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Sample records for anthelmintics

  1. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2009-01-01

    that Danish veterinarians are now deeply involved with parasite management in equine establishments. However, little is known about the impact on levels of anthelmintic resistance and the risk of parasitic disease under these circumstances. In addition, the legislation makes huge demands on diagnosis...

  2. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  3. Tannin rich peanut skins lack anthelmintic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) resistance to synthetic anthelmintics in small ruminants has led to the evaluation of feed sources containing naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites that lessen parasite activity. Plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) can have beneficial anthelmintic pro...

  4. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  5. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Hatem A

    2013-01-01

    Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The development of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of grazing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointestinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been observed that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode populations is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the susceptible genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists towards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new class are likely to be gained by

  6. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A Shalaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The develop­ment of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of graz­ing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointes­tinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been ob­served that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode popula­tions is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the suscepti­ble genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists to­wards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new

  7. Structure-activity relationship of anthelmintic cyclooctadepsipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Makoto; Okada, Yumiko; Takahashi, Masaaki; Sakanaka, Osamu; Matsumoto, Maki; Atsumi, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between cyclooctadepsipeptides and their anthelmintic efficacy was examined by converting the natural products, PF1022A, PF1022E and PF1022H. Some analogues substituted at the para position of the phenyllactate moiety showed higher or equivalent activity against the parasitic nematode, Ascaridia galli in chicken when compared with the parent compounds. It is suggested that lipophilicity and the polar surface area, in addition to structural requirements of the derivatives, influenced the anthelmintic efficacy in vivo. PMID:21737929

  8. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat

    2012-01-01

    Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various conce...

  9. AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20mg/ml of water and methanol extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was taken as a reference standard drug.The anthelmintic activity was observed by gradually increasing the dose of extract. Methanolic extract of Plumbago zeylenica showed higher activity as compared to water extract.

  11. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF NATIVE PLANTS AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nyla; Anwar, Sadaf; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zia, Muhammad Abid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of two medicinally important plants against Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn. (vern. Anar), leaves and roots of Berberis lycium Royle (vern. Sumbal) were tested for their anthelmintic efficacy. Methanolic extracts of the test plants from various plant parts were tested for anthelmintic efficacy against the Haemonchus contortous using albendazole as a reference standard. The results revealed that both the plant extracts exhibited potent anthelmintic activity at concentrations higher than 50 mg/mL when tested against their respective standard drug. In case of Berberis lycium Royle when the results were compared, methanolic roots extracts showed more potent activity as compared to leaves extracts at the same concentration. It was observed that the in vitro anthelmintic potential of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peel and Berberis lyceium Royale root can be used to treat helminth infections after in vivo trails. PMID:26665413

  12. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Chaitanya Sravanthi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The methanolic extract of the crude drug at concentrations of 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml were tested which involve determination of paralysis time and death time. Albendazole was used as standard and it was found that the concentrated methanolic extract (with no traces of solvent of the Hibiscus cannabinus leaves which is used as food in many parts of the world, showed a better anthelminthic activity in comparison with the standard.

  13. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia) with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the...

  14. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACALYPHA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Vishesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract from the Acalypha indica leaves of investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5% of extract were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic activity of ethanol extract of Acalypha indica leaf therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF Clerodendron Inerme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Subhasish

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 30 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme has been reported for the first time.

  16. Anthelmintics – From Discovery to Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Wolstenholme

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific meeting entitled ‘Anthelmintics: From Discovery to Resistance’ was held in San Francisco in February 2014. The themes of the meeting were drug discovery, modes of action and resistance. Both human and veterinary parasites were covered in the oral and poster presentations. The attendees were from both academic and industrial backgrounds. In the present article we introduce a number of the papers that emerged from the meeting. Several of the papers covered current drug discovery efforts underway worldwide, with some specific examples focusing on ion channels, protein kinases and cysteine proteases. These efforts included the repurposing of known drugs as well as the discovery of novel actives. Two papers described recently-developed whole-organism screening techniques. Finally, we introduce several papers looking at mechanisms and management of drug resistance in human and veterinary parasites.

  17. Stability during cooking of anthelmintic veterinary drug residues in beef

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Kevin Mark; Whelan, Michelle; Danaher, Martin; Kennedy, David Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anthelmintic drugs are widely used for treatment of parasitic worms in livestock but little is known about the stability of their residues in food under conventional cooking conditions. As part of the European Commission-funded research project ProSafeBeef, cattle were medicated with commercially available anthelmintic preparations, comprising 11 active ingredients (corresponding to 21 marker residues). Incurred meat and liver were cooked by roasting (40 min at 190?C) or...

  18. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    HAQUE RABIUL; MONDAL SUBHASISH; GHOSH PARAG

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml) of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic...

  19. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, Andrew; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Enemark, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has potential as a natural anthelmintic in livestock, however evidence of efficacy against cattle nematodes is lacking. Here, we investigated anthelmintic effects of chicory in stabled calves.METHODS: Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live weight and allocated randomly to 2 groups: chicory (CHI, n=9) and control (CON, n=6). CHI and CON calves were fed with forage chicory silage (cv. Spadona) and hay ad libitum, resp., for 8 weeks. After...

  20. Controlling internal parasites without anthelmintics (a review) OF0132

    OpenAIRE

    KEATINGE, Ray

    1996-01-01

    1.0 Executive summary 1. Internal parasites are a major source of economic loss in grazing ruminants. To a greater or lesser degree, most farms in the UK rely on anthelmintics for control. In most situations these products continue to be highly effective, but anthelmintic resistance is increasing to the limited range of products available, raising serious concerns over the future of worm control. 2. Internal parasites are also of concern on organic farms, where the prophylactic us...

  1. Diagnosis and control of anthelmintic-resistant Parascaris equorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinemeyer Craig R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2002, macrocyclic lactone resistance has been reported in populations of Parascaris equorum from several countries. It is apparent that macrocyclic lactone resistance developed in response to exclusive and/or excessively frequent use of ivermectin or moxidectin in foals during the first year of life. The development of anthelmintic resistance was virtually inevitable, given certain biological features of Parascaris and unique pharmacologic characteristics of the macrocyclic lactones. Practitioners can utilize the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris, and the same technique can be applied regularly to confirm the continued efficacy of those drugs currently in use. In the face of macrocyclic lactone resistance, piperazine or anthelmintics of the benzimidazole or pyrimidine classes can be used to control ascarid infections, but Parascaris populations that are concurrently resistant to macrocyclic lactones and pyrimidine drugs have been reported recently from Texas and Kentucky. Compared to traditional practices, future recommendations for ascarid control should feature: 1 use of only those anthelmintics known to be effective against indigenous populations, 2 initiation of anthelmintic treatment no earlier than 60 days of age, and 3 repetition of treatments at the longest intervals which prevent serious environmental contamination with Parascaris eggs. In the interest of decreasing selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, horse owners and veterinarians must become more tolerant of the passage of modest numbers of ascarid eggs by some foals. Anthelmintic resistance is only one of several potential responses to genetic selection. Although still only theoretical, changes in the immunogenicity of ascarid isolates or reduction of their prepatent or egg reappearance periods could pose far greater challenges to effective control than resistance to a single class of anthelmintics.

  2. Effectiveness testing of some vegetal extracts comparing with clasical anthelmintics

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie M.S.,; Darabus Gh.,; Oprescu I,; Morariu S.,; Narcisa Mederle,; Alina lie,; Imre K,; Florica Morariu

    2007-01-01

    We have tested the efficacy of some vegetal extracts (Parazitol –Medica Laboratories, a natural product with an anthelmintic effect and a Cucurbita sp. oil extract) compared to the classic anthelmintics (Rombendazol – Romvac and Dehelman – KRKA Slovenia) at domestic poultry, whose parasitical status had been previously established through animal killing and necropsies. Parazitol and the pumpkin oil have had a lower efficacy than the levamisole and albendazole upon the species Ascaridia galli....

  3. An inconvenient truth: global worming and anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important. PMID:22154968

  4. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  5. First report of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Angus JD; Charles, Jennifer A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic nematodes can cause substantial clinical and subclinical problems in alpacas and anthelmintics are regularly used to control parasitic nematodes in alpacas. Although anthelmintic resistance has been reported in ruminants worldwide, very little is known about anthelmintic resistance in alpacas. The present study was carried out to confirm a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia. Methods Post mortem examination of an alpac...

  6. A report on anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora leaves

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    Jinu John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora L. leaves were evaluated for anthelmintic property using the Indian adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma as a model. Among the earthworms the ethyl acetate fraction was potent. The results were compared with a standard drug, albendazole. The phytochemical analysis of both extracts showed the presence of phenolics like flavonoids and tannins as well as anthraquinones, which may be the active principle. The present study confirms the ethno-medicinal report of the plant as an anthelmintic drug.

  7. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa U; Amrutia Jay N; Katharotiya Reena; Moses Semuel Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation) as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform ex...

  9. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu...

  10. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.

    2012-01-01

    A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America.

  11. Anthelmintic drugs and nematicides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect many species of animals throughout the phyla, including humans. Moreover, nematodes that parasitise plants are a global problem for agriculture. As such, these nematodes place a major burden on human health, on livestock production, on the welfare of companion animals and on crop production. In the 21st century there are two major challenges posed by the wide-spread prevalence of parasitic nematodes. First, many anthelmintic drugs are losing their effectiveness because nematode strains with resistance are emerging. Second, serious concerns regarding the environmental impact of the nematicides used for crop protection have prompted legislation to remove them from use, leaving agriculture at increased risk from nematode pests. There is clearly a need for a concerted effort to address these challenges. Over the last few decades the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided the opportunity to use molecular genetic techniques for mode of action studies for anthelmintics and nematicides. These approaches continue to be of considerable value. Less fruitful so far, but nonetheless potentially very useful, has been the direct use of C. elegans for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery programmes. Here we provide an introduction to the use of C. elegans as a 'model' parasitic nematode, briefly review the study of nematode control using C. elegans and highlight approaches that have been of particular value with a view to facilitating wider-use of C. elegans as a platform for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery and development. PMID:25517625

  12. Anthelmintic resistance in non-strongylid parasites of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2012-04-19

    Since 2002, selected populations of Parascaris equorum in several countries have been reported to survive treatment with macrocyclic lactone (M/L) anthelmintics. Clinical treatment failures are characterized by negligible fecal egg count reduction, but M/L resistance has been confirmed in ascarids by controlled efficacy testing. Resistance was selected by current parasite control practices for foals, which often include exclusive and excessively frequent use of M/L dewormers, thereby minimizing refugia within the host and in the environment. Chemical control of M/L-resistant isolates can be accomplished with pyrimidine and/or benzimidazole anthelmintics, but a few M/L-resistant populations have recently exhibited resistance to pyrantel pamoate as well. Some specimens of Oxyuris equi regularly survive treatment with macrocyclic lactones, but it is uncertain whether this constitutes resistance or merely confirms the incomplete oxyuricidal efficacy of virtually all broad spectrum equine anthelmintics. Variations in other biological parameters of Oxyuris and Parascaris, specifically atypical infection of older hosts and shorter prepatent periods, have been reported anecdotally. These changes may represent genetic modifications that have evolved in parallel with resistance as a result of anthelmintic selection pressure. PMID:22078748

  13. Metabolic pathways of benzimidazole anthelmintics in harebell (Campanula rotundifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlíková, Lucie; Jirásko, Robert; Skálová, Lenka; Pavlík, František; Szotáková, Barbora; Holčapek, Michal; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2016-08-01

    Benzimidazoles anthelmintics, which enter into environment primarily through excretion in the feces or urine of treated animals, can affect various organisms and disrupt ecosystem balance. The present study was designed to test the phytotoxicity and biotransformation of the three benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ), fenbendazole (FBZ) and flubendazole (FLU) in the harebell (Campanula rotundifolia). This meadow plant commonly grows in pastures and comes into contact with anthelmintics through the excrements of treated animals. Suspensions of harebell cells in culture medium were used as an in vitro model system. ABZ, FLU and FBZ were not found to be toxic for harebell cells, which were able to metabolize ABZ, FLU and FBZ via the formation of a wide scale of metabolites. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) led to the identification of 24, 18 and 29 metabolites of ABZ, FLU and FBZ, respectively. Several novel metabolites were identified for the first time. Based on the obtained results, the schemes of the metabolic pathways of these anthelmintics were proposed. Most of these metabolites can be considered deactivation products, but a substantial portion of them may readily be decomposed to biologically active substances which could negatively affect ecosystems. PMID:27208642

  14. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

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    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  15. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds☆

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    Holm Signe A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137 with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6% and other Nematodirus species (15.0%. Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92% tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg. AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  16. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C

    2014-07-30

    The first documented case of macrocyclic lactone resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of cattle was seen in the US approximately 10 years ago. Since that time the increase incidence of anthelmintic resistance has continued at an alarming rate. Currently parasites of the genera Cooperia and/or Haemonchus resistant to generic or brand-name macrocyclic lactones have be demonstrated in more than half of all operations examined. Both of these parasite genera are capable of causing economic losses by decreasing food intake and subsequently animal productivity. Currently, there are no easy and quick means to detect anthelmintic resistant GI nematodes. Definitive identification requires killing of cattle. The most commonly used field detection method is the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This method can be adapted for use as a screening agent for Veterinarians and producers to identify less than desired clearance of the parasites after anthelmintic treatment. Further studies can then define the reasons for persistence of the egg counts. The appearance of anthelmintic resistance is largely due to the development of very effective nematode control programs that have significantly improved the productivity of the US cattle industry, but at the same time has placed a high level of selective pressure on the parasite genome. The challenges ahead include the development of programs that control the anthelmintic resistant nematodes but at the same time result in more sustainable parasite control. The goal is to maintain high levels of productivity but to exert less selective pressures on the parasites. One of the most effective means to slow the development of drug resistance is through the simultaneous use of multiple classes of anthelmintics, each of which has a different mode of action. Reduction of the selective pressure on the parasites can be attained through a more targeted approach to drug treatments where the producer's needs are met by selective

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

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    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  18. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, Andrew; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    BACKGROUND: Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has potential as a natural anthelmintic in livestock, however evidence of efficacy against cattle nematodes is lacking. Here, we investigated anthelmintic effects of chicory in stabled calves. METHODS: Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live...... weight and allocated randomly to 2 groups: chicory (CHI, n=9) and control (CON, n=6). CHI and CON calves were fed with forage chicory silage (cv. Spadona) and hay ad libitum, resp., for 8 weeks. After 2 weeks, calves were infected with 10,000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 65,000 Cooperia oncophora larvae....... Fecal egg counts (FEC) and live weights were assessed weekly. Six weeks after infection, calves were slaughtered for worm recovery. In parallel, total sesquiterpene lactone (SL)-extracts from forage chicory (Spadona and cv. Puna II) were prepared and incubated with first-stage larvae (L1) of O...

  19. Effectiveness testing of some vegetal extracts comparing with clasical anthelmintics

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    Ilie M.S.,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We have tested the efficacy of some vegetal extracts (Parazitol –Medica Laboratories, a natural product with an anthelmintic effect and a Cucurbita sp. oil extract compared to the classic anthelmintics (Rombendazol – Romvac and Dehelman – KRKA Slovenia at domestic poultry, whose parasitical status had been previously established through animal killing and necropsies. Parazitol and the pumpkin oil have had a lower efficacy than the levamisole and albendazole upon the species Ascaridia galli. Heterakis gallinarum was not affected by the pumpkin oil. Parazitol have a moderate efficacy (36%, while levamisole and albendazole were very efficient (100%. The treatments with albendazole upon the cestods belonging to the genus Raillietina have had a 100% efficacy. In cestods, Parazitol had a better efficacy (57% than the pumpkin oil (14%.

  20. Anthelmintic cyclcooctadepsipeptides: complex in structure and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, Jürgen; Harder, Achim; Jeschke, Peter; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent; Welz, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2012-09-01

    The broad-spectrum anthelmintic cyclooctadepsipeptide PF1022A is a fungal metabolite from Rosellinia sp. PF1022, which is a Mycelia sterilia found on the leaves of Camellia japonica. A broad range of structurally related cyclooctadepsipeptides has been characterized and tested for anthelmintic activities. These metabolites have been used as starting points to generate semisynthetic derivatives with varying nematocidal capacity. Predominant among these compounds is emodepside, which exhibits a broad nematocidal potential against gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites. Here we review the chemical biology and mode of action of cyclooctadepsides with particular attention to PF1022A and emodepside. We illustrate how they target nematode neuromuscular function, opening up new avenues for antiparasitic treatments with potential capability for important selective toxicity. PMID:22858281

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

  2. Parasite diversity and anthelmintic resistance in two herds of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K E; Garza, V; Snowden, K; Dobson, R J; Powell, D; Craig, T M

    1999-08-31

    Diversity of parasite populations was compared between two herds of horses, one a regularly treated herd the other a feral herd which has bad no anthelmintic treatment for at least 25 years. Eggs obtained from fecal samples of both herds were tested for anthelmintic resistance by use of an in-vitro larval hatch/development assay (LDA), DrenchRite. A fecal egg reduction test was also performed with the domesticated herd using fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin. Cyathostomes were the predominant group of worms present in both herds. Trichostrongylus axei was seen in both herds, but Strongylus equinus, Strongylus vulgaris, Gyalocephalus capitatus, Poteriostomum spp. and Strongyloides westeri were only found in the feral horses. Larvae of Strongylus edentatus were found in a single domesticated horse. Fecal egg reduction tests with the domesticated herd showed a 32% egg count reduction for fenbendazole, a 93% reduction with pyrantel, and a 99% reduction with ivermectin. From the LDA, anthelmintic resistance was evaluated by determining the resistance ratio of the domesticated herd compared with the feral herd. For benzimidazoles in the domesticated herd, 45% of the cyathostome population was 9.4 times more tolerant than the feral herd's parasite population. The parasite population in the domesticated herd was 1.5 times more tolerant to Levamisole, and 1.7 times more tolerant to the benzimidazole/levamisole combination than the parasite population within the feral herd. 9% of the parasite population in the domesticated herd was 90 times more tolerant to avermectins than the feral herd's parasite population, even though a subpopulation of worms in the feral herd were tolerant to low concentrations of avermectins despite never being previously exposed to this class of anthelmintic. PMID:10485366

  3. Anthelmintic drugs and nematocides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Holden-Dye, L.; Walker, R

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect many species of animals throughout the phyla, including humans. Moreover, nematodes that parasitise plants are a global problem for agriculture. As such, these nematodes place a major burden on human health, on livestock production, on the welfare of companion animals and on crop production. In the 21st century there are two major challenges posed by the wide-spread prevalence of parasitic nematodes. First, many anthelmintic drugs are losing their effectiveness beca...

  4. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage: perspectives and potential consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Martin K

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites, parasitologists now recommend traditional treatment approaches to be abandoned and replaced by more sustainable strategies. It is of crucial importance to facilitate veterinary involvement to ensure that treatment decisions are based on parasitic knowledge. Despite recommendations given for the past two decades, strategies based on the selective therapy principle have not yet been implemented on a larger scale in equi...

  5. Anthelmintics Are Substrates and Activators of Nematode P Glycoprotein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kerboeuf, Dominique; Guégnard, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    P glycoproteins (Pgp), members of the ABC transporter superfamily, play a major role in chemoresistance. In nematodes, Pgp are responsible for resistance to anthelmintics, suggesting that they are Pgp substrates, as they are in mammalian cells. However, their binding to nematode Pgp and the functional consequences of this interaction have not been investigated. Our study showed that levamisole and most of the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are Pgp substrates in nematodes. Ivermectin, although a v...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF Clerodendron Inerme

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal Subhasish; Ghosh Parag; Das Debasish; Haque Rabiul

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml) of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmin...

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform extract was more potent compared to other extracts.

  8. Anthelmintic activity of steroidal saponins from Paris polyphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G-X; Han, J; Zhao, L-W; Jiang, D-X; Liu, Y-T; Liu, X-L

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of crude extracts and pure compounds from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla. The methanol extract showed a promising anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (EC(50) value=18.06 mg l(-¹). Based on these finding, the methanol extract was fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation affording two known steroidal saponins showing potent activity, dioscin and polyphyllin D. Both dioscin and polyphyllin D exhibited significant activity against D. intermedius with EC(50) values of 0.44 and 0.70 mg l(-¹), respectively, which were more effective than the positive control, mebendazole (EC(50) value=1.25 mg l(-¹)). The acute toxicities (LC(50)) of dioscin and polyphyllin D for goldfish were 1.37 and 1.08 mg l(-¹), respectively. These results indicated that P. polyphylla extract and the isolated compounds are potential natural agents for the control of Dactylogyrus infestation. This is the first report on in vivo anthelmintic investigation for P. polyphylla. PMID:20576414

  9. Anthelmintic residues in goat and sheep dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedziniak Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAWSONIA INERMIS LEAF EXTRACTS

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    Nayak Sarojini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To know the anthelmintic activity of leaves of Lawsonia inermis, we used maceration method of extraction using solvents like ethanol and methanol. Each extract was tested for anthelminthic activity by following standard method .The ethanolic and methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity in dose dependant manner. We found that the ethanolic as well as methanolic extracts were more potent than the positive control as far as their anthelmintic activity was concerned. To correlate phytochemical screening with anthelmintic activity, phytochemical evaluation of the extract was also performed. From our result it may be mentioned that the ethanolic extract was potent as anthelmintic agent due to the presence of glycosides, terpenoids and flavonoids. On the other hand, the methanolic extract was effective probably due to the involvement of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids and flavonoids.

  11. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs. The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively, but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  12. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascaris...... suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Methanol extracts were prepared and purified from two different cultivars of chicory (Spadona and Puna II). Marked differences were observed between the anthelmintic activity of extracts from the two cultivars. Spadona extracts had potent activity against A. suum...... anthelmintic activity of forage chicory towards swine nematodes. Our results indicate a significant anthelmintic effect, which may possibly be related to SL composition....

  13. Evaluation of tests for anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, J F; Power, M L; Sangster, N C; Hodgson, J L; Hodgson, D R

    2002-07-01

    Resistance, especially to the anthelmintic benzimidazoles (BZ), has been reported in horse cyathostomes world-wide. Diagnosis of resistance has traditionally been made by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) trials, however, this technique has limitations. Some of the shortcomings may be resolved by refining the test or by using an in vitro test. FECR tests and the larval development assay (LDA) were performed on adult horses held on 15 different horse properties across a wide geographical area of NSW, Australia. FECR were measured before and 10-14 after days treatment with oxibendazole (OBZ), morantel (MOR) or ivermectin (IVM) at recommended dose rates. Eight properties were rejected following low pre-treatment egg counts, leaving seven in the study. On these, the majority of larvae recovered from faecal cultures were cyathostomes. Using a definition of resistance as a FECR of horse egg counts pre- and post-treatment was developed and results from the same properties compared with the results of the LDA. For example, for the BZ, correlation coefficients of values of lethal concentration to kill 50% of population (LC50) on LDA and FECR percentages were -0.536 before and -0.704 after OBZ treatment. We conclude that the LDA has the potential to be a single visit test for detection of anthelmintic resistance in horse cyathostomes but requires further investigation and standardisation. PMID:12079739

  14. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  15. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  16. Characterization of the inflammatory response to anthelmintic treatment in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomin parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Betancourt, Alejandra; Lyons, Eugene T.;

    2013-01-01

    Cyathostomins can cause a severe inflammation of equine large intestine characterized by substantial ventral edema and pronounced protein loss. Anthelmintic treatment of horses can result in a localized inflammatory response in the colonic mucosa of clinically normal horses. The aim of this study was...... to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response of ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins to single dose representatives of three anthelmintic drug classes, namely, oxibendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and moxidectin. Thirty ponies aged between 1 and 18 years of age were allocated to one of three...... anthelmintic treatments groups. Anthelmintic efficacy was evaluated using the fecal egg count reduction test performed weekly between 2 and 8 weeks post-treatment. Inflammatory responses were evaluated on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 14 after treatment using hematology, measurement of the acute phase inflammatory markers...

  17. Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of osthol analogs against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Lu; Hao, Bing; Liu, Shao-Peng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2012-08-01

    In an attempt to develop novel anthelmintic agents, our previously isolated osthol was used as lead structures for further optimization. In our research, a series of coumarin analogs, prepared from 7-hydroxy coumarin or 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, have been evaluated for their anthelmintic activities. In all of the compounds, 6 and 7 were first synthesized, and their structures were identified based on NMR and MS values. Among the candidates, 8-allyl-7-allyloxycoumarin showed better anthelmintic activity than other compounds against Dactylogyrus infestation with EC(50) value of 1.81 mg/L. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of 16 osthol analogs with anthelmintic activity expressed as pEC(50) and toxicity to goldfish expressed pLC(50), such results can offer useful theoretical references for future experimental works. PMID:22749191

  18. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  19. Sainfoin - new data on anthelmintic effects and production in sheep and goats

    OpenAIRE

    Heckendorn, F.; Werne, S.; V. Maurer; Perler, E.; Amsler, Z.; Probst, J.; Zaugg, C.; Krenmeyr, I

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are one of the most important problems affecting health and therefore performance and welfare in small ruminant husbandry. The control of these parasites in the past strongly relied on the repeated use of anthelmintic drugs. This has led to nematode populations which are resistant to most of the currently available anthelmintics. Furthermore customer’s demands for organic and residue free animal products are increasing. The aforementioned problems have given a...

  20. Sainfoin – New Data on Anthelmintic Effects and Production in Sheep and Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Werne, S.; V. Maurer; Perler, E.; Amsler, Z.; Probst, J.; Zaugg, C.; Krenmayr, I.; Schwery, M.; Volken, H.; Heckendorn, F.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are one of the most important problems affecting health and therefore performance and welfare in small ruminant husbandry. The control of these parasites in the past strongly relied on the repeated use of anthelmintic drugs. This has led to nematode populations which are resistant to most of the currently available anthelmintics. Furthermore customer’s demands for organic and residue free animal products are increasing. The aforementioned problems have given a...

  1. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Niaz; Aleem, Umer; Ali Shah, Syed Wadood; Shah, Ismail; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ghayour; Ali, Waqar; Ghias, Mehreen

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on sh...

  2. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

    OpenAIRE

    Das, S S; Monalisha Dey; Ghosh, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death t...

  3. Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity

    OpenAIRE

    M L Vijaya Kumar; Thippeswamy, B.; I L Kuppust; Naveenkumar, K. J.; C K Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: ...

  4. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    OpenAIRE

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal componen...

  5. Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, Anas; Qarallah, Bassam; Al-Ramamneh, Diya; Daş, Gürbüz

    2012-08-13

    The use of phytogenic bioactive compounds to control poultry helminthes is increasing in different production systems. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of citrus peels against Ascaridia galli was investigated. Ethanolic extracts of three citrus peels species were suspended in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an experimental composition (EC). EC was mainly composed of Limonene (96%), followed by β-Pinene (1.5%), α-Pinene (0.5%), and Sabinene (0.3%). For in vitro investigation, adult A. galli worms (n=225) were collected from naturally infected chickens and distributed to 3 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed to Fenbendazole (0.5mg/ml), EC (50mg/ml), and 0.5% DMSO, respectively. For in vivo investigation, 200 Lohmann Selected Leghorns chicks were infected at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. At 6 weeks of age, 150 A. galli infected birds were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with 300, 600, and 1200 mg EC kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Group 4 was treated with Fenbendazole (50 mg kg(-1)). Group 5 was left as control. Birds were euthanized 2-weeks post-treatment, and all worms were collected from their intestines. EC possessed significant (P0.05) difference was quantified between number of motile worms exposed either to EC or Fenbendazole 7h post-exposure. A significant (Pgalli burden (Efficacy=97%) followed by 1200 mg EC kg(-1) (68%), 600 mg EC kg(-1) (66%), and 300 mg EC kg(-1) (5%). It is concluded that citrus peels extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. PMID:22463876

  6. A survey in Louisiana of intestinal helminths of ponies with little exposure to anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, B J; Klei, T R; Lichtenfels, J R; Chapman, M R

    1986-12-01

    Ponies reared with minimal or no exposure to anthelmintics were surveyed for intestinal helminths in order to estimate prevalence and intensity of parasite populations unaltered by frequent exposure to anthelmintics. Thirty-seven mixed breed ponies of varying ages were examined. Thirty-four species of nematodes and 2 species of cestodes were found. Twenty-four of the nematode species (including 1 new species) were in the subfamily Cyathostominae (small strongyles). Eighty-seven percent of the total burden of adult small strongyles in the large intestine was composed of 10 species. By comparing the results of the present survey with those of recent surveys of horses from herds which had been subjected to treatments with anthelmintics, the effect of prolonged usage of anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of individual species possibly can be estimated. The general ranking of the 10 most common cyathostome species was similar to those described in recent surveys of horses, suggesting that anthelmintic pressure does not affect the prevalence of most cyathostome species. The lack of anthelmintic treatment appeared not to affect prevalence rates for Anoplocephala perfoliata and Anoplocephala magna when compared to other studies. Conversely, prevalence rates for Strongylus spp., Triodontophorus spp., Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Oxyuris equi, and Parascaris equorum were higher than those reported for these species in recent studies of horses. PMID:3819969

  7. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Ramos; Luiza Pires Portella; Fernando de Souza Rodrigues; Caroline Zamperete Reginato; Luciana Pötter; Alfredo Skrebsky Cezar; Luís Antônio Sangioni; Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul...

  8. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum Thapsus Mullein

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    Ali Niaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Methods V. thapsus extracts were tested against roundworms (Ascaridia galli and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis. Each species of worm was placed into a negative control group, an albendazole treatment group, or a V. thapsus treatment group, and the time taken for paralysis and death was determined. In addition, relaxation activity tests were performed on sections of rabbit's jejunum. Plant extracts were tested on KCl-induced contractions and the relaxation activities were quantified against atropine. V. thapsus calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of the plant extracts. Results We detected flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fixed oils in V. thapsus. For both species of worm, paralysis occurred fastest at the highest concentration of extract. The relative index values for paralysis in A. galli were 4.58, 3.41 and 2.08, at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml of plant extract, respectively. The relative index for death in A. galli suggested that V. thapsus extract is wormicidal at high concentration. Similarly, the relative indexes for paralysis and death in R. spiralis suggested that the extract is a more potent wormicidal agent than albendazole. The mean EC50 relaxation activity values for spontaneous and KCl induced contractions were 7.5 ± 1.4 mg/ml (6.57-8.01, n = 6 and 7.9 ± 0.41 mg/ml (7.44-8.46, n = 6, respectively. The relaxation activity of the extract was 11.42 ± 2, 17.0 ± 3, 28.5 ± 4, and 128.0 ± 7% of the maximum observed for atropine at corresponding concentrations. The calcium chloride curves showed that V. thapsus extracts (3 mg/ml, had a mean EC50 (log molar [calcium] value of -1.9 ± 0

  9. In vitro anthelmintic activity of three medicinal plants against Haemonchus contortus

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    Eguale Tadesse

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of anthelmintic resistance and the high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs led to the evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in-vitro experiments were conducted to determine the possible anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lawsonia inermis and seeds of Jatropha curcas, on eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus. Both extracts of C. ambrosioides and J. curcas inhibited the hatching of eggs at a concentration less than or equal to 2mg/ml, while the effect of L. inermis was not dose-dependent and did not inhibit the hatching of eggs of H. contortus, significantly, at all tested concentrations. Based on their ED 50 , the two most potent extracts using egg hatch assay were the hydroalcoholic extract of C. ambrosioides (0.09mg/ml and the aqueous extract of J. curcas (0.1mg/ml in a decreasing order of potency. With regard to the effect of extracts on the survival of adult parasites, extracts from C. ambrosioides have shown a moderate effect, while J. curcas and L. inermis have shown no statistically significant effect on the survival of adult parasites at the concentrations tested, and the few mortality cases recorded were not dose-dependent ( P < 0.05. The overall findings of the present study have shown that C. ambrosioides and J. curcas contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  11. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against Hymenolepis microstoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections in vivo. Hymenolepis microstoma is a natural parasite of house mice, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of novel drugs for anthelmintic activity against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of H. microstoma infections in mice with the supernatant of papaya latex (PLS), containing active cysteine proteinases, is only minimally efficacious. The statistically significant effects seen on worm burden and biomass showed little evidence of dose dependency, were temporary and the role of cysteine proteinases as the active principles in PLS was not confirmed by specific inhibition with E-64. Worm fecundity was not affected by treatment at the doses used. We conclude also that this in vivo host-parasite system is not sensitive enough to be used reliably for the detection of cestocidal activity of compounds being screened as potential, novel anthelmintics. PMID:25226116

  12. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  13. Phyto chemical Screening, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anthelmintic Activity of Morinda citrifolia stem

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    Dr. D. Gopala Krishna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni stem were subjected to preliminary screening for Antimicrobial and Aanthelmintic activity. The alcoholic extract exhibited significant Anti bacterial, Antifungal activity, comparable to the standard drug Tetracycline. The Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract were evaluated for Anthelmintic activity on adult Indian Earthworms, ‘Pheretima posithuma’. The Alcoholic extract produced more significant Anthelmintic activity than Petroleum ether extract and the activities are comparable with the reference drug Piperazine citrate

  14. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodriguez, J J; Torrado, J; Bolás, F

    2001-06-01

    The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC) compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC) was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms) and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae). Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO) enantiomer (-) were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC. PMID:11484352

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

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    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  16. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rodriguez J.J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae. Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO enantiomer (– were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC.

  17. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Lagenaria Siceraria Leaves in Indian Adult Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Two concentrations (50 and 100 mg/ml of various extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Albendazole (20 mg/ml was used as reference standard and carboxy methyl cellulose (0.5% as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in the plant extracts but methanolic extract exhibited more activity as compared to others. The anthelmintic activity of Lagenaria sicerarialeaves extract has therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Johnson, Shylo R; Stallard, Melissa D; McGrew, Ashley K; Page, L Kristen; Crider, Nikki; Ballweber, Lora R; Swihart, Robert K; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic helminth with the potential to cause severe or fatal infection. Raccoons thrive in human-dominated landscapes, and the fecal-oral transmission pathway and lack of effective treatment make B. procyonis a serious threat to public health. The distribution of medicinal baits has emerged as a socially acceptable and cost-effective method for managing disease in free-ranging wildlife. We assessed the suitability of a mass-producible anthelmintic bait for B. procyonis mitigation by evaluating the willingness of free-ranging raccoons to consume anthelmintic baits and determining whether bait consumption successfully cleared B. procyonis infections from raccoons. Anthelmintic baits were modified from standard fishmeal polymer baits, the food attractant commonly used in oral rabies vaccine baits, with the introduction of 220 mg of pyrantel pamoate into the fishmeal mixture. We captured 16 naturally infected raccoons, presented one anthelmintic bait, and monitored B. procyonis infection over 90 d by screening feces for eggs. Treatment cleared B. procyonis infections for nine of 12 raccoons that consumed >10 g of the 15 g bait. We used remote cameras to monitor in situ patterns of bait consumption for anthelmintic baits relative to standard baits. Both anthelmintic and standard baits were rapidly consumed, with no differences in the rate of consumption between bait types. However, after bait contact, raccoons demonstrated a greater willingness to consume standard baits while ignoring anthelmintic baits more frequently (P = 0.06). Initial trials of anthelmintic baits show promise, although refinement in both dose and palatability is needed. At mass production scales, the addition of pyrantel pamoate to fishmeal polymer baits would be inexpensive, potentially making anthelmintic baits a viable management option when coupled with an oral rabies vaccine or used independently

  19. Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, B; Peltola, S-M

    2015-11-01

    There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged < 3 years from four stables in Estonia. Faecal samples were collected, and horses were selected for treatment if the nematode egg count per gram faeces exceeded 200. Horses (n= 32) that shed strongyle-type eggs were treated with pyrantel, whereas Parascaris equorum-positive animals received ivermectin. Up to 78% of horses required anthelmintic treatment and the efficiency of the anthelmintics was evaluated using a faecal egg count reduction test. Resistance of P. equorum was observed in 50% of horses treated with ivermectin and of strongyles in 27% of horses treated with pyrantel. Ivermectin treatment resulted in a mean reduction of 100% for strongyle eggs and an 89% reduction in P. equorum, and pyrantel-treated horses exhibited an 88% reduction in strongyle eggs. These results are considered to be the first indication of resistance to pyrantel, but further studies of ivermectin resistance are required. According to questionnaires completed by the owners of horses, resistance might be explained by a lack of evidence-based strategies, a strong preference for using ivermectin and possibly a subjective evaluation of the body weight of horses. PMID:25007041

  20. New Method for Analysis of Multiple Anthelmintic Residues in Animal Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the first time, 39 of the major anthelmintics can be detected in one rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method, including the flukicides, which have been generally overlooked in surveillance programs. Utilizing the QuEChERS approach, residues were extracted from liver and milk using acetonitrile, sod...

  1. 21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life cycle of the pinworm. (d) A commentary on the ways in which... approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0910-0232) ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug...

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  3. Anthelmintic potential of chicory forage is influenced by sesquiterpene lactone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Chicory leaves contain lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the amounts of these three SLs vary among cultivars. The objective of this study was...

  4. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit on Ascaridia galli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Danilo R Barros; Fernandes, Rozeverter Moreno; Fernandes, Maria Zenaide de Lima C M; Ferreira, Marcos Daniel de S; Rolim, Fernanda R L; da Silva Filho, Manoel L

    2009-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit (noni) was evaluated in chicken naturally infected by Ascaridia galli. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adult parasites. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were used in the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL(-1) and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), respectively. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of 10 mL.kg(-1) of the aqueous (50.1 mg.mL(-1)) and ethanolic (24.6 mg.mL(-1)) extracts during three consecutive days. Later the chickens were euthanized and necropsy was performed in order to count the remaining helminths. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the concentrations of 13.48 and 26.96 mg.mL(-1), the aqueous extract demonstrated mortality of 46.67 and 50%, respectively, there was a significative difference from the negative control (P 0.05). It follows that the anthelmintic activity of noni fruit test showed satisfactory results in vitro, there is a need for studies in higher concentrations in the in vivo test. PMID:20040206

  5. Acute toxicity of praziquantel (an anthelmintic) to grass carp and golden shiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praziquantel is an anthelmintic that can be applied to the water to kill tapeworm and trematode parasites in fish. Effective praziquantel treatment rates have been determined but there is little information on the toxicity of this chemical to fish hosts of the parasites. Acute praziquantel toxicit...

  6. Evaluation of Anthelmintic activity of Uncaria gambier Roxb. against Pheretima posthuma

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    S. H. Patil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of leaves & shoots extract of Uncaria gambier Roxb. The alcoholic extract of Uncaria gambier Roxb. & its ethyl acetate fraction at different concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100 mg/ml were tested on Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma by in vitro standard procedure. Time of paralysis and time of death of the worms were considered as the parameters to assess the anthelmintic action. Albendazole and 2% w/v gum acacia in distilled water were used as standard and control respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction of alcoholic extract exhibited potent anthelmintic activity compared to alcoholic extract as evidenced by significant decrease in time of paralysis & death. The observed activity could be due to the presence to phenolic compounds, particularly flavonoids in the test extract. These in vitro studies indicated that the Uncaria gambier Roxb. is a significant source of natural anthelmintic, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various parasitic disorders.

  7. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Sreejith; N Kannappan; A Santhiagu; Ajith P Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results: Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P Conclusions:The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  8. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  9. Efficacy of two cyclooctadepsipeptides, PF1022A and emodepside, against anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Harder, A; Sangster, N C; Coles, G C

    2005-03-01

    Resistance against the major currently available anthelmintics has reached a critical level in many small ruminant herds world-wide, and is increasingly becoming a problem in horses and cattle. Therefore, new products with different modes of action are urgently needed. Recently, such a new class of compounds, the anthelmintically active cyclooctadepsipeptides, was described. Here, the effects of cyclooctadepsipeptides on benzimidazole-, levamisole- and ivermectin-resistant populations of Haemonchus contortus in sheep as well as an ivermectin-resistant Cooperia oncophora population in cattle were studied. Experimentally infected sheep and cattle were used. Animals were treated orally, subcutaneously, or intravenously with cyclooctadepsipeptides. The anthelmintic effects were assessed by means of fecal egg count reductions and/or worm count reductions. Both, PF1022A and emodepside were found to be fully effective against these parasite populations. These findings confirm that this new class of compounds acts by a different mode of action compared to the above-mentioned anthelmintics. PMID:15796017

  10. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Peña-Espinoza, Miguel A; Boas, Ulrik; Simonsen, Henrik T; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-05-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Methanol extracts were prepared and purified from two different cultivars of chicory (Spadona and Puna II). Marked differences were observed between the anthelmintic activity of extracts from the two cultivars. Spadona extracts had potent activity against A. suum third (L3) and fourth (L4) - stage larvae, as well as O. dentatum L4 and adults, whereas Puna II extracts had less activity against A. suum and no activity towards O. dentatum L4. Transmission-electron microscopy of A. suum L4 exposed to Spadona extracts revealed only subtle changes, perhaps indicative of a specific anthelmintic effect rather than generalized toxicity. Ultra-high liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the purified extracts were rich in sesquiterpene lactones (SL), and that the SL profile differed significantly between cultivars. This is the first report of anthelmintic activity of forage chicory towards swine nematodes. Our results indicate a significant anthelmintic effect, which may possibly be related to SL composition. PMID:26935644

  11. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Oliver; Enemark, Heidi L.; Mueller-Harvey, I.;

    2013-01-01

    Some plant secondary metabolites as tannins have direct anthelminthic properties and may play a role in the control of nematodes in livestock. However, their great diversity in structural characteristics and different levels of content in plants are responsible for a highly variable response in...... anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between tannin structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (m......DP), prodelphinidin/procyanidin (PC/PD) ratio and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. Tannins diluted in two concentrations in water, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), positive (ivermectin) and negative (water) controls were examined by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) with first stage larvae (L1) of...

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BARK OF HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of ethanolic and aqueous extract of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia using Eisenia foetida. Various concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extract were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Piperazine Citrate (10 mg/ml was included as standard. The results indicated that the ethanolic and aqueous extract significantly demonstrated paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at higher concentration as compared to standard references. In conclusion, the use of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Activity Of Gymnema sylvestre Leaves Against Pheretima posthuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Srinath Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre has been used as a traditional medicinal plant to prevent diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity of hot and cold hydroalcoholic extracts of Gymnema sylvestre leaves against Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (25-500 mg/ml of hot and cold hydroalcoholic extracts of Gymnema sylvestre were evaluated in the bioassay involving determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Albendazole was used as standard anthelmintic drug and distilled water was used as control. The results of present study indicated that the hydroalcoholic extracts significantly exhibited the paralysis in worms and also caused death of worms in dose dependent manner, among which hot maceration extract showing more significant results when compared with the cold maceration extract. Further studies have to be done to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity.

  14. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTHELMINTIC SCREENING OF LEAVES, BARK, ROOTS OF PLANT TABERNAEMONTANA CORONARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ushasri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tabernaemontana coronaria is a potential non cultivated medicinal plant widely distributed in waste lands and open forests in India. The alcoholic, ethereal and chloroform extracts were obtained from the plant Tabernaemontana coronaria by soxhlet extraction or continuous hot percolation method and the extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity, against locally available earth worms (Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (10, 30, 60 mg/ml were prepared from each extract and were used for the study over earth worms. The study involves the determination of time of paralysis and time for death of the earth worms tested. The results obtained from the study revealed that all the extracts of Tabernaemontana coronaria possess significant anthelmintic effect at highest concentration (60 mg/ml. A solution of Albendazole was prepared in same concentration as that of extract and was used as standard. A 5% tween-80 suspension prepared using normal saline solution was used as control or blank.

  15. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    OpenAIRE

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing p...

  16. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Amy B.; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, spe...

  17. Phyto chemical Screening, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anthelmintic Activity of Morinda citrifolia stem

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D. Gopala Krishna; C. H. Kethani Devi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) stem were subjected to preliminary screening for Antimicrobial and Aanthelmintic activity. The alcoholic extract exhibited significant Anti bacterial, Antifungal activity, comparable to the standard drug Tetracycline. The Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract were evaluated for Anthelmintic activity on adult Indian Earthworms, ‘Pheretima posithuma’. The Alcoholic extract produced more significant A...

  18. Organization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyketide anthelmintic macrolide avermectin in Streptomyces avermitilis

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Haruo; Nonomiya, Tomoko; Usami, Masayo; Ohta, Toshio; Ōmura, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the gene cluster from Streptomyces avermitilis that governs the biosynthesis of the polyketide anthelmintic avermectin revealed that it contains four large ORFs encoding giant multifunctional polypeptides of the avermectin polyketide synthase (AVES 1, AVES 2, AVES 3, and AVES 4). These clustered polyketide synthase genes responsible for avermectin biosynthesis together encode 12 homologous sets of enzyme activities (modules), each catalyzing a specific round of polyketide chain el...

  19. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum Thapsus Mullein

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Niaz; Ali Shah Syed; Shah Ismail; Ahmed Ghayour; Ghias Mehreen; Khan Imran; Ali Waqar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Methods V. thapsus extracts were tested against roundworms (Ascaridia galli) and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis). Each species of worm was placed into a negative control group, an albendazole treatment group, or a V. thapsus treatment group, and ...

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTHELMINTIC SCREENING OF LEAVES, BARK, ROOTS OF PLANT TABERNAEMONTANA CORONARIA

    OpenAIRE

    S.Ushasri; Ch.Gireesh kumar; M.Sarath Chandra Sekhar; Ramesh, N.; Satyanarayana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tabernaemontana coronaria is a potential non cultivated medicinal plant widely distributed in waste lands and open forests in India. The alcoholic, ethereal and chloroform extracts were obtained from the plant Tabernaemontana coronaria by soxhlet extraction or continuous hot percolation method and the extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity, against locally available earth worms (Pheretima posthuma). Three concentrations (10, 30, 60 mg/ml) were prepared from each extract and w...

  1. PREVALENCE AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HORSES

    OpenAIRE

    A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan) was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%), Oxyuris equi (12%), Parascaris equorum (8%) and mixed infection (5%). Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal paras...

  2. IN VITRO STUDY OF THE ANTHELMINTIC ACTION OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM L. GROWN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Ghafagaai

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of Trigonella foenum graecum stem and leaves was tested for lethal activity against Hymenolepis nana, Syphacia obvelata, and Moniezia expansa. The plant extract demonstrated good anthelmintic activity in vitro which is directly related to the concentration of the extract used. The extract also prevents the formation of Ascaris larvae from the eggs of Ascaris lumbrico- ides (human. Department of Pharmacology and Department of Pathobiology, School of Medicine, Universety of Isfahan, Isfahan IRAN.

  3. Prevalence, characterisation and management of anthelmintic resistance in gastro-intestinal nematodes of Scottish sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Bartley, David Jon

    2008-01-01

    The studies within this thesis have made a valuable contribution to our understanding of anthelmintic resistance in Scotland and in particular to the prevalence of benzimidazole (BZ) and ivermectin (IVM) resistance, the expression of multiple resistance and its management. Parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) is a major welfare issue not only for Scottish, UK and European farmers but also for livestock producers throughout the world. Parasites such as Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus ...

  4. Surveillance of Invitro Antioxidant and Anthelmintic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Syzygium Cumini Bark (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellickal Subramanyan Jayamohan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbal medicines have been used for treating various diseases from ancient times. Even in the era of advanced modern medicine, natural sources of antioxidants and pharmaceutical compounds are of great importance, many of such rich sources are still unearthed.Materials and methods: Methanolic extract of Jamun (Syzygium cumini tree bark was screened for in vitro- antioxidant activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening results showed S. cumini was positive for flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. Antioxidant studies includes DPPH scavenging activity, reducing capacity assessment, reducing effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and nitrous oxide scavenging activity against ascorbic acid (ASA standard.Results: The phenolic content was 480 mg % of gallic acid equivalents, tannin 1.9 mg % of gallic acid equivalents, tannin was 250 mg % of catechine equivalents on ferric chloride estimation and flavon content 66.17 µg/ ml was considerable. Anthelmintic property of methanolic and aqueous extract of S. cumini bark showed promising activity against control.Discussion: S. cumini could be a promising agent in antioxidant and anthelmintic research and could lead in development of new drug molecule. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the antioxidant and anthelmintic activity of S. cumini bark. 

  5. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Gerda; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Pauw, Elizabeth; Leboho, Tlabo; Wellington, Kevin W; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-01

    The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA). The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3%) at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%). The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cellular assay. PMID:27543148

  6. A STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM

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    Islam Md. Shamsul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the biological investigations of Clerodendrum viscosum – a plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The leaf of Clerodendrum viscosum was extracted with methanol and water. The crude extract of methanol of Clerodendrum viscosum was screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the result of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methanol extract possess cytotoxic principles (with LC50 3.696 µg/ml comparison with positive control vincristine sulphate (with LC50 0.773 µg /ml. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts from the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/ml of each extracts were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 50 mg/ml. Albendazole in 20mg/ml concentration extract was used as standard reference and saline solution as control. All the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner.

  7. In vitro anthelmintic effects of cysteine proteinases from plants against intestinal helminths of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann E; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2007-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are amongst the most prevalent worldwide, especially in tropical climates. Control of these infections is primarily through treatment with anthelmintic drugs, but the rapid development of resistance to all the currently available classes of anthelmintic means that alternative treatments are urgently required. Cysteine proteinases from plants such as papaya, pineapple and fig are known to be substantially effective against three rodent GI nematodes, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Trichuris muris and Protospirura muricola, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, based on in vitro motility assays and scanning electron microscopy, we extend these earlier reports, demonstrating the potency of this anthelmintic effect of plant cysteine proteinases against two GI helminths from different taxonomic groups - the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and the rodent cestode, Rodentolepis microstoma. In the case of hookworms, a mechanism of action targeting the surface layers of the cuticle indistinguishable from that reported earlier appears to be involved, and in the case of cestodes, the surface of the tegumental layers was also the principal location of damage. Hence, plant cysteine proteinases have a broad spectrum of activity against intestinal helminths (both nematodes and cestodes), a quality that reinforces their suitability for development as a much-needed novel treatment against GI helminths of humans and livestock. PMID:18005461

  8. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  9. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Spiegler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  10. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Niaz; Shah Syed; Shah Ismail; Ahmed Ghayour; Ghias Mehreen; Khan Imran

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Method...

  11. Cyclooctadepsipeptides--an anthelmintically active class of compounds exhibiting a novel mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Achim; Schmitt-Wrede, Hans-Peter; Krücken, Jürgen; Marinovski, Predrag; Wunderlich, Frank; Willson, James; Amliwala, Kiran; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert

    2003-09-01

    There are three major classes of anthelmintics for veterinary use: the benzimidazoles/prebenzimidazoles, the tetrahydropyrimidines/imidazothiazoles, and the macrocyclic lactones. In nematodes, there are five targets for the existing anthelmintics: the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor which is the target of tetrahydropyrimidines/imidazothiazoles and indirectly that of the acetylcholineesterase inhibitors; the GABA receptor which is the target of piperazine, the glutamate-gated chloride channel as the target of the macrocyclic lactones, and beta-tubulin as the target of prebenzimidazoles/benzimidazoles. All these anthelmintics are now in serious danger because of the worldwide spread of resistant nematodes in sheep, cattle, horses and pigs. The class of cyclooctadepsipeptides has entered the scene of anthelmintic research in the early 1990s. PF1022A, the first anthelmintically active member, is a natural compound from the fungus Mycelia sterilia that belongs to the microflora of the leaves of the Camellia japonica. PF1022A contains 4 N-Methyl-L-leucines, 2 D-lactic acids and 2-D-phenyllactic acids arranged as a cyclic octadepsipeptide with an alternating L-D-L-configuration. Emodepside is a semisynthetic derivative of PF1022A with a morpholine ring at each of the two D-phenyllactic acids in para position. The anthelmintic activity is directed against gastrointestinal nematodes in chicken, mice, rats, meriones, dogs, cats, sheep, cattle and horses. Moreover, emodepside is active against Trichinella spiralis larvae in muscles, microfilariae and preadult filariae and Dictyocaulus viviparus. PF1022A and emodepside are fully effective against benzimidazole-, levamisole or ivermectin-resistant nematodes in sheep and cattle. In Ascaris suum both cyclooctadepsipeptides lead to paralysis indicating a neuropharmacological action of these compounds. Using a PF1022A-ligand immunoscreening of a cDNA library from Haemonchus contortus a cDNA clone of 3569 base pairs could be

  12. Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants extract against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, goat farming, either as a full-time or part-time activity, is in increasingly being recognized as an economically beneficial livestock enterprise in tropical and sub tropical countries. Despite this popularity of goat industry, several constraints have limited the full potential of this farming activity in these countries. Among the multitude of impediments, which limit the development of the goat industry, gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major constraint in Sri Lanka like in other parts of the tropics. Recent studies in Sri Lanka have shown, gastrointestinal nematode infections decrease the productivity, particularly weight gain in meat goats in the dry zone. The work done in dry zone of Sri Lanka has indicated that an overwhelming majority (99%) of goats were affected by a moderate to high gastrointestinal nematode infection. Successful control gastrointestinal nematodiasis infection is important for the sustainable productivity of the goat industry. The control of gastrointestinal nematodiasis is usually performed using synthetic anthelmintics. The appearance of nematode resistance to these anthelmintics and several other factors highlight the need to developing alternatives. This stimulated the research of alternatives, such as medicinal plants to control gastrointestinal nematodiasis. According to circumstances and depending on their efficacy, naturally produced plant anthelmintics offer an alternative that can overcome some of these problems and is both sustainable and environmentally acceptable. Fifteen plant extracts were screened using an in vitro larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Out of the fifteen crude extracts Azadiractha indica (neem) seed (NS), Areca catechu(areca-nut) unripe fruit kernel(AUFK), Adhatoda vasica (pavatta-adathoda) leaves (PL), caused a significant(P 0.05). ANUFK and PL extracts at the dose rates used was effective in controlling the GI nematodiasis in goats. ANUFK and PL could be used in control

  13. Efficacy of selected anthelmintic drugs against cyathostomins in horses in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Juliane K; Hinney, Barbara; Denwood, Matthew J; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2015-12-01

    Cyathostomins are currently the most common internal parasites of horses. With the intensive use of anthelmintic drugs over the past decades, resistance of cyathostomins to anthelmintics is becoming a growing problem in many countries. The aim of this study was to assess the current situation on horse farms in the German federal state of Brandenburg. A pre-selected population of horses from 24 premises that had shown a prevalence of cyathostomins higher than the average in a previous study was examined for anthelmintic efficacy. Faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) were performed for ivermectin (IVM) and pyrantel (PYR). For IVM, the egg reappearance period (ERP) was also examined, as a shortened ERP can be indicative of developing resistance. The efficacy of IVM on cyathostomins was high: 99.1 % of 224 horses had a zero egg count 14 days after treatment. No shortening of the ERP was detected. For the data of the FECRT for PYR, three different methods of calculation were employed: (a) the method as recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), (b) a bootstrapping method and (c) a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Two methods of interpretation for these data were used: Resistance was declared (a) when FECR was <90 % and the lower 95 % confidence interval (LCL) <80 % and (b) when additionally the upper 95 % confidence level (UCL) was <95 %. When applying the first interpretation, resistance against PYR was found on four yards, while, when considering the UCL, all three methods for calculation only detected resistance on one single yard. Twelve species of cyathostomins were detected in larval cultures derived from strongyle egg positive faecal samples collected 14 days after treatment with PYR by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB). In order to generate comparable data, it is suggested to establish international standards for the calculation of FECRT data. PMID:26337266

  14. Gastrointestinal nematode infection and performance of weaned stocker calves in response to anthelmintic control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Miller, J E; Monlezun, C J; LaMay, D; Navarre, C; Ensley, D

    2013-10-18

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite control recommendations are in a state of flux because of the increase in anthelmintic resistant cattle parasites, such as Cooperia spp. In addition, Cooperia spp. infection is typically high in warm-season grass pastures and can affect growth performance of grazing stocker calves in the Gulf Coast Region. This study evaluated the effects of moxidectin pour-on, oxfendazole oral suspension, or a combination of the two given at separate times on infection and performance of weaned beef calves grazing summer forages. Steers (n=42) and heifers (n=31) were stratified by sex, d-11 fecal egg count (FEC), and d-1 shrunk body weight (BW) to one of 10 pastures with four anthelmintic treatments and one control. Treatments included: (1) oxfendazole given on d 0 and moxidectin on d 73 (O+M), (2) moxidectin given on d 0 and oxfendazole on d 73 (M+O), (3) moxidectin given on d 0 (M), (4) oxfendazole given on d 0 (O) and (5) no anthelmintic given (CON). Calves grazed for d-110 beginning May 27th. Response variables were FEC (collected on d-11, 14, 31, 45, 59, 73, 87 and 108), coprocultures (evaluated for d 87 and 108), final shrunk BW, shrunk BW gain, average daily gain (ADG), and full BW gain (collected on d 31, 59, 73, 87, and 108). Calves treated with either oxfendazole (O+M and O) or moxidectin (M+O and M) on d 0 had significantly lower (Pparasite control and improve animal gains for stocker calves grazing warm-season grass pastures. PMID:23953143

  15. Anthelmintic Activity of a Herbal Formulation Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

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    Muhammad Arfan Zaman*§, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of a herbal formulation (HF based on aqueous extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. In vitro, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to different concentrations of HF following the standard procedures of egg hatch test (EHT; 50 to 0.024414 mg ml-1 and adult motility assay (AMA; 200-0.1953125mg ml-1, respectively. The reference drugs used in the study were oxfendazole (0.0056704 to 0.0000027 mg ml-1 and levamisole (1.50 mg ml-1 for EHT and AMA, respectively. In vivo, pre and post-treatment (4 mg, 2 mg and 500 µg kg-1 body weight fecal egg counts were determined following standard fecal egg count reduction test in sheep naturally parasitized with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. In EHT, LC50 values of HF and oxfendazole (reference drug were 275.1 and 0.016 µg ml-1, respectively. In AMA, 100% mortality of H. contortus was observed 6 hr post-exposure to 3.125-200 mg ml-1 concentrations of HF and 2 hr post-exposure to levamisole. In vivo, maximum (96.2% fecal egg count (EPG reduction was recorded in sheep treated with HF @ 4 mg kg-1 body weight; whereas, 89.3% reduction in EPG was recorded in sheep treated with levamisole @ 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. A graded dose response was noted in all the tests used in the present study to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of HF. Therefore, HF seems to be promising as an anthelmintic for animals. Large scale trials on efficacy and safety, however, are recommended before the HF is considered for commercialization in crude form.

  16. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems. PMID:24077919

  17. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

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    Gunawardena GSA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would

  18. Advanced systems for the rapid detection of anthelmintic drugs in food

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Jemma Louise

    2011-01-01

    Several surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assays were developed and validated for the detection of anthelmintic veterinary drugs in liver tissue and milk using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction procedure. The first screening assay was developed to detect 11 benzimidazole carbamates in milk and liver. In bovine milk the assay showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.7 μg kg-1 and a detection capability (CCβ) of 5 μg kg-1. Analyte recovery was in th...

  19. Comparative Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Tiwari; Bimlesh Kumar; Manoj Kumar; Mandeep Kaur; Pardeep Sharma; Jiban Debnath

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem of Tinospora cordifolia using Eisenia foetida at four different concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts exhibited very significant activities as compared to the standard drug piperazine c...

  20. In vitro study on anthelmintic activity of Aristolochia indica and A. tagala roots

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Marina G.; Bheemappa, Eswarappa; Pai, Vasantakumar K.; Byahatti, Vivek V.; Tule, Chandramouli

    2011-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to screen the anthelmintic potential of aqueous root extracts of Aristolochia indica Linn. and A. tagala Cham. against adult Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma and round worms Ascaridia galli. Different concentrations of the extracts ranging from 2-8 mg/mL were screened. Piperazine citrate was used as reference standard. Extract of A. tagala was found to be more potent and effective at the dose level of 2 mg/mL compared to the extract of A. indica. Extra...

  1. Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L

    2003-05-15

    Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional farmers had not any form of worm control practice. Worm infection was ranked the second most important constraint of productivity in cattle in the three production systems. Most farms (57.6% traditional, 35.8% small-scale dairy, 66.7% large-scale dairy) used anthelmintics with a combination of levamisole and oxyclozanide. Benzimidazoles were used only in traditional (25.4%) and small-scale dairy (32.1%) farms while nitroxynil (Trodax) was mostly used in large-scale dairy farms (33.3%). Generally, 40% of farmers treated three or four times a year and the frequency in some farms was surprisingly high for resource poor small-scale farmers. The frequency of anthelmintic treatment was mostly the same regardless of the management system. Treatments in most farms depended on availability of money and drugs and not the epidemiology of parasites. A significant proportion (46.3%, P=0.007) of farmers especially in rural areas failed to follow their pre-planned treatment schedules due to lack of money (86%) and unavailability of drugs (6.6%). Many farmers (58.9%) had used the same type of anthelmintic for four or more consecutive years and 85.3% of them would continue with the same anthelmintic. Farmers in all management systems mostly purchased anthelmintics from private veterinary drug shops and about 43% traditional and 33.3% small-scale dairy farmers mostly in rural areas obtained anthelmintics from village extension officers. Despite the fact that all farmers were aware of worm

  2. Effect of combinations of marketed human anthelmintic drugs against Trichuris muris in vitro and in vivo

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    Keiser Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are responsible for a huge public health burden, however treatment options are limited. The discovery and development of novel efficacious drugs or drug combinations for the treatment of STH infections therefore has a high research priority. Methods We studied drug combination effects using the main standard anthelmintics, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin in the Trichuris muris model. Drug combinations were first tested in vitro and additive and synergistic combinations investigated further in vivo in female mice using ratios based on the ED50 of the respective drugs. Results In vitro all 10 combinations of the standard anthelmintics tested against T. muris revealed synergistic behavior. We identified three drug combinations in vivo as strongly synergistic, namely mebendazole-ivermectin (Combination index (CI=0.16, mebendazole-levamisole (CI=0.17 and albendazole-mebendazole (CI=0.23. For albendazole-ivermectin, moderate synergism was observed (CI=0.81 and for albendazole-levamisole a nearly additive effect was documented (CI=0.93 in vivo. Five combinations (albendazole-pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate-ivermectin were antagonistic in vivo. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies.

  3. Comparative Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem of Tinospora cordifolia using Eisenia foetida at four different concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts exhibited very significant activities as compared to the standard drug piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml. The time of paralysis and death was recorded as 9 ± 0.57 and 15.83 ± 0.60 in case of aqueous extract, on the other hand it was recorded as 4.16 ± 0.30 and 10.83 ± 0.60 in case of ethanolic extracts. In conclusion, the use of stem of Tinospora cordifolia as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity

  4. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT EXTRACT USING INDIAN EARTHWORM (PHERITIMA POSTHUMA

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    Dey P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple is a favorite for the lovers of fruit in its fresh forms as well as in preserves like jams, jellies and squashes. Two varieties of Pineapples (Queen and Kew are available in Tripura during mid-May to mid-September. The plant is well known for its different folk medicines like the root and fruit are either eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory, digestive and anthelmintic. It was observed that the people of Tripura especially the Tribes are use the juice of matured root or fruit in worm. Research shows that, mainly bromelain is responsible for all its therapeutic activity.The agriculture of Tripura, each year, gets a special boost from pineapple production between the middle of May and middle of September, both inclusive. Pineapple’s leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber and are employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses. This allows the crop to contribute a significant proportion in the economy of the state.The present study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of fruit extract (Aqueous of Pineapple using Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma.All the extracts were found not only to paralysis (vermifuge but also to kill the earthworms (vermicidal. But the concentration of 40mg/ml fruit extract showed the maximum effect in respect of 20 and 10 mg/ml.

  5. The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-03-01

    We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. However, in vivo trials indicated far less efficacy of stem bromelain and fruit bromelain than that expected from the in vitro experiments (24.5% and 22.4% reduction in worm burdens, respectively) against H. bakeri. Scanning electron microscopy revealed signs of cuticular damage on worms incubated in fruit bromelain, stem bromelain and actinidain, but this was far less extensive than on those incubated in papaya latex supernatant. We conclude that, on the basis of presently available data, CPs derived from pineapples and kiwi fruits are not suitable for development as novel anthelmintics for intestinal nematode infections. PMID:24176056

  6. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2016-05-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a natural parasite of the common brown rat Rattus norvegicus, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of the anthelmintic activity of novel drugs against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of rats infected with H. diminuta with a supernatant extract of papaya latex, containing a mixture of four cysteine proteinases, was moderately efficacious, resulting in a significant, but relatively small, reduction in worm burden and biomass. However, faecal egg output was not affected by treatment. In our experiments these effects were only partially dose-dependent, although specific inhibition by E-64 confirmed the role of cysteine proteinases as the active principles in papaya latex affecting worm growth but not statistically reducing worm burden. Data collected for a further 7 days after treatment indicated that the effects of papaya latex supernatant on worm loss and on worm growth were not enhanced. Our findings provide a starting point for further refinement in formulation and delivery, or assessment of alternative natural plant-derived cysteine proteinases in efforts to develop these naturally occurring enzymes into broad-spectrum anthelmintics, with efficacy against cestodes as well as nematodes. PMID:25761568

  7. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

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    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  8. Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

    2013-01-01

    Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake. PMID:23691580

  9. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia Amygdalina (Asteraceae and Alstonia Boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae

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    Ketor, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris. The worms were directly exposed to 50, 100, and 200 mg/ml of aque-ous and ethanolic bark extracts of Alstonia boonei and leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and piperazine citrate in a petri dish and in an organ bath. The control group was exposed to distilled water. The time of paralysis and death were determined within a period of 6 h in the petri dish method whiles spontaneous movements of the worms before and after drug administration were recorded on a slow moving kymograph drum in the organ bath method. All doses of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.001 reduced the time of paralysis and time of death compared to the vehicle treated group. The time of paralysis and time of death in the tissue bath method corresponded to that obtained by direct exposure. The extracts exhibited anthelmintic ac-tivity and thus could be an inexpensive and readily available source of anthelmintic treatment.

  10. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  11. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J.; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R.; Gilleard, John S.; Beech, Robin N.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:25516826

  12. Monoaminergic signaling as a target for anthelmintic drug discovery: receptor conservation among the free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuniecki, Richard; Law, Wen Jing; Jex, Aaron; Geldhof, Peter; Gray, John; Bamber, Bruce; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-05-01

    This review is designed to summarize the information on monoamine-dependent paralysis as a target for anthelmintic development, examine the conservation of monoamine receptors in the genomes of both free-living and parasitic nematodes, and highlight the utility of the Caenorhabditis elegans model system for dissecting the monoaminergic modulation of locomotory decision-making. PMID:22343182

  13. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of total phenolic content, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial activities of Solanum violaceum Ortega. (Family:Solanaceae

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    Golam Sarwar Raju

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Since S. violaceum have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activities, more studies such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and other pharmacological activities should be carried out to justify its traditional use, as the plant is available and used broadly in the rural areas for folkloric remedies. 

  14. Correlation of polyphenolic content with radical-scavenging capacity and anthelmintic effects of Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae) against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-05-15

    Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06mg QE/g and 7.42mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71mg QE/g and 0.29mg CE/g DW, respectively) (ptannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0.01, respectively) or ABTS radicals (r=0.893, 0.765 and 0.722, p<0.01, respectively) and with inhibition of egg hatching (r=0.874, 0.883 and 0.862, p<0.01, respectively). Highest inhibition of motility (100%) of worms was observed 8h post-exposure in aqueous and methanolic extract at 8mg/mL. To our knowledge, these results depict for the first time that R. ulmifolius possesses in vitro anthelmintic properties. PMID:27084470

  15. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  16. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different

  17. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were

  18. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  19. The Anthelmintic Activity of Selected Indigenous Medicinal Plants Used by The anyankole of Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olila Deogracious

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been growing interest in the traditional cures of livestock diseases. This is because industrially produced drugs are too expensive for some sectors of the farming community especially in the developing world. Medicinal plants are often cheaper and more easily available than the commercially produced drugs. The self-help study in form of traditional medicines (especially from medicinal plants, offer a way out by making use of resources available within the communities themselves. Despite the steady increase in demand for herbal medicines over the past decade worldwide, a great majority of herbal products are not pharmacologically assessed for their quality, safety and efficacy, nor are they licensed as medicine. In this study some of the medicinal plants used by the Banyankole (an ethnic group with a long history of cattle-keeping and the use of medicinal plants have been tested in vitro using the Ascaris model. Seven plants were studied (Vernonia amygdalina, Cassia didymobotrya, Rhoicissus tridentata, Phytolacca dodecandra, Euphorbia hirta, Aspilla africana and Cymbopogon nardus. Aspillia africana and Cymbopogon nardus did not show anthelmintic activity in this test system. The other five showed anthelmintic activity (Vernonia amygdalina, Cassia didymobotrya, Rhoicissus tridentata, Phytolacca dodecandra and Euphorbia hirta. Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Rhoicissus tridentata and Cassia didymobotrya showed higher activity than Euphorbia hirta and Phytolacca dodecandra (Vernonia amygdalina (ED50 of 3.533 mg mL 1, Rhoicissus tridentata (ED50 of 4.355 mg mL 1 and Cassia didymobotrya (ED50 of 4.880 mg mL 1; Euphorbia hirta (ED50 of 5.866 mg mL 1 and Phytolacca dodecandra (ED50 of 7.151 mg mL 1. Further studies on the five plants are needed. Phytochemical analysis to determine the active principles that are responsible for anthelmintic activity are urgently called for. This would help in identifying the spectrum of activity of

  20. In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominatly Haemonchus contortus egg population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones. Chicory leaves contain significant amounts of lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the proportions of these three sesquiterpene lactones vary among fora...

  1. Major constituents and anthelmintic activity of volatile oils from leaves and flowers of Cymbopogon martini Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, S A; Girme, A S; Bhalke, R D

    2007-11-01

    The major volatile constituents of leaves and flowers of Cymbopogon martini from the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation were identified by GC/MS. Five constituents were identified from the volatile oil of leaves and flowers, which constituted about 82.49 and 75.63% of the total amount, respectively. A monoterpene, piperitone (6.00%), was identified in the flowers of C. martini; in addition, flowers were found to contain more olefinic terpenes, namely geraniol (69.63%), compared with leaves (53.41%). Leaves contain bicyclic monoterpene, nerol (24.76%) and alpha-pinene (4.32%). Anthelmintic activity of these oils was evaluated on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and results showed that the volatile oil of C. martini flower required less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms. PMID:17987504

  2. PREVALENCE AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%, Oxyuris equi (12%, Parascaris equorum (8% and mixed infection (5%. Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal parasites. Each group had five animals, comprising four treatment horses and a control horse. Abamectin was evaluated against these gastrointestinal parasites with a single shot at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight administered through subcutaneous route which resulted in 98% reduction in faecal egg count after day 14 post-treatment. Non-treated horses remained positive for gastrointestinal parasites. No adverse reactions were observed during the experimental period. It was concluded that Abamectin is highly effective against gastrointestinal parasites in horses.

  3. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of various tannin structures against Cooperia oncophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2013-01-01

    The use of tannin-rich plants against gastro-intestinal nematodes is an alternative currently investigated to avoid the exclusive use of anthelmintic (AH) synthetic drugs and prevent the spread of resistance among these nematode populations. Studies of AH effects on cattle nematodes using tannin......-rich legumes such as Onobrychis viciifolia have been carried out in vitro but the contribution of all structural parameters from their condensed tannins has not been yet completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between structure and AH activity in vitro. A series of...... activity using the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) and the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay on Cooperia oncophora. Preliminaries results with the LFIA showed that high AH activity was due to tannins with increasing prodelphinidin/procyanidin and cis/trans ratios. The variation in mDP between...

  4. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria. PMID:23076819

  5. Anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles derived from a phytopathogenic fungus, Nigrospora oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Kar

    Full Text Available Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ∼6 to ∼18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, which are in cubic phase. The FTIR spectroscopic studies before and after the formation of nanoparticles show the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The latter were tested as vermifugal agents against a model cestode Raillietina sp., an intestinal parasite of domestic fowl. Further, ultrastructural and biochemical parameters were used to corroborate the efficacy study.

  6. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    contribute to cause this high variability and these must be taken into account to accurately identify a reduction in anthelmintic efficacy. To address this problem, we developed a hierarchical statistical model for analysis of FECRT data from multiple farms. The model includes animal effect and farm clusters...... (48.4 %) testing positive. The efficacy of pyrantel was unaffected by the presence of S. vulgaris on the farm. The cutoff LCL values used for classifying farms as pyrantel resistant were: >92%: no resistance, 88-92%: suspect resistance, and <88%: resistance. Using model-adjusted LCLs, we classified 7...... as random effects. Resistance classifications are based on model adjusted lower confidence limit (LCL) values of predicted mean efficacies on each farm. The model was used to evaluate the efficacy of pyrantel embonate paste from 64 Danish horse farms. On these farms 614 out of 1644 horses had egg...

  7. Anthelmintic effect of Mentha spp. essential oils on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Marina A; Albanese, Adriana A; Gende, Liesel B; Eguaras, Martín J; Denegri, Guillermo M; Elissondo, María Celina

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of Mentha piperita and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Echinococcus granulosus and to compare the effectiveness of both oils according to the exposure time and concentration. Although both treatments had a protoscolicidal effect, M. pulegium had a considerably stronger effect than M. piperita. Essential oil of M. pulegium produced dose- and time-dependent effects. Maximal protoscolicidal effect was observed after 12 days of incubation and reached 0% after 18 days. This lack of viability was proved during the determination of infectivity into mice. Essential oil of M. piperita produced only a time-dependent effect. At 24 days p.i., the viability of protoscoleces decreased to approximately 50%. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) demonstrated the drug-induced ultrastructural damage. On the other hand, a loss of turgidity was detected in all M. pulegium-treated cysts respective of the drug concentration. There was a correlation between the intensity of damage and the concentration of the essential oil assayed. Studies by SEM revealed that the germinal layer of treated cysts lost the feature multicellular structure. M. pulegium essential oil showed piperitone oxide as main compound in their composition, and we suggest that this component could be responsible of the markedly anthelmintic effect detected. Our data suggest that essential oils of Mentha spp. can be a promising source of potential protoscolicidal agents. The isolation of active anthelmintic constituents is in progress and may lead to the discovery of compounds with improved therapeutic value. PMID:21845411

  8. In vitro and in vivo screening of anthelmintic activity of ginger and curcumin on Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazh, Eman K A; El-Bahy, Nasr M

    2013-11-01

    Intestinal helmintic infection, continue to be a cause of major concern in several parts of the world, particularly in the developing nations. The use of plant extracts to control poultry helminths is increasing in different rearing systems. The anthelmintic activity of ginger and curcumin was studied on the nematode Ascaridia galli. In vitro and in vivo studies were allocated. Live parasites for in vitro studies were collected from the intestine of naturally infected chickens. Some living worms were incubated at 37 °C in media containing ginger at three concentration levels (25, 50, and 100 mg/ml), and others were incubated in media containing curcumin at the same concentration levels. Another living worm group was incubated in media containing albendazole at a dose of 7.5 mg/ml. The extracts' efficacy was exhibited in a concentration-time-dependent manner mainly at 100 mg/ml and after 48 h. The in vivo study takes place on experimentally infected chickens. Group of infected chickens was treated with ginger extract at dose of 100 mg, another group was treated with curcumin extract at dose of 100 mg, and a third group was treated with albendazole at dose of 7.5 mg. In vivo study of ginger and curcumin recorded lower mortality rates than the in vitro study. It is concluded that ginger and curcumin extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. Ginger in all concentrations used exhibited a higher death rate observed than curcumin. Their wormicidal effect is concentration-time dependent. PMID:24046262

  9. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3906906

  10. Protection and Delivery of Anthelmintic Protein Cry5B to Nematodes Using Mesoporous Silicon Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie; Aroian, Raffi V; Sailor, Michael J

    2015-06-23

    The ability of nano- and microparticles of partially oxidized mesoporous silicon (pSi) to sequester, protect, and deliver the anthelmintic pore-forming protein Cry5B to nematodes is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Thermally oxidized pSi particles are stable under gastric conditions and show relatively low toxicity to nematodes. Fluorescence images of rhodamine-labeled pSi particles within the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum show that ingestion is dependent on particle size: particles of a 0.4 ± 0.2 μm size are noticeably ingested by both species within 2 h of introduction in vitro, whereas 5 ± 2 μm particles are excluded from C. elegans but enter the pharynx region of A. ceylanicum after 24 h. The anthelmintic protein Cry5B, a pore-forming crystal (Cry) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is incorporated into the pSi particles by aqueous infiltration. Feeding of Cry5B-loaded pSi particles to C. elegans leads to significant intoxication of the nematode. Protein-loaded particles of size 0.4 μm display the highest level of in vitro toxicity toward C. elegans on a drug-mass basis. The porous nanostructure protects Cry5B from hydrolytic and enzymatic (pepsin) degradation in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for time periods up to 2 h. In vivo experiments with hookworm-infected hamsters show no significant reduction in worm burden with the Cry5B-loaded particles, which is attributed to slow release of the protein from the particles and/or short residence time of the particles in the duodenum of the animal. PMID:25950754

  11. Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-07-01

    The source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. The egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Annona squamosa L., Datura metel L., and Solanum torvum Swartz were tested against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with five replicates. All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 48 and exposure for egg hatching and LDA, respectively; however, 100% egg hatching and larvicidal inhibition were found in the methanol extracts of A. paniculata, A. squamosa, D. metel, and S. torvum at 25 mg/ml and the effect was similar to positive control of Albendazole (0.075 mg/ml) and Ivermectin (0.025mg/ml) against H. contortus, respectively. The EHA result showed the ED(50) of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and D. metel, which were 2.90 and 3.08 mg/ml, and in larval development assay, the ED(50) was 4.26 and 3.86 mg/ml, respectively. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies. PMID:21161270

  12. Poor efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics in sport horse nematodes in Morocco in relation to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouiten H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport and leisure horses in Morocco are treated with several anthelmintics, organophosphates (dichlorvos, benzimidazoles (mostly thiabendazole or tetrahydropyrimidines (mostly pyrantel pamoate against nematodes. We studied three horse stables in Rabat, one in Meknes and one in Bouznika. Two of the Rabat and Bouznika stables had introduced a large number of horses from countries (Argentina or Europe where resistance to benzimidazoles is frequent, whereas the Meknes stud farm remained without foreign introduction. The number of treatments was not very frequent (twice a year in adult horses but the same anthelmintics were used repeatedly. No resistance to dichlorvos was detected whereas benzimidazole and pyrantel pamoate resistances were detected for the first time in African horses, outside South Africa.

  13. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

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    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  14. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman; Todd, Jim; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that helminth infections increase the risk of malaria infection and are associated with increased number of malaria attacks and anaemia. Thus interventions to control helminth infections may have an impact on incidence of clinical malaria and anaemia. The...... current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... study of 1546 children. Enrolled children were randomized to receive either repeated treatment with praziquantel and albendazole four times a year (intervention group, 394 children) or single dose treatment with praziquantel and albendazole once a year (control group, 371 children). Follow up...

  15. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Andrew R.; Aina Ramsay; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M; Helena Mejer; Peter Nejsum; Irene Mueller-Harvey; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated tha...

  16. Factors affecting the anthelmintic efficacy of cysteine proteinases against GI nematodes and their formulation for use in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Luoga, Wenceslaus

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are important helminth pathogens responsible for severe losses to livestock industries and human health throughout the world. Control of these infections relies primarily on chemotherapy; however there is rapid development of resistance to all available classes of anthelmintic drugs, and therefore new alternative treatments are urgently required. Plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya latex, pineapple fruit and stem extracts have been demonstrated to b...

  17. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardena GSA; Siriwardana C; Paranavitane S; Ismail M; Fernando S.

    2008-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural), were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 year...

  18. Anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis L. methanolic leaf extract on Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum and its acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    John N. Kateregga; Maria Nabayunga; Patrick Vudriko; James G. Ndukui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cassia occidentalis is traditionally used to treat helminth infestations in poultry. We investigated the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of this plant against Heterakis gallinarum and Ascaridia galli worms and its acute toxicity. Methods: Leaves of the plant were air dried, ground into powder and extracted with 70% methanol, filtered and dried at 50℃ into a dark green semi-solid mass. The worms were isolated from fresh intestines of local chi...

  19. Comparative efficacy of anthelmintics and their effects on hematobiochemical changes in fasciolosis of goats of South Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Shrimali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola spp. of the family Fasciolidae (trematodes characterized by bottle jaw, anemia, progressive debility, and potbelly condition. There are many aspects of fasciolosis remaining unknown thus hemato-biochemical alterations in closantel, triclabendazole + ivermectin, and oxyclozanide + levamisole treated goats were studied. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 naturally fasciolosis infected goats having egg per gram more than 100 were randomly divided into four groups. Goats of Group I-III were treated with three different anthelmintics, whereas, goats of Group-IV were kept as control or untreated. Whole blood, serum, and fecal samples were collected on 0, 7th, and 30th day of treatment. Results: During the study, values of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, pack cell volume, and total protein were significantly elevated to their normal levels in anthelmintics treated groups. Whereas, values of total leukocyte count, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT were significantly reduced to their normal level in anthelmintics treated groups. The efficacy of closantel (T1, triclabendazole + ivermectin (T2, and oxyclozanide + levamisole (T3 was 99.63%, 100%, and 94.74% and 100%, 100%, and 97.38% on 7th and 30th day of treatment, respectively. Conclusions: Fasciolosis in goats can be diagnosed on the basis of fecal sample examination, but alterations in important biomarkers such as AST, GGT, and LDH are also helpful for early diagnosis. The use of newer anthelmintic either alone or in combination showed a higher therapeutic response in fasciolosis of goats.

  20. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  1. Influence of Ascaridia galli infections and anthelmintic treatments on the behaviour and social ranks of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauly, M; Duss, C; Erhardt, G

    2007-05-31

    In the present study, the effects of an experimental Ascaridia galli infection and anthelmintic treatment on the behaviour and social status of laying hens of two different lines were studied. Sixty white (Lohmann LSL; LSL) and 60 brown (Lohmann Brown; LB) hens were reared under helminth-free conditions. The hens of each line were divided into four groups. The birds in two of the groups were artificially infected with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs at an age of 27 weeks. The other two groups were kept as uninfected controls. One infection and control group was dewormed at 38 weeks of age and slaughtered 4 weeks later, contemporary with the other animals. Individual faecal Ascaridia egg counts (FEC) were performed 11 weeks post-infection (p.i.). Body weights, laying performance and egg weights were recorded regularly. Blood was taken to measure testosterone levels. The worm burdens established in the intestines were counted in the infected not treated group after slaughtering. In addition, 15 behavioural parameters were recorded by focal animal observation (n=10 per group) of one infection (plus anthelmintic treatment) and one control group, according to the time-sampling method throughout the experiment. All agonistic interactions within the groups were recorded simultaneously on an ongoing basis, thereby allowing the calculation of an individual social rank index. The following results were obtained: Mean FEC and worm burden were higher (p 0.05) from the controls. Infections with A. galli resulted in significant behavioural changes in both lines as the infected birds showed a higher food intake and lower locomotion activity during the prepatent and patent periods. After anthelmintic treatment, food intake decreased and locomotion increased. Behavioural changes were more pervasive in the infected LSL hens, as these hens also showed changes in ground pecking and nesting activity not only during the prepatent and patent periods, but also after anthelmintic treatment

  2. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. PMID:23357510

  3. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  4. UV/Visible Spectroscopic Quantification of Veterinary Anthelmintic Drug Oxfendazole in Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendraprasad, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2016-07-01

    Oxfendazole (OFA) is a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic medication used to treat veterinary diseases. Two new, simple, rapid, precise and accurate, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the assay of OFA in its pure form and in its boluses. The first method (method A) is based on the measurement of green colored manganate obtained due to oxidation of OFA by permanganate in an alkaline medium at 610 nm. In the second method (Method B), the chromophoric activity of OFA is measured at 290 nm in the acetic acid-water (1:1) solvent system. OFA has been quantified over the linear ranges of 1.25-12.5 and 1.25-10 μg/mL in method A and method B, respectively, with apparent molar absorptivity values of 2.54 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 L·mol-1·cm-1. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and Sandell sensitivity values are 0.15 u 0.18 μg/mL, 0.46 and 0.56 μg/mL, and 0.0124 and 0.0148 μg/cm2. The developed methods were successfully applied to determine OFA in the bolus. No interference from adjuvants was observed.

  5. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Mendoza-Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50 on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes.

  6. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  7. Enhancement of bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole by solid dispersion and cyclodextrin complexation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvan, R; Mohanta, G P; Madhusudan, S; Manna, P K; Manavalan, R

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) employing solid dispersion and cyclodextrin complexation techniques. Solid dispersion (dispersion) was prepared using ABZ and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer (1:1 weight ratio). Ternary inclusion complex (ternary complex) was prepared using ABZ, hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and L-tartaric acid (1:1:1 molar ratio). In rabbits with high gastric acidity (gastric pH approximately 1), ternary complex and solid dispersion showed a bioavailability enhancement of 3.2 and 2.4 fold respectively, compared to a commercial suspension (p 5) caused a 62% reduction in AUC (area under the plasma level curve) for the commercial suspension, whereas the reduction in case of PVP dispersion and ternary complex was only 43% and 37% respectively. The rapid absorption of the drug from solid dispersion and ternary complex was reflected in improved anthelmintic efficacy against the systemic phases of Trichinella spiralis. The ternary complex was significantly more efficient than solid dispersion and exhibited the highest larvicidal activity (90%) at a dose of 50 mg x kg(-1) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the ternary complex might be high even if there is a great variation in the gastric pH. PMID:17867556

  8. The anthelmintic drug niclosamide induces apoptosis, impairs metastasis and reduces immunosuppressive cells in breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinghong Ye

    Full Text Available Breast carcinoma is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Discovery of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is still needed. Here, we reported our finding with niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelmintic drug. The potency of niclosamide on breast cancer was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we found that niclosamide showed a dramatic growth inhibition against breast cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of 4T1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Western blot analysis demonstrated the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with activation of Cleaved caspases-3, down-regulation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Survivin. Moreover, niclosamide blocked breast cancer cells migration and invasion, and the reduction of phosphorylated STAT3(Tyr705, phosphorylated FAK(Tyr925 and phosphorylated Src(Tyr416 were also observed. Furthermore, in our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg/d niclosamide suppressed 4T1 tumor growth without detectable toxicity. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a decrease in Ki67-positive cells, VEGF-positive cells and microvessel density (MVD and an increase in Cleaved caspase-3-positive cells upon niclosamide. Notably, niclosamide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs in tumor tissues and blocked formation of pulmonary metastases. Taken together, these results demonstrated that niclosamide may be a promising candidate for breast cancer.

  9. Anthelmintic effects of a cationic toxin from a South American rattlesnake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, C; Moreira, J T; Pinto, S; Monte, G G; Nering, M B; Oliveira, E B; Gazarini, M L; Mori, M A; Hayashi, M A F

    2016-06-15

    Despite the unquestionable importance of the highly cationic feature of several small polypeptides with high content of positively charged amino acids for their biological activities, positively charged peptides do not necessarily have the capacity to cross the cell membranes. Interestingly, we found that crotamine, a positively charged amphiphilic peptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, has a unique cell-penetrating property with affinity for acidic vesicles, besides a well-characterized antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. In spite of a remarkable in vitro antifungal activity of crotamine against Candida spp., no significant effect of this peptide could be observed in the course of Candida albicans and Candida krusei infection on Caenorhabditis elegans asssed in vivo. These experiments, in which the nematode C. elegans was used as a living host, suggested, however, the potential anthelmintic activity of crotamine because of its uptake by the worms and accumulation in their acidic compartments. As described in the present work, this lysosomotropic property is consistent with a previously proposed mechanism of toxicity of crotamine on mammalian tumoral cell lines. This study also allowed us to propose the cationic peptides with lysosomotropic property, as crotamine, as a potential new class of anthelmentics with ability to overcome the challenging problems of drug resistance. PMID:26713409

  10. Anthelmintic effect of condensed tannins in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminthiasis infections are considerate one of the main limiting factors in sheep production worldwide. The development of parasite resistance to anthelmintics has caused significant losses of small ruminant production. In the search for new alternatives for effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, phytotherapy is a promising field of research in an attempt to reduce the usage of chemical treatments, aimed at ecological production. Many plants play a crucial role in maintaining animal and human life. During human evolution many interactions with other organisms were established and they have affected each other in many ways. Plants have developed biochemical mechanisms to defend themselves from biological antagonists that act as their natural enemies. This principle has led scientists to search for bio-active compounds produced by plants against pathogens. Since these discovers their metabolites are evaluated against diseases of importance not only in public health, but also in animal production. This article presents a review of studies with tanniniferous plants scientifically tested worldwide for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in ruminants.

  11. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  12. Free radical scavenging, antidiarrheal and anthelmintic activity of Pistia stratiotes L. extracts and its phytochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Karim, Mohammed Faisal; Imam, Hasan; Sarker, Md Moklesur-Rahman; Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Nahid; Paul, Nirmala; Haque, Tahmina

    2015-05-01

    In this phyto-pharmacological screening of Pistia stratiotes L leaf and root extracts each separately in two different solvents demonstrated its potential medicinal value. Apparent antioxidant value is demonstrated by DPPH, Nitric oxide scavenging and Ferric ion reducing method. Additionally, total flavonoid and phenolic compounds were measured. The leaf methanolic extract scavenged both nitric oxide (NO) and DPPH radical with a dose dependent manner. But the pet ether fraction of root was found to have highest efficacy in Fe(3±) reducing power assay. Flavonoid was found to contain highest in the pet ether fraction of root (411.35mg/g) in terms of quercetin equivalent, similarly highest amount (34.96mg/g) of total phenolic compounds (assayed as gallic acid equivalents) were found to contain in the same fraction. The methanolic fractions appeared less cytotoxic compared to pet ether extracts. The plant extracts caused a dose dependent decrease in faecal droppings in both castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhea, where as leaf extracts in each solvent appeared most effective. Also, the plant extracts showed anthelmintic activity in earthworm by inducing paralysis and death in a dose dependent manner. At highest doses (50 mg/ml) all fractions were almost effective as the positive control piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml). Thus, besides this cytotoxic effect it's traditional claim for therapeutic use can never be overlooked. PMID:26004725

  13. Anthelmintic efficacies of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel on horses experimentally infected with three Strongylus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Stephane; Maynard, Laurence; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Kok, Dawid; Eun, Hyone-Myong

    2009-09-01

    In this blinded randomized and controlled study, the anthelmintic efficacy of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel was evaluated in horses experimentally infected with three species of Strongylus larvae. Eighteen previously dewormed horses were inoculated on study day 0 with third-stage larvae of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus edentatus. The horses were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 6): test-drug (tablet formula), positive-control (reference gel), and negative-control (placebo tablet). On day 56, the horses were treated once with the respective drugs. On day 95, the horses were sacrificed, and necropsy examinations were performed to assess the status of the parasite burden (L4 and immature L5) and pathological lesions on selected organs and tissues. By the criteria of worm counts, the test-drug and positive-control showed, respectively, 100% and 97.3% anthelmintic efficacies on S. vulgaris, 100% and 81.4% on S. equinus, and equally 100% on S. edentatus. However, the efficacies on S. equinus and S. edentatus should be taken only as face values considering their respective low worm counts in the placebo group. The S. vulgaris-induced arterial lesions were also reduced in the test-drug and positive-control groups with efficacies of 73.9% and 62.9%, respectively. No adverse reactions were observed with either of the drugs. Our data demonstrate that the Equimax tablet formula was as safe and efficacious as the gel formula anthelmintic on large strongyles in horses. PMID:19488785

  14. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action. PMID:25311442

  15. A comparative study on the efficacy of four anthelmintics on some important reindeer parasites

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    Magnus Nordkvist

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Four anthelmintic preparations were tested against some of the most important parasites of reindeer, i.e. warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi, nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe, brainworm (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Their efficacy against intestinal nematodes was also registered. Test drugs were Fenthion (Bayer, Fenbendazole (Hoechst, Mebendazole (Janssen, and Ivermectin (Merk Sharp & Dohme. Against O. tarandi and C. trompe Ivermectin was 100% effective and Fenthion 86 and 100% respectively. The efficacy of Fen- and Mebendazole against these parasites was not significant. Against E. rangiferi the benzimidazole compounds were highly effective, with Mebendazole a bit ahead. Ivermectin had a moderate effect and Fenthion had no effect on this parasite. Against D. viviparus Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and Ivermectin were of equal, moderate-high effectiveness. No drug had a complete effect on the «arrested» larvae of D. viviparus. Fenthion had no effect at all. Fenbendazole and Ivermectin were both 100% effective against intestinal nematodes. Mebendazole was less effective and Fenthion had no effects. Ivermectin is considered to be the overall most effective anthelmintic in this test.En jamforande studie av effekten av fyra anthelmintika mot några betydelsesfulla parasiter hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Fyra antiparasitmedel har prôvats mot några av renens viktigaste parasiter, nàmligen hudkorm (Oedemagena tarandi, svalgkorm (Cephenemyia trompe, hjårnmask (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi och lungmask (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Vidare har medlens effekt på mag- tarmnematoder (Trichostongylider också noterats. De prôvade medicinerna var Fenthion (Bayer, Mebendazole (Leo/Janssen, Fenbendazole (Hoechst och Ivermectin (Merck Sharp & Dohme. Mot hud- och svalgkorm var Ivermectin 100% effektivt medan for Fenthion effekten var 86 resp 100%. Effekten av Fen- och Mebendazole mot de båda parasiterna var inte

  16. Variability in faecal egg counts – a statistical model to achieve reliable determination of anthelmintic resistance in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge for the control of parasites in livestock. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. A hierarchical...... arithmetic calculations classified nine farms (14.1 %) as resistant and 11 farms (17.2 %) as suspect resistant. Using 10000 Monte Carlo simulated data sets, our methodology provides a reliable classification of farms into different resistance categories with a false discovery rate of 1.02 %. The methodology...

  17. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of novel fluorinated 7-ethyl-10-phenothiazines, their sulphones and ribofuranosides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveen Gautam; Abhilasha Yadav; Nishidha Khandelwal; D C Gautam

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel fluorinated 10-phenothiazines were synthesized via Smiles rearrangement. 10-phenothiazines on refluxing with 30% hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid gave 10-phenothiazines-5, 5-dioxides (sulphones). These synthesized 10-phenothiazines were then used as base to prepare ribofuranosides by treating them with sugar (-D-ribofuranosyl- 1-acetate-2, 3, 5-tribenzoate). The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity and anthelmintic activity. The structural assignments of compounds were made on the basis of spectroscopic data and elemental analysis.

  19. Efficacy, safety and palatability of a new broad-spectrum anthelmintic formulation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K; Rohdich, N; Zschiesche, E; Kok, D J; Allan, M J

    2010-10-23

    The efficacy, safety and palatability of a new flavoured chewable anthelmintic tablet were investigated in dogs. The efficacy, based on worm counts, of a single recommended therapeutic dose (RTD) of 5 mg pyrantel + 20 mg oxantel + 5 mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight was assessed in experimental infections (EI) and natural infections (NI) with Trichuris vulpis, Echinococcus granulosus and Toxocara canis. For T vulpis, the efficacy of the treatment was 99.3 per cent in EI (comparing groups of six treated and six control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (nine treated and nine control dogs). For E granulosus, the efficacy was more than 99.9 per cent in EI (11 treated and 11 control dogs). For T canis, the efficacy was 94.3 per cent in EI (10 treated and 10 control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (12 treated and 13 control dogs). In a field study, Ancylostoma caninum (11 dogs) and T canis (11 dogs) faecal egg counts were reduced by more than 99 per cent, and in eight dogs with Dipylidium caninum proglotides in the faeces the efficacy was 100 per cent. The tablets were readily consumed by 56 of 64 (87.5 per cent) privately owned dogs. Safety was assessed in groups of six dogs treated either once with twice the RTD, once with six times the RTD, with twice the RTD on three consecutive days, or untreated. There were no significant differences in blood parameters between the groups, and no abnormal clinical findings. Two dogs treated with six times the RTD vomited, but no vomiting was observed when administration was repeated two days later. PMID:21257464

  20. Analysis of putative inhibitors of anthelmintic resistance mechanisms in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGusbi, Salha; Krücken, Jürgen; Ramünke, Sabrina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Effects of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide and the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil on the efficacy of ivermectin and thiabendazole were studied in vitro in susceptible and resistant isolates of the cattle parasitic nematodes Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. The effects of combined use of drug and piperonyl butoxide/verapamil, respectively, were investigated in the Egg Hatch Assay, the Larval Development Assay and the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay. The effects of piperonyl butoxide and verapamil as inhibitors of thiabendazole and ivermectin responses were particularly marked for larval development, where both inhibitors were able to completely eliminate all differences between susceptible and resistant isolates. Even the lowest concentrations of anthelmintics used in combination with inhibitors caused complete inhibition of development. Differences and/or similarities among responses in different isolates were only obtained in the two other assays: in the Egg Hatch Assay piperonyl butoxide caused a shift in concentration-response curves obtained with thiabendazole to the left for all isolates tested, changing relative differences between isolates. In contrast, an effect of verapamil in the Egg Hatch Assay was only apparent for benzimidazole-resistant isolates. In the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay only ivermectin was tested and piperonyl butoxide shifted the concentration-response curves for all isolates to the left, again eliminating differences in EC50 values between susceptible and resistant isolates. This was not the case using verapamil as an inhibitor, where curves for both susceptible and benzimidazole-resistant isolates shifted to the left in Ostertagia isolates. In Cooperia the picture was more complex with ivermectin-resistant isolates showing a larger shift than the susceptible isolate. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene were investigated. Significantly increased frequencies of

  1. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Law

    2015-04-01

    the identification of ligands for a host of potential anthelmintic targets.

  2. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos;

    2014-01-01

    . Oesophagostomum dentatum is an economically important parasite of pigs, as well as serving as a useful laboratory model of helminth parasites due to the ability to culture it in vitro for long periods through several life-cycle stages. Here, we investigated the anthelmintic effects of CT on multiple life cycle...

  3. Efficacy of an orange oil emulsion as an anthelmintic against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and in sheep (Ovis aries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite responsible for major losses to small ruminant producers worldwide. The recent increase in populations of anthelmintic resistant parasites has produced a demand for alternative control methods. An orange oil emulsion that has shown activity...

  4. New Method for the Analysis of Flukicide and Other Anthelmintic Residues in Bovine Milk and Liver using LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous quantification and identification of 38 residues of the most widely used anthelmintic veterinary drugs (including benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones, and flukicides) in milk and liver has been d...

  5. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, D.R.; Bauer, C.; Boray, J.C.;

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), sho...

  6. Heavy metals analysis, phytochemical, phytotoxic and anthelmintic investigations of crude methanolic extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad; Kamal, Zul; Hussain, Sajid; Shah, Syed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background Polygonum hydropiper L decoctions are traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammation, dyspepsia, diarrhea, menorrhagia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis and CNS disorders. Present study was undertaken to investigate P. hydropiper L. for heavy metals content, phytoconstituents, Phytotoxic and anthelmintic activities to explore its toxicological and pharmacological potentials and rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Methods Plant crude powder, methanolic ext...

  7. Mechanistic and single-dose in vivo therapeutic studies of Cry5B anthelmintic action against hookworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are one of the most important parasitic infections of humans worldwide, considered by some second only to malaria in associated disease burden. Single-dose mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminths, including hookworms, relies primarily on albendazole, which has variable efficacy. New and better hookworm therapies are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B has potential as a novel anthelmintic and has been extensively studied in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we ask whether single-dose Cry5B can provide therapy against a hookworm infection and whether C. elegans mechanism-of-action studies are relevant to hookworms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test whether the C. elegans invertebrate-specific glycolipid receptor for Cry5B is relevant in hookworms, we fed Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm adults Cry5B with and without galactose, an inhibitor of Cry5B-C. elegans glycolipid interactions. As with C. elegans, galactose inhibits Cry5B toxicity in A. ceylanicum. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which controls one of the most important Cry5B signal transduction responses in C. elegans, is functionally operational in hookworms. A. ceylanicum hookworms treated with Cry5B up-regulate p38 MAPK and knock down of p38 MAPK activity in hookworms results in hypersensitivity of A. ceylanicum adults to Cry5B attack. Single-dose Cry5B is able to reduce by >90% A. ceylanicum hookworm burdens from infected hamsters, in the process eliminating hookworm egg shedding in feces and protecting infected hamsters from blood loss. Anthelmintic activity is increased about 3-fold, eliminating >97% of the parasites with a single 3 mg dose (∼30 mg/kg, by incorporating a simple formulation to help prevent digestion in the acidic stomach of the host mammal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies advance the development of Cry5B protein as a potent, safe single

  8. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyathilakan, N; Murali, K; Anandaraj, A; Abdul Basith, S

    2012-04-01

    The present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as Allium sativum, Lawsonia inermis, and Opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, Oxyclozanide on Fasciola gigantica adults. The efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of F. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. Based on the in vitro trials conducted using above plant extracts at 1 percent, 2.5 percent and 5 percent concentration, the extracts of O. ficus indica showed flukicidal effect at 2.5 and 5% concentration. However A. sativum and L. inermis were effective at 5% concentration only. The study indicated the potential for developing herbal-based anthelmintics to control F. gigantica in livestock. PMID:23543611

  9. Anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis L. methanolic leaf extract on Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum and its acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kateregga

    2014-02-01

    Results There was a concentration-dependent relationship with worm mortality. The mean worm mortality for A. galli was significantly higher for the extract than for piperazine at 16 and 20mg/ml (p<0.05 and 24 mg/ml concentrations (p<0.01. Activity against H. gallinarum was not significantly different from that of ivermectin. The EC50 of the extract was 11.78mg/ml for A. galli and 17.78mg/ml for H. gallinarum. The extract is safe according to OECD acute toxicity guidelines since no mortality and toxicity signs were observed in mice even at 25,000mg/kg. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the anthelmintic activity of C. occidentalis and this could explain its use in traditional medicine as a remedy against helminth infections over the generations in many parts of Uganda. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 114-119

  10. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  11. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.;

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...... of these farms. In addition resistance was indicated by LDA on two more farms that were not tested by FECRT. Further testing is needed to confirm if these findings are truly indicative of resistance. Generally, correlations between the tests were poor and it was not possible to use the outcome of one...

  12. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina;

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity...... to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely...... condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis....

  13. Enhanced bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole in redispersible microparticles with low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre-Iglesias PM

    2014-09-01

    –∞ values. Likewise, after oral administration of the RDM-1:2.5 and RDM-1:5 the AUC0–∞ were 2.67- and 2.97-fold higher, respectively, compared to those of pure MBZ. Therapeutic activity, assessed on the Trichinella spiralis life cycle, showed that RDM-1:5 was the most effective in reducing the number of parasites (4.56-fold as compared to pure MBZ, on the encysted stage.Conclusion: The MBZ: L-HPC RDM might be an effective way of improving oral bioavailability and therapeutic activity using low doses of MBZ (5 mg/kg, which implies a low degree of toxicity for humans. Keywords: benzimidazole carbamates, redispersible microparticles, in vitro dissolution, pharmacokinetics, anthelmintic activity, Trichinella spiralis

  14. Antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activity of Argyreia elliptica extracts: Activity enhancement by the addition of metal salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Prashanth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Argyreia elliptica extracts were prepared with solvents at different polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and evaluate their antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant properties first time. An antioxidant activity was analyzed using different in vitro tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging methods. Quantitative determination of phenols was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. In addition, the extracts were screened for their biological activity in absence and in presence of metal salts [Fe(III and Zn(II] ions. Results indicate that, the tested bacterial strains were most sensitive to the chloroform (CE and methanol extract (ME. Ethyl acetate (EA, CE and ME extracts showed potent radical scavenging activity. CE and ME extracts showed the highest total phenolic content and its enhanced anthelmintic and antioxidant activities were found in Fe(III combination. The extracts-Zn(II ion combination showed enhanced antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains compare to the extracts alone.Industrial relevance. Herbal medicines have gained increasing attention worldwide for the treatment of various diseases because of their effectiveness and small side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. In general, the essential trace elements have been found to possess a very important role in biological system and also therapeutic activity depends on some trace elements. The present research reports the phytochemical screening of Argyrea elliptica leaves extracts. The antibacterial, anthilmentic and in vitro antioxidant activity activity of extracts and its metal salt combination was studied. The results scientifically establish the efficacy of the plant extracts and its metal salt combination as antibacterial, anthilmentic and antioxidant agents.Keywords. Argyreia elliptica; Antioxidant; Antibacterial activity; Total phenolic content.

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in Northern Ireland. II: Variations in nematode control practices between lowland and upland sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C; Barley, J P; Edgar, H W J; Ellison, S E; Hanna, R E B; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2013-02-18

    A questionnaire to obtain information on nematode control practices and sheep management was sent to over 1000 farmers in Northern Ireland. Replies were received from 305 flock owners, and data from 252 of them were analysed. Farms were divided into lowland and upland areas. Sizes of pasture and stocking rates on lowland and upland farms were 59.5 hectares, 6.99 sheep/hectare and 62.9 hectares and 10.01 sheep/hectare, respectively. Mean drenching rates for lambs and adults were 2.33 and 2.44, respectively, in lowland flocks and 2.73 and 2.71, respectively, in upland flocks. Between 2008 and 2011, the most frequently identified compounds in use were benzimidazoles and moxidectin in lowland flocks, and benzimidazoles and avermectins in upland flocks. Over the same period the most frequently identified commercial formulations were Tramazole(®), Panacur(®) and Allverm(®) (white drench), Levacide(®) (yellow drench), Oramec(®) (clear drench; avermectin), Cydectin(®) (clear drench; moxidectin) and Monepantel(®) (orange drench). Most respondents (56.35%) treated their lambs at weaning and the most common time to treat ewes was identified to be pre-mating (67.86% of respondents). The results of the questionnaire survey revealed that lowland annual drench frequency was 2.33 and 2.44 in lambs and ewes, respectively, although drench frequencies were higher in upland flocks: 2.73 and 2.71 for lambs and ewes, respectively. Annual drench rotation was practiced by 43.96% of flock owners, but whether this was true rotation or pseudo-rotation (i.e., substitution of one anthelmintic product by another product belonging to the same chemical group of anthelmintics) could not be explicitly determined. PMID:23228496

  16. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted selective anthelmintic treatment by resource-poor smallholder goat farmers in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine G; Ofithile, Mphoeng; Tavolaro, F Marina; van Wyk, Jan A; Evans, Kate; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-11-30

    Due to the threat of anthelmintic resistance, livestock farmers worldwide are encouraged to selectively apply treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Targeted selective treatment (TST) of individual animals would be especially useful for smallholder farmers in low-income economies, where cost-effective and sustainable intervention strategies will improve livestock productivity and food security. Supporting research has focused mainly on refining technical indicators for treatment, and much less on factors influencing uptake and effectiveness. We used a mixed method approach, whereby qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined, to develop, implement and validate a TST system for GINs in small ruminants, most commonly goats, among smallholder farmers in the Makgadikgadi Pans region of Botswana, and to seek better understanding of system performance within a cultural context. After the first six months of the study, 42 out of 47 enrolled farmers were followed up; 52% had monitored their animals using the taught inspection criteria and 26% applied TST during this phase. Uptake level showed little correlation with farmer characteristics, such as literacy and size of farm. Herd health significantly improved in those herds where anthelmintic treatment was applied: anaemia, as assessed using the five-point FAMACHA(©) scale, was 0.44-0.69 points better (95% confidence interval) and body condition score was 0.18-0.36 points better (95% C.I., five-point scale) in treated compared with untreated herds. Only targeting individuals in greatest need led to similar health improvements compared to treating the entire herd, leading to dose savings ranging from 36% to 97%. This study demonstrates that TST against nematodes can be implemented effectively by resource-poor farmers using a community-led approach. The use of mixed methods provides a promising system to integrate technical and social aspects of TST programmes for maximum uptake and effect. PMID

  17. A randomized triple blind trial to assess the effect of an anthelmintic programme for working equids in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christley Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastro-intestinal parasitism has been identified as a significant cause of disease in working equids in many countries. This randomized triple-blind trial was designed to assess the impact of an anthelmintic treatment programme (using oral ivermectin and fenbendazole comparing treated and placebo control populations of working donkeys, mules and horses in field conditions in Morocco. In particular, we assessed animal body weight and condition score, together with a questionnaire-based owner evaluation of number of subjective animal health parameters. Faecal worm egg count was also measured. Results 239 animals completed the full study, 130 in the treatment group and 109 in the control group. Although the average animal weight increased during the study, this change was not significantly different between the two groups. Animals in the treatment group had a significantly lower strongyle worm egg count and increased in body condition score compared to animals in the control group at each examination during the study period. Owners of animals in the treatment group reported improvement in health and work ability and a beneficial effect on pruritus during the early period of the study. These differences in owner perception between treatment groups had disappeared in the latter stages of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a routine anthelmintic treatment programme of three treatments annually can have a significant effect on faecal worm egg count. There may be beneficial consequences for the animal health and productivity. Further research on other populations of working equids in different environments would facilitate the objective planning of effective parasite control strategies for specific situations and provide better understanding of the likely clinical benefits of such programmes.

  18. Evaluation of clinical safety and anthelmintic efficacy of aurixazole administed orally at 24 mg/kg in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Claudio Alessandro M; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Buzzulini, Carolina; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Teixeira, Weslen F; Silva, Helenara Machado; Santana, Luis Fernando; Soares, Vando Edésio; Henrique, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-06-01

    The current study evaluated, in vivo, the clinical safety and the anthelmintic efficacy of 24% aurixazole (24 mg/kg), administered orally, in bovines. Two experiments were conducted: the first one evaluating the clinical safety of 24% aurixazole (24 mg/kg) in cattle, and a second one evaluating the anthelmintic efficacy of aurixazole (24 mg/kg) against gastrointestinal nematodes on naturally infected cattle. Based on the results of clinical safety, no alterations on clinical and haematological signs and on the biochemical values obtained in animals treated orally with aurixazole 24 mg/kg were observed. Regarding the results of reduction or efficacy, obtained by eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) counts, the formulation of aurixazole reached values superior to 99% (arithmetic means) in all post-treatment dates. In two occasions, this formulation reached maximum efficacy (100%). Comparing these results with the reduction percentages obtained by EPG counts, it is possible to verify that the values obtained by all three formulations were compatible with the efficacy results. Aurixazole reached maximum efficacy (100%) against Haemonchus placei, Cooperia spatulata and Oesophagostomum radiatum. Against Cooperia punctata, this formulation reached an efficacy index of 99.99%. Regarding aurixazole, no specific trials were conducted on the field in order to evaluate the behaviour of this molecule against helminths that are resistant to other molecules, specially isolated levamisole and disophenolat. Due to this fact, future studies will be necessary to assess the effectiveness of aurixazole against strains of nematodes that are resistant to levamisole and disophenolat, but the results of clinical safety and efficacy described in this study allow us to conclude that the aurixazole molecule, concomitantly with other measures and orally administered formulations, can be another important tool in the control of nematodes parasitizing bovines. PMID:24656344

  19. Anthelmintic activity ofSecuridaca longepedunculata (Family:Polygalaceae) root extract in mice, in vitro andin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adiele RC; Fakae BB; Isuzu IU

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the pharmacological bases of oral administration ofSecuridaca longepedunculata(S. longepedunculata) root extract as an anthelmintic in folkloric medicine. Methods:Albino mice were infected with infective third(L3) larval stage ofHeligmosomoides polygyrus(H. polygyrus) by esophageal intubation.Following establishment of the adult worms in the intestine, the mice were treated with0-2000 mg/kg body weight(bw) of methanolic root extract ofS. longepedunculata and100 mg/kg bw of pyrantel embonate, the reference drugin vivo. Bioactivity and larvicidal effects of the extract were tested by exposing brine shrimps(Artemia salina) to0.00-1.00 mg/mL and theL3 stage ofHeligmosomoidescontortus(H. contortus) and H. polygyrus to0.00-2.50 mg/mL of the extractin vitro.Results:The percentage yield of the extract was7.13% w/w dry matter.The brine shrimps toxicity bioassay resulted in anLC50 of 74.18μg/mL.The extract had a significant, dose-dependent larvicidal effect on theL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus with the terminal effect of75% and70% at the highest exposure concentrations, respectively.The extract however, did not affect the number of worm eggs per gram(epg) of fecal materials(P<0.05) and total worm burden(twb) of adultH. polygyrus in infected mice.Treatment with pyrantel embonate significant reduced both the fecal egg count and twb to0 compared to the untreated control(P<0.05).Conclusions:These results indicate that S. longepedunculata root extract contains potent bioactive compounds and has larvicidal effect onL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus, substantiating its use as anthelmintic in alternative medicine.

  20. Evaluation of In vitro Anthelmintic Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Cytotoxic Activity of Crinum latifolium L. (Family: Amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Crinum latifolium is a widely used plant in Asian folk and traditional medicine.In the present study, we have tried to find out the anthelmintic activity, total phenolic contents and cytotoxicity of the methanolic extract of the target plant. Methods: Anthelmintic activity was assessed applying five different concentrations of the plant extract and recording the time of paralysis and death. Total phenolic contents were determined using Folin-Ciocaltu method, using Gallic acid as standard; while brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT method was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the plant extract, where vincristine sulphate and DMSO was used as positive and negative control respectively. Result: The lowest time for paralysis and death of worms, for test sample at highest concentration (50mg/ml, were found 24±0.45 and 46.4±0.60 min respectively, which gradually increased with the decrease of concentration. On the other hand, albendazole, which was used as standard, caused paralysis and death of worms at 56.2±0.20 min and 77.4±0.24 min respectively; whereas no mortality of the worms was observed, when distilled water was used as control. The crude methanolic extract exhibited lower amount of total phenolic content (17.50±2.64 mg/ml. In case of cytotoxicity measurement, the crude methanolic extract showed positive result (with LC50 15.652 µg/ml compared to standard Vincristine sulphate (0.839 µg/ml; which indicated that the leaves of Crinum latifolium possess mild cytotoxic principles. Conclusion: Therefore, further studies are suggested to evaluate the possible mechanism of action and the active compounds responsible for the biological activities of the plant extract.

  1. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A Medicinal Plant Used for the Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Gruz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; du Plooy, Christian P; Abdelgadir, Hafiz A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower (English) is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. aspera collected from two different geographical locations (Ciaat, Eritrea and Ukulinga, South Africa) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic activities and the plant characterized for functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), a filamentus yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans) and a free-living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). The water and acetone extracts of the samples collected from Ciaat exhibited good antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity (MIC plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga. PMID:26635604

  2. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) choisy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Tharachand; C Immanuel Selvaraj; Z. Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn.) Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL) of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Signi...

  3. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Acacia gaumeri, Havardia albicans and Quebracho tannin extracts on a mexican strain of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae

    OpenAIRE

    G. Hernández Orduño; J.F.J. Torres Acosta; C. A. Sandoval Castro; A.J. Aguilar Caballero; R.R. Reyes Ramirez; H Hoste; J.A. Calderón Quintana

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro anthelmintic (AH) effect of Acacia gaumeri (AG), Havardia albicans (HA) and Quebracho tannin extracts on a Mexican strain of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae was evaluated. Water/acetone extracts of two tropical plants (AG and HA) and a commercial tannin preparation (Schinopsis sp, Quebracho) were screened to evaluate the in vitro AH effect using the larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. The Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae originated from a donor sheep (FES-Cuautitlán, UNAM). The...

  4. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn. desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars choisy

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    C. Tharachand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn. Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05 were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05 activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.

  5. Influence of the cyclooctadepsipeptides PF1022A and PF1022E as natural products on the design of semi-synthetic anthelmintics such as emodepside.

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    Jeschke, R; Iinuma, K; Harder, A; Schindler, M; Murakami, T

    2005-10-01

    The 24-membered cyclooctadepsipeptide (CODP) PF1022A, the active metabolite of the fungus imperfectus Mycelia sterilia (Rosellinia sp.) isolated from the plant Camellia japonica in Japan, is described as a powerful broad-spectrum anthelmintic natural product with low toxicity in animals. Further CODPs such as PF1022B, C, D and E have been isolated from the same culture and their structures have been established. Both PF1022A and PF1022E serve as valuable starting materials for the synthesis of semi-synthetic CODP derivatives with improved intrinsic anthelmintic potency and broad-spectrum activity. It was found that in most cases the di-substituted PF1022A derivatives showed a greater (or equal) activity by oral application against the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus compared to the corresponding mono-substituted PF1022A analogues as exemplified by emodepside. In order to get additional information on the bioactive conformation, emodepside was transformed into its mono- and tetra-thionated derivatives by isosteric replacement. In the light of the increased efficacy of these derivatives against H. contortus or Trichostrongylus colubriformis, it has been suggested that the asymmetric conformation clearly influences the anthelmintic activity of CODPs. Although useful synthetic pathways are available today for the preparation of the semi-synthetic CODP emodepside, the fermentative production of its bis-para-nitro and bis-para-amino precursors could be the process used for its industrial-scale production in the future. PMID:16228266

  6. F200Y polymorphism of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in Haemonchus contortus and sheep flock management practices related to anthelmintic resistance in eastern Amazon.

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    Chagas, Alexandre Moura; Sampaio Junior, Francisco Dantas; Pacheco, Adlilton; da Cunha, Amanda Batista; Cruz, Juliana Dos Santos; Scofield, Alessandra; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the F200Y polymorphism in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene of Haemonchus contortus from various sheep flocks in eastern Amazon, and to identify management practices that may favor the emergence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs in the same area. In total, 305 specimens of H. contortus were collected from sheep at 12 farms located in the state of Pará. An allele-specific PCR was performed to detect the F200Y polymorphism, and questionnaires were used to obtain information about the farms and flocks. All genotypes were detected as follows: 31% of the parasites were RR, 37% of the parasites were SR, and 32% were SS. The completed questionnaires revealed that all farms employed semi-intensive farming systems, performed suppressive anthelmintic treatment, and based their choice of drug on cost and availability rather than on any knowledge regarding drugs that remained effective on their property. It can thus be concluded that the SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene is present in the H. contortus populations from eastern Amazon, and that a series of management practices that favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance are employed on these farms. PMID:27514894

  7. A single amino acid substitution in isozyme GST mu in Triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica (Sligo strain) can substantially influence the manifestation of anthelmintic resistance.

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    Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H

    2015-12-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics. PMID:26542261

  8. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses.

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    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-08-30

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused by a decreased susceptibility of immature worms for MLs. Alternatively, immature worms may develop faster into egg producing adults as a result of repeated ML treatments. The species composition of the larval cultures obtained shortly after ML and pyrantel (PYR) treatment can confirm the hypothesis of decreased ML susceptibility, as this is often class-specific, whereas faster development would also occur after treatment with anthelmintics with a different mode of action. From 3 farms with a known history of shortened ERP, 8 horses per farm were selected and divided into 2 groups. The MOX-PYR-MOX group was treated twice with MOX (day 0 and 126) and once with PYR (day 84) and the IVM-PYR-IVM group was treated twice with IVM (day 0 and 98) and once with PYR (day 56). Cultured infective larvae (L3s) were counted and differentiated with the reverse line blot on pooled samples. Per cyathostomin species, the number of larvae per gram was calculated. The efficacy of all ML treatments was 100% and a shortened ERP was found on all 3 farms. The species composition of the larval cultures after ML treatment did not differ significantly from that after PYR treatment in the IVM-PYR-IVM group, but it did differ in the MOX-PYR-MOX group. The larval cultures obtained after MOX treatment consisted mostly of Cylicocyclus nassatus, while after PYR treatment Cylicostephanus longibursatus was the most abundant species. In the cultures from 42days after MOX treatment 6 cyathostomin species from 3 genera were found on the farm with the lowest activity (farm 1), while on the farm with the highest activity (farm 3) only 3 species from one genus were found in the same number of examined L3s. The

  9. Pooling sheep faecal samples for the assessment of anthelmintic drug efficacy using McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC in gastrointestinal strongyle and Nematodirus infection.

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    Kenyon, Fiona; Rinaldi, Laura; McBean, Dave; Pepe, Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Melville, Lynsey; Devin, Leigh; Mitchell, Gillian; Ianniello, Davide; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Levecke, Bruno

    2016-07-30

    In small ruminants, faecal egg counts (FECs) and reduction in FECs (FECR) are the most common methods for the assessment of intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infections and anthelmintic drug efficacy, respectively. The main limitation of these methods is the time and cost to conduct FECs on a representative number of individual animals. A cost-saving alternative would be to examine pooled faecal samples, however little is known regarding whether pooling can give representative results. In the present study, we compared the FECR results obtained by both an individual and a pooled examination strategy across different pool sizes and analytical sensitivity of the FEC techniques. A survey was conducted on 5 sheep farms in Scotland, where anthelmintic resistance is known to be widespread. Lambs were treated with fenbendazole (4 groups), levamisole (3 groups), ivermectin (3 groups) or moxidectin (1 group). For each group, individual faecal samples were collected from 20 animals, at baseline (D0) and 14 days after (D14) anthelmintic administration. Faecal samples were analyzed as pools of 3-5, 6-10, and 14-20 individual samples. Both individual and pooled samples were screened for GI strongyle and Nematodirus eggs using two FEC techniques with three different levels of analytical sensitivity, including Mini-FLOTAC (analytical sensitivity of 10 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)) and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 or 50 EPG).For both Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 EPG), there was a perfect agreement in classifying the efficacy of the anthelmintic as 'normal', 'doubtful' or 'reduced' regardless of pool size. When using the McMaster method (analytical sensitivity of 50 EPG) anthelmintic efficacy was often falsely classified as 'normal' or assessment was not possible due to zero FECs at D0, and this became more pronounced when the pool size increased. In conclusion, pooling ovine faecal samples holds promise as a cost-saving and efficient

  10. Use of a multiple choice questionnaire to assess UK prescribing channels' knowledge of helminthology and best practice surrounding anthelmintic use in livestock and horses.

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    Easton, Stephanie; Bartley, David J; Hotchkiss, Emily; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-06-01

    Grazing livestock and equines are at risk of infection from a variety of helminths, for which the primary method of control has long been the use of anthelmintics. Anthelmintic resistance is now widespread in a number of helminth species across the globe so it is imperative that best practice control principles be adopted to delay the further spread of resistance. It is the responsibility of all who prescribe anthelmintics (in the UK, this being veterinarians, suitably qualified persons (SQPs) and pharmacists) to provide adequate information on best practice approaches to parasite control at the point of purchase. Poor uptake of best practice guidelines at farm level has been documented; this could be due to a lack of, or inappropriate, advice at the point of anthelmintics purchase. Therefore, the aim here was to evaluate levels of basic knowledge of helminthology, best practice guidelines and dispensing legislation among veterinarians and SQPs in the UK, through a Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) test, that was distributed online via targeted emails and social media sites. For each respondent, the percentage correct was determined (for the MCQ test overall and for subsections) and the results analysed initially using parametric and non-parametric statistics to compare differences between prescribing channels. The results showed that channels generally performed well; veterinarians achieved a mean total percentage correct of 79.7% (range 34.0-100%) and SQPs, a mean total percentage correct of 75.8% (range 38.5-100%) (p=0.051). The analysis indicated that veterinarians performed better in terms of knowledge of basic helminthology (p=0.001), whilst the SQP group performed better on legislation type questions (p=0.032). There was no significant difference in knowledge levels of best practice between the two channels. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that veterinarians and those answering equine questions only performed significantly better than those

  11. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  12. An anthelmintic drug, pyrvinium pamoate, thwarts fibrosis and ameliorates myocardial contractile dysfunction in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.

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    Motoaki Murakoshi

    Full Text Available Metabolic adaptation to limited supplies of oxygen and nutrients plays a pivotal role in health and disease. Heart attack results from insufficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, where cardiomyocytes die and cardiac fibroblasts proliferate--the latter causing scar formation, which impedes regeneration and impairs contractility of the heart. We postulated that cardiac fibroblasts survive metabolic stress by adapting their intracellular metabolism to low oxygen and nutrients, and impeding this metabolic adaptation would thwart their survival and facilitate the repair of scarred heart. Herein, we show that an anthelmintic drug, Pyrvinium pamoate, which has been previously shown to compromise cancer cell survival under glucose starvation condition, also disables cardiac fibroblast survival specifically under glucose deficient condition. Furthermore, Pyrvinium pamoate reduces scar formation and improves cardiac contractility in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. As Pyrvinium pamoate is an FDA-approved drug, our results suggest a therapeutic use of this or other related drugs to repair scarred heart and possibly other organs.

  13. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-04-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT determine the anti-parasitic effects against the main cattle nematodes. We used in vitro tests targeting L1 larvae (feeding inhibition assay) and adults (motility assay) of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. In the larval feeding inhibition assay, O. ostertagi L1 were significantly more susceptible to all CT fractions than C. oncophora L1. The mean degree of polymerization of CT (i.e. average size) was the most important structural parameter: large CT reduced larval feeding more than small CT. The flavan-3-ols of prodelphinidin (PD)-type tannins had a stronger negative influence on parasite activity than the stereochemistry, i.e. cis- vs trans-configurations, or the presence of a gallate group. In contrast, for C. oncophora high reductions in the motility of larvae and adult worms were strongly related with a higher percentage of PDs within the CT fractions while there was no effect of size. Overall, the size and the percentage of PDs within CT seemed to be the most important parameters that influence anti-parasitic activity. PMID:26888630

  14. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

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    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  15. In vitro anthelmintic activity of five tropical legumes on the exsheathment and motility of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Capetillo-Leal, Concepción M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of five tropical legume plants [Arachis pintoi CIAT 22160 (A.p. 22160), Gliricidia sepium, Cratylia argentea (C.a. Yacapani), C. argentea CIAT 22386 (C.a. 22386), C. argentea Veranera (C.a. Veranera)] against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae and the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect. Lyophilized leaf extracts of each plant were evaluated using the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect was evaluated in both assays using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to remove tannins from the solutions. At the highest concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), A. pintoi 22160, C.a. Yacapani, C.a. Veranera and C.a. 22386 completely inhibited the exsheathment process of H. contortus (P<0.01). At the same concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), the inhibition of larval migration for C.a. 22386, C.a. Veranera and G. sepium was 66.0%, 35.9% and 39.2% (relative to the PBS control), respectively. In both bioassays (LEIA and LMIA), the AH effect shown by each plant was blocked after the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), corroborating the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds. PMID:22652531

  16. Anthelmintic effects of Oroxylum indicum stem bark extract on juvenile and adult stages of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, traditional usage of herbal medicines is a common practice to treat various parasitic infections. In India, bark decoction of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz. (Bignoniaceae) is used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections. This study investigated the anthelmintic efficacy of methanolic bark extract of O. indicum on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Utilizing a mini-questionnaire, first, we collected information about the pattern of anthelmintic use of this plant. Later, in vitro efficacy of extract was tested at 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml on both the artificially excysted juveniles and adult H. diminuta worms. Herein, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also utilized to determine the possible effects of extract on tegumental surfaces of juvenile and adult cestode. In vivo, extract was tested at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in H. diminuta albino rat model, against juvenile and adult cestode. Praziquantel (PZQ) served as reference drug in anthelmintic assays. The acute toxicity of extract was determined as per the OECD guidelines. The field questionnaire data revealed that 78 % of people in the area use O. indicum stem bark against intestinal helminths, and of these, 75 % of people also believed it highly efficacious anthelmintic remedy. In vitro testing of extract revealed significant effects on juvenile worms, and 30 mg/ml of extract caused mortality of juveniles at the initial period (0.25 ± 0.00 h). Conversely, PZQ (1 mg/ml) showed paralysis and mortality of juvenile cestodes in 0.44 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.06 h, respectively. As determined by SEM, in vitro exposure to extract showed substantial effects on both juveniles and adult worms in the form of wrinkled scolex, distorted tegument and eroded microtriches. In vivo study revealed better efficacy of extract against juveniles than adult stages of parasite. Treatment of rats with 1000 mg/kg of extract caused 79.3 % reduction in

  17. Study of plasma protein binding activity of isometamidium and its impact on anthelmintic activity using trypanosoma induced calf model

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    Suprita Sinha

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of present study was to determine Plasma Protein Binding (PPB activity and its effect on clinical efficacy of isometamidium after intramuscular administration in calves. The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is an important factor in controlling the availability and distribution of drugs. In general, PPB reduces the free fraction of drug available for therapeutic activity, since only the non-protein bound drug is pharmacologically active. Materials and Methods: Six calves were used for PPB study and eighteen for clinical efficacy. Isometamidium was administered @ 0.5mg/kg intramuscularly as a single dose for PPB study. Equilibrium dialysis technique was used to determine the PPB activity. For clinical efficacy, infection with Trypanosoma was induced in calves of two groups, untreated control and experimental group. Infection was confirmed after 28 days by mice inoculation test. Isometamidium @ 0.5mg/kg was administered to experimental group. Haematoobiochemical and mice inoculation tests were performed after 7 days of drug administration (Day 35. Result: The percentage of PPB activity of isometamidium was 86.71 ± 0.59 to 93.03 ± 0.63% against the concentration 9.76± 0.84 to 4.39 ± 0.20 g ml-1. Higher percentage of PPB activity (>86% suggests greater duration of safety by this drug. It was found that anthelmintic activity of isometamidium was substantially affected by higher PPB. Conclusion: It was concluded that isometamidium has greater plasma protein binding capacity which did not hamper clinical efficacy of drug. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 444-448

  18. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs. PMID:25468031

  19. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadou, S; Kyriazakis, I; Jackson, F; Coop, R L

    2001-08-20

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to determine possible direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. A larval development/viability assay was used to investigate the effect of a condensed tannin extract (Quebracho) towards larvae of Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus. The development to infective larvae and their viability was assessed in all three species and LD 50 values were calculated. The presence of Quebracho extract in the cultures decreased the viability of L3 in all species; the LD 50 were not significantly different for the different species. Forty-eight sheep were allocated to one of eight groups and were infected with a single dose of either 4000 L3 H. contortus (groups 1 and 2) or 5000 L3 T. colubriformis and 5000 L3 Nematodirus battus simultaneously (groups 3-6) or 10,000 L3 of T. circumcincta (groups 7 and 8). From day 28 until day 31 of the experiment, sheep infected with the intestinal species were drenched with Quebracho extract at 4, 8 or 16% w/w of food intake, or remained as undrenched controls; sheep infected with the abomasal species were either drenched with Quebracho extract at 8% w/w of food intake or remained as undrenched controls. All sheep were slaughtered 4 days after the end of the drenching period. Sheep infected with the intestinal species and drenched with 16% w/w Quebracho had lower FEC compared to sheep drenched with 8% w/w (PQuebracho or which remained undrenched (PQuebracho extract (PQuebracho extract at 8% of food intake for 3 days did not affect FEC or worm burdens in sheep infected with the abomasal species compared to controls. PMID:11502368

  20. Structure of the trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from Brugia malayi reveals key design principles for anthelmintic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah D Farelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.

  1. Climatic influences on development and survival of free-living stages of equine strongyles: implications for worm control strategies and managing anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martin K; Kaplan, Ray M; Thamsborg, Stig M; Monrad, Jesper; Olsen, Susanne N

    2007-07-01

    Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs by horse strongyles constitutes a growing threat to equine health because it is unknown when new drug classes can be expected on the market. Consequently, parasite control strategies should attempt to maintain drug efficacy for as long as possible. The proportion of a parasite population that is not exposed to anthelmintic treatment is described as being "in refugia" and although many factors affect the rate at which resistance develops, levels of refugia are considered the most important as these parasites are not selected by treatment and so provide a pool of sensitive genes in the population. Accordingly, treatment should be avoided when pasture refugia are small because such treatments will place significant selection pressure for resistance on worm populations. Given this new paradigm for parasite control, it has become important to identify seasons and circumstances wherein refugia are diminished. Free-living stages of equine strongyles are highly dependent on climatic influences, and this review summarises studies of strongyle development and survival under laboratory and field conditions in Northern (cool) temperate, Southern (warm) temperate and subtropical/tropical climates. In Northern temperate climates, refugia are smallest during the winter. In contrast, refugia are lowest during the summer in warm temperate and subtropical/tropical climates. Although adverse seasonal changes clearly have significant effects on the ability of free living stages of strongyle nematode parasites to survive and develop, available data suggest that climatic influences cannot effectively "clean" pastures from one grazing season to the next. PMID:16815051

  2. Study on the interaction between three benzimidazole anthelmintics and eosin Y by high performance liquid chromatography associating with resonance light scattering and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ziyu; Peng, Jingdong; Zang, Xu; Lei, Gang; He, Yan; Liu, Di

    2016-07-01

    A novel, highly selective, and sensitive resonance light scattering (RLS) detection approach coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was researched and developed for the synchronous analysis of three kinds of benzimidazole anthelmintics, including mebendazole (MBZ), albendazole (ABZ), and fenbendazole (FBZ) for the first time. In the pH range of 3.5-3.7 Britton-Robinson buffer medium, three kinds of anthelmintics, which were separated by HPLC, reacted with eosin Y (EY) to form 1:1 ion-association complexes, resulting in significantly enhanced RLS signals and the maximum peak located at 335 nm. The enhanced RLS intensity was in proportion to the MBZ, ABZ, and FBZ concentration in the range 0.2-25, 0.2-23, and 0.15-20 μg/mL, respectively. The limit of detection was in the range of 0.064-0.16 μg/mL. In addition, human urine was determined to validate the proposed method by spiked samples and real urine samples. Satisfactory results were obtained by HPLC-RLS method. Graphical Abstract The diagram mechanism of generating resonance between emitted light and scattered light. PMID:27209593

  3. Albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, in the treatment of intestinal nematode and cestode infection: a multicenter study in 480 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagota, S C

    1986-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of and patient tolerance to albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, were studied in a multicenter trial involving 480 patients ranging in age from 2 to 60 years. The patients had single or mixed infections caused by pinworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, threadworms, or tapeworms. The stools were examined by the direct method, and ova were counted by means of the Kato-Katz technique. A Graham-Scotch test was also done in patients infected with Enterobius vermicularis. Most patients received a single 400-mg dose of albendazole; adults were given two tablets, and children were given a 2% suspension. All patients with Hymenolepis nana and about half of those with Taenia infections were treated for three successive days. Patients were carefully evaluated before and after treatment to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug. After a single dose of albendazole, the cure rate was 95.3% in ascariasis, 92.2% in ancylostomiasis, 90.5% in trichuriasis, 64.9% in taeniasis, and 100% in enterobiasis. Among patients receiving 400 mg of albendazole for three days, the cure rate was 63.4% in hymenolepiasis and 86.1% in taeniasis. The drug was well tolerated, and no significant side effects were reported. PMID:3516398

  4. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  5. Antihelmínticos como factor de riesgo en la obstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides en niños Anthelmintics as a risk factor of the intestinal obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Vásquez Tsuji

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a retrospective study the authors analyzed the clinical records of 199 children ages one month to 16 years hospitalized, with the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis, in the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria of Mexico from 1984 to 1999. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of anthelmintics drugs as a risk factor of intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides. Two groups were made for the study: Group A (n=66 of children who presented intestinal obstruction, Group B (n=133 children with no complications. A comparative analysis of clinical data of both groups was made by means of chi square with Yates correction and a stratified analysis by means of chi square. Possible confusing elements were overcrowding, age and the use of antiparasitic drugs. The calculus of risk factors for intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides was done by means of contingency tables of 2 x 2 and odds ratio with an IC of 95%. The significant risk factors were included in a model of logistics regression with an impact variable consting in the presence or absence of intestinal obstruction in order to establish a multivariate model of predictive risk a level of significance of p < 0.05. Twenty seven patients (40.90% in group A (n=66 were given anthelmintics medications prior to the intestinal obstruction: mebendazol, 14 (51-85%; two, albedazol (7.40%; eigth, a non-specifed anthelmintic (29-62%. In addition, an anthelmintic medication without a specified time of ingestion: two with mebendazol and one with piperazine (11.3%. In the case of mebendazol, the drug most frequently associated with intestinal obstruction, seven patients received it on the same day of the obstruction; five patients received it between one and seven days prior to the obstruction; two received it seven days prior to the complication. In the control group, only 7% had taken the anthelmintic one to seven days before the diagnosis of uncomplicated intestinal ascariasis diagnosis was made. With

  6. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith was prepared. • The monolith was used as the extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The SCSE–AMIIDB can extract benzimidazole anthelmintics (BAs) effectively. • A combination of SCSE–AMIIDB–LD–HPLC/DAD was developed. • The combination was applied to monitor trace BAs in water, milk and honey samples. - Abstract: In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE–AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE–AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE–AMIIDB–HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for target compounds were 0.020–0.072 μg L−1, 0.035–0.10 μg L−1 and 0.026–0.076 μg L−1 in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII–SCSE–HPLC/DAD method was

  7. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yulei [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhang, Jie [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Huang, Xiaojia, E-mail: hxj@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yuan, Dongxing [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • A new polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith was prepared. • The monolith was used as the extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The SCSE–AMIIDB can extract benzimidazole anthelmintics (BAs) effectively. • A combination of SCSE–AMIIDB–LD–HPLC/DAD was developed. • The combination was applied to monitor trace BAs in water, milk and honey samples. - Abstract: In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE–AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE–AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE–AMIIDB–HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for target compounds were 0.020–0.072 μg L{sup −1}, 0.035–0.10 μg L{sup −1} and 0.026–0.076 μg L{sup −1} in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII

  8. Determining the Degree of Anthelmintic Resistance against Macrocyclic Lactones in Small Strongylus, Based on the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA in Horses from Grasslands in the Department of Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Alonso Prada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the grasslands of the Department of Casanare, seeking to determine the degree of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance against macrocyclic lactones in small populations of Strongylus in this region of the country. Samples were taken from four municipalities in the department: Aguazul, Paz de Ariporo, Maní and El Yopal, between June, 2006 and April, 2007, where ten fresh fecal samples were collected in each municipality, directly from the field and in a completely random way. The samples were processed using the MacMaster coprological technique, thus determining the highest count of fecal epg by municipality. L3 larvae were extracted from each of the six samples with the highest count of fecal epg through the coprological and Baermann-Wetzel tests with which the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA test was run, detecting Small Strongylus highly susceptible to the action of macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin.

  9. Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

  10. Antihelmínticos como factor de riesgo en la obstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides en niños Anthelmintics as a risk factor of the intestinal obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in children

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Vásquez Tsuji; Pedro Gutiérrez Castrellón; Marco Antonio Yamazaki Nakashimada; Juan Carlos Arredondo Suárez; Teresita Campos Rivera; Ignacio Martínez Barbosa

    2000-01-01

    In a retrospective study the authors analyzed the clinical records of 199 children ages one month to 16 years hospitalized, with the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis, in the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria of Mexico from 1984 to 1999. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of anthelmintics drugs as a risk factor of intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides. Two groups were made for the study: Group A (n=66) of children who presented intestinal obstruction, Group B (n=133) children...

  11. Gastrointestinal nematodes (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in cattle (Bos taurus), moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway. The effect of anthelmintic treatment in relation to a possible cross-infection.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered to be a problem in domestic cattle, and various studies have tried to present reasons for and solutions to this problem. A study was conducted in Southern Norway in order to examine whether anthelmintic treatment in cattle is adequate and to investigate if wild cervids like moose and roe deer should be considered as a reservoir for nematode parasites in cattle. The results showed that egg output from cattle was low, which together with ...

  12. Predicting the effect of anthelmintic treatment on milk production of dairy cattle in Canada using an Ostertagia ostertagi ELISA from individual milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Sithole, Fortune; Keefe, Gregory; Stryhn, Henrik

    2013-08-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Ostertagia ostertagi and several species of Cooperia, are ubiquitous in temperate climates and have been shown to have detrimental effects on production in adult dairy cattle. A published meta-analysis demonstrated that overall, producers lose approximately 0.35 kg of milk per parasitized cow per day. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have the ability to quantify nematode infections in cattle, and thus, could be used to estimate the amount of milk production loss due to differing levels of parasitism at the individual cow level. ELISA results from individual cow milk samples were used to predict milk production response following a randomized anthelmintic treatment in a large field trial. To increase statistical power, the data collected from this field trial was pooled with data from two other published field trials to form an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA). The ability to predict the effect of anthelmintic treatment on milk production depends on the level of parasitism quantified by an ELISA measuring milk antibodies against O. ostertagi, and reported as optical density ratios (ODRs). Therefore, the estimates from the interaction between ODR and treatment on milk production were used to determine how well the ODR predicted the response of the treatment. It was anticipated that the relationship between milk production and ODR was unlikely to be linear, so fractional polynomials were applied to the continuous ODR values. The interaction in the field trial showed a trend (p=0.138) toward a beneficial treatment effect when the individual ODR values, measured in late lactation and using Svanovir(®), were greater than 0.12. When individual data from two other similar studies were included in an IPDMA, the interaction terms became statistically significant (p=0.009) indicating that there is a beneficial treatment effect when ODR values are slightly elevated. A graph was used to demonstrate the treatment

  13. New method for the analysis of flukicide and other anthelmintic residues in bovine milk and liver using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Brian; Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovska, Katerina; Lightfield, Alan R; Furey, Ambrose; Danaher, Martin

    2009-04-01

    A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous quantification and identification of 38 residues of the most widely used anthelmintic veterinary drugs (including benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones, and flukicides) in milk and liver has been developed and validated. For sample preparation, we used a simple modification of the QuEChERS method, which was initially developed for pesticide residue analysis. The method involved extracting sample (10 g) with acetonitrile (10 mL), followed by phase separation from water (salting out) with MgSO(4):NaCl (4:1, w/w). After centrifugation, an aliquot of the extract (1 mL) was purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4) (150 mg) and C(18) (50mg), prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Two injections of the same extract were required with the LC-MS/MS instrument to cover the 30 electrospray positive and 8 electrospray negative analytes. The limit of quantitation of the method was 5 microgkg(-1) for 37 analytes (and 10 microgkg(-1) for dichlorvos). The method was successfully validated according to the 2002/657/EC guidelines. Recovery of analytes was typically in the 70-120% range, with repeatabilities and reproducibilities typically milk and <20% in liver. PMID:19286030

  14. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  15. Effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treaments in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Iringa region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyyu, J.D.; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Monrad, Jesper; Kassuku, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal field trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle. A total of 167 cattle (6-18 months) from three large-scale dairy farms, four traditional farms and nine...... passing Fasciola eggs in faeces by 30.6% and 51.7% (P¿<¿0.001), respectively. Animals treated two and four times a year significantly outgained untreated animals by 14.8 kg and 17.7 kg respectively at the end of the trial (P¿<¿0.05). The management system had a significant effect on packed cell volume and...... the proportion of animals passing Fasciola eggs in faeces (P¿<¿0.05). The programme of two strategic treatments per year was only effective in controlling GI nematodes. It is concluded that a programme of four strategic treatments per year was effective in controlling GI nematodes and F. gigantica and...

  16. Anthelmintic action of Morinda citrifolia (noni on Heterakis gallinarumAção anti-helmíntica da Morinda citrifolia (noni sobre Heterakis gallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Rodrigues Barros Brito

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic effect of Morinda citrifolia (noni on Heterakis gallinarum was evaluated in chicken naturally infected. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adults helminthes in disposable petri dishes, containing Tyrode solution, pre warmed in which aqueous or ethanolic extracts were added. The material was maintained in a BOD at 37ºC (±1. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts presented the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL-1 and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 e 66.72 mg.mL-1, respectively. It was used as positive control, a solution of tetrahidrate citrate of piperazin in the concentration of 50 mg/mL. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of aqueous or ethanolic extracts (10 mL/Kg/PV during three consecutive days. The feces were collected during four days in each group, washed in water and sifted. In the fifth day post-treatment, the chickens were slaughtered and necropsy was performed in order to count and identify remaining helminthes. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the in vivo test there was no significant difference between the aqueous extract and the control group (water (p>0.05 in the elimination of H. gallinarum. The ethanolic extract presented an elimination of 20.35%, differing statistically from the control group (p A ação anti-helmíntica da Morinda citrifolia (noni sobre Heterakis gallinarum foi avaliada em galinhas poedeiras naturalmente infectadas. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vitro foi determinada em helmintos adultos colocados em placas de petri descartáveis, contendo solução Tyrode pré-aquecida, nas quais foi adicionado o extrato aquoso ou etanólico e mantidas em BOD a uma temperatura de 37oC (±1. Os extratos aquoso e etanólico foram usados nas seguintes concentrações: 1,69; 3,37; 6,74; 13,48 e 26,96 mg.mL-1 e 4,17; 8,34; 16,68; 33,36 e 66,72 mg.mL-1, respectivamente. Como controle positivo usou-se uma solu

  17. Eficacia antihelmíntica de tres endectocidas administrados por vía oral en caballos Anthelmintic efficacy of three endectocides administered by oral route in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RUBILAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la eficacia antihelmíntica de los endectocidas ivermectina, doramectina y moxidectina sobre el control del parasitismo gastrointestinal en equinos, se seleccionaron 20 caballos clínicamente sanos con recuentos fecales positivos a huevos de nemátodos. Los caballos fueron distribuidos homogéneamente considerando el peso vivo y el recuento fecal de huevos en 4 grupos de 5 animales cada uno. Grupo 1: control, sin tratamiento antihelmíntico; Grupo 2: tratados con ivermectina en dosis de 0,2 mg/kg vía oral; Grupo 3 tratados con doramectina inyectable , en dosis 0.2 mg/kg, reformulado mediante caolín y miel de abejas para la administración vía oral; Grupo 4: tratados con moxidectina , en dosis 0,4 mg/kg vía oral. De cada uno de los caballos se obtuvieron muestras de heces para recuento de huevos y coprocultivos, antes del tratamiento y a los 3, 6, 10, 20, 40, 60,90, 105, 125, 145 y 175 días post tratamiento. Los resultados obtenidos indican una reducción significativa (pIn naturally gastrointestinal nematodes infected horses the anthelmintic efficacy of the endectocides ivermectin (IVM, doramectin (DRM and moxidectin (MXD was evaluated. Animals were evenly distributed to 4 experimental groups: Group I, non treated horses, control; Group II treated with an oral dose of 0.2 mg/kg of IVM by oral route; Group III treated with a reformulated oral dose of 0,2 mg/kg of DRM; Group IV treated with an oral dose of 0.4 mg/kg of MXD. Faecal samples for parasites eggs count and larval cultures were collected before treatment at 3,6,10,20,40,60,90,105,125,145 and 175 days postreatment. Results obtained showed a significant reduction (p <0,05 in the faecal eggs count in treated group, from day 3 to day 145 post treatment. This level of significance remained until day 175 post treatment only in the group treated with moxidectin

  18. Efeito anti-helmíntico do hidrolato de Mentha villosa Huds. (Lamiaceae em nematóides gastrintestinais de bovinos Anthelmintic effect of hidrolact of Mentha villosa Huds. (Lamiaceae in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle

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    Érica Maria Nascimento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, o estudo da atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas medicinais em ruminantes tem atraído bastante interesse. Mentha villosa Huds. (Lamiaceae é uma das espécies de hortelã que tem sido utilizada popularmente devido às diversas propriedades medicinais, inclusive para o controle de verminoses. O presente estudo teve como objetivo testar a atividade anti-helmíntica do hidrolato dessa planta em bezerras infectadas por nematóides gastrintestinais, tanto in vitro, pelo método de coprocultura quantitativa, quanto in vivo, por meio do teste de redução no número de ovos de nematóides nas fezes dos hospedeiros. No teste in vitro, o hidrolato nas concentrações de 40%, 60% e 80% e 100% apresentou porcentagem de eficácia de 91,88%, 94,15%, 98,40% e 100%, respectivamente, mostrando atividade ovicida significativa sobre nematóides gastrintestinais em bezerras. Entretanto, os resultados do teste in vivo mostraram ausência de atividade anti-helmíntica do hidrolato de M. villosa na dose de 0,1ml kg dia-1, nos animais tratados.Currently, it has been of great interest to study the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants in ruminants. Mentha villosa Huds. (Lamiaceae is one of the mint species that has been popularly used based on various medicinal properties, even for the control of nematode infections. This study aimed to test the anthelmintic activity of hidrolact of this plant, both in vitro, by the quantitative coproculture method, and in vivo, in calves infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, through the egg count reduction test in feces of the hosts. In in vitro tests, the hidrolact at the concentrations 40%, 60% and 80% and 100% obtained percentage of effectiveness of 91.88%, 94.15%, 98.40% and 100% respectively, showing significant ovicidal activity against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. However, the hidrolact of M. villosa showed no in vivo anthelmintic activity at 0.1ml kg-1 day-1 on the treated animals.

  19. Atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos aquoso e etanólico do fruto da Morinda citrifolia sobre Ascaridia galli Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit on Ascaridia galli

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    Danilo R. Barros Brito

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos aquoso e etanólico do fruto da Morinda citrifolia (noni foi avaliada em aves poedeiras naturalmente infectadas por Ascaridia galli. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vitro foi determinada em parasitos adultos. O extrato aquoso e etanólico foram testados nas seguintes concentrações: 1,69; 3,37; 6,74; 13,48 e 26,96 mg.mL-1 e 4,17; 8,34; 16,68; 33,36 e 66,72 mg.mL-1, respectivamente. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vivo foi determinada administrando-se, durante três dias consecutivos, o extrato aquoso (50,1 mg.mL-1 e etanólico (24,6 mg.mL-1, sendo 10 mL.kg-1. Posteriormente, as aves foram sacrificadas e necropsiadas para contagem dos helmintos remanescentes. Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente, utilizando-se o teste de Student-Newman-Keuls. Nas concentrações 13,48 e 26,96 mg.mL-1, o extrato aquoso apresentou taxa de mortalidade de 46,67 e 50%, respectivamente, sendo estatisticamente diferente do controle negativo (P 0,05. Conclui-se que a atividade anti-helmíntica do fruto do noni, no teste in vitro, apresentou resultados satisfatórios, havendo necessidade de estudos com maiores concentrações no teste in vivo.The anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit (noni was evaluated in chicken naturally infected by Ascaridia galli. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adult parasites. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were used in the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL-1 and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL-1, respectively. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of 10 mL.kg-1 of the aqueous (50.1 mg.mL-1 and ethanolic (24.6 mg.mL-1 extracts during three consecutive days. Later the chickens were euthanized and necropsy was performed in order to count the remaining helminths. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the concentrations of 13.48 and

  20. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of liquid waste of Agave sisalana (sisal in goats Avaliação da atividade anti-helmíntica do resíduo líquido de Agave sisalana (sisal em caprinos

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    Luciana Ferreira Domingues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Agave sisalana (sisal juice against gastrointestinal nematodes and its potential toxic effects in goats. In vitro tests showed more than 95% reduction in larval counts of the genus Haemonchus spp. at concentrations between 86.5 and 146.3 mg.mL-1. In vivo the percent reduction of larvae of the fourth (L4 and fifth (L5 stages of Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum and Trichostrongylus was less than 95% in groups GI and GII, and between 80 and 90% in group GIII. A. sisalana juice at the concentrations tested in vitro was effective against gastrointestinal nematodes in goats; however, its anthelmintic efficacy was reduced when administered to animals.Foi avaliada a atividade anti-helmíntica do suco de Agave sisalana (sisal contra nematódeos gastrintestinais e possíveis efeitos tóxicos em caprinos. Nos testes in vitro, encontrou-se redução superior a 95% na contagem de larvas do gênero Haemonchus spp. nas concentrações entre 86,5 e 146,3 mg.mL-1. In vivo, o percentual de redução de larvas de quarto (L4 e quinto (L5 estágios de Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum e Trichostrongylus foi inferior a 95% para o GI e GII, e entre 80 e 90% para o GIII. O suco de A. sisalana nas concentrações testadas in vitro foi efetivo contra nematódeos gastrintestinais de caprinos, apresentando, no entanto, reduzida eficácia anti-helmíntica quando administrado nos animais.

  1. Efecto antihelmíntico in vitro de extractos de plantas sobre larvas infectantes de nematodos gastrointestinales de rumiantes In vitro anthelmintic effect of plant extracts against infective larvae of ruminants gastrointestinal nematode parasites

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    FC Moreno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de estudiar la capacidad antihelmíntica de algunas especies de plantas presentes en el Estado de Queensland, Australia, se evaluó el efecto in vitro de extractos de hojas de plantas en la migración de larvas infectantes (L3 de Haemonchus placei, Cooperia sp., Haemonchus contortus y Trichostrongylus colubriformis. En general, los extractos de plantas redujeron la migración de larvas de H. placei y Cooperia sp. Las plantas con mayor actividad antihelmíntica contra estas especies de nematodos fueron Allocasuarina torulosa, Neolitsea dealbata, Acacia holosericea, Acacia salicina, Callitris endlicheri y Casuarina cunninghamiana (P With the purpose of studying the anthelmintic efficacy of some plant species presents in Queensland State, Australia, we tested in vitro the effect of plant extracts on infective larvae (L3 migration of Haemonchus placei, Cooperia sp., Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. In general, plant extracts reduced the larval migration of Haemonchus placei and Cooperia sp. The most effective plants against Haemonchus placei and Cooperia sp. (P < 0.0001 were Allocasuarina torulosa, Neolitsea dealbata, Acacia holosericea, Acacia salicina, Callitris endlicheri and Casuarina cunninghamiana. Plants extracts were less effective on L3 migration of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Callitris endlicheri, Casuarina cunninghamiana, Acacia farnesiana, Acacia holosericea and Acacia nilotica were the plant extracts that shown an important larval migration inhibition against H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (P < 0.0001. Callitris endlicheri was the plant that consistently inhibited the larval migration of every nematode species under study. These in vitro results suggest anthelmintic properties associate with some of the plant species we studied.

  2. Anthelmintic resistance in Swedish sheep flocks based on a comparison of the results from the faecal egg count reduction test and resistant allele frequencies of the beta-tubulin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Johan; Gustafsson, Katarina; Ljungström, Britt-Louise; Engström, Annie; Donnan, Alison; Skuce, Philip

    2009-04-01

    A faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) survey was conducted during the grazing season 2006 and 2007 to provide an updated indication of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks in Sweden. A total of 1330 faecal samples from 90 flocks on 45 farms, with a minimum of 20 ewes each, was collected by local sheep veterinarians. Per treatment group, approximately 15 lambs were dewormed either with oral suspensions of ivermectin (Ivomec vet.) or albendazole (Valbazen vet.). The efficacy on each farm was investigated either in 2006 or 2007 by faecal egg counts collected on the day of treatment and in a new sample from the same animals 7-10 days later. Third-stage larvae (L3) were initially identified morphologically from pooled cultures. These were then used as the source of genomic DNA template for two molecular tests. The first was a PCR-based test for specific identification of Haemonchus contortus, and the second was a Pyrosequencing assay for the analysis of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance targeting the P200 mutation in the parasite's beta-tubulin gene. Larval cultures indicated that Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus were the predominant genera, but Haemonchus was diagnosed in 37% of the flocks. The PCR results revealed an almost 100% agreement with those farms that had previously been shown to have Haemonchus present, even when the % prevalence was low (approximately 3%). Only two (4%) of the surveyed farms showed evidence of BZ-resistant worm populations, with H. contortus being the species implicated according to post-treatment larval culture results. The Pyrosequencing assay detected BZ resistant allele frequencies of >40% in the Haemonchus-positive farms and 100% resistant alleles in the clinically most resistant farms. These preliminary results suggest that the FECRT is less sensitive than the molecular test at detecting BZ resistance. However, both tests need to be interpreted carefully, bearing in mind the relative proportions of species

  3. Eficácia de vermífugos à base de avermectinas e milbemicinas utilizados há cinco anos em uma criação de eqüinos Efficacy of avermectins and milbemicins anthelmintics derivatives being used for five years in an equine farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia do controle parasitário com anti-helmínticos (AH de largo espectro usados há mais de cinco anos, em um plantel eqüino da raça puro-sangue inglês, sob manejo semi-intensivo. Os animais foram tratados com Ivermectin (Eqvalan® e Moxidectin (Equest®, por via oral. Durante o estudo, o número de ovos por grama de fezes (opg manteve-se zero na maioria dos animais.The efficacy of parasite control with broad spectrum anthelmintics, used for over five years on a Thoroughbred herd was evaluated. The animals were kept on semi-intensive pasture regimen. During this study the horses received Ivermectin (Eqvalan® and Moxidectin (Equest®; both treatments were given orally. The epg number was zero for most animals troughout the trial.

  4. Anthelmintic efficacy fenbendazole paste in equines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, F S; Reinecke, R K; Scialdo, R C

    1981-06-01

    A single oral dose of fenbendazole (FBZ) paste at 7,5 mg/kg body mass was given to 5 horses. It was highly effective against adults of the following genera: Cyathostomum, Cylicostephanus, Cylicondontophorus, Poteriostomum, Cylicocyclus, Triodontophorus, Oesophagodontus (and other genera belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae). Similarly, high efficacy was obtained against the adults of the following species: Oxyuris equi, Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus and Probstmayria vivipara. These results were confirmed in 12 horses and in addition FBZ at 7,5 mg/kg was highly effective against Parascaris equorum, Craterostomum and Gyalocephalus. PMID:7277372

  5. Anthelmintic efficiency of fenbendazole in equines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, F S; Reinecke, R K

    1980-12-01

    A single oral dose of fenbendazole (FBZ) at 10mg/kg body mass was given to 5 donkeys. A further 5 donkeys were dosed with a medicated lick (1 mg FBZ/g lick) until the oral consumption was 10mg/kg body mass. In both trials FBZ was highly effective against adults of the following genera: Cyathostomum, Cylicocyelus, Cylicostephanus, Cylicodontophorus, Poteriostomum, Cabellonema, Craterostomum and Triodontophorus; similarly high efficiency was obtained against the following species: Habronema majus, Habronema musca, Strongylus vulgaris and Oxyuris equi and worms identified as belonging to the subfamily Cyathostostominae. These results were confirmed in horses and in addition FBZ at 10mg/kg was highly effective against Gyalocephalus capitatus, Oesophagodontos robustus and Parascaris equorum. PMID:7241490

  6. Oxibendazole: critical anthelmintic trials in equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, K C; Colglazier, M L; Enzie, F D

    1975-12-01

    The efficacy of oxibendazole against gastrointestinal parasites of horses was evaluated by the critical test method. Naturally infected ponies of various ages were given single oral doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg-kg of bodyweight. The drug was highly effective against adult large strongylids (Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, S equins), adult small strongylids (especially species of the genera Cylicostephanus, Cylicocyclus, Cyaathostomum, and Triodontophorus), and adult and larval stages of the large pinworm, Oxyuris equi. There was no apparent dose-related differences in efficacy. Oxibendazole was less effective against fourth-stage small strongylid larvae than it was against adults. The drug was inactive against stomach bots (Gasterophilus spp), tapeworms (Anoplocephala magna and A perfoliata), lungworms (Dictyocaulus arnfieldi), abdominal worms )Setaria equina), and mature or immature nematodes in locations other than the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:1216434

  7. SCOPE OF HERBAL ANTHELMINTICS: AN AYURVEDIC PERSPECTIVE

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    Singh Karam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by helminthes are quite common and comprise a very large group of infestations and infections in human beings. The Krimi Roga (worm infestation is one of the most common diseases found in paediatric practice. Helminthiasis is prevalent globally (1/3 of world’s population harbours them, but is more common in developing countries with poorer personal and environmental hygiene. In Vedic and Ayurvedic literatures, the word krimi is vague term used to denote tiny living being. Acharyas described krimis in various Samhitas in detail and they also believed that krimi also act as an etiological factor in various disease e.g. krimija shiorroga, hridaroga etc. Because of the fewer side effects, the importance of herbal drugs in remedy has tremendously increased in the recent years. A wide variety of plants possess narrow or broad spectrum anthelminthic activities which are naturally available.

  8. Efeito anti-helmíntico dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos da Annona squamosa L. (fruta-do-conde sobre o nematóide Ascaridia galli Anthelmintic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Annona squamosa L. (sweetsop on the nematode Ascaridia galli

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    M.Z.L.C.M. Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas são fontes importantes de produtos naturais biologicamente ativos. Dentre as plantas usadas na medicina popular a Anonna squamosa conhecida como fruta-do-conde é citada como tendo várias ações medicinais, dentre elas a atividade inseticida e anti-helmíntica. Dentro desta perspectiva, objetivou-se determinar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos aquosos (EA e etanólicos (EE das folhas da fruta-do-conde sobre o nematóide de aves Ascaridia galli, in vitro e in vivo. No primeiro, os nematóides foram colocados em placa de Petri contendo diferentes concentrações dos extratos e no segundo foram utilizadas seis galinhas poedeiras por grupo, as quais foram administrados10 mL Kg-1 dos extratos. No teste in vitro o EA da A. squamosa nas concentrações 2,4 e 9,6 mg mL-1 foi capaz de matar 63,33% e 53,33% dos nematóides, respectivamente. O EE não produziu efeito significativo. No teste in vivo, o percentual de eliminação do EA foi de 39% e do EE de 20%. Estes dados sugerem que neste caso a substância responsável pela mortalidade dos parasitos esteja em maior concentração na fração aquosa. Desta maneira, acredita-se que o EA de A. squamosa apresenta uma atividade anti-helmíntica potencial sobre o A. galli.Plants are important sources of biologically active natural products. Among the plants used in popular medicine, Annona squamosa, known as sweetsop, is reported to have several medicinal actions such as insecticidal and anthelmintic activity. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the anthelmintic activity of aqueous (AE and ethanolic (EE extracts from sweetsop leaves on the chicken roundworm Ascaridia galli, both in vitro and in vivo. In the former, nematodes were placed on a Petri plate containing different concentrations of the extracts; in the in vivo test, six egg-laying chickens per group received 10 mL Kg-1 of the extracts. In vitro results indicated that A. squamosa AE at the concentrations 2.4 and 9.6 mg mL-1

  9. RESISTÊNCIA ANTI-HELMÍNTICA EM REBANHOS OVINOS DA REGIÃO DA ASSOCIAÇÃO DOS MUNICÍPIOS DO ALTO IRANI (AMAI, OESTE DE SANTA CATARINA ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE ON SHEEP FLOCKS FROM ASSOCIATION OF THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE ALTO IRANI REGION (AMAI, WEST OF SANTA CATARINA STATE, BRAZIL

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    Ingrid Kelly Zanchet

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para conhecer a situação da resistência anti-hel-míntica em ovinos de propriedades localizadas nos mu-nicípios da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI, oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foram avalia-dos nove rebanhos pelo teste de redução da OPG (ovos por grama de fezes. Este teste consiste na comparação da média da OPG de um grupo de animais quatorze dias após o tratamento com a média de um grupo controle não-medicado. Consideraram-se efetivas as drogas capazes de reduzir a OPG em 95%. Os princípios ativos utilizados foram: levamisol (7,5 mg/kg, closantel (7,5 mg/Kg, al-bendazol (10 e 5 mg/Kg, ivermectin e moxidectin (0,2 mg/Kg. Detectou-se resistência dos nematódeos gastrin-testinais a todos os grupos anti-helmínticos testados, sen-do que 100% das propriedades apresentam resistência ao ivermectin; 66,7% ao moxidectin, 44,4% ao levamisol e 75% aos benzimidazóis. Para as lactonas macrocíclicas e benzimidazóis, tanto o gênero Haemonchus sp. quanto Trichostrongylus sp. apresentaram resistência. Para o le-vamisol, a resistência está restrita a Trichostrongylus sp. Também foi detectada a presença de uma população de Haemonchus sp. resistente ao closantel e uma de Nema-todirus sp. resistente ao albendazol. Estes dados mostram a urgência de difundir medidas de controle integrado de parasitoses, visando prolongar a vida  útil dos princípios ativos ainda disponíveis para uso.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Ovinos, resistência anti-helmíntica, Santa Catarina.

    In order to know the situation of the anthelmintic resistance in sheep farms in the municipalities of Asso-ciation of the municipalities of the High Irani Region - AMAI, West of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, nine flocks were submitted to the faecal egg counts reduction test (FECRT. This test consists in comparing the mean FEC of a group of sheep, 14 days after treatment with the mean FEC of a non-treated control group. Only drugs that could

  10. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Santos, Jessica Maria Leite dos; Silva, Kaline das Chagas; Araújo Filho, José Vilemar de; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of major economic importance in livestock. An alternative for the control of parasites is phytotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus decoction (CcD), C. citratus essential oil (CcEo) and citral against Haemonchus contortus using in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) and an in vivo test using a Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) model. The effect of 800 mg/kg CcEo was evaluated in gerbils that had been artificially infected with 5,000 third-stage H. contortus larvae. The effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching were 0.46, 0.14 and 0.13 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. The EC50 values in the LDT were 5.04, 1.92 and 1.37 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. H. contortus population in the group treated with C. citratus essential oil was reduced by 38.5% (Pcitratus essential oil to control of H. contortus parasite of small ruminant. PMID:26444058

  11. Anthelmintic Baiting of Foxes against Urban Contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, Daniel; Ward, Paul I.; Deplazes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, increases in the urban fox population have been observed in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere. As a result, Echinococcus multilocularis has entered the urban environment. Because of a possible increased risk for alveolar echinococcosis, intervention strategies need to be evaluated. In Zürich, Switzerland, 50 praziquantel-containing baits per km2 were distributed monthly in six 1-km2 bait areas and one 6-km2 bait area from April 2000 through October 2001. The proportio...

  12. Anthelmintic Baiting of Foxes against Urban Contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegglin, Daniel; Ward, Paul I.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, increases in the urban fox population have been observed in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere. As a result, Echinococcus multilocularis has entered the urban environment. Because of a possible increased risk for alveolar echinococcosis, intervention strategies need to be evaluated. In Zürich, Switzerland, 50 praziquantel-containing baits per km2 were distributed monthly in six 1-km2 bait areas and one 6-km2 bait area from April 2000 through October 2001. The proportion of E. multilocularis coproantigen–positive fox fecal samples collected remained unchanged in six control areas but decreased significantly in the 1-km2 bait areas (from 38.6% to 5.5%) and in the 6-km2 bait area (from 66.7% to 1.8%). E. multilocularis prevalence in the intermediate host Arvicola terrestris also decreased significantly in baited areas. This controlled baiting study shows that a pronounced reduction of E. multilocularis egg contamination is feasible in urban areas where the organism is highly endemic. PMID:14609462

  13. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna. PMID:25189803

  14. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.;

    2014-01-01

    stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11...

  15. Critical tests of new benzothiazole anthelmintic tioxidazole in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1980-09-01

    The basic-dose confirmation tests of tioxidazole for removal of susceptible populations of gastrointestinal parasites of the horse were made in 10 naturally infected horses, using the critical test method (experiment A). A single dose of toxidazole, given at the rate of 11 mg/kg of body weight, was administered to 5 horses by stomach tube and to 5 horses by mixing the drug with the daily grain ration. In the 5 horses given the drug by stomach tube, aggregate average removals were 90% or more for 5 horses infected with Stronglyus vulgaris, 5 infected with S edentatus, 5 infected with small strongyles, 3 infected with Parascaris equorum, 3 infected with mature Oxyuris equi, and 5 infected with immature O equi. Bots (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G nasalis) in 5 infected horses and tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata or A magna) in 3 infected horses were not removed. Activity against stomach worms (Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema muscae, and Drashia megastoma) was not evidenced. In the 5 horses given the drug in the feed, aggregate average removals were 90% or more for 5 horses infected with S vulgaris, 5 infected with S edentatus, 1 infected with S equinus, 5 infected with small strongyles, 3 infected with P equorum, 3 infected with mature O equi, and 5 infected with immature O equi. Activity against bots, tapeworms, and stomach worms was not detected. Larval count data on fecal samples also indicated liited, if any, activity against Strongyloides westeri by tioxidazole at this dosage (11 mg/kg). In addition to experiment A, tioxidazole (11 mg/kg) was administered via stomach tube in a single dose in a critical test to a foal naturally infected with benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (population B) and removal was only 27% (experiment B). The same 5 species of small strongyles refractory to the benzimidazoles also exhibited resistance to tioxidazole. Specimens of P equorum and S vulgaris were all removed from the foal. Untoward effects of tioxidazole treatment (11 mg/kg) were not observed in any of the animals. PMID:7447131

  16. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, H K Sundeep; Bose, Anindya; Raut, Arundhuti; Sahu, Sujit Kumar; Raju, M B V

    2010-03-01

    The ethanolic extract of the plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) was investigated for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and nematode Ascardi galli. Various concentrations (10, 20, 50 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Piperazine citrate (15 mg/ml) and Albendazole (20 mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulness of Pistia stratiotes against earthworm infections. PMID:24825974

  17. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, H. K. Sundeep; Bose, Anindya; Raut, Arundhuti; Sahu, Sujit Kumar; Raju, M. B. V.

    2010-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of the plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) was investigated for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and nematode Ascardi galli. Various concentrations (10, 20, 50 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Piperazine citrate (15 mg/ml) and Albendazole (20 mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulnes...

  18. Anthelmintic activity of Leucaena leucocephala protein extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Alexandra Martins dos Santos; de Araújo, Sandra Alves; Lopes, Suzana Gomes; Costa Junior, Livio Martins

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein extracts obtained from the plant Leucaena leucocephala on the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The seeds, shell and cotyledon of L. leucocephala were separated and their proteins extracted using a sodium phosphate buffer, and named as TE (total seed extract), SE (shell extract) and CE (cotyledon extract). Soluble protein content, protease, protease inhibitory and chitinase activity assays were performed. Exsheathment inhibition of H. contortus larvae were performed at concentrations of 0.6 mg mL-1, and egg hatch assays were conducted at protein concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 mg mL-1. The effective concentration for 50% hatching inhibition (EC50) was estimated by probit. Different proportions of soluble proteins, protease and chitinase were found in TE and CE. Protease inhibitory activity was detected in all extracts. The EC50 of the CE and TE extracts were 0.48 and 0.33 mg mL-1, respectively. No ovicidal effects on H. contortus were detected in SE extracts, and none of the protein extracts demonstrated larvicidal effects on H. contortus. We therefore conclude that protein extracts of L. leucocephala had a detrimental effect on nematode eggs, which can be correlated with the high protease and chitinase activity of these extracts. PMID:26689178

  19. Cost Benefits Analysis of Anthelmintic Treatment of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiq Ahmed Athar, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Tauseef-ur-Rehman and Izhar Ahmad Khan1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of various helminths of cattle and buffalo population of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan and economic benefits of deworming with oxyclozanide. Out of 540 fecal samples examined, 205 (37.96% were found infected with helminths. Significantly higher (OR=2.2; P<0.05 prevalence of helminths was recorded in buffaloes (40%; 112/280 as compared to cattle (35.77%; 93/260. Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloide, Ostertagia, Fasciola (F. hepatica, F. gigantica and Haemonchus contortus were the helminth species identified in the study area. Oxyclozanide medicated buffaloes (E=96.66% and cattle (E=95.64% showed a significant decrease in fecal egg counts on day 14 post-treatment. An average daily increase of 0.89 and 0.71 liters of milk along with 0.42 and 0.37% more fat per buffalo and cattle, respectively was observed in oxyclozanide medication. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$ 0.47 (Pak Rupees 40 and US$ 0.41 (Pak Rupees 35 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. It can be concluded that single dose of oxyclozanide is effective against all bovine helminths.

  20. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nemaotdes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Larsen Enemark, Heidi; Mueller-Harvey, Irene;

    2013-01-01

    Some plant secondary metabolites as tannins have direct anthelminthic properties and may play a role in the control of nematodes in livestock. However, their great diversity in structural characteristics and different levels of content in plants are responsible for a highly variable response in a...

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid from cortex cinnamon essential oil against Dactylogyrus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fei; Jiang, Chao; Liu, Guanglu; Li, Mingshuang; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-12-01

    Utilization of chemical pesticide to control monogenean diseases is often restricted in many countries due to the development of pesticide resistance and concerns of chemical residues and environmental contamination. Thus, the use of antiparasitic agents from plants has been explored as a possible way for controlling monogenean infections. Extracts from Cinnamomum cassia were investigated under in vivo conditions against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. The two bioactive compounds, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The 48 h median effective concentrations (EC(50)) for these compounds against D. intermedius were 0·57 and 6·32 mg L(-1), respectively. The LD(50) of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid were 13·34 and 59·66 mg L(-1) to goldfish in 48 h acute toxicity tests, respectively. These data confirm that cinnamaldehyde is effective against D. intermedius, and the cinnamaldehyde exhibits potential for the development of a candidate antiparasitic agent. PMID:26442478

  2. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) against gastrointestinal nematode parasites in experimentally infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Desrues, Olivier; Hansen, T. V. A.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments studied the effects of dietary chicory against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, stabled calves were fed chicory silage (CHI1; n = 9) or ryegrass/clover hay (CTL1; n = 6) with balanced protein/energy intakes between groups. After 16 days, all calves received 10 000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 66 000 Cooperia oncophora third-stage larvae (L3) [day (D) 0 post-infection (p.i.)]. In Exp. 2, calves were assigned to pure chicory (CHI2; n=10) or ryegrass/clov...

  3. In-vitro anthelmintic activity of seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. against Pheretima Posthuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the most common infections of digestive system in human beings are helminth infections. In developing countries, they pose a large threat to the society. Such parasitic diseases cause severe morbidity, including lymphatic filariasis, onchoserciasis and schistosomiasis. Different extracts of the plant material were tested against adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma (Pheritimidae as test worms. Various concentrations (10, 25 and 50 mg/ml of all extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as the standard reference drug. Results showed that the aqueous extract is more potent as compared to other extracts as it took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms as compared to standard reference drug.

  4. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHYLLIN AGAINST DIFFERENT LARVAL STAGES OF Fasciola gigantica

    Science.gov (United States)

    SINGH, Divya Jyoti; SINGH, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode Fasciola. Freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. Chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (FCU) had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU (1:1 ratio) in sunlight against redia larva (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was more pronounced than using just chlorophyllin (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU in sunlight against redia (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was higher than against cercaria (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin in sunlight (redia/cercaria larvae: 8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL) was more pronounced than under laboratory conditions (redia: 8 h LC50: 22.21 mg/mL/, cercaria 8 h LC50: 96.21 mg/mL). Toxicity of FCU against both larvae was lower than that of chlorophyllin and chlorophyllin + FCU. Chlorophyllin and its formulations + FCU were 357.4 to 1603.5 times more effective against redia/cercaria larvae in sunlight than under laboratory conditions. The present study has shown that chlorophyllin formulations may be used as potent larvicides against fasciolosis. PMID:27253741

  5. The Potential of Tephrosia and Vernonia as Anthelmintics Against Gastrointestinal in Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen dual purpose goats were used to evaluate the effects of feeding Calliandra caryothyrsus leaf meat at different patterns as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay on intake, nitrogen utilization and milk yield. A basal diet of low quality Rhodes grass hay (fed 90% and libitum) and 100 g maize germ were offered to the goats over a 60-day experimental period. The treatments were:- (TI) 100 g day-1 calliandra for 60 days; (T2) 200 g day-1 calliandra for 30 days followed by another 30 days where 200 g or 0 g day-1 calliandra alternated every 5 days; and (T3) 200 g or 0 day-1 calliandra alternated every 5 days for 60 days. Total dry matter intake (TDM) was significantly (P-1 for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Milk yields had similar trends averaged 166.1, 231.8 and 20.1 g day-1 for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. The utilization of nitrogen was also significantly (P<0.05) affected by the pattern of supplement feeding. It was concluded from the results that the overall animal response could be influenced by how limited quantity f supplement was fed

  6. Solubility improvement of an anthelmintic benzimidazole carbamate by association with dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, L.; Sigal, E.; Santo, M., E-mail: msanto@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicoquimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Otero, L.; Silber, J. J. [Departamento de Quimica. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicoquimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Rio Cuarto (Argentina)

    2011-10-15

    The improvement of aqueous solubility of methyl (5-[propylthio]-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl) carbamate, albendazole (ABZ) using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as solubility enhancers was investigated. Full generation PAMAM dendrimers with amine terminal groups, (G3), with hydroxyl terminal groups (G3OH) and half generation PAMAM dendrimers with carboxylate terminal groups (G2.5 and G3.5), were chosen for this study. The nature of dendrimer-ABZ association was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence emission measurements and by {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy. The results obtained show that these polymeric structures have the capacity to enhance the solubility of ABZ, both lipophilic and specific hydrogen bond interactions contributing to the guest-host association. Although all studied dendrimers have hydrophobic internal nanoenvironments with similar dimensions, their surfaces differ significantly and the nature and the localization of the interactions involved in ABZ-dendrimer association depend on the type of terminal groups. (author)

  7. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHYLLIN AGAINST DIFFERENT LARVAL STAGES OF Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya Jyoti; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode Fasciola. Freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. Chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (FCU) had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU (1:1 ratio) in sunlight against redia larva (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was more pronounced than using just chlorophyllin (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU in sunlight against redia (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was higher than against cercaria (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin in sunlight (redia/cercaria larvae: 8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL) was more pronounced than under laboratory conditions (redia: 8 h LC50: 22.21 mg/mL/, cercaria 8 h LC50: 96.21 mg/mL). Toxicity of FCU against both larvae was lower than that of chlorophyllin and chlorophyllin + FCU. Chlorophyllin and its formulations + FCU were 357.4 to 1603.5 times more effective against redia/cercaria larvae in sunlight than under laboratory conditions. The present study has shown that chlorophyllin formulations may be used as potent larvicides against fasciolosis. PMID:27253741

  8. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel;

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993...

  9. A perspective on genomic-guided anthelmintic discovery and repurposing using Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sarah; Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-06-01

    High-throughput molecular and computer technologies have become instrumental for systems biological explorations of parasites. Investigating the genomes and transcriptomes of different developmental stages of parasitic nematodes can provide insights into gene expression, regulation and function in the parasite, which is a significant step toward understanding their biology as well as host interactions and disease. This article covers aspects of a talk given at the MEEGID XII conference in Thailand in 2014. Here, we refer to recent studies of the genomes and transcriptomes of socioeconomically important parasitic nematodes of animals; provide an account of the barber's pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) and emerging drug resistance problems in this and related worms; we also propose a genomic-guided drug discovery and repurposing approach, involving the prediction of the druggable genome, prioritization of drug targets, screening of compound libraries against H. contortus and, briefly, a hit-to-lead optimization approach. We conclude by indicating prospects that molecular tool kits for nematodes provide to the scientific community for future comparative genomic, genetic, proteomic, metabolomic, evolutionary, biological, ecological and epidemiological investigations, and as a basis for biotechnological outcomes and translation. PMID:26144657

  10. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHYLLIN AGAINST DIFFERENT LARVAL STAGES OF Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Jyoti SINGH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode Fasciola. Freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. Chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (FCU had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU (1:1 ratio in sunlight against redia larva (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL was more pronounced than using just chlorophyllin (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU in sunlight against redia (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL was higher than against cercaria (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin in sunlight (redia/cercaria larvae: 8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL was more pronounced than under laboratory conditions (redia: 8 h LC50: 22.21 mg/mL/, cercaria 8 h LC50: 96.21 mg/mL. Toxicity of FCU against both larvae was lower than that of chlorophyllin and chlorophyllin + FCU. Chlorophyllin and its formulations + FCU were 357.4 to 1603.5 times more effective against redia/cercaria larvae in sunlight than under laboratory conditions. The present study has shown that chlorophyllin formulations may be used as potent larvicides against fasciolosis.

  11. Critical anthelmintic trials in ponies with four benzimidazoles: mebendazole, cambendazole, fenbendazole, and albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, M L; Enzie, F D; Kates, K C

    1977-08-01

    The comparative efficacy of four benzimidazoles against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies was evaluated by the critical test method. Mebendazole (8.8 mg/kg), cambendazole (20 mg/kg), fenbendazole (5 mg/kg), and albendazole (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) given in single oral doses were highly effective against adult large strongylids (Strongylus vulgaris, S. endentatus, S. equinus) and adult small strongylids (genera identified in order of frequency: Cylicostephanus, Cylicocyclus, Cyathostomum, Triodontophorus, Poteriostomum, Oesophagodontus, Cylicodontophorus, Gyalocephalus, and Craterostomum). Limited data indicated that all benzimidazoles were completely effective against adult Oxyuris equi and 95 to 100% effective against the 4th stage larvae. There was activity also against the large roundworm, Parascaris equorum, although the low levels of infection and skew distribution among the test animals did not permit a definitive determination of efficacy. Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, and Trichostrongylus axei were found in digests of the stomach but none were recovered in the feces after treatment; percent efficacy for these species was not calculated. None of the benzimidazoles showed activity against stomach bots, Gasterophilus spp., and tapeworms, Anoplocephala spp. nor against immature large and small strongylids outside the lumen of the digestive tract. PMID:886410

  12. Anthelmintic activity of paste and drench formulations of oxfendazole in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, P A; Reid, J F

    1981-10-31

    Oxfendazole was administered in paste or drench formulations to groups of five horses carrying naturally acquired worm burdens. At a dose rate of 10 mg/kg the efficacy of either formulation appeared similar. One hundred per cent of the adult populations of the following genera was removed: Parascaris, Oxyuris, Strongylus (S edentatus, S vulgaris), Triodontophorus and Trichostrongylus axei. Efficacy against adult small strongyles, adult Habronema microstoma and immature Oxyuris equi was in the region of 96 to 99 per cent. The level of efficacy against immature small strongyles was at least 74 to 75 per cent, against fourth stage larvae of S vulgaris in the mesenteric arteries between 83 and 88 per cent and against fourth stage S edentatus in flank lesions between 97 and 99 per cent. Early fifth stage sheathed S vulgaris larvae in arteries were less susceptible. The drug failed to remove very young parascaris and habronema and had no effect against Anoplocephala perfoliata and various instars of Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis. Hatching tests on strongyle eggs passed in the faeces indicated that 24 hours must elapse before all become sterile. PMID:6461963

  13. The anthelmintic activity and toxicity of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (dichlorvos) in equines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, R K; Loots, L J; Reinecke, P M

    1980-03-01

    Dichlorvos in a special slow release formulation at 31 mg/kg body mass in equines was highly effective against all adult strongyles and Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara and bots of Gasterophilus spp. It has no effect on 4th stage larvae of Trichonema ssp. nor the stomach worms Draschia megastoma and Habronema spp. Doses of dichlorovos 10 and 20 times the therapeutic dose (310 and 620 mg/kg body mass) caused transient clinical signs but these disappeared 96 hours after dosing. PMID:7452653

  14. An evaluation of ethyl-6-ethoxybenzothiazole-2-carbamate (Sch 18099) for anthelmintic activity in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, E

    1977-03-01

    Ethyl-6-ethoxybenzothiazole-2-carbamate (Sch 18099) was evaluated for efficacy against natural helminth infections in ponies, pigs, lambs and chickens. Sixteen critical trials were conducted in ponies at dosages of 15 to 150 mg/kg. At 15 mg/kg, efficacy against adult and larval Oxyuris equi was 100% and 91% and against small strongyles it was 98%. Efficacy levels were 95% against Strongylus vulgaris and S. edentatus at the 20 mg/kg dosage. In two trials at 100 mg/kg efficacy against Parascaris equorum was 77%. No efficacy was observed against Gastrophilus spp. or Anoplocephala spp. In swine single oral doses of 10 to 100 mg/kg were not effective. 500 ppm Sch 18099 in the diet for seven days resulted in 100% efficacy against Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis but had no effect on Stongyloides ransomi. Efficacy at 250 ppm against A. suum was 77%. Efficacy at 200 mg/kg in lambs was greater than 90% for Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, Marshallagia marshalli, Bunostomum trignocephalum, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Trichuris ovis, and Chabertia spp. Efficacy was less than 80% for Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Nematodirus filicollis, Ostertagia circumcinta and Cooperia curticei. Except for O. circumcinta and C. curticei, drug efficacy was reduced for these worms in lambs treated at 100 mg/kg. Efficacies of 14.3-89% against Ascaridia galli were obtained with dietary levels of 125-1000 ppm Sch 18099 fed for 7 days. Efficacy of 100% was recorded against Heterakis gallinarum at the 1000 ppm dietary drug level. PMID:864223

  15. Critical tests of anthelmintic activity of a paste formulation of thiabendazole in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1976-06-01

    Critical tests of the activity on large strongyles, ascarids, mature pinworms, and bots were carried out in 11 horses intraorally treated with a paste formulation of thiabendazole. The dose level of 44 mg/kg was administered to 3 horses, and the dose level of 88 mg/kg to 8 horses. Removals of Strongylus vulgaris and mature Oxyuris equi were 100% at the 2 dose levels, and efficacy against Strongylus edentatus varied from 95 to 99% and 89 to 100% for the 44- and the 88-mg/kg dose levels, respectively. Strongylus equinus was completely removed from the 1 infected horse treated at the dose level of 88 mg/kg. Activity of the smaller dose against Parascaris equorum was 46%, and that of the larger dose varied from 32 to 100%. The drug was inactive on Gasterophilus intestinalis and Gasterophilus nasalis. PMID:937790

  16. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. VEDHA HARI, AKHILA SRAVYA DANTU, P. SHANKARGURU, D. RAMYA DEVI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tabernaemontana divaricata is a common shrub found in the tropical regions and is often used for medicinal purposes, particularly the flowers of the plant. The present study is conducted to compare and identify the phytochemical constituents by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and Qualitative Phytochemical analysis and to determine the anthelmentic activity of fresh and dried flower extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata. The extract is obtained using two different methods like cold maceration and hot solvent extraction by using soxhlet apparatus, first with petroleum ether followed by hydroalcohol as solvents. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract indicated the presence of Alkaloids, Flavanoids, Steroids, Proteins, Carbohydrates and Tannins. The Rf value of TLC is calculated and compared with standard values and analysis proved the presence of the phytochemical constituents. The anthelmentic activity studies are performed using Indian earth worms. For this, the concentrated extract is diluted to various concentrations, and the effect of each solution is studied by measuring the time taken for paralysis and death of the earth worms. It is found to show significant anthelmentic activity at various concentrations compared with that of the standard drug Metronidazole.

  17. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M;

    2016-01-01

    -O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic...

  18. Compliance with anthelmintic treatment in the neglected tropical diseases control programmes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuford, Kathryn V; Turner, Hugo C; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-01

    Preventive chemotherapy (PCT) programmes are used to control five of the highest burden neglected tropical diseases (NTDs): soil-transmitted helminth infections (hookworm, ascariasis, and trichuriasis), lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and trachoma. Over the past decade, new resource commitments for the NTDs have enabled such programmes to intensify their control efforts, and for some diseases, to shift from goals of morbidity control to the interruption of transmission and elimination. To successfully eliminate the parasite reservoir, these programmes will undoubtedly require prolonged, high treatment coverage. However, it is important to consider that even when coverage levels reach an acceptable proportion of the target population, there may be a considerable gap between coverage (those who receive the drug) and compliance (those who actually consume the drug)-a topic of fundamental and perhaps underestimated importance. We conducted a systematic review of published literature that investigated compliance to PCT programmes for NTD control and elimination. Databases searched included PubMed/Medline, Web of Knowledge (including Web of Science), OVID, and Scopus. Data were collected on compliance rates, reasons for non-compliance, as well as the heterogeneity of compliance definitions and calculations across programmes and studies. A total of 112 studies were selected for inclusion. The findings of the review revealed substantial heterogeneity across compliance terms and definitions; an imbalance of available studies for particular disease areas and countries; and finally, a lack of longitudinal compliance studies to properly investigate the role of systematic non-compliance. The lack of consistency among reporting of compliance data can result in under- or over-estimating compliance in a population, and therefore has serious implications for setting and reaching elimination targets. Reframing of the guidelines on compliance definitions coupled with an urgent call for longitudinal research in systematic non-compliance should be essential elements in the programmatic shift from control to elimination. PMID:26813098

  19. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M; Mueller-Harvey, I

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and had a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol-O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic nematode. PMID:26708339

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B Has Potent Anthelmintic Activity against Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Joseph F.; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie M; Scheib, Ulrike; Ying Y Yiu; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestiv...

  1. An extensive comparison of the effect of anthelmintic classes on diverse nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-transmitted helminths are parasitic nematodes that inhabit the human intestine. These parasites, which include two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, and the large roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, infect upwards of two billion people...

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the inte...

  3. The anthelmintic effect of Urtica dioica and Tanacetum vulgare L. on Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer lokman Omer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effects of alcoholic (Ethanol extracts and aquaus extract of leaves Urtica dioica and extract of both leaves and flowers of Tanacetum vulgare on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. Three different concentrations of each extract (I, 2, 4 micrograms /ml were used. The mortality of Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus by using aqueous extract of two plants was increased with the increasing the concentration and duration of exposure; reach 96.2% and 97.8% at concentration of 4 micrograms/ml for 30 minutes for Urtica dioica and Tanacetum volgare respectively. However, it was found that the effec of these plants by ethanol were decreased with the same concentration when the time of exposure is increased. The mortality rate of protocoleces decreased from 69% to 4.2% when exposed to Urtica dioica extract for 10 and 30 min respectively at 1mg/ml.

  4. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.;

    2016-01-01

    susceptible to all CT fractions than C. oncophora L1. The mean degree of polymerization of CT (i.e. average size) was the most important structural parameter: large CT reduced larval feeding more than small CT. The flavan-3-ols of prodelphinidin (PD)-type tannins had a stronger negative influence on parasite....... Overall, the size and the percentage of PDs within CT seemed to be the most important parameters that influence anti-parasitic activity....

  5. The anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases against the rodent gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Buttle, David J.; Duce, I.R.; Behnke, Jerzy M.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are important disease-causing organisms, controlled primarily through treatment with synthetic drugs, but the efficacy of these drugs has declined due to widespread resistance, and hence new drugs, with different modes of action, are required. Some medicinal plants, used traditionally for the treatment of worm infections, contain cysteine proteinases known to damage worms irreversibly in vitro. Here we (i) confirm that papaya latex has marked efficacy in vivo a...

  6. Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified chicory extract against free-living stages of Cooperia oncophora: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2013-01-01

    methanol as the extraction medium. The resulting extract was dried and fractionated using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges to enhance isolation of secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones. The obtained elutate was dried, dissolved in 100 % DMSO and serially diluted to obtain...... concentrations ranging from 5 to 0.12 mg dry matter (DM)/mL. Two Jersey calves (4 months old) mono-infected with C. oncophora were used for collection of nematode eggs. Isolated eggs were used in an egg hatch assay (EHA) with 6 concentrations of the chicory extract (tested in duplicates, final DMSO concentration...... of 2%). Thiabendazole (1000 μg/ml) and 2 % DMSO in water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. After 48 hours of incubation (25oC), the percentage of hatched L1 in negative controls was > 90%. Hatching percentages were dramatically decreased in the presence of the chicory extract...

  7. PREPARATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE AS A CANDY BASED ANTHELMINTIC MEDICATED LOLLIPOPS FOR PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi Kamath

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminthiasis is prevalent globally, but is more common in developing countries with poorer personal and environmental hygiene, which is the major cause of undernourishment, anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia. The development of taste masking for bitter-tasting drugs administered orally for children has always been a formidable challenge for formulation scientists and this study reflects one of the contemporary advancements in the pediatric dosage forms. This study involves the preparation of candy based medicated lollipops of drug Levamisole, a synthetic imidathiazole derivative which acts by targeting the nematode nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor for pediatrics, by heating and congealing technique, using polymers like Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, Methyl cellulose, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and comparing with lollipops with no hydrocolloids. It was found that the formulation containing methyl cellulose showed better drug release and was more stable, unlike the other formulations.

  8. Use of P-glycoprotein gene probes to investigate anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus and comparison with Onchocerca volvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, M.S.G.; Okoli, M.N.; Schulz-Key, H.; Okongkwo, P.O.; Roos, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    A P-glycoprotein gene probe from the sheep parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus was developed and used to analyse restriction fragment length polymorphisms between susceptible isolates and isolates resistant to either benzimidazole; levamisole and benzimidazole; or benzimidazole, ivermectin and c

  9. Critical anthelmintic trials in ponies with oxfendazole and caviphos and concomitant studies on the spontaneous elimination of small strongylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, M L

    1979-03-01

    The efficacy of the benzimidazole, oxfendazole, and the organophosphate, caviphos, against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies was evaluated by the critcial test method. Oxfendazole (10 mg/kg of body weight) given in single oral doses was 100% effective against adult large strongylids (Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, and Strongylus equinus), 99% effective against adult small strongylids, and 97% effective against 4th-stage small strongylids (genera identified in order of frequency: Cylicostephanus, Cyathostomum, Cylicocyclus, Triodontophorus, Poteriostomum, Oesophagodontus, Cylicodontophorus, Gyalocephalus, and Craterostomum). Caviphos (40 mg/kg of body weight) admixed in the grain ration (horse crunch) was 89% effective against adult large strongylids (S vulgaris and S edentatus) and 99% effective against adult small strongylids (genera identified earlier in order of frequency above), but only 35% effective against 4th-stage small strongylids. Both drugs were effective (100%) against adult and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi) but ineffective against Habronema spp and Draschia megastoma. Oxfendazole was only 11% effective against stomach bots (Gasterophilus spp); caviphos was 73% effective against these species. During a three-day pretreatment interval, about 34% of the total population of small strongylids was lost spontaneously from the 29 ponies. PMID:475090

  10. Critical tests of the anthelmintic febantel in the horse: activity of a paste formulation alone or with a trichlorfon paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1978-09-01

    Critical tests were carried out in 10 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of febantel given alone or with trichlorfon. Paste formulations were administered intraorally at dose levels of 6 mg of febantel (active ingredient)/kg and 35 mg of trichlorfon (active ingredient)/kg. In 5 tests with febantel alone, removal of 100% was recorded for mature or immature Parascaris equorum from 2 infected horses. Strongylus vulgaris from 4 infected horses, S edentatus from 5 infected horses, and mature Oxyuris equi from 1 infected horse; and removal of 96% was recorded for small strogyles from 1 horse tested, and bots in 5 infected horses were not affected. In 5 horses treated with both compounds, removal of 100% was recorded for mature P equorum from 2 infected horses, immature P equorum from 1 infected horse, S vulgaris from 5 infected horses, Sedentatus from 5 infected horses, mature O equi from 2 infected horses, immature O equi from 1 horse tested, 2nd Gasterophilus intestin-equi from 1 infected horse, 2nd-instar C nasalis from 1 infected horse, and 3rd-instar C nasalis from 4 infected horses. Removal of 98% was recorded for small strongyles from 1 horse tested, and removal of 65% to 100% for 3rd-instar C intestinalis from 5 infected horses. In the aggregate, removal of 3rd-instar C intestinalis was 99%. Untoward effects of treatment were quite limited. Only a transient softening of feces in 1 of 5 horses given the trichlorfon paste plus the febantel paste was recorded. PMID:697152

  11. Management practices and use of anthelmintics on dairy cattle farms in The Netherlands: results of a questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Sol, J.; Uum, van A.; Haan, de N.; Huyben, R.; Sampimon, O.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, a questionnaire about farm management and parasite control measures in calves was sent to 956 randomly chosen dairy cattle farmers in The Netherlands. Another 150 farmers in the vicinity of Deventer who had vaccinated their calves in 1995 against lungworm were approached with the s

  12. Biotransformation of benzimidazole anthelmintics in reed (Phragmites australis) as a potential tool for their detoxification in environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podlipná, Radka; Skálová, L.; Seidlová, H.; Szotáková, B.; Kubíček, V.; Stuchlíková, L.; Jirásko, R.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Vokřál, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 2013 (2013), s. 216-224. ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020573 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Albendazole * Phytotransformation * Drug-metabolism Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  13. Structural characterization of product ions of regulated veterinary drugs by electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (part 3) Anthelmintics, thyreostats, and flukicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Previously we have reported a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of regulated veterinary drugs. The methods used three selected transition ions but most of these ions lacked structural characterization. The work presented here ...

  14. A study to evaluate the field efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate, with preliminary observations on the efficacy of doramectin, as anthelmintics in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Davies

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and doramectin was evaluated under field conditions at 2 sites in the Free State Province of South Africa. The study involved 25 horses at each site, divided into 5 groups of equal size. Ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate were administered orally at doses of 0.2, 10 and 19 mg/kg respectively. Doramectin was administered by intramuscular injection at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Treatment efficacy was based on the mean faecal egg count reduction 14 days post treatment. At site A a faecal egg count reduction of 100 % was found after treatment with ivermectin, fenbendazole and doramectin. A 96.1 % reduction was found after treatment with pyrantel pamoate. At site B ivermectin and doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts, fenbendazole produced an 80.8 % reduction and pyrantel pamoate a 94.1 %reduction. Doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts at both sites, despite not being registered for use in horses. In addition, the results indicated reduced efficacy of fenbendazole at site B, which suggested benzimidazole resistance. Larval cultures showed that cyathostomes accounted for between 86 and 96 %of pre-treatment parasite burdens at both sites. Other helminths identified in the faecal samples were Strongylus spp. and Trichostrongylus axei.

  15. Survey of intestinal parasites in stray dogs in the Madrid area and comparison of the efficacy of three anthelmintics in naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Guadalupe; Mateo, Marta; Montoya, Ana; Vela, Enrique; Calonge, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Using routine coprological methods, 1161 faecal samples from animal shelters located in Madrid (Spain) were analysed, showing a 28% prevalence for different intestinal parasites: Giardia duodenalis (7%), Cystoisopora spp. (3.8%), Toxocara canis (7.8%), Toxascaris leonina (6.3%), Ancylostomidae (4%), Trichuris vulpis (3.3%), Taenidae (2.9%) and Dipylidium caninum (0.9%). The therapeutic efficacies of mebendazole at a dose of 22 mg/kg once daily for 3 days, fenbendazole at a dose of 50 mg/kg once daily for 3 days and a drug combination of febantel-pyrantel-praziquantel at a dose of 15-5-5 mg/kg once were valuated and compared by collecting faecal samples on days 9 and 16 post-treatment from naturally infected dogs in field-trial conditions. From the infected dogs (321 dogs), 150 animals were selected for the study. Distribution randomly divided the animals into three study groups of ten dogs per parasite and per treatment group: group A, mebendazole; group B, fenbendazole and group C, febantel-pyrantel-praziquantel. The therapeutic efficacy against ascarids and ancylostomids (days 9-16) was very high (75-100%) for the three groups: for T. canis, 100% in group A, 80-100% in group B, 97-100% in group C; for T. leonina, 98-100% in group A, 100% in group B, 92-94% in group C and for ancylostomids, 100% in group A, 99-100% in group B, 90-100% in group C. On the other hand, the highest efficacy against Taenidae infections was in group B (90-100%), followed by groups C (73-91%) and A (70-90%). PMID:16915389

  16. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin against schistosomula and juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana C; Silva, Márcio L A E; Souza, Julia Medeiros; Laurentiz, Rosangela S de; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M; Tavares, Denise C; Filho, Ademar A Da Silva; Cunha, Wilson R; Bastos, Jairo K; Magalhães, Lizandra G

    2015-09-01

    The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis relies on the use of praziquantel. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for new drug leads. This paper is the first report on the in vitro and in vivo activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin (DNK) against Schistosoma mansoni. In vitro, the lethal concentrations for 50% of parasites (LC50) of DNK against adult worms were 103.9±3.6 and 102.5±4.8μM at 24 and 72h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images showed extensive tegumental alterations such as peeling and smaller numbers of tubercles in the spine of adult worms. DNK also elicited high mortality of schistosomula, with LC50 values of 57.4±2.3, 32.5±0.9, and 20.4±1.2μM at 24, 48, and 72h, respectively. DNK displayed moderate activity against the juvenile liver parasite, with an LC50 value of 179.5±2.3 μM at 72h. This compound reduced the total number of eggs by over 83%, and it affected the development of eggs produced by adult worms. The selectivity index showed that at 24h, DNK was 8.5 and 15.4 times more toxic to the adult worms and schistosomula than to Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells, respectively. Treatment of infected mice with DNK moderately decreased worm burden (33.8-52.3%), egg production (40.7-60.0%), and spleen and liver weights. Together, our results indicated that DNK presents moderate in vitro and in vivo activities against S. mansoni, and it might therefore be interesting to explore the structure-activity relationship of the antischistosomal activity of this compound. PMID:26071648

  17. Controlled test evaluation of the benzimidazole anthelmintic VET 220-S alone or with concomitant trichlorfon treatment against naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, T R

    1991-04-01

    A controlled test was done in 30 naturally infected ponies to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of the dienbendazole analog VET 220-S given alone or with trichlorfon (TCF) by nasogastric intubation. Six ponies were nontreated; 6 were given VET 220-S (5.0 mg/kg); 6 were given TCF (40 mg/kg); 6 were given VET 220-S (2.5 mg/kg) and TCF (40 mg/kg); and 6 were given VET 220-S (5.0 mg/kg) and TCF (40 mg/kg). All ponies were euthanatized and necropsied 7 or 8 days after treatment. Draschia megastoma, Oxyuris equi, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and small strongyles were removed efficaciously by all doses of VET 220-S. Habronema muscae and microfilariae of Onchocerca cervicalis were not removed by VET 220-S or TCF. Gasterophilus intestinalis was 97.9% removed by TCF. Pregnant mares in all groups were not adversely affected by treatment, except for 1 mare that had diarrhea after TCF treatment. Parasite eggs per gram and larval culture data agreed with necropsy data. PMID:2053725

  18. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A Medicinal Plant Used for the Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ndhlala, A.R.; Ghebrehiwot, H.M.; Ncube, B.; Aremu, A.O.; Grúz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; du Plooy, C.P.; Abdelgadir, H.A.; van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, NOV 23 (2015), s. 274. ISSN 1663-9812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Amaranthaceae * chlorogenic acid * genistein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.802, year: 2014

  19. A Strategy Anthelmintic Control for Helminthoses of Sheep: Some Experiences in On-Farm Trials in Smallholder Farms in Central Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-farm in Kenya to evaluate the merits of a strategic drenching regime against the existing control measures showed that it was difficult to get statistically significant sample sizes within individual farms and that differences in farm management existed especially where animals are communally grazed. Consequently, production data were rendered difficult to analyse and interpret. Unlike in on-station trials, it was evident that the large number of smallholder farms (up to 80) that was required for realistic statistical comparisons conflicted with the limits of logistics and funding. The strategic treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep resulted in lower mean faecal egg counts in treated animals for most of the study period but overall, there was no significant effect of strategic treatment over the existing treatments on FEC, birth weight and growth rates in lambs. Possible approaches in future studies, could include use of clusters of smallholder farms that are far apart in different treatment groups. Commonly grazed flocks can either be excluded completely in such trials or if that method of grazing is predominant, entire village or cleary designated locations could be used in different treatment groups. Even with above, the use of production data (growth rate, off-take, mortality etc) need to be handled with great caution

  20. Comparing an in vivo egg reduction test and in vitro egg hatching assay for different anthelmintics against Fasciola species, in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Waleed M; Shokeir, Khalid M; Khateib, Abdelrahman M

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to compare between the efficiency of in vivo fecal egg reduction test (FERT) and in vitro egg hatching assay (EHA) in evaluating of the anti-Fasciola activity of albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide and praziquantel. A field trial was carried out on fifty naturally Fasciola infected cattle that were divided equally into 5 groups (A-E). On day zero; groups A-D were drenched with albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide or praziquantel, respectively, while the remaining one, group E, was kept as untreated control. Fecal egg counts of the different groups were conducted weekly over a period of one month post-treatment. In vitro, commercial albendazole and oxyclozanide were diluted to 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, while commercial triclabendazole and praziquantel were diluted to concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In vivo, at the 2nd week post-treatment, triclabendazole and oxyclozanide showed 100% fecal egg reduction (FER), and albendazole had a maximum of 73.7% reduction (P < 0.0001), however, praziquantel did not record any reduction of Fasciola egg counts. In vitro, triclabendazole treated Fasciola gigantica eggs showed early embryonic lysis with zero% hatching at the different concentrations (P < 0.01). In albendazole, the hatching varied according to the drug concentration. At the highest two concentrations; 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, the hatching percentages were 7.4 ± 1.6 and 5.6 ± 1.5 (P < 0.01) respectively. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in egg development and hatching percentage of oxyclozanide or praziquantel treated groups. In conclusion, the efficacy of triclabendazole and albendazole as fasciolicdes could be predicted by Egg Hatching Assay (EHA). Meanwhile fasciolicide activity of oxyclozanide could not be assessed with EHA. Based on in vivo and in vitro findings, paraziquantel did not show any fasciolicide effect. PMID:26455573

  1. Anti-parasitic activity of pelleted sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, O.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T. V.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing anthelmintic-resistance in nematodes of ruminants emphasises the need for sustainable parasite control. Condensed tannin-containing legume forages such as sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) have shown promising anthelmintic properties in small ruminants but this has never been...

  2. Atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos aquoso e etanólico do fruto da Morinda citrifolia sobre Ascaridia galli Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit on Ascaridia galli

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo R. Barros Brito; Rozeverter Moreno Fernandes; Maria Zenaide de Lima C. M. Fernandes; Marcos Daniel de S. Ferreira; Fernanda R. L. Rolim; Manoel L. da Silva Filho

    2009-01-01

    A atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos aquoso e etanólico do fruto da Morinda citrifolia (noni) foi avaliada em aves poedeiras naturalmente infectadas por Ascaridia galli. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vitro foi determinada em parasitos adultos. O extrato aquoso e etanólico foram testados nas seguintes concentrações: 1,69; 3,37; 6,74; 13,48 e 26,96 mg.mL-1 e 4,17; 8,34; 16,68; 33,36 e 66,72 mg.mL-1, respectivamente. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vivo foi determinada administrando-se, dura...

  3. 丙硫苯咪唑混悬液对本地黑山羊驱虫的临床效果观察%Albendazole Suspension on Local Black Goats Anthelmintic Clinically Effect Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴明

    2012-01-01

    云南省普洱市西盟县地处热带、亚热带多雨区域,山羊寄生虫病危害严重,市售驱虫药物种类繁多,但多为口服片剂和注射剂.口服片剂虽然投药操作简单,但药物易被吐出,影响剂量准确性和疗效.丙硫苯咪唑混悬液克服了上述剂型缺点,笔者验证丙硫苯咪唑混悬液临床应用效果.

  4. Development and validation of an enantioselective LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of the anthelmintic drug praziquantel and its main metabolite in human plasma, blood and dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Isabel; Leonidova, Anna; Kovač, Jana; Duthaler, Urs; Keiser, Jennifer; Huwyler, Jörg

    2016-01-25

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is the treatment of choice against various trematode and cestode infections. To study the pharmacokinetics of PZQ in patients infected with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, we developed and validated an enantioselective liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of R - and S -PZQ and its R -trans-4-OH-PZQ metabolite in human plasma, blood and dried blood spots (DBS). The analytes were detected in the positive mode using selected reaction monitoring (R- and S-PZQ: m/z 312.2 → 202.2; R-trans -4-OH-PZQ: m/z 328.0 → 202.0). Prior to the chiral separation with a cellulose tris(3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) column, the analytes were purified from matrix contaminants and concentrated on a C-18 trapping column. The analytical range for each PZQ enantiomer was 0.01-2.5 μg/mL, and 0.1-25 μg/mL for the metabolite. The method met the requirements regarding precision (± 15%, ± 20% at the lower limit of quantification-LLOQ), intra- and inter-assay accuracy (85-115%, 80-120% at LLOQ), and linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.998). The analytes were stable in stock solutions as well as in plasma, blood and DBS. For DBS, the influences of hematocrit and blood spot size were considered as minor. Our validation results show that the method presented here is precise, accurate and selective, and can be used for pharmacokinetic studies. Moreover, the enantioselective separation was achieved with a run time of 11.5 min and a simple sample processing method. PMID:26517852

  5. INCIDENCE ON GASTRO-INTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE IN RAJSHAHI DISTRICT AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF SOME INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST GASTRO-INTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. SULTANA; M. J. U. Sarder; M. MOSTOFA; MH ISLAM; Nahar, L.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of natural gastrointestinal nematodes was observed in cattle during the period from June, 2011 to May, 2012 in Rajshahi district. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes was 54.75% (rainy seasons-79.81%, autumn-57.70% summer-44.32% and winter seasons-34.74%). The prevalence of Ascaris sp.,Strongyles (Haemonchus sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Oesophagostomum sp. and Mecistocirrus sp.), Bunostomum sp., Trichuris sp. Strongyloides sp. and mixed infection were 11.88%, 46.58%, 4.11...

  6. Effectiveness of a community-based strategic anthelmintic treatment programme in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Kilolo district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyyu, J.D.; Kassuku, A.A.; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Monrad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal demonstration project was carried out in 2005/2006 for thirteen months to determine the effectiveness of a strategic community-based worm control (CBWC) programme in the control of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle. Two villages namely, a CBWC village...... effective in reducing faecal egg counts (FEC) and the proportion of animals passing Fasciola eggs in faeces. The strategic CBWC significantly reduced FEC of animals by an average of 60% compared to animals at the village without CBWC (P¿<¿0.01). Four strategic CBWC treatments per year significantly reduced...... the proportion of animals passing Fasciola eggs in faeces by an average of 82.5% compared to animals at the village without CBWC (P¿<¿0.05). From commencement to the end of the trial, animals at the village with CBWC significantly outgained animals at the village without CBWC by an average of 13.9 kg...

  7. Efecto antihelmíntico in vitro de extractos de plantas sobre larvas infectantes de nematodos gastrointestinales de rumiantes In vitro anthelmintic effect of plant extracts against infective larvae of ruminants gastrointestinal nematode parasites

    OpenAIRE

    FC Moreno; Gordon IJ; AD Wright; MA Benvenutti; CA Saumell

    2010-01-01

    Con el objeto de estudiar la capacidad antihelmíntica de algunas especies de plantas presentes en el Estado de Queensland, Australia, se evaluó el efecto in vitro de extractos de hojas de plantas en la migración de larvas infectantes (L3) de Haemonchus placei, Cooperia sp., Haemonchus contortus y Trichostrongylus colubriformis. En general, los extractos de plantas redujeron la migración de larvas de H. placei y Cooperia sp. Las plantas con mayor actividad antihelmíntica contra estas especies ...

  8. Uji In Vitro Aktivitas Antelmintik Ekstrak Etanol Daun Pugun Tanoh [Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Grace Anastasia br

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ethanolic extract of Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr. leaves obtained by maceration has anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. However the anthelmintic activity is affected by extraction method. Soxhletation can extract more chemical compounds of plant than maceration. Objective: Aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity of leaf ethanolic extract of C. fel-terrae obtained by soxhletation against P. posthuma. Methods: Dried material of C....

  9. Uji In vitro Aktivitas Antelmintik Ekstrak Etilasetat Daun Pugun Tanoh [Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr.

    OpenAIRE

    Sitepu, Maria Atrina

    2016-01-01

    Helminthiasis is a world health problem. Emerging of helminthical resistant strain to anthelmintics leads to the difficulty of helminthiasis treatment. Therefore, it is nessecary to do study to find out a new anthelmintic source. This study was to determine characteristics of dried material and ethylacetate extract of Curanga fel-terrae leaves, as well as the anthelmintic activity of the leaves extract. The extract was prepared by extracting C.fel-terrae dried leaves powder in ethylacetate...

  10. The inclusion of diatomaceous earth in the diet of grazing ruminants and its effect on gastrointestinal parasite burdens

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Barbara; Frost, David; Evans, Eifion; Clarke, Aldwyn; Griffiths, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to assess the efficacy of diatomaceous earth as an alternative to anthelmintics in grazing ruminants. Animals treated with anthelmintics and groups of untreated animals were included for comparison. Cattle and sheep which received the diatomaceous earth supplement had low Faecal Egg Counts (FEC) for the duration of the experimental period, similar to animals in the anthelmintic groups. Inclusion of diatomaceous earth in the diet of grazing ruminants may offer s...

  11. Střevní nematoda koní

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍMKOVÁ, Alžběta

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal nematodes of horses were investigated in this study. Especially the gastrointestinal parasites of groups Strongylinae and Cyathostominae were studied: Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris eqourum a Oxyuris equi. Study concerns with preventive proceeding of inception of parasitic diseases, selection of right anthelmintics and antiparasitic programmes, resistance of gastrointestinal parasites on anthelmintics and their effective matters. Finally, the possible solutions are suggested...

  12. Effect of an Orange Oil Emulsion on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal strongylids, especially Haemonchus contortus, have led many investigators worldwide to examine potential anthelmintic effects of naturally occurring plant products. In previous work, we have shown that 1200 mg/kg of an orange oi...

  13. INDICATORS OF GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITISM AFTER AN EXPERIMENTAL HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION IN YOUNG GOATS RECEIVING DIETARY QUEBRACHO TANNIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    With an increase in resistance of trichostrongylid parasites to commercial anthelmintics, the search for alternative means of parasite control in small ruminants has intensified. Condensed tannins in certain legumes and browse plants have been associated with anthelmintic activity in different stud...

  14. Drug: D00486 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (JP16/USP) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antiparasitics Antinemat...gory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 6 Agents against pathologic organisms and parasites 64 Parasitics (systemic) 642 Anthelmintic...s 6429 Others D00486 Pyrantel pamoate (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemic...5 594.6768 D00486.gif Anthelmintic Same as: C07389 Therapeutic category: 6429 ATC code: P02CC01 Therapeutic cate...odal agents Tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives Pyrantel [ATC:P02CC01] D00486 Pyrantel pamoate (JP16/USP) CAS: 22204-24-6 PubChem

  15. Modelling Cooperia oncophora: Quantification of key parameters in the parasitic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschave, Sien H; Rose, Hannah; Morgan, Eric R; Claerebout, Edwin; Vercruysse, Jozef; Charlier, Johannes

    2016-06-15

    Cooperia oncophora is one of the most common intestinal nematodes in cattle. It is also the dose-limiting species for the most frequently used anthelmintics, and consequently, the species usually involved in reports of anthelmintic resistance. However, little information is available on its population dynamics, hindering the parameterisation of transmission models to support understanding of the impact of anthelmintic resistance, climate change and alternative control strategies on nematode epidemiology. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides estimates for key life history traits of the parasitic phase of C. oncophora and investigates potential influences of acquired immunity on these traits. PMID:27198786

  16. Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with...... condensed tannins. In the present study, we evaluated possible in vitro effects of three tannin-containing plants against bovine GIN. Effects of Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus condensed tannin (CT) extracts on Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi were determined by a...... (third stage larvae) was also affected by CT extracts from all three plants. In both in vitro assays, extracts with added polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, generated almost the same values as the negative control; this confirms the role of CT in the anthelmintic effect of these plant...

  17. Control of intestinal parasitism of Okapi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, G.M.; Jacobi, E.F.

    1965-01-01

    The results are given of different anthelmintics administered to control intestinal parasitism in two okapis. With Mintic (oral) and Thiabendazole (oral) complete eradication was achieved clinically which was subsequently confirmed at the post-mortem of the female.

  18. Drug: D09110 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09110 Formula, Drug Shakosaito; Sammishakosaito Digenea [DR:D06792], Rhubarb [DR:D...elling parasites Anthelmintic formulas D09110 Shakosaito; Sammishakosaito PubChem: 96025790 ...

  19. Synthesis of New Anthihelmintic Analogs of Marine Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Serra; Graciela Mahler; Sandra Gordon; Marcelo Incerti; Eduardo Manta

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of new anthelmintic compounds derived from 2-amine-4-hydroxy-δ-valerolactams and 2,4-dialkylthiazoles is described. The synthetic procedures and biological activity data for these compounds will be presented.

  20. Seasonal variation in sesquiterpene lactone concentration and composition of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage contains sesquiterpene lactones that are believed to help control gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. Because the anthelmintic effect could be related to both total sesquiterpene lactone concentration and the proportions of the principal constituent...

  1. Drug: D07106 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ELLENTS P02 ANTHELMINTICS P02C ANTINEMATODAL AGENTS P02CA Benzimidazole derivativ...thelmintics Albendazole D07106 Albendazole oxide (INN) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antiparasitics Antinematodal agents Benzimidazole

  2. Drug: D04200 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 03] P ANTIPARASITIC PRODUCTS, INSECTICIDES AND REPELLENTS P02 ANTHELMINTICS P02C ANTINEMATODAL AGENTS P02CA Benzimidazole...iinfectives [BR:br08307] Antiparasitics Antinematodal agents Benzimidazole derivatives Flubendazole [ATC:P02

  3. Evaluation of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaf and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit rind for activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves have been used in traditional medicine, including as anthelmintics. Methanolic extracts from these plants were investigated for activity against the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Dried, ground p...

  4. Drug: D09093 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ea [DR:D06792], Ophiopogon tuber [DR:D06775] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas... for expelling parasites Anthelmintic formulas D09093 Seikiankaito PubChem: 96025773 ...

  5. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni,...

  6. Praziquantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praziquantel is used to treat schistosoma (infection with a type of worm that lives in the bloodstream) ... worm that lives in or near the liver). Praziquantel is in a class of medications called anthelmintics. ...

  7. Drug: D08373 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08373 Drug Phoxim (BAN); Sebacil [veterinary] (TN) C12H15N2O3PS 298.0541 298.2979 ...D08373.gif Anthelmintic [veterinary] Same as: C18757 organothiophosphate insecticide acetylcholinesterase (A

  8. Drug: D00471 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available UCTS, INSECTICIDES AND REPELLENTS P02 ANTHELMINTICS P02B ANTITREMATODALS P02BA Quinoline derivatives and rel...quantel (JAN/USP/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] P ANTIPARASITIC PROD

  9. Drug: D00372 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ELLENTS P02 ANTHELMINTICS P02C ANTINEMATODAL AGENTS P02CA Benzimidazole derivatives...le derivatives D01AC06 Tiabendazole D00372 Tiabendazole (JAN/INN); Thiabendazole (USP) P ANTIPARASITIC PRODUCTS, INSECTICIDES AND REP

  10. Three-year evaluation of best practice guidelines for nematode control on commercial sheep farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Stephens, Nathalie; Boughtflower, Valerie; Barrecheguren, Alba; Rickell, Kayleigh; Massei, Giovanna; Taylor, Mike

    2016-08-15

    Anthelmintics are commonly used on the majority of UK commercial sheep farms to reduce major economic losses associated with parasitic diseases. With increasing anthelmintic resistance worldwide, several countries have produced evidence-based, best practice guidelines with an example being the UK's Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep (SCOPS) initiative. In 2012, a pilot study demonstrated that SCOPS-managed farms used fewer anthelmintic treatments than traditionally managed farms, with no impact on lamb productivity and worm burden. Building on these results, we collected data for three consecutive years (2012-2014) with the following aims: (1) To compare the effects of traditional and SCOPS-based parasite management on lamb productivity and worm burden; (2) To evaluate the effect of region and farm type on lamb productivity and worm burden; (3) To compare the frequency and patterns of use of anthelmintic treatment on traditional and SCOPS-managed farms. The study was carried out on 16 farms located in the North east and the South west of England and Wales. Lamb productivity was assessed by quantifying birth, mid-season and finish weights and calculating daily live-weight gains and time to finish in a cohort of 40-50 lambs on each farm. Five annual faecal egg counts were carried out on each farm to assess worm burden. No differences in lamb productivity and worm burdens were found between farms that adopted SCOPS guidelines and traditional farms across the three years. However, mean infection levels increased for both the SCOPS and the traditional groups. Lamb production was not significantly different for farm type and region but the effect of region on infection was significant. For both ewes and lambs, SCOPS farms carried out significantly fewer anthelmintic treatments per year, and used fewer anthelmintic doses/animal than traditional farms. The data suggest a trend to increasing use of anthelmintics in ewes on traditional but not on the SCOPS farms and a

  11. Ist die FAMACHA©-Eye-Colour-Karte zur klinischen Diagnose von Haemonchus contortus – Befall bei Schafen und Ziegen in Norddeutschland geeignet?

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmann, Regine

    2007-01-01

    In sheep and goats the most pathogenous worm is the bloodsucking Barber’s pole worm Haemonchus contortus. Studies in South Africa confirmed the FAMACHA-Test to be a useful tool for identifying anaemic animals. Apart from the reduction of anthelmintic drugs, the targeted, selective treatment of single animals may delay the development of anthelmintic-resistant worms. Three field studies, carried out in Northern Germany in consecutive years, showed that at a comparatively low infestation of H....

  12. Interactions between nutrition and gastrointestinal infections with parasitic nematodes in goats

    OpenAIRE

    H., HOSTE; J.F., Torres-Acosta; V., PAOLINI; A., Aguilar-Caballero; E., Etter; Y., Lefrileux; C., Chartier; C., Broqua

    2005-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes of the digestive tract remain one of the main constraints to goat production both in temperate and tropical countries. The usual mode of control of these gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) based on the repeated use of anthelmintics is now strongly questioned because of the increasing development of resistance to these molecules. Among the alternative methods to anthelmintics currently available, the manipulation of host nutrition in order to improve the host resista...

  13. Assay Development as Critical for Drug Discovery Against Human Intestinal Parasites /

    OpenAIRE

    Safavi, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The soil-transmitted helminthes infect up to two billion people and are leading causes of morbidity in the developing world. The only subclass of drugs effective against these parasites in mass drug administration is facing the threat of resistance and is not efficacious against all parasites. With infection rates and demographics this overwhelming, there is a growing need towards the discovery of new and more efficacious anthelmintics. Past anthelmintic discovery efforts have traditionally u...

  14. ON THE ANTIFEEDANT AND ANTHELLMINTIC POTENTIAL OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, A.S; Chauhan, M. G.; B K Shah

    1998-01-01

    The antifeedant and anthelmintic activities of crude extracts of the shells of Anacardium occidentale were studied by comparing it's activity with the activity of Azadirachta indica A Juss (Kernel), a commercial standard. The test extracts of A. occidentale in petroleum ether, dichloromethane: methanol showed better activities compared to A. Indica. To Study the anthelmintic activity, the addition of piperine to the formulation significantly enhances the activity. The phytochemical investigat...

  15. Exploring flubendazole formulations for use in sheep. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of a cyclodextrin-based solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos Laura; Moreno Laura; Torrado Juan J; Lanusse Carlos; Alvarez Luis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Flubendazole (FLBZ) is a poor water solubility broad-spectrum BZD methylcarbamate anthelmintic compound. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are usually used to increase aqueous solubility of poor hydrosoluble compounds. The comparative in vitro aqueous solubility of FLBZ and other BZD anthelmintics in the presence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) was evaluated in the current work. Additionally, the comparative pharmacokinetic behaviour of FLBZ (and its metabolites) administered by...

  16. The Effects of Naturally Occurring Plant Products on Experimental Haemonchus contortus Infection in Gerbils and Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Squires, Jill Marie

    2009-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal helminth of small ruminants responsible for major economic losses to producers worldwide. Widespread resistance to commercial anthelmintics has created a need for alternative methods of parasite control. One method involves using plant products with natural anthelmintic properties. This thesis assessed the efficacy of several plant products against experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in gerbils and sheep. In gerbil assays, an...

  17. The effect of triflumuron (SIR8514) on the free-living stages of sheep nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P J; Lacey, E

    1986-06-01

    Studies both in vitro and in vivo showed that the insect growth regulator, triflumuron, exhibited potent larvacidal effects against the free-living stages of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Effects were not as marked on the closely related nematodes, Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia circumcincta. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that growth regulators may be used to develop novel methods of nematode control, and thus offer alternatives or adjuncts to conventional anthelmintic therapy and at the same time reduce the selection for anthelmintic resistance. PMID:3739204

  18. Transcriptome analyses reveal protein and domain families that delineate stage-related development in the economically important parasitic nematodes, Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora

    OpenAIRE

    Heizer, Esley; Zarlenga, Dante S.; Rosa, Bruce; Gao, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; De Graef, Jessie; Geldhof, Peter; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi are among the most important gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle worldwide. The economic losses caused by these parasites are on the order of hundreds of millions of dollars per year. Conventional treatment of these parasites is through anthelmintic drugs; however, as resistance to anthelmintics increases, overall effectiveness has begun decreasing. New methods of control and alternative drug targets are necessary. In-depth analysis of ...

  19. Studies on the genetic population structure of Cooperia oncophora

    OpenAIRE

    Veer, Margreet van der

    2004-01-01

    Cooperia oncophora is one of the most common intestinal parasitic nematodes of cattle in temperate climates worldwide contributing to serious production losses. It is considered as a mild pathogen which can be effectively controlled with anthelmintics. However, this control strategy is threatened by the development of anthelmintic resistance. Although resistance in cattle nematodes emerged just recently and is not yet common, it is a wide-spread phenomenon in nematode parasites of sheep. For ...

  20. Participatory study of medicinal plants used in the control of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in Eastern Shewa and Arsi zones of Oromia region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Scantlebury, Claire E; Peachey, Laura; Hodgkinson, Jane; Matthews, Jacqui B; Trawford, Andrew; Mulugeta, Getachew; Tefera, Gebre; Pinchbeck, Gina L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematode infections constitute a threat to the health and welfare of donkeys worldwide. Their primary means of control is via anthelmintic treatments; however, use of these drugs has constraints in developing countries, including cost, limited availability, access to cheaper generic forms of variable quality and potential anthelmintic resistance. As an alternative, bioactive plants have been proposed as an option to treat and control gastrointestinal helminths in d...

  1. Potential use of heather to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Gonzalo, Javier; Ferre, Ignacio; Celaya, Rafael; Frutos, Pilar; Ferreira, Luis M M; Hervás, Gonzalo; García, Urcesino; Ortega Mora, Luis M.; Osoro, Koldo

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, numerous studies have been carried out to evaluate the potential anthelmintic benefit of the consumption of bioactive plants in small ruminants, in order to reduce the dependence on conventional chemotherapy and supporting a sustainable control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitism. This review summarizes the anthelmintic and nutritional effects of heather (shrub species belonging to the Ericaceae family, such as Erica spp. or Calluna vulgaris) supplementation...

  2. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Vatn Synnøve; Leine Nils; Gjerde Bjørn; Chartier Christophe; Domke Atle VM; Østerås Olav; Stuen Snorre

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in N...

  3. Non chemical control of helminths in ruminants: Adapting solutions for changing worms in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    HOSTE, H; Torres-Acosta, J.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remain a major threat for ruminant production, health and welfare associated with outdoor breeding. The control of these helminth parasites has relied on the strategic or tactical use of chemical anthelmintic (AH) drugs. However, the expanding development and diffusion of anthelmintic resistance in nematode populations imposes the need to explore and validate novel solutions (or to re-discover old knowledge) for a more sustainable control of...

  4. Partial Hepatectomy for the Resistant Fasciola Hepatica Infection in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Gülhan, B; S Kanık Yüksek; H Tezer; A Özkaya Parlakay; B Dalgıç; A Dalgıç; G Yılmaz

    2015-01-01

    Fascioliasis is an emerging and important chronic parasitic disease caused by two trematode liver fluke species: Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) and Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) infecting several herbivorous mammals including cattle, goats, sheep, and humans. We report a 9-year-old girl who suffered from F. hepatica infection and underwent right hepatectomy because of increasing abdominal pain resistant to anthelmintic chemotherapy. When anthelmintic drug treatment is not effective and ...

  5. Intestinal parasitosis control effect by measures of combining control feces in household latrines with anthelmintic treatment%卫生户厕管粪结合药物驱虫防治肠道寄生虫病效果的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭德荣; 颜维安; 徐汉顺; 吴荷珍

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1992年至1994年,在昆山采用节水型组装式卫生户厕(下称卫生户厕)管粪结合药物驱虫与单纯药物驱虫,进行了控制肠道寄生虫感染效果的对比观察,现将结果报告如下:

  6. Efeito anti-helmíntico dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos da Annona squamosa L. (fruta-do-conde) sobre o nematóide Ascaridia galli Anthelmintic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Annona squamosa L. (sweetsop) on the nematode Ascaridia galli

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z.L.C.M. Fernandes; Fernandes, R. M.; D.R.B. Brito; H.R. Borba

    2009-01-01

    As plantas são fontes importantes de produtos naturais biologicamente ativos. Dentre as plantas usadas na medicina popular a Anonna squamosa conhecida como fruta-do-conde é citada como tendo várias ações medicinais, dentre elas a atividade inseticida e anti-helmíntica. Dentro desta perspectiva, objetivou-se determinar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos aquosos (EA) e etanólicos (EE) das folhas da fruta-do-conde sobre o nematóide de aves Ascaridia galli, in vitro e in vivo. No primeiro, ...

  7. Which is the best phenotypic trait for use in a targeted selective treatment strategy for growing lambs in temperate climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenson, Yan C S M; Kahn, Lewis P; Bishop, Stephen C; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-15

    Targeted selective treatment (TST) requires the ability to identify the animals for which anthelmintic treatment will result in the greatest benefit to the entire flock. Various phenotypic traits have previously been suggested as determinant criteria for TST; however, the weight gain benefit and impact on anthelmintic efficacy for each determinant criterion is expected to be dependent upon the level of nematode challenge and the timing of anthelmintic treatment. A mathematical model was used to simulate a population of 10,000 parasitologically naïve Scottish Blackface lambs (with heritable variation in host-parasite interactions) grazing on medium-quality pasture (grazing density=30 lambs/ha, crude protein=140g/kg DM, metabolisable energy=10MJ/kg DM) with an initial larval contamination of 1000, 3000 or 5000 Teladorsagia circumcincta L3/kg DM. Anthelmintic drenches were administered to 0, 50 or 100% of the population on a single occasion. The day of anthelmintic treatment was independently modelled for every day within the 121day simulation. Where TST scenarios were simulated (50% treated), lambs were either chosen by random selection or according to highest faecal egg count (FEC, eggs/g DM faeces), lowest live weight (LW, kg) or lowest growth rate (kg/day). Average lamb empty body weight (kg) and the resistance (R) allele frequency amongst the parasite population on pasture were recorded at slaughter (day 121) for each scenario. Average weight gain benefit and increase in R allele frequency for each determinant criterion, level of initial larval contamination and day of anthelmintic treatment were calculated by comparison to a non-treated population. Determinant criteria were evaluated according to average weight gain benefit divided by increase in R allele frequency to determine the benefit per R. Whilst positive phenotypic correlations were predicted between worm burden and FEC; using LW as the determinant criterion provided the greatest benefit per R for all

  8. Comparative evaluation of In-Vitro Antihelminthic activity of Bauhinia tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattewar Aditya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional systems of medicine have always been considered as priceless tank of new bio-active molecules with immense medicinal and pharmacological importance. Most of the traditional systems are based on use of plant as medicine, but now day’s use of different medicinal plant is neglected because of lack of scientific data and proofs committing their medicinal importance. Through this study we have proved the anthelmintic activity of one Indian medicinal plant Bauhinia tomentosa family Caesalpiniaceae. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by using common method of Ajaiyeoba with some minor modification against two worms Pheritema postuma, family Megascolecidae and Ascaris lumbricoides, family Ascarididae. Our in vitro study concludes that plant Bauhinia tomentosa possesses good anthelmintic activity, so it is recommended to consider Bauhinia tomentosa and other such plant of traditional systems seriously and must be tested for in-vivo activity so as to prove and promote their beneficial use in small ruminants.

  9. Pharmacological receptors of nematoda as target points for action of antiparasitic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Saša M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic receptors of parasitic nematodes are one of the most important possible sites of action of antiparasitic drugs. This paper presents some of our own results of electrophysiological and pharamcological examinations of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors of nematodes, as well as data from literature on a new class of anthelmintics that act precisely on cholinergic receptors. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR is located on somatic muscle cells of nematodes and it is responsible for the coordination of parasite movement. Cholinomimetic anthelmintics act on this receptor, as well as acetylcholine, an endogenic neurotransmitter, but they are not sensitive to enzyme acetylcholineesterase which dissolves acetylcholine. As opposed to the nicotinic receptor of vertebra, whose structure has been examined thoroughly, the stoichiometry of the nicotinic receptor of nematodes is not completely known. However, on the grounds of knowledge acquired so far, a model has been constructed recently of the potential composition of a type of nematodes nicotinic receptor, as the site of action of anthelmintics. Based on earlier investigations, it is supposed that a conventional muscarinic receptor exists in nematodes as well, so that it can also be a new pharamocological target for the development of antinematode drugs. The latest class of synthesized anthelmintics, named aminoacetonitriles (AAD, act via the nicotinic receptor. Monepantel is the first drug from the AAD group as a most significant candidate for registration in veterinary medicine. Even though several groups of cholinomimetic anthelmintics (imiodazothiazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines, organophosphat anthelmintics have been in use in veterinary practice for many years now, it is evident that cholinergic receptors of nematodes still present an attractive place in the examinations and development of new antinematode drugs. .

  10. Drug: D00803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available zine D00803 Diethylcarbamazine citrate (JP16/USP) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antiparasitics Antinemat...of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 6 Agents against pathologic organisms and parasites 64 Parasitics (systemic) 642 Anthelmintics... 6428 Piperazines D00803 Diethylcarbamazine citrate (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic...391.1955 391.4168 D00803.gif Anthelmintic Therapeutic category: 6428 ATC code: P02CB02 Therapeutic category ...odal agents Piperazine and derivatives Diethylcarbamazine [ATC:P02CB02] D00803 Diethylcarbamazine citrate

  11. On the antifeedant and anthellmintic potential of anacardium occidentale L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, A S; Chauhan, M G; Shah, B K

    1998-10-01

    The antifeedant and anthelmintic activities of crude extracts of the shells of Anacardium occidentale were studied by comparing it's activity with the activity of Azadirachta indica A Juss (Kernel), a commercial standard. The test extracts of A. occidentale in petroleum ether, dichloromethane: methanol showed better activities compared to A. Indica. To Study the anthelmintic activity, the addition of piperine to the formulation significantly enhances the activity. The phytochemical investigation of test extracts showed the presence of phenols namely cordol, cardanol and anacardic acid by TLC studies. The most potent extracts are non toxic to mice. PMID:22556881

  12. Efektivitas Daun Jarak (Jatropha curcass Linn) Sebagai Anticacing Ascaridia galli dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Performa Ayam Lokal

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suharti; K. G. Wiryawan; R. Tiuria; Ridwan, Y.; N. Sumarni

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was aimed to identify the phytochemical of Jatropha curcas leave extracted with water and methanol as an anthelmintic agent for Ascaridia galli, and its effect on native chicken performance. In vitro study of anthelmintic activity was conducted by counting the number of paralyzed worm dead-body of A. galli during 18 hours in petri dish containing different levels of extract, namely 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% (w/v) and compared to the piperazine 0.5% (w/v). Eightteen birds o...

  13. Partial Hepatectomy for the Resistant Fasciola Hepatica Infection in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gülhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is an emerging and important chronic parasitic disease caused by two trematode liver fluke species: Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica infecting several herbivorous mammals including cattle, goats, sheep, and humans. We report a 9-year-old girl who suffered from F. hepatica infection and underwent right hepatectomy because of increasing abdominal pain resistant to anthelmintic chemotherapy. When anthelmintic drug treatment is not effective and abdominal pain persists, surgical resection including hepatectomy should be kept in mind for resistant F. hepatica infection.

  14. Functionalized formazans: A review on recent progress in their pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S. Shawali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an up to date information about the diverse pharmaceutical activities of formazans. The bibliography includes 97 references which have been published during the period from 1980 to 2013. The covered biological activities of the title compounds include antioxidant, anticonvulsant, therapeutic, anthelmintic, anti-tubercular, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV, antimicrobial, antiparkinsonian, cardiovascular and antiproliferative activities.

  15. Use of FAMACHA system to evaluate gastrointestinal nematode resistance/resilience in offspring of stud rams

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants have created the need for animals with greater resistance to these parasites. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FAMACHA system in identification of parasite resilien...

  16. Analysis of the protective immune response following intramuscular vaccination of calves against the intestinal parasite Cooperia oncophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelmintic resistance in the bovine parasite Cooperia oncophora is developing and spreading rapidly worldwide. Vaccination is therefore often put forward as a cost-effective alternative for chemical drugs. Recently we reported the successful evaluation of a double domain activation-associated secr...

  17. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V;

    2005-01-01

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics...

  18. Physicochemical standardization, HPTLC profiling, and biological evaluation of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa: A comparative study of three famous commercial brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The ability of this formulation to scavenge free radicals supports its medical claim of antistress formulation. The anthelmintic potential of this formulation helps us conclude that it can also be considered as a general tonic because it provides relief from helminths.

  19. Environ: E00431 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00431 Hydnocarpus anthelmintica seed Hydnocarpi semen Crude drug Hydnocarpus anthelmint...ica, Hydnocarpus [TAX:85204] Salicaceae (willow family) Hydnocarpus anthelmintica mature seed (dried) C...rude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Salicaceae (willow family) E00431 Hydnocarpus anthelmintica seed ...

  20. Performance, blood parameters, and fecal egg count when meat goats were finished on red clover, birdsfoot trefoil, or chicory pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most farms use forage-based systems for goat production, but control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in small ruminants is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may have natural anthelmintic compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage...

  1. Drug: D00368 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ENTS P02 ANTHELMINTICS P02C ANTINEMATODAL AGENTS P02CA Benzimidazole derivatives P02CA01 Mebendazole D00368 ...helmintics Mebendazole D00368 Mebendazole (JAN/USP/INN) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antiparasitics Antinematodal agents Benzimidazole

  2. Resistance to benzimidazoles and levamisole in nematode parasites of sheep in Nyandarua district of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maingi, N.; Bjørn, H.; Gichohi, V.M.;

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance on 25 sheep farms in the Nyandarua District of Kenya was investigated, using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), the egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval development assay (LDA). In the FECRT, resistance to both benzimidazoles (BZs) and levamisole...

  3. Modelling nematode infections in sheep and parasite control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Laurenson, Yan Christian Stephen Mountfort

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing lambs adversely affects animal performance and welfare, causing significant production losses for the sheep industry. Control of gastrointestinal parasitism using chemotherapeutic treatment is under threat due to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, thus stimulating research into alternative control strategies. Whilst investigating control strategies experimentally can be costly and time consuming, using a mathematical modelling appro...

  4. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  5. Treatment of trichodiniasis in eel ( Anguilla anguilla ) reared in recirculation systems in Denmark : alternatives to formaldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.C.K.; Buchmann, Kurt; Mellergaard, Stig

    2000-01-01

    parasiticidal effect: acriflavin (25 ppm), bithionol (0.1 ppm), chloramine T (50 ppm), Detarox AP(R) (45 ppm), malachite green (1 ppm), raw garlic (200 ppm), potassium permanganate (20 ppm) and Virkon PF(R) vet. (20 ppm). Preliminary screening revealed that the anthelmintic, bithionol, and the decomposable...

  6. Chicory cultivars differ in sesquiterpene lactone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a valuable forage species for small ruminants because it is nutritious and contains sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) that have anthelmintic activity. Three SLs, lactucin (lac), 8-deoxylactucin (dol), and lactucopicrin (lpic), occur in chicory leaves. Comprehensive dat...

  7. Palatability of Forage Chicory Cultivars for Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...

  8. Studies of antimicrobial activity of N-alkyl and N-acyl 2-(4-thiazolyl)-1H-benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, N S; Dalal, D S; Shimpi, S R; Mahulikar, P P

    2004-02-01

    Various N-alkyl and N-acyl derivatives of 2-(4-thiazolyl)-1H-benzimidazole, an anthelmintic and systemic fungicide, were synthesized by polymer-supported reactions and screened for their antifungal and antibacterial potency to establish structure-activity relationships. PMID:14757482

  9. Synthesis of an Albendazole Metabolite: Characterization and HPLC Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Graciela; Davyt, Danilo; Gordon, Sandra; Incerti, Marcelo; Nunez, Ivana; Pezaroglo, Horacio; Scarone, Laura; Serra, Gloria; Silvera, Mauricio; Manta, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of an albendazole metabolite obtained by a sulfide oxidation reaction. Albendazole as well as its metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, are used as anthelmintic drugs. The oxidation reagent is H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] in acetic acid. The reaction is environmental friendly,…

  10. Climatic influences on development and survival of free-living stages of equine strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Kaplan, Ray M.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2007-01-01

    Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs by horse strongyles constitutes a growing threat to equine health because it is unknown when the new drug xlasses can be exoected on the market. Consequently, parasite control strategies should attemt to maintain drug efficacy for as long as possible...

  11. SvSXP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, Daniel K.; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny;

    2013-01-01

    virtually undetectable as there currently is no test available for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Presence of S. vulgaris larvae in the arterial system causes endarteritis and thrombosis with a risk of non-strangulating intestinal infarctions. Emergence of anthelmintic resistance among...

  12. Improvement of albendazole efficacy against enteral, but not against parenteral stages of Trichinella spiralis by preparing solid dispersions in polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M L; Torrado, S; Torrado, S; Martínez, A R; Bolás, F

    1997-01-01

    A comparison was made, in the Trichinella/mouse model, of the anthelmintic effects of albendazole (ABZ) and ricobendazole (RBZ) formulated as solid dispersions in polyvinylpyrrolidone with regard to ABZ formulated as a suspension in carboxymethylcellulose. A solid dispersion significantly increased (p suspension or solid dispersion although the Tmax was significantly lower for the dispersion. PMID:9395857

  13. Canine intestinal helminths in Finland: prevalence, risk factors and endoparasite control practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullola, T; Vierimaa, J; Saari, S; Virtala, A-M; Nikander, S; Sukura, A

    2006-09-10

    In this survey, the prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminths in Finland was investigated by coprological examination (n = 541) and possible risk factors for helminth infections in dogs were analysed. In addition, the dog owners (n = 296) completed a questionnaire about use of anthelmintics, sources of information about parasites and antiparasitic treatments and reasons for choosing the drugs. The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 5.9%. Eggs from four different species were identified in the faecal samples. Toxocara canis eggs were present in 17 dogs (3.1%), Uncinaria stenocephala eggs in 14 dogs (2.6%) and Diphyllobothrium latum eggs in 2 dogs (0.4%). Moreover, one sample contained eggs of Trichuris vulpis (0.2%). Kennel housing and visits abroad were identified as risk factors for T. canis and U. stenocephala infections. Most dogs (86.0%) received anthelmintic treatment at least once a year. Hunting dogs were dewormed least; one-third was treated less than once a year. Approximately, half of the owners occasionally changed the anthelmintic used. The most important trait of the anthelmintic was its broad spectrum, fenbendazole being the most commonly chosen. Veterinarians, dog magazines and dog breeders were the predominant sources of information concerning parasites and deworming strategies. PMID:16650936

  14. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)associated to Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites, however long-term use led to selection pressure, resulting in parasite resistance against all current chemical interventions available in th...

  15. Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestestinal parasite infections associated to a panel of SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites, however long-term use led to selection pressure, resulting in parasite resistance against all current chemical interventions available in th...

  16. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  17. Ascaridole as a pharmacologically active principle of "Paico," a medicinal Peruvian plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, E; Umeyama, K; Saito, Y; Yamazaki, M; Satake, M

    1993-07-01

    "Paico," Chenopodium ambrosioides L., is a traditional Peruvian medicine which is considered to be nervine, antirheumatic, anthelmintic, etc. An attempt was made to isolate the component having sedative and/or analgesic properties from "Paico" and "Aritasou" (the Japanese name for C. ambrosioides). Ascaridole was identified as the active principle in both materials. PMID:8374999

  18. Efficacy of a topically administered combination of emodepside and praziquantel against mature and immature Ancylostoma tubaeforme in domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altreuther, G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Buch, J.; Charles, S.D.; Cruthers, L.; Epe, C.; Young, D.R.; Krieger, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the efficacy of emodepside/praziquantel spot¿on (Profender®, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany), a novel broadspectrum anthelmintic for dermal application, against L4 larvae and immature adult and adult stages of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats. The formulation contains 2.14% (w/w) emo

  19. Shedding consistency of strongyle-type eggs in dutch boarding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopfer, D.D.V.; Kerssens, C.M.; Meijer, Y.G.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Faeces of 484 horses were sampled twice with an interval of 6 weeks while anthelmintic therapy was halted. Faecal eggs counts revealed that 267 (55.2%) horses had consistently low numbers of eggs per gram faeces (EPG) (EPG <100 or = 100), 155 (32.0%) horses had consistently high EPGs (EPG > 10

  20. Disease surveillance in England and Wales, February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-27

    ■ Current and emerging issues■ Highlights from the scanning surveillance network■ Escherichia coli infections in pigs■ Update on international disease threats■ Veterinary Risk Group warning of increasing resistance to multiple anthelmintics in sheep nematodes■ Investigations of suspected notifiable diseases. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) February disease surveillance report. PMID:26917836

  1. Massive proteinuria: a possible side effect of pyrantel pamoate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Bersani, Iliana; Bottaro, Giorgia; Vitelli, Ottavio; Liberatore, Pio; Gatto, Antonio; del Bufalo, Francesca; Romano, Valerio; Stabile, Achille

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced renal injury represents a frequent clinical entity. The most common drugs associated with acute tubular necrosis are aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, radiocontrast agents, and cyclosporine, but no data exist about the potential renal toxicity due to anthelmintics administration. Anthelmintics are commonly considered quite safe agents, and side effects such as gastrointestinal, neurologic, hematologic, or hepatic injury have been only rarely described. We report a 4-year-old boy with persistent massive proteinuria without any other symptoms/signs suggesting nephrotic syndrome (NS). The only relevant anamnestic data was the administration of pyrantel pamoate due to oxyuriasis 7 days before the proteinuria development. The patient was affected by NS diagnosed 6 months before and treated with a 12-week course of corticosteroids. During follow-up, carried out at 3 and 6 months after discharge, he did not show further episodes of proteinuria, and no clinical symptoms/signs suggesting a relapse of NS were ever detected. Considering that the proteinuria observed in our patient spontaneously disappeared after 10 days without any treatment, apart from the interruption of the anthelmintic therapy, we would like to alert pediatricians about the possible occurrence of anthelmintics-related renal complications especially among predisposed patients and to perform a watchful waiting not considering the presence of even massive proteinuria as a certain sign of NS relapse. PMID:21500989

  2. Alpinia calcarata Roscoe: A potential phytopharmacological source of natural medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Atiar Rahman; Md. Shahidul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening re...

  3. Strongyle egg shedding consistency in horses on farms using selective therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Haaning, Niels; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    Knowledge of horses that shed the same number of strongyle eggs over time can lead to the optimization of parasite control strategies. This study evaluated shedding of strongyle eggs in 424 horses on 10 farms whan a selective anthelmintic treatment regime was used over a 3-year period....

  4. Drug: D07750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07750 Drug Coumafos (INN); Coumaphos; Meldane (TN) C14H16ClO5PS 362.0145 362.7656 D0775...0.gif Anthelmintic [veterinary]; Antiparasitic [veterinary] Same as: C11025 CAS: 56-72-4 PubChem: 51092042 LigandBox: D0775

  5. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Melia azedarach against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2010-04-01

    The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were tested for in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida). Both extracts were evaluated at five concentrations: 12.5, 6.2, 3.12, 1.56, and 0.78 mg/ml. The leaves aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts inhibited 99.4% and 100% of the egg hatching and 100% of larval development at 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In a similar way, the leaves hydro-alcoholic extract was the most active on egg inhibition (ED (50) = 1.97 and ED ( 90 ) = 5.05 mg/ml), leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts showed the best inhibition of larval development (ED ( 50 ) = 3.01, 2.43, 3.17, 2.40, and ED ( 90 ) = 10.53, 8.14, 11.94, and 8.19 mg/ml), respectively. These results suggest that utilization of M. azedarach extracts is useful in the control of H. contortus. PMID:20177909

  6. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Melia azedarach extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Costa, C T C; Castro, C M S

    2006-08-31

    Haemonchus contortus is responsible for severe economic losses in sheep and goat breeding in the Northeast of Brazil. However, the effectiveness of control is compromised due to anthelmintic resistance and misuse. In the search for natural anthelmintics, Melia azedarach L., a plant indigenous to India but now distributed throughout Brazil, was selected due to the reported anthelmintic properties of its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the seed and leaf extracts of the Brazilian adapted plant and investigate the type of organic chemical compounds present in the most active extracts. The ovicidal and larvicidal activity of M. azedarach extracts on H. contortus was evaluated through egg hatching and larval development tests. Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds and chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaves of M. azedarach were used in the tests. To perform the larval development test, feces of an animal free from parasites were mixed with third instar H. contortus larvae and extracts in several concentrations. The coprocultures were incubated for 7 days at 30 degrees C, then the larvae were recovered and counted. LC50 was calculated by probits using the SPSS 8.0 program. The seed ethanol extract was the most active on eggs (LC50=0.36mgmL(-1)) and the leaf ethanol extract showed the best inhibition of larval development (LC50=9.18mgmL(-1)). Phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts revealed the presence of condensed tannins, triterpenes and alkaloids. PMID:16621294

  7. Drug: D07364 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rinary] ATC code: P02BX04 veterinary medicine Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)...D07364 Drug Triclabendazole (INN); Fasinex (TN) C14H9Cl3N2OS 357.9501 359.6581 D07364.gif Anthelmintic [vete

  8. Drug: D05076 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05076 Drug Morantel tartrate (USP) C12H16N2S. C4H6O6 370.1199 370.4207 D05076.gif Anthelmintic [veterinary...] veterinary medicine nicotinic cholinergic receptor alpha3beta2 enhancer [KO:K04805

  9. Drug: D05108 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05108 Drug Naftalofos (USAN/INN); Maretin (TN) C16H16NO6P 349.0715 349.2751 D05108.gif Anthelmintic [veteri...nary] CAS: 1491-41-4 PubChem: 47206833 LigandBox: D05108 NIKKAJI: J206.696C ATOM 24

  10. Drug: D04135 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04135 Drug Febantel (USAN/INN); Rintal (TN) C20H22N4O6S 446.126 446.4769 D04135.gif Anthelmintic [veterinar...y] Component of Drontal (TN) veterinary medicine CAS: 58306-30-2 PubChem: 47206082

  11. Determination of ivermectin efficacy against cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum on horse farms using selective therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette L.; Ritz, Christian; Petersen, Stig L.; Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2011-01-01

    cyathostomins and P. equorum in Danish horses. A total of 196 animals were selected from 52 farms, all of which were using a selective anthelmintic treatment strategy. ERP was investigated with weekly samples from 96 horses from nine farms. Horses were treated with ivermectin oral paste by their owners at an...... resistance were found in either cyathostomins or P. equorum in the studied horses....

  12. Epidemiological Intelligence for Grazing Management in Strategic Control of Parasitic Gastroenteritis in Small Ruminants in India AND#8211; A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Bukhari and Prabir Kumar Sanyal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of the environmental and consumer concerns arising out of exponential growth in human population the world over, a term Sustainable Development has become an integral international concept, which is defined as one which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Ruminant animals appear sustainable as they do not compete with man for food, play a crucial role in the conversion of low quality plant material and crop residues to high quality human food as well as return valuable plant nutrients to the soil. Parasite control in ruminant livestock is a first-order input in any sustainable animal production system. As sustainable development is a compromise between reducing environmental degradation and positive economic growth, sustainable parasite control should aim towards less intensive, lower input, lesser risk of parasite induced losses with greater opportunities for integration of all available control resources. The compound scenario of rising anthelmintic resistance, food and environmental security and apathy of the pharmaceutical industry to go for the invention of new anthelmintic compounds has triggered the need for optimising the use of available anthelmintics with integration of all other alternative means for sustainable worm control. The “Sustainable Control of Parasitic Gastroenteritis in Ruminants” is thus encompasses a multidisciplinary approach involving integration of chemotherapy, grazing management, biological control, worm vaccines, genetic resistance of hosts, mathematical model based decision support and other strategies, if any. There is no single requirement more crucial to the rational and sustainable control of helminth parasites in grazing animals than a comprehensive knowledge of the epidemiology of the parasite as it interacts with the host in a specific climatic, management and production environment. In its absence, anthelmintic treatment

  13. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  14. Analysis of Constraints of Chemoprophylactic Control of Livestock Helminthosis in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three studies were carried out to find out how livestock anthelmintics are used in Kenya. Using questioners in the first study, 342 farms were surveyed. In the second study a survey on anthelmintic resistance was carried out in 42 farms comprising of small and large scale concerns. The third study was carried out on 9 commonly used anthelmintic brands sold in Kenya. These were brought from agrochemical shops and pharmacies with the aim of determining their pharmaceutical quality. The results indicated that, farmers were ignorant of good anthelmintic practice. They either under or overdose their livestock. Few farmers recognized the value of drenching suckling or weaned animals. A prevalence of 75% of anthelmintic resistance was recorded. This was mainly against levamisoles and benzimidazoles in sheep and goats. Resistance was associated with increased dosing rates on both smallholder and large-scale farms. An analysis of the pharmaceutical quality of the drugs showed that there were some substandard drugs available on the market. Four out of seven brand names claiming to contain levamisole had the concentration at a much lower level than claimed on the label. Indeed two products did not contain any trace of levamisole. One product supposed to contain mebendazole had a drug at a substandard level. Two products supposed to contain oxyclosanide had the drug concentration at a satisfactory level although one had the concentration ata much higher level. The concentration of levamisole in two substandard drugs varied significantly between different batch products. These varied from 0% to 73.6%-85.4% of the concentration shown on the labels

  15. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum. PMID:26004729

  16. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes. PMID:27238006

  17. PELAYANAN KESEHATAN DAN VAKSINASI SE TERHADAP SAPI BALI DI DESA BELOK SIDAN, KECAMATAN PETANG, KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADE SUMA ANTHARA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This community service aimed to improve the cattle health and immunity to protect them from Septicemia epizootica (SE disease. Animal health service with anthelmintics and SE vaccination program on bali cattle were done at Belok Sidan village, county of Petang, Badung regency on Thursday, October 4th , 2007. The service is conducted by gathering farmers (cattle owner. There were 34 farmers with 66 cattles. Team examined animal's health, give treatment unhealth animal and free consultation about animal's health. The health animals were vaccinated with SE vaccines. From total 66 cattles, 33 cattles were given SE vaccine, 31 cattles were treated with vitamine B-complex, 5 cattles were orrally given anthelmintics and 5 cattles were treated with antibiotic. All of cattles were sprayed with insect repellent. All farmers were interest with this program and hope contiunue for next time.

  18. The efficacy of a slow-release albendazole capsule against Haemonchus contortus with known resistance to albendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. Fisher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release albendazole capsules (CRCs are currently registered for use in Australia and New Zealand as anthelmintic treatment in sheep. However, reports on the efficacy of such products on resistant parasite populations are sometimes controversial. This is the first study to report on the efficacy of such products under South African field conditions in sheep harbouring a population of Haemonchus contortus with known multiple anthelmintic resistance, including to albendazole. Treatment groups were comprised of CRC-treated and single dose albendazole-treated sheep, as well as negative controls. Groups were compared by using faecal egg count reduction tests, FAMACHA© anaemia scoring, conception rates and comparative weight gains over three and a half months. Based on a comparison of faecal egg counts, no advantage could be found using CRCs. Moreover, the use of the product actually decreased weight gain when compared with the control group animals.

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats - prevalence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, C.; Holm, S. A.; Thamsborg, S. M.;

    2012-01-01

    with EPG>300, and herds with a mean EPG>150 were offered a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). All herds were asked to complete a questionnaire about management and risk factors concerning parasites, particularly nematodes. Faecal egg counts were generally low; 2 out of 25 herds had a mean EPG>150......The aims were to examine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats, based on faecal examination, in relation to geographical distribution and risk factors, and to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes in selected farms. In April 2012 all Danish goat farms...... using a modified McMaster technique (sensitivity 5 eggs per gr. of faeces (EPG)). From each herd, samples with EPG>500 were pooled and stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for detection of Haemonchus contortus. An egg hatch assay (EHA) for detection of anthelmintic resistance was performed on samples...

  20. Lessons from the History of Ivermectin and Other Antiparasitic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William C

    2016-01-01

    The twentieth century's arsenal of chemical anthelmintics brought manifold improvement in human health and, more abundantly, in animal health. The benefits were not only in health per se but also in agricultural economics, livestock management, and the overall production of food and fiber to support expanding human populations. Nevertheless, there remains (due in large part to drug resistance and paucity of available vaccines) a great need for new means of controlling disease caused by parasitic worms. Prudence should persuade us to look to our past for lessons that might help in our quest for new drugs. The lessons suggested here derive from the history of ivermectin and other anthelmintics. They deal with the means of finding substances with useful antiparasitic activity and with alternative approaches to drug discovery. PMID:26515271

  1. Development of Fasciola Vaccine in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meemon, Krai; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are the parasites that cause the zoonotic parasitic disease called fasciolosis. Although several anthelmintic drugs have been used to treat these parasitic infections, recombinant protein vaccines have been developed to overcome the anthelmintic resistance that has recently been reported in many regions of the world. These vaccines have been shown to induce high levels of immune responses and high percentages of protection in experimental and large animals. Efficacies of these vaccines suggest they could be an alternative and sustainable strategy to prevent fasciolosis in animals as well as humans in the future. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a protocol to develop a recombinant protein-based vaccine against Fasciola infection in mice. Moreover, this method can also be used as a guideline when the vaccination is performed in larger animals. PMID:27076294

  2. Curtisia dentata (Cornaceae) leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit motility of parasitic and free-living nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    L.J. Shai; E.S. Bizimenyera; V. Bagla; L.J. McGaw; J.N. Eloff

    2009-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are among the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants. Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, is used as a model for evaluating anthelmintic activity of a variety of test substances. Extracts of several medicinal plants are useful in vitro and in vivo against nematode development. Extracts of Curtisia dentata, a South African medicinal plant, and compounds isolated from leaves of this plant were investigated...

  3. Determination of doramectin, an emergent veterinary contaminant, in soil and manure, using HPLC with fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doramectin is a macrolide endectocide belonging to avermectin group; it is widely used as anthelmintic because of their broad spectrum activity against ecto-and endo-parasites of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses as well as cats and dogs. All avermectins are excreted mainly through faeces as non-metabolised drugs. Consequently, the application of residues from cattle to soil could represent a source of diffuse pollution, being the veterinarian treatments emergent contaminants towards soil and water. (Author)

  4. A preliminary proteomic characterisation of extracellular vesicles released by the ovine parasitic nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta

    OpenAIRE

    Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Amy H Buck; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F.; Mclean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Knox, David P.; Tom N. McNeilly

    2016-01-01

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication b...

  5. Proceedings of the 8. Biennial Scientific Conference. Dem and -Driven Agricultural Research and Development for Sustainable Resource Management and Increased Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference covered areas like, technology delivery, compared the precision of experiments in biometrics, the role of agro-veterinary shops in animal health services,Preliminary economic evaluation,anthelmintic resistance survey,Impact of AIDS/HIV, improvement of dairy cattle productivity, dry season feeding for smallholder dairy farmers, screening of tree species, diagnosis of cowdriosis in sheep in Kenya, Camel diseases, effect of growth environment, and many others

  6. Praziquantel Treatment in Trematode and Cestode Infections: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-01-01

    Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, ...

  7. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins

    OpenAIRE

    Chaweewan Klongsiriwet; Jessica Quijada; Andrew R. Williams; Irene Mueller-Harvey; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; Hervé Hoste

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH) effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (...

  8. The ABCG2 Efflux Transporter in the Mammary Gland Mediates Veterinary Drug Secretion across the Blood-Milk Barrier into Milk of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnke, Hanna; Ballent, Mariana; Baumann, Sven; Imperiale, Fernanda; von Bergen, Martin; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Honscha, Walther; Halwachs, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    In human and mice ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 represents the main route for active drug transport into milk. However, there is no detailed information on the role of ABCG2 in drug secretion and accumulation in milk of dairy animals. We therefore examined ABCG2-mediated drug transport in the bovine mammary gland by parallel pharmacokinetic studies in lactating Jersey cows and in vitro flux studies using the anthelmintic drug monepantel (MNP) as representative bovine ABCG2 (bABCG2) drug substrate. Animals received MNP (Zolvix, Novartis Animal Health Inc.) once (2.5 mg/kg per os) and the concentrations of MNP and the active MNP metabolite MNPSO2were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with the parent drug MNP, we detected higher MNPSO2plasma concentrations (expressed as area under the concentration-versus-time curve). Moreover, we observed MNPSO2excretion into milk of dairy cows with a high milk-to-plasma ratio of 6.75. In mechanistic flux assays, we determined a preferential time-dependent basolateral-to-apical (B > A) MNPSO2transport across polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells-bABCG2 monolayers using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The B > A MNPSO2transport was significantly inhibited by the ABCG2 inhibitor fumitremorgin C in bABCG2- but not in mock-transduced MDCKII cells. Additionally, the antibiotic drug enrofloxacin, the benzimidazole anthelmintic oxfendazole and the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic moxidectin caused a reduction in the MNPSO2(B > A) net efflux. Altogether, this study indicated that therapeutically relevant drugs like the anthelmintic MNP represent substrates of the bovine mammary ABCG2 transporter and may thereby be actively concentrated in dairy milk. PMID:26956640

  9. Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes Avaliação do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo; Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua; Lorena Mayana Beserra de Oliveira; Ana Lourdes Fernandes Camurça-Vasconcelos; Luiz da Silva Vieira; Sthenia dos Santos Albano Amóra

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO). The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) i...

  10. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Schmidlin; Eveline Hürlimann; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Yapi, Richard B.; Clarisse Houngbedji; Kouadio, Bernadette A.; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A.; Dongo Kouassi; Mamadou Ouattara; Fabien Zouzou; Bassirou Bonfoh; Eliézer K. N'Goran; Jürg Utzinger; Giovanna Raso

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. METHODOLOGY: In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'...

  11. Drug: D00134 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ves [BR:br08307] Antiparasitics Antinematodal agents Benzimidazole derivatives Albendazole [ATC:P02C... organisms and parasites 64 Parasitics (systemic) 642 Anthelmintics 642... Same as: C01779 Therapeutic category: 6429 ATC code: P02CA03 fumarate reductase inhibitor; mic...rotubule-organizing inhibitor Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 6 Agents against pathologic...9 Others D00134 Albendazole (JAN/USP/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303

  12. Use of radiations and radioisotopes for investigating problems connected with parasitic diseases of animals in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the present knowledge regarding the use of isotopes and radiations for studies of animal parasitic diseases in India is reviewed. The concepts in immunology of metazoan parasites with relevance to vaccination have been discussed. A brief review of radiation attenuated vaccines against certain economically important species of helminth parasites and the use of radioisotopes for pathophysiological investigations and for the study of anthelmintic activity is given. (auth.)

  13. ORGANOLEPTIC AND WORMICIDAL EVALUATION OF VARIOUS CRUDE EXTRACTS OF POMEGRANATE (PUNICA GRANATUM) PEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Sikandar Khan Sherwani; Tasveer Zahra Bokhari; Yasmeen Bibi; Syed Aneel Gilani; Shahzad Munir; Muhammad Ajmal Shah; Ikramullah

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, organoleptic evaluation of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) peel powder was done and found pink in color having no smell and slightly bitter taste. Moreover, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) peel were also prepared and investigated for their anthelmintic activity using a model worm i.e. Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg / ml) of each extracts were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of p...

  14. Helminth parasite proteomics: from experimental models to human infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mutapi, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a major human helminth infection endemic in developing countries. Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by S. haematobium, is the most prevalent human schistosome disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently control of schistosome infection is by treatment of infected people with the anthelmintic drug praziquantel, but there are calls for continued efforts to develop a vaccine against the parasites. In order for successful vaccine development, it is necessary to understand...

  15. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Peña-Espinoza; Ulrik Boas; Andrew R. Williams; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Henrik T. Simonsen; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated direct anthelmintic effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SL)-containing extracts from forage chicory against free-living and parasitic stages of Ostertagia ostertagi. Freeze-dried leaves from chicory cultivars ‘Spadona’ and ‘Puna II’ were extracted using methanol/water. Total SL were further fractionated by solid-phase extraction and resulting extracts were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). O. ostertagi eggs from faeces of mono-infected calve...

  16. The effect of a diet with fructan-rich chicory roots on intestinal helminths and microbiota with special focus on Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter in piglets around weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Mejer, Helena; Mølbak, Lars; Langkjær, Maria; Jensen, Tim Kaare; Angen, Øystein; Martinussen, Torben; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The restrictions on the use of antibiotic and anthelmintic treatments in organic pig farming necessitate alternative non-medical control strategies. Therefore, the antibiotic and parasite-reducing effect of a fructan-rich (prebiotic) diet of dried chicory was investigated in free-ranging piglets. Approximately half of 67 piglets from 9 litters were experimentally infected with Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis in the suckling period (1 to 7 weeks of age) and 58 of the piglets were challenged da...

  17. In vivo efficacy of chicory silage against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Desrues, Oliver; Williams, A; S. Thamsborg; Enemark, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Infections with parasitic nematodes are a persistent risk for grazing cattle, which is met with widespread use of synthetic anthelmintics. However, heavy reliance on these drugs may lead to selection of drug-resistant nematodes. Integrated control strategies, including anti-parasitic crops, are needed. Chicory (Cichorium intybus) can have an impact against sheep nematodes, but this has not been investigated in cattle. Our study aimed to assess the effect of chicory on infections with abomasal...

  18. Human anthelminthic vaccines: Rationale and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Strych, Ulrich; Lustigman, Sara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-24

    Helminth infections are the most common afflictions of humankind, affecting almost every single person living in profound poverty. Through mass drug administration (MDA) we have seen sharp declines in the global prevalence of some helminth infections, including lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and ascariasis. However, since 1990, there has been no appreciable decrease in the global prevalence of hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, or food-borne trematodiases. Through the activities of a non-profit product development partnerships and two research institutes, a total of five human anthelmintic vaccines for hookworm infection (two) and schistosomiasis (three) have advanced from discovery through manufacture and are now in Phase 1 clinical testing. At least three additional antigens, including two for onchocerciasis and one for schistosomiasis, are also advancing through preclinical development with the intention of moving into the clinic soon. These preventive human anthelmintic vaccines could be used as stand-alone technologies administered to infants as part of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), or together with anthelmintic drugs in programs linked to MDA. Significant hurdles though could hinder the advancement of these vaccines into later-stage clinical and product development and licensure. They include the absence of a major pharma partner (and the resultant access to adjuvants and industrial scale manufacturing expertise), an uncharted roadmap for how to introduce anthelmintic vaccines into appropriate health systems, uncertain global access and regulatory strategies that might need to rely on developing country vaccine manufacturers and national regulatory authorities, and the lack of innovative financing schemes. However, the public health and economic benefits of introducing these vaccines could be massive and therefore deserve international attention and support. PMID:27171753

  19. Recent advances in diagnosing pathogenic equine gastrointestinal helminths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, D. K.; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup;

    2013-01-01

    Parasites infecting horses are ubiquitous and clinically important across the world. The major parasitic threats to equine health are cyathostomins, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and Strongylus vulgaris. Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance reported world wide in equine...... cyathostomins holds great promise, and could become very useful in clinical practice. Several attempts have been made to construct assays for diagnosing the highly pathogenic migrating larvae of S. vulgaris, but none of these have performed sufficiently to make a useful test. The present review illustrates...

  20. The genome and developmental transcriptome of the strongylid nematode Haemonchus contortus

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Erich M; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Campbell, Bronwyn E.; Young, Neil D.; Jex, Aaron R.; Jabbar, Abdul; Hall, Ross S.; Mondal, Alinda; Howe, Adina C; Pell, Jason; Hofmann, Andreas; Boag, Peter R.; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Gregory, T Ryan; Loukas, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background: The barber's pole worm, Haemonchus contortus, is one of the most economically important parasites of small ruminants worldwide. Although this parasite can be controlled using anthelmintic drugs, resistance against most drugs in common use has become a widespread problem. We provide a draft of the genome and the transcriptomes of all key developmental stages of H. contortus to support biological and biotechnological research areas of this and related parasites. Results: The draf...

  1. Coprological prevalence and intensity of helminth infection in working horses in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upjohn, Melissa M; Shipton, Kate; Lerotholi, Thabo; Attwood, Gillian; Verheyen, Kristien L P

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to (1) estimate infection prevalence of strongyle, Oxyuris equi and Parascaris equorum species and the intensity of infection with strongyles in working horses in lowland Lesotho and (2) investigate associations between infection and horse age, sex and owner-reported use of anthelmintics. In a cross-sectional survey, fresh faecal samples were obtained from 305 randomly selected horses and worm egg counts performed using a validated field laboratory kit. Details of anthelmintic use were collected using a standardised face-to-face owner questionnaire. Infection prevalence estimates for each species were calculated, as were infection intensity estimates for strongyle species. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between exposure variables and infection status/intensity. Prevalence of strongyle infection was 88.2%; 11.8% of horses were not infected and infection intensity was low (1-500 eggs per gram (epg)) in 19.7%, medium (501-1,000 epg) in 19.7%) and high (>1,001 epg) in 48.8%. Decreasing strongyle infection intensity was associated with the use of proprietary equine anthelmintic products (OR 0.18, 95%CI 0.11-0.30, pequi infection was 6.2%; the odds of infection with this parasite decreased with increasing horse age (OR 0.84, 95%CI 0.72-0.97, p = 0.02). P. equorum infection prevalence was 21.6%; no statistically significant associations with the investigated exposure variables were found. In conclusion, strongyle infection is endemic in working horses in lowland Lesotho, but proprietary equine anthelmintics assist in managing infection. The apparent lack of age-acquired immunity to P. equorum infection may deserve further investigation. Although O. equi infection is less widespread, measures to protect younger animals may be appropriate. PMID:20574819

  2. Helminthic control on grazing ruminants and environmental risks in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Victor

    2002-01-01

    International audience The control of ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes and ectoparasites, one of the major production health problems, are heavily reliant on the systematic and sometimes abusive use of anthelmintic drugs. Endectocides are the most frequently used drugs, having high potency against arthropods and nematodes. Their dung pat residues enhance the risk of adverse effects on non-target invertebrates and on the general grazing cattle ecosystem. In this scenario, our objective i...

  3. Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhia. K. G; Bindu. A. R

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia bonduc possess anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic properties. The present study investigated anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer studies of stem bark of C.bonduc. The in vitro antiinflammatory study of different extracts were done by Protein denaturation method. The total ethanolic extract of stem bark of C.bonduc was investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema) at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in male W...

  4. Comparative evaluation of In-Vitro Antihelminthic activity of Bauhinia tomentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Pattewar Aditya; Kawtikwar Pandurang; Dawalbaje Atul; Jamkhande Prasad; Reddy Gajanan Kotlgaonkar; Pawar Prashant; Honmane Pravin; Mitkari Umakant

    2013-01-01

    The traditional systems of medicine have always been considered as priceless tank of new bio-active molecules with immense medicinal and pharmacological importance. Most of the traditional systems are based on use of plant as medicine, but now day’s use of different medicinal plant is neglected because of lack of scientific data and proofs committing their medicinal importance. Through this study we have proved the anthelmintic activity of one Indian medicinal plant Bauhinia tomentosa family ...

  5. UNBS1450 from as a regulator of signaling pathways involved in proliferation and cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Juncker, Tom; Schumacher, Marc; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant progress in oncology therapeutics in the last decades, the urge to discover and to develop new, alternative or synergistic anti-cancer agents still remains. For centuries it has been known that the coarse shrub is a very promising source of ascaricidal, schizonticidal, anti-bacterial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoeal, larvicidal and cytotoxic chemicals. Different compounds like norditerpenic esters, organic carbonates, the cysteine protease pr...

  6. UNBS1450 from Calotropis procera as a regulator of signaling pathways involved in proliferation and cell death

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite significant progress in oncology therapeutics in the last decades, the urge to discover and to develop new, alternative or synergistic anti-cancer agents still remains. For centuries it has been known that the coarse shrub Calotropis procera is a very promising source of ascaricidal, schizonticidal, anti-bacterial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoeal, larvicidal and cytotoxic chemicals. Different compounds like norditerpenic esters, organ...

  7. Identification of phenolic antioxidants in Ipomoea mauritiana jacq. using spectrophotometric and mass spectroscopic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cheruthazhakkat Sulaiman; Sivadasan Pillai Geetha; Balachandran Indira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Ipomoea mauritiana is used in both Ayurveda and folk medicine systems. The tuberous roots are known to be diuretic, depurative, carminative, and anthelmintic. The objective of the current study was to identify phenolic antioxidants from I . mauritiana using spectrophotometric and LC-MS analysis. Materials and Methods: An activity-guided fractionation and purification process was used to identify the antioxidative components from I . mauritiana tuber. Dried mature tubers of I. maurit...

  8. ALCOHOLIC TINCTURE OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) ON GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOPARASITES OF SHEEP- SHORT COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Carlini Cunha Santos; Neventon Ubirajara Moreira Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The continuous and indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has caused a growing problem of parasite resistance to conventional treatments. In this context, plant essential oils and active components can be used as alternatives or in association with current anthel¬mintic treatment. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a herbal medicine with various therapeutic properties: immunostimulating, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic. The aim of this experiment w...

  9. The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, K. M.; Stear, M. J.; Good, B.; Keane, O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo‐dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from an...

  10. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera) Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron; I Made Damriyasa; Nyoman Adi Suratma

    2015-01-01

    Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR) and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of ani...

  11. Synthesis, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-oxidant activity of some substituted Benzimidazole Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran S; Abhiskek Chatterjee; Gopalkrishna Rao

    2012-01-01

    Benzimidazoles are an important class of compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activity ranging from anti-hypertensive, anti-viral, anti-fungal, antitumor and anthelmintic activity. In addition, few N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives have shown to exhibit significant activity against several viruses, including HIV, herpes simplex (HSV-1), influenza, picorna, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and hepatitis C virus. The five membered heterocyclic moiety 1,3,4-oxadiazole also confers for ...

  12. Activité antihelminthique de la poudre d'écorce de racine de Vitex thomasii De Wild (Verbenaceae) sur Haemonchus contortus chez la chèvre

    OpenAIRE

    Okombe Embeya, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to (i) identify the therapeutic uses and traditional preparation techniques of anthelmintic phytotherapy remedies by Katangese herbalists, tradipraticians, caterers and veterinary doctors; (ii) characterize the chemical groups present in the root bark of Vitex thomasii De Wild; and (iii) evaluate its effects on Haemonchus contortus in vitro and in vivo on goats raised on pasture. An ethnomedicinal study carried out in Kamina (DR Congo) showed that 44 users of medicinal ...

  13. DESIGNING OF COLON SPECIFIC MATRIX TABLET OF DIETHYL CARBAMAZINE CITRATE FOR THE TREATMENT OF FILARIASIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo Chinmaya Keshari; Satyanarayana Kokkula; Rao Jagadabi Narasimha; Khatua Hemanta Kumar; Sahoo Tanmaya Keshari; Das Binayak

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to develop colon specific sustained release matrix tablets of diethyl carbamazine citrate (DEC), an anthelmintic for improving patient compliance, delivered to colon for its effective actions. The colon targeted matrix tablet was prepared by wet granulation technique using different percentage of guar gum as matrix carrier and coated with Eudragit L 100.Seven batches of matrix tablets were prepared with varying percentage of guar gum and hydroxyl propyl methyl ce...

  14. A comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of two Artemisia species found in Nilgiris biosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, J.; K Elango; Dhanabal, S.P.; Paramakrishnan, N.; Suresh, B.

    2007-01-01

    Artemisia pallens Wall. ex DC commonly known as “Davana” in Kannada and Artemisia abrotanum Linn. known as “Southernwood” (Asteraceae) are aromatic herbs, erect in habit, upto 60 cm tall, leaves are very small, much divided, bluish green. These plants find use in traditional systems of medicine viz., anthelmintic, tonic and antipyretic properties. Since, these species have not been scientifically evaluated; the present study was aimed to bring these plants under a suitable pharmacognostical s...

  15. A case study of risk factors for lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Missamou, François; Sébastien D Pion; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Majewski, Andrew C.; Fischer, Peter U.; Gary J Weil; Boussinesq, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding risk factors for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Central Africa. We studied the epidemiology of LF in an endemic village in the Republic of Congo. Methods: Dependent variables were Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia (ICT card test) and microfilaremia (night blood smears). The following factors were investigated: sex, age, bed net, latrines, source of water, uptake of anthelmintic drugs, hunting/fishing activities, and occasionally sleeping in the bush. Mixed m...

  16. Helminth control in kennels: is the combination of milbemycin oxime and praziquantel a right choice?

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Laura; Pennacchio, Saverio; Musella, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; La Torre, Francesco; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Kennel dogs are at the high risk of infections with intestinal and extra-intestinal helminths. Therefore, regular parasitological surveillance, appropriate treatment strategies and high quality standard of hygiene are required to guarantee the health and welfare of kennel dogs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of helminth control in kennels using different broad-spectrum anthelmintics that are routinely used in canine veterinary practice. Particular attenti...

  17. Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia do Rocio Duarte; Ariane Gonçalves Silva

    2013-01-01

    Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem mi...

  18. Drug: D06782 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category: 5100 Arecaceae (palm family) Areca seed Major component: Arecoline [CPD:C10129] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06782 Areca (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medici...ne in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for expelling parasites Anthelmintic drugs D06782 Areca; Areca Crude drugs

  19. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  20. Transcriptional Responses of In Vivo Praziquantel Exposure in Schistosomes Identifies a Functional Role for Calcium Signalling Pathway Member CamKII

    OpenAIRE

    You, Hong; McManus, Donald P.; Hu, Wei; Smout, Michael J.; Brindley, Paul J.; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2013-01-01

    Treatment for clinical schistosomiasis has relied centrally on the broad spectrum anthelmintic praziquantel; however, there is limited information on its mode of action or the molecular response of the parasite. This paper presents a transcriptional and functional approach to defining the molecular responses of schistosomes to praziquantel. Differential gene expression in Schistosoma japonicum was investigated by transcriptome-wide microarray analysis of adult worms perfused from infected mic...

  1. Modulation of a Schistosoma mansoni multidrug transporter by the antischistosomal drug praziquantel

    OpenAIRE

    Kasinathan, Ravi S.; Goronga, Tinopiwa; Messerli, Shanta M.; Webb, Thomas R.; Greenberg, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-dependent efflux pump involved in transport of xenobiotics from cells that, when overexpressed, can mediate multidrug resistance in mammalian cells. Pgp may be a candidate target for new anthelmintics, as it plays critical roles in normal cell physiology, in removal of drugs from cells, and potentially in the development of drug resistance. Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that cause schistosomiasis, which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. He...

  2. Efficacy of a topically administered combination of emodepside and praziquantel against mature and immature Ancylostoma tubaeforme in domestic cats

    OpenAIRE

    Altreuther, G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Buch, J; S.D. Charles; Cruthers, L.; Epe, C.; Young, D. R.; Krieger, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the efficacy of emodepside/praziquantel spot¿on (Profender®, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany), a novel broadspectrum anthelmintic for dermal application, against L4 larvae and immature adult and adult stages of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats. The formulation contains 2.14% (w/w) emodepside and 8.58% (w/v) praziquantel, with emodepside being active against gastrointestinal nematodes and praziquantel against cestodes. Five randomized, blinded and controlled laboratory studies d...

  3. Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin for the treatment of canine nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Jesus; Luciane Holsback; Maísa Santiago Selingardi; Mauro José Lahm Cardoso; Luciana Doria Ribeiro Cabral; Tainá Rodrigues Santos

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin on gastrointestinal nematodes in dogs. Fecal egg counts per gram (EPG) were measured by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in order to evaluate the anthelmintic efficiency and fecal float exams were also performed to assess the concordance between coproparasitological techniques. A total of 45 naturally infected dogs in the city of Bandeirantes, Paraná State, were selected and divided into three groups: Group 1, 15 a...

  4. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Michel; Cornelissen Albert WCA; Schrooten Chris; Tamma Nico; Farnir Frédéric; Druet Tom; Mes Ted HM; Coppieters Wouter; Ploeger Harm W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Ho...

  5. Efficacy of Closantel 5% against Cattle Gastrointestinal Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Garedaghi, Y.; A. P.R. Saber; R. Attaremadraki

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: There are several anthelmintic classes based on chemical structure that are in use, but, during the last 20 years, it has been increasingly noted that the target parasites have become resistant, the incidence varying with geographical location and mode of use. Approach: In this study, 60 apparently healthy cow under the same management conditions of the experiment, feces (EPG) were examined. Cows devided to 2 groups (30 = control, 30 = treated with closantel 5%) then treate...

  6. In vivo effects of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on parasitic nematodes in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Desrues, Oliver; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T.V.A.; Enemark, Heidi; Thamsborg, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a fodder legume containing condensed tannins known to improve protein self-sufficiency, animal health and environment. In addition, anthelmintic effects have been demonstrated in vitro against cattle nematodes, and in vivo against nematodes of small ruminants, but in vivo effects against gastro-intestinal parasites (GIN) of cattle still remains to be proven. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine the in vivo effects of sainfoin against ...

  7. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro; Isabel Martins Madrid; Cíntia Lidiane Guidotti Aguiar; Leonardo Mortagua de Castro; Marlete Brum Cleff; Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite

    2013-01-01

    Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control co...

  8. Using plant bioactive materials to control gastrointestinal tract helminths in livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Acosta, J.F.J.; Hoste, Herve; Salem, A. Z. M.; Chan-Pérez, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Use of plants containing bioactive compounds to control of helminths in the gastrointestinaltract, either as phytotherapeutic or nutraceutical options, has been a growing researcharea in recent years. We discuss strategies to identify viable candidate compounds within vitro and in vivo anthelmintic properties. We also discuss factors which may influencein vitro and in vivo results, and difficulties of translating in vitro results to in vivo conditionsare considered using experiences with smal...

  9. Adaptation of Haemonchus contortus to condensed tannins: can it be possible? Adaptación de Haemonchus contortus a los taninos condensados: ¿puede ser posible?

    OpenAIRE

    JA Calderón-Quintal; JFJ Torres-Acosta; CA Sandoval-Castro; MA Alonso; HOSTE, H; A Aguilar-Caballero

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro anthelmintic (AH) effect of Acacia pennatula, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula and Leucaena leucocephala tannin rich extracts on three Mexican strains of Haemonchus contortus L 3 larvae was evaluated. Water/acetone extracts were obtained from the fodder of A. pennatula, L. latisiliquum, P. piscipula and L. leucocephala collected in the vegetation of Yucatan, Mexico. Increasing concentrations of lyophilized extracts (300, 600, 1,200, 1,800 and 2,400 µg/ml PBS) were screen...

  10. Functional and Phylogenetic Characterization of Proteins Detected in Various Nematode Intestinal Compartments*

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Bruce A.; Townsend, Reid; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic nematode intestine is responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption, and many other processes essential for reproduction and survival, making it a valuable target for anthelmintic drug treatment. However, nematodes display extreme biological diversity (including occupying distinct trophic habitats), resulting in limited knowledge of intestinal cell/protein functions of fundamental or adaptive significance. We developed a perfusion model for isolating intestinal proteins in A...

  11. USE OF TANNIN RICH PLANTS FOR THE CONTROL OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES IN SMALL RUMINANTS IN ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEMS.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoste, Herve; BRUNET, SEVERINE; Paolini, Virginie; Bahuaud, Diane; CHAUVEAU, SEVERINE; BARRAU, ELODIE; LEFRILEUX, YVES; Fourquaux, Isabelle; FOURASTE, ISABELLE

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes represent one of the main threat associated with the use of pastures by grazing small ruminants. In organic farming systems, the use of chemical treatments to control these parasitic diseases remain strictly limited. There is thus a need to explore novel, alternative approaches to complement or replace the action of chemical anthelmintics. This seek for novel solutions is also widely required in other farming systems, because of the widespread diffusion of anth...

  12. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Jani Switu; Harisha C.R.; Mohaddesi Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cav...

  13. Determination of doramectin, an emergent veterinary contaminant, in soil and manure, using HPLC with fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Diaz, M.; Martinez-Inigo, M. J.; Urquia, J. J.; Martin, M.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Doramectin is a macrolide endectocide belonging to avermectin group; it is widely used as anthelmintic because of their broad spectrum activity against ecto-and endo-parasites of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses as well as cats and dogs. All avermectins are excreted mainly through faeces as non-metabolised drugs. Consequently, the application of residues from cattle to soil could represent a source of diffuse pollution, being the veterinarian treatments emergent contaminants towards soil and water. (Author)

  14. Ascaris lumbricoides: an overview of therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Isabel; Giusti, Tatiana

    2010-10-01

    A. lumbricoides is the largest of the common nematode parasites of man and has been associated with intestinal pathology, respiratory symptoms and malnutrition in children from endemic areas. Current anthelmintic treatments have proven to be safe. However, a reduced efficacy of single dose drugs has been reported. In veterinary practice, anthelmintic drug resistance is an irreversible problem. Thus, research and development of sensitive tools for early detection of drug resistance as well as new anthelmintic approaches are urgently needed. In this review, we summarized data providing information about current drug therapy against A. lumbricoides and other intestinal helminths, new drugs in experimental trials, future drugs perspectives and the identification of immunogenic parasite molecules that may be suitable vaccine targets. In addition to the WHO recommended drugs (albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate), new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials. Also, some new drugs for veterinary use, monepantel and cyclooctadepsipeptides (e.g., PF1022A), will probably expand future drug spectrum for human treatments. The development of genomic technology has provided a great amount of available nematode DNA sequences, coupled with new gene function data that may lead to the identification of new drug targets through efficient mining of nematode genomic databases. On the other hand, the identification of nematode antigens involved in different parasite vital functions as well as immunomodulatory molecules in animals and humans may contribute to future studies of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:20701574

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in K...

  16. Analysis of putative resistance gene loci in UK field populations of Haemonchus contortus after six years of macrocyclic lactone use

    OpenAIRE

    Laing, Roz; Maitland, Kirsty; Lecova, Lenka; Skuce, Philip J; Tait, Andy; Devaney, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Sheep farmers in the UK rely on strategic anthelmintic use to treat and control gastrointestinal roundworms in their flocks. However, resistance to these drugs is now widespread and threatens the sustainability of sheep production. The mechanisms underlying resistance to the most commonly used class, the macrocyclic lactones, are not known and sensitive diagnostic tools based on molecular markers are not currently available. This prohibits accurate surveillance of resistance or assessment of ...

  17. Investigation of Cytotoxic Activity for Achillea talagonica and A.Tenuifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidnia, S.; A.R Gohari; M.R Gohari; Moradi, F.; F. Lodfi Maldar; A. Haji Akhondi

    2006-01-01

    AbstractBackground and purpose: Achillea (Asteraceae) comprises 115 species, which are mainly distributed in Europe, Asia, and North Africa and as introduced plant in the New World. The genus Achillea, generally named Bumadaran in Persian, is well known for medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects. Achillea has long been used in traditional medicine for treatment of neuralgia and rheumatic pain. Achillea talagonica and Achillea tenuifolia are two...

  18. Ekstraksi Acetogenin Dari Biji Sirsak (Annona muricata L) dengan Pelarut Aseton

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Suci Damayanti

    2016-01-01

    The soursop seeds (Annonamuricata L) contain bioactive compounds that can serve as a pesticide and used as an anthelmintic. It is because the seeds contain acetogenyn. Acetogenyn which was synthesized through reaction between polyketide-derivedacetic acid with 35-39 carbon atom in fatty acid, is the secondary metabolite of Annonaceae plant. This research aims to determine the variables that influence in soursop seeds extraction processso that high % yield value can be obtained,...

  19. Medicinal Potential of Poisonous Plants of Tehsil Kahuta from District Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sohail Jamil Qureshi; Sofia Bano; Taj Mohammad; Mir Ajab Khan

    2001-01-01

    Medicinal potential of some poisonous plant was studied from Kahuta Rawalpindi district. Calotropis procera is a remedy for asthma, leprosy and skin diseases. Convolvulus arvensis is mild poisonous plant. It is an excellent remedy for skin diseases and is also used for washing hair to remove dandruff. Oil of Ricinus communis is useful in constipation in children and the plant is used as an antiseptic. Root of Euphorbia helioscopia is used as an anthelmintic. Tribulus terrestris is also a mild...

  20. Exacerbation of Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by the Anthelmentic Drug Fenbendazole

    OpenAIRE

    Carol R. Gardner; Mishin, Vladimir; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Fenbendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug widely used to prevent or treat nematode infections in laboratory rodent colonies. Potential interactions between fenbendazole and hepatotoxicants such as acetaminophen are unknown, and this was investigated in this study. Mice were fed a control diet or a diet containing fenbendazole (8–12 mg/kg/day) for 7 days prior to treatment with acetaminophen (300 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline. In mice fed a control diet, acetaminophen administra...

  1. The advancement in the chemical and pharmacological study of Diospyros L.%柿属植物化学成分及药理活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光; 徐绥绪

    2001-01-01

    柿属植物含有萘醌、三萜、黄酮等化合物,具有抗菌、驱虫、抗杜氏利什曼虫、抗突变、抗癌等药理活性。%Diospyros cotains naphthoquinones,triterpenes and flavonoids andthey have activities of antibacterial,anthelmintic,inhibitory effects of Leishmania donovani promastigotes and activities of antimutagenicity and anticancer.

  2. Nematode control in 'green' ruminant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Peter J.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2004-01-01

    Collectively, nematode parasites of domestic ruminants continue to pose the greatest disease problem in grazing livestock systems worldwide, despite the powerful and extensive chemotherapeutic arsenal available for their control. The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance, particularly in nematode parasites of small ruminants, and the trend towards nonchemical (ecological, organic, green) farming of livestock has provided an impetus for the research and development of alternative p...

  3. An eco-friendly oxidation of sulfide compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAVINDRA B WAGH; SITARAM H GUND; JAYASHREE M NAGARKAR

    2016-08-01

    An improved green route has been developed for the oxidation of sulfide compounds. Albendazole is converted to ricobendazole or albendazole sulfone using H₂O₂ as an oxidant and H₂O as the solvent. High yields of the corresponding products were obtained by carrying out the reaction at room temperature. This synthetic method is environmentally clean and safe, operationally simple for the oxidation of other benzimidazole anthelmintics and various sulfide compounds.

  4. Individual Predisposition, Household Clustering and Risk Factors for Human Infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: New Epidemiological Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Background Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, kn...

  5. Curtisia dentata (Cornaceae) leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit motility of parasitic and free-living nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, L J; Bizimenyera, E S; Bagla, V; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

    2009-06-01

    Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are among the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants. Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, is used as a model for evaluating anthelmintic activity of a variety of test substances. Extracts of several medicinal plants are useful in vitro and in vivo against nematode development. Extracts of Curtisia dentata, a South African medicinal plant, and compounds isolated from leaves of this plant were investigated for anthelmintic activity against T. colubriformis, H. contortus and C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were active against all nematodes at concentrations as low as 160 microg/ml. Betulinic acid and lupeol were active against the parasitic nematodes only at the high concentrations of 1000 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. All compounds were effective against C. elegans with active concentrations as low as 8 microg/ml. Betulinic acid was less active than lupeol and ursolic acid against C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were also active against C. elegans with a concentration of 0.31 mg/ml resulting in almost 80% inhibition of larval motility. The use of free-living nematodes may provide information on the activity of potential anthelmintics against parasitic nematodes. Extracts of various medicinal plant species may provide solutions to ill-health of small ruminants caused by parasitic nematodes in poor communities of southern Africa. PMID:20698444

  6. Curtisia dentata (Cornaceae leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit motility of parasitic and free-living nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Shai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are among the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants. Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, is used as a model for evaluating anthelmintic activity of a variety of test substances. Extracts of several medicinal plants are useful in vitro and in vivo against nematode development. Extracts of Curtisia dentata, a South African medicinal plant, and compounds isolated from leaves of this plant were investigated for anthelmintic activity against T. colubriformis, H. contortus and C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were active against all nematodes at concentrations as low as 160 μg/mℓ. Betulinic acid and lupeol were active against the parasitic nematodes only at the high concentrations of 1 000 and 200 μg/mℓ, respectively. All compounds were effective against C. elegans with active concentrations as low as 8 μg/mℓ. Betulinic acid was less active than lupeol and ursolic acid against C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were also active against C. elegans with a concentration of 0.31 mg/mℓ resulting in almost 80 % inhibition of larval motility. The use of free-living nematodes may provide information on the activity of potential anthelmintics against parasitic nematodes. Extracts of various medicinal plant species may provide solutions to ill-health of small ruminants caused by parasitic nematodes in poor communities of southern Africa.

  7. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan RAKHSHANDEHROO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after the challenge. The results revealed that all the concentrations of each plant extract had anthelmintic effects on P. equorum larvae. Also, the statistics indicated that there were significant interactions between the concentration of the extracts and time of exposure on the number of viable larvae. In addition, C. annuum extract seemed to be a strong potency to kill larvae at all concentrations from the beginning of the experiment. These results confirmed that those herbal extracts possess good antiparasitic effects against infective larvae of P. equorum and thus could be considered in anthelminth treatment strategies.

  8. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. PMID:27514886

  9. Updates on feline aelurostrongylosis and research priorities for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Schnyder, Manuela; Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela; Wright, Ian; Lacher, David W

    2016-01-01

    Feline aelurostrongylosis, caused by the metastrongyloid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, is an important gastropod-borne parasitic lung disease in cats. Infection with A. abstrusus is widespread globally, but the increasing awareness of this parasite and the advent of more sensitive diagnostics have contributed to the apparent increase in its prevalence and geographic expansion. Clinical features may range in severity from subclinical to life-threatening respiratory disease. Parasitological standard techniques, such as visualization of the nematode first larval stage in faecal and respiratory (bronchial mucus or pleural fluid) samples, remain the mainstays of diagnosis. However, diagnosis is evolving with recent advances in serological and molecular testing, which can improve the time to initiation of effective anthelmintic therapy. Despite numerous anthelmintics that are now available as treatment options, the role of host immunity and lifestyle factors in selecting cats that may benefit from more targeted anthelmintic prophylaxis or treatment practice remains unclear and is likely to guide therapeutic choices as newer data become available. This review summarizes the biology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment options currently available for feline aelurostrongylosis. PMID:27387914

  10. Phytomedicinal value of moringa oleifera with special reference to antiparasitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants are claimed as folk medicine for their therapeutic activity. Moringa (M.) oleifera, known as the 'miracle tree' is greatly esteemed for its unique nutritional and medicinal value. Nutritively, it contains essential, disease-preventing nutrients. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plants have anthelmintic activity through paralysis of helminths. The compounds found responsible so far for their anthelmintic activities include: niazirinin, glycoside, niazirin and three glycosides from mustard oil, niaziminin A, B and 4- (4'-O-acetyl- alpha -L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl) isothiocyanate isolated from leaves; D-glucose, D-mannose, ascorbic acid, protein and polysaccharide isolated from mature flowers; 0-(2'-hydroxy-3'-(2'-heptenyloxy)) propylundecanoate, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, thiocarbanates, isothiocyanate, nitriles, 0-ethyl-4-((alpha-1-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl) carbamate, and beta-sitosterol isolated from whole pods of M. oleifera. Parasites are one of the major causes of diseases in human and animals. Due to parasitic infections livestock industry suffers from huge conomic losses. The parasites which have been treated using different parts of M. oleifera include: Dracunculiasis (guinea worm), schistosomes and trypanosomes. Plant extracts may serve as potential candidates in future to exterminate helminthiasis in human and livestock populations. Hence, isolation, characterization and in vivo and in vitro efficacy trials of M. oleifera derivatives on scientific grounds are direly needed to elucidate it as a noteworthy candidate as neutraceutical and anthelmintic. (author)

  11. Bioavailability and efficacy characteristics of two different oral liquid formulations of albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan José; Bolás, Francisco; Torrado, Juan José

    2003-01-16

    The oral bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy in mice of a new formulation of albendazole (ABZ) dissolved in a solution of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) are compared with a conventional ABZ suspension of carboxymethylcellulose. Plasma concentrations of ABZ and albendazole sulphoxide (ABZ-SO), its active and main metabolite, were assayed by HPLC. The AUC(0- infinity ) and C(max) values obtained for both ABZ and ABZ-SO, after administration of the ABZ-HPCD solution were significantly higher (Psuspension. Although, the differences between the ABZ and ABZ-SO-T(max) values were found not to be significant, regardless of the formulation. The anthelmintic activities against enteral (pre-adult) and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae) stages of Trichinella spiralis were studied in mice. The ABZ solution was more efficient against pre-adult and encysted larvae than the ABZ suspension. The efficacy differences between both formulations against the migrating larvae, were found to be not significant (P<0.05). For the migrating parasite stage, there was a linear correlation between the anthelmintic activity and pharmacokinetical parameters with respect to the ABZ-AUC(0- infinity ) value. Meanwhile, for the muscular encysted parasite stage, better relationships were obtained for AUC(0- infinity ) and C(max) values from ABZ-SO, which had correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.987, respectively. PMID:12527162

  12. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  13. Current management of farms and internal parasites by conventional and organic meat sheep French farmers and acceptance of targeted selective treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaret, J; Benoit, M; Laignel, G; Nicourt, C

    2009-09-16

    Sheep meat production in France is characterized by large flocks and a limited supply of labour. Digestive-tract strongyles are considered as one of the main health problems and control relies mostly on the use of anthelminthics, although resistance to at least the benzimidazoles is increasing. We conducted interviews on nine conventional and seven organic farms regarding whether an anthelmintic targeted selective treatment program could fit within the operations of the farms. In addition, necropsies of lambs were performed on three organic farms, and faecal egg counts and small lungworm counts were performed on all farms in autumn in ewes. Each interview consisted of an open discussion on sheep health and was terminated with comments on digestive-tract helminth infection as detected in parallel with the interview. Factors likely to affect the adoption of the targeted selective treatment approach were subjected to cluster analysis. Conventional farms were mostly advised by veterinarians and relied on systematic planning of anthelmintic treatments. The frequency of treatments was up to once a month for lambs and two to three times a year for ewes. The concept of selecting animals to be treated according to a scheme of targeted selective treatments based on phenotypic markers (e.g., anaemia, diarrhoea, weight gains) was not seen as feasible by these farmers. Conversely, organic farmers, with greater use of advisors and a restricted range of anthelmintic treatments were more susceptible to integrating phenotypic markers into their practices for controlling digestive-tract strongyles. PMID:19414221

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some 4-(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylamino-1,3-thiazole-2-amines and their Schiff bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil D. Amnerkar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of obtaining newer biologically active compounds, a series of 4-(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylamino-1,3-thiazole-2-amines (9–12 and 4-(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylamino-2-(4-substitutedphenyl-methylideneamino-1,3-thiazole (13–28 were synthesized. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral (FTIR, 1H NMR and EI-MS data and elemental (C, H, N analysis. Furthermore, compounds (9–12 and (13–28 were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activities. Almost all of these compounds showed moderate to excellent antimicrobial activity against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, pathogenic fungal strains (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and good anthelmintic activity against earthworm species (Pontoscotex corethruses. Among the compounds tested, compounds 23 and 24 showed maximum activity against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, respectively. Compound 22 exhibited good antifungal activity while compound 26 displayed maximum anthelmintic activity comparable to the standard drugs.

  15. Practices to optimise gastrointestinal nematode control on sheep, goat and cattle farms in Europe using targeted (selective) treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, J; Morgan, E R; Rinaldi, L; van Dijk, J; Demeler, J; Höglund, J; Hertzberg, H; Van Ranst, B; Hendrickx, G; Vercruysse, J; Kenyon, F

    2014-09-13

    Due to the development of anthelmintic resistance, there have been calls for more sustainable nematode control practices. Two important concepts were introduced to study and promote the sustainable use of anthelmintics: targeted treatments (TT), where the whole flock/herd is treated based on knowledge of the risk, or parameters that quantify the severity of infection; and targeted selective treatments (TST), where only individual animals within the grazing group are treated. The aim of the TT and TST approaches is to effectively control nematode-induced production impacts while preserving anthelmintic efficacy by maintaining a pool of untreated parasites in refugia. Here, we provide an overview of recent studies that assess the use of TT/TST against gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and investigate the economic consequences, feasibility and knowledge gaps associated with TST. We conclude that TT/TST approaches are ready to be used and provide practical benefits today. However, a major shift in mentality will be required to make these approaches common practice in parasite control. PMID:25217603

  16. Visceral larva migrans associated with earthworm and gecko ingestion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Visceral larva migrans is a syndrome caused by an infection with larval helminths, which may result in partial or general pathological changes in host tissues. Due to the difficulty in finding the causative parasites, the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans is generally based on compatible clinical signs, epidemic history, marked eosinophilia and pathological examination, especially positive serological test results and the disappearance of symptoms after specific treatment. Case presentation We report here the case of a 21-year-old Chinese man who, having ingested living earthworms and geckos at a witch’s suggestion, presented with fatigue and wordlessness lasting for one year along with elevated transaminase levels for one month. Clinical examination showed eosinophilia, elevated transaminase levels, nodular lesions in his liver and typical pathological characteristics of hepatic visceral larva migrans. After four courses of anthelmintic therapy, our patient presented with sustaining improvement of clinical manifestations and normalization of laboratory data. Conclusions Because of the difficulty in making a definite diagnosis, anthelmintic therapy should be performed in patients with a suspected diagnosis of visceral larva migrans based on their epidemic history and presence of typical manifestations, especially when the serological test results are negative. Furthermore, patients with severe parasite infection may require multiple anthelmintic therapies in order to eliminate the parasites.

  17. Identification of lead chemotherapeutic agents from medicinal plants against blood flukes and whipworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Giacomin, Paul R; Pearson, Mark S; Smout, Michael J; Loukas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and trichuriasis are two of the most common neglected tropical diseases (NTD) that affect almost a billion people worldwide. There is only a limited number of effective drugs to combat these NTD. Medicinal plants are a viable source of parasiticides. In this study, we have investigated six of the 19 phytochemicals isolated from two Bhutanese medicinal plants, Corydalis crispa and Pleurospermum amabile, for their anthelmintic properties. We used the xWORM technique and Scanning Electron Microscope-based imaging to determine the activity of the compounds. Of the six compounds tested, isomyristicin and bergapten showed significant anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris with bergapten being the most efficacious compound one against both parasites (S. mansoni IC50 = 8.6 μg/mL and T. muris IC50 = 10.6 μg/mL) and also against the schistosomulum stage of S. mansoni. These two compounds induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. The efficacy against multiple phylogenetically distinct parasites and different life stages, especially the schistosomulum where praziquantel is ineffective, makes isomyristicin and bergapten novel scaffolds for broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug development that could be used for the control of helminths infecting humans and animals. PMID:27572696

  18. Effect of structurally related flavonoids from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Romina E; Alberto, María R; Morgan, Phillip; Sedensky, Margaret; Isla, María I

    2014-03-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae), commonly called jarilla macho or pus-pus, is being used in traditional medicine as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and to relieve muscle and bone pain. The aim of this work was to study the anthelmintic effects of three structurally related flavonoids present in aerial parts of Z. punctata Cav. The biological activity of the flavonoids 7-hydroxyflavanone (HF), 3,7-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) and 2´,4´-dihydroxychalcone (DHC) was examined in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results showed that among the assayed flavonoids, only DHC showed an anthelmintic effect and alteration of egg hatching and larval development processes in C. elegans. DHC was able to kill 50% of adult nematodes at a concentration of 17 μg/mL. The effect on larval development was observed after 48 h in the presence of 25 and 50 μg/mL DHC, where 33.4 and 73.4% of nematodes remained in the L3 stage or younger. New therapeutic drugs with good efficacy against drug-resistant nematodes are urgently needed. Therefore, DHC, a natural compound present in Z. punctata, is proposed as a potential anthelmintic drug. PMID:26204036

  19. Albendazole in environment: faecal concentrations in lambs and impact on lower development stages of helminths and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchal, Lukáš; Podlipná, Radka; Lamka, Jiří; Dědková, Tereza; Skálová, Lenka; Vokřál, Ivan; Lecová, Lenka; Vaněk, Tomáš; Szotáková, Barbora

    2016-07-01

    Albendazole (ABZ), widely used benzimidazole anthelmintic, administered to animals enters via excrements into environment and may impact non-target organisms. Moreover, exposure of lower development stages of helminths to anthelmintics may also encourage the development of drug-resistant strains of helminths. In present project, the kinetics of ABZ (10 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and its metabolite (ABZ.SO, ABZSO2) elimination in faeces from treated Texel lambs were studied using UHPLC/MS/MS with the aim to find out their concentrations achievable in the environment. Consequently, the effect of these compounds on lower development stages of Barber's pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) and on germination of white mustard (Sinapis alba) seeds was evaluated. The results showed that ABZ concentrations in faeces excreted in 4-60 h after treatment were above the concentrations lethal for H. contortus eggs. Moreover, pre-incubation with sub-lethal doses of ABZ and ABZ.SO did not increase the resistance of H. contortus eggs and larvae to anthelmintics. On the other hand, concentrations of ABZ and ABZ.SO in faeces are so high that might have negative influence on non-target soil invertebrates. As neither ABZ nor its metabolites affect the germination of mustard seeds, phytoremediation could be considered as potential tool for detoxification of ABZ in the environment. PMID:26996913

  20. Viability of the Happy Factor™ targeted selective treatment approach on several sheep farms in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBean, David; Nath, Mintu; Lambe, Nicola; Morgan-Davies, Claire; Kenyon, Fiona

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of Happy Factor™ weight based targeted selective treatment (TST) on several commercial farms in Scotland in combination with findings from a long term trial on a research farm to assess the potential for TST use in varying farming operations as an alternative to the current regimen of whole flock treatment. Lambs on each farm were regularly weighed and climatic conditions and pasture availability measured for inclusion into the Happy Factor™ model to calculate weight targets. Half of the lambs were allocated to TST treatment and any failing to reach the weight target was treated with the anthelmintic of choice on that farm, while the remaining half of each flock was treated with anthelmintic as per normal practice on that farm (routine treatment, RT). The research farm (farm 1) hosted a long term trial using four anthelmintic treatment regimes over 6 years, and data from two regimes are presented here, alongside findings from three further farms: two commercial enterprises (farms 2 and 3) and a research farm operating as a commercial analogue with two breeds (farms 4a and 4b). The effect of TST strategy on lamb productivity and the number of anthelmintic treatments was investigated. There was no evidence (p>0.300) that mean bodyweight or growth rate was different between TST and RT groups on any of the farms and 95% confidence intervals of TST and RT groups generally suggested that TST had negligible unfavourable effects on the average growth of lambs for most of the farms. Growth rates ranged from 97.39 to 189.16g/day reflecting the varied nature of the farms. All commercial farms used significantly less (1.34 RT versus 1.14 TST treatments per animal, p<0.05) anthelmintic in lambs following TST, with a reduction from 1, 1, 1.03 and 1.14 to 0.77, 0.57, 0.82 and 0.81 in the number of treatments per animal for farms 2, 3, 4a and 4b respectively. This study suggests that TST is a viable means of controlling parasitic

  1. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (p<0.0001 and provided to be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the resistance status of IVM and MOX in H. contortus field isolate, as well as it may be used for official routine drug monitoring programs under the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA guidance.

  2. Familiarity with and uptake of alternative methods to control sheep gastro-intestinal parasites on farms in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Hope; Pandolfi, Fanny; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-05-15

    A questionnaire was distributed electronically amongst sheep farmers in England; it aimed to provide a quantification of current anthelmintic practices, farmer awareness of the issue of anthelmintic resistance (AR) and the uptake, awareness and opinions surrounding conventional and alternative methods of nematode control. The majority of farmers relied on several anthelmintics and used faecal egg counts to identify worm problems. Although farmers were aware of the issue of AR amongst helminth parasites in the UK, there was a disconnection between such awareness and on farm problems and practice of nematode control. Grazing management was used by 52% of responders, while breeding for resistance and bioactive forages by 22 and 18% respectively. Farms with more than 500 ewes, and farmers who felt nematodes were a problem, had a higher probability of using selective breeding. Farmers who considered their wormer effective, had a qualification in agriculture and whose staff did not include any family members, were more likely to use bioactive forages; the opposite was the case if farmers dosed their lambs frequently. Amongst the alternatives, highest preference was for selective breeding and vaccination, if the latter was to become commercially available, with more respondents having a preference for breeding than actually using it. Several barriers to the uptake of an alternative were identified, the most influential factor being the cost to set it up and the length of time for which it would remain effective. The disconnection between awareness of AR and practice of nematode control on farm reinforces the need for emphasising the links between the causes of AR and the consequences of strategies to address its challenge. PMID:27084464

  3. The 'Toolbox' of strategies for managing Haemonchus contortus in goats: What's in and what's out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, P E; Murray, P J; Hoy, J M; Hohenhaus, M; Kotze, A

    2016-04-15

    A dynamic and innovative approach to managing the blood-consuming nematode Haemonchus contortus in goats is critical to crack dependence on veterinary anthelmintics. H. contortus management strategies have been the subject of intense research for decades, and must be selected to create a tailored, individualized program for goat farms. Through the selection and combination of strategies from the Toolbox, an effective management program for H. contortus can be designed according to the unique conditions of each particular farm. This Toolbox investigates strategies including vaccines, bioactive forages, pasture/grazing management, behavioural management, natural immunity, FAMACHA, Refugia and strategic drenching, mineral/vitamin supplementation, copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWPs), breeding and selection/selecting resistant and resilient individuals, biological control and anthelmintic drugs. Barbervax(®), the ground-breaking Haemonchus vaccine developed and currently commercially available on a pilot scale for sheep, is prime for trialling in goats and would be an invaluable inclusion to this Toolbox. The specialised behaviours of goats, specifically their preferences to browse a variety of plants and accompanying physiological adaptations to the consumption of secondary compounds contained in browse, have long been unappreciated and thus overlooked as a valuable, sustainable strategy for Haemonchus management. These strategies are discussed in this review as to their value for inclusion into the 'Toolbox' currently, and the future implications of ongoing research for goat producers. Combining and manipulating strategies such as browsing behaviour, pasture management, bioactive forages and identifying and treating individual animals for haemonchosis, in addition to continuous evaluation of strategy effectiveness, is conducted using a model farm scenario. Selecting strategies from the Toolbox, with regard to their current availability, feasibility, economical cost

  4. Utilization of computer processed high definition video imaging for measuring motility of microscopic nematode stages on a quantitative scale: “The Worminator”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Storey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A major hindrance to evaluating nematode populations for anthelmintic resistance, as well as for screening existing drugs, new compounds, or bioactive plant extracts for anthelmintic properties, is the lack of an efficient, objective, and reproducible in vitro assay that is adaptable to multiple life stages and parasite genera. To address this need we have developed the “Worminator” system, which objectively and quantitatively measures the motility of microscopic stages of parasitic nematodes. The system is built around the computer application “WormAssay”, developed at the Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco. WormAssay was designed to assess motility of macroscopic parasites for the purpose of high throughput screening of potential anthelmintic compounds, utilizing high definition video as an input to assess motion of adult stage (macroscopic parasites (e.g. Brugia malayi. We adapted this assay for use with microscopic parasites by modifying the software to support a full frame analysis mode that applies the motion algorithm to the entire video frame. Thus, the motility of all parasites in a given well are recorded and measured simultaneously. Assays performed on third-stage larvae (L3 of the bovine intestinal nematode Cooperia spp., as well as microfilariae (mf of the filarioid nematodes B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis, yielded reproducible dose responses using the macrocyclic lactones ivermectin, doramectin, and moxidectin, as well as the nicotinic agonists, pyrantel, oxantel, morantel, and tribendimidine. This new computer based-assay is simple to use, requires minimal new investment in equipment, is robust across nematode genera and developmental stage, and does not require subjective scoring of motility by an observer. Thus, the “Worminator” provides a relatively low-cost platform for developing genera- and stage-specific assays with high efficiency and

  5. Targeted selective treatment for worm management--how do we sell rational programs to farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, J A; Hoste, H; Kaplan, R M; Besier, R B

    2006-07-31

    Seriously escalating global anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants has spawned a variety of alternatives to anthelmintics for worm management, based on the need for sustainable Integrated Parasite Management (sIPM). Pivotal to the sIPM approach is the concept of refugia, the proportion of a given parasite population that escapes exposure to control measures. By balancing drug applications with the maintenance of refugia, the accumulation of anthelmintic resistance alleles in worm populations can be considerably delayed, while still providing good levels of control. The over-dispersed nature of parasitic infections provides an opportunity to achieve this balance, by targeting treatments to the members of a flock or herd that are least tolerant to nematode infection. However, implementation of this strategy has only recently become feasible, with the development of the FAMACHA((c)) system for clinical evaluation of anaemia due to haemonchosis. Subsequently, the use of milk yields has proven an effective indicator in dairy goats infected predominantly with nematodes other than Haemonchus contortus. In addition, short-term weight changes and perhaps also body condition scoring may provide indices of parasitism, permitting the rapid identification of animals likely to benefit from treatment. However, sIPM and refugia-based approaches are more complex than whole-flock treatments in conventional programs, and adoption by farmers is most likely where the theoretical basis is understood. As close communication with informed advisors is generally limited, there is a danger that sIPM will remain a theoretical concept without alternative modes of communication. The development of computer-based decision support programs, which use epidemiological, seasonal and clinical information to provide recommendations for specific situations, should be accorded high priority in the future development of worm management systems. PMID:16774807

  6. Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against naturally acquired Oxyuris equi infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinemeyer, Craig R; Prado, Julio C; Nichols, Eric C; Marchiondo, Alan A

    2010-07-15

    In recent years, numerous veterinary practitioners have reported anecdotal episodes in which anthelmintic treatment did not appear to deliver the expected efficacy against equine pinworms (Oxyuris equi). Anthelmintic resistance has not been demonstrated formally in equine pinworms, so a clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of paste formulations of pyrantel pamoate or ivermectin against naturally acquired infections with O. equi. Twenty-one horses (>4 months to 15 years of age) with patent, naturally acquired pinworm infections were blocked by source of origin and allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: horses (n=7) assigned to Group 1 were treated orally with pyrantel pamoate paste at a dosage of 13.2 mg/kg (2x label dosage), Group 2 horses (n=7) were untreated controls, and horses (n=7) assigned to Group 3 were treated orally with ivermectin paste at a dosage of 200 microg/kg. Fourteen days after treatment, horses were euthanatized, necropsied, and large intestinal contents were processed for recovery of adult pinworms. In addition, duplicate 1% aliquots of intestinal contents from the cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon, and small colon were collected, preserved, and examined for recovery and enumeration of fourth-stage larval O. equi. Anthelmintic efficacy against pinworms was evaluated by comparing the post-treatment worm counts of Groups 1 and 3 to those of control animals. Mean numbers of O. equi adults recovered postmortem were significantly decreased by both pyrantel pamoate (P=0.0366) and ivermectin (P=0.0137) treatment, with respective efficacies of 91.2% and 96.0%. In addition, both products demonstrated >99% efficacy against fourth-stage O. equi larvae. The current study demonstrated acceptable adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of both pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against O. equi and did not support the existence of macrocyclic lactone or pyrimidine resistance in the pinworm populations evaluated. PMID

  7. Sustainable improvement of livestock production through strategic supplementation with urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) and other feed resources available in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are a vital source of meat and milk, and livestock production is an integral part of agriculture in Pakistan. The ruminant feeding system is based on low quality roughages that can be improved by creating conditions in the rumen for maximizing fibre digestion. A solidified urea-molasses multi-nutrient Block (UMMB), prepared with commonly available, cheap ingredients to provide critical nutrients for microbial fermentation, was formulated and tested. Another constraint to livestock production is the scarcity and fluctuation of quality and quantity of animal feed supply throughout the year. To overcome these problems, particularly in salt-affected wastelands, non-conventional and low-cost feed resources require evaluation. The present project attempts to introduce new management practices based on proven technologies for improvement of productivity and reproductive efficiency of livestock. Pilot farms were selected to evaluate the effects of UMMB feeding and various studies conducted on cattle and buffalo have shown its positive effects. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in improvements in intake of low quality roughages, digestibility, weight gain, milk production and resumption of post-partum oestrus. Supplementation of animals raised on low quality fodders with UMMB may be an alternative to other forms of supplementation especially when these become unavailable or too expensive. The cheapest source of nitrogen as well as of energy available has proved to be UMMB. The UMMB technology can also be utilized for the control of parasites in livestock through its potential as a carrier of anthelmintics, traditional herbal medicines and plants with anthelmintic properties. Effectiveness of medicated UMMB feed blocks to control gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goat was tested. The medicated UMMB and conventional anthelmintics were both found to be highly effective but conventional therapies were thought to be most appropriate for application in most

  8. Efektivitas Daun Jarak (Jatropha curcass Linn Sebagai Anticacing Ascaridia galli dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Performa Ayam Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was aimed to identify the phytochemical of Jatropha curcas leave extracted with water and methanol as an anthelmintic agent for Ascaridia galli, and its effect on native chicken performance. In vitro study of anthelmintic activity was conducted by counting the number of paralyzed worm dead-body of A. galli during 18 hours in petri dish containing different levels of extract, namely 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% (w/v and compared to the piperazine 0.5% (w/v. Eightteen birds of naturally A. galli-infected native chicken were used for the in vivo study. The treatments were 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16% of J. curcass leave extract, and 10% of piperazine using a completely randomized block design with 6 treatments and 3 replications. Parameters observed were fecal worm egg count, feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. The results showed that water- and methanol-extracted J. curcas leave had similar composition of secondary metabolite compounds which is high in triterpenoid and steroid contents, respectively. Percentage of paralyzed A. galli was higher (P<0.01 in water-extracted jatropha leaves. On the contrary, the dead-body percentage was higher (P<0.05 in the methanol-extracted than that in the control group. In vivo study showed that leave meal significantly decreased (P<0.05 fecal worm egg count. The leaf meal at the level 16% tended to increase feed consumption, body weight gain, and significantly decreased feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, J. curcas leave meal have anthelmintic activity to A. galli and could improve nutrient utilization of naturally A. galli-infected native chicken by decreasing feed conversion ratio.

  9. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V; Kyvsgaard, Niels C

    2005-07-12

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics (Trifen avicola - a combined formulation of piperazine, phenothiazine and dichlorophen - or albendazole) to express the growth potential of non-infected birds, whereas the other half served as non-treated controls. In 1999, treated chickens had a 39% higher weight gain compared to the control group 6 weeks after the first treatment on 15 farms. In 2000 and 2001, treated chickens had similar weight gain as the control group 10 weeks after the first treatment on 7 farms and 12 farms, respectively. The main reason for the very-different weight gain figures seems to be the weather conditions. In 1999, the study site experienced a rainy season with precipitation far above average, whereas in 2000 and 2001 the rainy seasons had precipitations far below average. Based on these findings, routine use of anthelmintics in the study area would only be recommended in wet years when production losses due to helminth infections seem to be pronounced. In 2001, the study set-up included an assessment of the effect of protein supplementation (soybean) on growth on six farms. Supplemented chickens (treated and non-treated with anthelmintics) had 17% higher weight gain than non-supplemented. Protein supplementation affected neither worm burdens nor faecal egg counts for any of the studied helminths. The post-mortem examinations showed that Trifen reduced burdens of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and cestodes (efficacies of 100, 100 and 67%, respectively). Albendazole reduced burdens of H. gallinarum (efficacy of 100%). Efficacies against other helminths were difficult to assess due to low worm burdens. Chickens treated with albendazole had lower Ascaridia and Heterakis faecal egg

  10. Experiences with integrated concepts for the control of Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Thomas H; Miller, James E; Burke, Joan M; Mosjidis, Jorge A; Kaplan, Ray M

    2012-05-01

    The generally warm, moist environmental conditions in the southern United States (U.S.) are ideal for survival and growth of the egg and larval stages of Haemonchus contortus and other gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats. Consequently, infection with GIN is the greatest threat to economic small ruminant production in this region. With anthelmintic resistance now reaching epidemic proportions in small ruminants in the U.S., non-chemical control alternatives are critically needed. The Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (SCSRPC) was formed in response to this crisis and over the last decade has successfully validated the use of several novel control technologies, including FAMACHA(©) for the implementation of targeted selective treatments (TST), copper oxide wire particles (COWP), nematode-trapping fungi, and grazing or feeding hay of the high-tannin perennial legume sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)]. Producer attitudes toward GIN control in the U.S. have been shifting away from exclusive dependence upon anthelmintics toward more sustainable, integrated systems of parasite control. Some novel control technologies have been readily adopted by producers in combination with appropriate diagnostic tools, such as FAMACHA(©). Others techniques are still being developed, and will be available for producer use as they are validated. Although new drugs will likely be available to U.S. goat and sheep producers in the future, these will also be subject to development of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, the adoption and implementation of sustainable GIN control principles will remain important. With emerging markets for grass-fed or organic livestock, there will continue to be a critical need for research and outreach on development and on-farm application of integrated GIN control systems for small ruminants in the U.S. for the foreseeable future. PMID:22178411

  11. Gastrointestinal helminths of ponies in Louisiana: a comparison of species currently prevalent with those present 20 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melanie R; French, Dennis D; Klei, Thomas R

    2002-12-01

    A survey in Louisiana of gastrointestinal helminths recovered at necropsy from 117 ponies with minimal exposure to anthelmintics between 1989 and 2000 is compared with a survey conducted 20 yr earlier in the same region. An objective of this study was to determine whether species diversity has been affected by the advent and use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) parasiticides and by the increased anthelmintic pressure on the helminth species infecting the general equine population. Twenty-six cyathostome species and 8 strongyle species were recovered. Two cyathostome species that were not found before, Cylicostephanus asymetricus and C. bidentatus, and 1 species of large strongyle, Oesophagodontus robustus, were added to the list of species found in Louisiana. All cyathostome and large strongyle species found previously were still present. But prevalences and intensities were significantly reduced for almost all large and small strongyle species. Prevalences and intensities of Oxyuris equi adults and larvae were reduced, whereas the prevalence of Parascaris equorum remained constant. The tapeworm Paranoplocephala mamillana was added to the list of parasite species found in Louisiana. Anoplocephala perfoliata remained the most common cestode. This species was found at the same level of intensity but increased slightly in prevalence. Anoplocephala magna was found less frequently than previously. The overall diversity of species remained reatively unchanged. The reasons for the differences in intensity and prevalence of strongyles between these 2 periods are unknown but might be related to the development and use of the broad-spectrum ML anthelmintics in the intervening period, a difference in the population of equids surveyed, different techniques used to identify the parasites, or differences in numbers of parasites identified (or to all). PMID:12537106

  12. Selection and characterisation of monepantel resistance in Teladorsagia circumcincta isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Bartley

    2015-08-01

    To address these questions three MPTL-resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta isolates (MTci2-11, MTci5-13 and MTci7-12 have been artificially selected in vivo from phenotypically characterised parent isolates (MTci2, MTci5, MTci7 respectively. The selection process involved collecting and culturing eggs from surviving worms from sheep administered sub-optimal dosages of MPTL (Zolvix® to provide infective larvae to infect further sheep until resistant isolates were generated (between 9 and 13 rounds of selection. A controlled efficacy test was conducted using the original parental isolates and the newly generated MPTL resistant isolates (n = 5 per group. Selected isolates were assessed both under anthelmintic stress (Zolvix®, 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight; MTci-MPTL and at rest (untreated, MTci-CON. A number of life-history traits were assessed, namely, worm establishment rates, time to patency, faecal egg output, body length of adults and eggs in utero. The estimated resistance status of the selected isolates was confirmed with 48%, 28% and 9% reductions in worm burden at 7-days post Zolvix® administration for MTci2-11-MPTL, MTci5-13-MPTL and MTci7-12-MPTL, respectively, compared with untreated controls. One of the selected isolates MTci7-12-CON showed significantly greater total worm burden (p = 0.025, greater establishment rate (p = 0.033, decreased time to patency (p = 0.048, higher cumulative egg outputs (p = 0.002 compared with its parental derivative MTci7. The trial results suggest that anthelmintic selection in T. circumcincta, albeit under experimental conditions, can select for more prolific/fecund and quicker maturing populations. These data provide an insight into how parasites evolve in response to anthelmintic pressure.

  13. A Miniaturized Screen of a Schistosoma mansoni Serotonergic G Protein-Coupled Receptor Identifies Novel Classes of Parasite-Selective Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, John D; McCorvy, John D; Acharya, Sreemoyee; Johns, Malcolm E; Day, Timothy A; Roth, Bryan L; Marchant, Jonathan S

    2016-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical parasitic disease afflicting ~200 million people worldwide and current therapy depends on a single drug (praziquantel) which exhibits several non-optimal features. These shortcomings underpin the need for next generation anthelmintics, but the process of validating physiologically relevant targets ('target selection') and pharmacologically profiling them is challenging. Remarkably, even though over a quarter of current human therapeutics target rhodopsin-like G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), no library screen of a flatworm GPCR has yet been reported. Here, we have pharmacologically profiled a schistosome serotonergic GPCR (Sm.5HTR) implicated as a downstream modulator of PZQ efficacy, in a miniaturized screening assay compatible with high content screening. This approach employs a split luciferase based biosensor sensitive to cellular cAMP levels that resolves the proximal kinetics of GPCR modulation in intact cells. Data evidence a divergent pharmacological signature between the parasitic serotonergic receptor and the closest human GPCR homolog (Hs.5HTR7), supporting the feasibility of optimizing parasitic selective pharmacophores. New ligands, and chemical series, with potency and selectivity for Sm.5HTR over Hs.5HTR7 are identified in vitro and validated for in vivo efficacy against schistosomules and adult worms. Sm.5HTR also displayed a property resembling irreversible inactivation, a phenomenon discovered at Hs.5HTR7, which enhances the appeal of this abundantly expressed parasite GPCR as a target for anthelmintic ligand design. Overall, these data underscore the feasibility of profiling flatworm GPCRs in a high throughput screening format competent to resolve different classes of GPCR modulators. Further, these data underscore the promise of Sm.5HTR as a chemotherapeutically vulnerable node for development of next generation anthelmintics. PMID:27187180

  14. A Miniaturized Screen of a Schistosoma mansoni Serotonergic G Protein-Coupled Receptor Identifies Novel Classes of Parasite-Selective Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, John D.; McCorvy, John D.; Acharya, Sreemoyee; Day, Timothy A.; Roth, Bryan L.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical parasitic disease afflicting ~200 million people worldwide and current therapy depends on a single drug (praziquantel) which exhibits several non-optimal features. These shortcomings underpin the need for next generation anthelmintics, but the process of validating physiologically relevant targets (‘target selection’) and pharmacologically profiling them is challenging. Remarkably, even though over a quarter of current human therapeutics target rhodopsin-like G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), no library screen of a flatworm GPCR has yet been reported. Here, we have pharmacologically profiled a schistosome serotonergic GPCR (Sm.5HTR) implicated as a downstream modulator of PZQ efficacy, in a miniaturized screening assay compatible with high content screening. This approach employs a split luciferase based biosensor sensitive to cellular cAMP levels that resolves the proximal kinetics of GPCR modulation in intact cells. Data evidence a divergent pharmacological signature between the parasitic serotonergic receptor and the closest human GPCR homolog (Hs.5HTR7), supporting the feasibility of optimizing parasitic selective pharmacophores. New ligands, and chemical series, with potency and selectivity for Sm.5HTR over Hs.5HTR7 are identified in vitro and validated for in vivo efficacy against schistosomules and adult worms. Sm.5HTR also displayed a property resembling irreversible inactivation, a phenomenon discovered at Hs.5HTR7, which enhances the appeal of this abundantly expressed parasite GPCR as a target for anthelmintic ligand design. Overall, these data underscore the feasibility of profiling flatworm GPCRs in a high throughput screening format competent to resolve different classes of GPCR modulators. Further, these data underscore the promise of Sm.5HTR as a chemotherapeutically vulnerable node for development of next generation anthelmintics. PMID:27187180

  15. Effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica under laboratory conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AM Massoud; HA Shalaby; RM El Khateeb; MS Mahmoud; MA Kutkat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica ) under laboratory conditions. Methods: The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid®) and myrrh volatile oil on the surface morphology of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those observed in the fluke tegument following incubation in triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SO), active form, (Fasinex®, Ciba-Geigy). Results: Observations of the efficacy of Mirazid® oleoresin extract and myrrh volatile oil indicated that both products showed dose-dependent anthelmintic efficacy. The anterior half of the fluke was consistently more severely affected than the posterior half. The surface changes induced by Mirazid® oleoresin extract were less severe than those observed after exposure to either myrrh volatile oil or TCBZ-SO. Flukes showed swelling after these treatments, but its level and blebbing were much greater with myrrh volatile oil; in which patches of tegumental sloughing were observed in the apical cone and the posterior mid-body region of flukes. This was not observed after treatment with Mirazid® oleoresin extract. Conclusions: The comparatively more disruption, observed in myrrh volatile oil exposed specimens, compared to that exposed to Mirazid® oleoresin extract might suggest that the anthelmintic activity of Mirazid® oleo resin extract was attributed to its content of volatile oil. So, increasing the concentration of myrrh volatile oil in Mirazid® might possibly help to developing its anthelmintic activity.

  16. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: intervention for control and elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Prichard

    Full Text Available Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A summary of current helminth control initiatives is presented and available tools are described. Most of these programmes are highly dependent on mass drug administration (MDA of anthelmintic drugs (donated or available at low cost and require annual or biannual treatment of large numbers of at-risk populations, over prolonged periods of time. The continuation of prolonged MDA with a limited number of anthelmintics greatly increases the probability that drug resistance will develop, which would raise serious problems for continuation of control and the achievement of elimination. Most initiatives have focussed on a single type of helminth infection, but recognition of co-endemicity and polyparasitism is leading to more integration of control. An understanding of the implications of control integration for implementation, treatment coverage, combination of pharmaceuticals, and monitoring is needed. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection, novel tools need to be developed, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines, and/or antivectorial agents, new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy, and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is a need for the development of new formulations of some existing anthelmintics (e.g., paediatric formulations. To achieve ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis

  17. Submillisecond organic synthesis: Outpacing Fries rearrangement through microfluidic rapid mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejin; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Inoue, Keita; Im, Do Jin; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Yoshida, Jun-ichi

    2016-05-01

    In chemical synthesis, rapid intramolecular rearrangements often foil attempts at site-selective bimolecular functionalization. We developed a microfluidic technique that outpaces the very rapid anionic Fries rearrangement to chemoselectively functionalize iodophenyl carbamates at the ortho position. Central to the technique is a chip microreactor of our design, which can deliver a reaction time in the submillisecond range even at cryogenic temperatures. The microreactor was applied to the synthesis of afesal, a bioactive molecule exhibiting anthelmintic activity, to demonstrate its potential for practical synthesis and production. PMID:27151864

  18. Genomics of reproduction in nematodes: prospects for parasite intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Alasdair J; Cottee, Pauline A; Gasser, Robin B

    2008-02-01

    Understanding reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes has the potential to lead to the informed design of new anthelmintics and control strategies. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination, gametogenesis and reproductive physiology for most parasitic nematodes. Together with comparative analyses of data for the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, molecular investigations are beginning to provide insights into the processes involved in reproduction and development in parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent developments, focusing on technological aspects and on molecules associated with sex-specific differences in adult nematodes. PMID:18182326

  19. Yamogenin 3-O--D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-O--D-xylopyranoside from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Saxena; Albert Shalem

    2004-03-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (NO - Leguminosae) is cultivated in many parts of India. It has been found to possess significant medicinal value. Its leaves are used both internally and externally to reduce swelling, prevent falling of hair and in treating burns. Its seeds are carminative, antipyretic, anthelmintic and diuretic, and are also useful in treatment of dropsy, chronic cough, heart diseases, bronchitis, piles and small pox. This plant also possesses antidiabetic property. The present communication deals with the isolation and identification of steroidal saponin SA-III, characterised as yamogenin 3-O--D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-O--D-xylopyranoside, which was isolated from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum.

  20. Drug: D00804 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ves [BR:br08307] Antiparasitics Antinematodal agents Avermectines Ivermectin [ATC:P02CF01] D00804 Ivermecti...hologic organisms and parasites 64 Parasitics (systemic) 642 Anthelmintics...n B1b (CAS 70209-81-2) (R = -CH3) map04976 Bile secretion Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 6 Agents against pat...D00804 Drug Ivermectin (JAN/USAN/INN); Stromectol (TN) C46H69O14R D00804.gif Antiparasitic Therapeutic cate... 6429 Others D00804 Ivermectin (JAN/USAN/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classificati