently pipetted. These results suggest that thermo-responsive HFMs are attractive cell culture substrates which enable cell culture, expansion and the recovery without proteolytic enzyme treatment for the application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs exhibited thermoresponsive characteristic. • The OB cells could adhere and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs. • PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs do not significantly impact ALP activity and OCN protein expression level of OB cells. • Cell could be detached from PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs when temperature decreased from 37 °C to 20 °C

  13. Número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras Number of anthers per flower, pollen grains per anther and pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Lopes de Albuquerque Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras. O trabalho foi executado no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, e as coletas a campo foram realizadas na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador-SC, em outubro de 2005. Foram utilizadas as seguintes cultivares comerciais de macieira desenvolvidas no Brasil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz e Joaquina. As cultivares de macieira Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa e Suprema produzem pólen em quantidade suficiente e com boa capacidade germinativa. A cv. Condessa, embora apresente alta capacidade germinativa de pólen, produz menos anteras e grãos de pólen por antera que as demais. A cv. Princesa é a que apresenta o melhor perfil como polinizadora, por conjugar número de anteras/flor, número de grãos de pólen/antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen mais satisfatórios.The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther and the pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees. The study was performed at the Physiology and Plant Genetics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catarina. The field collecting were performed at Epagri / Caçador Experimental Station, in Santa Catarina State during October, 2005. It was used the following apple cultivars developed in Brazil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz and Joaquina. It was concluded that the apple cultivars Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa and Suprema produce pollen grains of satisfactory quantity and of good germination

  14. Effects of Culture and Education on Ethical Responses on Our Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comiskey, Christina Pryor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two trends that affect communications are prevalent today: a focus on ethics in the U.S. business operations and an increasingly global society and marketplace. This research project brings together these trends to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of culture on ethical education. By surveying students in six countries around the globe, this study was able to get at the divergent cultural frameworks utilized in ethical decision making. The results offer a significant contribution to our understanding of the cross-cultural implications on ethical values in the business context. This understanding provides unique insights into ethics education and the need for a contextual understanding of applied ethics.

  15. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds.

  16. The response of human nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures to repeated whole cigarette smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talikka, Marja; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Mathis, Carole; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Merg, Celine; Geertz, Marcel; Martin, Florian; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is linked to the development of respiratory diseases, and there is a need to understand the mechanisms whereby CS causes damage. Although animal models have provided valuable insights into smoking-related respiratory tract damage, modern toxicity testing calls for reliable in vitro models as alternatives for animal experimentation. We report on a repeated whole mainstream CS exposure of nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures that mimic the morphological, physiological, and molecular attributes of the human respiratory tract. Despite the similar cellular staining and cytokine secretion in both tissue types, the transcriptomic analyses in the context of biological network models identified similar and diverse biological processes that were impacted by CS-exposed nasal and bronchial cultures. Our results demonstrate that nasal and bronchial tissue cultures are appropriate in vitro models for the assessment of CS-induced adverse effects in the respiratory system and promising alternative to animal experimentation. PMID:25297719

  17. Concentration-dependent gene expression responses to flusilazole in embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The murine embryonic stem cell test (EST) is designed to evaluate developmental toxicity based on compound-induced inhibition of embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into cardiomyocytes. The addition of transcriptomic evaluation within the EST may result in enhanced predictability and improved characterization of the applicability domain, therefore improving usage of the EST for regulatory testing strategies. Transcriptomic analyses assessing factors critical for risk assessment (i.e. dose) are needed to determine the value of transcriptomic evaluation in the EST. Here, using the developmentally toxic compound, flusilazole, we investigated the effect of compound concentration on gene expression regulation and toxicity prediction in ESC differentiation cultures. Cultures were exposed for 24 h to multiple concentrations of flusilazole (0.54-54 μM) and RNA was isolated. In addition, we sampled control cultures 0, 24, and 48 h to evaluate the transcriptomic status of the cultures across differentiation. Transcriptomic profiling identified a higher sensitivity of development-related processes as compared to cell division-related processes in flusilazole-exposed differentiation cultures. Furthermore, the sterol synthesis-related mode of action of flusilazole toxicity was detected. Principal component analysis using gene sets related to normal ESC differentiation was used to describe the dynamics of ESC differentiation, defined as the 'differentiation track'. The concentration-dependent effects on development were reflected in the significance of deviation of flusilazole-exposed cultures from this transcriptomic-based differentiation track. Thus, the detection of developmental toxicity in EST using transcriptomics was shown to be compound concentration-dependent. This study provides further insight into the possible application of transcriptomics in the EST as an improved alternative model system for developmental toxicity testing.

  18. Membrane voltage differently affects mIPSCs and current responses recorded from somatic excised patches in rat hippocampal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-01-30

    Recent analysis of current responses to exogenous GABA applications recorded from excised patches indicated that membrane voltage affected the GABAA receptor gating mainly by altering desensitization and binding [M. Pytel, K. Mercik, J.W. Mozrzymas, Membrane voltage modulates the GABAA receptor gating in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, Neuropharmacology, in press]. In order investigate the impact of such voltage effect on GABAA receptors in conditions of synaptic transmission, mIPSCs and current responses to rapid GABA applications were recorded from the same culture of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that I-V relationship for mIPSCs amplitudes showed a clear outward rectification while for current responses an inward rectification was seen, except for very low GABA concentrations. A clear shift in amplitude cumulative distributions indicated that outward rectification resulted from the voltage effect on the majority of mIPSCs. Moreover, the decaying phase of mIPSCs was clearly slowed down at positive voltages and this effect was represented by a shift in cumulative distributions of weighted decaying time constants. In contrast, deactivation of current responses was only slightly affected by membrane depolarization. These data indicate that the mechanisms whereby the membrane voltage modulates synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors are qualitatively different but the mechanism underlying this difference is not clear.

  19. Cellular and humoral immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in patients with culture-positive early Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, A; Glickstein, L; Field, J A; McHugh, G; Sikand, V K; Damle, N; Steere, A C

    2001-12-01

    We determined cellular and humoral immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi lysate and to recombinant flagellin (FlaB), OspC, and OspA in acute- and convalescent-phase samples from 39 culture-positive patients with erythema migrans and in 20 healthy control subjects. During the acute illness, a median of 4 days after the onset of erythema migrans, 51% of the patients had proliferative cellular responses and 72% had antibody responses to at least one of the borrelial antigens tested. During convalescence, at the conclusion of antibiotic therapy, 64% of the patients had proliferative cellular reactivity and 95% had antibody reactivity with at least one of the spirochetal antigens tested. In both acute- and convalescent-phase samples, cellular immune responses were found as frequently to OspA as to OspC and FlaB. Although antibody responses were also frequently seen to OspC and FlaB, only a few patients had marginal antibody reactivity with OspA. The percentage of patients with proliferative responses was similar in those with clinical evidence of localized or disseminated infection, whereas humoral reactivity was found more often in those with disseminated disease. We conclude that cellular and humoral responses to B. burgdorferi antigens are often found among patients with early Lyme disease. In contrast with the other antigens tested, cellular but not humoral reactivity was often found with OspA.

  20. A noninvasive transfer system for polarized renal tubule epithelial cell sheets using temperature-responsive culture dishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushida A.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We used temperature-responsive culture dishes onto which the temperature-responsive polymer, poly(Nisopropylacrylamide, was covalently grafted for tissue engineering. Confluent cells harvested as intact sheets from these surfaces by simple temperature reduction can be transferred to various surfaces including additional culture dishes, other cell sheets, and tissues. In order to examine the maintenance of cell polarity, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and human primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells which had developed apical-basal cell polarity in culture, were subjected to cell sheet transfer. This functional and structural cell polarity, which is susceptible to treatment with trypsin, was examined by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Using our cell-sheet method, the noninvasive transfer of these cell sheets retaining typical distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, GLUT-1, SGLT-1, aquaporin-1, neutral endopeptidase and dipeptidylendopeptidase IV, could be achieved. The transferred cell sheets also developed numerous microvilli and tight junctions at the apical and lateral membranes, respectively. For biochemical analysis, immunoblotting of occludin, a transmembrane protein that composes tight junctions, was conducted and results confirmed that occludin remained intact after cell sheet transfer. This two-dimensional cell sheet manipulation method promises to be useful for tissue engineering as well as in the investigation of epithelial cell polarity.

  1. Engaging Students from the United Arab Emirates in Culturally Responsive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Sara Ashencaen

    2010-01-01

    The liberal arts education is one that is increasingly being adopted in regions far removed from the USA, such as the United Arab Emirates. The importing of this American educational model is, however, associated with the inexorable influences of dominant cultural forms through the effects of globalisation. However, at the same time international…

  2. Evolutionary responses to a constructed niche: ancient Mesoamericans as a model of gene-culture coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábita Hünemeier

    Full Text Available Culture and genetics rely on two distinct but not isolated transmission systems. Cultural processes may change the human selective environment and thereby affect which individuals survive and reproduce. Here, we evaluated whether the modes of subsistence in Native American populations and the frequencies of the ABCA1*Arg230Cys polymorphism were correlated. Further, we examined whether the evolutionary consequences of the agriculturally constructed niche in Mesoamerica could be considered as a gene-culture coevolution model. For this purpose, we genotyped 229 individuals affiliated with 19 Native American populations and added data for 41 other Native American groups (n = 1905 to the analysis. In combination with the SNP cluster of a neutral region, this dataset was then used to unravel the scenario involved in 230Cys evolutionary history. The estimated age of 230Cys is compatible with its origin occurring in the American continent. The correlation of its frequencies with the archeological data on Zea pollen in Mesoamerica/Central America, the neutral coalescent simulations, and the F(ST-based natural selection analysis suggest that maize domestication was the driving force in the increase in the frequencies of 230Cys in this region. These results may represent the first example of a gene-culture coevolution involving an autochthonous American allele.

  3. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized a...

  4. Celebrating Musical Diversity: Training Culturally Responsive Music Educators in Multiracial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This article explores outcomes of research into the role and place of cultural diversity in primary music classes at five government schools in Singapore. The study highlights the ways in which a variety of factors such as specialist music training, government policy, curriculum documents, and professional development influence teacher practice.…

  5. These American Lives: Becoming a Culturally Responsive Teacher and the "Risks of Empathy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Char; Hecsh, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Do teacher candidates who identify as White and European American think about issues of difference in ways that vary distinctly from teacher candidates who identify as Latina/o or Hispanic? In this article, we engage with the literature on culturally relevant teaching that suggests teacher candidates of color are more likely to have some of the…

  6. Culturally Responsive Experimental Intervention Studies: The Development of a Rubric for Paradigm Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Aydin; Trainor, Audrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Neither legislative demand for evidence-based practices nor a focus on experimental designs for educational interventions has ameliorated the disparate educational opportunities and outcomes for youth from nondominant cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Recent initiatives to increase the rigor of intervention research in special education have…

  7. Banking culture and collective responsibility: A memorandum to the UK Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dorn (Nicholas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBasic assumptions • There is wide interest in connecting issues of (i) occupational culture, (ii) compliance/ misconduct, (iii) remuneration and (iv) clawback (the bonus/malus debate). • Individual-focussed measures (supervision, remuneration and measures in civil or criminal law) must b

  8. Drivers of Socially Responsible Purchasing Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Young Lee; Scarlett C. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Retailers and companies increasingly employ corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a global management strategy. They are motivated to act in a socially responsive manner to their global customers not only to fulfill their ethical obligations as a social entity but also due to the marketing and financial benefits resulting from consumer responses to CSR initiatives. Therefore, many retailers develop or participate in CSR activities and hope their actions can be recognized by others. Further...

  9. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Teixeira da Silva JA. 2015. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 26-32. Syngonium podophyllum L. (arrowhead vine) is a popular leafy indoor pot plant whose tissue culture has been established, primarily through in vitro shoot culture, but several interesting aspects have not yet been explored. In this study, cv. ‘White Butterfly’ wa...

  10. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.

  11. Culture Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology for in vitro Shoot Bud Development of Solanum melongena L. for Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Bhattacharya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used for the optimization of shoot bud response and shoot bud induction in leaf explants of Solanum melongena cultivar Arka Shirish. Three independent variables were evaluated for shoot bud response and shoot bud induction. The variables include the concentrations of nitrogen (N2, sucrose and growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ. The shoot bud response for cultured explant was optimized at 4.34 g/l of total nitrogen, 2.65% of sucrose and 0.67 mg/l of TDZ with 95% response. The optimum medium conditions for shoot bud induction was found to be Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium supplemented with 4.02 g/l of total nitrogen, 2.36% of sucrose and 1.0 mg/l of TDZ with 10 number of bud per explant. The shoot buds so formed were elongated in 0.5 mg/l 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA and 0.1 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. The elongated shoots were rooted in MS with 1 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The rooted plants were transferred to pots with farmyard manure upon hardening. This study has validation value for optimization of micropropagation protocol and is further useful in genetic transformation studies for Solanum melongena variety Arka Shirish to maximize regenerative response for automation.

  12. Control of Anther Cell Differentiation by the Small Protein Ligand TPD1 and Its Receptor EMS1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tianyu; Linstroth, Lisa; Tillman, Zachary; Otegui, Marisa S; Owen, Heather A; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental feature of sexual reproduction in plants and animals is the specification of reproductive cells that conduct meiosis to form gametes, and the associated somatic cells that provide nutrition and developmental cues to ensure successful gamete production. The anther, which is the male reproductive organ in seed plants, produces reproductive microsporocytes (pollen mother cells) and surrounding somatic cells. The microsporocytes yield pollen via meiosis, and the somatic cells, particularly the tapetum, are required for the normal development of pollen. It is not known how the reproductive cells affect the differentiation of these somatic cells, and vice versa. Here, we use molecular genetics, cell biological, and biochemical approaches to demonstrate that TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) is a small secreted cysteine-rich protein ligand that interacts with the LRR (Leucine-Rich Repeat) domain of the EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) receptor kinase at two sites. Analyses of the expressions and localizations of TPD1 and EMS1, ectopic expression of TPD1, experimental missorting of TPD1, and ablation of microsporocytes yielded results suggesting that the precursors of microsporocyte/microsporocyte-derived TPD1 and pre-tapetal-cell-localized EMS1 initially promote the periclinal division of secondary parietal cells and then determine one of the two daughter cells as a functional tapetal cell. Our results also indicate that tapetal cells suppress microsporocyte proliferation. Collectively, our findings show that tapetal cell differentiation requires reproductive-cell-secreted TPD1, illuminating a novel mechanism whereby signals from reproductive cells determine somatic cell fate in plant sexual reproduction. PMID:27537183

  13. 低温诱导下苹果花药差异表达基因分析%Differentially expressed gene analysis of apple (Malus domestica) anther under low temperature induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧珍; 邓舒; 张春芬; 肖蓉; 王卉; 孟玉平; 曹秋芬

    2016-01-01

    低温处理是苹果花药培养诱导胚状体形成的关键步骤,花药中的小孢子在经过一定时间的低温诱导后才能获得胚性潜能。本文通过转录组测序的方法对低温处理前和低温处理30 d的苹果花药进行研究,分析低温诱导条件下花药中的差异表达基因。结果表明:转录组测序共得到10.90 Gb的Clean Data。基因表达分析结果显示,共有4105个基因发生差异表达,包括表达上调基因1849个,表达下调基因2256个。注释到GO、COG、KEGG、Swiss-Prot和nr数据库的差异表达基因分别有3325个、1504个、733个、2993个和3758个。差异表达基因主要富集在与糖类代谢和激素信号转导有关的过程中,其中在淀粉和蔗糖代谢、植物激素信号转导这两个代谢通路中富集的差异表达基因最多。筛选出的差异表达基因中控制蔗糖合成、细胞分裂素、脱落酸和油菜素内酯信号转导的相关基因表达量上调,控制淀粉合成、生长素信号转导的相关基因表达量下调。差异表达基因的荧光定量PCR结果显示测序结果和实际结果变化趋势完全一致。由此可见,苹果花药经低温诱导后,影响蔗糖、淀粉生物合成和生长素、细胞分裂素、脱落酸、赤霉素和油菜素内酯信号转导相关基因的表达变化是影响小孢子获得胚性潜能的关键。%Low temperature treatment is the key step in the induction of the formation of embryoid during apple anther culture, and pollen in anthers can acquire the embryogenic potential after a certain period of low tem-perature induction. In this study, the research on the two group apple anther that one was treated by 30 days low temperature and the other untreated were carried out by the method of RNA-Seq, and the DEG (differentially expressed genes) in the process of embryoid formation was analyzed. The results showed that: A total of 10.90 Gb clean data was generated using the

  14. Influence of the Culture Medium in Dose-Response Effect of the Chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Vanessa Salvadego; Ccahuana-Vásquez, Renzo Alberto; Tedesco, Alcides Fabiano; Lyra, Luzia; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of culture medium on dose-response effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) on Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilm and validate the use of the cation-adjusted-Müller-Hinton broth (MH) for the evaluation of antibacterial activity. Ultrafiltered Tryptone-Yeast Extract Broth (UTYEB) was compared against MH and MH with blood supplementation (MHS). For each medium, six groups (n = 4) were assessed: two negative control groups (baseline 48 and 120 h) and four experimental groups (0.0001, 0.001, 0.012, and 0.12% CHX). S. mutans biofilm grew on glass slides of each media containing 1% sucrose. After 48 h of growth, biofilms of baseline 48 h were collected and the other groups were treated for 1 min, twice a day, for 3 days, with their respective treatments. The media were changed daily and pH was measured. After 120 h, biofilms were collected and dry weight and viable microorganisms were determined. Results showed CHX dose-response effect being observed in all media for all the variables. However, MH and MHS showed higher sensitivity than UTYEB (p culture medium does influence dose-response effect of CHX on Streptococcus mutans biofilm and that MH can be used for antibacterial activity.

  15. Influence of the Culture Medium in Dose-Response Effect of the Chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Vanessa Salvadego; Ccahuana-Vásquez, Renzo Alberto; Tedesco, Alcides Fabiano; Lyra, Luzia; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of culture medium on dose-response effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) on Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilm and validate the use of the cation-adjusted-Müller-Hinton broth (MH) for the evaluation of antibacterial activity. Ultrafiltered Tryptone-Yeast Extract Broth (UTYEB) was compared against MH and MH with blood supplementation (MHS). For each medium, six groups (n = 4) were assessed: two negative control groups (baseline 48 and 120 h) and four experimental groups (0.0001, 0.001, 0.012, and 0.12% CHX). S. mutans biofilm grew on glass slides of each media containing 1% sucrose. After 48 h of growth, biofilms of baseline 48 h were collected and the other groups were treated for 1 min, twice a day, for 3 days, with their respective treatments. The media were changed daily and pH was measured. After 120 h, biofilms were collected and dry weight and viable microorganisms were determined. Results showed CHX dose-response effect being observed in all media for all the variables. However, MH and MHS showed higher sensitivity than UTYEB (p < 0.05). We can conclude that the culture medium does influence dose-response effect of CHX on Streptococcus mutans biofilm and that MH can be used for antibacterial activity. PMID:27293967

  16. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Chai, Y.C. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Bus 813, O& N1, Herestraat 49, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Skeletal Biology and Engineering Research Center, Bus 813, O& N1, Herestraat 49, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); 3D Systems — LayerWise NV, Grauwmeer 14, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 — PB2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Dept. Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20 V anodizing time: 30 min to 3 h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500 °C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55 nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500 °C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium

  17. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20 V anodizing time: 30 min to 3 h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500 °C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55 nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500 °C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium

  18. A Story within a Story: Culturally Responsive Schooling and American Indian and Alaska Native Achievement in the National Indian Education Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Francesca A.; Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Schram, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    There have been numerous calls to increase quantitative studies examining the role of culturally responsive schooling (CRS) on American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) achievement. The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is the only large-scale study focused on (AIAN) students' cultural experiences within the context of schools. Given…

  19. Magneto-responsive liquid crystalline elastomer nanocomposites as potential candidates for dynamic cell culture substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Posada, Stephany; Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Ortiz-Bermudez, Patricia; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; McElhinny, Kyle M; Evans, Paul G; Calcagno, Barbara O; Acevedo, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    Recently, liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) have been proposed as active substrates for cell culture due to their potential to attach and orient cells, and impose dynamic mechanical signals through the application of external stimuli. In this report, the preparation of anisotropic and oriented nematic magnetic-sensitized LCEs with iron oxide nanoparticles, and the evaluation of the effect of particle addition at low concentrations on the resultant structural, thermal, thermo-mechanical, and mechanical properties is presented. Phase transformations produced by heating in alternating magnetic fields were investigated in LCEs in contact with air, water, and a common liquid cell culture medium was also evaluated. The inclusion of nanoparticles into the elastomers displaced the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition, without affecting the nematic structure as evidenced by similar values of the order parameter, while reducing the maximum thermomechanical deformations. Remote and reversible deformations of the magnetic LCEs were achieved through the application of alternating magnetic fields, which induces the nematic-isotropic phase transition through nanoparticle heat generation. Formulation parameters can be modified to allow for remote actuation at values closer to the human physiological temperature range and within the range of deformations that can affect the cellular behavior of fibroblasts. Finally, a collagen surface treatment was performed to improve compatibility with NIH-3T3 fibroblast cultures, which enabled the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts on substrates with and without magnetic particles under quiescent conditions. The LCEs developed in this work, which are able to deform and experience stress changes by remote contact-less magnetic stimulation, may allow for further studies on the effect of substrate morphology changes and dynamic mechanical properties during in vitro cell culture. PMID:27157764

  20. Bovine paratuberculosis II. A comparison of fecal culture and the antibody response.

    OpenAIRE

    De Lisle, G W; SAMAGH, B.S.; Duncan, J R

    1980-01-01

    Fecal culture for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and a complement fixing serological test using a carbohydrate antigen were compared for diagnostic efficiency in cattle naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis. Serological reactivity was associated with the persistent fecal shedding of large numbers of bacteria and in the absence of false positives in the population studied, was considered an efficient method for the identification of this segment of infected cattle. Minimally infected cat...

  1. Human tumour antigens defined by cytotoxicity and proliferative responses of cultured lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vose, Brent M.; Bonnard, Guy D.

    1982-03-01

    The long-term goal of many laboratories has been to develop cellular reagents having specific reactivity against human tumour cells. Such immune cells should prove useful for defining the antigenicity of human malignancies and may have important therapeutic potential, as has been clearly shown in some animal models1. Here we describe methods of initiating continued lymphocyte cultures (CLC) having specific anti-tumour reactivity using conditioned media containing interleukin-2 (IL-2).

  2. Magneto-responsive liquid crystalline elastomer nanocomposites as potential candidates for dynamic cell culture substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Posada, Stephany; Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Ortiz-Bermudez, Patricia; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; McElhinny, Kyle M; Evans, Paul G; Calcagno, Barbara O; Acevedo, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    Recently, liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) have been proposed as active substrates for cell culture due to their potential to attach and orient cells, and impose dynamic mechanical signals through the application of external stimuli. In this report, the preparation of anisotropic and oriented nematic magnetic-sensitized LCEs with iron oxide nanoparticles, and the evaluation of the effect of particle addition at low concentrations on the resultant structural, thermal, thermo-mechanical, and mechanical properties is presented. Phase transformations produced by heating in alternating magnetic fields were investigated in LCEs in contact with air, water, and a common liquid cell culture medium was also evaluated. The inclusion of nanoparticles into the elastomers displaced the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition, without affecting the nematic structure as evidenced by similar values of the order parameter, while reducing the maximum thermomechanical deformations. Remote and reversible deformations of the magnetic LCEs were achieved through the application of alternating magnetic fields, which induces the nematic-isotropic phase transition through nanoparticle heat generation. Formulation parameters can be modified to allow for remote actuation at values closer to the human physiological temperature range and within the range of deformations that can affect the cellular behavior of fibroblasts. Finally, a collagen surface treatment was performed to improve compatibility with NIH-3T3 fibroblast cultures, which enabled the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts on substrates with and without magnetic particles under quiescent conditions. The LCEs developed in this work, which are able to deform and experience stress changes by remote contact-less magnetic stimulation, may allow for further studies on the effect of substrate morphology changes and dynamic mechanical properties during in vitro cell culture.

  3. "Social marketing, individual responsibility and the “culture of intoxication”"

    OpenAIRE

    Szmigin, Isabelle; Griffin, C; Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, A; Mistral, W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – Social marketing initiatives designed to address the UK’s culture of unhealthy levels of drinking among young adults have achieved inconclusive results to date. The paper aims toinvestigate the gap between young people’s perceptions of alcohol consumption and those of government agencies who seek to influence their behaviour set within a contextualist framework. Design/methodology/approach – The authors present empirical evidence from a major study that suggests that the ...

  4. Investigating Apology Response Strategies in Australian English and Bahasa Indonesia: Gender and Cultural Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrefiza; Jones, Jeremy F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on apologies have proliferated in pragmatics research, but little research has been conducted on apology responses (ARs). The present inquiry contributes to filling the gap in the literature, and it does so by examining such responses in two languages, Australian English (AE) and Bahasa Indonesia (BI). The study ultimately focuses on two…

  5. Consumers' perceptions of corporate social responsibilities : A cross-cultural comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maignan, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Based on a consumer survey conducted in France, Germany, and the U.S., the study investigates consumers' readiness to support socially responsible organizations and examines their evaluations of the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities of the firm. French and German consumers

  6. The importance of socio-cultural differences and of pathway analysis for understanding local actors' responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Dietz, A.J.; Ruben, R.; Verhagen, A.

    2004-01-01

    The enormous diversity of responses to the drought conditions in the Sahel in the last thirty years makes it difficult to formulate general conclusions about people's responses to climate change. It is important to study the pathways of decisionmaking units at the micro-level and even at individual

  7. Identification and expression analysis of methyl jasmonate responsive ESTs in paclitaxel producing Taxus cuspidata suspension culture cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Sangram K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxol® (paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and stabilization and therefore is a potent chemotherapeutic agent against wide range of cancers. Methyl jasmonate (MJ elicited Taxus cell cultures provide a sustainable option to meet the growing market demand for paclitaxel. Despite its increasing pharmaceutical importance, the molecular genetics of paclitaxel biosynthesis is not fully elucidated. This study focuses on identification of MJ responsive transcripts in cultured Taxus cells using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to identify genes involved in global pathway control. Results Six separate SSH cDNA libraries of paclitaxel-accumulating Taxus cuspidata P991 cell lines were constructed at three different post-elicitation time points (6h, 18h and 5 day to identify genes that are either induced or suppressed in response to MJ. Sequencing of 576 differentially screened clones from the SSH libraries resulted in 331 unigenes. Functional annotation and Gene Ontology (GO analysis of up-regulated EST libraries showed enrichment of several known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes and novel transcripts that may be involved in MJ-signaling, taxane transport, or taxane degradation. Macroarray analysis of these identified genes unravelled global regulatory expression of these transcripts. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a set of 12 candidate genes further confirmed the MJ-induced gene expression in a high paclitaxel accumulating Taxus cuspidata P93AF cell line. Conclusions This study elucidates the global temporal expression kinetics of MJ responsive genes in Taxus suspension cell culture. Functional characterization of the novel genes identified in this study will further enhance the understanding of paclitaxel biosynthesis, taxane transport and degradation.

  8. Dedifferentiation of intrinsic response properties of motoneurons in organotypic cultures of the spinal cord of the adult turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Noraberg, J; Simon, M;

    2000-01-01

    action potentials was also preserved as was delayed inward rectification and generation of calcium spikes in the presence of tetra-ethyl ammonium (TEA). In response to depolarization, however, motoneurons presented strong outward rectification, and only 41% of the cells recorded from maintained...... the ability to fire repetitively. By the second week in culture, a fraction of motoneurons displayed fast and slow transient outward rectification and low-threshold calcium spikes, features not seen in turtle motoneurons in acute slices. On the other hand, properties mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels...

  9. Cytology Studies on Anther Development of Male Sterile Materials 'Ms2008076' in Cabbage%甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076花药发育的细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆林; 任雪松; 李成琼

    2011-01-01

    对甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076的花药发育过程进行了石蜡切片和显微观察.结果表明:Ms2008076花药败育主要发生在花粉母细胞时期,表现为绒毡层细胞发育异常,花粉母细胞迅速退化以至解体,花药败育.%Microscopic observations on anther development process of male sterile materials ‘Ms2008076' in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. ) showed that ‘Ms2008076' anther development was hindered at the stage of pollen mother cell differentiation. The main characteristic is that the tapetal cells developed abnormally and pollen mother cell de-gradated rapidly to disintegrate with the ultimate result that the anthers were abortive absolutely.

  10. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  11. The Host Response to a Clinical MDR Mycobacterial Strain Cultured in a Detergent-Free Environment: A Global Transcriptomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisching, Gina; Pietersen, Ray-Dean; Mpongoshe, Vuyiseka; van Heerden, Carel; van Helden, Paul; Wiid, Ian; Baker, Bienyameen

    2016-01-01

    During Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection, the initial interactions between the pathogen and the host cell determines internalization and innate immune response events. It is established that detergents such as Tween alter the mycobacterial cell wall and solubilize various lipids and proteins. The implication of this is significant since induced changes on the cell wall affect macrophage uptake and the immune response to M.tb. Importantly, during transmission between hosts, aerosolized M.tb enters the host in its native form, i.e. in a detergent-free environment, thus in vitro and in vivo studies should mimic this as closely as possible. To this end, we have optimized a procedure for growing and processing detergent-free M.tb and assessed the response of murine macrophages (BMDM) infected with multi drug-resistant M.tb (R179 Beijing 220 clinical isolate) using RNAseq. We compared the effects of the host response to M.tb cultured under standard laboratory conditions (Tween 80 containing medium -R179T), or in detergent-free medium (R179NT). RNAseq comparisons reveal 2651 differentially expressed genes in BMDMs infected with R179T M.tb vs. BMDMs infected with R179NT M.tb. A range of differentially expressed genes involved in BMDM receptor interaction with M.tb (Mrc1, Ifngr1, Tlr9, Fpr1 and Itgax) and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (Il6, Il1b, Tnf, Ccl5 and Cxcl14) were selected for analysis through qPCR. BMDMs infected with R179NT stimulate a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, R179NT M.tb induce transcription of Fpr1, a receptor which detects bacterial formyl peptides and initiates a myriad of immune responses. Additionally we show that the host components Cxcl14, with an unknown role in M.tb infection, and Tlr9, an emerging role player, are only stimulated by infection with R179NT M.tb. Taken together, our results suggest that the host response differs significantly in response to Tween 80 cultured M.tb and should therefore not be used in

  12. Antioxidant responses in Mesopodopsis zeylanica at varying salinity to detect mercury influence in culture ponds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Das, P.B.; Jena, K.; Maharana, D.; Desai, S.R.

    Antioxidant responses in the estuarine mysid, Mesopodopsis zeylanica, were used to assess mercury (Hg) metal contamination in relation to salinity. Natural mysids acclimatized at 5 psu were subjected to laboratory exposures of 5, 15, and 25 psu...

  13. SHAPING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE COOPERATING INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Werenowska, Tomasz Stankiewicz

    2011-01-01

    In the future managers will have to take into account in their everyday decision-making processes the values promoted by corporate social responsibility. Apart from the consideration of the problems related to the market, profitability, sources of financing, etc. much attention will have to be paid to economic, social and ecological results of business activities, so to the ideas that form the foundations of the concept of corporate social responsibility. However, if businesses are to apply a...

  14. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  15. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  16. Assessing Concordance of Drug-Induced Transcriptional Response in Rodent Liver and Cultured Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jeffrey J; Jolly, Robert A; Goldstein, Keith M; Stevens, James L

    2016-03-01

    The effect of drugs, disease and other perturbations on mRNA levels are studied using gene expression microarrays or RNA-seq, with the goal of understanding molecular effects arising from the perturbation. Previous comparisons of reproducibility across laboratories have been limited in scale and focused on a single model. The use of model systems, such as cultured primary cells or cancer cell lines, assumes that mechanistic insights derived from the models would have been observed via in vivo studies. We examined the concordance of compound-induced transcriptional changes using data from several sources: rat liver and rat primary hepatocytes (RPH) from Drug Matrix (DM) and open TG-GATEs (TG), human primary hepatocytes (HPH) from TG, and mouse liver/HepG2 results from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. Gene expression changes for treatments were normalized to controls and analyzed with three methods: 1) gene level for 9071 high expression genes in rat liver, 2) gene set analysis (GSA) using canonical pathways and gene ontology sets, 3) weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Co-expression networks performed better than genes or GSA when comparing treatment effects within rat liver and rat vs. mouse liver. Genes and modules performed similarly at Connectivity Map-style analyses, where success at identifying similar treatments among a collection of reference profiles is the goal. Comparisons between rat liver and RPH, and those between RPH, HPH and HepG2 cells reveal lower concordance for all methods. We observe that the baseline state of untreated cultured cells relative to untreated rat liver shows striking similarity with toxicant-exposed cells in vivo, indicating that gross systems level perturbation in the underlying networks in culture may contribute to the low concordance. PMID:27028627

  17. Assessing Concordance of Drug-Induced Transcriptional Response in Rodent Liver and Cultured Hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Sutherland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drugs, disease and other perturbations on mRNA levels are studied using gene expression microarrays or RNA-seq, with the goal of understanding molecular effects arising from the perturbation. Previous comparisons of reproducibility across laboratories have been limited in scale and focused on a single model. The use of model systems, such as cultured primary cells or cancer cell lines, assumes that mechanistic insights derived from the models would have been observed via in vivo studies. We examined the concordance of compound-induced transcriptional changes using data from several sources: rat liver and rat primary hepatocytes (RPH from Drug Matrix (DM and open TG-GATEs (TG, human primary hepatocytes (HPH from TG, and mouse liver / HepG2 results from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO repository. Gene expression changes for treatments were normalized to controls and analyzed with three methods: 1 gene level for 9071 high expression genes in rat liver, 2 gene set analysis (GSA using canonical pathways and gene ontology sets, 3 weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA. Co-expression networks performed better than genes or GSA when comparing treatment effects within rat liver and rat vs. mouse liver. Genes and modules performed similarly at Connectivity Map-style analyses, where success at identifying similar treatments among a collection of reference profiles is the goal. Comparisons between rat liver and RPH, and those between RPH, HPH and HepG2 cells reveal lower concordance for all methods. We observe that the baseline state of untreated cultured cells relative to untreated rat liver shows striking similarity with toxicant-exposed cells in vivo, indicating that gross systems level perturbation in the underlying networks in culture may contribute to the low concordance.

  18. Age and dose related alteration of in vitro mixed lymphocyte culture response of blood lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to allogenic antigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was measured in 139 atomic-bomb survivors. The study revealed a significant decrease in MLC response with increasing dose of previous radiation exposure. This decline was marked in the survivors who were older than 15 at the time of the bomb (ATB). The results suggest a possible relationship between the recovery of T-cell-related function and the thymic function which processes mature T cells for the immune system. Thus it may be that in the advanced age ATB group, the thymus function had started to involute, allowing less recovery of T-cell function compared to young survivors who had adequate processing T-cell activity

  19. Responsiveness of fetal rat brain cells to glia maturation factor during neoplastic transformation in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, A; Laerum, O D; Bock, E

    1981-01-01

    The effect of partially purified extracts from adult pig brains containing a glia maturation protein factor (BE) has been investigated on neural cells during carcinogenesis. Pregnant BD IX-rats were given a single transplacental dose of the carcinogen ethylnitrosourea (EtNU) on the 18th day...... of gestation. The brains of the treated fetuses were transferred to cell culture and underwent neoplastic transformation with a characteristic sequence of phenotypic alterations which could be divided into five different stages. During the first 40 days after explantation (stage I & II) BE induced...

  20. Investigating organizational culture adaptability of broadcasting firm in response to environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Salehi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to study the present status of organizational adaptability in Iranian broadcasting system against environmental changes and present possible suggestions to empower the organization to cope with future changes. The study uses the method developed by Denison (1990 [Denison, D. R. (1990. Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons.] to study the organizational changes. Using a sample of 354 randomly selected employees who worked for this organization, the study has determined that the level of organizational adaptability was less than desirable level and the firm needs to make necessary actions to better cope with environmental change.

  1. Characterization of [Ca2+]i responses in primary cultures of mouse cardiomyocytes induced by Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R Garzoni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease, employs distinct strategies to invade mammalian host cells. In the present work we investigated the participation of calcium ions on the invasion process using primary cultures of embryonic mice cardiomyocytes which exhibit spontaneous contraction in vitro. Using Fura 2-AM we found that T. cruzi was able to induce a sustained increase in basal intracellular Ca2+ level in heart muscle cells (HMC, the response being associated or not with Ca2+ transient peaks. Assays performed with both Y and CL strains indicated that the changes in intracellular Ca2+ started after parasites contacted with the cardiomyocytes and the evoked response was higher than the Ca2+ signal associated to the spontaneous contractions. The possible role of the extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ levels on T. cruzi invasion process was evaluated using the extracellular Ca2+ chelator EGTA alone or in association with the calcium ionophore A23187. Significant dose dependent inhibition of the invasion levels were found when intracellular calcium release was prevented by the association of EGTA +A23187 in calcium free medium. Dose response experiments indicated that EGTA 2.5 mM to 5 mM decreased the invasion level by 15.2 to 35.1% while A23187 (0.5 µM alone did not induce significant effects (17%; treatment of the cultures with the protease inhibitor leupeptin did not affect the endocytic index, thus arguing against the involvement of leupeptin sensitive proteases in the invasion of HMC.

  2. Effects of culture conditions on estrogen-mediated hepatic in vitro gene expression and correlation to in vivo responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refinement of in vitro systems for predictive toxicology is important in order to develop high-throughput early toxicity screening assays and to minimize animal testing studies. This study assesses the ability of mouse Hepa-1c1c7 hepatoma cell model under differing culture conditions to predict in vivo estrogen-induced hepatic gene expression changes. Custom mouse cDNA microarrays were used to compare Hepa-1c1c7 temporal gene expression profiles treated with 10 nM 17β-estradiol (E2) in serum-free and charcoal-stripped serum supplemented media at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Stripped serum supplemented media increased the number gene expression changes and overall responsiveness likely due to the presence of serum factors supporting proliferation and mitochondrial activity. Data from both experiments were compared to a gene expression time course study examining the hepatic effects of 100 μg/kg 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE) in C57BL/6 mice at 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h. Only 18 genes overlapped between the serum-free and in vivo studies, whereas 238 genes were in common between Hepa-1c1c7 cells in stripped serum data and C57BL/6 liver samples. Stripped serum cultured cells exhibited E2-elicited gene expression changes associated with proliferation, cytoskeletal re-organization, cholesterol uptake and synthesis, increased fatty acid β-oxidation, and oxidative stress, which correlated with in vivo hepatic responses. These results demonstrate that E2 treatment of Hepa-1c1c7 cells in serum supplemented media modulate responses in selected pathways which appropriately model estrogen-elicited in vivo hepatic responses

  3. Studies of the in vitro selection of novel disease resistant plants and mutagenesis of cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera cv Primor which had been regenerated from secondary embryoids were found to be more susceptible to Leptosphaeria maculans than those grown from seed, but were generally more resistant to Alternaria brassicicola. In vitro selection of secondary embryoids on medium containing toxic filtrates of A. brassicicola did not result in significantly higher levels of resistance to the pathogen, and in the case of L. maculans, the plants were found to be more susceptible after the selection steps. When tissues were challenged with pycnidiospores of L. maculans it was possible to define growth conditions in which differential reactions correlated with in vivo responses. Studies on in vitro mutagenesis revealed that low doses of gamma rays enhanced the production of anther embryoids, although, whereas both gamma and X-rays reduced the regeneration capacity of treated tissues, irradiation with UV did not. Increased resistance to A. brassicicola was detected in doubled haploid plants following a seed treatment with EMS and from microspore culture following UV irradiation. In vitro studies of Helianthus annuus and Macrophomina phaseolina, and Zea mays and Fusarium moniliforme are also reported. (author). 28 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Biochemical analysis of the response in rat bone marrow cell cultures to mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, T; Peel, S A; Gladstone, J R; Davies, J E

    1997-01-01

    Bone marrow cells obtained from rat femora were subjected to primary culture with 15% fetal bovine serum in the presence of 10(-8) M dexamethasone, and following trypsin treatment 5 days later were seeded on Petriperm dishes which have a flexible bottom. After a 2-day subculture, a cyclic stress consisting of a 1 s stretch (0.3% strain. 0.5 Hz) and a 1 s relaxation for 30 min every day was started. Culture tissue was removed on day 2 of the subculture (immediately prior to start of stimulation), and then on days 5 and 8 (3 and 6 days after the start of stimulation, respectively), at which times dry weight, DNA, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bone Gla protein (BGP, osteocalcin) were measured. Both the dry weight and DNA showed a significant increase in the stimulated group by day 8, while the ALP activity showed a significant increase by day 5. The BGP began to increase in the stimulated group on day 5 in contrast to the control group in which it only increased on day 8. These results support the contention that mechanical stimulation promotes the differentiation of osteogenic cells and enhances bone formation. Since in this experimental model the acceleration of bone formation by mechanical stimulation can be reproduced in vitro, it is extremely useful for investigating the mechanisms underlying mechanical stimulation. PMID:9622104

  5. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Oliveira Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides. The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides. The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times (p <0.05 in soils with glucose and inoculated with the fungi (except F. verticillioides, in relation to soil without glucose. Amylase activity increased 1.3 to 1.5 times due to the addition of glucose in the soil. Increased amylase activity was observed in the DRL soil with glucose and inoculated with A. flavus and Penicillium sp. when compared to control.

  6. Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca in culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, mature body size and first clutch size decreased, as temperature increased, with only minor body size variability at mortality, regardless of culture origin. No variation in individual egg size was observed, demonstrating that body size is sacrificed to produce at least a few normal eggs during unfavourable years. Latitudinal variation in hatching temperature demonstrated a pattern of adaptive significance, with some overlap between regional temperature hatching cues.  Phenotypic hatching temperature and growth rate responses may cause genetic segregation, selecting one cohort for warmer, dryer years and one cohort for cooler, wetter years.  Drier year selected cohorts can exploit habitats that have shorter hydroperiods even in wet years. This may lead to population specialisation and speciation by adapting to more extreme habitats

  7. Fed-batch culture of Escherichia coli for L-valine production based on in silico flux response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwan; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-04-01

    We have previously reported the development of a 100% genetically defined engineered Escherichia coli strain capable of producing L-valine from glucose with a high yield of 0.38 g L-valine per gram glucose (0.58 mol L-valine per mol glucose) by batch culture. Here we report a systems biological strategy of employing flux response analysis in bioprocess development using L-valine production by fed-batch culture as an example. Through the systems-level analysis, the source of ATP was found to be important for efficient L-valine production. There existed a trade-off between L-valine production and biomass formation, which was optimized for the most efficient L-valine production. Furthermore, acetic acid feeding strategy was optimized based on flux response analysis. The final fed-batch cultivation strategy allowed production of 32.3 g/L L-valine, the highest concentration reported for E. coli. This approach of employing systems-level analysis of metabolic fluxes in developing fed-batch cultivation strategy would also be applicable in developing strategies for the efficient production of other bioproducts.

  8. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal K. Nath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0 and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution, whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.

  9. Metabolic response of lung cancer cells to radiation in a paper-based 3D cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Karen A; Mosadegh, Bobak; Minn, Kyaw Thu; Lockett, Matthew R; Mohammady, Marym R; Boucher, Diane M; Hall, Amy B; Hillier, Shawn M; Udagawa, Taturo; Eustace, Brenda K; Whitesides, George M

    2016-07-01

    This work demonstrates the application of a 3D culture system-Cells-in-Gels-in-Paper (CiGiP)-in evaluating the metabolic response of lung cancer cells to ionizing radiation. The 3D tissue-like construct-prepared by stacking multiple sheets of paper containing cell-embedded hydrogels-generates a gradient of oxygen and nutrients that decreases monotonically in the stack. Separating the layers of the stack after exposure enabled analysis of the cellular response to radiation as a function of oxygen and nutrient availability; this availability is dictated by the distance between the cells and the source of oxygenated medium. As the distance between the cells and source of oxygenated media increased, cells show increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, decreased proliferation, and reduced sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Each of these cellular responses are characteristic of cancer cells observed in solid tumors. With this setup we were able to differentiate three isogenic variants of A549 cells based on their metabolic radiosensitivity; these three variants have known differences in their metastatic behavior in vivo. This system can, therefore, capture some aspects of radiosensitivity of populations of cancer cells related to mass-transport phenomenon, carry out systematic studies of radiation response in vitro that decouple effects from migration and proliferation of cells, and regulate the exposure of oxygen to subpopulations of cells in a tissue-like construct either before or after irradiation. PMID:27116031

  10. Responses of neotropical mangrove seedlings grown in monoculture and mixed culture under treatments of hydroperiod and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, P.; Twilley, R.R.; Krauss, K.W.; Rivera-Monroy, V.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of salinity and hydroperiod on seedlings of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa grown under experimental conditions of monoculture and mixed culture by using a simulated tidal system. The objective was to test hypotheses relative to species interactions to either tidal or permanent flooding at salinities of 10 or 40 g/l. Four-month-old seedlings were experimentally manipulated under these environmental conditions in two types of species interactions: (1) seedlings of the same species were grown separately in containers from September 2000 to August 2001 to evaluate intraspecific response and (2) seedlings of each species were mixed in containers to evaluate interspecific, competitive responses from August 2002 to April 2003. Overall, L. racemosa was strongly sensitive to treatment combinations while R. mangle showed little effect. Most plant responses of L. racemosa were affected by both salinity and hydroperiod, with hydroperiod inducing more effects than salinity. Compared to R. mangle, L. racemosa in all treatment combinations had higher relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, stem elongation, total length of branches, net primary production, and stem height. Rhizophora mangle had higher biomass allocation to roots. Species growth differentiation was more pronounced at low salinity, with few species differences at high salinity under permanent flooding. These results suggest that under low to mild stress by hydroperiod and salinity, L. racemosa exhibits responses that favor its competitive dominance over R. mangle. This advantage, however, is strongly reduced as stress from salinity and hydroperiod increase. ?? Springer 2006.

  11. Tourism communication: the translator’s responsibility in the translation of cultural difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Agorni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourist discourse can be considered as a specialised type of cross-cultural communication. The subject of this work is the degree of intervention translators are asked to exercise in order to achieve successful communication. Their task is not that of demonstrating their knowledge on specifi c subjects, as, rather, their capacity of mediating it, so as to make it available to a type of tourist who is necessarily different from that targeted by the original work. Hence, translators should learn to dose the amount of information tourists will be able to take in. Theoretical assumptions will be illustrated by means of a comparison between a tourist text in Italian and its translation into English. It will be demonstrated that translators’ decisions at linguistic and explanatory level allow a more or less substantial degree of reader involvement, and consequently affect the promotion of tourist destinations.

  12. Response of porcine hepatocytes in primary culture to plasma from severe viral hepatitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Bo Cheng; Ying-Jie Wang; Shi-Chang Zhang; Jun Liu; Zhi Chen; Jia-Jia Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of plasma from patients with severe viral hepatitis (SVHP) on the growth and metabolism of porcine hepatocytes and the clinical efficiency of bioartificial liver device.METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male porcines by collagenase perfusion. The synthesis of DNA and total protein, leakages of AST and LDH, changes in glutathione (GSH), catalase and morphology of porcine hepatocytes exposed to SVHP were investigated to indicate the effect of plasma from patients with severe hepatitis on the growth, injury, detoxification, and morphology of porcine hepatocytes.RESULTS: The synthesis of DNA and protein was inhibited in the medium containing 100% SVHP compared to the controls. The leakages of LDH and AST increased in porcine hepatocytes following exposure to 100% SVHP for 5 h. The difference between 100% SVHP and 10% newborn calf serum (NCS) was significant in t-test (LDH: t = 24.552, P = 0.001; AST: t = 4.169, P =0.014). After exposure to SVHP for 24 h, alterations in GSH status were significant (F = 2.746, P<0.05) between porcine hepatocytes in 100% SVHP and 10% NCS, but no alteration occurred in the culture medium after 48 h (F = 4.378, P<0.05). A similar profile was observed in catalase activity. Many round vacuoles were observed in porcine hepatocytes cultured in SVHP. The membranes of these cells became indistinct and almost all the cells died on d 5.CONCLUSION: Plasma from patients with severe hepatitis inhibits the growth, injures membrane, disturbs GSH homeostasis and induces morphological changes of porcine hepatocytes. It is suggested that SVHP should be pretreated to reduce the toxin load and improve the performance of porcine hepatocytes in extracorporeal liver-support devices.

  13. Science in Hawaii/Haawina Hoopapau: A Culturally Responsive Curriculum Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, L. M.; Roberts, K.; Leake, D. W.; Stodden, R. S.; Crabbe, V.

    2005-12-01

    The marvels of modern science often fail to engage indigenous students, as the content and instructional style are usually rooted in the Western experience. This 3 year project, funded by the US Dept. of Education for the Education of Native Hawaiians, offers a curriculum that teaches science through (rather than just about) Native Hawaiian culture. The curriculum focuses on the interdependence of natural resources in our ahupuaa, or watersheds, and helps students strengthen their sense of place and self to malama i ka aina, to care for the land. Further, the curriculum is designed to: engage students in scientific study with relevant, interesting content and activities; improve student achievement of state department of education standards; increase student knowledge and skills in science, math and language arts; respond to the learning needs of Native Hawaiian and/or at-risk students. The project will be presented by a curriculum writer who created and adapted more than a year's worth of materials by teaming with kupuna (respected elders), local cultural experts and role models, educators (new, veteran, Hawaiian, non-Hawaiian, mainland, general and special education teachers), and professionals at the Center on Disability Studies at the University of Hawaii and ALU LIKE, Inc, a non-profit organization to assist Native Hawaiians. The materials created thus far are available for viewing at: www.scihi.hawaii.edu The curriculum, designed for grades 8-11 science classes, can be used to teach a year-long course, a unit, or single lesson related to astronomy, biology, botany, chemistry, geology, oceanography, physical and environmental sciences. This project is in its final year of field testing, polishing and dissemination, and therefore this session will encourage idea sharing, as does our copyright free Web site.

  14. Typical Responses in Giving Evaluation: An Analysis of High and Low Context Culture Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferany Arifin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing high and low context in responses given by the students to evaluate their friend’s impromptu speech performance. The study focuses on the characteristics of high and low context represented specifically on (1 direct-indirect (2 simple-complex response, and (3 relationship orientation. The study is based on the analysis of ten responses given by ten students with different sexes. Classroom observation followed by transcription analysis is used. The data were collected naturally at undergraduate campus. The result shows that using indirect and complex responses can maintain harmonious relationship with others. The basic asumption is that the students tend to communicate in high level context. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membahas konteks tinggi dan rendah dalam mengevaluasi performansi pidato tanpa persiapan temannya. Penelitian ini memusatkan perhatian pada ciri konteks tinggi dan rendah yang direpresentasikan oleh (1 tanggapan langsung-tak langsung (2 sederhana-kompleks, dan (3 orientasi hubungan. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada sepuluh tanggapan yang diberikan oleh sepuluh mahasiswa pria dan wanita. Pengamatan kelas yang diikuti dengan analisis transkripsi digunakan untuk pengumpulan data. Data dikumpulkan di kampus diploma. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa siswa cenderung menggunakan tanggapan kompleks dan tak langsung agar dapat menjaga keharmonisan hubungan dengan temannya. Oleh karena itu asumsi dasarnya adalah bahwa siswa cenderung berkomunikasi dalam konteks level tinggi.

  15. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Preschool Teacher Cognitions and Responses to Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural…

  16. Transcriptional Responses of Bacillus cereus towards Challenges with the Polysaccharide Chitosan : Direct Dating, Culture and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellegard, Hilde; Kovacs, Akos T.; Lindback, Toril; Christensen, Bjorn E.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Granum, Per E.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the polysaccharide chitosan towards different bacterial species has been extensively documented. The response mechanisms of bacteria exposed to this biopolymer and the exact molecular mechanism of action, however, have hardly been investigated. This paper reports the tr

  17. Cultural Transferability of Socially Responsible Leadership: Findings from the United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, John P.; Rossetti Morosini, Ana M.; Beazley, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in students' capacities for socially responsible leadership as well as significant predictors of its development at a higher education institution in Mexico as compared with US schools. Results revealed that Mexican students both entered and left college with significantly…

  18. Structure, Ultrastructure of the Anther, Pollen Microsporogenesis and Morphology of Pollen Grains of Two Populations of Lygeum spartum L. in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Abdeddaim-Boughanmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Lygeum spartum L. represented by a single species occupies several regions of the Mediterranean basin. This plant plays an important ecological role in the fight against desertification and economic development in the manufacture of paper pulp. Approach: However, the cytogenetic studies in mitosis in this species revealed the existence of two ploidy levels: 2n = 40 among the population grows in the coastal region of Oran in the semi-arid climate and 2n = 16 in the high plateaus characterized by an arid climate. Results: The study of the anther, pollen grains and the meiotic division conducted on these two populations of Lygeum spartum L. growing in the two regions has confirmed these data in that the microscopic observations were used to determine the ultrastructure of the anther, the shape and size of pollen grains which morphometric data (L/W showed significant difference between the two populations. The microsporogenesis was followed on the mother cells of pollen grains in order to understand the formation of tetrads, then the enumeration of chromosomes was carried out in diakinesis (n = 20 for the coastal population of Oran and metaphase I (n = 8 for the population of the high plateaus. Conclusion/Recommendations: These results were consistent with what has been observed in mitosis, which suggested that the Lygeum spartum L. may submit two cytotypes to adapt to different geographical and climatic environments.

  19. Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Elyasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for Callus Growth Rate (CGR, Relative Fresh Weight Growth (RFWG, Relative Growth Rate (RGR and Percentage of Callus Induction (PCI indicating the presence of genetic variability, different responses of bread wheat genotypes to callus induction and possible selection of callus induction at in vitro level using immature embryos. Mean comparison of the traits measured in callus induction showed that genotypes 1 and 6 had the highest PCI (100%. Analysis of variance for CGR, RFWG and RGR, Relative Water Content (RWC, Percent of Callus Chlorosis (PCC and Proline Content (PC exhibited significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters in the stress condition (15% PEG. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes (6, (19 and (1 as the most drought tolerant.

  20. The university as an encounter for deliberative communication - creating cultural citizenship and professional responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Englund

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available How can higher and professional education contribute to the development of responsible citizenship and professional responsibility? In recent discussions on the role of the educational system, the idea of “deliberative communication” has been brought into focus and stands for communication in which different opinions and values can be set against each other in educational settings. It implies an endeavour by each individual to develop his or her view by listening, deliberating, seeking arguments and valuing, coupled to a collective and cooperative endeavour to find values and norms which everyone can accept, at the same time as pluralism is acknowledged. Within higher education deliberative communication might explicitly be used to develop professional responsibility and analysing consequences of different ways of solving problems. To what extent are and can universities become public spaces for encounters dealing with controversial questions of how to solve different problems and analyse different ways of professional acting? Can universities recreate their selective traditions, “institutionalize dissensus”, and “make the university a site of public debate” through deliberative communication?

  1. 高校图书馆文化责任及其实现%Discussion on Cultural Responsibility of Academic Library and Its Realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢婧

    2015-01-01

    信息时代,高校图书馆越来越多地参与到国家文化建设和提高全民族文化素养的任务之中。文章从文化积累、文化整合、文化传播、文化教育等方面阐述了高校图书馆文化责任的内容,提出了实现高校图书馆文化责任的策略与途径。%Academic library is playing an increasingly important role in the culture construction in China and the improvement of the cultural accomplishment of the w hole nation in the information age .From the perspectives of cultural accumulation ,cultural integration ,cultural transmission and cultural edu‐cation ,this paper introduces the content of cultural responsibility of academic library ,and proposes the implementation way of promoting the cultural responsibility of academic library .

  2. Hydrogen peroxide formation in cultured rose cells in response to UV-C radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspension-cultured rose (Rosa damascena Mill. cv. Gloire de Guilan) cells irradiated with UV-C (254 nm. 558 J m−2) showed a transient production of H2O2 as measured by chemiluminescence of luminol in the presence of peroxidase (EC 1.1 1.1.7). The peak concentration of H2O2, which occurred at about 60–90 min after irradiation, was 8–9 μM. The time course for the appearance of H2O2 matched that for UV–induced K+ efflux. Treatments that inhibited the UV-induced efflux of K+, including heat and overnight incubation with cycloheximide and diethylmaleate, also inhibited the appearance of H2O2. The converse was not always true, since catalase (EC 1.11.1.6. and salicylhydroxamic acid, which inhibited luminescence, did not stop K+ efflux. We conclude that H2O2 synthesis depends on K+ efflux. Because H2O2 in the extracellular space is required for lignin synthesis in many plant tissues, we suggest that the UV–stimulated production of H2O2 is an integral part of a defensive lignin synthesis. (author)

  3. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Defense/Stress Responses Activated by Chitosan in Sycamore Cultured Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Malerba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CHT is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L. cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO. We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation.

  4. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in defense/stress responses activated by chitosan in sycamore cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Massimo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2015-01-29

    Chitosan (CHT) is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation.

  5. Toxicity monitoring with primary cultured hepatocytes underestimates the acetaminophen-induced inflammatory responses of the mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Shinjiro; Shimomura, Akiko; Inadera, Hidekuni

    2011-01-01

    In vitro gene expression profiling with isolated hepatocytes has been used to assess the hepatotoxicity of certain chemicals because of animal welfare issues. However, whether an in vitro system can completely replace the in vivo system has yet to be elucidated in detail. Using a focused microarray established in our laboratory, we examined gene expression profiles in the mouse liver and primary cultured hepatocytes after treatment with different doses of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic that frequently causes liver injury. The acute hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen was confirmed by showing the induction of an oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1, elevated levels of serum transaminase, and histopathological findings. In vivo microarray and network analysis showed that acetaminophen treatment provoked alterations in relation to the inflammatory response, and that tumor necrosis factor-α plays a central role in related pathway alterations. By contrast, pathway analyses in in vitro isolated hepatocytes did not find such prominent changes in the inflammation-related networks compared with the in vivo situation. Thus, although in vitro gene expression profiles are useful for evaluating the direct toxicity of chemicals, indirect toxicities including inflammatory responses mediated by cell-cell interactions or secondary toxicity due to pathophysiological changes in the whole body may be overlooked. Our results indicate that the in vitro hepatotoxicity prediction system using isolated hepatocytes does not fully reflect the in vivo cellular response. An in vitro system may be appropriate, therefore, for high throughput screening to detect the direct hepatotoxicity of a test compound.

  6. Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Mykyta V., E-mail: sokolovm@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Irina V., E-mail: ipanyutinv@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Igor G., E-mail: igorp@helix.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Neumann, Ronald D., E-mail: rneumann@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

  7. Hormone responsiveness of cultured Sertoli cells obtained from adult rats after their rapid isolation under less harsh conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M; Bhattacharya, I; Devi, Y S; Arya, S P; Majumdar, S S

    2016-05-01

    During adulthood, testicular Sertoli cells (Sc) coordinate all stages of germ cell (Gc) development involved in sperm production. However, our understanding about the functions of adult Sc is limited because of the difficulties involved in the process of isolating these cells from the adult testis, mainly because of the presence of large number of advanced Gc which interfere with Sc isolation at this age. Most of our knowledge about Sc function are derived from studies which used pre-pubertal rat Sc (18 ± 2-day old) as it is easy to isolate and culture Sc at this age. To this end, we established a less time consuming and less harsh procedure of isolating Sc from adult (60 days of age) rat testis for facilitating research on Sc-mediated regulation of spermatogenesis during adulthood. The cells were isolated using collagenase digestion at higher temperature, reducing the exposure time of cells to the enzyme. Step-wise digestion with intermittent removal of small clusters of tissue helped in increasing the yield of Sc. Isolated Sc were cultured and treated with FSH and testosterone (T) to evaluate their hormone responsiveness in terms of lactate, E2 , cAMP production. Adult Sc were found to be active and produced high amounts of lactate in a FSH-independent manner. FSH-mediated augmentation of cAMP and E2 production by adult Sc was less as compared with that by pre-pubertal Sc obtained from 18-day-old rats. Androgen-binding ability of adult Sc was significantly higher than pre-pubertal Sc. Although T treatment remarkably augmented expression of Claudin 11, it failed to augment lactate production by adult Sc. This efficient and rapid procedure for isolation and culture of functionally viable adult rat Sertoli cells may pave the way for determining their role in regulation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. PMID:26991307

  8. Recombinant bromelain production in Escherichia coli: process optimization in shake flask culture by response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Muntari, Bala; Amid, Azura; Mel, Maizirwan; Jami, Mohammed S; Hamzah M. Salleh

    2012-01-01

    Bromelain, a cysteine protease with various therapeutic and industrial applications, was expressed in Escherichia coli, BL21-AI clone, under different cultivation conditions (post-induction temperature, L-arabinose concentration and post-induction period). The optimized conditions by response surface methodology using face centered central composite design were 0.2% (w/v) L-arabinose, 8 hr and 25°C. The analysis of variance coupled with larger value of R2 (0.989) showed that the quadratic mod...

  9. Growth Characteristics Modeling of Mixed Culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga Sahay Meena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different culture conditions viz. additional carbon and nitrogen content, inoculum size and age, temperature and pH of the mixed culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN. Kinetic growth models were fitted for the cultivations using a Fractional Factorial (FF design experiments for different variables. This novel concept of combining the optimization and modeling presented different optimal conditions for the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus growth from their one variable at-a-time (OVAT optimization study. Through these statistical tools, the product yield (cell mass of the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus was increased. Regression coefficients (R2 of both the statistical tools predicted that ANN was better than RSM and the regression equation was solved with the help of genetic algorithms (GA. The normalized percentage mean squared error obtained from the ANN and RSM models were 0.08 and 0.3%, respectively. The optimum conditions for the maximum biomass yield were at temperature 38°C, pH 6.5, inoculum volume 1.60 mL, inoculum age 30 h, carbon content 42.31% (w/v, and nitrogen content 14.20% (w/v. The results demonstrated a higher prediction accuracy of ANN compared to RSM.

  10. Tunicamycin-Induced Alterations in the Vasorelaxant Response in Organ-Cultured Superior Mesenteric Arteries of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ando, Makoto; Watanabe, Shun; Iguchi, Maika; Nagata, Mako; Kobayashi, Shota; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In cellular events, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has an important role in the development of various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, is known to be an inducer of ER stress. However, the extent to which tunicamycin affects the vasorelaxant function is not completely understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of tunicamycin on relaxations induced by various vasorelaxant agents, including acetylcholine (ACh; endothelium-dependent vasodilator), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; endothelium-independent vasodilator), isoprenaline (ISO; beta-adrenoceptor agonist), forskolin (FSK; adenylyl cyclase activator), and cromakalim [ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel activator] in organ-cultured superior mesenteric arteries of rats, which are treated with either a vehicle [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] or tunicamycin (20 µg/mL for 22-24 h). Protein levels of the ER stress marker binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) were determined by Western blotting. Tunicamycin increased the expression of BiP in organ-cultured arteries. Tunicamycin impaired ACh-induced relaxation, but did not alter SNP-induced relaxation. Tunicamycin also impaired vasorelaxation induced by ISO, FSK, and cromakalim; moreover, it reduced basal nitric oxide (NO) formation. In conclusion, short-term treatment with tunicamycin not only caused endothelial dysfunction but also impaired cAMP- and KATP-mediated responses in the superior mesenteric arteries of rats. These alterations in tunicamycin-treated arteries may be due to reduced basal NO formation. This work provides new insight into ER stress in vascular dysfunction. PMID:27582328

  11. Influence of culture media on biofilm formation by Candida species and response of sessile cells to antifungals and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; López-Romero, Everardo; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient.

  12. Mechanisms of DNA damage response to targeted irradiation in organotypic 3D skin cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Acheva

    Full Text Available DNA damage (caused by direct cellular exposure and bystander signaling and the complex pathways involved in its repair are critical events underpinning cellular and tissue response following radiation exposures. There are limited data addressing the dynamics of DNA damage induction and repair in the skin particularly in areas not directly exposed. Here we investigate the mechanisms regulating DNA damage, repair, intracellular signalling and their impact on premature differentiation and development of inflammatory-like response in the irradiated and surrounding areas of a 3D organotypic skin model. Following localized low-LET irradiation (225 kVp X-rays, low levels of 53BP1 foci were observed in the 3D model (3.8±0.28 foci/Gy/cell with foci persisting and increasing in size up to 48 h post irradiation. In contrast, in cell monolayers 14.2±0.6 foci/Gy/cell and biphasic repair kinetics with repair completed before 24 h was observed. These differences are linked to differences in cellular status with variable level of p21 driving apoptotic signalling in 2D and accelerated differentiation in both the directly irradiated and bystander areas of the 3D model. The signalling pathways utilized by irradiated keratinocytes to induce DNA damage in non-exposed areas of the skin involved the NF-κB transcription factor and its downstream target COX-2.

  13. Response of Cultural Lake Eutrophication to Hemp-retting in Quidenham Mere of England in Post-Medieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiaoying; LI Shijie; SHEN Qing; XUE Jing

    2007-01-01

    To study the influence of human activity on natural lake, chironomid fauna change in the 700 560cm lake sediment in Quidenham Mere of England associated with chironomid inferred TP presented that the lake experienced a whole eutrophication process due to human hemp-retting in Post-Medieval based on the history record and pollen analysis, which was confirmed by mollusc and ostracod analysis. However, the response of chironomid and mollusc to retting was the strongest with ostracod a little behind. It proved that cultural eutrophication existed in history and could be recovered by itself despite of some long-term unachievable destroy. And it was most important for external nutrient to be cut off during lake restoration even in ancient times.

  14. ``Yo soy indígena'': identifying and using traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to make the teaching of science culturally responsive for Maya girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge—TEK—can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes the current situation of Maya women and girls in Guatemala and emphasizes the important need for educators to create science-learning opportunities that are culturally congruent. The author posits that when considering how to make the teaching and learning of science culturally responsive for Maya girls, educators must begin with the scientific knowledge inherent within Maya communities. Indigenous communities have a wealth of TEK that can be used to contextualize science curricula that can be purposely designed to meet the nuanced cultural needs of traditional Maya girls within and outside Guatemala.

  15. Response surface optimisation for acetone-butanol-ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of Clostridium butylicum and Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production from cassava starch was enhanced by a syntrophic co-culture of Clostridium butylicum TISTR 1032 and high amylase producing Bacillus subtilis WD 161 without anaerobic pretreatment. The production of amylase and ABE using this co-culture were respectively 16 and 6 times higher than those using the pure culture of C. butylicum TISTR 1032. The effect of the medium components on the performance of the co-culture was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. Among the investigated components, cassava starch and ammonium nitrate contributed a significant effect on the production of amylase and ABE, while yeast extract had less effect. Based on the optimum strategy using RSM, the ABE production by the co-culture was improved 2.2-fold compared with that obtained from the initial condition and with a minimum requirement of nitrogen source.

  16. Response of Cytoskeleton of Murine Osteoblast Cultures to Two-step Freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Lin LIU; John McGRATH

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the ultrastructural response of cells to the freezing process is important for designing cryopreservation strategies for cells and tissues. The cellular structures of attached cells are targets of cryopreservation-induced damage. Specific fluorescence staining was used to assess the status of the actin filaments (F-actin) of murine osteoblasts attached to hydroxyapatite discs and plastic coverslips for a two-step freezing process. The F-actin of dead cells was depolymerized and distorted in the freezing process,whereas that of live cells had little change. The results suggest that the cytoskeleton may support the robustness of cells during cryopreservation. The present study helps to investigate the damage mechanism of attached cells during the freezing process.

  17. Correlation of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses of fresh blood samples from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected heifers with responses of day-old samples co-cultured with IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2012-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of the intestine of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Early stage MAP infection can be detected by measuring cell-mediated immune responses using the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) assay. Whole blood samples are cultured...... to enhance IFN-γ responses of cultures stimulated with Johnin purified protein derivative (PPDj). Here we examined the correlation of IFN-γ production in response to PPDj and 15 recombinant antigens in day-old blood samples from heifers 10–21 months of age from a MAP infected herd with addition of either...

  18. Differential Response of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Roots and Leaves to Salinity in Soil and Hydroponic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu BAYRAM; Burcu SECKIN DINLER; Eda TASCI

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Volare) roots and leaves to salinity in different growth mediums (soil and hydroponic culture) through physiologic and biochemical analyses. The relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (CHL) content decreased with 300 mM NaCl treatment in both cultures but did not change with 150 mM treatment in soil culture. Similarly, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content did not change with 150 mM treatment in ...

  19. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  20. Inflammatory cytokine and microRNA responses of primary human dendritic cells cultured with Helicobacter pylori strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs eHocès De La Guardia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary human dendritic cells (DC were used to explore the inflammatory effectors, including cytokines and microRNAs, regulated by Helicobacter pylori. In a 48 h ex-vivo co-culture system, both H. pylori B38 and B45 strains activated human DCs and promoted a strong inflammatory response characterized by the early production of pro-inflammatory TNF and IL-6 cytokines, followed by IL-10, IL-1ß and IL-23 secretion. IL-23 was the only cytokine dependent on the cag pathogenicity island status of the bacterial strains. DC activation and cytokine production were accompanied by an early miR-146a upregulation followed by a strong miR-155 induction, which mainly controlled TNFα production. These results pave the way for further investigations into the nature of H. pylori antigens and the subsequently activated signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory response to H. pylori infection, the deregulation of which may likely contribute to gastric lymphomagenesis.

  1. Culturally Responsive Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program for Middle School Students in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Linda Toms; Chan, Vincent; Eucogco, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Pono Choices, a culturally responsive adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention program targeting middle school youths in Hawai‘i. Methods. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial with the school as the unit of random assignment over 3 semesters between 2012 and 2013. The sample consisted of 36 middle schools and 2203 students. We administered student surveys to collect baseline outcomes, student demographic data, and outcomes at 12 months after baseline. Results. We found statistically significant effects for the knowledge assessment, which focused on basic understanding of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention. The average percentage of correct responses was 73.6 for the treatment group and 60.4 for the control group (P < .001). We did not find statistically significant effects on behavioral outcomes (initiation of sexual activity or engagement in high-risk sexual behavior) or on other nonbehavioral outcomes (attitudes, skills, intentions). Conclusions. Pono Choices had a statistically significant impact on knowledge of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention among middle school students at 12 months after baseline, though it did not lead to detectable changes in behavioral outcomes within the 1-year observation period. These results call for an exploration of longer-term outcomes to assess effects on knowledge retention and behavioral changes. PMID:27689477

  2. Frequent biphasic cellular responses of permanent fish cell cultures to deoxynivalenol (DON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins is a major problem for fish feed mainly due to usage of contaminated ingredients for production and inappropriate storage of feed. The use of cereals for fish food production further increases the risk of a potential contamination. Potential contaminants include the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) which is synthesized by globally distributed fungi of the genus Fusarium. The toxicity of DON is well recognized in mammals. In this study, we confirm cytotoxic effects of DON in established permanent fish cell lines. We demonstrate that DON is capable of influencing the metabolic activity and cell viability in fish cells as determined by different assays to indicate possible cellular targets of this toxin. Evaluation of cell viability by measurement of membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and lysosomal function after 24 h of exposure of fish cell lines to DON at a concentration range of 0-3000 ng ml-1 shows a biphasic effect on cells although differences in sensitivity occur. The cell lines derived from rainbow trout are particularly sensitive to DON. The focus of this study lies, furthermore, on the effects of DON at different concentrations on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different fish cell lines. The results show that DON mainly reduces ROS production in all cell lines that were used. Thus, our comparative investigations reveal that the fish cell lines show distinct species-related endpoint sensitivities that also depend on the type of tissue from which the cells were derived and the severity of exposure. - Highlights: → DON uptake by cells is not extensive. → All fish cell lines are sensitive to DON. → DON is most cytotoxic to rainbow trout cells. → Biphasic cellular responses were frequently observed. → Our results are similar to studies on mammalian cell lines.

  3. Yield response of Bere, a Scottish barley landrace, to cultural practices and agricultural inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is very little documented about the response of cereal landraces to modern agricultural practices. Bere is a Scottish barley (Hordeum vulgare L. landrace which is grown in Orkney to supply meal for baking. A recent research programme has improved yields and the security of the Bere harvest, making it possible to supply a new market for grain to produce specialist whiskies. At the start of this research, a survey of Orkney farmers who had grown Bere since the 1980s showed that most had planted it at the traditional time in mid-May, used few inputs and considered the main constraints of the crop to be low yield (2.8 to 3.8 t/ha and susceptibility to lodging. Three years of trials in Orkney between 2003 and 2005 showed very significant increases in grain yield (17-76% and thousand grain weight from planting Bere earlier, in the second half of April. This also had the advantage of an earlier and more secure harvest. Yields showed smaller, but often significant, increases (5-11% from applying mineral fertiliser, growth regulator or fungicide, while combinations of growth regulator and fungicide increased yields from 10- 22%. In spite of usually increasing grain yield, growth regulator did not always control lodging. Although the use of inputs often increased the gross margins of growing Bere, a trial in 2005 showed that early planting was a more cost effective single intervention than either the use of fungicide or growth regulator. By increasing grower profits and reducing harvesting risks, these results have made it viable for more farmers to grow Bere in its region of origin, providing growers and end-users with additional income and contributing to the in situ conservation of this landrace.

  4. Biochemical and morphological responses to abiotc elicitor chitin in suspension-cultured sugarcane cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Gallão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cells of Saccharum officinarum submitted to hydrolyzated chitin for 1 to 8h produced phenolic compounds. These alterations were observed through cytochemical methods using Toluidine Blue and Phloroglucinol/HCl. After 4 h, besides cell wall change, there was a change in nuclear pattern of chitin treated cells. There was a 96% increase in nuclear area in 6 h chitin treated material, as observed by Feulgen reaction. The treated cells showed chromatin compacted regions and a degeneration process of nucleoli. In the outer areas of cell wall, there was a polysaccharide desagregation, confirming results obtained for different plants with the use of other elicitors. Peroxidase activity was maximal after 4 h and decreased progressively. PAL activity started to increase at 4 h of incubation. These results showed that chitin hydrolyzate stimulated a defense response in sugarcane cells.Células de Saccharum officinarum quando submetidas a quitina hidrolisada por 1 a 8h produziram material fenólico. Essas alterações foram observadas por meio de métodos citoquímicos como o Azul de Toluidina e Floroglucinol/HCl. Após 4 h, além das mudanças nas paredes celulares houve uma mudança no padrão nuclear das células tratadas com quitina. Por observação da reação de Feulgen, houve um aumento de 96% na área nuclear no material em 6h. Para as células tratadas foram observadas regiões de cromatina compactada e um processo de degeneração do nucléolo. Nas áreas externas da parede celular existia uma desagregação dos polisacarídios confirmando os resultados obtidos para diferentes plantas com o uso de outros elicitores. A atividade da peroxidase foi maxima após 4 h e então decresceu progressivamente. A atividade da PAL aumentou a partir de 4 h de incubação. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado de quitina estimula as respostas de defesa em células de cana.

  5. Texas organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hronzová, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the thesis "Texas organizational culture" is to find and define specifics of Texas organizational culture as a part of American organizational culture. First, theoretical terms connected to culture and organizational culture are defined. In the practical part of the thesis, American organizational culture is described, namely ethical codex, company social responsibility, workplace, team-building and dress code. The last part concerns Texas itself, its culture in general, history, ...

  6. Fine Division of Rice Anther Development by Cytological Morphology%水稻花药发育的细胞形态学精细分期

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵节

    2011-01-01

    A cytological and morphological study was conducted on the anther of a hybrid rice (Oryza Sativa L. indica) strain, Chuan You 9527. To study the growth procedures of pollen and anther wall, their development processes from stamen primordia initiation to pollen maturation were observed and divided into stages. Rice spikelets ranging from approx. 1.0 millimeter to approx. 10.0 millimeter were chosen; loading films of anthers were prepared by using the techniques of paraffin section, and they were observed and then photographed with digital camera system for optical microscopy ( Nikon DS-Ril-U2). The results showed that the whole development process of anther could be divided into thirteen fine stages, based on the significant alterations in the morphological characteristics of cells and tissues. The thirteen stages are archesporial cell stage, bi-parietal stage, tri-parietal stage, pollen mother cell forming stage ( the above four stages together are known as microsporocyte forming stage), early pollen mother cell meiosis stage, mid pollen mother cell meiosis stage, pollen mother cell dyad stage, pollen mother cell tetrad stage (the above four stages are known collectively as microsporocyte meiosis stage), early microspore stage, mid microspore stage, late microspore stage, bi-cellular pollen stage, and mature pollen stage.%本研究通过观察籼型杂交水稻"川优9527"'的花粉和药室壁的发育,对幼穗花药从雄蕊原基形成至花粉成熟的全过程进行了分期.选用不同发育时期的水稻幼穗(长度约1.0~10.0 mm),以石蜡切片技术分别制作其花药装片,置于光学显微镜(Nikon DS-Ri1-U2)下观察并拍照.根据细胞及组织形态特征的显著变化,将花药的发育进程精细划分为:孢原细胞期、二层药室壁期、三层药室壁期、花粉母细胞形成期(以上4期对应小孢子母细胞形成期)、花粉母细胞减数分裂初期、花粉母细胞减数分裂中期、花粉母细胞二分体时

  7. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  8. Evaluation of Gene Expression and Alginate Production in Response to Oxygen Transfer in Continuous Culture of Azotobacter vinelandii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barrera, Alvaro; Martínez, Fabiola; Guevara Pezoa, Felipe; Acevedo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D) and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h−1) and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h−1, the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h−1 showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa) at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa) were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization). Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain tailor

  9. Evaluation of gene expression and alginate production in response to oxygen transfer in continuous culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Díaz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h(-1 and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h(-1, the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h(-1 showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization. Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain

  10. Callus induction from anthers of Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei%豫杂一号泡桐花药愈伤组织的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同丽; 牛苏燕; 邓敏捷; 范国强

    2012-01-01

    Callus induction from anthers of Paulownia tomentosa X Paulownia fortune was studied in this paper. The results showed that it was an ideal disinfection way to soak explants in 70% alcohol for 30 s first and then in 0. 1% HgCl2 for 60 s. The rate of callus induction at 4 X, temperature for 7 days can reached the highest. The 3% sucrose concentration was suitable for the induction, and the rate of induction reached 58.76%. The best medium to induce calli from anthers is MS medium + 30 g · L-1 sucrose + 2 mg · L-1NAA + 3 mg · L-1 6-BA.%以豫杂一号泡桐花药为材料,开展了其花药愈伤组织诱导的研究.结果表明,外植体的消毒方式以体积分数70%乙醇处理30 s后再用体积分数0.1% HgCl2消毒60 s最为理想;4℃预处理有利于花药愈伤组织的诱导,以低温处理7d的花药愈伤组织诱导率为最高;30g·L-1蔗糖质量浓度诱导花药愈伤组织的效果较好.诱导率达58.76%;诱导愈伤组织以MS培养基附加30 g·L-1蔗糖+2 mg·L-1 NAA+3 mg·L-16-BA为最佳.

  11. Measuring patient safety culture: an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient s

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Mechanistic Insight into Murine Biological Responses to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Lungs and Cultured Lung Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Labib, Sarah;

    2013-01-01

    responses of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to those in vitro in cultured lung epithelial cells (FE1) at the global transcriptomic level. Primary size, surface area and other properties of MWCNT-XNRI -7 (Mitsui7) were characterized using DLS, SEM and TEM. Mice were exposed via a single intratracheal...... results were confirmed using gene-specific RT-qPCR. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was assessed for indications of inflammation in vivo. A strong dose-dependent activation of acute phase and inflammation response was observed in mouse lungs reflective mainly of an inflammatory response as observed...... at the pathway-level, the specific genes altered under these pathways were different, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of responses are different in cells in culture and the lung tissue. Our results suggest that careful consideration should be given in selecting relevant endpoints when substituting...

  13. Culturally responsive engineering education: A case study of a pre-college introductory engineering course at Tibetan Children's Village School of Selakui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Marisol Mercado

    Culturally responsive teaching has been argued to be effective in the education of Indigenous youth. This approach emphasizes the legitimacy of a group's cultural heritage, helps to associate abstract academic knowledge with the group's sociocultural context, seeks to incorporate a variety of strategies to engage students who have different learning styles, and strives to integrate multicultural information in the educational contents, among other considerations. In this work, I explore the outcomes of a culturally responsive introductory engineering short course that I developed and taught to Tibetan students at Tibetan Children's Village of Selakui (in Uttarakhand, India). Based on my ethnographic research in Tibetan communities in northern India, I examine two research questions: (a) What are the processes to develop and implement a pre-college culturally responsive introductory engineering course? and (b) How do Tibetan culture and Buddhism influence the engineering design and teamwork of the pre-college Tibetan students who took the course? I designed then taught the course that featured elementary lectures on sustainability, introductory engineering design, energy alternatives, and manufacturing engineering. The course also included a pre-college engineering design project through which Tibetan high school students investigated a problem at the school and designed a possible solution to it. Drawing from postcolonial studies, engineering studies, engineering and social justice, Buddhist studies, and Tibetan studies, I provide an analysis of my findings. Based on my findings, I conclude that my culturally responsive approach of teaching was an effective method to help students feel that their cultural background was respected and included in a pre-college engineering course; however, some students felt resistance toward the teaching approach. In addition, the culturally relevant content that connected with their ways of living in their school, Tibetan

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Mechanistic Insight into Murine Biological Responses to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Lungs and Cultured Lung Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Søs Poulsen; Nicklas R. Jacobsen; Sarah Labib; Dongmei Wu; Mainul Husain; Andrew Williams; Bøgelund, Jesper P.; Ole Andersen; Carsten Købler; Kristian Mølhave; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Saber, Anne T.; Håkan Wallin; Yauk, Carole L.; Ulla Vogel

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in substituting animal work with in vitro experimentation in human health risk assessment; however, there are only few comparisons of in vitro and in vivo biological responses to engineered nanomaterials. We used high-content genomics tools to compare in vivo pulmonary responses of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to those in vitro in cultured lung epithelial cells (FE1) at the global transcriptomic level. Primary size, surface area and other properties of MWCNT- X...

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Mechanistic Insight into Murine Biological Responses to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Lungs and Cultured Lung Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Nicklas R. Jacobsen; Labib, Sarah; Wu, Dongmei; Husain, Mainul; Williams, Andrew; Bøgelund, Jesper P.; Andersen, Ole; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Saber, Anne T.; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in substituting animal work with in vitro experimentation in human health risk assessment; however, there are only few comparisons of in vitro and in vivo biological responses to engineered nanomaterials. We used high-content genomics tools to compare in vivo pulmonary responses of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to those in vitro in cultured lung epithelial cells (FE1) at the global transcriptomic level. Primary size, surface area and other properties of MWCNT-XN...

  16. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1

  17. Early secretory antigenic target protein-6/culture filtrate protein-10 fusion protein-specific Th1 and Th2 response and its diagnostic value in tuberculous pleural effusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈启萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the Th1 and Th2 cell percentage in pleural effusion mononuclear cells (PEMCs) stimulated by early secretory antigenic target protein-6 (ESAT-6) /culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) fusion protein (E/C) with flow cytometry (FCM) ,and to explore the local antigen specific Th1 and Th2 response and

  18. "Yo Soy Indígena": Identifying and Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to Make the Teaching of Science Culturally Responsive for Maya Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge--TEK--can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes…

  19. Increasing the Writing Performance of Urban Seniors Placed At-Risk through Goal-Setting in a Culturally Responsive and Creativity-Centered Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Brittany; Warren, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to support marginalized students require not only identifying systemic inequities, but providing a classroom infrastructure that supports the academic achievement of all students. This action research study examined the effects of implementing goal-setting strategies and emphasizing creativity in a culturally responsive classroom (CRC) on…

  20. LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis increases the sensitivity of contractile response mediated by endothelin-B (ET(B)) receptors in cultured endothelium-intact rat coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Bahareh; Holmstrup, Palle; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) modifies the vasomotor responses to Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and Sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) in rat coronary arteries. The arteries were studied directly or following organ culture for 24h in absence and ...