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Sample records for anthelmintic-resistant parascaris equorum

  1. Diagnosis and control of anthelmintic-resistant Parascaris equorum

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    Reinemeyer Craig R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2002, macrocyclic lactone resistance has been reported in populations of Parascaris equorum from several countries. It is apparent that macrocyclic lactone resistance developed in response to exclusive and/or excessively frequent use of ivermectin or moxidectin in foals during the first year of life. The development of anthelmintic resistance was virtually inevitable, given certain biological features of Parascaris and unique pharmacologic characteristics of the macrocyclic lactones. Practitioners can utilize the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris, and the same technique can be applied regularly to confirm the continued efficacy of those drugs currently in use. In the face of macrocyclic lactone resistance, piperazine or anthelmintics of the benzimidazole or pyrimidine classes can be used to control ascarid infections, but Parascaris populations that are concurrently resistant to macrocyclic lactones and pyrimidine drugs have been reported recently from Texas and Kentucky. Compared to traditional practices, future recommendations for ascarid control should feature: 1 use of only those anthelmintics known to be effective against indigenous populations, 2 initiation of anthelmintic treatment no earlier than 60 days of age, and 3 repetition of treatments at the longest intervals which prevent serious environmental contamination with Parascaris eggs. In the interest of decreasing selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, horse owners and veterinarians must become more tolerant of the passage of modest numbers of ascarid eggs by some foals. Anthelmintic resistance is only one of several potential responses to genetic selection. Although still only theoretical, changes in the immunogenicity of ascarid isolates or reduction of their prepatent or egg reappearance periods could pose far greater challenges to effective control than resistance to a single class of anthelmintics.

  2. The efficacy of ivermectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole against Parascaris equorum infection in foals on farms in Australia.

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    Armstrong, S K; Woodgate, R G; Gough, S; Heller, J; Sangster, N C; Hughes, K J

    2014-10-15

    This study was performed to estimate the prevalence of patent Parascaris equorum infections and determine the efficacy of ivermectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole against P. equorum infection in foals on farms in southern Australia. Foals aged >3 months on five farms in the south-western slopes region of New South Wales were used. Faeces were collected from each foal and foals with a P. equorum faecal egg count (FEC) of >100 eggs per gram (EPG) were used to measure anthelmintic efficacy using the FEC reduction (FECR) test, after random allocation to a control group or an ivermectin, pyrantel embonate or fenbendazole treatment group. Treatment was administered on day 0 and faeces were collected on day 14 and a FEC was performed. For determination of anthelmintic efficacy, FECRs and lower 95% confidence intervals (LCL) were calculated using previously described methods, based on individual or group FECRs. P. equorum populations were considered susceptible when FECR was >90% and LCL >90%, suspected resistant when FECR was FECR was 80-90% and LCL Fenbendazole was effective on two farms, equivocal on one farm and ineffective on one farm. Pyrantel embonate was effective on three farms and ineffective on one farm. These data indicate that anthelmintic-resistant P. equorum populations are present on farms in Australia and multiple drug resistance may occur on individual farms.

  3. Anthelmintic efficacy on Parascaris equorum in foals on Swedish studs

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    Christensson Dan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years stud farms have experienced increasing problems with Parascaris equorum infections in foals despite intensive deworming programs. This has led to the question as to whether the anthelmintic drugs used against this parasite are failing. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel on the faecal output of ascarid eggs of foals. Methods A Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT was performed on nine large studs in Sweden. Anthelmintic drugs were given orally and faecal samples were examined for ascarid eggs on the day of deworming and 14 days later. Faecal Egg Count Reductions (FECRs were calculated on arithmetic means of transformed individual FECRs and on arithmetic means of individual FECRs. Results Seventy-nine (48% out of a total of 165 foals sampled were positive for P. equorum eggs before deworming and 66 of these met the criteria for being used in the efficacy assessment. It was shown that there was no, or very low activity of ivermectin on the output of ascarid eggs in the majority of the foals, whereas for fenbendazole and pyrantel it was >90%. Conclusion Ivermectin resistance was shown in 5 out of 6 farms. Therefore, ivermectin should not be the drug of choice in the control of P. equorum infections in foals. According to the results of this study, fenbendazole or pyrantel are still effective and should be used against this parasite.

  4. In vitro culture of Parascaris equorum larvae and initial investigation of parasite excretory-secretory products.

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    Burk, Steffanie V; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Brewster-Barnes, Tammy; Bryant, Uneeda K; Howe, Daniel K; Carter, Craig N; Vanzant, Eric S; Harmon, Robert J; Kazacos, Kevin R; Rossano, Mary G

    2014-11-01

    Currently, diagnosis of Parascaris equorum infection in equids is limited to patent infections. The goals of this study were to culture P. equorum larvae in vitro and identify excretory-secretory (ES) products for prepatent diagnostic testing. Parascaris equorum L2/L3 larvae were hatched and cultured for up to 3 weeks for ES product collection. Fifth stage (L5) P. equorum were also cultured for ES product collection. Examination of ES fractions by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and silver stain revealed L2/L3 products ranging from 12-94 kDa and L5 products ranging from 12-189 kDa. Western blot analyses were conducted using polyclonal antibodies produced against P. equorum or Baylisascaris procyonis L2/L3 ES products, sera from rabbits inoculated with B. procyonis or Toxocara canis eggs, and sera from animals naturally infected with P. equorum or T. canis. Western blot results indicated parasite antigens migrating at 19 and 34 kDa may be useful for specifically detecting P. equorum infections.

  5. Determination of ivermectin efficacy against cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum on horse farms using selective therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette L.; Ritz, Christian; Petersen, Stig L.

    2011-01-01

    Ivermectin resistance has recently been described in Parascaris equorum and there have been reports from several countries of a shortened egg reappearance period (ERP) following ivermectin treatment for cyathostomins. This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of ivermectin in treating...... cyathostomins and P. equorum in Danish horses. A total of 196 animals were selected from 52 farms, all of which were using a selective anthelmintic treatment strategy. ERP was investigated with weekly samples from 96 horses from nine farms. Horses were treated with ivermectin oral paste by their owners...... at an estimated dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg. Overall, faecal egg counts were reduced 10–14 days after treatment by 96.9% and 100% for P. equorum and cyathostomins, respectively. Mean faecal egg count reductions at 4 and 6 weeks post treatment were 99.5% and 96.9%, respectively. No signs of developing ivermectin...

  6. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Mohammad ASADPOUR; Jafari, Arash; Seyed Hossein MALEKPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum) were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL) of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0,...

  7. Macrocyclic lactone-resistant Parascaris equorum on stud farms in Canada and effectiveness of fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate.

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    Slocombe, J Owen D; de Gannes, Rolph V G; Lake, Mary C

    2007-04-30

    The aims of studies in 2002 and 2003 on three farms with 76 foals naturally infected with Parascaris equorum were to (i) identify if the nematode was resistant to ivermectin and moxidectin, and (ii) confirm the effectiveness of fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate for the parasite. Twelve clinical trials, each with a Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test, were conducted on two Thoroughbred and one Standardbred farms in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In each trial, Parascaris eggs/g feces were estimated for each foal pre- and post-treatment using the Cornell-Wisconsin double flotation and Cornell-McMaster dilution techniques. On each farm and for each trial, foals were randomized into treatment groups. Treatments were ivermectin, moxidectin, fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate administered at the manufacturers' recommended dosages, and some foals were untreated. The overall efficacy for ivermectin was 33.5% (19 foals) and for moxidectin 47.2% (28 foals). Fenbendazole (16 foals) and pyrantel pamoate (21 foals) were highly effective for P. equorum each at 97.6%. For fenbendazole, 15 foals had 100% and for pyrantel pamoate 17 foals had >97% with 14 at 100%.

  8. The Effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum Flower and Capsicum annuum Extracts Against Parascaris equorum Infective Larvae

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    Ehsan RAKHSHANDEHROO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after the challenge. The results revealed that all the concentrations of each plant extract had anthelmintic effects on P. equorum larvae. Also, the statistics indicated that there were significant interactions between the concentration of the extracts and time of exposure on the number of viable larvae. In addition, C. annuum extract seemed to be a strong potency to kill larvae at all concentrations from the beginning of the experiment. These results confirmed that those herbal extracts possess good antiparasitic effects against infective larvae of P. equorum and thus could be considered in anthelminth treatment strategies.

  9. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

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    Matthews, Jacqueline B.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics

  10. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

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    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  11. Description of two equine nematodes, Parascaris equorum Goeze 1782 and Habronema microstoma Schneider 1866 from the domestic horse Equus ferus caballus (Famisly: Equidae) in Egypt.

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    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel Rahman; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Adel, Salma

    2016-11-01

    Parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) caused by infection of the gut with parasitic nematodes is one of the most important diseases of livestock animals from both financial and welfare perspectives. Parascaris equorum and Habronema microstoma are of the most endemic nematodes of the world which are currently the major cause of PGE of the domestic horses in Egypt. The present investigation introduced the first morphological description of these nematodes recovered from the domestic horse, Equus ferus caballus (Equidae), in Egypt by light and scanning electron microscopy. Seven P. equorum (fifth stage) and 18 adults of H. microstoma were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of four young domestic horses collected during the year of 2015. Microscopic examination of the isolated fifth stage P. equorum revealed that it possessed a long body with a broad anterior end equipped by large shamrock-like lips with deep transverse groove on medial surface set off from the rest of the body by a deep post-labial constriction giving the body a shouldered appearance. The total body length was 12-15 (14 ± 2) cm for males and 13-18 (16 ± 2) cm for females. Lips were three in number in the form of one dorsal and two sub-ventral surrounding the central stoma. The isolated adult worms of H. microstoma were whitish in color narrowed slightly at the anterior end. Single lateral ala in the cephalic region in both sexes was observed. The buccal vestibule was markedly thickened and equipped by two tridentate teeth. The adult worms had two bilobed lateral lips surrounding the mouth with four sub-median cephalic papillae and two amphids. The males were 14.5-18.0 (17.2 ± 0.3) mm long and 1.23-1.57 (1.42 ± 0.3) mm wide. The posterior end was spirally coiled and had wide caudal alae. The spicules were unequal. The females were 13.5-21.0 (16.2 ± 0.3) mm long and 1.55-1.75 (1.69 ± 0.3) mm wide. The anal pore had a thin upper rim and was located

  12. Anthelmintic resistance.

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    Waller, P J

    1997-11-01

    simple commercial fact that by far the greatest anthelmintic sales are associated with the cattle industry. However, this market is specific and sectoral, with by far the greatest sales in North America and Western Europe, where the prevalence of resistance is likely to be low and remain so, more-or-less indefinitely. So the chances of the above scenario occurring must be considered low. Remarkable developments have recently occurred in non-chemotherapeutic parasite control options, for example worm vaccines, host selection and biological control. Also, there seems to be greater acceptance of various grazing management practices designed to reduce the frequency of anthelmintic treatment. However, they collectively cannot be expected to offer immediate salvation to farmers now faced with chemotherapeutic failure to control nematode parasites in their flocks. The future for these farmers must be considered bleak, because compounded with these problems are the poor commodity prices for sheep and goat meat and fibre, resulting in relentless reductions in funding for research to support these industries. Perhaps the major social issues associated with re-structuring and possibly abandonment of sheep and goat farming in affected areas may precipitate action? As veterinary parasitologists, who in general have an interest and expertise in parasite control, we must promote the importance of the problem of anthelmintic resistance and ways to tackle it.

  13. Further evaluation in field tests of the activity of three anthelmintics (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate) against the ascarid Parascaris equorum in horse foals on eight farms in Central Kentucky (2009-2010).

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    Lyons, Eugene T; Tolliver, Sharon C; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Collins, Sandra S

    2011-10-01

    The activity of three anthelmintics (fenbendazole-FBZ; oxibendazole-OBZ; and pyrantel pamoate-PRT) was ascertained against the ascarid Parascaris equorum in horse foals on eight farms in Central Kentucky (2009-2010) in field tests. A total of 316 foals were treated, and 168 (53.2%) were passing ascarid eggs on the day of treatment. Evaluation of drug efficacy was determined qualitatively by comparing the number of foals passing ascarid eggs in their feces before and after treatment. The main purpose was to obtain data on current activity of these compounds against ascarids. Additionally, the objective was to compare these findings with those from earlier data on the efficacy of these three compounds on nematodes in foals in this geographical area. Efficacies (average) for the foals ranged for FBZ (10 mg/kg) from 50% to 100% (80%), for OBZ (10 mg/kg) from 75% to 100% (97%), and for PRT at 1× (6.6 mg base/kg) from 0% to 71% (2%) and at 2× (13.2 mg base/kg) 0% to 0% (0%). Although the efficacy varied among the drugs, combined data for all farms indicated a significant reduction of ascarid infections for FBZ (p < 0.0001) and OBZ (p < 0.0001) but not for PRT (p = 0.0953).

  14. Evaluation of parasiticidal activity of fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate in horse foals with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum) in field studies on five farms in Central Kentucky in 2007.

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    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Ionita, M; Collins, S S

    2008-07-01

    Horse foals on five farms in Central Kentucky were used in field studies in 2007 evaluating activity of paste formulations of four compounds (fenbendazole-FBZ, ivermectin-IVM, oxibendazole-OBZ, and pyrantel pamoate-PRT) against internal parasites with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum). It has been well established the last few years that there is widespread resistance of P. equorum to ivermectin. The main purpose of the present research was to obtain current data on ascaridicidal activity of FBZ, OBZ, and PRT; also, to acquire further information on ascarid resistance to ivermectin. Additionally, data were documented on drug activity on small strongyles. Detection of ascarid and strongyle eggs in feces of foals was by a qualitative method (presence or absence) or a quantitative method (eggs per gram of feces). Strongyle eggs all were assumed to be from small strongyles. This is based on fecal cultures from horses on one farm and historic records from horses in this area on excellent deworming programs. A girth tape was used to estimate the body weight of each foal so that the appropriate dose rate of each drug could be given. Many of the foals were used in more than one cycle of treatments. Efficacy of the drugs, administered intraorally, was determined by calculating the average percentage reduction (% red.) of the number of foals passing eggs after vs. before treatment: (1) FBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on four farms; 76 foals were examined, 50 with ascarid eggs (84% red.) and 62 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (2) IVM at 200 microg/kg was tested on three farms; 58 foals were examined, 18 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 48 with strongyle eggs (100% red.); (3) OBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on three farms; 181 foals were examined, 78 with ascarid eggs (94% red.) and 79 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (4) PRT was tested on two farms, one farm at 1x (6.6 mg base/kg); 42 were foals examined, 16 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 33 with strongyle eggs (12% red.) and one

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of goats.

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    Barton, N J; Trainor, B L; Urie, J S; Atkins, J W; Pyman, M F; Wolstencroft, I R

    1985-07-01

    Cases of anthelmintic resistance on 3 goat farms in Gippsland were investigated. On the first farm Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta were found to be resistant to fenbendazole, but the first 2 species were fully susceptible to levamisole. On the second farm a population of T. colubriformis, resistant to concurrent full doses of levamisole and a benzimidazole, was found to retain this resistance when transferred to sheep. On the third farm, heavy mortality due to Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp burdens was arrested only by the use of concurrent full doses of levamisole and oxfendazole; no single anthelmintic was found to be effective. A disturbing rise in the incidence of clinical helminthiosis, often accompanied by anthelmintic resistance, occurred on goat farms in Gippsland early in 1984.

  16. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

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    Hatem A Shalaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The develop­ment of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of graz­ing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointes­tinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been ob­served that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode popula­tions is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the suscepti­ble genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists to­wards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new

  17. Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

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    Lassen, B; Peltola, S-M

    2015-11-01

    There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged ivermectin. Up to 78% of horses required anthelmintic treatment and the efficiency of the anthelmintics was evaluated using a faecal egg count reduction test. Resistance of P. equorum was observed in 50% of horses treated with ivermectin and of strongyles in 27% of horses treated with pyrantel. Ivermectin treatment resulted in a mean reduction of 100% for strongyle eggs and an 89% reduction in P. equorum, and pyrantel-treated horses exhibited an 88% reduction in strongyle eggs. These results are considered to be the first indication of resistance to pyrantel, but further studies of ivermectin resistance are required. According to questionnaires completed by the owners of horses, resistance might be explained by a lack of evidence-based strategies, a strong preference for using ivermectin and possibly a subjective evaluation of the body weight of horses.

  18. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a goat herd.

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    Zajac, A M; Gipson, T A

    2000-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance was monitored over a 30 month period within a goat herd in eastern Virginia, USA. Resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and benzimidazole drugs was detected in Haemonchus contortus using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). When levamisole use was discontinued for 1 year, susceptibility to levamisole appeared to return. Although a single treatment with fenbendazole was able to reduce fecal egg counts by only 50%, two doses administered in a 12 h interval increased efficacy to 92%, however, confidence intervals indicated that resistance was still present. When fecal egg counts were determined the following year after several treatment using this protocol, the efficacy of fenbendazole had fallen again to 57% reduction in fecal egg counts. The predominant genus present in cultured composite fecal samples was Haemonchus. Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Teladorsagia were also present in smaller numbers.

  19. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu......The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met...

  20. Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after

  1. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in the US.

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    Gasbarre, Louis C

    2014-07-30

    The first documented case of macrocyclic lactone resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of cattle was seen in the US approximately 10 years ago. Since that time the increase incidence of anthelmintic resistance has continued at an alarming rate. Currently parasites of the genera Cooperia and/or Haemonchus resistant to generic or brand-name macrocyclic lactones have be demonstrated in more than half of all operations examined. Both of these parasite genera are capable of causing economic losses by decreasing food intake and subsequently animal productivity. Currently, there are no easy and quick means to detect anthelmintic resistant GI nematodes. Definitive identification requires killing of cattle. The most commonly used field detection method is the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This method can be adapted for use as a screening agent for Veterinarians and producers to identify less than desired clearance of the parasites after anthelmintic treatment. Further studies can then define the reasons for persistence of the egg counts. The appearance of anthelmintic resistance is largely due to the development of very effective nematode control programs that have significantly improved the productivity of the US cattle industry, but at the same time has placed a high level of selective pressure on the parasite genome. The challenges ahead include the development of programs that control the anthelmintic resistant nematodes but at the same time result in more sustainable parasite control. The goal is to maintain high levels of productivity but to exert less selective pressures on the parasites. One of the most effective means to slow the development of drug resistance is through the simultaneous use of multiple classes of anthelmintics, each of which has a different mode of action. Reduction of the selective pressure on the parasites can be attained through a more targeted approach to drug treatments where the producer's needs are met by selective

  2. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds☆

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    Holm Signe A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137 with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6% and other Nematodirus species (15.0%. Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92% tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg. AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  3. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  4. Anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in Irish commercial sheep flocks- the state of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Good Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthelmintic resistance has been reported in most sheep producing countries. Prior to the mid 1990s, reports of anthelmintic resistance in Ireland were sparse and focused on benzimidazole, one of the three classes of anthelmintic available during this period. This evidence for efficacy issues on Irish farms combined with awareness that anthelmintic resistance was increasingly being reported in other countries prompted the need for more comprehensive investigations on Irish farms. Faecal egg count reduction and micro-agar larval development tests were employed to investigate resistance to benzimidazole, levamisole and macrocyclic lactone. There is compelling evidence for resistance to both benzimidazole (>88% of flocks and levamisole (>39% of flocks. Resistance of nematode populations to macrocyclic lactone was suspected on a small number of farms (11% but needs to be confirmed. The recent introduction of two new classes of anthelmintics, after over a 25 year interval, together with the evidence that anthelmintic resistance is reported within a relatively short time following the introduction of a new anthelmintic compound means that the challenge to the industry is immediate. Actions are urgently required to manage anthelmintic resistance so as to prolong the lifespan of anthelmintics.

  5. Anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is recognized as a severe problem for small ruminant production worldwide. In the United States, a high prevalence of drug resistance to multiple drug classes was reported in GIN of goats in Georgia, but no studies have examined the prevale...

  6. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge in the control of parasites in livestock. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. Several factors...... to handle FECRT data obtained from other livestock species, drug types, and parasite species....

  7. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maroto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%, Strongyloides sp. (57%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (43% presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%, Haemonchus spp. (29%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (29% were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein.

  8. Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Hawassa (southern Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Abebe, Girma

    2009-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the presence of anthelmintic resistance on Hawassa University goat farm in southern Ethiopia. The 180 goats were stratified by age and sex and randomly assigned to treatment groups (albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin and untreated control). Each treatment group included 15 goats and treatments were administered according to weight of each goat with 7.5 mg/kg bw albendazole, 22.5 mg/kg bw tetramisole and 0.2 mg/kg bw ivermectin dose rates recommended by scientists. Faecal samples were collected on day 0 before treatment, and again on day 12 post treatment. Efficacy of all the drugs was assessed on day 12 post treatment by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus spp. against albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin was recorded in all age categories of the goats. Likewise, Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia spp. showed resistance against ivermectin. Coprocultures from all pre- and post-treatments revealed the predominance of Haemonchus spp. Resistance against anthelmintics is attributed to the high frequency of treatment and low dosage of treatment practices on the farm. Large scale studies, however, are needed to assess the current status of anthelmintic resistance against the most commonly used anthelmintics in different agroecology, species of animals and management systems in Ethiopia.

  9. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, R.; Jiménez, A. E.; Romero, J. J.; Alvarez, V.; De Oliveira, J. B.; Hernández, J.

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%), Strongyloides sp. (57%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (43%) presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%), Haemonchus spp. (29%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (29%) were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein. PMID:21772962

  10. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge in the control of parasites in livestock. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. Several factors...... = 200 eggs per gram (EPG) and were treated. Post treatment samples and information on age, gender and farm zip code were collected for each horse. In addition, individual coprocultureswere performed on all pretreatment fecal samples to determine the presence of Strongylus vulgaris, with 31farms (48...... to handle FECRT data obtained from other livestock species, drug types, and parasite species....

  11. A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernanská, D; Várady, M; Corba, J

    2006-01-15

    The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on 27 sheep farms in Slovakia was investigated in 2003 and 2004 using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) according to the WAAVP guidelines. Resistance to albendazole was detected on one farm (3.7%) and suspected on two farms (7.4%) out of 27 sheep flocks. Resistance to ivermectin was tested on 26 farms. On six (23.1%) farms, results indicated the presence of ivermectin resistance. Resistance to ivermectin was suspected on eight farms (30.8%). However, it is also possible that generic ivermectin anthelmintics used in survey have a lower efficacy against sheep nematodes.

  12. Comparison of two versions of larval development test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, Marián; Corba, Július; Letková, Valéria; Kovác, Gabriel

    2009-03-23

    Larval development (LDT) and micro-agar larval development tests (MALDT) were used to compare the reliability and sensitivity of two methods for detecting anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus. The tests were conducted using three resistant and four susceptible isolates of H. contortus. Both versions of the tests provided comparable results with regard to the characterization of benzimidazole and levamisole susceptibility but neither test was sufficiently sensitive to discrimination between an ivermectin (IVM) susceptible and an IVM resistant isolate. Each test has its own merits with the LDT having the advantage of being less time-consuming.

  13. Anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Bakunzi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area in SouthAfrica. In herds belonging to 10 smallholder goat farmers, the efficacies of fenbendazole, levamisole and rafoxanide were tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR tests. Efficacies of 80 % were considered a threshold for anthelmintic resistance. The FECR tests showed that all drugs tested more than 80 % effective in most instances, but there were notable exceptions. In 1 case, rafoxanide was only 31 % effective and in another case fenbendazole was only 47 % effective. The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in this farming sector is of concern. Steps should be taken to prevent its further spread and to avoid the development of a situation as onnumerous commercial sheep farms in South Africa where resistance is very common.

  14. Survey of anthelmintic resistance on Danish horse farms, using 5 different methods of calculating faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection of resis......This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection...... resistance to benzimidazoles was also detected. On one of 16 farms examined ivermectin resistance was indicated at Day 14 but not at Day 19. On the 15 remaining farms ivermectin was effective. Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in Danish horse herds it is recommended that tests...

  15. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-07

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  16. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.;

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62...

  17. A survey of anthelmintic resistance on ten sheep farms in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to detect anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep was conducted on 10 randomly-distributed farms in the Chivhu District, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Before the survey, a questionnaire was circulated to the farmers concerning nematode parasite control. Results showed that parasite control using anthelmintic treatment was the only method practised and that the benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs. The faecal egg count reduction test was used to detect resistance. The anthelmintic groups tested were benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin. Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 6 of 10 farms and levamisole resistance on 2 of 3 farms. Ivermectin resistance was not observed on the farms surveyed. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated that Haemonchus contortus survived administration of fenbendazole, albendazole, oxfendazole and levamisole. A Cooperia sp. strain resistant to albendazole was detected and this is the first report in Zimbabwe of a resistant parasite in this genus.

  18. Development of Anthelmintic Resistance Detection Methods of Gastrointestinal Nematodes on Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Haryuningtyas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensive usage of anthelmintic in most of farms led to resistances of livestock gastrointestinal nematodes against anthelmintic. Many reports of resistance that increased every year happen following the continuing helminth control programmes. The succesful implementation of helminth control programmes that designed to minimize the development of resistance in nematode populations depends on the availability of effective and sensitive method for its detection and monitoring. A variety of in vivo and in vitro tests have been developed for detecting nematode population resistance to the main anthelmintic groups. This paper will discuss the development of detection method of anthelmintic resistance based on conventional and molecular approach according to their strengths and weakness.

  19. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus on a sheep farm in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, C L; Kumar, R; Uppal, R P; Verma, S P

    1995-12-01

    Multiple resistance to benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, albendazole and mebendazole) in a strain of Haemonchus contortus in sheep was detected on a farm where fenbendazole resistance had already been identified. Following a faecal egg count reduction test, this was confirmed by both critical and controlled anthelmintic tests. Different groups of sheep infected naturally or given an experimental infection with the fenbendazole-resistant strain were treated with the recommended doses of various anthelmintics. Compared to the control group, percentage reductions in faecal egg counts of sheep treated with fenbendazole, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and morantel varied between 56% and 81% and worm counts between 71% and 86%. The results indicate the presence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in this strain of H. contortus on this farm. Sheep treated with ivermectin and closantel showed 100% reductions in faecal egg and worm counts, suggesting high efficacy of these drugs against the population of H. contortus on this farm.

  20. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J; Denwood, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms.

  1. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and evaluation of FAMACHA diagnostic marker in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabukenya, Immaculate; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Olila, Deogracious; Muhangi, Denis; Höglund, Johan

    2014-10-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a challenge to goat production globally causing reduced growth, morbidity and mortality. We report here results of the first nation-wide anthelmintic resistance (AR) study and validation of assessment of clinical anaemia with FAMACHA eye scores in goats in Uganda. From August to December 2012 the efficacy of albendazole (7.5mg/kg), levamisole (10.5mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.3mg/kg) against strongyle nematodes was tested on 33 goat farms in Soroti, Gulu, Mpigi, Mbarara and Ssembabule districts of Uganda. Altogether 497 goats were subjected to a total of 45 different faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT), each involving 5-20 goats. On one farm all substances were tested. Faecal and blood samples were collected and FAMACHA eye scores evaluated on the day of treatment and 15 days later. A questionnaire survey was conducted on frequency, type and dose of anthelmintics used, farm size and grazing management system. Examination of infective third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures demonstrated Haemonchus to be the predominant genus (>75%). Resistance to at least one anthelmintic group was detected on 61% of the 33 farms and in 49% of the 45 test groups. Prevalence of resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole was respectively 58%, 52% and 38%. Correlation between pre-treatment packed cell volume determinations and FAMACHA scores (r(498) = -0.89) was significant. Paddock grazing system (Odds ratio 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-17.3) and large farm size of >40 goats (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16.1) were significant predictors of AR. In all districts, resistance to all three anthelmintics was higher on large-scale goat farms practising mostly paddock grazing. Interestingly, resistance to albendazole, the most commonly used anthelmintic in Uganda, was lower than that to ivermectin and levamisole. We recommend adaptation of FAMACHA to goats to help restrict anthelmintic treatment to heavily infected individuals. This will limit

  2. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  3. First report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of sheep in Colombia

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    Carlos M.B. Gárcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report the presence of parasites resistant to the most used anthelmintic drugs in sheep in Colombia. Four farms (denominated farm 1, 2, 3 and 4 were selected where the animals were not treated with anthelmintics for two months before the trial. Animals with faecal egg count (FEC above 150 and of different ages were allocated into six groups, each consisting of at least 5 animals. The drugs and dosages used were: ivermectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg, albendazole 25% (5 mg/kg, fenbendazole 10% (5 mg/kg, levamisole 10% (5 mg/kg, and moxidectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by the FEC reduction test (FECRT with a second sampling 14 days post-treatment. The efficacy of albendazole and fenbendazole at farm 1 was above 95%, which was different from the others farms. The FECRT indicated the presence of multidrug resistance in the other farms where no tested drugs showed activity higher than 79% (albendazole: 0 to 55%, fenbendazole: 51.4 to 76.6%, ivermectin: 67.3 to 93.1%, levamisole: 0 to 78.1%, and moxidectin: 49.2 to 64.1%.Haemonchus contortus was the predominant (96% species, followed by a small presence of Trichostrongylus sp. (3% andCooperia sp. (1%. Therefore, we report for the first time the existence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Colombia.

  4. Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Atle V Meling; Chartier, Christophe; Gjerde, Bjørn; Höglund, Johan; Leine, Nils; Vatn, Synnøve; Stuen, Snorre

    2012-07-01

    In the period of 2008–2009, the efficacies of the benzimidazole (BZ) albendazole and the macrocyclic lactone (ML) ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants were evaluated by means of the fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test and by post-treatment identification of surviving third stage (L3) larvae after coproculture. Sheep (n=28) and goat (n=28) flocks from three areas of Norway were randomly selected to assess the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR), whereas only lambs from non-randomly selected sheep flocks (n=32) with a farm management that could select for AR were investigated the second year. Only flocks with a mean excretion of nematode eggs per gram feces (EPG) ≥ 150 at time of treatment were included in the survey. In total, 48 (80%) and 13 (46.4%) of the selected sheep and goat flocks, respectively, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The proportions of flocks classified as resistant (i.e., FECR nematode genera were Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus in five flocks, Haemonchus in two flocks, and a mixture of these genera in the remaining two flocks. In the goat flocks, the pre-treatment infection levels of GIN were low compared to what was found in the sheep flocks. Still, in one flock, AR against BZ in Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus was found. New strategies and recommendations to face the emerging AR situation in Rogaland County in order to limit the spread of resistant nematodes within and into other areas are urgently needed.

  5. Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance development in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina

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    Víctor Humberto Suarez

    Full Text Available Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3 and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3, whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5 and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9. The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

  6. Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance development in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Víctor Humberto; Cristel, Silvina Lujan

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR) on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR) and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole) in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3) and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3), whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5) and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9). The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

  7. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu Seyoum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group. Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  8. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes from grazing beef cattle in Campeche State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Lagunes, Abel; González-Garduño, Roberto; López-Arellano, Maria Eugenia; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, Guadalupe; Ramírez-Vargas, Gabriel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro

    2015-08-01

    Production of beef cattle is one of the most important economic activities in Mexico. However, anthelmintic resistance (AR) has affected animal productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of AR in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of beef cattle in Candelaria Municipality of Campeche State, Mexico. Sixty-five-month-old beef calves were selected for the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the inhibition of egg hatch (IEH) assay. These parameters were determined using albendazole (benzimidazole, BZ), ivermectin (IVM, Macrocyclic lactone, ML) and levamisole (LEV, imidazothiazole, IMZ). Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) confirmed polymorphisms at codon 200 of isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene of Haemonchus placei. The results showed 32 % IVM toxicity by FECRT, indicating problems of AR in the GIN population. In contrast, BZ and LEV showed 95 and 100 % toxicity, respectively, against GIN from infected beef calves. The infective larvae (L3) of Cooperia, Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum were identified before anthelmintic treatment, and Cooperia L3 larvae were identified after treatment with IVM. The IEH assays had lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 187 nM to BZ, confirming the ovicidal effect of BZ. In contrast, the LD50 for LEV and IVM were 3.3 and 0.4 mM, respectively. The results obtained by AS-PCR confirmed two DNA fragments of 250 and 550 bp, corresponding to the resistant and susceptible alleles in the H. placei population. The nematode Cooperia showed AR against IVM, while the toxicity effect of BZ against GIN with both FECRT and IEH was confirmed.

  9. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  10. Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vatta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. Of the responsible nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. Over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. In Africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has not been extensively investigated, particularly within the resource-poor farming sector, but resistance has been reported from at least 14 countries with most of the reports emanating from Kenya and South Africa and the majority concerning H. contortus. While levels of resistance under commercial sheep farming systems in South Africa is considered to be amongst the worst in the world, resistance has also been reported from the resource-poor farming sector. Increases in productivity and reproduction of livestock and the development of markets for sale of animals are seen by international funding bodies as a way out of poverty for communities that keep livestock. This must lead to the greater need for parasite control. At such times, the risk of levels of anthelmintic resistance escalating is much greater and there is therefore a need to look at alternatives to their use. Proposed strategies include the appropriate, but judicious use of anthelmintics by application of the FAMACHA(c system and the use of alternatives to anthelmintics such as strategic nutrient supplementation. It is also very clear that there is a strong demand for knowledge about animal diseases, including helminthosis, and their effective management in the resource-poor livestock farming communities. This is an important challenge to meet.

  11. Managing anthelmintic resistance--parasite fitness, drug use strategy and the potential for reversion towards susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, Dave M

    2013-11-15

    The rotation of different anthelmintic classes, on an approximately annual basis, has been widely promoted and adopted as a strategy to delay the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites. Part of the rationale for recommending this practice was the expectation that resistant genotype worms have a lower ecological fitness than susceptible worms, at least in the early stages of selection, and so reversion towards susceptibility could be expected in those years when an alternative class of anthelmintic was used. The routine use of combination anthelmintics might be expected to negate this opportunity for reversion because multiple classes of anthelmintic would be used simultaneously. A simulation model was used to investigate whether the optimal strategy for use of multiple drug classes (i.e. an annual rotation of two classes of anthelmintic or continuous use of two classes in combination) changed with the size of the fitness cost associated with resistance. Model simulations were run in which the fitness cost associated with each resistance gene was varied from 0% to 15% and the rate at which resistance developed was compared for each of the drug-use strategies. Other factors evaluated were the initial frequency of the resistance genes and the proportion of the population not exposed to treatment (i.e. in refugia). Increasing the proportion of the population in refugia always slowed the development of resistance, as did using combinations in preference to an annual rotation. As the fitness cost associated with resistance increased, resistance developed more slowly and this was more pronounced when a combination was used compared to a rotation. If the fitness cost was sufficiently high then resistance did not develop (i.e. the resistance gene frequency declined over time) and this occurred at lower fitness costs when a combination was used. The results, therefore, indicate that the optimal drug-use strategy to maximise the benefit of any fitness

  12. Use of two in vitro methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistant nematode parasites on Slovak sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, Marián; Cernanská, Dana; Corba, Július

    2006-02-18

    A survey of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistant nematode populations was conducted on 32 sheep farms in the Slovak Republic. In vitro egg hatch test and larval development tests were used for the detection of resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics and they were compared with in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests. There was agreement in the declaration of resistance between the faecal egg count reduction test and both in vitro tests. The presence of resistant populations was determined on two farms using egg hatch test. In both farms, the LD(50) values were higher than 0.1 microg TBZ/ml, indicating resistance. By using LD(99) values it might be possible to reveal relatively small proportion of resistant larvae in the population. The prevalence of benzimidazole resistance has not change on Slovak sheep farms during last decade.

  13. Managing anthelmintic resistance: is it feasible in New Zealand to delay the emergence of resistance to a new anthelmintic class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Hosking, B C; Bisset, S A; McKay, C H

    2009-08-01

    The recent registration in New Zealand of the first new class of broad-spectrum anthelmintic, for use against nematode parasites of ruminants, in nearly three decades has raised the possibility that parasite management practices could be improved to minimise the emergence of resistance to the new drug. A review of knowledge pertaining to the selection of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep highlights a number of management practices which could be altered to achieve this. A number of previously common practices such as whole-flock treatment of adult ewes around lambing, and treatment of lambs as they are moved onto pastures with low parasite contamination have been clearly identified as high risk for selecting resistant parasites. Once high-risk practices have been identified steps can be taken to either eliminate their use or mitigate the associated risk. Much of the focus on the management of resistance around the world is on the retention of susceptible genotypes in refugia. While approaches to retaining unselected parasites are likely to vary around the world, empirical studies indicate that the practice is likely to be effective at slowing the development of resistance. The challenge for farmers and advisors will be to strike a balance between retaining sufficient susceptible parasites to usefully delay the development of resistance while not unduly compromising animal performance and farm profitability. The merits of combining different classes of anthelmintic in order to slow the development of resistance remains somewhat contentious in some countries. However, the attributes of oral anthelmintics are such that they seem likely to meet most, if not all, of the criteria for combinations to be highly effective at slowing the build-up of resistance in nematode parasites. It is evident that considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors involved in selecting anthelmintic-resistant nematodes since the last broad

  14. Influence of sustained deworming pressure on the anthelmintic resistance status in strongyles of sheep under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarathi, M K; Sreekumar, C; Venkataramanan, R; Raman, M

    2016-10-01

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) status in Madras Red sheep from selected field flocks of a government funded scheme, covered by regular, sustained anthelmintic treatment for more than 10 years was determined. Parameters such as fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), larval paralysis assay (LPA), and allele-specific-PCR (AS-PCR) were used to test the efficacy of fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin at recommended doses, in two seasons. Sheep belonging to non-beneficiary farmers were used as controls. Mean FECRT values of beneficiary group during winter and summer seasons were 77.77 and 76.04, 93.65 and 92.12, and 95.37 and 98.06 %, respectively, for fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin. In the non-beneficiary groups, the corresponding values were 74.82 and 81.09 %, 96.05 and 97.40 %, and 97.26 and 98.23 %, respectively. The results revealed resistance to fenbendazole, suspect resistance to tetramisole and susceptibility to ivermectin in beneficiary flock. In non-beneficiary flock, while resistance was noticed against fenbendazole, both tetramisole and ivermectin were effective. FECR values were found to be significantly different between beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups against tetramisole. The results of LPA confirmed this finding, as 50 % of the Haemonchus contortus larvae were paralyzed at the concentration of 0.0156 μg/ml in the beneficiary group, while those of non-beneficiary groups required lower concentrations of 0.0078 μg/ml. AS-PCR revealed the predominance of heterozygous susceptible population of H. contortus in the beneficiary group. In this study, resistance to fenbendazole was confirmed in both the beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups and this could be attributed to frequent use of benzimidazoles as seen from the deworming records. Emergence of tetramisole resistance was detected in the beneficiary group, where the drug was used continuously for 4 years. Ivermectin was found to be effective in all the flocks. It is

  15. Comparison of calculation methods used for the determination of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in a temperate continental climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, L C; van Leeuwen, J; Menzies, P I; Jones-Bitton, A; Sears, W; Jansen, J T; Peregrine, A S

    2015-04-01

    This study compared results obtained with five different fecal egg count reduction (FECR) calculation methods for defining resistance to ivermectin, fenbendazole, and levamisole in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in a temperate continental climate: FECR1 and FECR2 used pre-and posttreatment fecal egg count (FEC) means from both treated and control animals, but FECR1 used arithmetic means, whereas FECR2 used geometric means; FECR3 used arithmetic means for pre- and posttreatment FECs from treated animals only; FECR4 was calculated using only arithmetic means for posttreatment FECs from treated and control animals; and FECR5 was calculated using mean FEC estimates from a general linear mixed model. The classification of farm anthelmintic resistance (AR) status varied, depending on which FECR calculation method was used and whether a bias correction term (BCT, i.e., half the minimum detection limit) was added to the zeroes or not. Overall, agreement between all methods was higher when a BCT was used, particularly when levels of resistance were low. FECR4 showed the highest agreement with all the other FECR methods. We therefore recommend that small ruminant clinicians use the FECR4 formula with a BCT for AR determination, as this would reduce the cost of the FECRT, while still minimizing bias and allowing for comparisons between different farms. For researchers, we recommend the use of FECR1 or FECR2, as the inclusion of both pre- and posttreatment FECs and use of randomly allocated animals in treatment and control groups makes these methods mathematically more likely to estimate the true anthelmintic efficacy.

  16. Dynamics of Parascaris and Strongylus spp. parasites in untreated juvenile horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, J V; Lyons, E T; Nielsen, M K

    2016-10-30

    Parasite control in foals is of utmost importance due to the high susceptibility to parasitic infection and disease in this age group. Foals are commonly co-infected with strongyle and ascarid parasites, which complicate parasite control strategies. The present study retrospectively investigated necropsy records of foals born into a university herd kept without anthelmintic treatment since 1979. The aims were to statistically analyze the relationship between fecal egg counts, worm burdens, foal age, sex, and season with specific focus on Parascaris and Strongylus spp. A total of 83 foals born between 1999 and 2015 were included. Foals were born between January and September within the given year and age at necropsy ranged between 27 and 563 days of age with a mean and median of 202 and 204 days, respectively. One set of multivariate mixed linear models was constructed analyzing strongyle and ascarid fecal egg counts as outcome variables, and another set of analyses investigated the following worm counts as outcome variables: Intestinal Parascaris spp. counts (immatures and adults), S. vulgaris (migrating and intestinal stages), S. edentatus (migrating and intestinal stages). Both ascarid and strongyle egg counts were influenced significantly by differences between study years (pintestinal counts of immature Parascaris spp. (p=0.034) and adult S. edentatus counts (p=0.028). Larval counts of S. edentatus were significantly associated with birth month (p=0.023), whereas counts of migrating S. vulgaris larvae were not statistically associated with any of the investigated covariates. This study provides novel information on the dynamics of important parasites in naturally infected foals.

  17. Genome Sequence Analysis of Staphylococcus equorum Bovine Mastitis Isolate UMC-CNS-924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

    2013-10-17

    Intramammary infections in dairy cattle are frequently caused by staphylococci, resulting in mastitis and associated economic losses. A draft genome sequence was determined for Staphylococcus equorum UMC-CNS-924, isolated from the milk of a Holstein cow, to better understand the genetic basis of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the bovine mammary gland.

  18. F200Y polymorphism of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in Haemonchus contortus and sheep flock management practices related to anthelmintic resistance in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Alexandre Moura; Sampaio Junior, Francisco Dantas; Pacheco, Adlilton; da Cunha, Amanda Batista; Cruz, Juliana Dos Santos; Scofield, Alessandra; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the F200Y polymorphism in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene of Haemonchus contortus from various sheep flocks in eastern Amazon, and to identify management practices that may favor the emergence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs in the same area. In total, 305 specimens of H. contortus were collected from sheep at 12 farms located in the state of Pará. An allele-specific PCR was performed to detect the F200Y polymorphism, and questionnaires were used to obtain information about the farms and flocks. All genotypes were detected as follows: 31% of the parasites were RR, 37% of the parasites were SR, and 32% were SS. The completed questionnaires revealed that all farms employed semi-intensive farming systems, performed suppressive anthelmintic treatment, and based their choice of drug on cost and availability rather than on any knowledge regarding drugs that remained effective on their property. It can thus be concluded that the SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene is present in the H. contortus populations from eastern Amazon, and that a series of management practices that favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance are employed on these farms.

  19. Managing anthelmintic resistance--use of a combination anthelmintic and leaving some lambs untreated to slow the development of resistance to ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Waghorn, T S; Miller, C M; Candy, P M; Oliver, A-M B

    2012-06-08

    experiment simulating the conditions of the field study and the starting efficacies for the two nematode species produced equivalent outputs to those measured in the field. Overall, results support the conclusions that use of combination anthelmintics and deliberately increasing 'refugia' of unselected genotypes will slow the development of anthelmintic resistance. However, as indicated in modelling studies, once resistance to all the constituent actives is well developed (efficacy<70%) the value of combinations for slowing the development of resistance is largely lost.

  20. Unique Characteristics of Recombinant Hybrid Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Staphylococcus equorum and S. saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnoningrum, Debbie S; Rahayu, Anis Puji; Mulyanti, Dina; Dita, Astrid; Valerius, Oliver; Ismaya, Wangsa T

    2016-04-01

    A recombinant hybrid of manganese dependent-superoxide dismutase of Staphylococcus equorum and S. saprophyticus has successfully been overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified, and characterized. The recombinant enzyme suffered from degradation and aggregation upon storage at -20 °C, but not at room temperature nor in cold. Chromatographic analysis in a size exclusion column suggested the occurrence of dimeric form, which has been reported to contribute in maintaining the stability of the enzyme. Effect of monovalent (Na(+), K(+)), divalent (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), multivalent (Mn(2+/4+), Zn(2+/4+)) cations and anions (Cl(-), SO4 (2-)) to the enzyme stability or dimeric state depended on type of cation or anion, its concentration, and pH. However, tremendous effect was observed with 50 mM ZnSO4, in which thermostability of both the dimer and monomer was increased. Similar situation was not observed with MnSO4, and its presence was detrimental at 200 mM. Finally, chelating agent appeared to destabilize the dimer around neutral pH and dissociate it at basic pH. The monomer remained stable upon addition of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Here we reported unique characteristics and stability of manganese dependent-superoxide dismutase from S. equorum/saprophyticus.

  1. The Macrocyclic Peptide Antibiotic Micrococcin P1 Is Secreted by the Food-Borne Bacterium Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 and Inhibits Listeria monocytogenes on Soft Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Carnio, Markus C.; Höltzel, Alexandra; Rudolf, Melanie; Henle, Thomas; Jung, Günther; Scherer, Siegfried

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 was found to produce a substance exhibiting a bacteriostatic effect on a variety of gram-positive bacteria. The metabolite was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and semipreparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the high purity of the compound and revealed a molecular mass of 1,143 Da. By two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the substance was identified as...

  2. Structure-activity relationship of a recombinant hybrid Manganese superoxide dismutase of Staphylococcus saprophyticus/S. equorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnoningrum, Debbie S; Arumsari, Sekar; Artarini, Anita; Ismaya, Wangsa T

    2017-05-01

    Recombinant hybrid Manganese superoxide dismutase from Staphyloccus saphropyticus/S. equorum (rMnSODSeq) exhibits stability at high temperatures. The enzyme occurs as a dimer that dissociates around 52°C prior to unfolding of the monomer around 64°C, demonstrating contribution of the dimeric form to stability. Here, structure - activity relationship of rMnSODSeq was evaluated on the basis of its activity and stability in the presence of inhibitors, NaCl, denaturants, detergents, reducing agents, and at different pH values. The activity was evaluated at both 37°C and 52°C, which the latter is the temperature for dissociation of the dimer. Dimer to monomer transition coincided with significant decrease in residual activity at 52°C. However, the activity assay results at 52°C and 37°C suggest spontaneous re-association of the monomer into dimer. Intriguingly, various new species with melting temperature (TM) values other than those of the dimer or monomer were observed. These species displayed medium to comparable level of residual activities to the native at 37°C. This report suggests that dimer to monomer transition may be not the only explanation for activity loss or decrease.

  3. The macrocyclic peptide antibiotic micrococcin P(1) is secreted by the food-borne bacterium Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 and inhibits Listeria monocytogenes on soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnio, M C; Höltzel, A; Rudolf, M; Henle, T; Jung, G; Scherer, S

    2000-06-01

    Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 was found to produce a substance exhibiting a bacteriostatic effect on a variety of gram-positive bacteria. The metabolite was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and semipreparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the high purity of the compound and revealed a molecular mass of 1,143 Da. By two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the substance was identified as micrococcin P(1) which is a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic that has not yet been reported for the genus Staphylococcus. A total of 95 out of 95 Listeria strains and 130 out of 135 other gram-positive bacteria were inhibited by this substance, while none of 37 gram-negative bacteria were affected. The antilisterial potential of this food-grade strain as a protective starter culture was evaluated by its in situ application in cheese-ripening experiments under laboratory conditions. A remarkable growth reduction of Listeria monocytogenes could be achieved compared to control cheese ripened with a nonbacteriocinogenic type strain of Staphylococcus equorum. In order to prove that inhibition was due to micrococcin P(1), a micrococcin-deficient mutant was constructed which did not inhibit L. monocytogenes in cheese-ripening experiments.

  4. The Macrocyclic Peptide Antibiotic Micrococcin P1 Is Secreted by the Food-Borne Bacterium Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 and Inhibits Listeria monocytogenes on Soft Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnio, Markus C.; Höltzel, Alexandra; Rudolf, Melanie; Henle, Thomas; Jung, Günther; Scherer, Siegfried

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 was found to produce a substance exhibiting a bacteriostatic effect on a variety of gram-positive bacteria. The metabolite was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and semipreparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the high purity of the compound and revealed a molecular mass of 1,143 Da. By two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the substance was identified as micrococcin P1 which is a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic that has not yet been reported for the genus Staphylococcus. A total of 95 out of 95 Listeria strains and 130 out of 135 other gram-positive bacteria were inhibited by this substance, while none of 37 gram-negative bacteria were affected. The antilisterial potential of this food-grade strain as a protective starter culture was evaluated by its in situ application in cheese-ripening experiments under laboratory conditions. A remarkable growth reduction of Listeria monocytogenes could be achieved compared to control cheese ripened with a nonbacteriocinogenic type strain of Staphylococcus equorum. In order to prove that inhibition was due to micrococcin P1, a micrococcin-deficient mutant was constructed which did not inhibit L. monocytogenes in cheese-ripening experiments. PMID:10831414

  5. RESISTÊNCIA ANTI-HELMÍNTICA EM REBANHOS OVINOS DA REGIÃO DA ASSOCIAÇÃO DOS MUNICÍPIOS DO ALTO IRANI (AMAI, OESTE DE SANTA CATARINA ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE ON SHEEP FLOCKS FROM ASSOCIATION OF THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE ALTO IRANI REGION (AMAI, WEST OF SANTA CATARINA STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kelly Zanchet

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para conhecer a situação da resistência anti-hel-míntica em ovinos de propriedades localizadas nos mu-nicípios da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI, oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foram avalia-dos nove rebanhos pelo teste de redução da OPG (ovos por grama de fezes. Este teste consiste na comparação da média da OPG de um grupo de animais quatorze dias após o tratamento com a média de um grupo controle não-medicado. Consideraram-se efetivas as drogas capazes de reduzir a OPG em 95%. Os princípios ativos utilizados foram: levamisol (7,5 mg/kg, closantel (7,5 mg/Kg, al-bendazol (10 e 5 mg/Kg, ivermectin e moxidectin (0,2 mg/Kg. Detectou-se resistência dos nematódeos gastrin-testinais a todos os grupos anti-helmínticos testados, sen-do que 100% das propriedades apresentam resistência ao ivermectin; 66,7% ao moxidectin, 44,4% ao levamisol e 75% aos benzimidazóis. Para as lactonas macrocíclicas e benzimidazóis, tanto o gênero Haemonchus sp. quanto Trichostrongylus sp. apresentaram resistência. Para o le-vamisol, a resistência está restrita a Trichostrongylus sp. Também foi detectada a presença de uma população de Haemonchus sp. resistente ao closantel e uma de Nema-todirus sp. resistente ao albendazol. Estes dados mostram a urgência de difundir medidas de controle integrado de parasitoses, visando prolongar a vida  útil dos princípios ativos ainda disponíveis para uso.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Ovinos, resistência anti-helmíntica, Santa Catarina.

    In order to know the situation of the anthelmintic resistance in sheep farms in the municipalities of Asso-ciation of the municipalities of the High Irani Region - AMAI, West of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, nine flocks were submitted to the faecal egg counts reduction test (FECRT. This test consists in comparing the mean FEC of a group of sheep, 14 days after treatment with the mean FEC of a non-treated control group. Only drugs that could

  6. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.;

    2014-01-01

    stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11...

  7. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.;

    2014-01-01

    the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion...

  8. ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE TO BENZIMIDAZOLE IN GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS OF SEMI-ARID BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST RESISTÊNCIA AOS ANTI-HELMÍNTICOS BENZIMIDAZÓIS EM NEMATÓIDES GASTRINTESTINAIS DE PEQUENOS RUMINANTES DO SEMIÁRIDO NORDESTINO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso Melo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics is reported as an old and persistent problem in many parts of the world. Resistance development depends on the presence of resistance promoters and there are operational, genetic and bioecological factors. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of benzimidazole resistance and to study some variables associated with resistance development in small ruminant farms in the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid area. The work was accomplished in 25 sheep and goat farms in Limoeiro do Norte, Palhano, Jaguaruana, Itaiçaba, Aracati, Alto Santo, Morada Nova and Jaguaribe municipalities, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The procedure used to detect anthelmintic resistant nematodes was the fecal egg count reduction test. In addition, a questionnaire about management practices, infrastructure, anthelmintic usage, flocks sanitary state and veterinary assistance was applied. Data were analyzed using RESO statistical program. The questionnaires were analyzed using Spearman correlation and the simple GLM. In sheep farms, the prevalence of benzimidazole resistance was 88% and in goat farms, it was 87.5%. In sheep and goats farms, Haemonchus spp was the most prevalent genus, followed by Trichostrongylus spp and Oesophagostomum spp. Among variables studied, treatment in the dry season was statistically significant (P = 0.03, pasture rotation was not significant (P = 0.17 but has a predictable value in resistance development.

    KEY WORDS: Associated factors, benzimidazole, Ceará, resistance development.
    A resistência a anti-helmínticos benzimidazóis é relatada como um antigo e persistente problema em diversas partes do mundo. O desenvolvimento da resistência depende da presença de promotores, os quais podem ser fatores operacionais, genéticos e bioecológicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a prevalência da resistência a anti-helmínticos benzimidazóis e estudar algumas

  9. 21 CFR 520.600 - Dichlorvos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Gyalocephalus), pinworms (Oxyuris equi), and large roundworm (Parascaris equorum) in horses including ponies and..., pesticides or chemicals. (5) Do not use in animals other than horses, ponies, and mules. Do not use in horses, ponies, and mules intended for food purposes. Do not allow fowl access to feed containing...

  10. Jälle need ussid / Reet Lätti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lätti, Reet, 1983-

    2012-01-01

    Hobustel esinevad parasiitide - askariidid e varsasolkmed (Parascaris equorum), väikesed ümarussid (Cyathostominae), suured strongüliidid (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus), väikesed ümarussid (Strongyloides westeri), paeluss (Anoplocephala perfoliata) - tõrjest ning nakatumise kontrollimisest

  11. Analysis of putative inhibitors of anthelmintic resistance mechanisms in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGusbi, Salha; Krücken, Jürgen; Ramünke, Sabrina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Effects of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide and the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil on the efficacy of ivermectin and thiabendazole were studied in vitro in susceptible and resistant isolates of the cattle parasitic nematodes Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. The effects of combined use of drug and piperonyl butoxide/verapamil, respectively, were investigated in the Egg Hatch Assay, the Larval Development Assay and the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay. The effects of piperonyl butoxide and verapamil as inhibitors of thiabendazole and ivermectin responses were particularly marked for larval development, where both inhibitors were able to completely eliminate all differences between susceptible and resistant isolates. Even the lowest concentrations of anthelmintics used in combination with inhibitors caused complete inhibition of development. Differences and/or similarities among responses in different isolates were only obtained in the two other assays: in the Egg Hatch Assay piperonyl butoxide caused a shift in concentration-response curves obtained with thiabendazole to the left for all isolates tested, changing relative differences between isolates. In contrast, an effect of verapamil in the Egg Hatch Assay was only apparent for benzimidazole-resistant isolates. In the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay only ivermectin was tested and piperonyl butoxide shifted the concentration-response curves for all isolates to the left, again eliminating differences in EC50 values between susceptible and resistant isolates. This was not the case using verapamil as an inhibitor, where curves for both susceptible and benzimidazole-resistant isolates shifted to the left in Ostertagia isolates. In Cooperia the picture was more complex with ivermectin-resistant isolates showing a larger shift than the susceptible isolate. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene were investigated. Significantly increased frequencies of resistance-associated alleles were observed for the codons 167 and 200 in one benzimidazole-resistant isolate but not in an isolate selected for benzimidazole resistance at an early stage of selection.

  12. Target selected treatment with levamisole to control the development of anthelmintic resistance in a sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Gaínza, Yousmel Alemán; Barioni-Júnior, Waldomiro; Esteves, Sérgio Novita; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo

    2016-03-01

    Levamisole phosphate, chosen based on its 100 % efficacy demonstrated by a previous fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), was used as the exclusive anthelmintic treatment in the Embrapa Southeast Livestock sheep flock from 2009 to 2014 in a target selected treatment scheme. In the present study, the effectiveness of this nematode control scheme was evaluated after 5 years by FECRT, larval development test (LDT), and a molecular test to assess the development of levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Animals were submitted to treatments with albendazole, levamisole, closantel, ivermectin, moxidectin, and monepantel. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts and fecal cultures were performed, and anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by the RESO 4.0 program. The helminths of the flock (GIN Embrapa2014) were compared to susceptible (McMaster) and resistant (Embrapa2010) H. contortus isolates in the LDT to estimate the LC50 and LC90 of levamisole and in a molecular test to evaluate the 63-bp indel in the acr8 gene associated with levamisole resistance. In the FECRT, parasites were susceptible to monepantel (99.6 %) and closantel (98.3 %), but resistant to moxidectin (93.8 %), levamisole (70.4 %), ivermectin (48.1 %), and albendazole (0 %). In the coproculture on D14, and the control group presented 80 % H. contortus and 20 % Trichostrongylus sp., while in the monepantel group L1 were observed as well as Oesophagostomum sp. L3. LDT and resistance factors provided good separation between susceptible and resistant parasites. The genotypic frequencies of the 63-bp insertion in the acr8 gene in H. contortus were 11.9, 6.7, and 0 % in GIN Embrapa2014, Embrapa2010, and McMaster isolates, respectively. After 5 years of exclusive use, the nematodes developed resistance to levamisole, detected by FECRT and by increase in LC50 and LC90 for levamisole in the LDT. The 63-bp indel was not confirmed as a molecular marker of levamisole resistance in our isolates. The target selected treatment scheme was effective to control helminths in the sheep flock for 5 years, when levamisole's inefficacy was perceived because of no change in the clinical situation of treated animals. Through this scheme, it was possible to promote reversion towards susceptibility or increase of efficacy for other chemical classes. Thus, this is a valid recommendation to control worms and to delay the development of resistance, preserving other anthelmintic classes for future use.

  13. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective against multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. PMID:27054068

  14. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective against multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematodes.

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective against multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematodes.

  16. Variability in faecal egg counts – a statistical model to achieve reliable determination of anthelmintic resistance in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    arithmetic calculations classified nine farms (14.1 %) as resistant and 11 farms (17.2 %) as suspect resistant. Using 10000 Monte Carlo simulated data sets, our methodology provides a reliable classification of farms into different resistance categories with a false discovery rate of 1.02 %. The methodology...... statistical model was therefore developed for analysis of FECRT data from multiple farms. Horse age, gender, zip code and pre-treatment egg count were incorporated into the model. Horses and farms were kept as random effects. Resistance classifications were based on model-based 95% lower confidence limit (LCL......) values of predicted mean efficacies, and cutoff values were justified statistically. The model was used to evaluate the efficacy of pyrantel embonate paste on 64 Danish horse farms. Of 1644 horses, 614 had egg counts > 200 eggs per gram (EPG) and were treated. The cutoff LCL values used for classifying...

  17. Anthelmintic-resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from an organic sheep and goat farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thansborg, Stig M.

    2013-01-01

    kids were selected for faecal egg count (FEC) reduction tests. Animals were allocated into one of 5 treatment groups, or 1 untreated control group, for each species. Lambs were treated with 5 mg/kg fenbendazole (FBZ), 0.2 mg/kg moxidectin (MOX), 7 mg/kg levamisole (LEV), 0.2 mg/kg ivermectin (IVM......) or 10 mg/kg closantel (CLO). Kids were treated with 10 mg/kg FBZ, 0.3 mg/kg MOX, 14 mg/kg LEV, 0.2 mg/kg IVM or 10 mg/kg CLO. FECs were performed at day of treatment and 14 days post treatment. In a subsequent investigation, faeces from adult goats were cultured to obtain 3rd-stage nematode larvae (L3...

  18. Development of an egg hatch assay for the detection of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole in Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, D; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Martínez-Valladares, M

    2014-06-16

    The aim of this study was to develop an egg hatch assay (EHA) to detect the resistance of Fasciola hepatica to albendazole (ABZ). With this purpose, two different F. hepatica isolates were tested: (i) susceptible (Shrewsbury/South Gloucester strain) to ABZ (SA); (ii) resistant to ABZ (RA). A commercial formulation of ABZ (Sinvermin) diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used at concentrations of 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 μg/ml. In the SA isolates, eggs from feces exposed to ABZ at the three highest concentrations showed significantly lower hatching percentages than the control well (P<0.01); also for the two highest concentrations, the percentage of development was significantly lower than the control (P<0.01). However, in the RA isolate, no differences among treatments and control were found in the percentage of hatched or developed eggs. On the other hand, the EHA was conducted over a 15 day period following treatment with ABZ for sheep infected by the RA isolate. On day 7 post-treatment (pt), no differences among treatments and controls were observed. On day 15 pt, the development and hatching rates exposed to the highest ABZ concentration were lower than at lower concentrations, suggesting susceptibility. The ovicidal effect of ABZ and the potential use of EHA to differentiate between ABZ susceptible and resistant isolates are confirmed in the current study. However, the use of this technique should be confirmed with a higher number of isolates.

  19. Use of P-glycoprotein gene probes to investigate anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus and comparison with Onchocerca volvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, M.S.G.; Okoli, M.N.; Schulz-Key, H.; Okongkwo, P.O.; Roos, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    A P-glycoprotein gene probe from the sheep parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus was developed and used to analyse restriction fragment length polymorphisms between susceptible isolates and isolates resistant to either benzimidazole; levamisole and benzimidazole; or benzimidazole, ivermectin and c

  20. Analysis of possible reasons for dissolution of stallion after castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevančević Milenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the practical training of students of the fifth year of studies of veterinary medicine, a demonstration was performed of stallion castration. The owner of the horse decided to take this step because of the unpredictable temperament of the stallion. The castration was carried out under general anaesthesia. The stallion was laid down and immobilized for castration in keeping with the so-called in-the-field conditions. The castration pro­ceeded without any complications, and the postoperative course was in order. Three days after castration, the horse died with symptoms of colic. The autopsy showed obturation of the ileum and ileocecal valve by Parascaris equorum parasites.

  1. A single amino acid substitution in isozyme GST mu in Triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica (Sligo strain) can substantially influence the manifestation of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H

    2015-12-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics.

  2. Determining the Degree of Anthelmintic Resistance against Macrocyclic Lactones in Small Strongylus, Based on the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA in Horses from Grasslands in the Department of Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Alonso Prada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the grasslands of the Department of Casanare, seeking to determine the degree of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance against macrocyclic lactones in small populations of Strongylus in this region of the country. Samples were taken from four municipalities in the department: Aguazul, Paz de Ariporo, Maní and El Yopal, between June, 2006 and April, 2007, where ten fresh fecal samples were collected in each municipality, directly from the field and in a completely random way. The samples were processed using the MacMaster coprological technique, thus determining the highest count of fecal epg by municipality. L3 larvae were extracted from each of the six samples with the highest count of fecal epg through the coprological and Baermann-Wetzel tests with which the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA test was run, detecting Small Strongylus highly susceptible to the action of macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin.

  3. Lensless phase microscopy and diffraction tomography with multi-angle and multi-wavelength illuminations using a LED matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Zhang, Jialin; Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate lensless quantitative phase microscopy and diffraction tomography based on a compact on-chip platform, using only a CMOS image sensor and a programmable color LED matrix. Based on the multi-wavelength phase retrieval and multi-angle illumination diffraction tomography, this platform offers high quality, depth resolved images with a lateral resolution of 3.72μm and an axial resolution of 5μm, across a wide field-of-view of 24mm2. We experimentally demonstrate the success of our method by imaging cheek cells, micro-beads, and fertilized eggs of Parascaris equorum. Such high-throughput and miniaturized imaging device can provide a cost-effective tool for telemedicine applications and point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited environments.

  4. PREVALENCE AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%, Oxyuris equi (12%, Parascaris equorum (8% and mixed infection (5%. Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal parasites. Each group had five animals, comprising four treatment horses and a control horse. Abamectin was evaluated against these gastrointestinal parasites with a single shot at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight administered through subcutaneous route which resulted in 98% reduction in faecal egg count after day 14 post-treatment. Non-treated horses remained positive for gastrointestinal parasites. No adverse reactions were observed during the experimental period. It was concluded that Abamectin is highly effective against gastrointestinal parasites in horses.

  5. Endoparasites of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais.

  6. [Parasitological fecal studies of equids, dogs, cats and hedgehogs during the years 1984-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, C; Ising-Volmer, S; Stoye, M

    1993-11-01

    The results of the coproscopical examinations in horses, dogs, cats and hedgehogs between 1984 and 1991 are presented. In 9192 samples from horses 55.5% stages of strongylids, 4.0% of Parascaris equorum, 2.2% of anoplocephalids, 1.6% Strongyloides westeri, 0.7% of Oxyuris equi, 0.6% of Eimeria leuckarti, 0.2% of Fasciola hepatica and 0.04% of Dictyocaulus arnfieldi were found. In 48.0% of the 46 samples from donkeys eggs from strongylids were detected, in 17.4% larvae from Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, in 2.2% eggs from Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum and oocysts from Eimeria leuckarti, respectively. In 3329 samples of dogs 6.9% developmental stages of Toxocara canis, 6.0% of Giardia spp., 4.2% of Isospora spp., 3.0% of Sarcocystis spp., 2.5% each of ancylostomids and Trichuris vulpis, 1.1% of Toxascaris leonina and 1.1% of Dipylidium canium, up to 1.0% of taeniids, 0.6% of each Mesocestoides spp. and Metastrongylidae, 0.3% of Strongyloides stercoralis and 0.2% of Capillaria spp. and Hammondia heydorni were detected. In 9.5% of the 1147 samples of cats eggs from Toxocara mystax were found, in 4.7% eggs of taeniids, in 4.6% cysts of Isospora spp., in 2.4% of Giardia spp., in 1.4% eggs of Dipylidium caninum, in 1.0% of Capillaria spp. and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, in 0.6% development stages of Toxoplasma gondii, in 0.5% of ancylostomids and in 0.3% of Sarcocystis spp. and Opisthorchis felineus. In 1175 samples of hedgehogs 48.8% eggs of Capillaria spp., 35.9% of Crenosoma striatum, 17.9% oocysts of Isospora spp., 2.3% eggs of Brachylaemus erinacei were found.

  7. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Courtot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.

  8. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L; Beech, Robin N; Harmache, Abdallah; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent; Peineau, Nicolas; Woods, Debra J; Neveu, Cedric

    2015-12-01

    Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.

  9. Structure of the ascarosides from Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, J P; Bennett, E A; Darben, P A

    1996-10-01

    Six glycosides have been identified from the nematode Ascaris suum. The glycon part of all six glycosides is alpha L-3,6-dideoxymannose, previously known as ascarylose. The major components (4 and 5) and the minor components (8 and 9) have been shown by NMR and electrospray MS to involve a mixture of two homologous aglycons: the 2, omega-1 diols of hentriacontane and tritriacontane. Compounds 4 and 5 are glycosylated on only one of the hydroxy groups, while 8 and 9 are glycosylated on both. These compounds resemble ascarosides B and C previously isolated from Parascaris equorum. However, these aglycons are reported to be based on the 2,6-diol of hentriacontane. Compounds 6 and 7 are based on 2-hydroxy-nonacosane and 2-hydroxy-28-methylnonacosane glycosylated at C-2 with the same sugar. Although 6 and 7 are related to ascaroside A, previously isolated from P. equorum, these earlier reports suggest the chain in ascaroside A to be unbranched.

  10. Resistência anti-helmíntica em rebanhos caprinos no Estado do Ceará Anthelmintic resistance in goat herds in the State of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Silva Vieira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento em nível de campo sobre resistência anti-helmíntica em nematódeos gastrintestinais de caprinos foi realizado em 34 rebanhos no Estado do Ceará. Em cada rebanho foram separados 30 cabritos, de ambos os sexos, com idade variando de 1 a 6 meses, os quais foram individualmente pesados, identificados e distribuídos em três tratamentos: 1 Oxfendazole na dose de 4,75mg/kg; 2 Levamisole na dose de 7,5 mg/kg e 3 Controle (não medicado. Os anti-helmínticos foram administrados de acordo com o peso individual de cada animal e, a dosagem utilizada para cada produto foi a recomendada pelo laboratório fabricante. Foram colhidas fezes dos animais de todos os tratamentos, para OPG e coprocultura, no dia da medicação e 7 dias após. Dos 34 rebanhos avaliados, 7 (20,6% apresentaram resistência aos imidazóis, 6 (17,6% aos benzimidazóis e 12 (35,3% revelaram resistência múltipla. Apenas em 9 rebanhos (26,5%, os nematódeos foram sensíveis aos anti-helmínticos avaliados. Através do questionário aplicado detectou-se que 52,9% dos caprinocultores entrevistados usavam anti-helmínticos de amplo espectro. Os resultados das coproculturas mostraram que os gêneros sobreviventes à medicação com oxfendazole foram principalmente Haemonchus sp, seguido em menor frequência por Oesophagostomum sp, enquanto que ao cloridrato de levamisole sobreviveram Haemonchus sp, Oesophagostomum sp e Trichostrongylus sp.Goats of 45 farms in the State of Ceará, Brazil, were treated with anthelmintics for gastrointestinal nematodes, and their resistance to the anthelmintics was evaluated. On each farm 30 kids were weighed, ear-tagged and divided into three groups of ten. The first group received oxfendazole at 4.75mg/kg, the second levamisole at 7.5mg/kg, and the third group remained untreated as control. All goats were drenched according to their individual body weight. Fecal samples were collected from all animals (treated and control on the day of treatment and 7 days later, to provide material for egg counts and larval cultures. Among 34 surveyed herds 20.6% showed levamisole resistance, 17.6% showed resistance to benzimidazole, and 35.3% had multiple resistance. At the time of the assessment 52.9% of the farmers were using broad spectrum anthelmintics. Only 26.5% of the surveyed herds had nematode populations susceptible to the anthelmintics assessed. The results of larval cultures showed that larvae surviving the treatment with oxfendazole were mainly Haemonchus sp and, to a lesser extent, Oesophagostomum sp; those surviving levamisole treatment were Haemonchus sp, Oesophagostomum sp and Trichostrongylus sp.

  11. Research Advance on Anthelmintic Resistance of Gastrointestinal Nematodes and its PCR Detection%牛羊线虫抗药性及其PCR检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国勤; 张雪娟

    2002-01-01

    牛羊线虫病是严重影响牛羊生产性能和经济效益的主要寄生虫病,化学药物是目前防治本病的主要手段.近年来线虫抗药性,已经成为世界各地牛羊线虫控制中的首要问题.建立线虫抗药性早期检测技术可以及时了解抗药性及其产生的条件等,便于采取有效对策.本文简要阐述牛羊线虫抗药性的分布与检测、现有抗药性检测方法的缺点以及PCR检测技术的最新进展.

  12. Molecular and biochemical mining of heat-shock and 14-3-3 proteins in drug-induced protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus and the detection of a candidate gene for anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D; Das, S; Bera, A K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Bandyopadhyay, S; De, S; Rana, T; Das, S K; Suryanaryana, V V; Deb, J; Bhattacharya, D

    2011-06-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a disease that affects both humans and animals. In humans the disease is treated by surgery with a supplementary option of chemotherapy with a benzimidazole compound. During the present study heat-shock protein 60 (HSP 60) was identified as one of the most frequently expressed biomolecules by E. granulosus after albendazole treatment. Data were correlated with 14-3-3 protein signature, and overexpression of this molecule after albendazole induction was an indicator of cell survival and signal transduction during in vitro maintenance of E. granulosus for up to 72 h. This observation was further correlated with a uniform expression pattern of a housekeeping gene (actin II). Out of three β-tubulin gene isoforms of E. granulosus, β-tubulin gene isoform 2 showed a conserved point mutation indicative of benzimidazole resistance.

  13. Resistência parasitária em helmintos de eqüídeos e propostas de manejo Parasite resistance on helminths of equids and management proposal’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Beltrão Molento

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os eqüinos apresentam uma grande variedade de parasitas em sua fauna helmíntica, e algumas espécies/gêneros são de relevada importância, como: Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Oxyuris equi, Cyathostomum spp. e Strongylus spp. O controle destas infecções depende principalmente da utilização de produtos antiparasitários de forma supressiva ou estratégica e, em menor escala, de forma curativa. O tratamento supressivo é o fator mais importante na promoção da seleção de organismos resistentes, prejudicando a sustentabilidade de qualquer programa sanitário. As formas de detecção da resistência parasitária são onerosas e as mais comuns expressam resultados imprecisos. Entretanto, estas técnicas servem para monitorar a evolução e determinar os organismos envolvidos. A combinação de drogas é uma ferramenta que deve ser utilizada com muita cautela, pois esta alternativa não garante uma redução significativa de organismos resistentes aos compostos envolvidos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar formas de planejamento que auxiliem a melhorar a condição sanitária, o bem-estar dos animais e preserve o efeito tóxico dos produtos antiparasitários.Equines harbour a variety of parasitic organisms on their helminth fauna and there are a few species/genus of interest, such as: Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Oxyuris equi, Cyathostomum spp. and Strongylus spp. The control of these infections relies mostly on the suppressive or strategic usage of antiparasitic compounds, and to a less extent on curative/salvage treatments. Suppressive treatment is the most important factor regarding the selection of resistant organisms, causing the impairment of sanitary programs. Detection methods of parasite resistance are expensive and the most common ones express variable results. Although, these techniques allow monitoring the evolution and the determination of which organisms are involved. Drug combination is a

  14. Partielle Charakterisierung der antilisteriellen Wirkung von Pichia norvegensis und Staphylococcus equorum

    OpenAIRE

    Velagic, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Oberflächengereifte Rotschmierekäse weisen eine hohe Kontaminationshäufigkeit mit Listeria monocytogenes auf. Als mögliche Bestandteile einer antilisteriellen Reifungs-/Schutzkultur kämen Hefen und Staphylokokken in Frage. Ihr antilisterieller Wirkmechanismus wurde vor einem möglichen Einsatz näher untersucht. Die listerizide Wirkung von P. norvegensis WSYC 592 konnte bei Cokultivierung mit L. monocytogenes beobachtet werden, blieb jedoch aus, wenn der zellfreie Hefeüberstand zum Einsatz kam....

  15. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea in soil and fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Jean-Francois

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati, two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum. The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  16. Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of infestation with major gastrointestinal nematodes in equines in and around Shashemane, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tesfaye, Mulualem; Derso, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of major gastrointestinal nematode infestation in equines were studied through a cross-sectional survey in 384 equids from October 2013 to April 2014 in and around Shashemane, southern Ethiopia. Three hundred and fifteen equids (82 %) were demonstrated harbouring one or more gastrointestinal (GIT) nematodes using the faecal flotation technique. The prevalence of GIT nematode infestation was 73.4, 85 and 86.5 % for horses, mules and donkeys, respectively. The identified nematodes were strongyle type (73.4 %), Parascaris equorum (21.4 %) and Oxyuris equi (4.4 %). Species of equines had a significant (χ (2) = 9.35, P nematode infestation. Donkeys were two times (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.27-4.28, P nematode infestation than horses. Moreover, donkeys had the highest mean faecal egg counts (1831.2 egg per gram (EPG)) followed by mules (915.7 EPG) and horses (772.5 EPG). There was a significant association (P nematode infestation in equines. Moreover, suitable tropical climatic conditions, low level of management and owners' awareness, and poor animal health services are expected to contribute for high nematode infestation. Therefore, emphasis should be given to awareness creation about the strategic deworming, animal welfare and management.

  17. Critical anthelmintic trials in ponies with four benzimidazoles: mebendazole, cambendazole, fenbendazole, and albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, M L; Enzie, F D; Kates, K C

    1977-08-01

    The comparative efficacy of four benzimidazoles against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies was evaluated by the critical test method. Mebendazole (8.8 mg/kg), cambendazole (20 mg/kg), fenbendazole (5 mg/kg), and albendazole (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) given in single oral doses were highly effective against adult large strongylids (Strongylus vulgaris, S. endentatus, S. equinus) and adult small strongylids (genera identified in order of frequency: Cylicostephanus, Cylicocyclus, Cyathostomum, Triodontophorus, Poteriostomum, Oesophagodontus, Cylicodontophorus, Gyalocephalus, and Craterostomum). Limited data indicated that all benzimidazoles were completely effective against adult Oxyuris equi and 95 to 100% effective against the 4th stage larvae. There was activity also against the large roundworm, Parascaris equorum, although the low levels of infection and skew distribution among the test animals did not permit a definitive determination of efficacy. Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, and Trichostrongylus axei were found in digests of the stomach but none were recovered in the feces after treatment; percent efficacy for these species was not calculated. None of the benzimidazoles showed activity against stomach bots, Gasterophilus spp., and tapeworms, Anoplocephala spp. nor against immature large and small strongylids outside the lumen of the digestive tract.

  18. Innovative molecular diagnosis of Trichinella species based on β-carbonic anhydrase genomic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Näreaho, Anu; Sukura, Antti; Parkkila, Seppo

    2016-03-01

    Trichinellosis is a helminthic infection where different species of Trichinella nematodes are the causative agents. Several molecular assays have been designed to aid diagnostics of trichinellosis. These assays are mostly complex and expensive. The genomes of Trichinella species contain certain parasite-specific genes, which can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. We selected β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) gene as a target, because it is present in many parasites genomes but absent in vertebrates. We developed a novel β-CA gene-based method for detection of Trichinella larvae in biological samples. We first identified a β-CA protein sequence from Trichinella spiralis by bioinformatic tools using β-CAs from Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Thereafter, 16 sets of designed primers were tested to detect β-CA genomic sequences from three species of Trichinella, including T. spiralis, Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella nativa. Among all 16 sets of designed primers, the primer set No. 2 efficiently amplified β-CA genomic sequences from T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis and T. nativa without any false-positive amplicons from other parasite samples including Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara cati and Parascaris equorum. This robust and straightforward method could be useful for meat inspection in slaughterhouses, quality control by food authorities and medical laboratories.

  19. DETECTING THE ALBENDAZOLUM ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE FOR NEMATODES IN DIGESTIVE CANAL OF SHEEP IN BASHANG ALTIPLANO AREA,HEBEI PROVINCE%河北省坝上地区绵羊消化道线虫对丙硫苯咪唑抗药性的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月兰; 冯雪领; 秦建华; 张华莹; 包永占; 崔平

    2004-01-01

    目的为了查明绵羊消化道线虫对丙硫苯咪唑的抗药性.方法应用粪便虫卵减少试验(FECRT)对河北省坝上地区绵羊消化道线虫的抗药性进行了检测.结果应用5mg/kg丙硫苯咪唑对5组绵羊进行驱虫的虫卵减少率分别为43.9%,38.46%,49.09%,37.63%和43.35%,驱净率分别为20%,15%,15%,25%和10%.结论根据FECRT 95%置信域小于90%,表明试验羊对该药有抗药性.

  20. 新疆阿勒泰富蕴县马自然感染消化道线虫情况初报%PRELIMINARY REPORT OF NATURAL INFECTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES IN HORSES IN FUYUN COUNTY, ALETAI CITY, XINJIANG UYGUR AUTONOMOUS REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    图尔荪·萨迪尔; 卡丽比努尔·尔肯; 朱玉涛; 木合牙提·沙得别克; 恰布旦·阿仔拜; 巴音查汗

    2015-01-01

    In order to gather information on gastrointestinal nematode infection in house-raised and pasteurized horses, 74 fecal samples were randomly collected from horses in Fuyun County, Altay, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and examined using conventional parasitological method. Total infection rate was 94.59% (70/74) in the tested samples. The major parasite species (infection rates) were Strongylus equines (83.78%),Trichostrongylu (83.78%),Nematodirus spp (24.32%),Parascaris equorum (4.05%). These results could provided reference for the government to expel parasites in local horse and offer a basis for animal health work.%为了解新疆维吾尔自治区阿勒泰地区富蕴县马匹在舍饲和放牧2种饲养条件下感染的消化道线虫情况,随机采集样品74份,采用常规寄生虫病原学检查方法进行调查.调查结果显示,当地马总感染率为94.59%,主要感染的虫种为马圆线虫、毛线虫、细颈三齿线虫、马副蛔虫,感染率分别为83.78%、83.78%、24.32%、4.05%.本次调查数据可为当地马寄生虫病的计划性驱虫保健提供科学依据.

  1. Controlled test and clinical evaluation of dienbendazole against naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, T R

    1989-11-01

    A controlled test was performed to titrate the anthelmintic dosage of dienbendazole in 24 mixed-breed ponies naturally infected with Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and small strongyle species, as determined by parasitic egg and larval counts in feces. Comparison of results of treatment was made among 3 dienbendazole dosages--2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg of body weight--and a gum (excipient) mixture given by nasogastric intubation. All ponies were euthanatized and necropsied at 7 or 8 days after treatment. Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema muscae, S vulgaris, S edentatus, small strongyles, and Oxyuris equi were efficaciously eliminated in response to all doses of dienbendazole; Gasterophilus spp were not affected by any dose. There were not sufficient numbers of Draschia megastoma, Anoplocephala spp, or Parascaris equorum in the ponies to evaluate drug effect. Changes in the appearance of the intestinal lining were dose-dependent; in the ponies treated with 5 and 10 mg of dienbendazole/kg, the mucosa appeared clean and smooth, though in ponies given 2.5 mg/kg, it appeared clean, but was nodular and moderately reactive to embedded immature small strongyles. In the gum mixture-treated ponies, the large intestinal mucosa was inflamed, with edematous areas, in response to infections caused by large and small strongyles. A limited clinical titration was done in 12 ponies that were fecal culture negative for S vulgaris larvae, although other strongyles were detected. Two ponies in each of 6 groups were given the following dosages: 0 (gum mixture only), 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg of dienbendazole/kg. One group of 2 ponies was given 5 mg of fenbendazole/kg as a standard treatment control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites, parasitologists now recommend traditional treatment approaches to be abandoned and replaced by more sustainable strategies. It is of crucial importance to facilitate veterinary involvement to ensure that treatment decisio...

  3. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmenta...

  4. Perceptions and actions of Dutch sheep farmers concerning worm infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, H W; Antonis, A F G; Verkaik, J C; Vellema, P; Bokma-Bakker, M H

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are considered among one of the toughest challenges sheep farmers face worldwide. Control still is largely based on the use of anthelmintics, but anthelmintic resistance is becoming rampant. To facilitate implementation of alternative nematode control strate

  5. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  6. Anti-parasitic activity of pelleted sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, O.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T. V.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing anthelmintic-resistance in nematodes of ruminants emphasises the need for sustainable parasite control. Condensed tannin-containing legume forages such as sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) have shown promising anthelmintic properties in small ruminants but this has never bee...

  7. Anti-parasitic activity of pelleted sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, O.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing anthelmintic-resistance in nematodes of ruminants emphasises the need for sustainable parasite control. Condensed tannin-containing legume forages such as sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) have shown promising anthelmintic properties in small ruminants but this has never been...

  8. Parasite field study in central Kentucky on thoroughbred foals (born in 2004) treated with pyrantel tartrate daily and other parasiticides periodically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Rathgeber, R A; Collins, S S

    2007-02-01

    Foals (79), born in 2004 on three thoroughbred horse farms (C, M, and S) in central Kentucky, were fed pyrantel tartrate daily, beginning at about 3 months of age. In addition, other parasiticides [fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM) alone or with praziquantel (PRAZ), oxibendazole (OBZ), pyrantel pamoate (PRT), and moxidectin (MOX)] were given periodically. All treatments were administered by farm personnel. Over a 14-month period, from May 2004 to July 2005, collections (n=989) of feces were made from the foals for determination of presence of internal parasite eggs/oocysts by qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Conclusions on drug activity are based necessarily on considering the combined effect of pyrantel tartrate and the other compounds. For small strongyles, this was related to which specific additional compound was given. Based on the percentage of foals with strongyle-egg-positive feces and/or the level of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts for the foals after treatment, drug activity on small strongyles was highest to lowest for MOX, IVM and IVM/PRAZ, FBZ, OBZ, PRT, and FBZ (2x for 5 days). The macrocyclic lactones (MOX and IVM) were highly superior to the other compounds. Some of the strongyle counts were high (over 2,000), especially on one farm (S), during periods when foals received only pyrantel tartrate, but a few days after administration of therapeutic dose rates of the drugs IVM or MOX, they were negative or very low. Ascarid eggs were present in feces of three foals after treatment with a combination of IVM and PRAZ. The qualitative method was more efficient than the quantitative method in detection of ascarid and strongyle eggs in the feces. Prevalence of eggs of ascarids (Parascaris equorum) was low (0, 4, and 31%), of strongyles high (80, 100, and 100%), of Strongyloides westeri very low (only one infected foal), and oocysts of Eimeria leuckarti medium to high (36, 41, and 85%) for the three farms, C, M, and S, respectively. It is

  9. ИСПЫТАНИЕ ПРАЗИФЕНА ПРИ ОСНОВНЫХ ГЕЛЬМИНТОЗАХ ЛОШАДЕЙ

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Празифен в форме пасты испытан при основ-ных гельминтозах лошадей. В состав празифена входят празиквантел и фенбендазол. Установлена терапевтическая доза празифена против анопло-цефалят и нематод пищеварительного тракта, равная 10 мг/кг по фенбендазолу и 1,0 мг/кг по празиквантелу. Препарат показал 100%-ную эф-фективность против Parascaris equorum, Oxiuris equi и стронгилят пищеварительного тракта...

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13538-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 50764_1( AY350764 |pid:none) Parascaris univalens ribosomal pro... 95 2e-18 AE016817_243( AE016817 |pid:none...5e-17 EU125004_1( EU125004 |pid:none) Eurythoe complanata ribosomal prot... 91 5e-17 AY350763_1( AY350763 |pid:none) Parascaris

  11. AcEST: BP914944 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntromere-associated protein OS=Parascaris univalens Align length 142 Score (bit) 48.1 E-value 2.0e-05 Report...nd centromere-associated protein OS=Parascaris univalens GN=PUMA1 PE=2 SV=1 Lengt

  12. Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S- carnosus and S-equoum - a comparative study in model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2002-01-01

    . equorum, S. xylosus and S. equorum formed more diacetyl, 2-butanone and acetoin and also more of the methyl-branched ketones arising from degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine. S. carnosus produced more methyl-branched aldehydes, acids and corresponding esters from leucine, isoleucine and valine...

  13. Grazing sericea lespedeza for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives to chemical dewormers are needed to counter anthelmintic resistance and improve organic management systems. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing sericea lespedeza (SL) compared with grass pastures for control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in lambs. In Experi...

  14. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  15. Effect of fall-grazed sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) on gastrointestinal nematode infections, skin and carcass microbial load, and meat quality of growing goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, has a major effect on profitability of goat production world-wide. High prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant GIN in goats has increased pressure to find effective, alternative non-sy...

  16. Use of FAMACHA system to evaluate gastrointestinal nematode resistance/resilience in offspring of stud rams

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants have created the need for animals with greater resistance to these parasites. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FAMACHA system in identification of parasite resilien...

  17. Using copper oxide wire particles or sericea lespedeza to prevent a peri-parturient rise of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to plague the small ruminant industry, especially parts of the world with warm, humid climates. Alternatives to chemicals are needed for GIN control because of anthelmintic resistance of GIN and a desire to reduce chemical residues in meat products. A stud...

  18. Effect of an Orange Oil Emulsion on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal strongylids, especially Haemonchus contortus, have led many investigators worldwide to examine potential anthelmintic effects of naturally occurring plant products. In previous work, we have shown that 1200 mg/kg of an orange oi...

  19. A comparison of two integrated approaches of controlling nematode parasites in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants in regions of the world where anthelmintic resistance is prevalent must rely on more than just chemical deworming strategies. The objective of this experiment was to compare two integrated treatment protocols for control of GIN (primari...

  20. Use of a mixed sericea lespedeza and grass pasture system for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs and kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of a high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and consumer demand for chemical free meat products, management tools to minimize the need for deworming are needed. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing sericea lespedeza (SL) in a mixed grass or a pure forage system for ...

  1. Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) using sericea lespedeza (SL), FAMACHA, and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in weaned lambs in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives to chemical dewormers are needed to counter anthelmintic resistance and improve organic management systems. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing SL and selective use of COWP based on FAMACHA for control of GIN. Katahdin lambs (145.6 ± 2.1 d of age; 30.1 ± 0.7 kg) w...

  2. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  3. Standardization of the egg hatch test for the detection of benzimidazole resistance in parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson-Himmelstjerna, von G.; Coles, G.; Jackson, F.; Bauer, C.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Cirak, V.; Demeler, J.; Donnan, A.; Dorny, P.; Epe, C.; Harder, A.; Hoglund, J.; Kaminsky, R.; Kerboeuf, D.; Kuttler, U.; Papadopoulos, E.; Posedi, J.; Small, J.; Varady, M.; Verscruysse, J.; Wirtherle, N.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to reliably detect anthelmintic resistance is a crucial part of resistance management. If data between countries are to be compared, the same test should give the same results in each laboratory. As the egg hatch test for benzimidazole resistance is used for both research and surveys, th

  4. [Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, hedgehogs and rabbits between 1998 and 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, C; Coati, N; Schnieder, T

    2004-06-01

    The results of coproscopical examinations in horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, hedgehogs and rabbits between 1998 and 2002 are presented. In 4399 samples from horses 37.4% stages of strongylids, 1.4% anoplocephalids, 1.3% Strongyloides westeri, 0.9% Parascaris equorum, 0.04% Oxyuris equi, 0.04% Eimeria sp. and 0.04% Fasciola hepatica were found. In 998 samples of cattle 22.1% stages of strongylids, 11.2% of Eimeria spp., 3.5% of cryptosporidium, 2.9% of Moniezia spp., 1.3% of Trichuris spp., 0.7% of Dictyocaulus sp., 0.6% of Fasciola hepatica, 0.6% of Strongyloides sp., 0.5% of Nematodirus spp. and 0.4% of Capillaria sp. could be detected. In 524 samples of sheep 60.7% eggs of strongylids, 43.1% oozysts of Eimeria spp., 11.1% stages of Nematodirus spp., 9.5% of Moniezia spp., 7.8% of Trichuris spp., 6.7% of Strongyloides sp., 1.7% of Fasciola hepatica, 1% of Capillaria spp., 0.4% of protostrongylidae, 0.2% of Skrjabinema sp. and 0.2% of Dictyocaulus sp. were found. 33.9% of the 118 samples of goats that were examined were positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp., 30.5% for eggs of strongylids, 6.8% for Nematodirus spp., 4.2% for Trichuris spp., 3.4% for Moniezia spp., 0.8 for protostrongylids and 0.8% for Strongyloides sp. 5.7% of 1427 samples of pigs contained stages of strongylids, 1.5% of Ascaris suum, 0.4% of Isospora, 0.3% of Eimeria spp., 0.3% of Trichuris sp., 0.1% of Giardia sp., 0.1% of cryptosproidium as well as 0.1% of metastrongylids. In 1281 of the samples of dogs 2.3% Giardia sp., 2.3% Isospora sp., 2.2% Toxocara canis, 1.4% ancylostomids, 0.8% taeniids, 0.6% larvae of Crenosoma sp., 0.2% Capillaria sp, 0.2% Trichuris vulpis and 0.2% Hammondia-like oocysts were found. In 441 samples of cats 10.7% stages of Isospora sp., 3.9% eggs of Toxocara cati, 1.6% of ancylostomids, 1.4% of taeniids, 1.1% of Giardia sp., 0.7% of Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 0.7% of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, 0.5% of Toxascaris leonina and 0.2% of Capillaria spp. were found

  5. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in Yecheng County, Xinjiang%新疆叶城县驴胃肠道寄生虫感染情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王时伟; 何良军; 张伟信

    2012-01-01

    为了解塔里木盆地驴胃肠道寄生虫的感染情况,2011年7月下旬至9月中旬,在驴屠宰车间随机选取60头驴,应用系统剖检法对其胃肠道寄生虫的感染情况进行了调查,依据形态学鉴定虫体种类。结果显示,胃肠道寄生虫的感染率为100%,均为混合感染,感染2种寄生虫的驴占5%,感染3种以上寄生虫的驴占95%;共鉴定出7(亚)科13属28种寄生虫,其中圆线属占100%,杯环属占71.7%,盅口属占65.0%,胃蝇属占53.3%,冠环属占40.0%,柔线属占28.3%,杯冠属占21.7%,副蛔属占16.7%,三齿属占13.3%,尖尾属占8.3%,普氏属占3.3%,毛圆属占1.6%,裸头属占1.6%。建议养殖者提高管理水平,相关部门也应重视对驴进行消化道线虫和胃蝇的驱虫工作。%In order to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys of Tarim basin,the species and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in a slaughterhouse in Yecheng County were determined from late July to middle September in 2011. A total of 60 slaughtered donkeys were randomly selected for postmortem examination. All the examined donkeys were mixed infected with gastrointestinal parasites which included 7 famil as follows. Strongylus spp. (100 %), Cylicocyc ophilus spp. (53. 3%), Coronocyclus spp. (40. (21.7 % ), Parascaris equorum ( 16. 7 % ), Triod ma yria vivipara (3. 3 % ) , Trichostrongylus axe mended that donkey-raisers should be trained to against gastrointestinal parasites and bots. y,13 genus and 28 lus spp. (71. 7%), 0%), Habronema ontophorus spp. (1 species. The parasites encountered were Cyathostomum spp. (65. 0%) ,Gasterspp. (28. 3 %), Cylicostephanus spp. 3. 3 %), Oxyuris equi ( 8. 3 %), Probsti ( 1. 6 %), and Anoplocephala spp. (1. 6 %). It is recomimprove skills in raising donkeys,especially in deworming

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14165-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 32 |pid:none) Staphylococcus equorum mphC gene f... 36 2.0 AE017263_379( AE017263 |pid:none) Mesoplasma flor... 9.9 CP000724_4496( CP000724 |pid:none) Alkaliphilus metalliredigens QY... 34 9.9 AM397631_1( AM397631 |pid:none) Staphylococcus equo...rum mphC gene f... 34 9.9 AY808399_1( AY808399 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum SJC

  7. Untersuchung möglicher Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf das Vorkommen und die Anthelminthikaresistenzentwicklung von trichostrongyliden Weideparasiten des Rindes

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike Marie-Luise

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation successfully investigated the possible impact of climate change on the behaviour and survival of the parasite Cooperia oncophora. Additionally, influences on the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in trichostrongyles were assessed in a field experiment. In Germany effects of a changing climate are already evident and their impact on cattle industry will increase. They can be divided in direct effects such as heat and drought stress or indirect effects which comprise...

  8. Controlling internal parasites without anthelmintics (a review) OF0132

    OpenAIRE

    KEATINGE, Ray

    1996-01-01

    1.0 Executive summary 1. Internal parasites are a major source of economic loss in grazing ruminants. To a greater or lesser degree, most farms in the UK rely on anthelmintics for control. In most situations these products continue to be highly effective, but anthelmintic resistance is increasing to the limited range of products available, raising serious concerns over the future of worm control. 2. Internal parasites are also of concern on organic farms, where the prophylactic us...

  9. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control ? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole. Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial : it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry.

  10. Reduced field efficacy of ivermectin against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Drag, Markus; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    Field reports of anthelmintic resistance against the widely-used macrocyclic lactones (ML) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle have appeared in NW-Europe in recent years. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) against field infections with GIN...... in Danish cattle. In addition, we evaluated a novel quantitative (q) real-time PCR assay for accurate identification of surviving nematode species after treatment. Methods: Six farms were selected based on mean faecal egg counts (FEC) of ≥ 100 nematode eggs per gram in first season grazing heifers. All...

  11. The in vitro motility response to various anthelmintics of third-stage larvae of Oesophagostomum spp. from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Corba, J; Hrcková, G

    1998-07-01

    The in vitro activities of thiabendazole, levamisole, pyrantel, morantel and ivermectin against Oesophagostomum spp., the nodular worm of pigs, were determined and compared. The study was carried out using isolates of O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum, which had been defined in vivo. Infective larvae were exposed to the anthelmintics for 24 h and then placed in a micromotility meter. All the treatments significantly reduced the motility of the ensheathed L3 larvae, but the micromotility meter was not able to differentiate between anthelmintic resistant and anthelmintic susceptible isolates.

  12. Reduced field efficacy of ivermectin against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Drag, Markus; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup;

    Field reports of anthelmintic resistance against the widely-used macrocyclic lactones (ML) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle have appeared in NW-Europe in recent years. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) against field infections with GIN...... in larval cultures from treated groups in all six farms. At day 14 p.t. in treated animals, O. ostertagi L3 were found in 1 farm and C. oncophora L3 in 3 farms. On day 21 p.t., O. ostertagi L3 and C. oncophora L3 were detected in treated animals of 2 and 4 farms, respectively. Discussion: Reduced field...

  13. Activity of autoinducer two (AI-2) in bacteria isolated from surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    ). Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and S. equorum subsp. linens (all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses) using the AI-2 bioluminescence assay. This indicates that AI-2 signaling could take place between bacteria found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses....

  14. Activity of autoinducer two (AI-2) in bacteria isolated from surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    ). Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and S. equorum subsp. linens (all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses) using the AI-2 bioluminescence assay. This indicates that AI-2 signaling could take place between bacteria found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses....

  15. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  16. Use of medicinal plants to control Haemonchus contortus infection in small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawleha Qadir1

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is singly the most important of all the gastrointestinal nematodes that constrain the survival and productivity of sheep and goats owned by rural poor farmers in the developing world. This haematophagus parasite is infamous throughout the humid tropics/subtropics, being responsible for acute disease outbreaks with high levels of mortalities, particularly in young animals. Costs associated with control of this parasite in India, have been estimated to be US$ 103 million. H. contortus is also prominent amongst the reports of anthelmintic resistance that has emerged in all countries of the world that produce small ruminants. This emergence of multiple anthelmintic resistances has provided a spur for research on alternative forms of control. Recent surveys in developing countries have identified many plants that are intended and have the potential to be used as anthelmintics. This paper reviews the use of some medicinal plants as anthelmintics against H. contortus infection in small ruminants. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 515-518

  17. Frequency of benzimidazole resistance inHaemonchus contortus populations isolated from buffalo, goat and sheep herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Luiz Nunes

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing problem that threatens livestock production worldwide. Understanding of the genetic basis of benzimidazole resistance recently allowed the development of promising molecular diagnostic tools. In this study, isolates of Haemonchus contortus obtained from goats, sheep and buffaloes raised in Brazil were screened for presence of the polymorphism Phe200Tyr in the β-tubulin 1 gene, which confers resistance to benzimidazole. The allelic frequency of the mutation conferring resistance ranged from 7% to 43%, and indicated that resistance to benzimidazole could be found in nematodes isolated from all the ruminant species surveyed. Although significant variation in the frequency of the F200Y mutation was observed between different herds or host species, no significant variation could be found in populations isolated from animals within the same herd. These findings suggest that screening of samples from a few animals has the potential to provide information about the benzimidazole resistance status of the entire herd, which would enable a considerable reduction in the costs of diagnosis for the producer. Molecular diagnosis has practical advantages, since it can guide the choice of anthelmintic drug that will be used, before its application in the herd, thus reducing the economic losses driven by anthelmintic resistance.

  18. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  19. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2010-07-01

    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  20. Pyrantel resistance in two herds of donkey in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Edwina; Burden, Faith; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2015-01-30

    Resistance to currently available anthelmintics is a serious phenomenon which is prevalent globally. Cyathostomins are one of the major parasites, and are of primary concern in donkeys. There have been reports of emerging resistance to pyrantel, but the status of pyrantel resistance in donkey populations in the UK is largely unknown. This report investigates pyrantel resistance in two geographically isolated donkey herds in the South West of England. The first herd had suspected pyrantel resistance, with already established resistance to other anthelmintics. In the second herd the efficacy of pyrantel was not suspected at the time the study took place. Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) was carried out, revealing large scale resistance. Eighty one percent of the first herd and 73% of the second herd had a FEC of less than 95% after treatment, and anthelmintic resistance was confirmed using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology guidelines. These findings indicate that anthelmintic resistance to pyrantel exists in both tested donkey populations and illustrate the continuing development of resistance through different classes of chemotherapeutics.

  1. Sustainable helminth control of ruminants in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P J

    1997-07-31

    Widespread anthelmintic resistance, at least amongst the important nematode parasites of small ruminants, threatens the sustainability of these livestock industries throughout both the developed and developing world. The exacerbation of this problem over the last decade or so, has provided the impetus for research into non-chemotherapeutic parasite control alternatives, such as host genetic resistance, grazing management, worm vaccines and biological control. Although some of these options provide practical benefits if currently adopted, or exciting prospects for the future, collectively they are unlikely to dispense with the need for the timely intervention of effective anthelmintic treatment. The issue of sustainability of helminth control practices therefore rests with the preservation of anthelmintic effectiveness through the implementation of principles of integrated pest management. Herein lies the difficulty-putting the principles into practice. Much of the research into sustainable nematode parasite control of ruminants has been done in the developed rather than the developing world, and the efforts to transfer this information to livestock owners has also been commensurately greater in the former. However the need for research and technology transfer is much more urgent in the developing world because of the lack of scientific and financial resources, the greater dependence on livestock industries and the much greater severity of the problem of anthelmintic resistance. This will require a major philosophical change in the affluent western world to the funding of national and international aid organisations who are largely responsible for these activities.

  2. The efficacy of 30% FENBENDAZOLE anthelmintic paste in cyathostominosis in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Badea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horse cyathostominosis is a large intestine helminthosis caused by parasites belonging to the family Strongylidae, subfamily Cyathostominae. The cyathostomins (small strongyles represent a challenge for the parasitologists and animal owners due to the different ontogenesis, the high number of parasite species and their ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. The faeces were examined by flotation (Willis method and the infestation level was determined by McMaster method in day 0, 7 and 14 post treatments. The product Vanbendazol (30% fenbendazole had a 97.7% efficacy in the treated horses from Şofronea, Arad County, using the Faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Also were performed Presidente and Borgsteede relations and the anthelmintic efficacy was 98.2% for the both relations.

  3. A pooled analysis of the efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Barry C; Kaminsky, Ronald; Sager, Heinz; Rolfe, Peter F; Seewald, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Monepantel is the first compound from the amino-acetonitrile derivative class of anthelmintics to be developed for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. An analysis of pooled data from a series of controlled studies is reported providing a single point of efficacy (+/- 95% confidence interval) for each gastrointestinal nematode tested at the fourth larval and/or adult stages. For most nematode species, the pooled efficacy was greater than 99%, and for the remaining few species, efficacy was greater than 90%. These data are well supported by field studies conducted across five countries, where the pooled efficacy (on the basis of fecal worm egg count reduction) was in most cases, greater than 99% (depending on the calculation used). Monepantel is highly effective when administered to sheep at 2.5 mg/kg, and its introduction as a new anthelmintic for sheep is timely, given the problems with anthelmintic resistance that the world's sheep farmers are now experiencing.

  4. Gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats - prevalence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, C.; Holm, S. A.; Thamsborg, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims were to examine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats, based on faecal examination, in relation to geographical distribution and risk factors, and to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes in selected farms. In April 2012 all Danish goat farms......, and herds with a mean EPG>150 were offered a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). All herds were asked to complete a questionnaire about management and risk factors concerning parasites, particularly nematodes. Faecal egg counts were generally low; 2 out of 25 herds had a mean EPG>150. Herd prevalence...... of Nematodirus battus was 16%; likewise PNA‐staining revealed H. contortus in 16% of the herds (4 of 5 herds with individual EPG > 500). The overall prevalence of parasites detected by faecal examination were: Eimeria spp.100%, gastrointestinal trichostrongyles (excl. Nematodirus spp.) 66%, Trichuris ovis 36...

  5. Impact of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of sheep, and the role of advanced molecular tools for exploring epidemiology and drug resistance - an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Florian; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-05-27

    Parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of small ruminants and other livestock have major economic impacts worldwide. Despite the impact of the diseases caused by these nematodes and the discovery of new therapeutic agents (anthelmintics), there has been relatively limited progress in the development of practical molecular tools to study the epidemiology of these nematodes. Specific diagnosis underpins parasite control, and the detection and monitoring of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites, presently a major concern around the world. The purpose of the present article is to provide a concise account of the biology and knowledge of the epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes (order Strongylida), from an Australian perspective, and to emphasize the importance of utilizing advanced molecular tools for the specific diagnosis of nematode infections for refined investigations of parasite epidemiology and drug resistance detection in combination with conventional methods. It also gives a perspective on the possibility of harnessing genetic, genomic and bioinformatic technologies to better understand parasites and control parasitic diseases.

  6. Progress in the development of subunit vaccines for gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J B; Geldhof, P; Tzelos, T; Claerebout, E

    2016-12-01

    The global increase in anthelmintic resistant nematodes of ruminants, together with consumer concerns about chemicals in food, necessitates the development of alternative methods of control for these pathogens. Subunit recombinant vaccines are ideally placed to fill this gap. Indeed, they are probably the only valid option for the long-term control of ruminant parasitic nematodes given the increasing ubiquity of multidrug resistance in a range of worm species across the world. The development of a subunit multicellular parasite vaccine to the point of practical application would be a groundbreaking step in the control of these important endemic infections of livestock. This review summarizes the current status of subunit vaccine development for a number of important gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle and sheep, with a focus on the limitations and problems encountered thus far, and suggestions as to how these hurdles might be overcome.

  7. The efficacy of a slow-release albendazole capsule against Haemonchus contortus with known resistance to albendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. Fisher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release albendazole capsules (CRCs are currently registered for use in Australia and New Zealand as anthelmintic treatment in sheep. However, reports on the efficacy of such products on resistant parasite populations are sometimes controversial. This is the first study to report on the efficacy of such products under South African field conditions in sheep harbouring a population of Haemonchus contortus with known multiple anthelmintic resistance, including to albendazole. Treatment groups were comprised of CRC-treated and single dose albendazole-treated sheep, as well as negative controls. Groups were compared by using faecal egg count reduction tests, FAMACHA© anaemia scoring, conception rates and comparative weight gains over three and a half months. Based on a comparison of faecal egg counts, no advantage could be found using CRCs. Moreover, the use of the product actually decreased weight gain when compared with the control group animals.

  8. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of Spigelia anthelmia Linn. extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, L M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Morais, S M; Vieira, L S; Costa, C T C; Souza, J A L

    2003-11-03

    The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plants as alternative sources of anthelmintics. Spigelia anthelmia extracts obtained with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate or methanol, were tested on Haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae via egg hatch and larval development tests. The extracts were evaluated at five concentrations: 3.1, 6.2, 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg ml(-1). At 50.0 mg ml(-1), the ethyl acetate extract inhibited 100% of the egg hatching and 81.2% of the larval development. In a similar way the methanolic extract inhibited 97.4% of the egg hatching and 84.4% of larval development. These results suggest that utilization of S. anthelmia extracts may be useful in the control of sheep and goats gastrointestinal nematodes.

  9. Efficacy of albendazole and moxidectin and resistance to ivermectin against Libyostrongylus douglassii and Libyostrongylus dentatus in ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lara Pereira; Lelis, Rosane Teixeira; Granja, Igor Rio Apa; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; Santos, Clóvis de Paula

    2012-10-26

    Anthelmintic resistance has emerged globally as a problem amongst nematode of livestock and has been particularly well documented in equine and small ruminants. There are no studies regarding the efficacy of anthelmintics against the hematophagous nematodes in ostriches, Libyostrongylus dentatus; and just a few on L. douglassii. Here the efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and moxidectin were evaluated against these two species in an ostrich farm in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The feces were collected on the day of treatment and after 13 days of an oral dose of albendazole (6 mg/kg), or an injected dose (0.2mg/kg) of ivermectin or moxidectin. The fecal egg count reduction test and coprocultures were performed to determine possible resistance against the drugs used. An efficacy of 60% was found for ivermectin, while albendazole and moxidectin were 100% effective. Both worm species appeared to have reduced sensitivity to ivermectin.

  10. Performance of conventional pcr for screening for strongylus vulgaris on horse farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne K.; Wøhlk, Chamilla B.M.; Petersen, Stig L.;

      Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Of these, the bloodworm Strongylus vulgaris is regarded most pathogenic. Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in strongyle parasites has lead to recommendations of decreased treatment intensities, and there is now a pronounced need...... for reliable tools for detection of parasite burdens in general and S. vulgaris in particular. The only method currently available is the larval culture, which is laborious and time-consuming, so veterinary practitioners most often pool samples from several horses together in one culture to save time...... the performance of pooled versus individual PCR for farm screening purposes. Fecal samples were obtained from 331 horses on 18 different farms. Farm size ranged from 6 to 56 horses, and horses aged between 2 months and 31 years. Larval cultures and individual PCRs were performed from all horses. In addition, PCR...

  11. Equine anthelmintics: survey of the patterns of use, beliefs and attitudes among horse owners in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, K; Taylor, N M; Wilsmore, A J; Garforth, C

    2011-05-07

    An online survey was conducted to establish horse owners' beliefs, attitudes and practices relating to the use of anthelmintic drugs. Out of a total of 574 respondents, 89 per cent described themselves as 'leisure riders', most of whom took part in a variety of activities including eventing, show jumping, dressage, hunter trials, hunting, driving, endurance and showing. Overall, respondents were generally aware and concerned about the issue of anthelmintic resistance. Less than 60 per cent of all respondents were comfortable with their existing anthelmintic programme, and 25 per cent would like to reduce the use of anthelmintics in their horses. Of all the respondents, 47 per cent used livery, and 49 per cent of those reported that the livery imposed a common anthelmintic programme for horses kept on the premises; 45 per cent of these respondents were not entirely happy with the livery yard's programme. Less than 50 per cent of all respondents included 'veterinary surgeon' among their sources of advice on worming.

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.

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    H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20mg/ml of water and methanol extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was taken as a reference standard drug.The anthelmintic activity was observed by gradually increasing the dose of extract. Methanolic extract of Plumbago zeylenica showed higher activity as compared to water extract.

  13. Current Status for Gastrointestinal Nematode Diagnosis in Small Ruminants: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

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    Sarah Jane Margaret Preston

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN parasites pose a significant economic burden particularly in small ruminant production systems. Anthelmintic resistance is a serious concern to the effective control of GIN parasites and has fuelled the focus to design and promote sustainable control of practices of parasite control. Many facets of sustainable GIN parasite control programs rely on the ability to diagnose infection both qualitatively and quantitatively. Diagnostics are required to determine anthelmintic efficacies, for targeted treatment programs and selection of animals for parasite resistant breeding. This review describes much of the research investigated to date to improve the current diagnostic for the above practices which is based on counting the number of parasite eggs in faeces.

  14. Anti-parasitic activity of pelleted sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, O.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T. V.;

    2016-01-01

    ) or concentrate and grass-clover hay (Group CO; n = 6, two pens). After 16 days of adaptation, all animals were experimentally infected with 10,000 and 66,000 third-stage larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, respectively. Egg excretion, blood parameters and bodyweights were recorded throughout...... nematodes corroborates results from studies with small ruminants and encourages further investigations of the use of this crop for control of cattle nematodes.......BACKGROUND: Increasing anthelmintic-resistance in nematodes of ruminants emphasises the need for sustainable parasite control. Condensed tannin-containing legume forages such as sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) have shown promising anthelmintic properties in small ruminants but this has never been...

  15. Helminths in horses : use of selective treatment for the control of strongyles

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    S. Matthee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The current level of anthelmintic resistance in the horse-breeding industry is extremely high and therefore more emphasis is being placed on studies that focus on the judicious use of anthelmintic products. The aims of the study were to: 1 establish if there is variation in the egg excretion pattern of strongyles between the different age classes of Thoroughbred horses in the Western Cape Province (WCP, 2 test if a selective treatment approach successfully reduces the number of anthelmintic treatments and maintains acceptably low helminth burdens in adult Thoroughbred horses, and 3 evaluate the efficacy of subsampling large horse herds for faecal egg counts (FECs to monitor the strongyle burden. In 2001 the FECs of 4 adult mare, 5 yearling and 3 weanling herds from 8 different farms were compared in the WCP. Within the mare herds there were generally fewer eggexcreting individuals with lower mean FECs compared with the younger age classes. Individual faecal samples were collected every 3-4 weeks from 52 adult Thoroughbred mares from 1 farm in the WCP during a 12-month period (2002/2003. Animals with strongyle FECs > 100 eggs per gram (epg were treated with an ivermectin-praziquantel combination drug (Equimax oral paste, Virbac. The mean monthly strongyle FEC for the entire group was < 300 epg throughout the study and the number of treatments was reduced by 50 %. Resampling methods showed that an asymptote to mean FEC was reached at 55 animals for each of the pooled weanling, yearling and mare egg counts. Resampling within 4 different mare herds recorded asymptotes of between 24 and 28 animals. Subsampling entire herds for FECs therefore provided an effective approach to treatment management. This study demonstrates that selective treatment is both a practical and an effective approach to the management of anthelmintic resistance.

  16. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes.

  17. The Incidence of Helminth Parasites in Donkeys

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    G.B. Shrikhande

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The faeces of 82 donkeys irrespective of sex and age were collected and examined for any parasitic ova. The faecal sample of68 donkeys were infected with: Strongylus sp. (54.87%, Parascaris sp. (29.26%, Strongyloides sp. (24.39%, Trichonema sp. (15.85%,Oxyuris sp. (8.53%, Gastrodiscus sp. (8.53%, Entamoeba sp. (8.53%, Dictyocaulus sp. (3.65%, and Triodontophorus sp. (2.43%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 224-224

  18. Safety improvement and preservation of typical sensory qualities of traditional dry fermented sausages using autochthonous starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Lebert, Isabelle; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Chacornac, Jean-Paul; Latorre-Moratalla, Mariluz; Vidal-Carou, Carmen; Zanardi, Emanuela; Conter, Mauro; Lebecque, Annick

    2008-08-15

    Traditional dry fermented sausages are manufactured without addition of starter cultures in small-scale processing units, their fermentation relying on indigenous microflora. Characterisation and control of these specific bacteria are essential for the sensory quality and the safety of the sausages. The aim of this study was to develop an autochthonous starter culture that improves safety while preserving the typical sensory characteristics of traditional sausages. An autochthonous starter composed of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus isolated from a traditional fermented sausage was developed. These strains were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and their production of biogenic amines. This starter was evaluated in situ at the French traditional processing unit where the strains had been isolated. Effects of the autochthonous starter were assessed by analysing the microbial, physico-chemical, biochemical and sensory characteristics of the sausages. Inoculation with the chosen species was confirmed using known species-specific PCR assays for L. sakei and S. equorum and a species-specific PCR assay developed in this study for S. succinus. Strains were monitored by pulse-field gel electrophoresis typing. Addition of autochthonous microbial starter cultures improved safety compared with the traditional natural fermentation of sausages, by inhibiting the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, decreasing the level of biogenic amines and by limiting fatty acid and cholesterol oxidation. Moreover, autochthonous starter did not affect the typical sensory quality of the traditional sausages. This is the first time to our knowledge that selection, development and validation in situ of autochthonous starter cultures have been carried out, and also the first time that S. equorum together with S. succinus have been used as starter cultures for meat fermentation. Use of autochthonous starter cultures is an effective tool for limiting

  19. Community dynamics of coagulase-negative staphylococci during spontaneous artisan-type meat fermentations differ between smoking and moulding treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2013-08-16

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) that are naturally present in the raw meat batter of fermented sausages or that originate from the addition of a starter culture play a role in flavour development. A wide species diversity of CNS can be present in fermented meats, but it is not fully clear yet how specific process parameters select for specific CNS by affecting their community dynamics. Therefore, the influence of smoking and moulding treatments on the CNS community dynamics in spontaneously fermented, artisan-type sausages was investigated. During the fermentation stage, the meat batter was in all cases dominated by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, in addition to Lactobacillus sakei as governing lactic acid bacterium. Following fermentation, the bacterial communities were not perturbed by the smoking treatment, since both L. sakei and S. saprophyticus remained dominant throughout the ripening stage and prevailed in the end-products. Yet, when fermentation was followed by a moulding step with Penicillium nalgiovense, a shift of the CNS communities towards dominance by Staphyloccocus equorum was seen, despite a similar evolution of L. sakei. This effect was possibly due to a pH rise caused by the mould, a hypothesis which was reinforced by the finding that the isolated strain S. equorum DBX-S-17 was more sensitive to low pH than the isolated strain S. saprophyticus DFL-S-12 during growth experiments in brain heart infusion (BHI). Differences in CNS communities may affect sausage flavour, due to intraspecies variations in metabolic conversions of, for instance, amino acids. The fact that 3-methyl-butanal was only found in the moulded sausage, which was dominated by S. equorum, may be related to the finding that the isolated strain of this species was able to produce this compound in BHI medium, whereas the isolated strain of S. saprophyticus was not.

  20. Nematódeos resistentes a anti-helmíntico em rebanhos de ovinos e caprinos do estado do Ceará, Brasil Nematodes resistant to anthelmintics in sheep and goat flock in the State of Ceará, Brazil

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    Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso Melo

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle do parasitismo por nematódeos gastrintestinais é feito basicamente com a utilização de anti-helmínticos. Falhas no controle são o primeiro sinal do aparecimento de resistência anti-helmíntica. A real situação da prevalência da resistência anti-helmíntica, em fazendas comerciais de criação de ovinos e caprinos no Brasil, é desconhecida. Esse experimento teve como objetivo, estimar a ocorrência de resistência ao oxfendazol, levamisol e ivermectina em propriedades comerciais de criação de ovinos e caprinos, na região do médio e baixo Jaguaribe, através do teste de redução na contagem de ovos nas fezes acompanhados de coproculturas. O trabalho foi realizado em 25 criações, sendo 16 de ovinos, 7 de caprinos e uma de ovinos e caprinos. Os dados obtidos foram analisados pelo programa estatístico RESO (1989. A prevalência de nematódeos resistentes ao oxfendazol, levamisol e ivermectina em ovinos foi de 88%, 41% e 59%, e em caprinos de 87,5%, 75% e 37,5%, respectivamente. Observou-se que o gênero Haemonchus foi o mais prevalente na população resistente a todos os anti-helmínticos, tanto em ovinos quanto em caprinos, seguido de Trichostrongylus e Oesophagostomum.The control of gastrointestinal nematodes parasitism is made basically with anthelmintics. Control failure is the first sign of anthelmintic resistance development. The actual situation of anthelmintic resistance prevalence in commercial farms of sheep and goats in Brazil is unknown. The aim of this work was to estimate the occurrence of oxfendazole, levamisole and ivermectin resistance in sheep and goats from medio and baixo Jaguaribe region by faecal egg count reduction followed by coprocultures. The work involved 25 farms (16 sheep farms, 7 goat farms and one of sheep and goats. Data were analysed by RESO (1989. The prevalence of resistant nematodes to oxfendazole, levamisole and ivermectin was respectively 88%, 41% and 59% in sheep and 87.5%, 75

  1. Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébano-Hernández, E; González-Olvera, M; Vázquez-Peláez, C; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Peralta-Lailson, M; Reyes-García, M E; Osorio, J; Sánchez-Pineda, H; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates.

  2. Field efficacy of four anthelmintics and confirmation of drug-resistant nematodes by controlled efficacy test and pyrosequencing on a sheep and goat farm in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Demeler, Janina; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-12-15

    We describe a case of anthelmintic resistance on one of the largest organic small ruminant farms in Denmark. The flock was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from other Danish farms and had history of clinical parasitism, high mortality of young stock and anthelmintic treatment failure. In October 2011, 40 lambs and 40 kids were selected for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM), moxidectin (MOX) and levamisole (LEV). Lambs were treated with the recommended sheep dose of each product while kids received the sheep dose of IVM, 1.5× sheep dose of MOX and 2× sheep dose of FBZ and LEV. Untreated lambs and kids were also included and three methods for calculating faecal egg count (FEC) reduction were compared. In a subsequent investigation, a controlled efficacy test (CET) with FBZ and IVM was performed in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from adult goats on the farm. Recovered specimens of H. contortus were subjected to pyrosequencing for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to benzimidazole (BZ) resistance. During the FECRT, FECs in untreated lambs dropped significantly by 47%. No FEC reduction was detected in untreated kids. After FBZ treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids ranged from 15 to 54% and 49-56%, respectively, according to the different calculation methods. Post IVM treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids varied between 71-90% and 81-83%, correspondingly. LEV and MOX reduced FECs by 98-100% in both species. In the CET, FBZ reduced H. contortus worm counts by 52-56% and no reduction in T. colubriformis counts were detected after treatment. IVM eliminated 100% of H. contortus and reduced T. colubriformis counts by 84-92%, according to different calculation methods. Pyrosequencing of isolated H. contortus revealed increased frequencies of the BZ resistance-related SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene

  3. Three-year evaluation of best practice guidelines for nematode control on commercial sheep farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Stephens, Nathalie; Boughtflower, Valerie; Barrecheguren, Alba; Rickell, Kayleigh; Massei, Giovanna; Taylor, Mike

    2016-08-15

    Anthelmintics are commonly used on the majority of UK commercial sheep farms to reduce major economic losses associated with parasitic diseases. With increasing anthelmintic resistance worldwide, several countries have produced evidence-based, best practice guidelines with an example being the UK's Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep (SCOPS) initiative. In 2012, a pilot study demonstrated that SCOPS-managed farms used fewer anthelmintic treatments than traditionally managed farms, with no impact on lamb productivity and worm burden. Building on these results, we collected data for three consecutive years (2012-2014) with the following aims: (1) To compare the effects of traditional and SCOPS-based parasite management on lamb productivity and worm burden; (2) To evaluate the effect of region and farm type on lamb productivity and worm burden; (3) To compare the frequency and patterns of use of anthelmintic treatment on traditional and SCOPS-managed farms. The study was carried out on 16 farms located in the North east and the South west of England and Wales. Lamb productivity was assessed by quantifying birth, mid-season and finish weights and calculating daily live-weight gains and time to finish in a cohort of 40-50 lambs on each farm. Five annual faecal egg counts were carried out on each farm to assess worm burden. No differences in lamb productivity and worm burdens were found between farms that adopted SCOPS guidelines and traditional farms across the three years. However, mean infection levels increased for both the SCOPS and the traditional groups. Lamb production was not significantly different for farm type and region but the effect of region on infection was significant. For both ewes and lambs, SCOPS farms carried out significantly fewer anthelmintic treatments per year, and used fewer anthelmintic doses/animal than traditional farms. The data suggest a trend to increasing use of anthelmintics in ewes on traditional but not on the SCOPS farms and a

  4. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

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    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  5. Reduced efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) after 20 years of moxidectin pour-on use on a New Zealand deer farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, C G; Cowie, C; Fraser, K; Johnstone, P; Mason, P C

    2014-01-17

    A study was undertaken on weaned 4-5 month old farmed red deer to test the efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin anthelmintics, given by three different routes of administration, compared with an untreated control. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14 for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), blood samples were collected on days 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 for pharmacokinetics, and the deer were killed on days 14 or 15 for total nematode count. The control group averaged 1264 adult Ostertagia-type nematode parasite species and treatment efficacy was 77.4% for moxidectin injection, 26% for oral moxidectin and 27.6% for pour-on moxidectin, while the treatment efficacy was 72.4% for abamectin injection, 70.1% for oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and 34.1% for pour-on abamectin. Both moxidectin and abamectin injections were significantly more efficacious than their equivalent pour-ons. There was a significant difference in efficacy between oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and oral moxidectin (Pworm burdens in all six treatment groups, suggesting egg-laying suppression in resistant nematodes, and all three different FECRT calculations tended to overestimate the efficacy of the treatments compared with actual nematode counts. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for both actives were measured 12h after treatment for injection and oral and at 5 days for pour-on. Cmax (ng/ml) for moxidectin injection, oral and pour-on were 71.8, 8.3 and 0.4, respectively, and for abamectin injection, oral and pour-on were 62.1, 30.3 and 10.0, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) estimates for moxidectin injection, oral and pour-on were 106.6, 12.9 and 6.1, respectively, and for abamectin injection, oral and pour-on were 162.7, 57.5 and 74.3, respectively. The results demonstrate that significant anthelmintic resistance to moxidectin and abamectin is present on this deer farm. However, the injection was the most effective route of administration in young deer for both

  6. Binding to extracellular matrix proteins and formation of biogenic amines by food-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitter, Marion; Geng, Bettina; Hertel, Christian

    2011-02-28

    In connection with a study on the DNA microarray based detection of genes involved in safety and technologically relevant properties (Seitter (née Resch) et al., 2011), food-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were investigated phenotypically with regard to their ability to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) and to produce biogenic amines. The properties have been shown to be involved in the colonization of injured tissue and invasion into host cells as well as in pharmacologic effects on humans, respectively. The CNS exhibited a low, but nevertheless clearly measurable ECM binding capacity, except for strains of Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus, which show a comparable or even higher binding to fibrinogen and fibronectin than that of the control strain Staphylococcus aureus Cowan. Formation of biogenic amines could be often detected in S. carnosus, S. condimenti and S. strains, but rarely in S. equorum and not in S. succinus and S. xylosus strains. Mostly, 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine were formed by resting cells in amounts 100 mg/l) of 2-phenylethylamine and putrescine. This study confirmed the need of consideration of ECM binding and biogenic amine formation in the safety assessment of CNS used in the production of fermented foods.

  7. Biotic Interactions Shape the Ecological Distributions of Staphylococcus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik K. Kastman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many metagenomic sequencing studies have observed the presence of closely related bacterial species or genotypes in the same microbiome. Previous attempts to explain these patterns of microdiversity have focused on the abiotic environment, but few have considered how biotic interactions could drive patterns of microbiome diversity. We dissected the patterns, processes, and mechanisms shaping the ecological distributions of three closely related Staphylococcus species in cheese rind biofilms. Paradoxically, the most abundant species (S. equorum is the slowest colonizer and weakest competitor based on growth and competition assays in the laboratory. Through in vitro community reconstructions, we determined that biotic interactions with neighboring fungi help resolve this paradox. Species-specific stimulation of the poor competitor by fungi of the genus Scopulariopsis allows S. equorum to dominate communities in vitro as it does in situ. Results of comparative genomic and transcriptomic experiments indicate that iron utilization pathways, including a homolog of the S. aureus staphyloferrin B siderophore operon pathway, are potential molecular mechanisms underlying Staphylococcus-Scopulariopsis interactions. Our integrated approach demonstrates that fungi can structure the ecological distributions of closely related bacterial species, and the data highlight the importance of bacterium-fungus interactions in attempts to design and manipulate microbiomes.

  8. Species of Staphylococcus and Bacillus isolated from traditional sausages as producers of biogenic amines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eBermúdez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Histidine, lysine, ornithine and tyrosine decarboxylase activities were tested in 38 strains of Staphylococcus (15 of Staph. equorum, 11 of Staph. epidermidis, 7 of Staph. saprophyticus, and 5 of Staph. pasteuri and 19 strains of Bacillus (13 of B. subtilis and 6 of B. amyloliquefaciens isolated from two Spanish traditional sausage varieties.The four decarboxylase activities were present in most of the strains studied, but some variability was observed between strains within each microbial species.Accumulation of putrescine and cadaverine was assessed in the culture media of the strains that displayed ornithine and lysine decarboxylase activities. The aminogenic potential of the strains was low, with amounts accumulated lower than 25 mg/L for the putrescine and than 5 mg/L for the cadaverine, with the exception of a strain of Staph. equorum that produced 1415 mg/L of putrescine, and of a strain of Staph. epidermidis that accumulated 977 mg/L of putrescine and 36 mg/L of cadaverine.

  9. Biodiversity and characterization of Staphylococcus species isolated from a small manufacturing dairy plant in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José C; Marques, M Rosário; Tavaria, Freni K; Pereira, Joana O; Malcata, F Xavier; Pintado, Manuela M

    2011-03-30

    The level and the diversity of the staphylococcal community occurring in the environment and dairy products of a small manufacturing dairy plant were investigated. Species identification was performed using different molecular methods, viz. Multiplex-PCR, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and sodA gene sequencing. The main species encountered corresponded to Staphylococcus equorum (41 isolates, 39.0%), S. saprophyticus (28 isolates, 26.7%) and S. epidermidis (15 isolates, 14.3%). Additionally, low incidence of enterotoxin genes was obtained, with only 9 strains (8.6%) being positive for one or more toxin genes. With regard to antimicrobial resistance, 57.1% of the isolates showed at least resistance against one antibiotic, and 28.6% were multi-resistant, which might accomplish resistance for up to 6 antibiotics simultaneously. These results provided evidence that the presence of Staphylococcus species in dairy environment are mostly represented by S. equorum and S. saprophyticus, and illustrate that carrying antimicrobial resistance genes has become reasonably widespread in cheese and dairy environment.

  10. Domestication of ruminant livestock and the impact of nematode parasites:possible implications for the reindeer industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Waller

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In a balanced ecological system, both host and nematode parasite populations are firmly controlled by a complex array of interacting factors. However domestication of livestock has tipped the balance in favour of the parasites. This is due to increasing the proportion of susceptible animals in the herd or flock (lactating females and weaned young animals, increasing stocking rate, increasing productivity demands and decreasing the movement of the animals. In contrast with microbial infections, where multiplication takes place entirely within the host, metazoan parasites have both a parasitic phase and a free-living phase. Every worm present has been separately acquired by the ingestion of free-living stages on pasture. Immunity to nematodes develops slowly, it is labile, and its maintenance is dependent upon a good nutritional state of the animal. Consequently, worm parasites are ubiquitous wherever livestock are kept and they impose a constant and often a high infectious pressure on grazing animals. Nematode infections in grazing livestock are almost always a mixture of species. All have deleterious effects and collectively lead to chronic ill thrift. Economic evaluations repeatedly show that the major losses due to parasites are on animal production, rather than on mortality. This paper focuses on the problems of nematode parasites; problems associated with drug use (anthelmintic resistance, environmental impact and costs of nematode infections for the common ruminant livestock industries (cattle, sheep, goats, with possible analogies for the semi-domesticated reindeer industry.

  11. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control containing levamisole hydrochloride (0.2 mg/mL, distilled water and 70 ºGL grain alcohol at the same concentration of the extracts. Test results showed that the different O. vulgare extracts inhibited egg hatch of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes at a percentage that varied from 8.8 to 100%; dye and hydroalcoholic extract were the most promising inhibitors. In view of this ovicidal property, O. vulgare may be an important source of viable antiparasitic compounds for nematodiosis control in ruminants.

  12. Alternative approaches for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep farming: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimpraga, Miljenko; Ljubičić, Iva; Hlede, Jadranka Pejaković; Vugrovečki, Ana Shek; Marinculić, Albert; Tkalčić, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a serious health problem and represent the most significant constraint in sheep grazing operations. Problems tend to be worse in organic sheep farming systems, as a consequence of a less restricted access of animals to outdoor environment with a higher exposure to infective larvae. In domestic animals, GIN are effectively controlled by an aggressive prophylactic administration of commercially available anthelmintics. As a consequence to a common overdose and misuse of readily available antiparasitic treatments, there is an inevitable development of populations of GIN resistant to all major classes of anthelmintics. Also, the control of GIN that is based entirely on the anthelmintic use, threatens sustainability of the sheep farming worldwide. The combination of the optimized use of anthelmintic drugs and alternative approaches seem to be a reasonable choice in sustainable parasitic control programs that offer a substantial reduction of anthelmintic treatments and conservation of anthelmintic efficacy. In that aspect, a "targeted selective treatment (TST)" directed towards animals clinically diagnosed with GIN, seems to be an effective approach to leave some parasite populations unexposed to anthelmintics (refugia) and to reduce development of anthelmintic resistance. Also, many current research efforts aim to find and validate sustainable non-chemotherapeutic approaches to GIN control, including changes in grazing management, optimized nutrition, dietary supplementation, consumption of plants with anthelmintic properties, biological control by nematophagous fungi, copper oxide wire particles (COWP), and homeopathic treatments. This manuscript outlines (outlines) and discusses relevant alternative approaches for GIN control in modern sheep farming systems.

  13. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  14. Resistance to benzimidazoles and levamisole in nematode parasites of sheep in Nyandarua district of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maingi, N.; Bjørn, H.; Gichohi, V.M.;

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance on 25 sheep farms in the Nyandarua District of Kenya was investigated, using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), the egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval development assay (LDA). In the FECRT, resistance to both benzimidazoles (BZs) and levamisole...... (LEV) was detected on four farms, resistance to LEV only on three farms and to BZs, only on two farms. Haemonchus contortus was the predominant nematode species in both pre-treatment and post-treatment faecal cultures. Out of the six farms where BZ resistance was detected in the FECRT, only isolates...... from one farm had an LD50 value higher than 0.5 mu M thiabendazole (TBZ) (0.1 mu g TBZ/ml) in the EHA indicating resistance. Isolates from three other farms, where susceptibility to BZs was detected and four with suspected BZ resistance in the FECRT, had LD50 values higher than 0.5 mu M TBZ in the EHA...

  15. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the crude extracts from Phytolacca icosandra against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Villegas, M M; Borges-Argáez, R; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Méndez-Gonzalez, M; Cáceres-Farfan, M

    2011-06-30

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has impacted on the success of conventional anthelmintics (AH) for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing/browsing sheep and goats. Medicinal plants from the traditional herbolary in Mexico may provide new candidates that can be explored as alternative sources of AHs for ruminants. This study evaluated the leaf extracts derived from Phytolacca icosandra against infective L(3) larvae and eggs from Haemonchus contortus collected from sheep. Three extracts of different polarities were obtained from the leaf plants using ethanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane as the solvents. The effectiveness of the in vitro AH activity of the plant extracts was evaluated using larval migration inhibition (LMI) and egg hatch (EHA) assays. For the LMI assays, the ethanolic extract of P. icosandra showed 55.4% inhibition of larval migration at 2mg/mL (pactivity reported for P. icosandra could be attributable to the flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, coumarins and/or saponins that were present in the ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts. A combination of more than one component may also explain the observed AH activity against the H. contortus life stages that were evaluated. In conclusion, the ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts of P. icosandra showed clear in vitro AH activity against the H. contortus eggs and the L(3) larvae. However, the hexanic extract of the plant leaves failed to show any in vitro AH activity.

  16. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Melia azedarach extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Costa, C T C; Castro, C M S

    2006-08-31

    Haemonchus contortus is responsible for severe economic losses in sheep and goat breeding in the Northeast of Brazil. However, the effectiveness of control is compromised due to anthelmintic resistance and misuse. In the search for natural anthelmintics, Melia azedarach L., a plant indigenous to India but now distributed throughout Brazil, was selected due to the reported anthelmintic properties of its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the seed and leaf extracts of the Brazilian adapted plant and investigate the type of organic chemical compounds present in the most active extracts. The ovicidal and larvicidal activity of M. azedarach extracts on H. contortus was evaluated through egg hatching and larval development tests. Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds and chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaves of M. azedarach were used in the tests. To perform the larval development test, feces of an animal free from parasites were mixed with third instar H. contortus larvae and extracts in several concentrations. The coprocultures were incubated for 7 days at 30 degrees C, then the larvae were recovered and counted. LC50 was calculated by probits using the SPSS 8.0 program. The seed ethanol extract was the most active on eggs (LC50=0.36mgmL(-1)) and the leaf ethanol extract showed the best inhibition of larval development (LC50=9.18mgmL(-1)). Phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts revealed the presence of condensed tannins, triterpenes and alkaloids.

  17. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Melia azedarach against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2010-04-01

    The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were tested for in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida). Both extracts were evaluated at five concentrations: 12.5, 6.2, 3.12, 1.56, and 0.78 mg/ml. The leaves aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts inhibited 99.4% and 100% of the egg hatching and 100% of larval development at 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In a similar way, the leaves hydro-alcoholic extract was the most active on egg inhibition (ED (50) = 1.97 and ED ( 90 ) = 5.05 mg/ml), leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts showed the best inhibition of larval development (ED ( 50 ) = 3.01, 2.43, 3.17, 2.40, and ED ( 90 ) = 10.53, 8.14, 11.94, and 8.19 mg/ml), respectively. These results suggest that utilization of M. azedarach extracts is useful in the control of H. contortus.

  18. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (pactivity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  19. In vivo assessment of closantel ovicidal activity in Fasciola hepatica eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, María Victoria; Mera y Sierra, Roberto; Scarcella, Silvana; Neira, Gisela; Solana, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites is currently a worldwide problem. Fasciola hepatica is a cosmopolitan parasite which causes considerable loss in sheep and cattle production systems all over the world. Chemotherapy is currently the main tool available for its control. The intensive use of triclabendazole, the drug of choice for more than 20 years, has resulted in the development of resistant strains. The therapeutic options are adulticides such as closantel (salicylanilide anthelmintic that binds extensively to plasma albumin) to treat chronic fascioliasis in sheep, and cattle. In the present work, an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and morphometric studies were used to evaluate in vivo the ovicidal activity and morphology F. hepatica eggs, recovered from closantel treated sheep collected at different time intervals post treatment. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed in egg morphometry between the control and the treated groups in all the parameters studied. Eggs recovered from treated animals tend to be narrower and longer. Significant differences were found in the embryonation and hatching of eggs between 36 h post treatment (32, 5%) vs. approximately 85% in control, 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Our results confirm that closantel affects in vivo the normal development of the eggs. As one of the first effects, this drug affects the performance of the trematode's reproductive physiology. Even though closantel treated animals may still eliminate eggs in the first days post treatment, these are not viable.

  20. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Plectranthus punctatus against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Dereje; Eguale, Tadesse; Giday, Mirutse; Mussa, Abiy

    2009-03-18

    The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of Plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the egg and larvae of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay and larval development test. All extracts of plants tested have shown complete inhibition of egg hatching at or below 1 mg/ml. ED50 for egg hatch inhibition ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mg/ml, for both the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata. All extracts have shown dose dependent inhibition of larval development with variable results. The complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml) was obtained only for hydro-alcoholic extract of the fruits of Maesa lanceolata and the lowest inhibition (50.33%) was recorded for the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of the same plant. The overall findings of the present study has shown that Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of different extracts and fractions of these plants should be carried out.

  1. Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fractions of Picria fel-terrae Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasika Kumarasingha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia, we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We found that a single fraction was enriched for nematocidal activity, killing ≥90% of C. elegans adults and inhibiting the motility of exsheathed L3 of H. contortus, while having minimal cytotoxic activity in mammalian cell culture. Metabolic profiling and chemometric analysis of the effective fraction indicated medium chained fatty acids and phenolic acids were highly represented.

  2. Lack of Cyathostomin sp. reduction after anthelmintic treatment in horses in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canever, Ricardo J; Braga, Pollyana R C; Boeckh, Albert; Grycajuck, Marcelly; Bier, Daniele; Molento, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    The increase of anthelmintic resistance in the last years in the nematode population of veterinary importance has become a major concern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the main anthelmintic drugs available in the market against small strongyles of horses in Brazil. A total of 498 horses from 11 horse farms, located in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil, were treated with ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole, orally at their recommended doses. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was used to determine the product's efficacy and fecal culture was used to determine the parasite genus. Reduction on anthelmintic efficacy was found for fenbendazole in all horse farms (11/11), pyrantel in five yards (5/11) and ivermectin had low efficacy in one of the yards studied (1/11). Multidrug resistance of up to 3 drugs classes was found in one of the tested farms (1/11). Cyathostomin were the most prevalent parasite. The results showed that resistance to fenbendazole is widespread; the efficacy of pyrantel is in a critical situation. Although the macrocyclic lactones compounds still showed high efficacy on most farms, suspected resistance to macrocyclic lactones is of great concern.

  3. CONTROLE DE VERMINOSE EM EQUINOS NO NORTE DE MINAS GERAIS COM ASSOCIAÇÃO DE PAMOATO DE PIRANTEL E IVERMECTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robson Duarte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the North of Minas Gerais the equineculture is an important activity because it corroborates the success in the breeding of beef cattle. The equine verminosis control in this region has not been applied considering the anthelmintic resistances of nematodes and this resistance has been observed in some equine herds in Brazil. The present study has the objective to evaluate the effectiveness of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin association in mare verminosis in the North of Minas Gerais, during the peripatum. After fourteen days of the first faecal egg count (FEC and treatment of the animals with these respective bases, the FEC reduction test indicated 98.1% effectiveness and the coprocultures were negative. After the worm identification from the control group, was observed 30% of filariod worms of Strongyloides spp., 30% of the genus Haemonchus, 20% were worms of Cyathosminae, 10% of the genus Trichostrongylgys and 10% of the genus Oesophagodontus. The results observed suggest that the use of pyrantel pamoate associated with ivermectin was safe during the peripartum and efficient in the FEC reduction of naturally infected mares raised in pastures of the North of Minas Gerais.

  4. Efficacy of an anthelmintic combination in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica resistant to albendazole and clorsulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Cordero-Pérez, C; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we identified five sheep flocks with fasciolosis in the province of León (northwestern Spain) in order to determine the anthelmintic resistance status to three commonly used anthelmintics, namely albendazole (ABZ), triclabendazole (TCBZ) and clorsulon (CLOR). The identification of one flock resistant to ABZ and CLOR was shown after the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). The reductions in eggs per gram values were -17.6% and -68% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after ABZ treatment; 85.15% and 44.91% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after CLOR treatment; and 97.06% against both stages, after the administration of TCBZ. As an alternative to control the infection, two combinations of ABZ and CLOR were tested. In the first, both drugs were administered at the recommended dose of each; in this case, the efficiency reached values above 95% against both immature and adult flukes. However, when the combined drugs were administered at half the recommended dose of each, the efficiency of the combination was very low, i.e. 16.67% and -11.11% against mature and immature flukes, respectively. In conclusion, this preliminary report suggests a possible interaction between ABZ and CLOR after their joint administration. However, these results should be confirmed in other flocks.

  5. Genetics and infection dynamics of Paratrichosoma sp in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, M J; Hose, G C; Isberg, S R; Power, M L

    2015-02-01

    Paratrichosoma-associated helminthiasis has been identified in saltwater crocodiles under intensive farming conditions. The development of sustainable integrated management practices is dependent on a detailed understanding of Paratrichosoma population genetics and infection dynamics. This study investigated the genetic relationships of Paratrichosoma sp in a population of commercially farmed saltwater crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus, in northern Australia. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence data were obtained from Paratrichosoma sp eggs present in the epidermis of infected animals. A high level of genetic diversity was distributed within the Paratrichosoma sp population (241 variable positions in the 1094 bp alignment), indicating an accelerated rate of nucleotide base-pair substitutions in this genus of nematodes. Several possible environmental correlates of the incidence and intensity of helminthiasis, including season, rainfall, and mean monthly temperature, were investigated by visual inspection of crocodile skins. Stepwise logistic regression revealed a significant negative linear relationship (P = 0.011, R (2) = 32.69 %) between mean monthly rainfall and the incidence of monthly Paratrichosoma-associated helminthiasis. Variation in the severity of Paratrichosoma-associated helminthiasis could not be explained by any of the independent environmental variables included within an ordinal regression analysis. The large genetic diversity in these nematodes indicates a high probability of anthelmintic resistant alleles occurring in the population. We discuss how the spread of these alleles may be mitigated by adopting targeted treatment protocols.

  6. Fasciola hepatica demonstrates high levels of genetic diversity, a lack of population structure and high gene flow: possible implications for drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Nicola J; Williams, Diana J L; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke, is a trematode parasite of considerable economic importance to the livestock industry and is a re-emerging zoonosis that poses a risk to human health in F. hepatica-endemic areas worldwide. Drug resistance is a substantial threat to the current and future control of F. hepatica, yet little is known about how the biology of the parasite influences the development and spread of resistance. Given that F. hepatica can self-fertilise and therefore inbreed, there is the potential for greater population differentiation and an increased likelihood of recessive alleles, such as drug resistance genes, coming together. This could be compounded by clonal expansion within the snail intermediate host and aggregation of parasites of the same genotype on pasture. Alternatively, widespread movement of animals that typically occurs in the UK could promote high levels of gene flow and prevent population differentiation. We identified clonal parasites with identical multilocus genotypes in 61% of hosts. Despite this, 84% of 1579 adult parasites had unique multilocus genotypes, which supports high levels of genotypic diversity within F. hepatica populations. Our analyses indicate a selfing rate no greater than 2%, suggesting that this diversity is in part due to the propensity for F. hepatica to cross-fertilise. Finally, although we identified high genetic diversity within a given host, there was little evidence for differentiation between populations from different hosts, indicating a single panmictic population. This implies that, once those emerge, anthelmintic resistance genes have the potential to spread rapidly through liver fluke populations.

  7. Comparative anthelminthic efficacy of nitroxynil, levamisole, closantel, moxidectin and fenbendazole on parasite control in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Costa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different drugs in the control of parasites of sheep belonging to the Centro Agropecuário da Palma, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, municipality of Capão do Leão, RS. Seventy-eight female Corriedale and Ideal sheep with an initial body weight of 48.35 ± 4.71 kg were randomly selected and divided into six groups submitted to the following treatments: control treatment and treated with 34%nitroxynil, 18.8% levamisole hydrochloride, 10% closantel, 1% moxidectin, and 10% fenbendazole. The drugs were administered according to the recommendations of the manufacturers. Fecal samples were collected before (day 0 and after treatment (days 7, 4, 21 and 28 and were used for the determination of fecal egg count (FEC in the different groups. Efficacy was evaluated based on the percentage reduction in FEC and percent efficacy of the drugs. The fecal samples were processed for coproculture to identify the parasite genera present in the herd. The percentages of efficacy observed on day 28 post-treatment were 96.93% for nitroxynil, 95.8% for levamisole hydrochloride, 95.5% for closantel, 80.2% for moxidectin, and 27.5% for fenbendazole. The nematode species present in the herd was Haemonchus spp. (100%. Nitroxynil, closantel and levamisole hydrochloride were effective in eliminating gastrointestinal nematodes. Anthelmintic resistance was observed to moxidectin and fenbendazole.

  8. Feasibility of a "leader-follower" grazing system instead of specialised paddocks with regard to integrated gastrointestinal control in small ruminant farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Maurice; Gauthier, Valérie; Arquet, Rémy; Calif, Brigitte; Archimède, Harry; Mandonnet, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    In the humid tropics, small ruminant farmers have to deal with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN), among which anthelmintic resistant (AR) populations are rapidly spreading. Although targeted selective treatments (TSTs) are being increasingly used in breeding stock, suppressive drenchings remain the rule in younger animals, for safety and ease of implementation. Until now, the weaned animals are grazed on dedicated plots, making the selection and spread of AR parasites inevitable. Given that GINs disseminate through pastures, we compared the usual grazing system (control) to a "leader-follower" grazing system (LF) for managing the entire GIN population at the farm scale. There were no significant differences between treatments for the dam reproductive parameters and level of GIN infection nor for the pre-weaning death rate of the kids. The 70-day weight of the litter was significantly lower for LF than for control goats (9.71 vs. 11.64 kg, P systems, respectively. Additionally, the LF grazing system would make the stocking rate easier to manage. Therefore, it is to be recommended as a complement of TSTs in sustainable small ruminant farming.

  9. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Bizzo, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2011-12-29

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.

  10. In vitro activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) on three pre-parasitic stages of susceptible and resistant strains of Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

    2012-08-13

    Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered as one of the main limiting factors causing significant economic losses to the small ruminant industry. The anthelmintic properties of some plants are among the suggested alternative solutions to control these parasitic worms. The present study investigated the anthelmintic activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts against the susceptible and resistant strains of one of the most important nematodes in small ruminants, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta. Three different in vitro tests: egg hatch test, larval development assay, and larval paralysis assay were used to determine the efficiency of neem and cassava extracts on three pre-parasitic stages of T. circumcincta. The LC(50) was determined for the most potent extract in each plant as well as the phytochemical tests, total tannin quantification and cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats. The results revealed a high anthelmintic activity of neem methanol extract (NME) and cassava methanol extract (CME) on both strains of T. circumcincta without significant differences between the strains. The first stage larvae were more sensitive with the lowest LC(50) at 7.15 mg/ml and 10.72 mg/ml for NME and CME, respectively, compared with 44.20mg/ml and 56.68 mg/ml on eggs and 24.91 mg/ml and 71.96 mg/ml on infective stage larvae.

  11. Production trials involving use of the FAMACHA© system for haemonchosis in sheep : preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Van Wyk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In three trials conducted on two separate farms the production of sheep treated for naturally acquired haemonchosis using the FAMACHA© system of targeted selective treatment (TST (i.e. to treat only those animals unable to manage unaided in the face of heavy Haemonchus challenge was compared to that of suppressively drenched sheep in the same flock. As expected by the research team who developed and evaluated the FAMACHA© system, TST did result in some loss in production. However, despite high levels of worm challenge in two of the trials and the fact that the comparison was with suppressive drenching which is not sustainable, the total effect was relatively small in relation to the important advantage of using the TST as regards reduced selection for anthelmintic resistance (AR. Concerning the sustainability of worm control, it is concluded that the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics leaves sheep and goat farmers in South Africa no choice but to use methods of TST such as FAMACHA©. The FAMACHA© system can also be a useful clinical aid for early on-farm detection of AR by farmers; the degree of improvement in the colour of the ocular mucous membrane from pale to red in individually drenched anaemic animals over a period of 7-14 days can give a good indication of the efficacy of the compound(s used.

  12. Serine/threonine phosphatases in socioeconomically important parasitic nematodes--prospects as novel drug targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bronwyn E; Hofmann, Andreas; McCluskey, Adam; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the fundamental biology of parasitic nematodes (=roundworms) that cause serious diseases, affecting literally billions of animals and humans worldwide. Unlocking the biology of these neglected pathogens using modern technologies will yield crucial and profound knowledge of their molecular biology, and could lead to new treatment and control strategies. Supported by studies in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, some recent investigations have provided improved insights into selected protein phosphatases (PPs) of economically important parasitic nematodes (Strongylida). In the present article, we review this progress and assess the potential of serine/threonine phosphatase (STP) genes and/or their products as targets for new nematocidal drugs. Current information indicates that some small molecules, known to specifically inhibit PPs, might be developed as nematocides. For instance, some cantharidin analogues are known to display exquisite PP-inhibitor activity, which indicates that some of them could be designed and tailored to specifically inhibit selected STPs of nematodes. This information provides prospects for the discovery of an entirely novel class of nematocides, which is of paramount importance, given the serious problems linked to anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematode populations of livestock, and has the potential to lead to significant biotechnological outcomes.

  13. Parasitic nematodes - from genomes to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitreva, Makedonka; Zarlenga, Dante S; McCarter, James P; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2007-08-19

    The diseases caused by parasitic nematodes in domestic and companion animals are major factors that decrease production and quality of the agricultural products. Methods available for the control of the parasitic nematode infections are mainly based on chemical treatment, non-chemical management practices, immune modulation and biological control. However, even with integrated pest management that frequently combines these approaches, the effective and long-lasting control strategies are hampered by the persistent exposure of host animals to environmental stages of parasites, the incomplete protective response of the host and acquisition of anthelmintic resistance by an increasing number of parasitic nematodes. Therefore, the challenges to improve control of parasitic nematode infections are multi-fold and no single category of information will meet them all. However, new information, such as nematode genomics, functional genomics and proteomics, can strengthen basic and applied biological research aimed to develop improvements. In this review we will, summarize existing control strategies of nematode infections and discuss ongoing developments in nematode genomics. Genomics approaches offer a growing and fundamental base of information, which when coupled with downstream functional genomics and proteomics can accelerate progress towards developing more efficient and sustainable control programs.

  14. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  15. [Characteristics of bacteria isolated from body surface of German cockroaches caught in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Ewa; Pancer, Katarzyna; Kochman, Maria; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Sawicka, Bozena; Rabczenko, Daniel; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify bacterial flora from external parts of German cockroaches caught in hospitals. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the most important groups of antimicrobial agents was also examined. 80 strains of bacteria were isolated, among them 34 strains of Gram-positive cocci and 31 strains of Gram-negative rods. One of isolated strains of Citrobacter freundii and two strains of Serratia liquefaciens showed ESBL mechanism of resistance and extended level of AmpC--type beta-lactamases. Two Staphylococcus strains (S. epidermidis and S. equorum) were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (MLSB mechanism of resistance). Such strains, resistant to antibiotics and chemiotherapeutics may be reservoirs of resistance genes which can be transmitted into other bacteria. Presence of such pathogens on the body surface of German cockroaches, very mobile insects, might create conditions for easy dissemination of them in hospital environment.

  16. HEALTH AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF EWE'S MILK PROCESSING FROM THE ASPECT OF FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pukáčová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Totally, 47 strains of S. aureus and 578 coagulase negative staphylococci were detected in samples from raw ewe milk. The 35 out 47 isolates of S. aureus from ewe milk were positive for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes: sea(4 %, sec (48 % a sed (48 %. Staphylococcus epidermis (33.04%, Staphylococcus caprae (21.28% were more prevalent. Staphylococcus chromogenes (7.44 %, Staphylococcus hominis (7.09%, Staphylococcus xylosus (6,92 %, a Staphylococcus warneri (6.40 % were isolated also in ewes milk. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3.11 %, Staphylococcus capitis (2.94 %, Staphylococcus simulans (2.08 % and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1.73 % were isolated very rarely from the taken individual milk ewe samples. Sporadically, only in few cases, the others coagulase negative staphylococci were isolated (Staphylococcus cohnii cohnii, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus closii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus auricularis and Staphylococcus equorum.   doi:10.5219/24

  17. Diversity of mecA and ccrB in SCCmec type III of methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit;

    Background: Our research group recently showed that SCCmec type III is by far the most common type amongst methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) of animal origin, in particular isolates within the Staphylococcus sciuri-group (S. sciuri, S. vitulinus, S. lentus and S....... pseudintermedius (n=2), S. vitulinus (n=2), S. sciuri (n=2), S. haemolyticus (n=1) and S. equorum (n=1) harbouring SCCmec III elements was subjected to partial sequence analysis of mecA and ccrB according to previously published protocols (Oliveira et al., JAC, 2006; Stephens et al., AAC, 2007). The sequences were...... positions. As for ccrB, species-specific clustering of mecA sequences was not observed as exemplified by mecA allele 5 being present in four species (S. pseudintermedius, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus and S. vitulinus). Similarly, mecA allele 1 was found in three species (S. aureus, S. capitis and S...

  18. Genetic classification and distinguishing of Staphylococcus species based on different partial gap, 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, sodA, and tuf gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, B; Layer, F; König, W; König, B

    2008-03-01

    The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has been the technique generally used to study the evolution and taxonomy of staphylococci. However, the results of this method do not correspond to the results of polyphasic taxonomy, and the related species cannot always be distinguished from each other. Thus, new phylogenetic markers for Staphylococcus spp. are needed. We partially sequenced the gap gene (approximately 931 bp), which encodes the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, for 27 Staphylococcus species. The partial sequences had 24.3 to 96% interspecies homology and were useful in the identification of staphylococcal species (F. Layer, B. Ghebremedhin, W. König, and B. König, J. Microbiol. Methods 70:542-549, 2007). The DNA sequence similarities of the partial staphylococcal gap sequences were found to be lower than those of 16S rRNA (approximately 97%), rpoB (approximately 86%), hsp60 (approximately 82%), and sodA (approximately 78%). Phylogenetically derived trees revealed four statistically supported groups: S. hyicus/S. intermedius, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus/S. simulans, and S. aureus/epidermidis. The branching of S. auricularis, S. cohnii subsp. cohnii, and the heterogeneous S. saprophyticus group, comprising S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus and S. equorum subsp. equorum, was not reliable. Thus, the phylogenetic analysis based on the gap gene sequences revealed similarities between the dendrograms based on other gene sequences (e.g., the S. hyicus/S. intermedius and S. sciuri groups) as well as differences, e.g., the grouping of S. arlettae and S. kloosii in the gap-based tree. From our results, we propose the partial sequencing of the gap gene as an alternative molecular tool for the taxonomical analysis of Staphylococcus species and for decreasing the possibility of misidentification.

  19. Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface.

  20. L-methionine degradation potentialities of cheese-ripening microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnarme, P; Lapadatescu, C; Yvon, M; Spinnler, H E

    2001-11-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds are major flavouring compounds in many traditional fermented foods including cheeses. These compounds are products of the catabolism of L-methionine by cheese-ripening microorganisms. The diversity of L-methionine degradation by such microorganisms, however, remains to be characterized. The objective of this work was to compare the capacities to produce volatile sulphur compounds by five yeasts, Geotrichum candidum, Yarrowia lipolytica, Kluyveromyces lactis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and five bacteria, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus lutens and Staphylococcus equorum of technological interest for cheese-ripening. The ability of whole cells of these microorganisms to generate volatile sulphur compounds from L-methionine was compared. The microorganisms produced a wide spectrum of sulphur compounds including methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide, dimethyltrisulfide and also S-methylthioesters, which varied in amount and type according to strain. Most of the yeasts produced methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and dimethyltrisulfide but did not produce S-methylthioesters, apart from G. candidum that produced S-methyl thioacetate. Bacteria, especially Arth. sp. and Brevi. linens, produced the highest amounts and the greatest variety of volatile sulphur compounds includling methanethiol, sulfides and S-methylthioesters, e.g. S-methyl thioacetate, S-methyl thiobutyrate, S-methyl thiopropionate and S-methyl thioisovalerate. Cell-free extracts of all the yeasts and bacteria were examined for the activity of enzymes possibly involved in L-methionine catabolism, i.e. L-methionine demethiolase, L-methionine aminotransferase and L-methionine deaminase. They all possessed L-methionine demethiolase activity, while some (K. lactis, Deb. hansenii, Arth. sp., Staph. equorum) were deficient in L-methionine aminotransferase, and none produced L-methionine deaminase

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF DACIA SAUSAGE, A DRY CURED ROMANIAN SAUSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Simion Ciuciu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected starter cultures were used to produce the traditional Romanian dry cured sausage, Dacia. A control sausage was produced without starter culture (sausage A, one with L. sakei CECT 5964 and S. equorum SA25 (sausage B and one with L. sakei CECT 5964, S. equorum SA25 and L. acidophilus CECT 903 (sausage C. Samples from each batch of sausages were taken at 0 (mix before stuffing, and after 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Counts of total aerobic mesophilic flora, lactic acid bacteria, salt tolerant flora, and Enterobacteriaceae and some physical-chemical parameters (moisture, NaCl, pH and aw values were determined. High microbial counts (log CFU were observed with values at the end of ripening period: for lactic acid bacteria 9.77 (A, 11.47 (B and 11.19 (C; for total aerobic mesophilic flora 9.89 (A, 11.38 (B and 11.30 (C; for salt tolerant flora 4.45 (A, 5.31 (B and 5.27 (C. The starter cultures had a significant inhibitory effect on Enterobacteriaceae counts (log CFU, values at the end of ripening period being 1.32 (A, 0.33 (B and not detected (C. A significant decrease in the pH values is observed until the seventh day of ripening, showing a slight, but progressive increase after the 14th day of ripening. Results show that the production and ripening process in a pilot scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes in obtaining safe and homogeneous products.

  2. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Lindbom, Jenny; Andreasen, Line Lundberg; Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper

    2011-09-27

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined the prevalence of strongyle infection, the efficacy of ivermectin and fenbendazole treatment, and strongyle re-infection rates of working horses during the dry months in Nicaragua. One hundred and five horses used by farmers for transport of people and goods were randomly allocated into three treatment groups, i.e., the IVM group treated with ivermectin, the FBZ group treated with fenbendazole and the control group treated with placebo. Determined by pre-treatment faecal egg counts (FECs), horses showed a high prevalence (94%) of strongyle parasites with high intensities of infection (mean FEC of 1117 eggs per gram (EPG) with an SD of 860 EPG, n=102). Body condition scores of all horses ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 with a mean of 2.4 (scales 1-5). Fourteen days after treatment faecal egg count reductions (FECRs) were 100% and 94% in the IVM and the FBZ groups, respectively. The egg reappearance period (ERP) defined as the time until the mean FEC reached 20% of the pre-treatment level, was estimated as 42 days for the FBZ group and 60 days for the IVM group. Individual faecal cultures were set up and the larval differentiation revealed a 36% prevalence of Strongylus vulgaris before treatment (n=45). In the FBZ group, 25% of the horses were S. vulgaris-positive 70 days post treatment compared to 11% in the IVM group. Our results indicate that strongyle infection intensities in Nicaragua are high and that S. vulgaris is endemic in the area. Furthermore, efficacies and ERPs of IVM and FBZ were within the expected range with no signs of anthelmintic resistance.

  3. ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

    2009-01-01

    Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research.

  4. Markers/parameters for the evaluation of natural resistance status of small ruminants against gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddiqi, H A; Sarwar, M; Iqbal, Z; Nisa, M; Shahzad, M A

    2012-06-01

    The high prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) throughout the world has led to the need for alternative worm control strategies. One of the possible substitutes to reduce the problems of drug resistance and residue is the evaluation/breeding of small ruminants for greater resistance to the GINs (organically produced), which in turn would be a helpful tool to predict the performance of an animal. At present, the existing diversity in the genetic potential to resist/tolerate GINs infection both within and between breeds has been validated. Successful selection of animals to define the genotype and identified resistance is related to the employed markers. A number of phenotypic traits such as faecal egg count (FEC), worm burden, serum antibodies, peripheral eosinophilia, packed cell volume, live weight, serum protein and albumin concentrations have been used for this purpose both in natural and artificial infections. Relatively resistant/tolerant animals have also been found to have mastocytosis, globule leucocytes, high levels of histamine and immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgE concentrations. Of these traits, the principal and most practical measurement used to assess resistance status in animals undergoing similar parasite challenges is FEC. FEC has a positive/negative correlation with other biochemical, cellular and immunological parameters; however, the reliability of individual trial is often questioned and valuable information regarding the genetic makeup can be obtained from pooled data of a large number of trials and parameters. This paper covers all the aspects reported in the literature on various parameters considered to evaluate the resistance status of a range of small ruminant breeds.

  5. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambalathaduvar Meenakshisundaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01 inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently.

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Haemonchus spp. and other gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to benzimidazole in infected calves from the tropical regions of Campeche State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encalada-Mena, Lisandro; Tuyub-Solis, Henry; Ramirez-Vargas, Gabriel; Mendoza-de-Gives, Pedro; Aguilar-Marcelino, Liliana; López-Arellano, Ma Eugenia

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of anthelmintic resistance to benzimidazole (BZ) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) from naturally infected calves in the tropical regions of Campeche State of Mexico. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was conducted at 10 livestock farms localised in the Carmen, Candelaria, Champotón, Escárcega and Palizada municipalities of Campeche. The assessed anthelmintic was albendazole. The trial period was between August and November 2012. Infected calves were allocated into two groups, control and treated, on each farm. The number of eggs excreted per g of faeces was estimated by the McMaster technique at 0 and 14 days pre- and post- treatment, respectively. Recovered infective larvae (L3) (pre- and post-treatment) were identified using taxonomic keys and a genomic DNA (gDNA) template from a pool of L3 species prior to BZ treatment. Additionally, BZ-resistance polymorphisms in Haemonchus were determined by Allele Specific PCR (AS-PCR) at codon 200 and by end-point PCR at codons 200, 198 and 167 from isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Morphological identification revealed Haemonchus, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia and Oesophagostumum L3 species before BZ treatment, and Haemonchus and Cooperia L3 species after treatment. Additionally, of the GIN populations, three exhibited BZ resistance, and seven were BZ-susceptible by FECRT. Molecular analysis identified mutations in Haemonchus populations on nine farms at codon 200 (TTC to TAC) by AS-PCR, while no changes were observed at 167 (TTC to TAC) or 198 (GAA to GCA) codons in any population. In conclusion, resistance to BZ was determined in Haemonchus and Cooperia nematodes in infected cattle in five tropical regions of Campeche State.

  7. Proteomic analysis of Mecistocirrus digitatus and Haemonchus contortus intestinal protein extracts and subsequent efficacy testing in a vaccine trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J Dicker

    2014-06-01

    distribution are limited. The application of such a vaccine in these regions would reduce the need for anthelmintic treatment and the resultant selection for anthelmintic resistant parasites.

  8. Genetic variation in codons 167, 198 and 200 of the beta-tubulin gene in whipworms (Trichuris spp.) from a range of domestic animals and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V A; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2013-03-31

    A recurrent problem in the control of whipworm (Trichuris spp.) infections in many animal species and man is the relatively low efficacy of treatment with a single application of benzimidazoles (BZs). The presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in codons 167, 198 and 200 in the beta-tubulin gene has been associated with BZ anthelmintic resistance in intestinal nematodes of veterinary importance. We hypothesized that the low susceptibility to BZ could be related to a natural tolerance or induced resistance caused by BZ-resistant associated SNPs. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the presence of these SNPs in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichuris spp. obtained from a range of animals. DNA was extracted from a total of 121 Trichuris spp. adult whipworm specimens obtained from 6 different host species. The number of worms from each host was pig: 31, deer: 21, sheep: 18, mouse: 17, dog: 19 and Arabian camels: 14. A pooled sample of Trichuris eggs from 3 moose was also used. In order to amplify the beta-tubulin fragments which covered codons 167, 198 and 200 of the gene, degenerate primers were designed. The sequences obtained were used to design species specific primers and used to amplify a ~476 bp fragment of the beta-tubulin gene. The PCR products were sequenced, analysed and evaluated. We did not identify SNPs in codons 167, 198 or 200 that led to amino acid substitutions in any of the studied Trichuris spp., but genetic variation expected to be related to species differences was observed. The cluster analysis showed close evolutionary relationship between Trichuris spp. from ruminants and between mouse and dog whereas the pig-derived worms, T. suis, clustered with T. trichiura obtained from Genbank.

  9. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  10. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Artemisia lancea against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Dai, J L; Yang, L; Qiu, J

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged use of chemical anthelmintics has been found to result in anthelmintic resistance and environmental issues, thereby limiting the application of these drugs in domestic animals and prompting interest in the study of plant extracts as alternative sources thereof. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of the essential oil (EO) of Artemisia lancea against the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay, larval development assay, and larval migration inhibition assay. The EO yield of extraction was 0.63% (w/w), and the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (34.56%) and camphor (16.65%). In the egg hatch assay, an inhibition greater than 99% was observed with the EO at 10 mg mL(-1) and the LC50 was 1.82 mg mL(-1). 1,8-Cineole demonstrated moderate ovicidal activity with a LC50 of 4.64 mg mL(-1), whereas camphor did not show enough activity to have its LC50 determined. In the larval development assay, the EO, 1,8-cineole, and camphor inhibited 93.6%, 65.2%, and 57% of larval development at 10 mg mL(-1) and exhibited dose-dependent responses with LC50 values of 1.66, 5.07, and 7.80 mg mL(-1), respectively. In the migration inhibition assay, the EO and 1,8-cineole at best inhibited 77% and 60.3% of larval migration at 10 mg mL(-1), respectively. Camphor showed low inhibition capacity, and its efficacy was not dose dependent. The results indicate that the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the EO of A. lancea may be associated with the additive action of the two major constituents, as well as other more minor terpenoid components.

  11. Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the

  12. Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Studying the distribution of parasitic helminth body size across a population of definitive hosts can advance our understanding of parasite population biology. Body size is typically correlated with egg production. Consequently, inequalities in body size have been frequently measured to infer variation in reproductive success (VRS). Body size is also related to parasite age (time since entering the definitive host) and potentially provides valuable information on the mode of acquisition and establishment of immature (larval) parasites within the host: whether parasites tend to establish singly or in aggregates. The mode of acquisition of soil-transmitted helminths has been a theoretical consideration in the parasitological literature but has eluded data-driven investigation. In this paper, we analyse individual Ascaris lumbricoides weight data collected from a cohort of human hosts before and after re-infection following curative treatment, and explore its distribution within and among individuals in the population. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients indicate that levels of weight inequality (a proxy for VRS) in A.lumbricoides are lower than other published estimates from animal-helminth systems. We explore levels of intra-host weight aggregation using statistical models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) while adjusting for covariates using a flexible fractional polynomial transformation approach capable of handling non-linear functional relationships. The estimated ICCs indicate that weights are aggregated within hosts both at equilibrium and after re-infection, suggesting that parasites may establish within the host in clumps. The implications of a clumped infection process are discussed in terms of ascariasis transmission dynamics, control and anthelmintic resistance.

  13. Global Change and Helminth Infections in Grazing Ruminants in Europe: Impacts, Trends and Sustainable Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Hertzberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.

  14. Characterization of Haemonchus contortus P-glycoprotein-16 and its interaction with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Che, H; Beech, R N; Prichard, R K

    2015-11-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in veterinary nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus, has become a limitation to maintaining high standards of animal health. Resistance in this parasite, to all drug families including the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) is a serious issue worldwide. Mechanisms of resistance to the MLs appear to be complex and to include the elimination of these compounds by ABC transporter-like proteins present in nematodes. In order to investigate the potential involvement of ABC transporters in ML resistance in H. contortus, we have characterized the functionality of the ABC transporter H. contortus P-glycoprotein-16 (Hco-PGP-16) expressed in mammalian cells. This has included a study of its interaction with different MLs, including the avermectins, abamectin (ABA) and ivermectin (IVM), and the milbemycin, moxidectin (MOX). Hco-PGP-16 transport activity was studied using the fluorophore Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123). Transfected cells expressing Hco-PGP-16 accumulated less than 50% of Rho 123 than control cells, suggesting an active transport of this tracer dye by Hco-PGP-16. The influence of the MLs on the Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16 was then investigated. A marked inhibition of Rho123 transport by ABA and IVM was observed. In contrast, MOX showed less effect on inhibition of Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16, and the inhibition was not saturable. The difference in the interaction of the avermectins and MOX with Hco-PGP-16 may help explain the slower rate of development of resistance to MOX compared with the avermectins in H. contortus.

  15. Efficacy and productive performance of moxidectin in feedlot calves infected with nematodes resistant to ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, L E; Streitenberger, N; Galvan, W R; Sánchez, R O; Gimeno, E J; Sanabria, R E F

    2016-06-15

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) of gastrointestinal nematodes to macrocyclic lactones is an increasingly common worldwide phenomenon limiting cattle production. This has motivated the search for alternatives, such as new active compounds, added drug synergisms, different doses, and alternate administration routes. The aim of this study was the assessment of moxidectin (MXD) performance in feedlot calves with a history of AR to ivermectin (IVM). Crossbred female calves aged 6-7 months and weighing 163kg (SD=34kg) were divided into 3 groups of 35 animals each. They were assigned to the following antiparasitic treatment groups: IVM group (0.2mg/kg IVM); MXD group (0.2mg/kg MXD), and ricobendazole+levamisole (RBZ+LEV) group (7.5mg/kg RBZ+8mg/kg LEV). On days 0, 26, and 47, fecal samples were taken and the weight of each animal was registered. Anthelmintic efficacy (by fecal egg count reduction), total weight gain (TWG) and average daily weight gain (AWG) were compared between the groups. A mixed SAS procedure was used for statistical analysis. Fecal egg count reduction 26 days post-treatment (PT) was calculated at 28% for the IVM group, 85% for the MXD group, and 99% for the RBZ+LEV group. AWGs (Standard Error) of 1.095g (56), 1.264g (49), and 1.340g (52) were registered for the IVM, MXD, and RBZ+LEV groups, respectively (p<0.05). Coprocultures revealed that MXD more effectively reduced Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. egg counts than IVM. This resulted in higher AWGs and TWGs for this group; similar results were seen for the RBZ+LEV group as well. In this study, animals treated with MXD gained about 160 more g/day than animals treated with IVM. This represents a gain of 16 USD per animal over the 47 day trial.

  16. Introgression of ivermectin resistance genes into a susceptible Haemonchus contortus strain by multiple backcrossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Elizabeth; Sargison, Neil; Whitelaw, Fiona; Jackson, Frank; Morrison, Alison; Bartley, David Jon; Gilleard, John Stuart

    2012-02-01

    Anthelmintic drug resistance in livestock parasites is already widespread and in recent years there has been an increasing level of anthelmintic drug selection pressure applied to parasitic nematode populations in humans leading to concerns regarding the emergence of resistance. However, most parasitic nematodes, particularly those of humans, are difficult experimental subjects making mechanistic studies of drug resistance extremely difficult. The small ruminant parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is a more amenable model system to study many aspects of parasite biology and investigate the basic mechanisms and genetics of anthelmintic drug resistance. Here we report the successful introgression of ivermectin resistance genes from two independent ivermectin resistant strains, MHco4(WRS) and MHco10(CAVR), into the susceptible genome reference strain MHco3(ISE) using a backcrossing approach. A panel of microsatellite markers were used to monitor the procedure. We demonstrated that after four rounds of backcrossing, worms that were phenotypically resistant to ivermectin had a similar genetic background to the susceptible reference strain based on the bulk genotyping with 18 microsatellite loci and individual genotyping with a sub-panel of 9 microsatellite loci. In addition, a single marker, Hcms8a20, showed evidence of genetic linkage to an ivermectin resistance-conferring locus providing a starting point for more detailed studies of this genomic region to identify the causal mutation(s). This work presents a novel genetic approach to study anthelmintic resistance and provides a "proof-of-concept" of the use of forward genetics in an important model strongylid parasite of relevance to human hookworms. The resulting strains provide valuable resources for candidate gene studies, whole genome approaches and for further genetic analysis to identify ivermectin resistance loci.

  17. Glutamate-gated chloride channels of Haemonchus contortus restore drug sensitivity to ivermectin resistant Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Glendinning

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem in livestock farming, especially of small ruminants, but our understanding of it has been limited by the difficulty in carrying out functional genetic studies on parasitic nematodes. An important nematode infecting sheep and goats is Haemonchus contortus; in many parts of the world this species is resistant to almost all the currently available drugs, including ivermectin. It is extremely polymorphic and to date it has proved impossible to relate any sequence polymorphisms to its ivermectin resistance status. Expression of candidate drug-resistance genes in Caenorhabditis elegans could provide a convenient means to study the effects of polymorphisms found in resistant parasites, but may be complicated by differences between the gene families of target and model organisms. We tested this using the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl gene family, which forms the ivermectin drug target and are candidate resistance genes. We expressed GluCl subunits from C. elegans and H. contortus in a highly resistant triple mutant C. elegans strain (DA1316 under the control of the avr-14 promoter; expression of GFP behind this promoter recapitulated the pattern previously reported for avr-14. Expression of ivermectin-sensitive subunits from both species restored drug sensitivity to transgenic worms, though some quantitative differences were noted between lines. Expression of an ivermectin-insensitive subunit, Hco-GLC-2, had no effect on drug sensitivity. Expression of a previously uncharacterised parasite-specific subunit, Hco-GLC-6, caused the transgenic worms to become ivermectin sensitive, suggesting that this subunit also encodes a GluCl that responds to the drug. These results demonstrate that both orthologous and paralogous subunits from C. elegans and H. contortus are able to rescue the ivermectin sensitivity of mutant C. elegans, though some quantitative differences were observed between transgenic lines in

  18. Introgression of ivermectin resistance genes into a susceptible Haemonchus contortus strain by multiple backcrossing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Redman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic drug resistance in livestock parasites is already widespread and in recent years there has been an increasing level of anthelmintic drug selection pressure applied to parasitic nematode populations in humans leading to concerns regarding the emergence of resistance. However, most parasitic nematodes, particularly those of humans, are difficult experimental subjects making mechanistic studies of drug resistance extremely difficult. The small ruminant parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is a more amenable model system to study many aspects of parasite biology and investigate the basic mechanisms and genetics of anthelmintic drug resistance. Here we report the successful introgression of ivermectin resistance genes from two independent ivermectin resistant strains, MHco4(WRS and MHco10(CAVR, into the susceptible genome reference strain MHco3(ISE using a backcrossing approach. A panel of microsatellite markers were used to monitor the procedure. We demonstrated that after four rounds of backcrossing, worms that were phenotypically resistant to ivermectin had a similar genetic background to the susceptible reference strain based on the bulk genotyping with 18 microsatellite loci and individual genotyping with a sub-panel of 9 microsatellite loci. In addition, a single marker, Hcms8a20, showed evidence of genetic linkage to an ivermectin resistance-conferring locus providing a starting point for more detailed studies of this genomic region to identify the causal mutation(s. This work presents a novel genetic approach to study anthelmintic resistance and provides a "proof-of-concept" of the use of forward genetics in an important model strongylid parasite of relevance to human hookworms. The resulting strains provide valuable resources for candidate gene studies, whole genome approaches and for further genetic analysis to identify ivermectin resistance loci.

  19. Glutamate-gated chloride channels of Haemonchus contortus restore drug sensitivity to ivermectin resistant Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, Susan K; Buckingham, Steven D; Sattelle, David B; Wonnacott, Susan; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2011-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem in livestock farming, especially of small ruminants, but our understanding of it has been limited by the difficulty in carrying out functional genetic studies on parasitic nematodes. An important nematode infecting sheep and goats is Haemonchus contortus; in many parts of the world this species is resistant to almost all the currently available drugs, including ivermectin. It is extremely polymorphic and to date it has proved impossible to relate any sequence polymorphisms to its ivermectin resistance status. Expression of candidate drug-resistance genes in Caenorhabditis elegans could provide a convenient means to study the effects of polymorphisms found in resistant parasites, but may be complicated by differences between the gene families of target and model organisms. We tested this using the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) gene family, which forms the ivermectin drug target and are candidate resistance genes. We expressed GluCl subunits from C. elegans and H. contortus in a highly resistant triple mutant C. elegans strain (DA1316) under the control of the avr-14 promoter; expression of GFP behind this promoter recapitulated the pattern previously reported for avr-14. Expression of ivermectin-sensitive subunits from both species restored drug sensitivity to transgenic worms, though some quantitative differences were noted between lines. Expression of an ivermectin-insensitive subunit, Hco-GLC-2, had no effect on drug sensitivity. Expression of a previously uncharacterised parasite-specific subunit, Hco-GLC-6, caused the transgenic worms to become ivermectin sensitive, suggesting that this subunit also encodes a GluCl that responds to the drug. These results demonstrate that both orthologous and paralogous subunits from C. elegans and H. contortus are able to rescue the ivermectin sensitivity of mutant C. elegans, though some quantitative differences were observed between transgenic lines in some assays. C

  20. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy and management practices in sheep farms from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; da Rocha, Letícia Oliveira; Arruda, Sabrina Santos; Palieraqui, Jorge Guilherme Bergottini; Cordeiro, Rudymilla Cunha; Santos, Edizio; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Santos, Clóvis de Paula

    2010-06-24

    Anthelmintic resistance in parasites maybe a consequence of over-exposing populations of parasites to drugs or from the commerce/transit of animals harboring resistant parasites. Knowledge of the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintics is essential to establish an efficient integrated program of parasite control. In Brazil, producers rely on technology transfer from field professionals and non-technical labor for new management strategies of parasite control. The aim of this work was to determine the practices farmers used for anthelmintic management and to monitor drug efficacy on sheep farms from northern and northwestern regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A questionnaire was sent to 34 farms, and anthelmintics were tested on ten of these farms. Sheep (n=10/group) were weighed and treated with albendazole, closantel, doramectin, fenbendazole, ivermectin, levamisole, moxidectin, or nitroxynil with their recommended doses. Faeces were collected on the day of treatment and after 7-10 days. The faecal egg count reduction test was evaluated based on RESO 2.0. Among the farmers interviewed, 97% applied commercial anthelmintics to control parasites, 77% rotated anthelmintics annually, 72% used ivermectin as the principal anthelmintic, and 38% applied anthelmintics with a frequency of 30-60 days. On two farms, none of the anthelmintics was efficacious. Levamisole had the best overall efficacy (70%). Albendazole, ivermectin, and fenbendazole were efficacious (above 95%) on only two farms. The present work illustrates the alarming lack of efficacy of drugs even in an area new to sheep farming. It is important to establish alternative strategies of management in a broad program of parasite control for reducing the selection pressure on parasites by the commercially available anthelmintics.

  2. Thymus capitatus from Tunisian arid zone: chemical composition and in vitro anthelmintic effects on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker Elandalousi, Ramzi; Akkari, Hafidh; B'chir, Fatma; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Awadi, Soufia; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-10-18

    The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistant strains of helminths, the drug residues in animal products and the high cost of conventional anthelmintics has created an interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Thymus capitatus (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) is used traditionally by people as spices and reported to possess some biological effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of T. capitatus in comparison to albendazole against the gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. To fulfil the objectives, in vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and crude ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of T. capitatus were investigated on the eggs and adults of the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of T. capitatus completely inhibited egg hatching at a concentration close to 2 mg/ml. LC₅₀ of ethanolic extract of T. capitatus was 0.368 mg/ml while that of aqueous extract was 6.344 mg/ml (p<0.05). The ethanolic extract showed higher in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one in terms of the paralysis and/or death of the worms at different hours post-treatment. Dose dependent effect was observed for both extracts. Chemical analyses revealed that the overall profile of both extracts was dominated by oxygenated constituents. In addition, ethanolic extract is mainly composed of phenols among which thymol (71.22%) and camphor (17.18%). As far as the literature could be ascertained, this is the first publication on anthelmintic activity of T. capitatus. The results of the present study suggest that T. capitatus extracts are a promising alternative to the commercially available anthelmintics like albendazole for the treatment of small ruminants' gastrointestinal nematodes.

  3. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test

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    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (p<0.0001 and provided to be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the resistance status of IVM and MOX in H. contortus field isolate, as well as it may be used for official routine drug monitoring programs under the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA guidance.

  4. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia Rashid; Malik Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms, Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus, and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD. Methods: The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method. Results: The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms. Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites. The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden. Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity (P Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery. The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack. SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world. The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential. One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could be exploited for further studies on diagnostic/control measures.

  5. Utilization of computer processed high definition video imaging for measuring motility of microscopic nematode stages on a quantitative scale: “The Worminator”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Storey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A major hindrance to evaluating nematode populations for anthelmintic resistance, as well as for screening existing drugs, new compounds, or bioactive plant extracts for anthelmintic properties, is the lack of an efficient, objective, and reproducible in vitro assay that is adaptable to multiple life stages and parasite genera. To address this need we have developed the “Worminator” system, which objectively and quantitatively measures the motility of microscopic stages of parasitic nematodes. The system is built around the computer application “WormAssay”, developed at the Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco. WormAssay was designed to assess motility of macroscopic parasites for the purpose of high throughput screening of potential anthelmintic compounds, utilizing high definition video as an input to assess motion of adult stage (macroscopic parasites (e.g. Brugia malayi. We adapted this assay for use with microscopic parasites by modifying the software to support a full frame analysis mode that applies the motion algorithm to the entire video frame. Thus, the motility of all parasites in a given well are recorded and measured simultaneously. Assays performed on third-stage larvae (L3 of the bovine intestinal nematode Cooperia spp., as well as microfilariae (mf of the filarioid nematodes B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis, yielded reproducible dose responses using the macrocyclic lactones ivermectin, doramectin, and moxidectin, as well as the nicotinic agonists, pyrantel, oxantel, morantel, and tribendimidine. This new computer based-assay is simple to use, requires minimal new investment in equipment, is robust across nematode genera and developmental stage, and does not require subjective scoring of motility by an observer. Thus, the “Worminator” provides a relatively low-cost platform for developing genera- and stage-specific assays with high efficiency and

  6. Assessment of flukicide efficacy against Fasciola hepatica in sheep in Sweden in the absence of a standardised test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Novobilský

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance (AR to Fasciola hepatica is emerging worldwide. Recently, AR to the adulticide compound albendazole (ABZ was shown in Argentina and Spain. In Sweden, ABZ treatment failure against F. hepatica was first reported in sheep in 2012. The present study tested the efficacy of ABZ and triclabendazole (TCBZ in sheep naturally infected with F. hepatica using a combination of three different diagnostic methods: faecal egg counts (FEC, coproantigen ELISA (cELISA and Fasciola egg hatch test (FEHT. Two deworming trials, in November 2014 and January 2015, were performed on two sheep farms (farms A and B in south-western Sweden. Except ABZ in November, treatment with ABZ or TCBZ achieved sufficient efficacy (97–100% against adult F. hepatica on farm A. In contrast, ABZ treatment failed in the sheep flock on farm B, despite low initial faecal egg output. On farm B, ABZ efficacy based on FEC was 67% (95% CI: 35–84 and four of eight ewes tested were coproantigen-positive 21 days post-treatment. Ovicidal activity of ABZ against Fasciola eggs in isolates from both farms and one additional bovine isolate were tested by FEHT to exclude the presence of juvenile flukes and other factors such as dosing failure and poor quality of drug product. Irrespective of drug trial, data from FEHT showed significantly lower ovicidal activity of ABZ for the ovine farm B isolate than for the isolate from farm A. This confirms that the low efficacy of ABZ in sheep flock B was associated with ABZ resistance. Overall, the usefulness of three complementary methods for detection of ABZ resistance in the field was demonstrated.

  7. Efficacy of closantel against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. in sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westers, T; Jones-Bitton, A; Menzies, P; Van Leeuwen, J; Poljak, Z; Peregrine, A S

    2016-09-15

    flock treated farm, closantel efficacy in grazing lambs was 84% (95%CI: 81%-88%) in the first year, but 100% in the second year. Levamisole was effective against overall GIN in lambs on only two farms. Ivermectin and fenbendazole resistance continued to be present, particularly in Haemonchus sp. Closantel had excellent efficacy against Haemonchus sp. over the two year study period, regardless of treatment group, and therefore should be considered one viable component of sustainable integrated parasite control programs for farms with documented anthelmintic resistance and problems with haemonchosis.

  8. Prevalence of drug-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in an organized sheep farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambalathaduvar Meenakshisundaram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the resistance against albendazole, fenbendazole, levamisole and closantel in gastrointestinal (GI nematodes of sheep. Introduction: Anthelmintics are used traditionally as an integral part of helminthic control strategies for grazing livestock to prevent production losses from parasitic infections. The continuous and indiscriminate use of the same anthelmintics over years together as the sole means of control are now failing due to the emergence of resistance strains of helminths. Resistance to the commonly used anthelmintics in GI nematodes of sheep has become an increasingly widespread problem throughout the world. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five naturally infected Madras Red lambs of 6-12 months of age were selected and distributed randomly into five treatment groups of 11 animals each. Four groups were treated orally with albendazole (5 mg/kg, fenbendazole (7 mg/kg, levamisole (7.5 mg/kg and closantel (10 mg/kg respectively, whereas the fifth group served as untreated control. Fecal samples were collected per rectum of each lamb just prior to treatment (pre-treatment and on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. The anthelmintic resistance was evaluated by in vivo fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT, post-treatment larval culture and in vitro egg hatch assay. Results: In the FECRT, albendazole reduced the faecal egg count by 86.50%, 84.81%, 85.28% and 84.47% respectively for 4 weeks after treatment. Fecal egg count reduction using fenbendazole was 92.64, 93.04, 90.80 and 90.06% respectively for 4 weeks after treatment. The percent efficacy for levamisole and closantel was more than 95%. The post-treatment larval culture contained only Haemonchus contortus. In the in vitro egg hatch assay, the ED50 value for benzimidazole was 0.299 μg albendazole/ml and levamisole showed an ED50 value of 0.283 μg/ml. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the resistance of H. contortus to benzimidazole in sheep. .

  9. In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of inhibitors of phosphoethanolamine Methyltransferases in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witola, William H; Matthews, Kwame; McHugh, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The essential phosphobase methylation pathway for synthesis of phosphocholine is unique to nematodes, protozoa and plants, and thus an attractive antiparasitic molecular target. Herein, we screened compounds from the National Cancer Institute (Developmental Therapeutics Program Open Chemical Repository) for specific inhibitory activity against Haemonchus contortus phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases (HcPMT1 and HcPMT2), and tested candidate compounds for anthelmintic activity against adult and third-stage larvae of H. contortus. We identified compound NSC-641296 with IC50 values of 8.3 ± 1.1 μM and 5.1 ± 1.8 μM for inhibition of the catalytic activity of HcPMT1 alone and HcPMT1/HcPMT2 combination, respectively. Additionally we identified compound NSC-668394 with inhibitory IC50 values of 5.9 ± 0.9 μM and 2.8 ± 0.6 μM for HcPMT1 alone and HcPMT1/HcPMT2 combination, respectively. Of the two compounds, NSC-641296 depicted significant anthelmintic activity against third-stage larvae (IC50 = 15 ± 2.9 μM) and adult stages (IC50 = 7 ± 2.9 μM) of H. contortus, with optimal effective in vitro concentrations being 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively, lower than its cytotoxic IC50 (29 ± 2.1 μM) in a mammalian cell line. Additionally, we identified two compounds, NSC-158011 and NSC-323241, with low inhibitory activity against the combined activity of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2, but both compounds did not show any anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The identification of NSC-641296 that specifically inhibits a unique biosynthetic pathway in H. contortus and has anthelmintic activity against both larval and adult stages of H. contortus, provides impetus for the development of urgently needed new efficacious anthelmintics to address the prevailing problem of anthelmintic-resistant H. contortus.

  10. Novel insights in the faecal egg count reduction test for monitoring drug efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes of veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B; Dobson, R J; Speybroeck, N; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J

    2012-09-10

    The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the method of choice to monitor anthelmintic efficacy against gastro-intestinal nematodes in livestock. Guidelines on how to conduct a FECRT are made available by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). Since the publication of these guidelines in the early 1990 s, some limitations have been noted, including (i) the ignorance of host-parasite interactions that depend on animal and parasite species, (ii) their feasibility under field conditions, (iii) appropriateness of study design, and (iv) the high detection limit of the recommended faecal egg count (FEC) method. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to empirically assess the impact of the level of excretion and aggregation of FEC, sample size and detection limit of the FEC method on the sensitivity and specificity of the FECRT to detect reduced efficacy (<90% or <95%) and to develop recommendations for surveys on anthelmintic resistance. A simulation study was performed in which the FECRT (based on the arithmetic mean of grouped FEC of the same animals before and after drug administration) was conducted under varying conditions of mean FEC, aggregation of FEC (inversely correlated with k), sample size, detection limit and 'true' drug efficacies. Classification trees were built to explore the impact of the above factors on the sensitivity and specificity of detecting a truly reduced efficacy. For a reduced-efficacy threshold of 90%, most combinations resulted in a reliable detection of reduced and normal efficacy. For the reduced-efficacy threshold of 95% however, unreliable FECRT results were found when sample sizes <15 were combined with highly aggregated FEC (k=0.25) and detection limits ≥ 5 EPG or when combined with detection limits ≥ 15 EPG. Overall, an increase in sample size and mean preDA FEC, and a decrease in detection limit improved the diagnostic accuracy. FECRT remained inconclusive under any

  11. Detection of benzimidazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats of sub-Himalyan region of northern India using different tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rialch, Ajayta; Vatsya, Stuti; Kumar, Rajeev Ranjan

    2013-12-06

    threshold LC50 value could not be established as for EHA but LDA indicated the presence of low level of resistance in GIN of both sheep and goats. For effective worm control, regular monitoring for anthelmintic resistance is important to know the status of anthelmintic efficacy in a particular agro-climatic zone. The baseline information thus generated will enable timely management of benzimidazoles resistance in GIN.

  12. Breeding for resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes - the potential in low-input/output small ruminant production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Muchadeyi, F C; Matika, O; Riggio, V; Dzama, K

    2016-07-30

    The control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is mainly based on the use of drugs, grazing management, use of copper oxide wire particles and bioactive forages. Resistance to anthelmintic drugs in small ruminants is documented worldwide. Host genetic resistance to parasites, has been increasingly used as a complementary control strategy, along with the conventional intervention methods mentioned above. Genetic diversity in resistance to GIN has been well studied in experimental and commercial flocks in temperate climates and more developed economies. However, there are very few report outputs from the more extensive low-input/output smallholder systems in developing and emerging countries. Furthermore, results on quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with nematode resistance from various studies have not always been consistent, mainly due to the different nematodes studied, different host breeds, ages, climates, natural infections versus artificial challenges, infection level at sampling periods, among others. The increasing use of genetic markers (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, SNPs) in GWAS or the use of whole genome sequence data and a plethora of analytic methods offer the potential to identify loci or regions associated nematode resistance. Genomic selection as a genome-wide level method overcomes the need to identify candidate genes. Benefits in genomic selection are now being realised in dairy cattle and sheep under commercial settings in the more advanced countries. However, despite the commercial benefits of using these tools, there are practical problems associated with incorporating the use of marker-assisted selection or genomic selection in low-input/output smallholder farming systems breeding schemes. Unlike anthelmintic resistance, there is no empirical evidence suggesting that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant hosts. The strategy of nematode control has evolved to a more practical manipulation of host-parasite equilibrium

  13. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to the most commonly used anthelmintics in sheep, cattle and horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Geurden, T; Bartram, D J; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Bohórquez, A; Florez, E; Meana, A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminants and horses in Spain. The efficacy of commonly used macrocyclic lactones (MLs) - ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) - was measured in sheep, cattle and horses. In addition, albendazole (ABZ) and levamisole (LEV) were evaluated in sheep and oxibendazole (OXI) and pyrantel (PYR) in horses. Efficacy was evaluated based on the difference between the arithmetic mean pre- and post-treatment faecal egg count (in cattle and horses), or compared to an untreated control group (in sheep). AR was present when the percentage reduction in egg count was <95% and the lower 95% confidence interval (CI) was <90%; if only one of these two criteria was met, the finding was recorded as suspected AR (SAR). In horses, AR-PYR and OXI was considered when the percentage reduction in egg count was ≤ 90% and the lower 95% CI was ≤ 80%. For each animal species, at least 10 study sites were selected. AR to at least one of the drugs was detected in all 10 sheep flocks; the main parasite identified after treatment was Teladorsagia circumcincta. Moreover, in 5 flocks multidrug resistance was identified, on 4 farms to drugs from different families, on one farm to both MOX and IVM and on another farm to all drugs tested. In cattle, the efficacy of both MOX and IVM was 100% on 4 and 3 farms, respectively, and therefore 60% of these farms were considered to have AR or SAR to both MLs. The most frequent parasite identified after treatment was Trichostrongylus spp., although Ostertagia ostertagi was also identified after treatment on one farm. In contrast to ruminants, the 4 drugs evaluated in horses were highly efficacious against strongyles, with efficacies for the MLs and OXI between 95 and 100% and between 94 and 100% for PYR, although 3 herds were SAR against PYR. In conclusion, AR to at least one of the commonly used drugs was identified on all sheep flocks investigated in the northwest of

  14. Epidemiological Intelligence for Grazing Management in Strategic Control of Parasitic Gastroenteritis in Small Ruminants in India AND#8211; A Review

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    Sadaf Bukhari and Prabir Kumar Sanyal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of the environmental and consumer concerns arising out of exponential growth in human population the world over, a term Sustainable Development has become an integral international concept, which is defined as one which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Ruminant animals appear sustainable as they do not compete with man for food, play a crucial role in the conversion of low quality plant material and crop residues to high quality human food as well as return valuable plant nutrients to the soil. Parasite control in ruminant livestock is a first-order input in any sustainable animal production system. As sustainable development is a compromise between reducing environmental degradation and positive economic growth, sustainable parasite control should aim towards less intensive, lower input, lesser risk of parasite induced losses with greater opportunities for integration of all available control resources. The compound scenario of rising anthelmintic resistance, food and environmental security and apathy of the pharmaceutical industry to go for the invention of new anthelmintic compounds has triggered the need for optimising the use of available anthelmintics with integration of all other alternative means for sustainable worm control. The “Sustainable Control of Parasitic Gastroenteritis in Ruminants” is thus encompasses a multidisciplinary approach involving integration of chemotherapy, grazing management, biological control, worm vaccines, genetic resistance of hosts, mathematical model based decision support and other strategies, if any. There is no single requirement more crucial to the rational and sustainable control of helminth parasites in grazing animals than a comprehensive knowledge of the epidemiology of the parasite as it interacts with the host in a specific climatic, management and production environment. In its absence, anthelmintic treatment

  15. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of condensed tannins on gastrointestinal nematode infestations in sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep result in significant costs to farmers. These infestations are controlled using synthetic anthelmintic treatments, which can result in the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. The use of plants rich in condensed tannins (CTs is a promising alternative for controlling infestations of harmful parasites in sheep, and could allow reduction of the chemical products used. This study investigated the in vitro effect of CTs from Acacia mearnsii extract (AE on egg hatching and motility of third-stage larvae. Egg-hatching rate was measured after incubation with extracts for 48 h at 27 °C. The egg hatch test was performed with dilutions of 0.09, 0.19, 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. Distilled water was used as the negative control. The corresponding egg hatching inhibition percentages were 22.3, 32.3, 39.2, 49.1, 56.7, 59.0, 62.3, 77.3, 92.7, 98.3, and 100%. The concentration required to inhibit egg hatching in 50% of eggs (LC50 was 2.85 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 7.06%. A larval migration inhibition test was carried out after incubation with the extracts for 48 h at 27 oC, with AE and distilled water used in dilutions of 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. The corresponding percentages of migration inhibition were 16.5, 37.0, 56.3, 79.4, 91.8, and 97.1%. The concentration required to inhibit migration of 50% of larvae (LC50 was 12.45 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 8.53%. The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of CTs from AE indicate the anthelmintic effect of AE, suggesting the potential of CT extracts to be used as alternatives for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infestations in small ruminants.

  16. Use of a multiple choice questionnaire to assess UK prescribing channels' knowledge of helminthology and best practice surrounding anthelmintic use in livestock and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Stephanie; Bartley, David J; Hotchkiss, Emily; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-06-01

    Grazing livestock and equines are at risk of infection from a variety of helminths, for which the primary method of control has long been the use of anthelmintics. Anthelmintic resistance is now widespread in a number of helminth species across the globe so it is imperative that best practice control principles be adopted to delay the further spread of resistance. It is the responsibility of all who prescribe anthelmintics (in the UK, this being veterinarians, suitably qualified persons (SQPs) and pharmacists) to provide adequate information on best practice approaches to parasite control at the point of purchase. Poor uptake of best practice guidelines at farm level has been documented; this could be due to a lack of, or inappropriate, advice at the point of anthelmintics purchase. Therefore, the aim here was to evaluate levels of basic knowledge of helminthology, best practice guidelines and dispensing legislation among veterinarians and SQPs in the UK, through a Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) test, that was distributed online via targeted emails and social media sites. For each respondent, the percentage correct was determined (for the MCQ test overall and for subsections) and the results analysed initially using parametric and non-parametric statistics to compare differences between prescribing channels. The results showed that channels generally performed well; veterinarians achieved a mean total percentage correct of 79.7% (range 34.0-100%) and SQPs, a mean total percentage correct of 75.8% (range 38.5-100%) (p=0.051). The analysis indicated that veterinarians performed better in terms of knowledge of basic helminthology (p=0.001), whilst the SQP group performed better on legislation type questions (p=0.032). There was no significant difference in knowledge levels of best practice between the two channels. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that veterinarians and those answering equine questions only performed significantly better than those

  17. Pooling sheep faecal samples for the assessment of anthelmintic drug efficacy using McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC in gastrointestinal strongyle and Nematodirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Fiona; Rinaldi, Laura; McBean, Dave; Pepe, Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Melville, Lynsey; Devin, Leigh; Mitchell, Gillian; Ianniello, Davide; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Levecke, Bruno

    2016-07-30

    In small ruminants, faecal egg counts (FECs) and reduction in FECs (FECR) are the most common methods for the assessment of intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infections and anthelmintic drug efficacy, respectively. The main limitation of these methods is the time and cost to conduct FECs on a representative number of individual animals. A cost-saving alternative would be to examine pooled faecal samples, however little is known regarding whether pooling can give representative results. In the present study, we compared the FECR results obtained by both an individual and a pooled examination strategy across different pool sizes and analytical sensitivity of the FEC techniques. A survey was conducted on 5 sheep farms in Scotland, where anthelmintic resistance is known to be widespread. Lambs were treated with fenbendazole (4 groups), levamisole (3 groups), ivermectin (3 groups) or moxidectin (1 group). For each group, individual faecal samples were collected from 20 animals, at baseline (D0) and 14 days after (D14) anthelmintic administration. Faecal samples were analyzed as pools of 3-5, 6-10, and 14-20 individual samples. Both individual and pooled samples were screened for GI strongyle and Nematodirus eggs using two FEC techniques with three different levels of analytical sensitivity, including Mini-FLOTAC (analytical sensitivity of 10 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)) and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 or 50 EPG).For both Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 EPG), there was a perfect agreement in classifying the efficacy of the anthelmintic as 'normal', 'doubtful' or 'reduced' regardless of pool size. When using the McMaster method (analytical sensitivity of 50 EPG) anthelmintic efficacy was often falsely classified as 'normal' or assessment was not possible due to zero FECs at D0, and this became more pronounced when the pool size increased. In conclusion, pooling ovine faecal samples holds promise as a cost-saving and efficient

  18. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Rashid; Malik; Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms,Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus,and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD.Methods:The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method.Results:The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms.Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites.The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden.Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity(P<0.05) was observed in the heavily infected host tissue in comparison to the control non-infected host tissue.SOD profile of the crude extracts of both the sexes revealed polymorphism and a fast migrating activity band being characteristic of E/S products.The SOD activities were found highly sensitive to potassium cyanide indicating the Cu/Zn form of SOD.Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery.The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack.SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world.The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential.One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could

  19. Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Claudia; True, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Clients want dependable veterinary care and to understand how the services will benefit and meet their horse’s needs. Wellness visits provide ambulatory practitioners with great opportunities to strengthen the doctor-client-patient bond; effective communication with clients during wellness visits, where new literature or facts can be presented, can offer opportunities for demonstrating the value of having the veterinarian maintain a primary role in disease control. The criteria for selecting vaccines, interpreting FECs, and diagnosing dental pathology require the continued need for veterinary involvement. When providing wellness services, veterinarians should discuss those services, the reasons for them, as well as the possibility of adverse reactions. In so doing, the veterinarian is able to clearly distinguish himself or herself from a technician who is merely giving a "shot." Although some of these services can be performed by clients and lay professionals, the knowledge and training that veterinarians bring to these tasks add benefits to the horse beyond the services provided. For example, by targeting treatment and conveying the goals and limitations of FECs and deworming to clients, the speed at which anthelmintic resistance occurs will be diminished, and veterinarians will regain control over equine parasite management. Additional client education, such as demonstrating dental pathology to clients and how veterinary treatment benefits their horse, will not only improve the health of the horse further but also solidify the veterinarian’s role in preventative medicine. While all components of a wellness program were not detailed here, services such as nutritional consultation, blood work, and lameness evaluation should be offered based on the practice’s equine population. With the increasing population of geriatric horses, dentistry, nutrition, blood work, and lameness should be assessed annually or biannually. Each practice has its own set of criteria

  20. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  1. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Smyth, E; Acharya, M

    2016-01-15

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remains a critical issue due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources and a combination of COWP and albendazole to control GIN and/or Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin lambs in early June 2014 and 2015 were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n=9 and 12) or 2g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure(®) (COP; n=4 and 17; Animax Ltd.), copper oxide-wire form (AUS; n=7 in 2014 only; Pharmplex), Ultracruz™ (ULT; n=8 and 15; Santa Cruz Animal Health™), no COWP and albendazole (CON+alb; n=10 in 2015 only; 15mg/kg BW; Valbazen(®); Zoetis Animal Health), or COWP+alb (n=7 and 11; in 2014, lambs were administered alb on day 3). Lambs grazed grass pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% crude protein) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled (2014) or pooled treatment group feces were cultured on days 0, 7, and 14 (2015 only) to determine GIN genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was H. contortus (87%) in 2014, and there was a mixed population in 2015. The mean FEC was reduced by day 7 in AUS and ULT lambs (treatment×day, P=0.001), and all of the COWP products were similar. By day 14, the AUS FEC were lower than the CON and COP groups. When examining the combination of COWP and synthetic anthelmintic, the FEC of COWP+alb were reduced to nearly 0eggs/g (back-transformed) and lower than the other groups (treatment×day, P=0.001). The percentage of H. contortus in cultured feces was reduced to a greater extent in the COWP than CON or CON+alb groups of lambs. In a mixed GIN population, the COWP products appeared to

  2. Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant-based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, R M; Storey, B E; Vidyashankar, A N; Bissinger, B W; Mitchell, S M; Howell, S B; Mason, M E; Lee, M D; Pedroso, A A; Akashe, A; Skrypec, D J

    2014-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for four weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal

  3. The identification of cattle nematode parasites resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics in a commercial cattle population in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C; Smith, Larry L; Lichtenfels, J Ralph; Pilitt, Patricia A

    2009-12-23

    . contortus. In addition, all avermectin-treated groups contained significant numbers of Cooperia punctata, and smaller numbers of C. oncophora and C. spatulata. These results imply that the pastures studied contain substantial numbers of H. contortus resistant to both avermectins and benzimidazoles, and H. placei and Cooperia sp. resistant to all the commonly used avermectin anthelmintics. This is the first report of anthelmintic resistance in American cattle parasites.

  4. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: intervention for control and elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Prichard

    Full Text Available Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A summary of current helminth control initiatives is presented and available tools are described. Most of these programmes are highly dependent on mass drug administration (MDA of anthelmintic drugs (donated or available at low cost and require annual or biannual treatment of large numbers of at-risk populations, over prolonged periods of time. The continuation of prolonged MDA with a limited number of anthelmintics greatly increases the probability that drug resistance will develop, which would raise serious problems for continuation of control and the achievement of elimination. Most initiatives have focussed on a single type of helminth infection, but recognition of co-endemicity and polyparasitism is leading to more integration of control. An understanding of the implications of control integration for implementation, treatment coverage, combination of pharmaceuticals, and monitoring is needed. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection, novel tools need to be developed, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines, and/or antivectorial agents, new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy, and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is a need for the development of new formulations of some existing anthelmintics (e.g., paediatric formulations. To achieve ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis

  5. RNAi dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver flukes reveals the persistence of gene silencing in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McVeigh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (dsRNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain, validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL and B (FheCatB cysteine proteases, and a σ-class glutathione transferase (FheσGST.Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200-320 nt dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (siRNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent and in all cases silencing persisted for ≥25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; FheσGST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively.In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control

  6. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp.

  7. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma. Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E.; Lechuga-Arana, A. Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A.; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P < 0.01), and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 (P < 0.01). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  8. Accelerated decolorization of reactive azo dyes under saline conditions by bacteria isolated from Arabian seawater sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Azeem; Kausar, Farzana; Arshad, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    2012-12-01

    Presence of huge amount of salts in the wastewater of textile dyeing industry is one of the major limiting factors in the development of an effective biotreatment system for the removal of azo dyes from textile effluents. Bacterial spp. capable of thriving under high salt conditions could be employed for the treatment of saline dyecontaminated textile wastewaters. The present study was aimed at isolating the most efficient bacterial strains capable of decolorizing azo dyes under high saline conditions. Fiftyeight bacterial strains were isolated from seawater, seawater sediment, and saline soil, using mineral salt medium enriched with 100 mg l−1 Reactive Black-5 azo dye and 50 g NaCl l−1 salt concentration. Bacterial strains KS23 (Psychrobacter alimentarius) and KS26 (Staphylococcus equorum) isolated from seawater sediment were able to decolorize three reactive dyes including Reactive Black 5, Reactive Golden Ovifix, and Reactive Blue BRS very efficiently in liquid medium over a wide range of salt concentration (0-100 g NaCl l)⁻¹. Time required for complete decolorization of 100 mg dye l ⁻¹ varied with the type of dye and salt concentration. In general, there was an inverse linear relationship between the velocity of the decolorization reaction (V) and salt concentration. This study suggested that bacteria isolated from saline conditions such as seawater sediment could be used in designing a bioreactor for the treatment of textile effluent containing high concentration of salts.

  9. Microbiological changes and biodiversity of cultivable indigenous bacteria in Sanbao larger yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), a Chinese salted and fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Li, Yan; Xu, Kunhua; Wu, Jiajia; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2015-04-01

    Sanbao large yellow croaker is a kind of Chinese salted and fermented seafood processed by adding 50% of salt and fermenting at high temperature [around 30 °C] over 20 d. To get a comprehensive understanding of cultivable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the chemical and microbial properties of this product, were detected initially, followed by identification of bacteria recovered from different fermentation periods using PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. In total, 105 indigenous isolates were recovered with 3 different medium and majority of the isolates picked up from both MRS and MSA medium were finally clustered into the genus of Staphylococcus (S.). Among the 90 Staphylococci, S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. nepalensis were the most prevailing cultivable species recovered throughout the whole production process (70 isolates, 77.8%), while 5 other species, namely, S. aureus, S. vitulinus, S. sciuri, S. equorum, and S. succinus formed a minor fraction (20 isolates, 22.2%) of the Staphylococcus communities. Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Bacillus constituted trivial populations in the initial period of the fermentation and then gave the way to the Staphylococcus immediately. High salt concentration used during the processing is like to have a pronounced influence on the microbial populations involved. Data obtained in this work could be referred in control and optimization of the fermentation process and selecting suitable strains for aquatic product fermentation.

  10. Survival of cheese-ripening microorganisms in a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adouard, Nadège; Magne, Laurent; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Foligné, Benoît; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of nine microorganisms (six bacteria and three yeasts) from the microflora of surface-ripened cheeses were subjected to in vitro digestive stress in a three-compartment "dynamic gastrointestinal digester" (DIDGI). We studied the microorganisms (i) grown separately in culture medium only (ii) grown separately in culture medium and then mixed, (iii) grown separately in culture medium and then included in a rennet gel and (iv) grown together in smear-ripened cheese. The yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly resistant to the whole DIDGI process (with a drop in viable cell counts of less than cheese-grown cultures. Ripening bacteria such as Hafnia alvei survived gastric stress less well when grown in cheese (with no viable cells after 90 min of exposure of the cheese matrix, compared with 6 CFU mL(-1) in lab cultures). The ability of Corynebacterium casei and Staphylococcus equorum to withstand digestive stress was similar for cheese and pure culture conditions. When grow in a cheese matrix, Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Arthrobacter arilaitensis were clearly more sensitive to the overall digestive process than when grown in pure cultures. Lactococcus lactis displayed poorer survival in gastric and duodenal compartments when it had been grown in cheese. In vivo experiments in BALB/c mice agreed with the DIDGI experiments and confirmed the latter's reliability.

  11. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages.

  12. The use of nucleosides and arginine as alternative energy sources by coagulase-negative staphylococci in view of meat fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Van der Mijnsbrugge, A; Sánchez Mainar, M; Balzarini, T; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2014-05-01

    The ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) to use alternative energy sources in meat may partially explain their occurrence in fermented meats. Of 61 CNS strains tested, all metabolized adenosine and inosine in a meat simulation medium (MSM). The ability to catabolize arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway varied between strains. All tested strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis possessed an arcA gene and showed ADI activity, whereas other species, such as Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus, did not. Arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), as in the positive control S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, were uncommon and only found in Staphylococcus xylosus 3PA6 (sausage isolate) and Staphylococcus chromogenes G222 (teat apex isolate). Monoculture experiments were performed in MSM with S. carnosus 833 and SS3-4, S. xylosus G211, and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and 2S7-4. At all pH values tested (5.3, 5.8, and 6.5), the strains of S. carnosus catabolized arginine faster than the strains of S. xylosus and S. epidermidis. Only at pH 6.5 could a low ADI activity be found for S. xylosus G211. Increased ADI activity occurred in the case of the ACME-positive S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, when compared to the ACME-negative S. epidermidis 2S7-4.

  13. Reduced growth of Listeria monocytogenes in two model cheese microcosms is not associated with individual microbial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Bré, Jean-Michel; Guéguen, Marielle; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Desmasures, Nathalie

    2013-02-01

    Two model antilisterial microbial communities consisting of two yeasts, two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and originating from Livarot cheese smear were previously designed. They were used in the present study to analyse the impact of microbial population dynamics on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese microcosm. Specific culture media and PCR primers were developed for simultaneous culture-dependent and real-time PCR quantification of strains belonging to Marinomonas sp., Paenibacillus sp., Staphylococcus equorum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Pseudomonas putida, Serratia liquefaciens, Candida natalensis, and Geotrichum candidum, in cheese microcosms. All strains were enumerated after 3, 5, 8 and 14 days at 15 °C. They established well at high counts in all cheese microcosms. Growth dynamics for all strains in presence of L. monocytogenes WSLC 1685 were compared to those of microbial communities obtained by omitting in turn one of the six members of the initial community. The growth of the microbial strains was neither markedly disturbed by Listeria presence nor by the removal of each strain in turn. Furthermore, these communities had a significant reducing effect on growth of L. monocytogenes independently of pH, as confirmed by mathematical modelling. A barrier effect was observed, that could be explained by specific competition for nutrients.

  14. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two farms (n=535 cows located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CLM were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT (≥3 and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY, lactation number (LN, herd size (HS, and number of days in milk (DM were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH, LN, HS, and DM P<0.01, and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 P<0.01. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study.

  15. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. using (GTG)₅-PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Pavel; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Sedláček, Ivo; Nováková, Dana

    2010-12-01

    A group of 212 type and reference strains deposited in the Czech Collection of Microorganisms (Brno, Czech Republic) and covering 41 Staphylococcus species comprising 21 subspecies was characterised using rep-PCR fingerprinting with the (GTG)₅ primer in order to evaluate this method for identification of staphylococci. All strains were typeable using the (GTG)₅ primer and generated PCR products ranging from 200 to 4500 bp. Numerical analysis of the obtained fingerprints revealed (sub)species-specific clustering corresponding with the taxonomic position of analysed strains. Taxonomic position of selected strains representing the (sub)species that were distributed over multiple rep-PCR clusters was verified and confirmed by the partial rpoB gene sequencing. Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus revealed heterogeneous fingerprints and each (sub)species was distributed over several clusters. However, representatives of the remaining Staphylococcus spp. were clearly separated in single (sub)species-specific clusters. These results showed rep-PCR with the (GTG)₅ primer as a fast and reliable method applicable for differentiation and straightforward identification of majority of Staphylococcus spp.

  16. [The role of bacterial contamination of milking utensils and disinfecting solutions as a possible cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M; Sigrist, S M; Corti, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R

    2011-06-01

    Various instruments and utensils used during milking as well as teat dip solutions were examined for contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between contaminated fomites and udder infection in dairy cows. A total of 344 cows from ten dairy farms with the highest rate of clinical mastitis among the farms serviced by the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Zurich were included in the study. Each farm was visited five times. All lactating cows, with the exception of those undergoing antibiotic treatment, were examined immediately before milking using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A milk sample was collected from positive quarters. Items used to clean the udder, which included wood wool, paper towels and disinfecting towels as well as the milker's hands and the teat dip cup were swabbed for bacteriological examination. Water samples, samples of teat dip and cleaning solutions were also collected and cultured. Our results demonstrate that cleaning and disinfecting solutions have the potential to transmit udder pathogens and cause clinical mastitis. The most common CNS isolated from quarter samples were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri and S. chromogenes, and the most common CNS isolated from utensils, cleaning and disinfecting solutions were S. fleuretii, S. vitulus, S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. succinus and S. saprophyticus.

  17. Biphasic appearance of corticated and decorticated ascarid egg shedding in untreated horse foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, E M; Lyons, E T; Bellaw, J L; Nielsen, M K

    2015-11-30

    Parascaris spp. infects foals worldwide and may cause airway inflammation in addition to small intestinal impaction and rupture. It is observed that acquired immunity eliminates ascarid burdens beginning at about 6 months of age, and current evidence suggests that a single parasite generation propagates in each foal crop. The purpose of this study was to monitor natural parasitic infections in untreated mixed breed horse foals over the course of 0-300 days of age. Fecal samples were collected monthly from all foals born in 2014 (n=13), beginning July 2014 through February 2015. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed in triplicates using the Mini-FLOTAC method. The foals were necropsied between 154 and 298 days of age and all intestinal ascarid were collected and identified to stage. Ascarid FECs exhibited a biphasic distribution with an initial peak at 91-120 days of age and, after a steady decline, a second, smaller peak at 241-300 days of age. Numbers of corticated and decorticated ascarid eggs were compared, with decorticated FECs remaining consistently low with a slight increase directly after the first corticated FEC peak. Overall, 4.36% of the total ascarid eggs counted were decorticated. Ascarid FECs showed a sharp peak in September, declined, and then steadily increased beginning in December and continuing through February. Upon necropsy, moderate to high number of ascarid specimens were recovered from foals between 8 and 10 months of age, coinciding with the second peak for the FECs. Eleven of the 13 foals harbored immature ascarid stages indicating a recent reinfection. However, these data demonstrates that apparently a second, smaller wave of infection is present in 8-10 month old foals. It may be of value to monitor egg counts in this age group to make sure that all parasite categories are well controlled.

  18. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaz, Denny; Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Antolová, Daniela; Schaper, Roland; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1) and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element) in brain and ascarids (ITS-2) in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented) had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8), Toxocara cati (4) and Parascaris sp. (1) were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to estimate the health

  19. Isolation, identification and characteristics of moderately halophilic bacteria in crab paste%蟹酱中度嗜盐菌的分离、鉴定及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕彦; 孙业盈

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify moderately halophilic bacteria from crab paste and investigate its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Three moderately halophilic bacteria PKY101, PKY102 and PKY103 were isolated. Moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated by Gibbons medium. Morphological tests, biochemical reactions and molecular identifications of 16S rDNA were applied to i-dentify the bacteria with determining growth characterization by spectrophotometry. Three strains were found to be gram-positive, non-sporulating and spherical, and the diameter of the strains was 0.6μm~1.9μm, 0.8μm ~1.0μm and 0.7μm~1.5μm, respectively. 16S rDNA alignment and phylo-genetic anlysis showed that the stain PKY101 had a 99% homology with Staphylococcus succinus, PKY102 had a 99% homology with Staphylococ-cus cohnii and PKY103 had a 99% homology with Staphylococcus equorum. Our result could provided some references for study of halophilic bacteria structure in crab paste and prevention of halophilic bacteria contamination.%从蟹酱中分离纯化鉴定嗜盐菌,对其进行形态学和生理生化特性研究.采用Gibbons培养基分离纯化,通过形态学、生理生化实验进行特性研究,16S rDNA序列比对分析进行鉴定,吸光度法测定生长特性.结果分离得到3株中度嗜盐菌PKY101,PKY102和PKY103,试验结果表明,3种嗜盐菌均为革兰氏阳性菌,不产芽孢,菌体呈球状,直径分别为0.6μm~1.9μm,0.8μm~1.0μm,0.7μm~1.5μm;系统发育分析将3株嗜盐菌鉴定为葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus)中的3个不同的种,分别为:琥珀葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus succinus)、科氏葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus cohnii)和马胃葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus equorum).本研究将为进一步研究蟹酱中的嗜盐菌的类型及在发酵盐渍类食品中的作用开展了前期的基础工作,为防止嗜盐菌污染食品提供了理论参考.

  20. Characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococcus species from cows' milk and environment based on bap, icaA, and mecA genes and phenotypic susceptibility to antimicrobials and teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piessens, V; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; Van Coillie, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the main coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species involved in bovine intramammary infections (IMI) possess specific characteristics that promote colonization of the udder. Virulence markers associated with biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, and biocide tolerance were compared between typically contagious CNS species (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus simulans) and those rarely causing IMI (Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus equorum, and others) to find possible associations with pathogenicity. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates (n=366) belonging to 22 different species were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the biofilm-associated genes bap and icaA, and the methicillin resistance gene mecA. A selection of 82 isolates was additionally tested for their susceptibility to 5 antibiotics and 2 commercial teat dip products. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials were determined by Etest (AB bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and a microdilution method was optimized to determine minimum biocidal concentrations of teat dips. The bap, icaA, and mecA genes were detected significantly more in isolates from CNS species typically living in the cows' environment than in isolates from IMI-causing species. Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against erythromycin (23%) or oxacillin (16%), and was detected more often in the environmental species. The isolates least susceptible to the teat dips belonged to the IMI-causing species Staph. chromogenes and Staph. simulans. We concluded that carriage of biofilm genes and antimicrobial resistance were not associated with the ability to colonize the mammary gland because free-living CNS species constituted a more significant reservoir of biofilm and resistance determinants than did IMI-causing species. In contrast, increased tolerance to biocides may favor the establishment of

  1. Microbial background flora in small-scale cheese production facilities does not inhibit growth and surface attachment of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, B C T; Heir, E; Møretrø, T; Skaar, I; Langsrud, S

    2013-10-01

    The background microbiota of 5 Norwegian small-scale cheese production sites was examined and the effect of the isolated strains on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Samples were taken from the air, food contact surfaces (storage surfaces, cheese molds, and brine) and noncontact surfaces (floor, drains, and doors) and all isolates were identified by sequencing and morphology (mold). A total of 1,314 isolates were identified and found to belong to 55 bacterial genera, 1 species of yeast, and 6 species of mold. Lactococcus spp. (all of which were Lactococcus lactis), Staphylococcus spp., Microbacterium spp., and Psychrobacter sp. were isolated from all 5 sites and Rhodococcus spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. from 4 sites. Thirty-two genera were only found in 1 out of 5 facilities each. Great variations were observed in the microbial background flora both between the 5 producers, and also within the various production sites. The greatest diversity of bacteria was found in drains and on rubber seals of doors. The flora on cheese storage shelves and in salt brines was less varied. A total of 62 bacterial isolates and 1 yeast isolate were tested for antilisterial activity in an overlay assay and a spot-on-lawn assay, but none showed significant inhibitory effects. Listeria monocytogenes was also co-cultured on ceramic tiles with bacteria dominating in the cheese production plants: Lactococcus lactis, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus equorum, Rhodococcus spp., or Psychrobacter spp. None of the tested isolates altered the survival of L. monocytogenes on ceramic tiles. The conclusion of the study was that no common background flora exists in cheese production environments. None of the tested isolates inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes. Hence, this study does not support the hypothesis that the natural background flora in cheese production environments inhibits the growth or survival of L. monocytogenes.

  2. [Recent findings on the genetics of gastro-intestinal nematode resistance in ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, A; Scala, A

    2004-06-01

    The control of helminthiases in ruminants raised in open pasture has been mainly undertaken by using prophylactic measures in the environment, but these are often inadequate due to incorrect application. With the appearance of anthelmintics, the strategy for controlling these parasitoses, passed to pharmacological treatments which became effective in reducing their impact. However, the frequent and incorrect utilisation of these molecules resulted in resistance to anthelmintics and the presence of chemical residues in animal products for human consumption. Anthelmintic resistance is widespread throughout the world, heterogeneous and probably underestimated. This has encouraged the introduction of homeopathic agents and products derived from plants whose effectiveness has not been scientifically assessed. It is well known that it is possible to detect differences in resistance to the most important parasites between breeds. In Europe, it has been reported that some ovine autochthonous breeds, Scottish Blackface and Lacaune, showed higher resistance. The implementation of breeding strategies aimed at obtaining animals with naturally low susceptibility to nematode infestations could therefore play an increasingly important role. Standard animal breeding techniques have been largely successful in improving the performance of domestic animals in the last century. Standard quantitative selection requires field data on: i) individual phenotype performance; ii) expected covariance among animals due to blood relationship between them. The whole process of predicting the breeding value of animals in order to select subsequently the genetically superior parents of the next generation is entirely based on sophisticated computations (BLUP-animal model). In sheep, the main objective is always selecting for milk yield and sometimes, in addition, milk composition. However, due to the evolution of the EU agricultural policy and consumer demand in terms of healthy and organic food

  3. Resistant nematodes in cattle: Pharmaco-therapeutic assessment of the ivermectin- ricobendazole combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Candela; Ceballos, Laura; Fiel, César; Moreno, Laura; Domingo Yagüez, Pablo; Bernat, Gisele; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2017-01-30

    fact, the efficacy against Cooperia spp. was 83% (IVM), 98% (RBZ) and 98% (IVM+RBZ), while the efficacy against Haemonchus spp. was 0% (IVM), 97% (RBZ) and 100% (IVM+RBZ). The combination was the only treatment that achieved 100% clinical efficacy against IVM-resistant Haemonchus spp. The total egg excretion was reduced to 49.9% (IVM alone group), 6.3% (RBZ alone group) and 1.8% (IVM+RBZ combined group) compared to the untreated control. Although the combined treatment did not significantly increase the overall clinical efficacy in the current natural field conditions, an additive effect was achieved against IVM-resistant nematodes. In fact, the combination obtained significantly higher efficacy against IVM-resistant Haemonchus spp. than RBZ alone. Additionally, the epidemiological relevance of the reduction in the number of eggs excreted following the combined treatment is not negligible and should be taken into account in future studies. Further work is required to understand the advantages of nematodicidal combinations in different natural anthelmintic resistance scenarios.

  4. Evolution and Biogeography of Haemonchus contortus: Linking Faunal Dynamics in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, E P; Zarlenga, D S

    2016-01-01

    developmental thresholds defined by temperature and humidity for larval stages) will be substantial determinants in the potential outcomes for widespread geographical and host colonization which are predicted to unfold over the coming century. Insights about deeper evolutionary events, ecology and biogeography are critical as understanding history informs us about the possible range of responses in complex systems under new regimes of environmental forcing, especially, in this case, ecological perturbation linked to climate change. A deeper history of perturbation is relevant in understanding contemporary systems that are now strongly structured by events of invasion and colonization. The relaxation of abiotic and biotic controls on the occurrence of H. contortus, coincidental with inception and dissemination of anthelmintic resistance may be synergistic, serving to exacerbate challenges to control parasites or to limit the socioeconomic impacts of infection that can influence food security and availability. Studies of haemonchine nematodes contribute directly to an expanding model about the nature of diversity and the evolutionary trajectories for faunal assembly among complex host-parasite systems across considerable spatial and temporal scales.

  5. Effect of fall-grazed sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) on gastrointestinal nematode infections of growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Gujja, S; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Kannan, G; Lee, J H; Kouakou, B; Terrill, T H

    2014-08-29

    High prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in goats has increased pressure to find effective, alternative non-synthetic control methods, one of which is adding forage of the high condensed tannin (CT) legume sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) to the animal's diet. Previous work has demonstrated good efficacy of dried SL (hay, pellets) against small ruminant GIN, but information is lacking on consumption of fresh SL, particularly during the late summer-autumn period in the southern USA when perennial warm-season grass pastures are often low in quality. A study was designed to determine the effects of autumn (September-November) consumption of fresh SL forage, grass pasture (predominantly bermudagrass, BG; Cynodon dactylon), or a combination of SL+BG forage by young goats [intact male Spanish kids, 9 months old (20.7 ± 1.1 kg), n = 10/treatment group] on their GIN infection status. Three forage paddocks (0.40 ha) were set up at the Fort Valley State University Agricultural Research Station (Fort Valley, GA) for an 8-week trial. The goats in each paddock were supplemented with a commercial feed pellet at 0.45 kg/head/d for the first 4 weeks of the trial, and 0.27 kg/head/d for the final 4 weeks. Forage samples taken at the start of the trial were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and a separate set of SL samples was analyzed for CT in leaves, stems, and whole plant using the benzyl mercaptan thiolysis method. Animal weights were taken at the start and end of the trial, and fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. Adult GIN was recovered from the abomasum and small intestines of all goats at the end of the experiment for counting and speciation. The CP levels were highest for SL forage, intermediate for SL+BG, and lowest for BG forage samples, while NDF and ADF values

  6. Niveles de infestación parasitaria y condición corporal en bovinos doble propósito infestados en condiciones naturales (Degree of infestation and body condition in dual purpose naturally infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    2006-04-01

    work was carried out in a dual purpose farm oriented to milk production, located in San Antonio, Municipality of Pedraza in Barinas State. 65 cattle were coprologically examined by mean of McMaster technique with a oversaturated solution of NaCl as flotation liquid. The body condition of the animals was evaluated by mean the method of the scale with scores from 1 to 5 and 2,5 as inflection point. The packed cell volume was evaluated by mean of the microhaematocrit microcentrifugation method. The conjuntive color of each animal was evaluated as well. The highest e.p.g. count were observed in animals with a body condition ≤ 2,5. This animals can be considered as wormy animals, a small fraction of the herd showed a good body condition (≥ 3 and high e.p.g. count. This animals can be considered as resilient. Both group of animals are strong grass contaminants. The haematocrit values were similar between no wormy animals and resilient and higher than wormy animals. No association was found between haematocrit and conjuntive color. No anthelmintic resistance was diagnosed against the drugs used in the farm (Doramectine, Ivermectine and Albendazole.

  7. Population dynamics of two antilisterial cheese surface consortia revealed by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasler Madlen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface contamination of smear cheese by Listeria spp. is of major concern for the industry. Complex smear ecosystems have been shown to harbor antilisterial potential but the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the inhibition mostly remain unclear, and are likely related to complex interactions than to production of single antimicrobial compounds. Bacterial biodiversity and population dynamics of complex smear ecosystems exhibiting antilisterial properties in situ were investigated by Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE, a culture independent technique, for two microbial consortia isolated from commercial Raclette type cheeses inoculated with defined commercial ripening cultures (F or produced with an old-young smearing process (M. Results TTGE revealed nine bacterial species common to both F and M consortia, but consortium F exhibited a higher diversity than consortium M, with thirteen and ten species, respectively. Population dynamics were studied after application of the consortia on fresh-produced Raclette cheeses. TTGE analyses revealed a similar sequential development of the nine species common to both consortia. Beside common cheese surface bacteria (Staphylococcus equorum, Corynebacterium spp., Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus casei, the two consortia contained marine lactic acid bacteria (Alkalibacterium kapii, Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans that developed early in ripening (day 14 to 20, shortly after the growth of staphylococci (day 7. A decrease of Listeria counts was observed on cheese surface inoculated at day 7 with 0.1-1 × 102 CFU cm-2, when cheeses were smeared with consortium F or M. Listeria counts went below the detection limit of the method between day 14 and 28 and no subsequent regrowth was detected over 60 to 80 ripening days. In contrast, Listeria grew to high counts (105 CFU cm-2 on cheeses smeared with a defined surface culture

  8. 柑橘黄龙病寄主长春花内生细菌的分离及功能鉴定%Isolation, identification and basic function analysis of plant associated bacteria from huanglongbing's host plant-Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 殷幼平; 郑莉萍; 孙梦黎; 向晟; 郑月慧; 王中康

    2014-01-01

    [目的]感柑橘黄龙病长春花植株与健康长春花植株不同部位内生细菌菌群结构及功能对柑橘黄龙病菌与长春花内生细菌的相关性研究提供理论基础.[方法]利用兼性厌氧可培养技术以及植物内生菌功能特性分析相结合的方法.[结果]分别从感病和健康长春花叶、茎、根的组织中分离获得67株内生细菌,与GenBank中29种细菌的相似性达到97%-100%.其中短小杆菌属(Curtobacterium sp.)、欧文氏菌属(Erwinia sp.)、蜡样芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)为感病长春花内生细菌的优势菌群,鞘胺醇单胞菌属(Brevundimonas sp.)、芽胞杆菌属(Bacillussp.)为健康长春花内生细菌的优势菌群;马胃葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus equorum)为两者的共同优势菌群.29种内生细菌进行功能分析,其中6株内生细菌至少具有4种功能特性,分属于马胃葡萄球菌、苏云金芽孢杆菌、巨大芽孢杆菌、短小杆菌属、摩氏摩根菌(Morganella morganii)及溶杆菌属(Lysobacter sp.)5个属.[结论]感病与健康长春花植株中均含有丰富的内生细菌且差异较大,黄龙病菌的存在改变了长春花原有内生细菌的菌群结构.通过分析菌群的差异,有望找到与柑橘黄龙病菌生长相关的菌种.

  9. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1-5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  10. Endophytic bacterial community analysis of Catharanthus roseus and its association with huanglongbing pathogen%长春花内生细菌多样性与柑橘黄龙病菌的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 王中康; 谢攀; 吴东; 殷幼平

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析感柑橘黄龙病长春花植株与健康长春花植株不同部位内生细菌菌群结构变化,为柑橘黄龙病菌与长春花内生细菌的相关性研究提供理论基础.[方法]本研究利用兼性厌氧可培养技术、16S rDNA 限制性片段长度多态性分析(Restriction fragment length polymorphism,RFLP)以及16S rDNA序列分析相结合的方法.[结果]分别从感病和健康长春花叶、茎、根的组织中分离获得67株内生细菌,与GenBank中29种细菌的相似性达到97% - 100%.其中短小杆菌属(Curtobacterium sp.)、欧文氏菌属(Erwinia sp.)、蜡样芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)为感病长春花内生细菌的优势菌群,鞘胺醇单胞菌属(Brevundimonas sp.)、芽胞杆菌属(Bacillus sp.)为健康长春花内生细菌的优势菌群;马胃葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus equorum)为两者的共同优势菌群.通过RFLP方法分析,感病株得到16个、健株得到23个操作分类单元(Operational Taxonomic Units,OTUs),感病植株中除柑橘黄龙病菌Candidatus Liberibacter asiatieus外,还有丰富的Candidatus Liberibacter sp.存在.[结论]感病与健康长春花植株中均含有丰富的内生细菌,黄龙病菌的存在改变了长春花原有内生细菌的菌群结构,且菌群多样性下降.可见长春花内生细菌在一定程度上受到柑橘黄龙病菌的抑制.%[Objective]To analyze the microbial diversity in heaithy and HLB-affected Catkaranthus roseus under manual-grafting conditions and to find the association between the endophytic bacteria and the HLB pathogen. [Methods] The endophytic bacterial communities were delineated by using the traditional culturable approach and cultivation-independent techniques based on 36S rRIVA gene. The endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized C. Roseus midribs of leaves and phloem of stems and roots by plating and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( RFLP). [ Results ] By anaerobic culture, we obtained 67

  11. Species identification, slime production and oxacillin susceptibility in coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from nosocomial specimens Identificação de espécies, produção de "slime" e sensibilidade a oxacilina em amostras de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo isoladas de espécimes nosocomiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía E. Alcaráz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-two coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS (forty-five of clinical origin and forty-seven of environmental origin, collected in a hospital in San Luis, Argentina, from March to June, 1999, were identified to species level by the ID 32 Staph and API Staph System (bioMérieux. Slime production was investigated by the quantitative and qualitative methods. Oxacillin susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion test (1 µg, the agar dilution method (0.125 to 4 mg/ml and agar screen (6 µg/ml. The presence of mecA gene was investigated by PCR. The clinical CNS species most commonly isolated were S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis and S. saprophyticus. The frequency of slime production by clinical and environmental isolates was similar (25/45 and 27/47, respectively and the results obtained by the quantitative and the qualitative methods correlated well. The mecA gene was detected in all S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus and S. hominis isolates, which were resistant to oxacillin by the phenotypic methods. However, this gene was not present in S. klossii, S. equorum, S. xylosus and S. capitis strains. The gene was neither found in two out of the six S. saprophyticus isolates, in two out of three S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum isolates and in two out of five S. cohnii subsp. cohnii isolates, all of which resulted oxacillin resistant according to MIC. The gene was not found in oxacillin-susceptible strains either. Most of the CNS isolates (enviromental and clinical that were slime producers were found to be oxacillin resistant, which makes the early detection of these microorganisms necessary to prevent their dissemination in hospitals, particularly among immunocompromised patients.Noventa e duas amostras de Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (SCN, (45 amostras clínicas e 47 ambientais, coletadas em um hospital de San Luis, Argentina, durante o período de março a junho de 1999, foram identificadas até espécies, empregando-se os

  12. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test Avaliação da resistência em um isolado de campo selecionado de Haemonchus contortus à ivermectina e moxidectina usando o Teste de Migração de Larvas em Ágar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (pHaemonchus contortus é uma das causas mais comuns e economicamente significativas de doença em produções de pequenos ruminantes em todo o mundo, e os programas de controle de parasitas nematoides - incluindo H. contortus - baseiam-se principalmente no uso de drogas anti-helmínticas. A consequência da utilização desses compostos, como sendo a única estratégia sanitária para evitar infecções por parasitas, tem sido a redução da eficácia de todos os

  13. 刺参苗期附着基更换频率对刺参生长及其养殖系统菌群结构的影响%Effects of substrate change frequency on growth and variation of the microflora structure in a seedling cultivation system of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王印庚; 张文泽; 廖梅杰; 李彬; 荣小军; 张正; 李华; 范瑞用; 宁鲁光

    2016-01-01

    为了探究刺参(Apoasichopus japonicus)保苗阶段(7–9月)最佳的附着基更换频率(changing frequency, CF),本实验在夏季保苗期设置5个附着基更换频率组,即CF10、CF20、CF30、CF40和CF50。采用实验生态学的方法,并结合传统细菌培养法和16S rDNA细菌鉴定技术对上述不同实验组进行检测。结果表明: CF20组刺参整池增重和个体增重幅度最大, CF30次之, CF50组由于死亡率高,整池重量为负增长。CF20组的特定生长率和存活率分别为(5.986±0.135)%/d和(95.231±0.265)/%,且显著高于其他各组(P<0.05), CF30次之,而CF50组的特定生长率和存活率最低,且显著低于其他各组(P<0.05)。养殖用水中4NH+-N、2NO--N和COD随着附着基更换频率的降低而升高,并在第50天时分别达到0.53 mg/L、0.28 mg/L、0.18 mg/L。各实验组水体中异养细菌和弧菌数量随附着基更换频率变化不明显,而附着基上的异养细菌和弧菌数量随附着基更换频率的降低而升高, CF50组异养细菌总数在第50天时达到1.38×105 cfu/cm2,弧菌数量达到1.5×104 cfu/cm2,皆明显高于其他各组。附着基上优势菌为溶藻弧菌(Vibrio algindyticus)、需钠弧菌(V. na-triegens)、马胃葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus equorum)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、苏云金芽孢杆菌(B. thuringiensis)和副溶血弧菌(V. parahaemolyticus)。其中,溶藻弧菌为刺参条件致病菌,且一直存在于养殖系统中并逐步占据绝对优势。这与CF50组在实验进行到43 d时开始出现化皮,50 d时开始出现死亡现象有一定的关系。同时,附着基长时间未更换,会滋生大量玻璃海鞘、日本毛壶、内刺盘管虫等敌害生物,争夺栖息空间和食物,导致刺参苗种生长减慢。综上,由实验结果显示,在7–9月高温季节每20 d更换一次附着基最佳。考虑到生产成本,附着基更换频率一般为20~30 d为宜。本研究结果为刺参苗种培育工艺