WorldWideScience

Sample records for anthelmintic usage perspectives

  1. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites, parasitologists now recommend traditional treatment approaches to be abandoned and replaced by more sustainable strategies. It is of crucial importance to facilitate veterinary involvement to ensure that treatment decisio...

  2. A dynamic usage based perspective on L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspoor, M.H.; Schmid, M.S.; Xu, X.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the contribution that a dynamic usage based (DUB) perspective can bring to the establishment of objective measures to assess L2 learners' written texts and at the same time to gain insight into the dynamic process of language development. Four hundred and thirty

  3. Anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P J

    1997-11-01

    Since the first reports of resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics were made some three decades ago, this phenomenon has changed from being considered merely as a parasitological curiosity to a state of industry crisis in certain livestock sectors. This extreme situation exists with the small ruminant industry of the tropical/sub-tropical region of southern Latin America where resistance to the entire broad spectrum anthelmintic arsenal now occurs. In contrast, the cattle industry does not appear to be threatened--or so it seems. Although field reports of resistance have been made to the range of broad spectrum anthelmintics in nematode parasites of cattle, it appears that the evolution of resistance in cattle parasites is not as dramatic as for sheep worms. However, one cannot remain confident that this state of affairs will remain static. Concern is shared amongst parasitologists that we have not looked closely enough. In regions of the world where internal parasites are considered a problem in cattle and drenching occurs frequently, no widespread surveys have been carried out. It appears that because of the very high costs and risks associated with taking a new active drug down the development track to marketing, that the pharmaceutical industry has, in general, turned away from this activity. By implication, the international small ruminant industry is too small for these companies to make the necessary investment. This begs two questions: What is the fate of the sheep (and goat) industries in those parts of the world where resistance is rampant and immediate ameliorative parasite control options are required? What will be the response if significant resistance is found in cattle parasites? There is a body of opinion which suggests that if resistance becomes an issue in the control of cattle parasites then the pharmaceutical industry will find it commercially attractive to re-enter the anthelmintic discovery and development business. This is based on the

  4. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

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    Hatem A Shalaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The develop­ment of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of graz­ing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointes­tinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been ob­served that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode popula­tions is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the suscepti­ble genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists to­wards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new

  5. Mobile Phone Banking Usage Behaviour: An Australian Perspective

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    Majharul Talukder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the use of mobile phones in financial transactions is witnessing phenomenal growth at the international level, its growth has been relatively slow in Australia. Drawing on the theory of reasoned action and technology adoption framework, this paper reports the results concerning a survey of mobile phone users for banking transactions in Australia. The paper specifically identified the factors affecting usage behaviour when mobile phone banking services were engaged. The findings broaden and deepen our understanding of the usage of mobile-based banking in the information age. This paper contributes to the knowledge of this subject by including identification and testing of constructs of predictors regarding mobile phone banking, which are additional to those employed in the extant theories indicated above. The findings of this paper have important policy implications for banks in terms of understanding the underlying factors that drive customers’ mobile banking for financial transactions. Accordingly, design strategies have been developed to promote mobile phone banking – a cost effective channel for delivering financial services.

  6. Preservice Teachers’ Facebook Usage and Their Perspectives about Facebook as a Professional Development Tool

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    Meryem KÖŞKEROĞLU BÜYÜKİMDAT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an explanatory mixed method design was employed to evaluate preservice information technology teachers‟ Facebook usage and their perspectives about Facebook as a professional development tool. In quantitative phase, data were collected through a Facebook usage survey on a total number of 338 undergraduate Computer Education and Instructional Technology (CEIT students from three representative state universities in Turkey. Survey results indicated that preservice teachers favored and utilized Facebook. To find out more in-depth data, the results of quantitative data analysis were used to develop a structured interview to be done with four preservice teachers who were selected purposefully. The data collected from the interviews were subjected to content analysis where coding was conducted to create meaningful organization of the data. According the results of this explanatory study especially communication, sharing and socializing capacity of Facebook were found important in terms of using Facebook as a professional development tool.

  7. The Analysis of the Usage And Perspectives of Renewable Energy Sources in Lithuania

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    Dominykas Vasarevičius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current situation with the renewable energy sources in Lithuania. An overview of legislation promoting the production and usage of renewable energy in Lithuania is presented. Renewable energy production methods suitable for Lithuanian conditions, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is shown that there is no any promotion from the state for usage of solar energy in private households. The potential of solar energy usage is determined. In order to show the effectiveness of solar thermal energy utilization under similar climatic conditions presented the example of promotion policy model and its results in Poland.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Development of Anthelmintic Resistance Detection Methods of Gastrointestinal Nematodes on Livestock

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    Dyah Haryuningtyas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensive usage of anthelmintic in most of farms led to resistances of livestock gastrointestinal nematodes against anthelmintic. Many reports of resistance that increased every year happen following the continuing helminth control programmes. The succesful implementation of helminth control programmes that designed to minimize the development of resistance in nematode populations depends on the availability of effective and sensitive method for its detection and monitoring. A variety of in vivo and in vitro tests have been developed for detecting nematode population resistance to the main anthelmintic groups. This paper will discuss the development of detection method of anthelmintic resistance based on conventional and molecular approach according to their strengths and weakness.

  9. Herbal drug usage with modern medicine 1: Case study of an enzyme inducer, St John′s Wort - Some perspectives

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    Srinivas Nuggehally

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available While the usage of herbal medicines continues to be on the rise, it brings along an imminent risk of drug-drug interaction with scores of modern day medicine(s. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of a potential drug-drug interaction resulting, due to induction of cytochrome P450 enzyme(s and/or transporters, from the use of a popular herbal product known as St. John′s Wort (SJW with modern day medicines. Also, it provides some perspectives and considerations in rationalizing the use of SJW.

  10. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jacqueline B.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics

  11. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  12. Subject Expression in L2 Spanish: Convergence of Generative and Usage-Based Perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyzik, Eve

    2017-01-01

    The extensive literature on subject expression in Spanish makes for rich comparisons between generative (formal) and usage-based (functional) approaches to language acquisition. This article explores how the problem of subject expression has been conceptualized within each research tradition, as well as unanswered questions that both approaches…

  13. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

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    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  14. Specialization Impact on Internet Resource Usage: Omani Undergraduate Learner’s Perspectives

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    B. Sriram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current educational processes need various tools and technological supports in order to attain the required level of knowledge. The learning processes have been simplified with the help of different resources including internet resources. The usage of internet resources usage depends on the learner’s requirements in the field of study. This research had identified the significant impacts of the specialization of the learners on the internet resource usage. Also, the paper identified some specializations that have major influences in using such internet resources in learning processes. The study had been conducted in Omani undergraduate student’s environment with respect to selected specializations. The specialization impacts on the frequency of using internet resources, places of searching and purpose of using internet resources in the learning processes were analyzed using conditional probabilities and impacts had been identified with the help of decision tree diagram. The results showed that the students studying Information Technology specialization had greater impact in using internet resources in their learning processes compared to others at undergraduate levels.

  15. Indian perspective on clinical aspects, usage, and guidelines of folic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paayal, Chobe; Ganesh, Uchit; Shaantanu, Donde

    2014-10-01

    Folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) is the stable, fully oxidized form of folate which is used in food fortification and supplements. Keen interest has been generated in folic acid due to its suggested role in prevention of various disorders. Strong evidence from clinical trials indicates preventive effect of folic acid on both occurrence and recurrence of neural tube defects. It also plays a significant role in mitigating the risk of cardiovascular disorders through homocysteine regulation. In addition, the beneficial effect of folic acid in various types of cancers, neurological disorders, conditions affecting pregnancy, and other clinical conditions has been reported in literature. Various guidelines reinforce the need for women to obtain adequate amount of folic acid either through food fortification or supplements. In India, national guidelines on the proper dose of folic acid to pregnant women are not available. Given its significant beneficial effects on health, awareness should be spread among communities on the usage and benefits of folic acid.

  16. Anthelmintic activity of Cynodon dactylon

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    Abhishek B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant named Cynodon dactylon belonging to family Poaceae and it is also known as Durva grass, Bermuda grass, Indian Doab, Dhub, and Durba was collected from Paonta Sahib Himachal Pradesh, India in month of May. The plant material was processed for extract. Air-dried and Coarsely powdered plant was extracted for 7 days with Pet. ether, methanol, and water by using maceration method. The phytochemical tests were done to find the presence of the active chemical constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, Steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins and fixed oils. Standardization of Cynodon dactylon was carried out to check the extractive value, loss on drying, ash value etc. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated on adult Indian earthworm phertima posthuma by using albendazole as a standard drug. The aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon shows anthelmintic activity as compared with the standard drug.

  17. Looking into the genome of Thermosynechococcus elongatus (thermophilic cyanobacteria) with codon selection and usage perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Ratna; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Rai, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Genome analysis of thermophilic cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 revealed factors ruling choices of codons in this organism. Multiple parameters like Nc, GC3s, RSCU, Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), optimal and rare codons, codon-pair context and amino acid usage were analysed and compositional constraint was identified as major factor. Wide range of Nc values for the same GC3 content suggested the role of translational selection. Mutational bias is suggested at synonymous position. Among optimal codons for translation, most were GC-ending. Seven codons (AGA, AGG, AUA, UAA, UAG, UCA and UGA) were found to have least occurrence in the entire genome and except stop codons all were A-ending (exception AGG). Most widely used codon-pair in the genome are G-ending or C-ending and A-ending or U-ending codons make pair with G-ending or C-ending codons. Amino acids which are largely distributed in T. elongatus tend to use G-ending or C-ending codons most frequently. Findings showed cumulative role of translational selection, translational accuracy and gene expression levels with mutational bias as key player in codon selection pattern of this organism.

  18. Management of Multiple Myeloma and Usage of Bortezomib: Perspective from India and Ukraine

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    India and Ukraine Haemato-oncology Group

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel treatment strategies have remarkably improved the multiple myeloma (MM patients’ survival, with associated increased costs.A joint panel meet of international experts from India and Ukraine was held in New Delhi on 19th May 2016 focusing on: MM management, bortezomib role, unmet medical needs, and current challenges.The healthcare system for oncology in India is majorly private versus government-based in Ukraine. In India, electrophoresis, serum-free light chain assays, bone marrow tests, and X-rays are available modes of diagnosis. Despite of the numerous cancer centers and stem cell transplant centers, most patients do not prefer transplant owing to its high-cost and social stigma. Majority of the patients are treated with bortezomib or lenalidomide-based regimens. Most patients buy drug themselves. The expanding generic drugs market is a ray of hope for the affordable drugs.In Ukraine, immuno-fixation, bone-marrow analysis, and magnetic-resonance-imaging are common diagnostic modalities. Due to high-cost, only few patients undergo transplant. Bortezomib-based regimens are preferred in most of the patients, however usage is limited due to high costs and lack of funds. Thalidomide-based regimens are used for maintenance therapy due to affordability. In case of relapsed MM, bortezomib is preferred in triple therapy, however more affordable option is cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTD. Issues such as cost containment, common treatment strategies, enhanced collaboration, and improved healthcare access need immediate attention. High-quality generics access will improve outcomes and support healthcare cost containment. Pharmacoeconomic studies and head-to-head trials are warranted to determine the cost-effectiveness and benefit of novel therapies in MM.

  19. RECENT POTENTIAL USAGE OF SURFACTANT FROM MICROBIAL ORIGIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ARENA: A PERSPECTIVE

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    Rath Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use and potential commercial application of biosurfactant has increased during the past decade which can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting and foaming agents, functional food ingredients and as detergents in petroleum, petrochemicals, environmental management, agrochemicals, foods and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and in the mining and metallurgical industries. Their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities make them relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases and as therapeutic agents. In addition to this their role as antiadhesive agents against several disease causing pathogens makes their utility as suitable antiadhesive coating agents for medical insertional materials which helps in the reduction in a large number of hospital infections without the use of synthetic drugs and chemicals. This review looks at the various pharmaceutical, biomedical and therapeutic perspectives on biosurfactant applications.

  20. Usage Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Bollen, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Scholarly usage data provides unique opportunities to address the known shortcomings of citation analysis. However, the collection, processing and analysis of usage data remains an area of active research. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art in usage-based informetric, i.e. the use of usage data to study the scholarly process.

  1. SCOPE OF HERBAL ANTHELMINTICS: AN AYURVEDIC PERSPECTIVE

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    Singh Karam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by helminthes are quite common and comprise a very large group of infestations and infections in human beings. The Krimi Roga (worm infestation is one of the most common diseases found in paediatric practice. Helminthiasis is prevalent globally (1/3 of world’s population harbours them, but is more common in developing countries with poorer personal and environmental hygiene. In Vedic and Ayurvedic literatures, the word krimi is vague term used to denote tiny living being. Acharyas described krimis in various Samhitas in detail and they also believed that krimi also act as an etiological factor in various disease e.g. krimija shiorroga, hridaroga etc. Because of the fewer side effects, the importance of herbal drugs in remedy has tremendously increased in the recent years. A wide variety of plants possess narrow or broad spectrum anthelminthic activities which are naturally available.

  2. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of justicia beddomei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract.

  3. Managing anthelmintic resistance--parasite fitness, drug use strategy and the potential for reversion towards susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, Dave M

    2013-11-15

    cost associated with resistance is the use of combinations of different anthelmintic classes. Manual calculations confirmed that, within the model, the only resistant genotypes capable of surviving treatment with a combination are those carrying multiple resistance genes. These individuals are less fit, resulting in the worm population surviving treatment having a lower overall ecological fitness. This is a previously unreported perspective on the use of combination anthelmintics and strengthens the argument that any new class of anthelmintic, for which resistance genes can be expected to be rare, should be brought to market in combination.

  4. Usage Automata

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    Bartoletti, Massimo

    Usage automata are an extension of finite stata automata, with some additional features (e.g. parameters and guards) that improve their expressivity. Usage automata are expressive enough to model security requirements of real-world applications; at the same time, they are simple enough to be statically amenable, e.g. they can be model-checked against abstractions of program usages. We study here some foundational aspects of usage automata. In particular, we discuss about their expressive power, and about their effective use in run-time mechanisms for enforcing usage policies.

  5. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, N J; Trainor, B L; Urie, J S; Atkins, J W; Pyman, M F; Wolstencroft, I R

    1985-07-01

    Cases of anthelmintic resistance on 3 goat farms in Gippsland were investigated. On the first farm Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta were found to be resistant to fenbendazole, but the first 2 species were fully susceptible to levamisole. On the second farm a population of T. colubriformis, resistant to concurrent full doses of levamisole and a benzimidazole, was found to retain this resistance when transferred to sheep. On the third farm, heavy mortality due to Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp burdens was arrested only by the use of concurrent full doses of levamisole and oxfendazole; no single anthelmintic was found to be effective. A disturbing rise in the incidence of clinical helminthiosis, often accompanied by anthelmintic resistance, occurred on goat farms in Gippsland early in 1984.

  6. Another(’s perspective on subjectivity in causal connectives: a usage-based analysis of volitional causal relations

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    Ninke Stukker

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans une hypothèse de catégorisation linguistique, les connecteurs de cause sont pris comme des outils de catégorisation. En effet, des études sur corpus suggèrent que les connecteurs sont fortement spécialisés dans une seule catégorie de causalité spécifique, mais aussi que leur usage n'est pas limité aux catégories de causalité auxquelles ils sont prototypiquement associés. Si nous supposons que le sens des connecteurs causaux peut être adéquatement décrit en référence à des catégories conceptuelles bien définies, comment pouvons-nous expliquer qu’il y ait une variation dans leur usage réel? Nous mettons l'accent sur les relations de cohérence causale volitionnelle, qui constituent le contexte d'usage prototypique du connecteur néerlandais daarom ‘c'est pourquoi’. Un autre moyen d’expression des relations causales volitionnelles est le recours au connecteur dus ‘alors/donc’ qui est prototypiquement utilisé dans les relations de causalité épistémique. Notre hypothèse est que les relations de causalité volitionnelle exprimées par daarom vs dus diffèrent systématiquement en termes de subjectivité. Nous proposons un modèle d'analyse qui contient de multiples opérationnalisation de la notion de subjectivité et une distinction entre différents niveaux de complexité (sous-clause, clause, et discours. Nous constatons que les relations causales volitionnelles en dus contiennent plus souvent des éléments subjectifs que les relations causales volitionnelles en daarom. Nous interprétons cette distribution au sein d'un cadre théorique fondé sur l'usage (usage-based framework, et nous proposons d'analyser les cas volitionnels de dus comme des instanciations non-prototypiques du sens de dus,qui est donc intrinsèquement subjectif et prototypiquement épistémique.Under a linguistic categorization hypothesis causal connectives are taken as categorization devices. Indeed, corpus studies suggest that

  7. Students' Perspectives on YouTube Video Usage as an E-Resource in the University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, W. Marc; Roberts, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of 70 prospective teachers about the use of YouTube videos as e-resources to supplement psychology lectures at a university in Trinidad & Tobago. A questionnaire designed for the study was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative analysis included frequency distribution,…

  8. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  9. Modulation of porcine biotransformation enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with fenbendazole and flubendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savlík, M; Fimanová, K; Szotáková, B; Lamka, J; Skálová, L

    2006-06-01

    Fenbendazole (FEN) and flubendazole (FLU) are benzimidazole anthelmintics often used in pig management for the control of nematodoses. The in vivo study presented here was designed to test the influence of FLU and FEN on cytochrome P4501A and other cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and several carbonyl reducing enzymes. The results indicated that FEN (in a single therapeutic dose as well as in repeated therapeutic doses) caused significant induction of pig CYP1A, while FLU did not show an inductive effect towards this isoform. Some of the other hepatic and intestinal biotransformation enzymes that were assayed were moderately influenced by FEN or FLU. Strong CYP1A induction following FEN therapy in pigs may negatively affect the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of FEN itself or other simultaneously or consecutively administered drugs. From the perspective of biotransformation enzyme modulation, FLU would appear to be a more convenient anthelmintic therapy of pigs than FEN.

  10. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, Andrew; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    BACKGROUND: Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has potential as a natural anthelmintic in livestock, however evidence of efficacy against cattle nematodes is lacking. Here, we investigated anthelmintic effects of chicory in stabled calves. METHODS: Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live...

  11. Anthelmintic activity of root bark of Carissa carandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, P P; Mazumder, Avijit; Mazumder, R; Bhatnagar, S P

    2007-07-01

    The anthelmintic activity of the Imethanolic extract of the root bark of Carissa carandas was evaluated on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) using albendazole as a reference standard. The extract caused paralysis followed by the death of worm at the tested dose level. The extract at the highest tested concentration has anthelmintic activity comparable with that of standard drug albendazole.

  12. L’usage des lois visant à lutter contre les discriminations raciales en Belgique : une perspective de genre The use of racial antidiscrimination laws in Belgium:a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Carles-Berkowitz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de l’article est d’évaluer l’effectivité des lois visant à lutter contre les discriminations raciales à partir du point de vue du sujet et dans une perspective de genre. L’hypothèse principale est que les femmes et les hommes utilisent le droit de manière différente lorsqu’ils sont confrontés à une discrimination raciale, parce qu’ils développent différentes représentations du droit et ont des expériences différenciées de la discrimination.  L’usage ou le non-usage du droit dépend également de l’identité personnelle et sociale que la personne entend se construire. Pour le démontrer, nous nous appuierons sur des méthodes quantitatives (analyse de la jurisprudence et de dossiers de plainte et qualitatives (entretiens avec des juristes et des plaignants. Les différences par genre seront analysées à trois niveaux : celui de l’expérience différenciée de la discrimination raciale, celui de l’utilisation des ressources, celui enfin, des motivations du recours au droit.

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.

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    H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20mg/ml of water and methanol extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was taken as a reference standard drug.The anthelmintic activity was observed by gradually increasing the dose of extract. Methanolic extract of Plumbago zeylenica showed higher activity as compared to water extract.

  14. Comparative anthelmintic activity investigation of selected ethno-medicinal weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueblos, Kirstin Rhys S.; Bajalla, Mark; Pacheco, Dixie; Ganot, Sheila; Paig, Daisy; Tapales, Radyn; Lagare, Jeanne; Quimque, Mark Tristan J.

    2017-01-01

    Helminth infections are one of the seriously neglected potent diseases in many parts of the world. The problems of parasitic helminthes becoming resistant to currently available anthelmintic drugs pose a challenge for the search - relying on natural products - for new and better anthelmintics. In this paper, four abundant Philippine weeds: Chrysopogon aciculatus Trin. Cyperus brevifolius Rottb., Ruellia tuberosa Linn. and Saccharum spontaneum Linn. were investigated for their anthelmintic activities to establish basis of their folkloric claim. The hexane-soluble and chloroform-soluble extracts were obtained through sequential solvent partitioning of the crude ethanolic extract of the air-dried aerial part of each plant sample. Meanwhile, the decoction was obtained from fresh aerial part of the plant samples. All extracts were then subjected to in vitro anthelmintic screening at different concentration as per method of Ghosh, et al. against African nightcrawler earthworms (Eudrillus euginiae) in which the activity of the extracts was determined by correlation with time. The anthelmintic bioassay results revealed a dose-dependent toxicity relationship. It indicated relatively low anthelmintic activities of the decoction of the four plant samples as compared to their corresponding crude ethanol extracts. Among the crude ethanol extracts, C. brevifolius (CBE) gave fastest time to bring about paralysis and death to the test organisms at all concentrations tested. For the hexane extracts, R. tuberosa (RTH) gave better activity among other plant samples. Lastly, among the chloroform-soluble extracts, both that of C. brevifolius (CBC) and R. tuberosa (RTC) comparably showed strongest anthelmintic activities at all tested concentrations, thus, exhibited best anthelmintic activity that is remarkably comparable to the positive control, Mebendazole at the highest concentration tested. In fact, CBC and RTC showed highest anthelmintic potential compared to all extracts tested in

  15. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta Indica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridiagalli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 40 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves has been reported

  16. INVESTIGATION OF IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF Clerodendron Inerme

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    Mondal Subhasish

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 30 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme has been reported for the first time.

  17. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a goat herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, A M; Gipson, T A

    2000-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance was monitored over a 30 month period within a goat herd in eastern Virginia, USA. Resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and benzimidazole drugs was detected in Haemonchus contortus using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). When levamisole use was discontinued for 1 year, susceptibility to levamisole appeared to return. Although a single treatment with fenbendazole was able to reduce fecal egg counts by only 50%, two doses administered in a 12 h interval increased efficacy to 92%, however, confidence intervals indicated that resistance was still present. When fecal egg counts were determined the following year after several treatment using this protocol, the efficacy of fenbendazole had fallen again to 57% reduction in fecal egg counts. The predominant genus present in cultured composite fecal samples was Haemonchus. Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Teladorsagia were also present in smaller numbers.

  18. Anthelmintic properties of extracts from Artemisia plants against nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Afshan, K; Mirza, B; Miller, J E; Manan, A; Irum, S; Rizvi, S S R; Qayyum, M

    2015-06-01

    Artemisia plant genus, natural inhabitant of northern Punjab Pakistan, is well known for its anthelmintic properties; many Artemisia species have not been so far scientifically proved. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia indica and Artemisia roxburghiana against mixed infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study is first scientifically proven study on anthelmintic activity of A. indica and A. roxburghiana. Five different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.75 mg/mL) accompanied by negative control (PBS) and positive control (albendazole, 10%) were used to carry out the egg hatch inhibition assay, larval mortality assay and adult worm mortality assay. The Baermann technique was used first time in larval mortality assay and proved to be effective. The results revealed that methanolic extracts of both A. indica and A. roxburghiana, showed maximum anthelmintic activity at concentration of 50 mg/ml by egg hatch inhibition (85±21.2; 80±28.3), larvae mortality (18±2.8; 17±4.2) and adult worm mortality (8.5±2.1; 8±2.8) assays. However, at concentration of 50 mg/ml both plant extracts in comparison to albendazole showed statistically insignificant (p≤0.05) results. The A. indica showed higher anthelmintic activity at all concentrations as compared to A. roburghiana. It has been concluded both plants exhibit anthelmintic activity and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out to purify the active ingredients for anthelmintic activity. Moreover, the decoctions of these plants could be used to GINs after confirming anthelmintic properties through in vivo.

  19. Diagnosis and control of anthelmintic-resistant Parascaris equorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinemeyer Craig R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2002, macrocyclic lactone resistance has been reported in populations of Parascaris equorum from several countries. It is apparent that macrocyclic lactone resistance developed in response to exclusive and/or excessively frequent use of ivermectin or moxidectin in foals during the first year of life. The development of anthelmintic resistance was virtually inevitable, given certain biological features of Parascaris and unique pharmacologic characteristics of the macrocyclic lactones. Practitioners can utilize the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris, and the same technique can be applied regularly to confirm the continued efficacy of those drugs currently in use. In the face of macrocyclic lactone resistance, piperazine or anthelmintics of the benzimidazole or pyrimidine classes can be used to control ascarid infections, but Parascaris populations that are concurrently resistant to macrocyclic lactones and pyrimidine drugs have been reported recently from Texas and Kentucky. Compared to traditional practices, future recommendations for ascarid control should feature: 1 use of only those anthelmintics known to be effective against indigenous populations, 2 initiation of anthelmintic treatment no earlier than 60 days of age, and 3 repetition of treatments at the longest intervals which prevent serious environmental contamination with Parascaris eggs. In the interest of decreasing selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, horse owners and veterinarians must become more tolerant of the passage of modest numbers of ascarid eggs by some foals. Anthelmintic resistance is only one of several potential responses to genetic selection. Although still only theoretical, changes in the immunogenicity of ascarid isolates or reduction of their prepatent or egg reappearance periods could pose far greater challenges to effective control than resistance to a single class of anthelmintics.

  20. Controlling internal parasites without anthelmintics (a review) OF0132

    OpenAIRE

    KEATINGE, Ray

    1996-01-01

    1.0 Executive summary 1. Internal parasites are a major source of economic loss in grazing ruminants. To a greater or lesser degree, most farms in the UK rely on anthelmintics for control. In most situations these products continue to be highly effective, but anthelmintic resistance is increasing to the limited range of products available, raising serious concerns over the future of worm control. 2. Internal parasites are also of concern on organic farms, where the prophylactic us...

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (pactivity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  2. Anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles derived from a phytopathogenic fungus, Nigrospora oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Kar

    Full Text Available Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ∼6 to ∼18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, which are in cubic phase. The FTIR spectroscopic studies before and after the formation of nanoparticles show the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The latter were tested as vermifugal agents against a model cestode Raillietina sp., an intestinal parasite of domestic fowl. Further, ultrastructural and biochemical parameters were used to corroborate the efficacy study.

  3. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambalathaduvar Meenakshisundaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01 inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently.

  4. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  5. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

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    M Sreejith

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  6. Interaction of benzimidazole anthelmintics with Haemonchus contortus tubulin: binding affinity and anthelmintic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega, G W; Prichard, R K

    1991-08-01

    The ability of various benzimidazoles (BZs) to bind tubulin under different conditions was assessed by determining their IC50 values (the concentration of unlabeled drug required to inhibit 50% of the labeled drug binding), Ka (the apparent equilibrium association constant) and Bmax (the maximum binding at infinite [BZ] = [drug-receptor]). The ability of unlabeled benzimidazoles--fenbendazole, mebendazole (MBZ), oxibendazole (OBZ), albendazole (ABZ), rycobendazole (albendazole sulfoxide, ABZSO), albendazole sulfone, oxfendazole (OFZ), and thiabendazole--to bind tubulin was determined from their ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]MBZ or [3H]OBZ to tubulin in supernatants derived from unembryonated eggs or adult worms of Haemonchus contortus. The binding constants (IC50, Ka, and Bmax) correlated with the known anthelmintic potency (recommended therapeutic doses) of the BZ compounds except for OFZ and ABZSO whose Ka values were lower than could be expected from anthelmintic potency. The binding of [3H]ABZ or [3H]OFZ to tubulin in supernatants derived from BZ-susceptible and BZ-resistant H. contortus was compared. [3H]ABZ demonstrated saturable high-affinity binding but [3H]OFZ bound with low affinity. The high-affinity binding of [3H]ABZ was reduced for the R strain. Tubulin bound BZ drugs at 4 degrees C with lower apparent Ka than at 37 degrees C.

  7. Anthelmintic activity of Pyrostegia venusta using Pheretima posthuma

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    P.V. Nisha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3 million people are infected with helminthes worldwide. Helminthes infections are commonly found in villages of developing countries and are being recognized as cause of much acute as well as chronic illness among the human beings as well as cattle’s. Hence, the treatment for helmintic infection is of utmost need. The high cost of modern anthelmintics has limited the effective control of these parasites. However, increasing problems of development of resistance in helminthes against anthelmintics have led to the proposal of screening medicinal plants for their anthelmintic activity. Literature survey revealed that there are only few reports available on phytochemical and pharmacological studies of this plant. In the present investigation we have made a sincere attempt to evaluate the anthelmintic property of chloroform and methanol extracts of Pyrostegia venusta using Pheretima posthuma as an experimental helminthes model. Piperazine citrate was used as the standard reference. Five different concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/ml of chloroform and methanol extracts were used to determine their effect as time taken to paralysis and time to induce death in the worms. Among the various concentrations of chloroform extract tested, 12.5 mg/ml showed efficient anthelmintic activity with paralysis time (23 min and death time (44 min. Among all the concentrations of methanolic extract tested, 12.5 mg/ml showed significant results with paralysis time (34 min and death time (78 min respectively. This investigation revealed that chloroform extract was more effective in its anthelmintic action against Pheretima posthuma when compared to methanolic extract. But both the extracts were less potent when compared with standard drug piperazine citrate.

  8. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu......The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met...

  9. Anthelmintic activity of latex of Jatropha curcas (ratanjot

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    Mr. Hitesh Kumar Parmar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of plants have been used for the treatment of helmenthiasis throughout the world. One such plant is Jatropha curcas. It is known as ratanjot or biodiesel plant, which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It possesses many uses like antidiabetic, antmicrobial and antioxidant. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh and dried latex showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites that have demonstrated antimicrobial action. The present research work investigated the Anthelmintic activity of latex of leaves of Jatropha curcas. The major finding of the present work illustrates that aqueous latex of Jatropha curcas has shown better Anthelmintic activity than control Jatropha latex and standard drug, piperazine citrate.

  10. Comparative study on Anthelmintic property of Medicinal Plants

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    Asha Devi. S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the present study Acacia catechu, Euphorbia heterophylla, Corallocarpus epigaeus and Caesalpinia bonducella plant parts were chosen to evaluate the comparative analysis on anthelmintic activity. Different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100mg/ml of methanolic extracts of these plant parts were used. The evaluation parameters involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as standard drug at 10 mg/ml concentration and saline as control. The results obtained showed that Corallocarpus epigaeus showed the highest anthelmintic activity with death time of 9 minutes at 100 mg/ml concentration.

  11. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and th......Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re...... results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA....

  12. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  13. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    -infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very...

  14. [Resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes in sheep and goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-08-01

    The article offers a brief view on the most important theoretical knowledge of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintic drugs in sheep and goats. Besides the definition and basic terms, factors of development and occurrence of resistance on farm are analyzed. Furthermore, methods for detection of resistant nematodes as well as complex of recommended preventive measures are given.

  15. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  16. Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model for anthelmintic discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Andrew R.; Luciani, Genna M.; Musso, Gabriel; Bagg, Rachel; Yeo, May; Zhang, Yuqian; Rajendran, Luckshika; Glavin, John; Hunter, Robert; Redman, Elizabeth; Stasiuk, Susan; Schertzberg, Michael; Angus McQuibban, G.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Cutler, Sean R.; Tyers, Mike; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Fraser, Andy G.; MacRae, Calum A.; Gilleard, John; Roy, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect one quarter of the world's population and impact all humans through widespread infection of crops and livestock. Resistance to current anthelmintics has prompted the search for new drugs. Traditional screens that rely on parasitic worms are costly and labour intensive and target-based approaches have failed to yield novel anthelmintics. Here, we present our screen of 67,012 compounds to identify those that kill the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We then rescreen our hits in two parasitic nematode species and two vertebrate models (HEK293 cells and zebrafish), and identify 30 structurally distinct anthelmintic lead molecules. Genetic screens of 19 million C. elegans mutants reveal those nematicides for which the generation of resistance is and is not likely. We identify the target of one lead with nematode specificity and nanomolar potency as complex II of the electron transport chain. This work establishes C. elegans as an effective and cost-efficient model system for anthelmintic discovery. PMID:26108372

  18. Anthelmintic drugs and nematicides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2014-12-16

    Parasitic nematodes infect many species of animals throughout the phyla, including humans. Moreover, nematodes that parasitise plants are a global problem for agriculture. As such, these nematodes place a major burden on human health, on livestock production, on the welfare of companion animals and on crop production. In the 21st century there are two major challenges posed by the wide-spread prevalence of parasitic nematodes. First, many anthelmintic drugs are losing their effectiveness because nematode strains with resistance are emerging. Second, serious concerns regarding the environmental impact of the nematicides used for crop protection have prompted legislation to remove them from use, leaving agriculture at increased risk from nematode pests. There is clearly a need for a concerted effort to address these challenges. Over the last few decades the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided the opportunity to use molecular genetic techniques for mode of action studies for anthelmintics and nematicides. These approaches continue to be of considerable value. Less fruitful so far, but nonetheless potentially very useful, has been the direct use of C. elegans for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery programmes. Here we provide an introduction to the use of C. elegans as a 'model' parasitic nematode, briefly review the study of nematode control using C. elegans and highlight approaches that have been of particular value with a view to facilitating wider-use of C. elegans as a platform for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery and development.

  19. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Signe A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137 with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6% and other Nematodirus species (15.0%. Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92% tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg. AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  20. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  1. Managing anthelmintic resistance: is it feasible in New Zealand to delay the emergence of resistance to a new anthelmintic class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Hosking, B C; Bisset, S A; McKay, C H

    2009-08-01

    The recent registration in New Zealand of the first new class of broad-spectrum anthelmintic, for use against nematode parasites of ruminants, in nearly three decades has raised the possibility that parasite management practices could be improved to minimise the emergence of resistance to the new drug. A review of knowledge pertaining to the selection of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep highlights a number of management practices which could be altered to achieve this. A number of previously common practices such as whole-flock treatment of adult ewes around lambing, and treatment of lambs as they are moved onto pastures with low parasite contamination have been clearly identified as high risk for selecting resistant parasites. Once high-risk practices have been identified steps can be taken to either eliminate their use or mitigate the associated risk. Much of the focus on the management of resistance around the world is on the retention of susceptible genotypes in refugia. While approaches to retaining unselected parasites are likely to vary around the world, empirical studies indicate that the practice is likely to be effective at slowing the development of resistance. The challenge for farmers and advisors will be to strike a balance between retaining sufficient susceptible parasites to usefully delay the development of resistance while not unduly compromising animal performance and farm profitability. The merits of combining different classes of anthelmintic in order to slow the development of resistance remains somewhat contentious in some countries. However, the attributes of oral anthelmintics are such that they seem likely to meet most, if not all, of the criteria for combinations to be highly effective at slowing the build-up of resistance in nematode parasites. It is evident that considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors involved in selecting anthelmintic-resistant nematodes since the last broad

  2. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C

    2014-07-30

    The first documented case of macrocyclic lactone resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of cattle was seen in the US approximately 10 years ago. Since that time the increase incidence of anthelmintic resistance has continued at an alarming rate. Currently parasites of the genera Cooperia and/or Haemonchus resistant to generic or brand-name macrocyclic lactones have be demonstrated in more than half of all operations examined. Both of these parasite genera are capable of causing economic losses by decreasing food intake and subsequently animal productivity. Currently, there are no easy and quick means to detect anthelmintic resistant GI nematodes. Definitive identification requires killing of cattle. The most commonly used field detection method is the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This method can be adapted for use as a screening agent for Veterinarians and producers to identify less than desired clearance of the parasites after anthelmintic treatment. Further studies can then define the reasons for persistence of the egg counts. The appearance of anthelmintic resistance is largely due to the development of very effective nematode control programs that have significantly improved the productivity of the US cattle industry, but at the same time has placed a high level of selective pressure on the parasite genome. The challenges ahead include the development of programs that control the anthelmintic resistant nematodes but at the same time result in more sustainable parasite control. The goal is to maintain high levels of productivity but to exert less selective pressures on the parasites. One of the most effective means to slow the development of drug resistance is through the simultaneous use of multiple classes of anthelmintics, each of which has a different mode of action. Reduction of the selective pressure on the parasites can be attained through a more targeted approach to drug treatments where the producer's needs are met by selective

  3. Antiparasitic drugs and lactation: focus on anthelmintics, scabicides, and pediculicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Isabel

    2003-11-01

    Infections involving helminths or parasitic worms affect more than 25% of the population worldwide. Because lactating women and their infants are often affected by the complications of these infections such as iron deficiency anemia and malnutrition, they benefit the most from drug therapy. However, scientific literature offers little information regarding transfer of anthelmintics in breast milk and its effects in lactating infants. Scabies and pediculosis, or lice, are common skin infections affecting school-aged children. Close contacts of infected children, which often include lactating mothers, need treatment with one of the several topical products available in the market. This article will review the physicochemical properties and use of anthelmintics, pediculicides, and scabicides while breastfeeding.

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  5. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  6. Anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in Irish commercial sheep flocks- the state of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Good Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthelmintic resistance has been reported in most sheep producing countries. Prior to the mid 1990s, reports of anthelmintic resistance in Ireland were sparse and focused on benzimidazole, one of the three classes of anthelmintic available during this period. This evidence for efficacy issues on Irish farms combined with awareness that anthelmintic resistance was increasingly being reported in other countries prompted the need for more comprehensive investigations on Irish farms. Faecal egg count reduction and micro-agar larval development tests were employed to investigate resistance to benzimidazole, levamisole and macrocyclic lactone. There is compelling evidence for resistance to both benzimidazole (>88% of flocks and levamisole (>39% of flocks. Resistance of nematode populations to macrocyclic lactone was suspected on a small number of farms (11% but needs to be confirmed. The recent introduction of two new classes of anthelmintics, after over a 25 year interval, together with the evidence that anthelmintic resistance is reported within a relatively short time following the introduction of a new anthelmintic compound means that the challenge to the industry is immediate. Actions are urgently required to manage anthelmintic resistance so as to prolong the lifespan of anthelmintics.

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform extract was more potent compared to other extracts.

  8. Antifungal and anthelmintic activities of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akendengué, Blandine; Champy, Pierre; Nzamba, Joseph; Roblot, François; Loiseau, Philippe M; Bories, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Basic CH2Cl2 extract of the trunk bark of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae) exhibited antifungal activities against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata using an agar well-diffusion assay method. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of 8-hydroxysampangine. The methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity against Rhabditis pseudoelongata. Purification of the neutral CH2Cl2 extract yielded bornyl-p-transcoumarate and bornyl-p-cis-coumarate.

  9. Direct and indirect anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Sarwar, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Nisa, M; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Mufti, Kamran Aftab; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2007-03-15

    Anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins (CT) was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro tests included egg hatch test and paralysis/mortality assay on adult Haemonchus contortus. In vivo anthelmintic effect was determined by faecal egg count reduction test in lambs. To this end, 18 lambs were divided into three groups (low tannin, high tannin and control). The lambs of low and high tannin groups were fed diets containing 2 and 3% CT while the control group was fed on diets without CT. In vitro trials showed a dose-dependent inhibition of nematode egg hatching; whereas, there was no effect of CT on adult H. contortus. In vivo trials indicated reduction in faecal egg counts in lambs fed diets containing CT. Feed intake and nutrient digestibility of CT-fed sheep was lower and nitrogen balance was higher as compared to control. Maximum weight gain was observed in animals fed diets containing 3% CT. The direct anthelmintic effect of CT, therefore, was evidenced by inhibited egg hatching; whereas, faecal egg counts reduction in sheep was through improved nutrient utilization.

  10. Anthelmintic residues in goat and sheep dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedziniak Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.

  11. Anthelmintic effect of condensed tannins in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminthiasis infections are considerate one of the main limiting factors in sheep production worldwide. The development of parasite resistance to anthelmintics has caused significant losses of small ruminant production. In the search for new alternatives for effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, phytotherapy is a promising field of research in an attempt to reduce the usage of chemical treatments, aimed at ecological production. Many plants play a crucial role in maintaining animal and human life. During human evolution many interactions with other organisms were established and they have affected each other in many ways. Plants have developed biochemical mechanisms to defend themselves from biological antagonists that act as their natural enemies. This principle has led scientists to search for bio-active compounds produced by plants against pathogens. Since these discovers their metabolites are evaluated against diseases of importance not only in public health, but also in animal production. This article presents a review of studies with tanniniferous plants scientifically tested worldwide for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in ruminants.

  12. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  13. Characterization of the inflammatory response to anthelmintic treatment in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomin parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Betancourt, Alejandra; Lyons, Eugene T.

    2013-01-01

    was to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response of ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins to single dose representatives of three anthelmintic drug classes, namely, oxibendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and moxidectin. Thirty ponies aged between 1 and 18 years of age were allocated to one of three anthelmintic...

  14. Anthelmintic efficacy and management practices in sheep farms from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; da Rocha, Letícia Oliveira; Arruda, Sabrina Santos; Palieraqui, Jorge Guilherme Bergottini; Cordeiro, Rudymilla Cunha; Santos, Edizio; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Santos, Clóvis de Paula

    2010-06-24

    Anthelmintic resistance in parasites maybe a consequence of over-exposing populations of parasites to drugs or from the commerce/transit of animals harboring resistant parasites. Knowledge of the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintics is essential to establish an efficient integrated program of parasite control. In Brazil, producers rely on technology transfer from field professionals and non-technical labor for new management strategies of parasite control. The aim of this work was to determine the practices farmers used for anthelmintic management and to monitor drug efficacy on sheep farms from northern and northwestern regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A questionnaire was sent to 34 farms, and anthelmintics were tested on ten of these farms. Sheep (n=10/group) were weighed and treated with albendazole, closantel, doramectin, fenbendazole, ivermectin, levamisole, moxidectin, or nitroxynil with their recommended doses. Faeces were collected on the day of treatment and after 7-10 days. The faecal egg count reduction test was evaluated based on RESO 2.0. Among the farmers interviewed, 97% applied commercial anthelmintics to control parasites, 77% rotated anthelmintics annually, 72% used ivermectin as the principal anthelmintic, and 38% applied anthelmintics with a frequency of 30-60 days. On two farms, none of the anthelmintics was efficacious. Levamisole had the best overall efficacy (70%). Albendazole, ivermectin, and fenbendazole were efficacious (above 95%) on only two farms. The present work illustrates the alarming lack of efficacy of drugs even in an area new to sheep farming. It is important to establish alternative strategies of management in a broad program of parasite control for reducing the selection pressure on parasites by the commercially available anthelmintics.

  15. Anthelmintic Potential of Thymoquinone and Curcumin on Fasciola gigantica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rizwan; Rehman, Abdur; Zafeer, Mohd Faraz; Rehman, Lubna; Khan, Yasir A.; Khan, M. A. Hannan; Khan, Shahper N.; Khan, Asad U.; Abidi, S. M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis an economically important global disease of ruminants in the temperate and tropical regions, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively, also poses a potential zoonotic threat. In India alone it causes huge losses to stakeholders. Anthelmintics including triclabendazole have been used to control this menace but the emerging resistance against the available compounds necessitates identification of novel and alternative therapeutic measures involving plant derived natural compounds for their anthelmintic potential. Thymoquinone (T) and curcumin (C), the active ingredients of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa respectively have been used as antiparasitic agents but the information on their flukicidal effect is very limited. Adult flukes of F. gigantica were in vitro exposed to different concentrations of thymoquinone and curcumin separately for 3h at 37+ 1°C. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in the worm motility at 60 μM concentration of both T and C was observed though all the worms remained alive after 3h exposure, whereas the effect on egg shedding was statistically insignificant. Pronounced tegumental disruptions and erosion of spines in the posterior region and around the acetabulum was evident. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) level was observed, while protein carbonylation increased differentially. A significant inhibition of CathepsinL (CatL) gene expression in thymoquinone treated worms was also evident. Further, in silico molecular docking of T and C with CatL revealed a stronger interaction of curcumin with the involvement of higher number of amino acids as compared to thymoquinone that could be more effective in inhibiting the antioxidant enzymes of F. gigantica. It is concluded that both the compounds understudy will decrease the detoxification ability of F. gigantica, while inhibition of CatL will significantly affect their virulence

  16. Differences in smartphone usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustarini, Mattia; Scipioni, Marcello Paolo; Fanourakis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the users’ intimacy to investigate the differences in smartphone usage, considering the user’s location and number and kind of people physically around the user. With a first user study we (1) validate the intimacy concept, (2) evaluate its correlation to smartphone usage features and (3......-time features are predictive for the intimacy, and other smartphone-based features can improve the intimacy prediction accuracy....

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy on Parascaris equorum in foals on Swedish studs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensson Dan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years stud farms have experienced increasing problems with Parascaris equorum infections in foals despite intensive deworming programs. This has led to the question as to whether the anthelmintic drugs used against this parasite are failing. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel on the faecal output of ascarid eggs of foals. Methods A Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT was performed on nine large studs in Sweden. Anthelmintic drugs were given orally and faecal samples were examined for ascarid eggs on the day of deworming and 14 days later. Faecal Egg Count Reductions (FECRs were calculated on arithmetic means of transformed individual FECRs and on arithmetic means of individual FECRs. Results Seventy-nine (48% out of a total of 165 foals sampled were positive for P. equorum eggs before deworming and 66 of these met the criteria for being used in the efficacy assessment. It was shown that there was no, or very low activity of ivermectin on the output of ascarid eggs in the majority of the foals, whereas for fenbendazole and pyrantel it was >90%. Conclusion Ivermectin resistance was shown in 5 out of 6 farms. Therefore, ivermectin should not be the drug of choice in the control of P. equorum infections in foals. According to the results of this study, fenbendazole or pyrantel are still effective and should be used against this parasite.

  18. Alternatives to anthelmintics for the control of nematodes in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stear, M J; Doligalska, M; Donskow-Schmelter, K

    2007-02-01

    Efficient and welfare-friendly livestock production demands the control of nematode infection. Current control measures rely upon anthelmintic treatment but are threatened by the widespread evolution of drug-resistance in parasite populations. Several methods have been advocated to control nematodes without relying on effective anthelmintics. These include grazing management, biological control, nutritional supplementation, vaccination, and genetic approaches. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. There are several grazing management schemes that can reduce the severity of infection but they are insufficient on their own to control infection. Biological control includes the use of predatory fungi to control nematode populations and the use of pasture species that can reduce the intensity of infection. Fungi can control nematodes but the current requirement for daily feeding means that this approach will be most useful for animals that are handled daily. Feeding supplementary protein can control nematode infection. The method is simple but can be expensive and may not be cost-effective for some marginal enterprises. Genetic approaches include the use of resistant breeds and selective breeding. Some breeds will thrive in conditions that kill animals from other breeds but substitution of resistant breeds is not always feasible. Selective breeding is effective and inexpensive but requires a high level of expertise. The most appropriate method or set of methods to minimize the adverse consequences of nematode infection may vary among farms.

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY STUDY OF SARACA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Sarojini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To know the anthelmintic property of leaves of Saraca indica, we used both maceration and soxhelet methods of extraction using solvents like ethanol and methanol. Each extract was tested for its anthelmintic activity by following standard method. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts (obtained from both the methods of extractions of Saraca indica displayed anthelmintic property in a dose-dependant manner. In both the methods of extraction, we found that the ethanolic as well as the methanolic extracts were more potent than the positive control as far as anthelminthic property was concerned. To correlate phytochemical screening with anthelmintic activity, phytochemical evaluation of the extracts was also performed. From our result, it may be mentioned that the ethanolic extract was relatively more potent as an anthelmintic agent due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. On the other hand, the methanolic extract was effective as an anthelmintic agent probably due to the involvement of glycosides and flavonoids. The presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and flavonoids seems to be the responsible phytochemical constituents for demonstrating anthelmintic activities of our extracts.

  20. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  1. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  2. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  3. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, William G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can determi

  4. A survey of anthelmintic resistance on ten sheep farms in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to detect anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep was conducted on 10 randomly-distributed farms in the Chivhu District, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Before the survey, a questionnaire was circulated to the farmers concerning nematode parasite control. Results showed that parasite control using anthelmintic treatment was the only method practised and that the benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs. The faecal egg count reduction test was used to detect resistance. The anthelmintic groups tested were benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin. Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 6 of 10 farms and levamisole resistance on 2 of 3 farms. Ivermectin resistance was not observed on the farms surveyed. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated that Haemonchus contortus survived administration of fenbendazole, albendazole, oxfendazole and levamisole. A Cooperia sp. strain resistant to albendazole was detected and this is the first report in Zimbabwe of a resistant parasite in this genus.

  5. Transport of anthelmintic benzimidazole drugs by breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merino, G; Jonker, JW; Wagenaar, E; Pulido, MM; Molina, AJ; Alvarez, AI; Schinkel, AH

    2005-01-01

    Methylcarbamate benzimidazoles [albendazole (ABZ), fenbendazole (FBZ), and their respective sulfoxide derivatives, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and oxfendazole (OXF)] are therapeutically important anthelmintic agents with low bioavailability. We studied their in vitro interaction with the apical AT

  6. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  7. Comparison of ruminant anthelmintics, using multiple dose administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, D K; Holloway, E L; Brown, L J

    1982-03-01

    Eleven ruminant anthelmintics were administered to lambs over a 30-day period, using medicated feeds or multiple oral doses. Fenbendazole and its sulfinyl analog, oxfendazole, were effective (greater than 90%) in the control of clinical parasitism at feeding levels of 5 mg/kg of feed. Parbendazole and albendazole were effective at daily oral dose levels of 1 mg/kg of body weight and at feeding dose levels of 10 mg/kg of feed, respectively. Levamisole, mebendazole, and oxibendazole were ineffective in controlling intense natural parasitic infections of sheep at daily oral dose levels equal to or less than 1 mg/kg of body weight and/or a feeding level equal to or less than 10 mg/kg of feed.

  8. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  9. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  10. Anthelmintic effects of Oroxylum indicum stem bark extract on juvenile and adult stages of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, traditional usage of herbal medicines is a common practice to treat various parasitic infections. In India, bark decoction of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz. (Bignoniaceae) is used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections. This study investigated the anthelmintic efficacy of methanolic bark extract of O. indicum on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Utilizing a mini-questionnaire, first, we collected information about the pattern of anthelmintic use of this plant. Later, in vitro efficacy of extract was tested at 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml on both the artificially excysted juveniles and adult H. diminuta worms. Herein, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also utilized to determine the possible effects of extract on tegumental surfaces of juvenile and adult cestode. In vivo, extract was tested at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in H. diminuta albino rat model, against juvenile and adult cestode. Praziquantel (PZQ) served as reference drug in anthelmintic assays. The acute toxicity of extract was determined as per the OECD guidelines. The field questionnaire data revealed that 78 % of people in the area use O. indicum stem bark against intestinal helminths, and of these, 75 % of people also believed it highly efficacious anthelmintic remedy. In vitro testing of extract revealed significant effects on juvenile worms, and 30 mg/ml of extract caused mortality of juveniles at the initial period (0.25 ± 0.00 h). Conversely, PZQ (1 mg/ml) showed paralysis and mortality of juvenile cestodes in 0.44 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.06 h, respectively. As determined by SEM, in vitro exposure to extract showed substantial effects on both juveniles and adult worms in the form of wrinkled scolex, distorted tegument and eroded microtriches. In vivo study revealed better efficacy of extract against juveniles than adult stages of parasite. Treatment of rats with 1000 mg/kg of extract caused 79.3 % reduction in EPG counts

  11. Thymus capitatus from Tunisian arid zone: chemical composition and in vitro anthelmintic effects on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker Elandalousi, Ramzi; Akkari, Hafidh; B'chir, Fatma; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Awadi, Soufia; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-10-18

    The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistant strains of helminths, the drug residues in animal products and the high cost of conventional anthelmintics has created an interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Thymus capitatus (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) is used traditionally by people as spices and reported to possess some biological effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of T. capitatus in comparison to albendazole against the gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. To fulfil the objectives, in vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and crude ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of T. capitatus were investigated on the eggs and adults of the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of T. capitatus completely inhibited egg hatching at a concentration close to 2 mg/ml. LC₅₀ of ethanolic extract of T. capitatus was 0.368 mg/ml while that of aqueous extract was 6.344 mg/ml (p<0.05). The ethanolic extract showed higher in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one in terms of the paralysis and/or death of the worms at different hours post-treatment. Dose dependent effect was observed for both extracts. Chemical analyses revealed that the overall profile of both extracts was dominated by oxygenated constituents. In addition, ethanolic extract is mainly composed of phenols among which thymol (71.22%) and camphor (17.18%). As far as the literature could be ascertained, this is the first publication on anthelmintic activity of T. capitatus. The results of the present study suggest that T. capitatus extracts are a promising alternative to the commercially available anthelmintics like albendazole for the treatment of small ruminants' gastrointestinal nematodes.

  12. Zeolites and Usage Areas

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    Jale Gülen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are formed via several reactions from the minerals that consist of aluminium and silica. Zeolites, which have a growing significance in recent days are one of important industrial raw materials. As well as being used as a catalyst, theirability to do ion exchange and adsorption make them even more valuable. Zeolites are used in several industries such as energy, agriculture and animal husbandry, mining and metallurgy, construction, detergent, paper, etc. In this study, the definiton, formation and usage areas of zeolites are explained.

  13. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum Thapsus Mullein

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    Ali Niaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Methods V. thapsus extracts were tested against roundworms (Ascaridia galli and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis. Each species of worm was placed into a negative control group, an albendazole treatment group, or a V. thapsus treatment group, and the time taken for paralysis and death was determined. In addition, relaxation activity tests were performed on sections of rabbit's jejunum. Plant extracts were tested on KCl-induced contractions and the relaxation activities were quantified against atropine. V. thapsus calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of the plant extracts. Results We detected flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fixed oils in V. thapsus. For both species of worm, paralysis occurred fastest at the highest concentration of extract. The relative index values for paralysis in A. galli were 4.58, 3.41 and 2.08, at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml of plant extract, respectively. The relative index for death in A. galli suggested that V. thapsus extract is wormicidal at high concentration. Similarly, the relative indexes for paralysis and death in R. spiralis suggested that the extract is a more potent wormicidal agent than albendazole. The mean EC50 relaxation activity values for spontaneous and KCl induced contractions were 7.5 ± 1.4 mg/ml (6.57-8.01, n = 6 and 7.9 ± 0.41 mg/ml (7.44-8.46, n = 6, respectively. The relaxation activity of the extract was 11.42 ± 2, 17.0 ± 3, 28.5 ± 4, and 128.0 ± 7% of the maximum observed for atropine at corresponding concentrations. The calcium chloride curves showed that V. thapsus extracts (3 mg/ml, had a mean EC50 (log molar [calcium] value of -1.9 ± 0

  14. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  15. Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Hawassa (southern Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Abebe, Girma

    2009-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the presence of anthelmintic resistance on Hawassa University goat farm in southern Ethiopia. The 180 goats were stratified by age and sex and randomly assigned to treatment groups (albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin and untreated control). Each treatment group included 15 goats and treatments were administered according to weight of each goat with 7.5 mg/kg bw albendazole, 22.5 mg/kg bw tetramisole and 0.2 mg/kg bw ivermectin dose rates recommended by scientists. Faecal samples were collected on day 0 before treatment, and again on day 12 post treatment. Efficacy of all the drugs was assessed on day 12 post treatment by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus spp. against albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin was recorded in all age categories of the goats. Likewise, Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia spp. showed resistance against ivermectin. Coprocultures from all pre- and post-treatments revealed the predominance of Haemonchus spp. Resistance against anthelmintics is attributed to the high frequency of treatment and low dosage of treatment practices on the farm. Large scale studies, however, are needed to assess the current status of anthelmintic resistance against the most commonly used anthelmintics in different agroecology, species of animals and management systems in Ethiopia.

  16. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF FRUIT PULP OF CORDIA DICHOTOMA

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    Maisale A B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Cordia dichotoma Forst belonging to family Boraginaceae are used traditionally as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and anthelmentic activities. Pulp obtained after separation of seeds was shade dried, powdered and subjected to successive hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether (40-60 C ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Aqueous extract of Cordia dichotoma showed significant activity than ethanolic extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed fruits of Cordia dichotoma possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The fruit pulp extract of Cordia dichotoma also showed presence of flavonoid, alkaloid and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations, TLC and HPTLC methods.

  17. Anthelmintic Activity of Musa paradisiaca (L. cv. Puttabale

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    Venkatesh, V. Krishna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale (AB group is an indigenous banana cultivar commonly cultivated in the Malnad region of Karnataka, India. Helminthes infections are acute and chronic illness in human beings and cattle. About 3 million people are infected with helminthes worldwide. Traditionally, the plant M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale was used to expel parasitic worms. In order to justify the ethanomedicinal claim with scientific report, sincere attempts have been made to investigate the Anthelmintic activity from corm ethanol extracts of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale using Pheretima posthuma as an experimental model. Three concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml of corm ethanol extract were used to study their effect in time of paralysis and death of worm. The results suggest that the ethanol extract at the concentration of 100 mg/ml showed significant effect in time of paralysis at 42.33±1.45 min and death time was 54.00±0.58 min than control group in time of paralysis (142.67±1.45 min and death (168.00±1.53 min. Standard drug piperazine citrate showed paralysis on 39.67±0.88 min and death at 59.00±0.58 min. The corm ethanol extract confirmed antihelmintic activity in dose depend manure and efficient, than standard drug piperazine citrate. This investigation revealed that the antihelmintic property of ethanol extracts of Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale against Pheretima posthuma to support its medicinal claims.

  18. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascar...

  19. Equine anthelmintics: survey of the patterns of use, beliefs and attitudes among horse owners in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, K; Taylor, N M; Wilsmore, A J; Garforth, C

    2011-05-07

    An online survey was conducted to establish horse owners' beliefs, attitudes and practices relating to the use of anthelmintic drugs. Out of a total of 574 respondents, 89 per cent described themselves as 'leisure riders', most of whom took part in a variety of activities including eventing, show jumping, dressage, hunter trials, hunting, driving, endurance and showing. Overall, respondents were generally aware and concerned about the issue of anthelmintic resistance. Less than 60 per cent of all respondents were comfortable with their existing anthelmintic programme, and 25 per cent would like to reduce the use of anthelmintics in their horses. Of all the respondents, 47 per cent used livery, and 49 per cent of those reported that the livery imposed a common anthelmintic programme for horses kept on the premises; 45 per cent of these respondents were not entirely happy with the livery yard's programme. Less than 50 per cent of all respondents included 'veterinary surgeon' among their sources of advice on worming.

  20. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus on a sheep farm in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, C L; Kumar, R; Uppal, R P; Verma, S P

    1995-12-01

    Multiple resistance to benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, albendazole and mebendazole) in a strain of Haemonchus contortus in sheep was detected on a farm where fenbendazole resistance had already been identified. Following a faecal egg count reduction test, this was confirmed by both critical and controlled anthelmintic tests. Different groups of sheep infected naturally or given an experimental infection with the fenbendazole-resistant strain were treated with the recommended doses of various anthelmintics. Compared to the control group, percentage reductions in faecal egg counts of sheep treated with fenbendazole, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and morantel varied between 56% and 81% and worm counts between 71% and 86%. The results indicate the presence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in this strain of H. contortus on this farm. Sheep treated with ivermectin and closantel showed 100% reductions in faecal egg and worm counts, suggesting high efficacy of these drugs against the population of H. contortus on this farm.

  1. Social networks usage implications at the level of medical services consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian Gardan

    2017-03-01

    The research results reveal key issues from the perspective of emotional involvement within consumption for the patients and the influence of key variables such as level of education, personality and lifestyle within social networks usage context.

  2. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  3. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  4. Phyto chemical Screening, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anthelmintic Activity of Morinda citrifolia stem

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    Dr. D. Gopala Krishna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni stem were subjected to preliminary screening for Antimicrobial and Aanthelmintic activity. The alcoholic extract exhibited significant Anti bacterial, Antifungal activity, comparable to the standard drug Tetracycline. The Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract were evaluated for Anthelmintic activity on adult Indian Earthworms, ‘Pheretima posithuma’. The Alcoholic extract produced more significant Anthelmintic activity than Petroleum ether extract and the activities are comparable with the reference drug Piperazine citrate

  5. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nemaotdes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Larsen Enemark, Heidi; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    in anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (mDP), prodelphinidin....../procyanidin ratio and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. Tannins diluted in two concentrations in water, epigallocatechin gallate, positive (ivermectin) and negative (water) controls were examined by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) with first stage larvae (L1) of the cattle nematode Cooperia...

  6. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Oliver; Enemark, Heidi L.; Mueller-Harvey, I.

    2013-01-01

    in anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between tannin structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (m......DP), prodelphinidin/procyanidin (PC/PD) ratio and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. Tannins diluted in two concentrations in water, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), positive (ivermectin) and negative (water) controls were examined by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) with first stage larvae (L1...

  7. A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernanská, D; Várady, M; Corba, J

    2006-01-15

    The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on 27 sheep farms in Slovakia was investigated in 2003 and 2004 using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) according to the WAAVP guidelines. Resistance to albendazole was detected on one farm (3.7%) and suspected on two farms (7.4%) out of 27 sheep flocks. Resistance to ivermectin was tested on 26 farms. On six (23.1%) farms, results indicated the presence of ivermectin resistance. Resistance to ivermectin was suspected on eight farms (30.8%). However, it is also possible that generic ivermectin anthelmintics used in survey have a lower efficacy against sheep nematodes.

  8. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rodriguez J.J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae. Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO enantiomer (– were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC.

  9. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Lagenaria Siceraria Leaves in Indian Adult Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Two concentrations (50 and 100 mg/ml of various extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Albendazole (20 mg/ml was used as reference standard and carboxy methyl cellulose (0.5% as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in the plant extracts but methanolic extract exhibited more activity as compared to others. The anthelmintic activity of Lagenaria sicerarialeaves extract has therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolaraki, F; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Skampardonis, V; Volanis, M; Hoste, H

    2010-04-01

    The anthelmintic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs. Most data have been acquired on legume forages, but only few on browse plants. The present study aimed to (i) screen the in vitro effects of extracts from 7 Mediterranean plants on Haemonchus contortus, (ii) verify the role of tannins using an inhibitor, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) and (iii) verify the in vivo effects of extracts from 4 plants. Significant inhibition was shown in vitro using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay for all extracts except that from Olea europaea var. koroneiki. After adding PVPP, the LMI values were restored to control levels for all plants except Pistacia lentiscus and Ceratonia siliqua, confirming a role for tannins in the activity. In the in vivo experiment, 48 lambs composed 6 groups, depending on diet. On Day 0, groups G1-G5 received H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and G6 remained uninfected. The various diets were distributed from Days 14 to 45: P. lentiscus (G1), Quercus coccifera (G2), C. siliqua (G3), Onobrychis viciifolia (G4), or Medicago sativa for the 2 control groups (G5, G6). Egg excretion, packed cell volumes (PCVs) and inorganic phosphate were measured weekly throughout the entire experimental period. At slaughter, the worms were enumerated and their fecundity assessed. Consumption of the 4 browser plants did not provoke differences in pathophysiological measurements but there were significant decreases in egg excretion, mainly explained by significant decreases in worm fecundity for both species, without any statistical difference in worm numbers.

  11. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  12. Analysis of Usage Patterns in Large Multimedia Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Bhattarai, Bibek

    User behavior in a website is a critical indicator of the web site's usability and success. Therefore an understanding of usage patterns is essential to website design optimization. In this context, large multimedia websites pose a significant challenge for comprehension of the complex and diverse user behaviors they sustain. This is due to the complexity of analyzing and understanding user-data interactions in media-rich contexts. In this chapter we present a novel multi-perspective approach for usability analysis of large media rich websites. Our research combines multimedia web content analysis with elements of web-log analysis and visualization/visual mining of web usage metadata. Multimedia content analysis allows direct estimation of the information-cues presented to a user by the web content. Analysis of web logs and usage-metadata, such as location, type, and frequency of interactions provides a complimentary perspective on the site's usage. The entire set of information is leveraged through powerful visualization and interactive querying techniques to provide analysis of usage patterns, measure of design quality, as well as the ability to rapidly identify problems in the web-site design. Experiments on media rich sites including the SkyServer - a large multimedia web-based astronomy information repository demonstrate the efficacy and promise of the proposed approach.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY BETWEEN ACETONE AND ETHANOLIC STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF SPONDIAS PINNATA (LINN.F KURZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda B.K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spondias Pinnata (Linn.F Kurz is found in tribal area of Mayurbhanj district and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people as Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Regulate menstruation, Anti-pyretic, Anti-tumor and Anti-bacterial activity1-6. The present study is attempted to explore the anthelmintic activity of acetone and ethanol extract of bark of plant Spondias Pinnata in a comparative study. The various doses of acetone and ethanol extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima postuma. All extracts of both the solvents were able to show anthelmintic activity at (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml concentration. The activities are well comparable with standard drugs, Piperazine citrate and Albendazole (10 mg/ml.All the doses of acetone and ethanol extract of Spondias Pinnata showed better anthelmintic activities than the standard drugs. When the dose of extract is increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity was observed. Ethanol extract showed better anthelmintic activity in comparison to the acetone extract of Spondias Pinnata. The data was verified as statistically significance by using ANOVA at 5% level of significance (P< 0.05.

  14. Anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is recognized as a severe problem for small ruminant production worldwide. In the United States, a high prevalence of drug resistance to multiple drug classes was reported in GIN of goats in Georgia, but no studies have examined the prevale...

  15. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of various tannin structures against Cooperia oncophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2013-01-01

    The use of tannin-rich plants against gastro-intestinal nematodes is an alternative currently investigated to avoid the exclusive use of anthelmintic (AH) synthetic drugs and prevent the spread of resistance among these nematode populations. Studies of AH effects on cattle nematodes using tannin...... agro-industrial resources could likewise be helpful in sustainable control of cattle nematodes....

  16. First report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of sheep in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M.B. Gárcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report the presence of parasites resistant to the most used anthelmintic drugs in sheep in Colombia. Four farms (denominated farm 1, 2, 3 and 4 were selected where the animals were not treated with anthelmintics for two months before the trial. Animals with faecal egg count (FEC above 150 and of different ages were allocated into six groups, each consisting of at least 5 animals. The drugs and dosages used were: ivermectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg, albendazole 25% (5 mg/kg, fenbendazole 10% (5 mg/kg, levamisole 10% (5 mg/kg, and moxidectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by the FEC reduction test (FECRT with a second sampling 14 days post-treatment. The efficacy of albendazole and fenbendazole at farm 1 was above 95%, which was different from the others farms. The FECRT indicated the presence of multidrug resistance in the other farms where no tested drugs showed activity higher than 79% (albendazole: 0 to 55%, fenbendazole: 51.4 to 76.6%, ivermectin: 67.3 to 93.1%, levamisole: 0 to 78.1%, and moxidectin: 49.2 to 64.1%.Haemonchus contortus was the predominant (96% species, followed by a small presence of Trichostrongylus sp. (3% andCooperia sp. (1%. Therefore, we report for the first time the existence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Colombia.

  17. Anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus staigeriana encapsulated oil on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Mesquita, Mayara; E Silva Júnior, João Batista; Panassol, Andressa Machado; de Oliveira, Erick Falcão; Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Camurça Fernandes; de Paula, Haroldo Cesar Beserra; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2013-09-01

    The anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil has previously been inferred through both in vitro and in vivo tests. Thus, the encapsulation process generally improves oil stability, promotes controlled release in target organs, reduces dosage, and increases efficacy. The aims of this study were to analyze and encapsulate E. staigeriana essential oil and to verify its anthelmintic activity in sheep. The encapsulation process was accomplished through emulsion using a 4% chitosan solution as the matrix. Anthelmintic activity was established through controlled testing using 18 sheep that were separated into three groups: group 1 was treated with a single dose of 365 mg/kg of E. staigeriana encapsulated oil, group 2 was treated with 200 μg/kg of ivermectin, and group 3 was treated with a 4% chitosan solution as a negative control. The sheep were euthanized and necropsied 13 days posttreatment to evaluate worm burden. Limonene was the major oil component (72.91%). The final product was a hydrogel with 36.5% (m/m) E. staigeriana essential oil per gram. Its efficacy on gastrointestinal nematodes was 60.79%. The highest efficacy was against abomasal nematodes, with 83.75% efficacy. Further studies are necessary to explore the possibility of increasing the hydrogel efficacy; nevertheless, we can state that E. staigeriana encapsulated oil had anthelmintic activity and can be used in gastrointestinal nematode control.

  18. Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, B; Peltola, S-M

    2015-11-01

    There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged ivermectin. Up to 78% of horses required anthelmintic treatment and the efficiency of the anthelmintics was evaluated using a faecal egg count reduction test. Resistance of P. equorum was observed in 50% of horses treated with ivermectin and of strongyles in 27% of horses treated with pyrantel. Ivermectin treatment resulted in a mean reduction of 100% for strongyle eggs and an 89% reduction in P. equorum, and pyrantel-treated horses exhibited an 88% reduction in strongyle eggs. These results are considered to be the first indication of resistance to pyrantel, but further studies of ivermectin resistance are required. According to questionnaires completed by the owners of horses, resistance might be explained by a lack of evidence-based strategies, a strong preference for using ivermectin and possibly a subjective evaluation of the body weight of horses.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  20. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  1. Determination of anthelmintic drug residues in milk using UPLC-MS/MS with rapid polarity switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry) method was developed and validated to detect 38 anthelmintic drug residues, consisting of benzimidazoles, avermectins and flukicides. A modified QuEChERS-type extraction method was developed with an added...

  2. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge in the control of parasites in livestock. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. Several factors...... to handle FECRT data obtained from other livestock species, drug types, and parasite species....

  3. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Sreejith; N Kannappan; A Santhiagu; Ajith P Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results: Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P Conclusions:The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  4. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and evaluation of FAMACHA diagnostic marker in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabukenya, Immaculate; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Olila, Deogracious; Muhangi, Denis; Höglund, Johan

    2014-10-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a challenge to goat production globally causing reduced growth, morbidity and mortality. We report here results of the first nation-wide anthelmintic resistance (AR) study and validation of assessment of clinical anaemia with FAMACHA eye scores in goats in Uganda. From August to December 2012 the efficacy of albendazole (7.5mg/kg), levamisole (10.5mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.3mg/kg) against strongyle nematodes was tested on 33 goat farms in Soroti, Gulu, Mpigi, Mbarara and Ssembabule districts of Uganda. Altogether 497 goats were subjected to a total of 45 different faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT), each involving 5-20 goats. On one farm all substances were tested. Faecal and blood samples were collected and FAMACHA eye scores evaluated on the day of treatment and 15 days later. A questionnaire survey was conducted on frequency, type and dose of anthelmintics used, farm size and grazing management system. Examination of infective third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures demonstrated Haemonchus to be the predominant genus (>75%). Resistance to at least one anthelmintic group was detected on 61% of the 33 farms and in 49% of the 45 test groups. Prevalence of resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole was respectively 58%, 52% and 38%. Correlation between pre-treatment packed cell volume determinations and FAMACHA scores (r(498) = -0.89) was significant. Paddock grazing system (Odds ratio 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-17.3) and large farm size of >40 goats (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16.1) were significant predictors of AR. In all districts, resistance to all three anthelmintics was higher on large-scale goat farms practising mostly paddock grazing. Interestingly, resistance to albendazole, the most commonly used anthelmintic in Uganda, was lower than that to ivermectin and levamisole. We recommend adaptation of FAMACHA to goats to help restrict anthelmintic treatment to heavily infected individuals. This will limit

  5. Modelling the benefits of a new class of anthelmintic in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M

    2012-05-04

    Since 2009 two new classes of anthelmintics have been registered for use in sheep in New Zealand. This raises challenging questions about how such new actives should be used, not only to minimise the development of resistance to them, thereby ensuring their availability as effective treatments for as long as possible, but also to minimise the further development of resistance to the other anthelmintic classes. One strategy which appears to offer considerable potential for slowing the development of resistance is the use of combinations of different anthelmintic classes, although this approach remains contentious in some countries. The potential benefit of using anthelmintics in combination is particularly relevant to two recently released anthelmintic compounds because one, monepantel, is presently only available as a single active product while the other, derquantel, is only available in combination with abamectin. A simulation modelling approach was used to investigate the potential benefits of using anthelmintics in combination. The rate at which resistance develops to a new 'active' when used alone was compared to an equivalent compound used in combination with a second compound from an alternative class (in this case, abamectin), when various levels of resistance occur to the second active. In addition, the potential of a new active to reduce further development of resistance to the second compound in the combination was evaluated. Finally, the use of combinations as compared to sequential or rotational use patterns, in the presence of side resistance between two actives was investigated. The modelling simulations suggest a significant advantage to both compounds when they are used in combination, especially if both initially have high efficacy. The development of resistance to the new active was delayed, although to a lesser extent, even when the efficacy of the second active in the combination was only 50%. Under a 'low-refugia' management environment

  6. Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lu, Chin-Mei; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Lee, June-Der; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10μM [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200μM [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-γ and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal

  7. The in vitro motility response to various anthelmintics of third-stage larvae of Oesophagostomum spp. from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Corba, J; Hrcková, G

    1998-07-01

    The in vitro activities of thiabendazole, levamisole, pyrantel, morantel and ivermectin against Oesophagostomum spp., the nodular worm of pigs, were determined and compared. The study was carried out using isolates of O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum, which had been defined in vivo. Infective larvae were exposed to the anthelmintics for 24 h and then placed in a micromotility meter. All the treatments significantly reduced the motility of the ensheathed L3 larvae, but the micromotility meter was not able to differentiate between anthelmintic resistant and anthelmintic susceptible isolates.

  8. The Validation of Nematode-Specific Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels as Potential Anthelmintic Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Claudia M; Farrington, Danielle; Dent, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat parasitic nematode infections in humans, livestock and plants. Small molecule anthelmintics are the primary means of nematode parasite control in animals; however, widespread resistance to the currently available drug classes means control will be impossible without the introduction of new compounds. Adverse environmental effects associated with nematocides used to control plant parasitic species are also motivating the search for safer, more effective compounds. Discovery of new anthelmintic drugs in particular has been a serious challenge due to the difficulty of obtaining and culturing target parasites for high-throughput screens and the lack of functional genomic techniques to validate potential drug targets in these pathogens. We present here a novel strategy for target validation that employs the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to demonstrate the value of new ligand-gated ion channels as targets for anthelmintic discovery. Many successful anthelmintics, including ivermectin, levamisole and monepantel, are agonists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, suggesting that the unexploited pentameric ion channels encoded in parasite genomes may be suitable drug targets. We validated five members of the nematode-specific family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channels as targets of agonists with anthelmintic properties by ectopically expressing an ivermectin-gated chloride channel, AVR-15, in tissues that endogenously express the acetylcholine-gated chloride channels and using the effects of ivermectin to predict the effects of an acetylcholine-gated chloride channel agonist. In principle, our strategy can be applied to validate any ion channel as a putative anti-parasitic drug target.

  9. The Validation of Nematode-Specific Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels as Potential Anthelmintic Drug Targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Wever

    Full Text Available New compounds are needed to treat parasitic nematode infections in humans, livestock and plants. Small molecule anthelmintics are the primary means of nematode parasite control in animals; however, widespread resistance to the currently available drug classes means control will be impossible without the introduction of new compounds. Adverse environmental effects associated with nematocides used to control plant parasitic species are also motivating the search for safer, more effective compounds. Discovery of new anthelmintic drugs in particular has been a serious challenge due to the difficulty of obtaining and culturing target parasites for high-throughput screens and the lack of functional genomic techniques to validate potential drug targets in these pathogens. We present here a novel strategy for target validation that employs the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to demonstrate the value of new ligand-gated ion channels as targets for anthelmintic discovery. Many successful anthelmintics, including ivermectin, levamisole and monepantel, are agonists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, suggesting that the unexploited pentameric ion channels encoded in parasite genomes may be suitable drug targets. We validated five members of the nematode-specific family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channels as targets of agonists with anthelmintic properties by ectopically expressing an ivermectin-gated chloride channel, AVR-15, in tissues that endogenously express the acetylcholine-gated chloride channels and using the effects of ivermectin to predict the effects of an acetylcholine-gated chloride channel agonist. In principle, our strategy can be applied to validate any ion channel as a putative anti-parasitic drug target.

  10. The Validation of Nematode-Specific Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels as Potential Anthelmintic Drug Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Claudia M.; Farrington, Danielle; Dent, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat parasitic nematode infections in humans, livestock and plants. Small molecule anthelmintics are the primary means of nematode parasite control in animals; however, widespread resistance to the currently available drug classes means control will be impossible without the introduction of new compounds. Adverse environmental effects associated with nematocides used to control plant parasitic species are also motivating the search for safer, more effective compounds. Discovery of new anthelmintic drugs in particular has been a serious challenge due to the difficulty of obtaining and culturing target parasites for high-throughput screens and the lack of functional genomic techniques to validate potential drug targets in these pathogens. We present here a novel strategy for target validation that employs the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to demonstrate the value of new ligand-gated ion channels as targets for anthelmintic discovery. Many successful anthelmintics, including ivermectin, levamisole and monepantel, are agonists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, suggesting that the unexploited pentameric ion channels encoded in parasite genomes may be suitable drug targets. We validated five members of the nematode-specific family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channels as targets of agonists with anthelmintic properties by ectopically expressing an ivermectin-gated chloride channel, AVR-15, in tissues that endogenously express the acetylcholine-gated chloride channels and using the effects of ivermectin to predict the effects of an acetylcholine-gated chloride channel agonist. In principle, our strategy can be applied to validate any ion channel as a putative anti-parasitic drug target. PMID:26393923

  11. The new anthelmintic tribendimidine is an L-type (levamisole and pyrantel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic nematodes such as hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura are amongst most prevalent tropical parasites in the world today. Although these parasites cause a tremendous disease burden, we have very few anthelmintic drugs with which to treat them. In the past three decades only one new anthelmintic, tribendimidine, has been developed and taken into human clinical trials. Studies show that tribendimidine is safe and has good clinical activity against Ascaris and hookworms. However, little is known about its mechanism of action and potential resistance pathway(s. Such information is important for preventing, detecting, and managing resistance, for safety considerations, and for knowing how to combine tribendimidine with other anthelmintics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate how tribendimidine works and how resistance to it might develop, we turned to the genetically tractable nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. When exposed to tribendimidine, C. elegans hermaphrodites undergo a near immediate loss of motility; longer exposure results in extensive body damage, developmental arrest, reductions in fecundity, and/or death. We performed a forward genetic screen for tribendimidine-resistant mutants and obtained ten resistant alleles that fall into four complementation groups. Intoxication assays, complementation tests, genetic mapping experiments, and sequencing of nucleic acids indicate tribendimidine-resistant mutants are resistant also to levamisole and pyrantel and alter the same genes that mutate to levamisole resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that eleven C. elegans mutants isolated based on their ability to resist levamisole are also resistant to tribendimidine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the mechanism of action of tribendimidine against nematodes is the same as levamisole and pyrantel, namely, tribendimidine is an L-subtype nAChR agonist. Thus

  12. The New Anthelmintic Tribendimidine is an L-type (Levamisole and Pyrantel) Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic nematodes such as hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura are amongst most prevalent tropical parasites in the world today. Although these parasites cause a tremendous disease burden, we have very few anthelmintic drugs with which to treat them. In the past three decades only one new anthelmintic, tribendimidine, has been developed and taken into human clinical trials. Studies show that tribendimidine is safe and has good clinical activity against Ascaris and hookworms. However, little is known about its mechanism of action and potential resistance pathway(s). Such information is important for preventing, detecting, and managing resistance, for safety considerations, and for knowing how to combine tribendimidine with other anthelmintics. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate how tribendimidine works and how resistance to it might develop, we turned to the genetically tractable nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. When exposed to tribendimidine, C. elegans hermaphrodites undergo a near immediate loss of motility; longer exposure results in extensive body damage, developmental arrest, reductions in fecundity, and/or death. We performed a forward genetic screen for tribendimidine-resistant mutants and obtained ten resistant alleles that fall into four complementation groups. Intoxication assays, complementation tests, genetic mapping experiments, and sequencing of nucleic acids indicate tribendimidine-resistant mutants are resistant also to levamisole and pyrantel and alter the same genes that mutate to levamisole resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that eleven C. elegans mutants isolated based on their ability to resist levamisole are also resistant to tribendimidine. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that the mechanism of action of tribendimidine against nematodes is the same as levamisole and pyrantel, namely, tribendimidine is an L-subtype nAChR agonist. Thus, tribendimidine may not be a

  13. Altmetrics, PIRUS and Usage Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Shepherd

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have moved their publications onto the web, and the ongoing conversation around the outputs of research increasingly takes place there. Beyond the research community itself, scholarly information has an impact on other professionals, as well as on the general public. Traditional measures do not reflect these wider impacts. The mission of COUNTER is to set and monitor global standards for the measurement of online usage of content. Usage is an important measure of the impact and value of publications, and as such has a role in altmetrics. Usage can be reported at the individual item and individual researcher level and aggregated to the journal or institution level. PIRUS and Usage Factor are two COUNTER-lead initiatives that are based on this approach, with the potential to provide useful altmetrics.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmenta...

  15. Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans and their antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional bene...

  16. In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of inhibitors of phosphoethanolamine Methyltransferases in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witola, William H; Matthews, Kwame; McHugh, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The essential phosphobase methylation pathway for synthesis of phosphocholine is unique to nematodes, protozoa and plants, and thus an attractive antiparasitic molecular target. Herein, we screened compounds from the National Cancer Institute (Developmental Therapeutics Program Open Chemical Repository) for specific inhibitory activity against Haemonchus contortus phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases (HcPMT1 and HcPMT2), and tested candidate compounds for anthelmintic activity against adult and third-stage larvae of H. contortus. We identified compound NSC-641296 with IC50 values of 8.3 ± 1.1 μM and 5.1 ± 1.8 μM for inhibition of the catalytic activity of HcPMT1 alone and HcPMT1/HcPMT2 combination, respectively. Additionally we identified compound NSC-668394 with inhibitory IC50 values of 5.9 ± 0.9 μM and 2.8 ± 0.6 μM for HcPMT1 alone and HcPMT1/HcPMT2 combination, respectively. Of the two compounds, NSC-641296 depicted significant anthelmintic activity against third-stage larvae (IC50 = 15 ± 2.9 μM) and adult stages (IC50 = 7 ± 2.9 μM) of H. contortus, with optimal effective in vitro concentrations being 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively, lower than its cytotoxic IC50 (29 ± 2.1 μM) in a mammalian cell line. Additionally, we identified two compounds, NSC-158011 and NSC-323241, with low inhibitory activity against the combined activity of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2, but both compounds did not show any anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The identification of NSC-641296 that specifically inhibits a unique biosynthetic pathway in H. contortus and has anthelmintic activity against both larval and adult stages of H. contortus, provides impetus for the development of urgently needed new efficacious anthelmintics to address the prevailing problem of anthelmintic-resistant H. contortus.

  17. 效价视域下购票渠道使用转移的意愿因素研究%Intention Factors Influencing Consumers'Ticket Purchasing Usage Transfer Behavioral under the Perspective of Valence Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 江娜

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of mobile intelligent devices and wild usage of internet technology has brought great change to the channel management of traditional ticket business .E - tickets service can enhance the efficiency of ticket service providers ,save more operation cost and provide more convenience . E-tickets service also contributes to the environment protection and plays a significant role in sustainable development .In recent years ,more and more ticket service providers offer both offline and online services to consumers simultaneously , but customers are preferable to use offline services rather than online services through many researches .In this paper ,we focus on exploring the factors influencing customers usage transfer behavioral intention in bi - channel environment and using the valence framework to construct research model .Choosing train ticket services as research object ,by using survey data collected from 410 train tickets users ,the results indicate that path dependence has no significant effect on intention to usage transfer but perceived risk ,perceived relative advantage and self -efficacy have significant effect on intention to usage transfer .%移动智能终端设备的普及和互联网技术的广泛应用给传统客票业务的渠道管理带来了巨大的改变,电子客票业务的推广不仅有利于提高票务服务商的工作效率,降低运营成本,提高客户购票便利性,而且是建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会的重要举措。近年来,越来越多的票务服务商在保持原有线下购票服务的同时,也开辟了线上购票服务,但研究表明,大量的用户依然倾向于使用线下渠道。因此,聚集客票系统为研究对象,探讨双渠道环境下影响用户从线下到线上使用转移的意愿因素,以效价理论的研究框架为切入点,提出考虑双渠道环境下影响使用转移的意愿因素研究模型。以中国应用最为广泛的火车票

  18. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna.

  19. usage of electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Cinaroglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health care is an organizational field that information and technology improves quickly. With ensuring health professionals adaptation to this new information and technology environment, it is possible to achieve quality and productivity improvement goal in health care. It is known that different clinical expertises brings differences in presentation of health services. It this study it was aimed to compare nurses assessments about electronic health records usage. At the end of the study it was found that nurses assessment about electronic health records usage according to different clinical expertises has a meaningful difference (t=2,40, p<0,05. Results of this study shows that surgical nurses who are forefront with and ldquo;technical abilities and rdquo; have more positive assessments about usage of electronic medical records when they compared with medical nurses who are forefront with and ldquo;patient centered and rdquo; abilities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 257-264

  20. The efficacy of 30% FENBENDAZOLE anthelmintic paste in cyathostominosis in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Badea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horse cyathostominosis is a large intestine helminthosis caused by parasites belonging to the family Strongylidae, subfamily Cyathostominae. The cyathostomins (small strongyles represent a challenge for the parasitologists and animal owners due to the different ontogenesis, the high number of parasite species and their ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. The faeces were examined by flotation (Willis method and the infestation level was determined by McMaster method in day 0, 7 and 14 post treatments. The product Vanbendazol (30% fenbendazole had a 97.7% efficacy in the treated horses from Şofronea, Arad County, using the Faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Also were performed Presidente and Borgsteede relations and the anthelmintic efficacy was 98.2% for the both relations.

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamra, Nirmala; Das, Giridhari; Singh, Priyanka; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Based on copro-examination, 30 cattle positive for strongyle infection with at least 250 [eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces] were selected and grouped as A, B and C (10 animals/group). Group A and B were treated respectively with fendendazole and neem leaf powder @ 5 and 500 mg/kg body weight, whereas Group C served as infected untreated control. Faecal sample from each animal of these groups was examined on day 0, 7, 14 and 28 post treatments and EPG was determined. The result showed significant decrease (p neem leaf powder has anthelmintic property and it can further be studied to isolate the active component to produce herbal anthelminthics.

  2. Anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, in combination or individually, in sheep worm control

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Holsback; Pedro Alex Ramsey Luppi; Camile Sanches Silva; Gustavo Kremer Negrão; Gabriel Conde; Hugo Vinícius Gabriel; João Vitor Balestrieri; Lucas Tomazella

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin), G2 (fenbendazole), G3 (nitroxynil), G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole), G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil), G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil), G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole), G8 (untreated). In addition to individually used ...

  3. Anthelmintic efficacy and dose determination of Albizia anthelmintica against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected Ugandan sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradé, J T; Arble, B L; Weladji, R B; Van Damme, P

    2008-11-07

    Weight loss, stunted growth, and death caused by gastrointestinal parasites are major constraints to livestock productivity, especially in tropical and developing countries where regular use, and misuse, of anthelmintics has led to nematode resistance. Albizia anthelmintica Brong. (Fabaceae) is traditionally employed throughout East Africa to treat helminth parasitosis in livestock. Reported efficacy has varied from 90% against mixed nematodes to just 19% against Haemonchus contortus alone. The objective of this study was to assess the anthelmintic effect of A. anthelmintica against naturally occurring infections of mixed gastrointestinal parasites, and to establish an effective treatment dose, in sheep under pastoral field conditions of northern Uganda. A. anthelmintica bark was collected and prepared according to local custom and packed into gel capsules. Fifty-five young female local mixed-breed lambs were randomly assigned to six groups, including a positive control group that received levamisole (synthetic anthelmintic) and a negative control group that received no treatment. Following the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) dose determination guidelines, the other four groups were treated with varying doses of A. anthelmintica. Statistical analyses (using generalized linear models) were performed to assess treatment effect. There was a significant treatment (group) effect on parasite egg/oocyte counts per gram (EPG) for nematodes, but not for coccidia. The most effective dose against nematodes (0.8g, 58.7mg/kg) closely approximates what is usually given by traditional healers, 0.9g/adult sheep. It provided major and significant reduction in EPG as compared to the negative control. Anthelmintic efficacy was estimated using percent faecal egg count reduction (FECR). Other than the positive control, animals in the standard dose group showed the greatest decline in shedding of nematode eggs, with an FECR of 78%. This study

  4. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    OpenAIRE

    MATA-SANTOS, Taís; PINTO, Nitza França; Hilton Antônio MATA-SANTOS; DE MOURA, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; CARVALHO, Tatiane dos Santos; DEL RIO, Karina Pena; PINTO, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; MARTINS, Lourdes Rodrigues; Juliana Montelli FENALTI; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubate...

  5. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

  6. IN VITRO STUDY OF THE ANTHELMINTIC ACTION OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM L. GROWN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Ghafagaai

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of Trigonella foenum graecum stem and leaves was tested for lethal activity against Hymenolepis nana, Syphacia obvelata, and Moniezia expansa. The plant extract demonstrated good anthelmintic activity in vitro which is directly related to the concentration of the extract used. The extract also prevents the formation of Ascaris larvae from the eggs of Ascaris lumbrico- ides (human. Department of Pharmacology and Department of Pathobiology, School of Medicine, Universety of Isfahan, Isfahan IRAN.

  7. Anthelmintic Avermectins Kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Leah E.; Vilchèze, Catherine; Ng, Carol; Jacobs, William R.; Ramón-García, Santiago; Thompson, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Avermectins are a family of macrolides known for their anthelmintic activities and traditionally believed to be inactive against all bacteria. Here we report that members of the family, ivermectin, selamectin, and moxidectin, are bactericidal against mycobacterial species, including multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Avermectins are approved for clinical and veterinary uses and have documented pharmacokinetic and safety profiles....

  8. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  9. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maroto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%, Strongyloides sp. (57%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (43% presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%, Haemonchus spp. (29%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (29% were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein.

  10. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Different Fractions of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Wasim Babar, Zia ud Din Sindhu, Rao Zahid Abbas and Muhammad Sohail Sajid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at determination of anthelmintic activity of different fractions of Azadirachta indica seed prepared from the crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME. For this purpose, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum spirit fractions of A. indica seeds employing standard bioassays. All the fractions of A. indica seeds exhibited dose and/or time dependent ovicidal and wormicidal effects against H. contortus. The best ovicidal activity was demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction with LC50=21.32 µg/ml; whereas, it was 6-14 times lower for the other fractions. Likewise, ethyl acetate fraction @ 50 mg ml-1 exhibited the best wormicidal effects by killing 83% adult H. contortus one hour post-exposure. For in vivo anthelmintic activity faecal egg count reduction test was perform on sheep naturally infected with helminthes. Maximum reduction (98.9% was observed with CAME. Therefore, it is concluded that future studies aimed at identification of active anthelmintic principles of A. indica may be focused on ethyl acetate fraction of the plant.

  11. Phenolics and Terpenoids; the Promising New Search for Anthelmintics: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Niladri; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Saini, Prasanta; Roy, Priya; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Ailments caused by helminth parasites are global causing different types of clinical complications with permanent and long term morbidity in humans. Although huge advances have been made in medical sciences the effectiveness of available anthelmintics are still quite limited. Starting from the 50's, most importance was given to synthetic compounds for developing remedies from them, however, the traditional knowledge of medicine of different countries continued to provide us clues against this widespread health problem. Natural products or structural analogs with diverse structures are always been the major sources for discovering new therapeutics and in recent past different active compounds have also been identified form these plant sources having anthelmintic properties. Although compounds of diverse chemical nature and classes were identified, most active ones belong to either phenol or terpene in broad chemical nature. The mechanism of action of these phytotherapeutics is usually multi-targeted and can act against the helminth parasites through diverse spectrum of activities. In this review we summarized the effective anthelmintics belong to either phenolics or terpenoids and highlighted the major way of their effectiveness. This also highlights the recent development of new therapeutic strategies against helminth parasites in the light of recent advances of knowledge. In addition, developing efficient strategies to promote apoptosis and disturbing redox status in them by natural products can provide us a clue in antifilarial drug developmental research and crucial unmet medical need.

  12. Evaluation of enhanced virgin coconut oil and senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) as anthelmintics against caprine strongyle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basripuzi, H B; Sani, R A; Ariff, O M; Chandrawathani, P

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic properties of enhanced virgin coconut oil (EVCO) and senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) plant against strongyle nematodes in goats. Two preparations of 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% virgin coconut oil and 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% palm oil, were given orally to two groups of mixed breeds goats. The efficacy test indicated that EVCO was insufficiently active as an anthelmintic. Four concentrations of senduduk solution (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg ml(-1)) were compared with a control and albendazole in an in vitro test for larvicidal effect. There was no significant larval mortality using senduduk solution. An in vivo test of senduduk was conducted by comparing three groups of goats, namely control, levamisole and treatment groups that were given a daily oral dose of senduduk crude extract with 1g kg(-1) from Day 0 to Day 12 and 2 g kg(-1) from Day 13 to Day 30. This efficacy test with senduduk also gave negative results. The findings obtained indicated that EVCO and senduduk were ineffective as anthelmintics against caprinestrongyle nematodes at the concentrations used.

  13. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu Seyoum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group. Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  14. Lack of Cyathostomin sp. reduction after anthelmintic treatment in horses in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canever, Ricardo J; Braga, Pollyana R C; Boeckh, Albert; Grycajuck, Marcelly; Bier, Daniele; Molento, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    The increase of anthelmintic resistance in the last years in the nematode population of veterinary importance has become a major concern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the main anthelmintic drugs available in the market against small strongyles of horses in Brazil. A total of 498 horses from 11 horse farms, located in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil, were treated with ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole, orally at their recommended doses. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was used to determine the product's efficacy and fecal culture was used to determine the parasite genus. Reduction on anthelmintic efficacy was found for fenbendazole in all horse farms (11/11), pyrantel in five yards (5/11) and ivermectin had low efficacy in one of the yards studied (1/11). Multidrug resistance of up to 3 drugs classes was found in one of the tested farms (1/11). Cyathostomin were the most prevalent parasite. The results showed that resistance to fenbendazole is widespread; the efficacy of pyrantel is in a critical situation. Although the macrocyclic lactones compounds still showed high efficacy on most farms, suspected resistance to macrocyclic lactones is of great concern.

  15. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Fouche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA. The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3% at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%. The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide cellular assay.

  16. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, R.; Jiménez, A. E.; Romero, J. J.; Alvarez, V.; De Oliveira, J. B.; Hernández, J.

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%), Strongyloides sp. (57%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (43%) presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%), Haemonchus spp. (29%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (29%) were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein. PMID:21772962

  17. Users, Use, and Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    For the August/September 2010 issue of "Library Technology Reports" (LTR) published by the American Library Association Techsource division, the author and her colleague, Rachel A. Fleming-May, focused on use and usage, both of electronic resources and use of libraries in general. In this article, the author discusses a few of the findings from an…

  18. Modeling Educational Usage of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the…

  19. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  20. Web Usage Analysis: New Science Indicators and Co-usage

    CERN Document Server

    Polanco, Xavier; Besagni, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    A new type of statistical analysis of the science and technical information (STI) in the Web context is produced. We propose a set of indicators about Web users, visualized bibliographic records, and e-commercial transactions. In addition, we introduce two Web usage factors. Finally, we give an overview of the co-usage analysis. For these tasks, we introduce a computer based system, called Miri@d, which produces descriptive statistical information about the Web users' searching behaviour, and what is effectively used from a free access digital bibliographical database. The system is conceived as a server of statistical data which are carried out beforehand, and as an interactive server for online statistical work. The results will be made available to analysts, who can use this descriptive statistical information as raw data for their indicator design tasks, and as input for multivariate data analysis, clustering analysis, and mapping. Managers also can exploit the results in order to improve management and d...

  1. The effect of an indirect anthelmintic treatment on parasites and breeding success of free-living pheasants Phasianus colchicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, R A H; Woodburn, M I A; Ling, D E; Sage, R B

    2006-12-01

    In Great Britain free-living common pheasants Phasianus colchicus are often managed at high densities owing to their popularity as a quarry species. They are prone to infection by a range of parasite species including Heterakis gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and Syngamus trachea. In 1995 the efficacy of an indirect anthelmintic technique for controlling parasitic worm burdens of pheasants was determined in a pilot study on a shooting estate in the south of England. Between 2000 and 2003 a large-scale field experiment was conducted on nine estates in eastern England to determine the effect of the technique on parasite burden and pheasant breeding success. In the absence of anthelmintic treatment worm burdens increased rapidly through March and April, whereas birds given anthelmintic-treated grain had lower worm burdens during the same period. The breeding success of pheasants was significantly higher on plots provided with anthelmintic treatment, although no long-term increases in population densities were observed. The burdens of the most common parasite H. gallinarum were significantly lower in pheasants from treatment plots six weeks after the anthelmintic treatment had ceased, but spring treatment did not influence parasite burden in the following winter.

  2. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L E; Castro, P M N; Chagas, A C S; França, S C; Beleboni, R O

    2013-07-01

    Despite the overall progress of sheep farming in Brazil, infections with the gastrointestinal parasite Haemonchus contortus represent one the most important problems in sheep production, aggravated by the increasing resistance of nematodes to traditional anthelmintic drugs caused by inadequate sheep flock management by breeders. Ethnopharmacological data indicate Annona muricata as a promising alternative for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes because of its general anthelmintic properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of A. muricata aqueous leaf extract against eggs, infective larvae and adult forms of parasitic nematode H. contortus. At higher doses, A. muricata extract showed 84.91% and 89.08% of efficacy in egg hatch test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT), respectively. In the adult worm motility test, worms were completely immobilized within the first 6-8h of nematode exposition to different dilutions of extract. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in A. muricata aqueous leaf extract that may be responsible for the anthelmintic effects observed. Moreover those results validate the traditional use of A. muricata as a natural anthelmintic and then the pharmacological potential of its compounds for future in vivo investigations.

  3. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Verena; Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Liebau, Eva; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-08-14

    Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1) extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins) and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP) revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  4. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Spiegler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  5. Managing anthelmintic resistance--use of a combination anthelmintic and leaving some lambs untreated to slow the development of resistance to ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Waghorn, T S; Miller, C M; Candy, P M; Oliver, A-M B

    2012-06-08

    A field study was conducted to test the hypotheses that use of a combination anthelmintic and/or increasing the pool of unselected worms 'in refugia' by leaving a proportion of lambs untreated would slow the development of resistance to ivermectin. Twelve suites of four paddocks (farmlets) were seeded with a mixture of resistant and susceptible isolates of both Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta calculated to yield a 95% reduction in faecal nematode egg count (FEC) after treatment with ivermectin. Each year for three years the farmlets were stocked in the spring with mobs of lambs which were treated five times at 28-day intervals with either ivermectin or an ivermectin+levamisole combination. In addition, in half the mobs the heaviest 10% of lambs remained untreated at each treatment occasion, resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment structure (i.e. two drench types × two percentage treated) with three complete replicates. The development of resistance to ivermectin, and at the end to levamisole, was measured by larval development assays (LDA) and worm counts from treated and untreated tracer lambs. For T. colubriformis the development of resistance to ivermectin, as measured by tracer lamb worm burdens, was delayed by treatment with the combination and by leaving 10% of lambs untreated. In addition, the interaction between these factors approached significance (p=0.052). Similarly, results of the LDAs indicated a slower development of resistance when lambs were treated with the combination and when 10% of lambs were left untreated. For T. circumcincta, results were compromised by the rapid development of resistance, which appears to be the result of low viability in the field of the susceptible isolate used to contaminate the pastures. Although a small delay in the development of resistance to ivermectin was indicated, this was off-set by an increase in the level of resistance to levamisole. A post-study modelling

  6. Student Empowerment Through Internet Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    in a University in Southern India to empower the female students through Internet usage. The study was done to find out the problems the woman students faced in gaining access and using Internet and how they can be empowered through Internet usage. Future workshop was conducted to find out the problems...... Technologies that brought massive change in the ways people communicate and how information is exchanged across the globe. Educational sector has been strongly influenced by the emergence of Internet Technologies. Digital literacy is a prerequisite for students of this generation. Studies say that woman always...... and a research design was formulated in consultation with the participants. Action research model for reflective Internet searching developed by Edwards and Bruce (2002) was deployed in the study where students did the Internet searching based on the action research cycle of planning, acting, recording...

  7. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPlant-derived condensed tannins (CT) show promise as a complementary option to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections, thus reducing reliance on synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Most studies on the anthelmintic effects of CT have been conducted on parasites of ruminant livestock. Oesop...

  8. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Peter [RWTH Aachen U.; Hufnagel, Dirk [Fermilab; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Tadel, M. [UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I. [UC, San Diego; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Wuerthwein, F. [UC, San Diego; McCrea, A. [UC, San Diego; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Merida; Linares, L. [Andes U., Merida; Wagner, R. [TI, San Diego; Konstantinov, P. [Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res.; Blumenfeld, B. [Johns Hopkins U.; Bradley, D. [Wisconsin U., Madison

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  9. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina

    2014-01-01

    to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely...... employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse......, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects...

  10. Anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Bakunzi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area in SouthAfrica. In herds belonging to 10 smallholder goat farmers, the efficacies of fenbendazole, levamisole and rafoxanide were tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR tests. Efficacies of 80 % were considered a threshold for anthelmintic resistance. The FECR tests showed that all drugs tested more than 80 % effective in most instances, but there were notable exceptions. In 1 case, rafoxanide was only 31 % effective and in another case fenbendazole was only 47 % effective. The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in this farming sector is of concern. Steps should be taken to prevent its further spread and to avoid the development of a situation as onnumerous commercial sheep farms in South Africa where resistance is very common.

  11. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that helminth infections increase the risk of malaria infection and are associated with increased number of malaria attacks and anaemia. Thus interventions to control helminth infections may have an impact on incidence of clinical malaria and anaemia....... The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... parasites. There was no significant difference in malaria infection (prevalence, parasite density and frequency of malaria attacks) and in the prevalence of anaemia between the repeated and single dose anthelmintic treatment groups at 12 and 24 months follow up (p>0.05). However, overall...

  12. Survey of anthelmintic resistance on Danish horse farms, using 5 different methods of calculating faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection of resis......This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection...... resistance to benzimidazoles was also detected. On one of 16 farms examined ivermectin resistance was indicated at Day 14 but not at Day 19. On the 15 remaining farms ivermectin was effective. Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in Danish horse herds it is recommended that tests...

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MUSA ACUMINATE COLLA AND CAJANUS CAJAN (LINN. LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Tejendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of leaf of Musa acuminate colla and seed of Cajanus cajan (Linn. were taken for the examination of anthelmintic activity on Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30 mg/ml of both plant extract were tested and results were expressed in terms of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Albendazole of same concentration as like as plant extracts was taken as reference standard and normal saline solution as control. Paralysis time can be determined by vigorous shaking when no movement was observed. When whitish substances were secreted from the body that one was termed as death time. Both the extracts show significant anthelmintic activity but among these two Musa acuminate colla showed more anthelmintic activity than Cajanus cajan (Linn.. Future scope involves isolation of active constituents responsible for this action.

  14. Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vatta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. Of the responsible nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. Over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. In Africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has not been extensively investigated, particularly within the resource-poor farming sector, but resistance has been reported from at least 14 countries with most of the reports emanating from Kenya and South Africa and the majority concerning H. contortus. While levels of resistance under commercial sheep farming systems in South Africa is considered to be amongst the worst in the world, resistance has also been reported from the resource-poor farming sector. Increases in productivity and reproduction of livestock and the development of markets for sale of animals are seen by international funding bodies as a way out of poverty for communities that keep livestock. This must lead to the greater need for parasite control. At such times, the risk of levels of anthelmintic resistance escalating is much greater and there is therefore a need to look at alternatives to their use. Proposed strategies include the appropriate, but judicious use of anthelmintics by application of the FAMACHA(c system and the use of alternatives to anthelmintics such as strategic nutrient supplementation. It is also very clear that there is a strong demand for knowledge about animal diseases, including helminthosis, and their effective management in the resource-poor livestock farming communities. This is an important challenge to meet.

  15. Anthelmintic Activity of a Herbal Formulation Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arfan Zaman*§, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of a herbal formulation (HF based on aqueous extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. In vitro, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to different concentrations of HF following the standard procedures of egg hatch test (EHT; 50 to 0.024414 mg ml-1 and adult motility assay (AMA; 200-0.1953125mg ml-1, respectively. The reference drugs used in the study were oxfendazole (0.0056704 to 0.0000027 mg ml-1 and levamisole (1.50 mg ml-1 for EHT and AMA, respectively. In vivo, pre and post-treatment (4 mg, 2 mg and 500 µg kg-1 body weight fecal egg counts were determined following standard fecal egg count reduction test in sheep naturally parasitized with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. In EHT, LC50 values of HF and oxfendazole (reference drug were 275.1 and 0.016 µg ml-1, respectively. In AMA, 100% mortality of H. contortus was observed 6 hr post-exposure to 3.125-200 mg ml-1 concentrations of HF and 2 hr post-exposure to levamisole. In vivo, maximum (96.2% fecal egg count (EPG reduction was recorded in sheep treated with HF @ 4 mg kg-1 body weight; whereas, 89.3% reduction in EPG was recorded in sheep treated with levamisole @ 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. A graded dose response was noted in all the tests used in the present study to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of HF. Therefore, HF seems to be promising as an anthelmintic for animals. Large scale trials on efficacy and safety, however, are recommended before the HF is considered for commercialization in crude form.

  16. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable.

  17. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems.

  18. Hepatic biotransformation pathways and ruminal metabolic stability of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, M; Virkel, G; Maté, L; Viviani, P; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monepantel (MNP) is a new amino-acetonitrile derivative anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in sheep. The present work investigated the main enzymatic pathways involved in the hepatic biotransformation of MNP in sheep and cattle. The metabolic stability in ruminal fluid of both the parent drug and its main metabolite (monepantel sulphone, MNPSO2 ) was characterized as well. Additionally, the relative distribution of both anthelmintic molecules between the fluid and particulate phases of the ruminal content was studied. Liver microsomal fractions from six (6) rams and five (5) steers were incubated with a 40 μm of MNP. Heat pretreatment (50 °C for 2 min) of liver microsomes was performed for inactivation of the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) system. Additionally, MNP was incubated in the presence of 4, 40, and 80 μm of methimazole (MTZ), a FMO inhibitor, or equimolar concentrations of piperonyl butoxide (PBx), a well-known general cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In both ruminant species, MNPSO2 was the main metabolite detected after MNP incubation with liver microsomes. The conversion rate of MNP into MNPSO2 was fivefold higher (P MNP oxidation in cattle liver microsomes. On the other hand, PBx inhibited the production of MNPSO2 in liver microsomes of both sheep (58 to 98%, in a dose-dependent manner) and cattle (almost 100%, independently of the PBx concentration added). The incubation of MNP and MNPSO2 with ruminal contents of both species showed a high chemical stability without evident metabolism and/or degradation as well as an extensive degree of adsorption (83% to 90%) to the solid phase of the ruminal content. Overall, these results are a further contribution to the understanding of the metabolic fate of this anthelmintic drug in ruminants.

  19. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardena GSA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would

  20. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge in the control of parasites in livestock. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. Several factors...... = 200 eggs per gram (EPG) and were treated. Post treatment samples and information on age, gender and farm zip code were collected for each horse. In addition, individual coprocultureswere performed on all pretreatment fecal samples to determine the presence of Strongylus vulgaris, with 31farms (48...... to handle FECRT data obtained from other livestock species, drug types, and parasite species....

  1. Comparison of two versions of larval development test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, Marián; Corba, Július; Letková, Valéria; Kovác, Gabriel

    2009-03-23

    Larval development (LDT) and micro-agar larval development tests (MALDT) were used to compare the reliability and sensitivity of two methods for detecting anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus. The tests were conducted using three resistant and four susceptible isolates of H. contortus. Both versions of the tests provided comparable results with regard to the characterization of benzimidazole and levamisole susceptibility but neither test was sufficiently sensitive to discrimination between an ivermectin (IVM) susceptible and an IVM resistant isolate. Each test has its own merits with the LDT having the advantage of being less time-consuming.

  2. Anti-coccidial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohammed A

    2013-07-01

    Coccidiosis and helminthosis in poultry are responsible for worldwide economic losses. The methanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant and anti-coccidial properties and in vitro for its anthelmintic activity. For the in vivo study, four groups of mice were investigated. The first group was inoculated only with sterile saline and served as the control group. The second group was treated by oral gavage with pomegranate extract (300 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. The third and fourth groups were infected with 10(3) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata. The fourth group was also treated once daily with pomegranate peel extract for 5 days. For the in vitro study, the anthelmintic effect of pomegranate peel extract was observed on live adult Allolobophora caliginosa. Paraffin sections from jejunum as well as jejunal homogenate were prepared for the histopathological and biochemical investigations, respectively. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata revealed an output of approximately 2.9 × 10(5) oocysts per gram faeces on day 5 p.i. This output is significantly decreased to 50 % in pomegranate-treated mice. Infection with E. papillata induced marked histopathological alterations in jejunum in the form of inflammation, vacuolation of the epithelium and destruction of some villi. In addition, pomegranate extract caused a great diminish in body weight loss of infected mice. Moreover, the number of goblet cells stained with Alcian blue within the infected villi was significantly increased by about 26 % after pomegranate treatment. In addition, Pomegranate significantly lowered the increased number of apoptotic cells due to E. papillata infection by about 36 %. The results showed that E. papillata enhanced hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production with concomitant reduction in glutathione. Pomegranate induced marked improvements in all of the studied parameters as well as

  3. Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, R K

    1975-01-01

    Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF ELAEOCARPUS SERRATUS

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    Kayal Sriti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and acetone extracts of Elaeocarpus serratus were prepared by following Soxhlet method of extraction. Subsequently, phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed by following standard methods. While from the chloroform extract, alkaloids and anthraquinone glycosides were found, flavonoids and anthraquinone glycosides were present in the acetone extract. In addition, from petroleum ether extract, flavonoids were detected. On the other hand, anthraquinone glycosides were found in the benzene extract. None of the extracts showed any antibacterial and anthelmintic activities.

  5. Comparative pharmacology of flatworm and roundworm glutamate-gated chloride channels: Implications for potential anthelmintics

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    Timothy Lynagh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological targeting of glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls is a potent anthelmintic strategy, evidenced by macrocyclic lactones that eliminate numerous roundworm infections by activating roundworm GluCls. Given the recent identification of flatworm GluCls and the urgent need for drugs against schistosomiasis, flatworm GluCls should be evaluated as potential anthelmintic targets. This study sought to identify agonists or modulators of one such GluCl, SmGluCl-2 from the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. The effects of nine glutamate-like compounds and three monoterpenoid ion channel modulators were measured by electrophysiology at SmGluCl-2 recombinantly expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. For comparison with an established anthelmintic target, experiments were also performed on the AVR-14B GluCl from the parasitic roundworm Haemonchus contortus. l-Glutamate was the most potent agonist at both GluCls, but l-2-aminoadipate, d-glutamate and d-2-aminoadipate activated SmGluCl-2 (EC50 1.0 ± 0.1 mM, 2.4 ± 0.4 mM, 3.6 ± 0.7 mM, respectively more potently than AVR-14B. Quisqualate activated only SmGluCl-2 whereas l-aspartate activated only AVR-14B GluCls. Regarding the monoterpenoids, both GluCls were inhibited by propofol, thymol and menthol, SmGluCl-2 most potently by thymol (IC50 484 ± 85 μM and least potently by menthol (IC50 > 3 mM. Computational docking suggested that agonist and inhibitor potency is attributable to particular interactions with extracellular or membrane-spanning amino acid residues. These results reveal that flatworm GluCls are pharmacologically susceptible to numerous agonists and modulators and indicate that changes to the glutamate γ-carboxyl or to the propofol 6-isopropyl group can alter the differential pharmacology at flatworm and roundworm GluCls. This should inform the development of more potent compounds and in turn lead to novel anthelmintics.

  6. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

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    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  7. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BELARUSIAN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS

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    V. V. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for economic evaluation of the effective use of the Belarusian brown coal deposits has been developed on the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data. The obtained methodology allows to perform multi-variant optimization calculations under various uncertainty level without reduction to the same energy effect that is especially important while developing economic forecasts and programs for the long term perspective. Using this methodology evaluation of various directions pertaining to usage of the Belarusian brown coal has been done and recommendations on their possible application have been given in the paper.

  8. Anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, in combination or individually, in sheep worm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsback, Luciane; Luppi, Pedro Alex Ramsey; Silva, Camile Sanches; Negrão, Gustavo Kremer; Conde, Gabriel; Gabriel, Hugo Vinícius; Balestrieri, João Vitor; Tomazella, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin), G2 (fenbendazole), G3 (nitroxynil), G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole), G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil), G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil), G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole), G8 (untreated). In addition to individually used doramectin and fenbendazole, the helminths were also resistant to the combination of doramectin + fenbendazole; nitroxynil + fenbendazole; and doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, with their FECR rates ranging from 62-83%. The helminths showed possible nitroxynil-resistance, but had low resistance when the drug was administered in combination with doramectin. The evaluation of individual helminth species revealed that fenbendazole was fully effective against Cooperia; doramectin (G1), moderately effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia; nitroxynil, effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia. It was concluded from the results that herd nematodes are resistant to doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, and that the combined use of the drugs not only fails to significantly improve the anthelmintic efficiency against Haemonchus and Cooperia, but is also cost-ineffective.

  9. Anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, in combination or individually, in sheep worm control

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    Luciane Holsback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin, G2 (fenbendazole, G3 (nitroxynil, G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole, G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil, G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil, G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, G8 (untreated. In addition to individually used doramectin and fenbendazole, the helminths were also resistant to the combination of doramectin + fenbendazole; nitroxynil + fenbendazole; and doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, with their FECR rates ranging from 62-83%. The helminths showed possible nitroxynil-resistance, but had low resistance when the drug was administered in combination with doramectin. The evaluation of individual helminth species revealed that fenbendazole was fully effective against Cooperia; doramectin (G1, moderately effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active againstCooperia; nitroxynil, effective againstHaemonchus and insufficiently active againstCooperia. It was concluded from the results that herd nematodes are resistant to doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, and that the combined use of the drugs not only fails to significantly improve the anthelmintic efficiency against Haemonchus andCooperia, but is also cost-ineffective.

  10. Antiproliferative effect of benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole, ricobendazole, and flubendazole in intestinal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králová, Věra; Hanušová, Veronika; Staňková, Petra; Knoppová, Kateřina; Čáňová, Kristýna; Skálová, Lenka

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to test the antiproliferative effect of three benzimidazole anthelmintics in intestinal cancer cells and to investigate whether these drugs, which inhibit tubulin polymerization, can potentiate the efficacy of the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel (PTX). Four intestinal cancer cell lines, SW480, SW620, HCT8, and Caco2, with different origins and growth characteristics were used. The antiproliferative effect of albendazole (ABZ), ricobendazole (RBZ), flubendazole (FLU), and their combinations with PTX was tested using three different end-point viability assays, cell cycle distribution analysis, and the x-CELLigence System for real-time cell analysis. ABZ and FLU inhibited cell proliferation significantly in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner through cell arrest in the G2/M phase. RBZ was not effective at any concentration tested. The cell lines differed in sensitivity to FLU and ABZ, with HCT8 being the most sensitive, showing IC₅₀ values for ABZ and FLU that reached 0.3 and 0.9 μmol/l, respectively. Combinations of PTX+ABZ and PTX+FLU decreased cell viability more effectively when compared with treatment with individual drugs alone. The anthelmintic benzimidazole drugs ABZ and FLU show a significant cytostatic effect and potentiate the efficacy of PTX in intestinal cancer cells.

  11. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

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    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-07

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  12. Community perception of school-based delivery of anthelmintics in Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, S; Marriot, H; Hall, A; Adjei, S; Allan, E; Maier, C; Bundy, D A; Drake, L J; Coombes, M D; Azene, G; Lansdown, R G; Wen, S T; Dzodozmenyo, M; Cobbinah, J; Obro, N; Kihamia, C M; Issae, W; Mwanri, L; Mweta, M R; Mwaikemwa, A; Salimu, M; Ntimbwa, P; Kiwelu, V M; Turuka, A; Nkungu, D R; Magingo, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of community perception of two large-scale, government-run, school-based health programmes delivering anthelmintic drugs to primary school children, in Ghana (80 442 children in 577 schools) and Tanzania (110 000 children in 352 schools). Most teachers (96% in Ghana and 98% in Tanzania) were positive about their role in the programme, including administration of anthelmintic drugs, and parents and children fully accepted their taking on this role. The benefits of the programme were apparent to teachers, parents and children in terms of improved health and well-being of the children. Over 90% of parents in both Ghana and Tanzania indicated a willingness to pay for the continuation of drug treatment. The evaluation also highlighted areas that are critical to programme effectiveness, such as communication between schools and parents, the issue of collaboration between the health and education sectors, parents' perception of the importance of helminth infection as a serious and chronic health problem (compared with more acute and life threatening illnesses such as malaria), and who should pay for treatment of side-effects.

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT EXTRACT USING INDIAN EARTHWORM (PHERITIMA POSTHUMA

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    Dey P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple is a favorite for the lovers of fruit in its fresh forms as well as in preserves like jams, jellies and squashes. Two varieties of Pineapples (Queen and Kew are available in Tripura during mid-May to mid-September. The plant is well known for its different folk medicines like the root and fruit are either eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory, digestive and anthelmintic. It was observed that the people of Tripura especially the Tribes are use the juice of matured root or fruit in worm. Research shows that, mainly bromelain is responsible for all its therapeutic activity.The agriculture of Tripura, each year, gets a special boost from pineapple production between the middle of May and middle of September, both inclusive. Pineapple’s leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber and are employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses. This allows the crop to contribute a significant proportion in the economy of the state.The present study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of fruit extract (Aqueous of Pineapple using Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma.All the extracts were found not only to paralysis (vermifuge but also to kill the earthworms (vermicidal. But the concentration of 40mg/ml fruit extract showed the maximum effect in respect of 20 and 10 mg/ml.

  14. Anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae).

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    Nchu, F; Githiori, J B; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

    2011-12-29

    The anthelmintic activity of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae) leaf extracts was evaluated against the ruminant gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Nematoda: Strongylida) using the in vitro egg hatch test. Also, the cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of M. obtusifolia was evaluated in cell line cytotoxicity assays. The results indicated that the effective concentration (EC(50)) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia leaves (0.46 mg/mL; Confidence Interval [CI] 0.3-0.5mg/mL) was significantly lower than the EC(50) for the acetone extract of M. obtusifolia (0.8 mg/mL; CI 0.7-1mg/mL). Aqueous extracts were twice as potent as the acetone extracts. The EC(90) (0.2mg/mL; CI 0.1-0.02) for thiabendazole (positive control) was significantly lower than the EC(90) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia (10.7 mg/mL; CI 8.3-13.7 mg/mL). In the cytotoxicity bioassay, the lethal concentration (LC(50)) for the aqueous extract of M. obtusifolia was 0.476 mg/mL, which was relatively high (low toxicity) in comparison to the highly toxic berberine (LC(50)=9.80 μg/mL). The current study showed that M. obtusifolia plant extracts possess anthelmintic activity and are relatively non-cytotoxic, thus providing support for their use in traditional veterinary practices.

  15. Direct anthelmintic effects of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae) on trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep: in vivo studies.

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    Vatta, A F; Kandu-Lelo, C; Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2011-08-25

    Following claims of anthelmintic activity of Cereus jamacaru DC (Cactaceae) by a commercial farmer, in vivo studies were conducted to determine the possible direct anthelmintic effects of the plant on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. Eighteen sheep were infected with 4000 Haemonchus contortus and 6000 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae given in three divided doses over a period of three days. Once the infections were patent, the sheep were allocated to three groups and were drenched once a week for six weeks with fresh blended C. jamacaru plant material at a single (32.3g/sheep) or double dose (64.6g/sheep) or they remained as undrenched controls. Faeces were collected from individual animals on the day of treatment and three days thereafter on a weekly basis for seven weeks for faecal egg count. While there were no statistically significant differences in the egg counts between the groups, a double dose of C. jamacaru was effective in reducing the egg counts in the sheep by 18-65% over the 49 days of the experiment. Given that all animals remained in good health throughout the course of the experiment, with no adverse events occurring during the study, further experiments using higher doses or administering the plant material for a longer period of time than in the present study would be warranted.

  16. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

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    Rong-Jyh Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae, commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant, liriodenine (1, lysicamine (2, (--anonaine (3, (--asimilobine (4, (--caaverine (5, (--N-methylasimilobine (6, (--nuciferine (7, (--nornuciferine (8, (--roemerine (9, 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10 and cepharadione B (11 were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis. However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  17. Effect of combinations of marketed human anthelmintic drugs against Trichuris muris in vitro and in vivo

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    Keiser Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are responsible for a huge public health burden, however treatment options are limited. The discovery and development of novel efficacious drugs or drug combinations for the treatment of STH infections therefore has a high research priority. Methods We studied drug combination effects using the main standard anthelmintics, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin in the Trichuris muris model. Drug combinations were first tested in vitro and additive and synergistic combinations investigated further in vivo in female mice using ratios based on the ED50 of the respective drugs. Results In vitro all 10 combinations of the standard anthelmintics tested against T. muris revealed synergistic behavior. We identified three drug combinations in vivo as strongly synergistic, namely mebendazole-ivermectin (Combination index (CI=0.16, mebendazole-levamisole (CI=0.17 and albendazole-mebendazole (CI=0.23. For albendazole-ivermectin, moderate synergism was observed (CI=0.81 and for albendazole-levamisole a nearly additive effect was documented (CI=0.93 in vivo. Five combinations (albendazole-pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate-ivermectin were antagonistic in vivo. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies.

  18. Anthelmintic activity of continuous low doses of fenbendazole into the rumen of sheep.

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    Boisvenue, R J; Colestock, E L; Hendrix, J C

    1988-01-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ) was continuously infused for 30 days into the rumen of 103 lambs which had mature or developing benzimidazole-susceptible or thiabendazole-resistant Haemonchus contortus and susceptible Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities were exhibited against benzimidazole-susceptible and benzimidazole-resistant H. contortus worms by FBZ at a dose level of greater than or equal to 0.2 mg kg-1 body weight day-1. Reasonably consistent high level efficacy against H. contortus was obtained with dose levels greater than 0.4 mg kg-1. Excellent control of susceptible T. colubriformis worms was achieved with the lowest dose tested of 0.4 mg kg-1 day-1. The intraruminal infusion critical study method is a tool to determine the feasibility of incorporating a candidate anthelmintic compound in a continuous sustained-release rumen device formulation. The anthelmintic profile of FBZ obtained by low-level intraruminal administration suggests that it would be a potential candidate.

  19. Effects of feeding on the plasma disposition kinetics of the anthelmintic albendazole in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistoletti, M; Alvarez, L; Lanusse, C; Moreno, L

    2014-01-01

    1. To optimise the use of albendazole (ABZ) as an anthelmintic in hens, the effects of fasting and type of diet on the plasma kinetics of ABZ and its metabolites were evaluated. 2. Twenty-four hens were distributed into 4 groups: In experiment I the Fed group were fed ad libitum, while the Fasted group was fasted over a 12-h period. In experiment II the Pelleted group was fed with pelleted commercial food, while the Grain group was fed with cereal grains. All the groups were treated with ABZ by oral route. Blood samples were taken and plasma analysed by HPLC. 3. ABZ and its metabolites albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO) and albendazole-sulphone (ABZSO2) were recovered in plasma in all the groups. The 12-h fasting period did not modify the disposition kinetics of ABZ in hens. The type of feed affected ABZ kinetics. ABZSO concentration profile was higher and detected for longer in the Grain group compared to the Pelleted group. Statistical differences were not found for AUC0-∞ values, whereas the T1/2for and T1/2el were different between groups. 4. Factors affecting ABZ kinetic behaviour should be taken into account to optimise its use to ensure the sustainability of the limited available anthelmintic therapeutic tools in avian parasite control.

  20. Efficacy of an anthelmintic combination in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica resistant to albendazole and clorsulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Cordero-Pérez, C; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we identified five sheep flocks with fasciolosis in the province of León (northwestern Spain) in order to determine the anthelmintic resistance status to three commonly used anthelmintics, namely albendazole (ABZ), triclabendazole (TCBZ) and clorsulon (CLOR). The identification of one flock resistant to ABZ and CLOR was shown after the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). The reductions in eggs per gram values were -17.6% and -68% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after ABZ treatment; 85.15% and 44.91% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after CLOR treatment; and 97.06% against both stages, after the administration of TCBZ. As an alternative to control the infection, two combinations of ABZ and CLOR were tested. In the first, both drugs were administered at the recommended dose of each; in this case, the efficiency reached values above 95% against both immature and adult flukes. However, when the combined drugs were administered at half the recommended dose of each, the efficiency of the combination was very low, i.e. 16.67% and -11.11% against mature and immature flukes, respectively. In conclusion, this preliminary report suggests a possible interaction between ABZ and CLOR after their joint administration. However, these results should be confirmed in other flocks.

  1. [Anthelmintic control of multiresistant nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of imported goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Veselý, L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple resistant strains of Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus were detected in a flock of cashmere and angora goats imported from New Zealand. The ED50 values detected by in vitro EHA test were from 0.27 to 0.36 micrograms/ml (while the reference value of sensitivity is 0.10 microgram/ml TBZ). Multiple resistance to all the types of currently used anthelmintics was confirmed by in vivo FECRT, when the efficacy of recommended doses was lower than 90% (albendazole 74%, levamisole 86%, ivermectin 83%). Two control schemes were investigated. In the simultaneous application of anthelmintics in the double or triple of recommended doses (0.4 mg/kg ivermectin s.c., 30 mg/kg levamisole and 20 mg/kg albendazole p.o.) was effective. Examination of goats 7 and 8 months after treatment revealed the repeated presence of multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. It is the first published case of intercontinental transfer of resistant strains of nematodes when importing small ruminants.

  2. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-02-27

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  3. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

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    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  4. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

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    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  5. Open Educational Resources (OER) Usage and Barriers: A Study from Zhejiang University, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ermei; Li, Yan; Li, Jessica; Huang, Wen-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) as an innovation to share educational resources has been influential in past decade and expected to bring changes to higher education worldwide. There is, however, very limited literature on OER usage, especially from the perspective of college students in developing countries, who are often projected as the…

  6. Constructions emerging : a usage-based model of the acquisition of grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, Barend F.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the development of grammar. Starting from a usage-based perspective, which holds that children use domain-general learning mechanisms to acquire the grammatical patterns of their mother tongue, Beekhuizen shows how to operationalize various concepts from this tra

  7. In vitro anthelmintic activity of active compounds of the fringed rue Ruta chalepensis against dairy ewe gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, E; Sanna, G; Scala, A; Pulina, G; Caboni, P; Battacone, G

    2016-06-22

    Infections by gastrointestinal nematodes negatively affect small ruminant health and at the same time cause substantial economic losses worldwide. Because resistance to conventional anthelmintic compounds is growing, target studies evaluating the effectiveness of alternative ingredients of botanical origin on gastrointestinal nematodes are needed. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of Ruta chalepensis L. extracts on the third-stage larvae of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. A methanol extract showed the highest anthelmintic activity, with an EC50 = 0.10 ± 0.06 mg/ml after 96 h, while the essential oil had an EC50 = 1.45 ± 1.22 mg/ml after 48 h. Moreover, three secondary metabolites of the essential oil, i.e. 2-decanone, 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone, showed EC50 values of 0.07 ± 0.06, 0.25 ± 0.29 and 0.88 ± 0.73 mg/ml at 24 h, respectively. The present study indicated that the R. chalepensis methanol extract, the essential oil and its metabolites 2-decanone, 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone showed promising anthelmintic activity on gastrointestinal nematodes.

  8. Investigating anthelmintic efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle by considering appropriate probability distributions for faecal egg count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Love

    2017-04-01

    Where FEC data were obtained with less sensitive counting techniques (i.e. McMaster 30 or 15 epg, zero-inflated distributions and their associated central tendency were the most appropriate and would be recommended to use, i.e. the arithmetic group mean divided by the proportion of non-zero counts present; otherwise apparent anthelmintic efficacy could be misrepresented.

  9. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.;

    2016-01-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT deter...

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.Ex Delile Bark and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Badar, Zafar Iqbal*, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the anthelmintic activity of Acacia nilotica bark and leave extracts in different solvents. Adult motility assay, egg hatch test and fecal egg count reduction test were carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity. Effect of plant extracts both of leaves and bark of A. nilotica was dose-dependent. Highest mortality of worms was observed 12 hours post-exposure @ 25 mg/ml. Extracts of leaves were more potent than the bark extracts. Ethyle acetate fractions both of bark and leaves exhibited higher anthelmintic effects compared with chloroform, petroleum spirit and aqueous fractions. Crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME of bark (LC50= 201.0032 µg/ml had higher inhibitory effects compared with that of leaves (LC50= 769.2485 µg/ml on egg hatching. Likewise, chloroform and ethyle acetate fractions of A. nilotica bark exhibited higher ovicidal activity. In vivo, maximum reduction (72.01% in fecal egg counts was recorded for CAME of bark followed by CAME of leaves (63.44% @ 8 g/kg at day 12 post-treatment. Results suggest lipophilic nature of the active principles having anthelmintic efficacy in A. nilotica bark and leaves.

  11. Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fractions of Picria fel-terrae Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasika Kumarasingha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia, we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We found that a single fraction was enriched for nematocidal activity, killing ≥90% of C. elegans adults and inhibiting the motility of exsheathed L3 of H. contortus, while having minimal cytotoxic activity in mammalian cell culture. Metabolic profiling and chemometric analysis of the effective fraction indicated medium chained fatty acids and phenolic acids were highly represented.

  12. Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified chicory extract against free-living stages of Cooperia oncophora: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2013-01-01

    Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified extract from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) were assessed on eggs and first-stage larvae (L1) of C. oncophora. Chicory leaves (cv. Spadona) were collected from an organic dairy farm in Denmark. Dried leaf tissue was extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with m...

  13. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-01-01

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused b

  14. Biotransformation of albendazole and activities of selected detoxification enzymes in Haemonchus contortus strains susceptible and resistant to anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokřál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Bártíková, Hana; Szotáková, Barbora; Lamka, Jiří; Várady, Marián; Skálová, Lenka

    2013-09-23

    The increased activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes can protect helminths against the toxic effect of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolism of the anthelmintic drug albendazole (ABZ) and the activities of selected biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in three different strains of Haemonchus contortus: the ISE strain (susceptible to common anthelmintics), the BR strain (resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics) and the WR strain (multi-resistant). H. contortus adults were collected from the abomasum of experimentally infected lambs. In vitro (subcellular fractions of H. contortus homogenate) as well as ex vivo (living nematodes cultivated in flasks with medium) experiments were performed. HPLC with spectrofluorimetric and mass-spectrometric detection was used in the analysis of ABZ metabolites. The in vitro activities of oxidation/antioxidation and conjugation enzymes toward model substrates were also assayed. The in vitro data showed significant differences between the susceptible (ISE) and resistant (BR, WR) strains regarding the activities of peroxidases, catalase and UDP-glucosyltransferases. S-oxidation of ABZ was significantly lower in BR than in the ISE strain. Ex vivo, four ABZ metabolites were identified: ABZ sulphoxide and three ABZ glucosides. In the resistant strains BR and WR, the ex vivo formation of all ABZ glucosides was significantly higher than in the susceptible ISE strain. The altered activities of certain detoxifying enzymes might partly protect the parasites against the toxic effect of the drugs as well as contribute to drug-resistance in these parasites.

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to screen plant extracts and compounds as natural anthelmintics for veterinary use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most challenging obstacles to testing plant products for their anthelmintic activity are: 1) establishing a suitable nematode in vitro assay from which results can be indicative of potential use against a parasitic nematode of interest, and 2) preparing the extracts in a way that, once lyophiliz...

  16. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.;

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62...

  17. Semantic Session Analysis for Web Usage Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; SONG Hantao; XU Xiaomei

    2007-01-01

    A semantic session analysis method partitioning Web usage logs is presented. Semantic Web usage log preparation model enhances usage logs with semantic. The Markov chain model based on ontology semantic measurement is used to identifying which active session a request should belong to. The competitive method is applied to determine the end of the sessions.Compared with other algorithms, more successful sessions are additionally detected by semantic outlier analysis.

  18. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  19. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different

  20. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective

  1. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  2. A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC(50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and -resistant isolates of H. contortus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing.

  3. Interaction between anthelmintic treatment and vaccine responses in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Rubinson, E F; Chambers, T M; Horohov, D W; Wagner, B; Betancourt, A; Reedy, S E; Jacobsen, S

    2015-04-15

    Anthelmintics and vaccines are commonly given concurrently in routine equine management, but it is unknown to what extent an interaction between the two exists. Cyathostomins can modulate the local immune response by stimulating a type 2 helper T cell (Th2) response. In addition, anti-inflammatory effects of ivermectin have been found in rodent models. It is unknown whether these anti-inflammatory effects affect the acute phase response elicited by commonly used vaccines. This study evaluated how the acute phase inflammatory response, leukocyte expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and vaccine-specific titers induced by simultaneous injection of three vaccines (West Nile Virus, Equine Herpes Rhinopneumonitis, and Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin) were modulated by concurrent administration of ivermectin or pyrantel pamoate in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins. Mixed-breed yearling ponies were blocked by gender and fecal strongyle egg count, then randomly assigned to three treatment groups: ivermectin (n=8), pyrantel pamoate (n=8), and control (n=7). All ponies received vaccinations intramuscularly on days 0 and 29, and anthelmintics were administered on the same days. Whole blood, serum and plasma samples were collected one, three and 14 days after each vaccination. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of acute phase reactants (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen and iron), mRNA expression levels of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ) in leukocytes, and vaccine-specific antibody titers. A marked acute-phase response was noted following both vaccinations. In contrast, the pattern of change in cytokine expression was less pronounced and more variable. Statistical differences were observed between groups for haptoglobin, fibrinogen, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10, but differences were generally small and none of the vaccine titers were different between the groups. Taken together, the study

  4. Target selected treatment with levamisole to control the development of anthelmintic resistance in a sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Gaínza, Yousmel Alemán; Barioni-Júnior, Waldomiro; Esteves, Sérgio Novita; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo

    2016-03-01

    Levamisole phosphate, chosen based on its 100 % efficacy demonstrated by a previous fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), was used as the exclusive anthelmintic treatment in the Embrapa Southeast Livestock sheep flock from 2009 to 2014 in a target selected treatment scheme. In the present study, the effectiveness of this nematode control scheme was evaluated after 5 years by FECRT, larval development test (LDT), and a molecular test to assess the development of levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Animals were submitted to treatments with albendazole, levamisole, closantel, ivermectin, moxidectin, and monepantel. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts and fecal cultures were performed, and anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by the RESO 4.0 program. The helminths of the flock (GIN Embrapa2014) were compared to susceptible (McMaster) and resistant (Embrapa2010) H. contortus isolates in the LDT to estimate the LC50 and LC90 of levamisole and in a molecular test to evaluate the 63-bp indel in the acr8 gene associated with levamisole resistance. In the FECRT, parasites were susceptible to monepantel (99.6 %) and closantel (98.3 %), but resistant to moxidectin (93.8 %), levamisole (70.4 %), ivermectin (48.1 %), and albendazole (0 %). In the coproculture on D14, and the control group presented 80 % H. contortus and 20 % Trichostrongylus sp., while in the monepantel group L1 were observed as well as Oesophagostomum sp. L3. LDT and resistance factors provided good separation between susceptible and resistant parasites. The genotypic frequencies of the 63-bp insertion in the acr8 gene in H. contortus were 11.9, 6.7, and 0 % in GIN Embrapa2014, Embrapa2010, and McMaster isolates, respectively. After 5 years of exclusive use, the nematodes developed resistance to levamisole, detected by FECRT and by increase in LC50 and LC90 for levamisole in the LDT. The 63-bp indel was not confirmed as a molecular marker of levamisole resistance in our isolates. The target

  5. Usage rate segmentation: enriching the US wine market profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Kelley,1 Jeffrey Hyde,2 Johan Bruwer3 1Department of Plant Science, 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; 3School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: The purpose of this research is to enrich our knowledge of the US wine market and provide insights into how usage rate segmentation can be enhanced by select innovative perspectives of current offerings. Data were collected through a 15-minute online survey of 910 US wine drinkers randomly selected from a panel of consumers. It was found that the “super core” segment not only drank wine more frequently, but also were more likely to drink other types of alcohol presented (beer, distilled spirits, and ready-to-drink cocktails, and at a greater frequency, “at least once a week” and “about once a week”, than “marginal” drinkers. Differences between usage rate segments existed between sex and age generations. Female millennial “super core” consumers would increase wine consumption if the number of calories were reduced to fewer than 80 per 5 oz serving. Practical implications for a winery or wine retailer might include the potential to add these beverages to their product offering or bundling these beverages to create packages (allowing for mass customization, which is used often in retail and appropriately marketing these offerings to their customers. Changes that may invoke a positive response are wine made from “sustainably farmed” or “naturally farmed” grapes, and certified carbon-free wine. From an originality viewpoint, this study is the first to investigate how usage rate segmentation can be enriched by means of variable cross-extension and examination. Keywords: consumer behavior, market segmentation, usage rate, consumption frequency, USA

  6. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  7. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  8. Neurotic Anxiety, Pronoun Usage, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)

  9. Anthelmintic activity of benzimidazole derivatives against Toxocara canis second-stage larvae and Hymenolepis nana adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Castillo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián; Hernández-Luis, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    The anthelmintic activity of 11 benzimidazole derivatives (A1-A11) and 2 thioureides N,N'-disubstituted (B1-B2) was determined. Each compound and albendazole was tested in vitro against Toxocara canis larvae and in vivo against Hymenolepis nana adult. Compounds A1-A6 and B1-B2 were designed as albendazole prodrugs. Compounds A8-A11 were designed as direct analogues of A7, which had previously proved to be an effective agent against Fasciola hepatica. Results of the in vitro screening showed that A6 was more active than albendazole at 0.18 microM (relative mobility 40% and 80%, respectively). Whereas that the in vivo evaluation against H. nana, compounds A7-A11 demonstrated significant activity in terms of removing cestode adults in the range of 88-97%, displaying better efficacy than albendazole (83%).

  10. Evaluation of fenbendazole as an anthelmintic for gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, T M; Bell, R R

    1978-06-01

    Calves naturally infected with Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, and Cooperia were used in a controlled experiment to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of fenbendazole, methyl-5-(phenylthio)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate, and to compare this with the efficacy of levamisole. The calves were placed in dry lots for approximately 3 weeks, ensuring that immature Ostertagia larvae were in arrested development before the calves were treated. In calves given doses of 8 mg of levamisole/kg of body weight and 5 and 7.5 mg of fenbendazole/kg, reductions of adult Ostertagia were 95%, 99%, and 99% respectively. Reductions of developing Ostertagia L4 were 29%, 99%, and 100%; of arrested Ostertagia L4--5%, 24%, and 72%; of adult Haemonchus--97%, 100%, and 100%; of adult Trichostrongylus--97%, 99%, and 100%, and of adult Cooperia--100%, 100%, and 100%--as compared with data in untreated controls.

  11. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Amy B; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-08-23

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, specifically coccidial protozoans and cestodes. These results highlight the possibility that drug therapy may have unintended consequences for non-target parasites and that host-parasite dynamics cannot always be fully understood in the framework of single host-parasite interactions.

  12. PREVALENCE AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%, Oxyuris equi (12%, Parascaris equorum (8% and mixed infection (5%. Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal parasites. Each group had five animals, comprising four treatment horses and a control horse. Abamectin was evaluated against these gastrointestinal parasites with a single shot at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight administered through subcutaneous route which resulted in 98% reduction in faecal egg count after day 14 post-treatment. Non-treated horses remained positive for gastrointestinal parasites. No adverse reactions were observed during the experimental period. It was concluded that Abamectin is highly effective against gastrointestinal parasites in horses.

  13. MESUR metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Sompel, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Usage data is increasingly regarded as a valuable resource in the assessment of scholarly communication items. However, the development of quantitative, usage-based indicators of scholarly impact is still in its infancy. The Digital Library Research & Prototyping Team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research library has therefore started a program to expand the set of usage-based tools for the assessment of scholarly communication items. The two-year MESUR project, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, aims to define and validate a range of usage-based impact metrics, and issue guidelines with regards to their characteristics and proper application. The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting c...

  14. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns discovered in the next phase. In reactive web usage mining techniques, the source data is web server logs and the topology of the web pages served by the web server domain. Other kinds of information collected during the interactive browsing of web site by user, such as cookies or web logs containing similar information, are not used. The next phase of web usage mining is discovering frequent user navigation patterns. In this phase, pattern discovery methods are applied on the reconstructed sessions obtained in the first phas...

  15. Protection and Delivery of Anthelmintic Protein Cry5B to Nematodes Using Mesoporous Silicon Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie; Aroian, Raffi V; Sailor, Michael J

    2015-06-23

    The ability of nano- and microparticles of partially oxidized mesoporous silicon (pSi) to sequester, protect, and deliver the anthelmintic pore-forming protein Cry5B to nematodes is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Thermally oxidized pSi particles are stable under gastric conditions and show relatively low toxicity to nematodes. Fluorescence images of rhodamine-labeled pSi particles within the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum show that ingestion is dependent on particle size: particles of a 0.4 ± 0.2 μm size are noticeably ingested by both species within 2 h of introduction in vitro, whereas 5 ± 2 μm particles are excluded from C. elegans but enter the pharynx region of A. ceylanicum after 24 h. The anthelmintic protein Cry5B, a pore-forming crystal (Cry) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is incorporated into the pSi particles by aqueous infiltration. Feeding of Cry5B-loaded pSi particles to C. elegans leads to significant intoxication of the nematode. Protein-loaded particles of size 0.4 μm display the highest level of in vitro toxicity toward C. elegans on a drug-mass basis. The porous nanostructure protects Cry5B from hydrolytic and enzymatic (pepsin) degradation in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for time periods up to 2 h. In vivo experiments with hookworm-infected hamsters show no significant reduction in worm burden with the Cry5B-loaded particles, which is attributed to slow release of the protein from the particles and/or short residence time of the particles in the duodenum of the animal.

  16. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J; Denwood, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms.

  17. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes from grazing beef cattle in Campeche State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Lagunes, Abel; González-Garduño, Roberto; López-Arellano, Maria Eugenia; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, Guadalupe; Ramírez-Vargas, Gabriel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro

    2015-08-01

    Production of beef cattle is one of the most important economic activities in Mexico. However, anthelmintic resistance (AR) has affected animal productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of AR in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of beef cattle in Candelaria Municipality of Campeche State, Mexico. Sixty-five-month-old beef calves were selected for the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the inhibition of egg hatch (IEH) assay. These parameters were determined using albendazole (benzimidazole, BZ), ivermectin (IVM, Macrocyclic lactone, ML) and levamisole (LEV, imidazothiazole, IMZ). Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) confirmed polymorphisms at codon 200 of isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene of Haemonchus placei. The results showed 32 % IVM toxicity by FECRT, indicating problems of AR in the GIN population. In contrast, BZ and LEV showed 95 and 100 % toxicity, respectively, against GIN from infected beef calves. The infective larvae (L3) of Cooperia, Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum were identified before anthelmintic treatment, and Cooperia L3 larvae were identified after treatment with IVM. The IEH assays had lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 187 nM to BZ, confirming the ovicidal effect of BZ. In contrast, the LD50 for LEV and IVM were 3.3 and 0.4 mM, respectively. The results obtained by AS-PCR confirmed two DNA fragments of 250 and 550 bp, corresponding to the resistant and susceptible alleles in the H. placei population. The nematode Cooperia showed AR against IVM, while the toxicity effect of BZ against GIN with both FECRT and IEH was confirmed.

  18. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H; Wang, W X; Dai, J L; Zhu, L

    2015-07-30

    The need for new anthelmintic agents with low impact on the environment is becoming urgent. Phytotherapy is an alternative method to control gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study aims to determine the composition of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil (ZSEO) and evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal effects of ZSEO on Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay, larval development assay (LDA), and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The chemical composition of ZSEO was determined through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and 94 compounds were identified from the ZSEO. The major constituents of ZSEO were borneol (18.61%), β-elemene (10.87%). ZSEO and borneol both at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval hatching by 100%, with LC50 values of 3.98 and 1.50mg/mL, respectively. The LC50 value of β-elemene was not determined because of its insufficient activity. The results of LDA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval development by 99.8%, 100%, and 55.4%, respectively, and exhibited dose-dependent responses with LC50 values of 4.02, 1.99, and 32.17 mg/mL, respectively. The results of LMIA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval migration by 74.3%, 97.0%, and 53.2%, respectively. ZSEO presented ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro. Therefore, Zanthoxylum may be an alternative source of anthelmintic agents to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep.

  19. Polymorphism in ion channel genes of Dirofilaria immitis: Relevant knowledge for future anthelmintic drug design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Mani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial parasite, causes cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and wild canids. The macrocyclic lactone (ML class of drugs has been used to prevent heartworm infection. There is confirmed ML resistance in D. immitis and thus there is an urgent need to find new anthelmintics that could prevent and/or control the disease. Targeting ion channels of D. immitis for drug design has obvious advantages. These channels, present in the nematode nervous system, control movement, feeding, mating and respond to environmental cues which are necessary for survival of the parasite. Any new drug that targets these ion channels is likely to have a motility phenotype and should act to clear the worms from the host. Many of the successful anthelmintics in the past have targeted these ion channels and receptors. Knowledge about genetic variability of the ion channel and receptor genes should be useful information for drug design as receptor polymorphism may affect responses to a drug. Such information may also be useful for anticipation of possible resistance development. A total of 224 ion channel genes/subunits have been identified in the genome of D. immitis. Whole genome sequencing data of parasites from eight different geographical locations, four from ML-susceptible populations and the other four from ML-loss of efficacy (LOE populations, were used for polymorphism analysis. We identified 1762 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP sites (1508 intronic and 126 exonic in these 224 ion channel genes/subunits with an overall polymorphic rate of 0.18%. Of the SNPs found in the exon regions, 129 of them caused a non-synonymous type of polymorphism. Fourteen of the exonic SNPs caused a change in predicted secondary structure. A few of the SNPs identified may have an effect on gene expression, function of the protein and resistance selection processes.

  20. Anthelmintic effect of Mentha spp. essential oils on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Marina A; Albanese, Adriana A; Gende, Liesel B; Eguaras, Martín J; Denegri, Guillermo M; Elissondo, María Celina

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of Mentha piperita and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Echinococcus granulosus and to compare the effectiveness of both oils according to the exposure time and concentration. Although both treatments had a protoscolicidal effect, M. pulegium had a considerably stronger effect than M. piperita. Essential oil of M. pulegium produced dose- and time-dependent effects. Maximal protoscolicidal effect was observed after 12 days of incubation and reached 0% after 18 days. This lack of viability was proved during the determination of infectivity into mice. Essential oil of M. piperita produced only a time-dependent effect. At 24 days p.i., the viability of protoscoleces decreased to approximately 50%. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) demonstrated the drug-induced ultrastructural damage. On the other hand, a loss of turgidity was detected in all M. pulegium-treated cysts respective of the drug concentration. There was a correlation between the intensity of damage and the concentration of the essential oil assayed. Studies by SEM revealed that the germinal layer of treated cysts lost the feature multicellular structure. M. pulegium essential oil showed piperitone oxide as main compound in their composition, and we suggest that this component could be responsible of the markedly anthelmintic effect detected. Our data suggest that essential oils of Mentha spp. can be a promising source of potential protoscolicidal agents. The isolation of active anthelmintic constituents is in progress and may lead to the discovery of compounds with improved therapeutic value.

  1. Multi-class determination of anthelmintics in soil and water by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Marivil D; Haberhauer, Georg; Kist, Alla; Rathor, M Nasir; Gerzabek, Martin; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The translocation of antiparasitic drugs from animal excrement through soil and water to crops and forages and their recycling to food-producing animals is a potential concern with respect to the contamination of the food chain. To facilitate the investigation of this problem, an LC-MS/MS method for selected anthelmintics in soil and water was developed. The soil sample preparation involved a simple solvent extraction and dispersive clean-up technique. The method was validated at 10, 20 and 40 µg kg(-1) for levamisole, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide and fenbendazole sulphone and at 20, 40 and 80 µg kg(-1) for eprinomectin. LOQs were 10 µg kg(-1) for the first four compounds and 20 µg kg(-1) for eprinomectin. The overall mean recoveries ranged from 76.1% to 89% for loamy soils and from 79.9% to 96.9% for sandy soils. Analysis of water samples was performed by extraction/concentration on an Oasis-HLB (Aschaffenburg, Germany) cartridge. Validation was performed at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg l(-1). The LOQ for all compounds was 0.25 µg l(-1). Method recovery (and RSD) varied between 35.4% (28) for eprinomectin and 125.1% (16) for fenbendazole sulphone. The validated methods were applied to soil and water samples in a study on the behaviour of anthelmintic drugs in a soil-plant-water system (manuscript on "transport investigation of antiparasitic drugs based on a lysimeter experiment" in preparation).

  2. Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-07-01

    The source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. The egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Annona squamosa L., Datura metel L., and Solanum torvum Swartz were tested against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with five replicates. All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 48 and exposure for egg hatching and LDA, respectively; however, 100% egg hatching and larvicidal inhibition were found in the methanol extracts of A. paniculata, A. squamosa, D. metel, and S. torvum at 25 mg/ml and the effect was similar to positive control of Albendazole (0.075 mg/ml) and Ivermectin (0.025mg/ml) against H. contortus, respectively. The EHA result showed the ED(50) of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and D. metel, which were 2.90 and 3.08 mg/ml, and in larval development assay, the ED(50) was 4.26 and 3.86 mg/ml, respectively. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic efficacy of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kellermann, Michael; Wehner, Teresa A

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic activity of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from physical contact to others and self-grooming were studied. Sixteen approximately 7 months old male castrated German White Noble goats harbouring induced infections of gastrointestinal nematode parasites were included in the study. They were blocked based on pre-treatment body weight (range 22.4 to 36.4 kg) and then randomly allocated to the untreated control group or the group treated with topical 0.5% w/v eprinomectin (EPRINEX Pour-on, Merial) at 1 mg/kg body weight. Plasma samples were collected prior to and at intervals up to 14 days following treatment and analyzed to determine the concentrations of eprinomectin (B1a component). Parasites were recovered, identified, and counted following necropsy 14 days after treatment. Goats treated with topical eprinomectin had significantly fewer (≥99% reduction, p < 0.01) adult Cooperia curticei, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus battus, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Ostertagia circumcincta, and Trichostrongylus colubriformis than the untreated controls. Basic pharmacokinetic parameters for eprinomectin B1a were AUCinfinity, 37.1 ± 15.2 day ng/mL; T½, 5.11 ± 2.83 days; and Cmax, 5.93 ± 1.87 ng/mL; individual maximal concentrations were observed 1 or 2 days after treatment. Results of this study indicate that oral ingestion is not required to achieve adequate exposure for excellent anthelmintic efficacy following topical administration of eprinomectin at 1 mg/kg body weight to goats.

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Urban

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Coriandrum sativum against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, T; Tilahun, G; Debella, A; Feleke, A; Makonnen, E

    2007-04-04

    In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Coriandrum sativum (Apiaceae) were investigated on the egg and adult nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of Coriandrum sativum inhibited hatching of eggs completely at a concentration less than 0.5 mg/ml. ED(50) of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was 0.12 mg/ml while that of hydro-alcoholic extract was 0.18 mg/ml. There was no statistically significant difference between aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts (p>0.05). The hydro-alcoholic extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one. For the in vivo study, 24 sheep artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. The first two groups were treated with crude aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum at 0.45 and 0.9 g/kg dose levels, the third group with albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg and the last group was left untreated. Efficacy was tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and total worm count reduction (TWCR). On day 2 post treatment, significant FECR was detected in groups treated with higher dose of Coriandrum sativum (pCoriandrum sativum (p>0.05). Significant (pCoriandrum sativum compared to the untreated group. Reduction in male worms was higher than female worms. Treatment with both doses of Coriandrum sativum did not help the animals improve or maintain their PCV while those treated with albendazole showed significant increase in PCV (p<0.05).

  7. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  8. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    . The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... study of 1546 children. Enrolled children were randomized to receive either repeated treatment with praziquantel and albendazole four times a year (intervention group, 394 children) or single dose treatment with praziquantel and albendazole once a year (control group, 371 children). Follow up...... concentrations. Monitoring of clinical malaria attacks was performed at each school during the two years of the intervention. RESULTS: Out of 1546 children screened for P. falciparum, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, hookworm and T. Trichiura at baseline, 1079 (69.8%) were infected with at least one of the four...

  9. Use of two in vitro methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistant nematode parasites on Slovak sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, Marián; Cernanská, Dana; Corba, Július

    2006-02-18

    A survey of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistant nematode populations was conducted on 32 sheep farms in the Slovak Republic. In vitro egg hatch test and larval development tests were used for the detection of resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics and they were compared with in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests. There was agreement in the declaration of resistance between the faecal egg count reduction test and both in vitro tests. The presence of resistant populations was determined on two farms using egg hatch test. In both farms, the LD(50) values were higher than 0.1 microg TBZ/ml, indicating resistance. By using LD(99) values it might be possible to reveal relatively small proportion of resistant larvae in the population. The prevalence of benzimidazole resistance has not change on Slovak sheep farms during last decade.

  10. A comparative study of the anthelmintic potential of Cleome Viscosa L. and Cleome Burmanni W. and A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi S Pillai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol, aqueous and chloroform extracts of Cleome viscosa and Cleome burmanni were tested for anthelmintic potential against the Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Different concentrations of the extracts ranging from 50-2000 μg/ml were tested and results expressed as time required for paralysis and death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and DMSO (1% as the negative control. The methanol extracts of Cleome viscosa and Cleome burmanni exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. Methanol extract of Cleome viscosa at a concentration of 2000 μg/ml was detected to be the most effective treatment dose. Thin layer chromatography of methanol extracts of both plants revealed the presence of terpenoids.

  11. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  12. Poor efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics in sport horse nematodes in Morocco in relation to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouiten H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport and leisure horses in Morocco are treated with several anthelmintics, organophosphates (dichlorvos, benzimidazoles (mostly thiabendazole or tetrahydropyrimidines (mostly pyrantel pamoate against nematodes. We studied three horse stables in Rabat, one in Meknes and one in Bouznika. Two of the Rabat and Bouznika stables had introduced a large number of horses from countries (Argentina or Europe where resistance to benzimidazoles is frequent, whereas the Meknes stud farm remained without foreign introduction. The number of treatments was not very frequent (twice a year in adult horses but the same anthelmintics were used repeatedly. No resistance to dichlorvos was detected whereas benzimidazole and pyrantel pamoate resistances were detected for the first time in African horses, outside South Africa.

  13. Inequities in Receipt of Iron and Vitamin A Supplements, and Anthelmintic Medications by Young Children in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Devin D; McLennan, John D

    2015-11-01

    Gaps in the receipt of micronutrients and anthelmintic medications by children in low-and middle-income countries undermine efforts to reduce the burden of vitamin A and iron deficiencies, and soil transmitted helminthiases. This study aimed to identify the extent of equitable receipt of these interventions in the Dominican Republic (DR) using indices of need and socioeconomic status with data derived from the DR 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. Receipt of anthelmintic medication, iron, and vitamin A were reported for 55.0% (last six months), 30.3% (last seven days), and 24.0% (last six months) of young children, respectively. No relationships were found between indices of need and receipt of any of the interventions using bivariate and multivariate analysis. However, receipt of each intervention was related to higher maternal education, and iron was additionally related to greater family wealth. Systematic efforts to improve equitability of receipt of these core child health interventions are needed.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. THOTAPURI AND MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. NEELAM ROOT CRUDE EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pet ether, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Mangifera indica L. Var. Thotapuri and Mangifera indica L. Var. Neelam were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for evoked response, paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in both ...

  15. Effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treaments in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Iringa region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyyu, J.D.; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Monrad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal field trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle. A total of 167 cattle (6-18 months) from three large-scale dairy farms, four traditional farms and nine...... and the proportion of animals passing Fasciola eggs in faeces (P¿nematodes. It is concluded that a programme of four strategic treatments per year was effective in controlling GI nematodes and F. gigantica and improved...

  16. Efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics: first report of multiple drug resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, N; Persad, K; Sagam, R; Offiah, V N; Adesiyun, A A; Harewood, W; Lambie, N; Basu, A K

    2011-12-29

    In Trinidad, small ruminant farms are semi-intensively managed under tropical conditions which support the development and survival of the infective stages of the helminths. Local farmers use anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes frequently. Frequent use of anthelmintics has the potential to select for populations of nematodes resistance to those chemicals. Hence, an attempt was made to study the efficacy of commonly used drugs on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Three farms situated in different counties in Trinidad were selected. Sheep aged 6-15 months and not treated with anthelmintics for a minimum of six months previous and with faecal egg count (FEC)>150 eggs per gram were selected for study. They were allocated into 5 groups, each consisting 10 animals. The Group TA animals were treated once with albendazole (5mg/kg. b.wt.), group TF with fenbendazole (5mg/kg.b.wt.), group TI animals with ivermectin (200 μg/kg b.wt.), group TL with levamisol (7.5mg/kg b.wt.). The group NTC animals were not given any drug and served as control. The number of nematode eggs per gram of faeces from each animal was determined before treatment and at 14 days after treatment. The anthelmintic susceptibility to different drugs was detected by FECRT (in vivo) with EPG recorded at 14 day post-treatment. The data analysis using FECRT revealed that efficacy of albendazole (46-62%), fenbendazole (44-61%) and levamisol (53-81%) were reduced compared to ivermectin (95-97%). An attempt has also been made to find a suitable method for calculation of FECR (%).

  17. Anthelmintic activity of a standardized extract from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) against experimentally induced cestodiasis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Purobi; Yadav, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. Materials and Methods: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magne...

  18. Synthesis, in vitro antioxidant, anthelmintic and molecular docking studies of novel dichloro substituted benzoxazole-triazolo-thione derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyendra, R V; Vishnumurthy, K A; Vagdevi, H M; Rajesh, K P; Manjunatha, H; Shruthi, A

    2011-07-01

    A novel 6,8-dichloro [1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b] [1,3]benzoxazole-3(2H)-thione 4 and its derivatives 5a and 5b are synthesized from 5,7-dichloro-2-hydrazinyl-1,3-benzoxazole 3, obtained by reaction of hydrazine hydrate with ethyl [(5,7-dichloro-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]acetate 2. The newly synthesized compounds are characterized by analytical (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, LC-MS mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. All synthesized compounds are screened for in vitro antioxidant and anthelmintic activities. In correlation to anthelmintic activity, compounds are subjected to molecular docking studies for the binding to β-Tubulin, target protein elite to the parasites. Compounds 3, 4 and 5a exhibited potential radical scavenging capacity with good anthelmintic activity. In molecular docking study also, compounds showed minimum binding energy and have good affinity toward the active pocket thus, they may be considered as good inhibitor of β-Tubulin.

  19. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Bizzo, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2011-12-29

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.

  20. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  1. Originator usage control with business process slicing

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Ziyi

    2012-01-01

    Originator Control allows information providers to define the information re-dissemination condition. Combined with usage control policy, fine-grained 'downstream usage control' can be achieved, which specifies what attributes the downstream consumers should have and how data is used. This paper discusses originator usage control, paying particular attention to enterprise-level dynamic business federations. Rather than 'pre-defining' the information re-dissemination paths, our business process slicing method 'capture' the asset derivation pattern, allowing to maintain originators' policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. First, we propose Service Call Graph (SCG), based on extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners. When SCG (and corresponding 'service call tuple' list) is built for a business process, it is analyzed to group partners into sub-contexts, according to their dependency relations. Originator usage control can be achieved focusing...

  2. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  3. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  4. Compounds Derived from the Bhutanese Daisy, Ajania nubigena, Demonstrate Dual Anthelmintic Activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S.; Giacomin, Paul R.; Becker, Luke; Sotillo, Javier; Pickering, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Background Whipworms and blood flukes combined infect almost one billion people in developing countries. Only a handful of anthelmintic drugs are currently available to treat these infections effectively; there is therefore an urgent need for new generations of anthelmintic compounds. Medicinal plants have presented as a viable source of new parasiticides. Ajania nubigena, the Bhutanese daisy, has been used in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating various diseases and our previous studies revealed that small molecules from this plant have antimalarial properties. Encouraged by these findings, we screened four major compounds isolated from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we studied four major compounds derived from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties against the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris and the platyhelminth blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni using the xWORM assay technique. Of four compounds tested, two compounds—luteolin (3) and (3R,6R)-linalool oxide acetate (1)—showed dual anthelmintic activity against S. mansoni (IC50 range = 5.8–36.9 μg/mL) and T. muris (IC50 range = 9.7–20.4 μg/mL). Using scanning electron microscopy, we determined luteolin as the most efficacious compound against both parasites and additionally was found effective against the schistosomula, the infective stage of S. mansoni (IC50 = 13.3 μg/mL). Luteolin induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. Our in vivo assessment of luteolin (3) against T. muris infection at a single oral dosing of 100 mg/kg, despite being significantly (27.6%) better than the untreated control group, was markedly weaker than mebendazole (93.1%) in reducing the worm burden in mice. Conclusions/Significance Among the four compounds tested, luteolin demonstrated the best broad-spectrum activity against two different helminths—T. muris and S. mansoni—and was

  5. Correlation of polyphenolic content with radical-scavenging capacity and anthelmintic effects of Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae) against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-05-15

    Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06 mg QE/g and 7.42 mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71 mg QE/g and 0.29 mg CE/g DW, respectively) (pIC50) range values were similar for both assays (2.13-45.54 μg/mL and 1.2-43.82 μg/mL, respectively). All plant extracts showed ovicidal activity at all tested concentrations. Fruit methanolic (IC50=2.76mg/mL) and aqueous (IC50=2.08 mg/mL) extracts showed higher inhibitory effects than chloroformic (IC50=7.62 mg/mL) and hexanic (IC50=12.93 mg/mL) extracts on egg hatching (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation of total polyphenol, flavonoids and tannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0.01, respectively) or ABTS radicals (r=0.893, 0.765 and 0.722, p<0.01, respectively) and with inhibition of egg hatching (r=0.874, 0.883 and 0.862, p<0

  6. Gridded usage inventories of chlordane in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang WANG; Lijuan ZHAO; Xuekun FANG; Jianhua XU; Yifan LI; Yehong SHI; Jianxin HU

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chlordane (1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-3a,4,7, 7a-tetra-hydro-4,7-methanoindane) is one of organochlor- ine pesticides (OCPs) which has been listed as one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to be reduced and finally eliminated in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, because of its great persistence, toxicity, bio-accumulation and long-range transport potential. It is critical to create a national chlordane usage inventories for China to compile chlordane emission inventories, which is helpful for carrying out risk assessments and other researches related to chlordane in China. The annual data of chlordane usage was calculated and modified in accordance with the reported annual production of chlordane which was caculated on the basis of the termite distribution, the data of chlordane usage rate and the annual new construction area (NCA). With the help of Geographic Information System, the usage data of this NCA were allocated to a grid system then, with a 1/4° longitude by 1/6°latitude resolution and a size for each grid cell of approximately 25 km by 25 km. Between 1988 and 2008, the total usage of chlordane in China was 2745 t, accounting for approximately 80% of the production in the same period. Zhejiang Province was the largest consumer of chlordane in China, whose usage adds up to 980 t, greatly exceeding other provinces/regions, followed by Jiangsu Province (534 t) and Sichuan Province (428 t). The region with the least usage of chlordane was Beijing. Provinces of Guizhou, Henan and Hebei did not use any chlordane, even though termites had occurred in these provinces. Gridded usage inventories showed that the intensive use of chlordane was concentrated in the southeast part of China, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta in particular. The satisfaction of the inventories was supported by the consistence between the estimated data of annual usage and the reported annual production of

  7. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources.

  8. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernatus Martin Mkupasi

    Full Text Available Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  9. Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Atle V Meling; Chartier, Christophe; Gjerde, Bjørn; Höglund, Johan; Leine, Nils; Vatn, Synnøve; Stuen, Snorre

    2012-07-01

    In the period of 2008–2009, the efficacies of the benzimidazole (BZ) albendazole and the macrocyclic lactone (ML) ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants were evaluated by means of the fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test and by post-treatment identification of surviving third stage (L3) larvae after coproculture. Sheep (n=28) and goat (n=28) flocks from three areas of Norway were randomly selected to assess the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR), whereas only lambs from non-randomly selected sheep flocks (n=32) with a farm management that could select for AR were investigated the second year. Only flocks with a mean excretion of nematode eggs per gram feces (EPG) ≥ 150 at time of treatment were included in the survey. In total, 48 (80%) and 13 (46.4%) of the selected sheep and goat flocks, respectively, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The proportions of flocks classified as resistant (i.e., FECR nematode genera were Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus in five flocks, Haemonchus in two flocks, and a mixture of these genera in the remaining two flocks. In the goat flocks, the pre-treatment infection levels of GIN were low compared to what was found in the sheep flocks. Still, in one flock, AR against BZ in Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus was found. New strategies and recommendations to face the emerging AR situation in Rogaland County in order to limit the spread of resistant nematodes within and into other areas are urgently needed.

  10. Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance development in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Humberto Suarez

    Full Text Available Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3 and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3, whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5 and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9. The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

  11. Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance development in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Víctor Humberto; Cristel, Silvina Lujan

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR) on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR) and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole) in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3) and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3), whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5) and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9). The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

  12. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  13. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, Taís; Pinto, Nitza França; Mata-Santos, Hilton Antônio; De Moura, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; Carvalho, Tatiane Dos Santos; Del Rio, Karina Pena; Pinto, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; Martins, Lourdes Rodrigues; Fenalti, Juliana Montelli; Da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  14. Anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Caltha palustris var. alba Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubashir, Sofi; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Lone, Bashir A; Zargar, M Iqbal; Shah, Wajaht A

    2014-08-01

    The methanolic extract obtained from the root portion of Caltha palustris var. alba was evaluated for its anthelmintic efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep under both in vitro and in vivo conditions using worm motility inhibition (WMI) assay and fecal egg count reduction (FECR) assay, respectively. The extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity using agar-well diffusion method against different bacterial strains. In addition the extract was evaluated for cytotoxic and antioxidant activity against cultured THP-1(Leukemia), A-549 (Lung), HCT-15 (Colon), Cervix (HeLa) and PC-3(Prostrate) cell lines by SRB and DPPH radical scavenging assays. The extract used resulted in mean %WMI of 94.44%, as observed when the worms were put in lukewarm buffer for 30 min after exposure to different treatments. The mean mortality index of the sample was 0.95. The lethal concentration (LC50) was 0.11 mg·mL(-1). Cell lines were exposed to concentration of 100 μg·mL(-1) of extract for 48 h, which reduced the viability of these cell lines. The same plant extract also showed 55.58% DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  15. A review of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions with the anthelmintic medications albendazole and mebendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, Shane Ashley; Roels, Craig Allan; Wilby, Kyle John; Ensom, Mary H H

    2015-04-01

    Medications indicated for helminthes and other parasitic infections are frequently being used in mass populations in endemic areas. Currently, there is a lack of guidance for clinicians on how to appropriately manage drug interactions when faced with patients requiring short-term anthelmintic therapy with albendazole or mebendazole while concurrently taking other agents. The objective of this review was to systematically summarize and evaluate published literature on the pharmacokinetics of albendazole or mebendazole when taken with other interacting medications. A search of MEDLINE (1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (1974 to October 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to October 2014), Google, and Google Scholar was conducted for articles describing the pharmacokinetics of albendazole or mebendazole when given with other medications (and supplemented by a bibliographic review of all relevant articles). Altogether, 17 articles were included in the review. Studies reported data on pharmacokinetic parameters for albendazole or mebendazole when taken with cimetidine, dexamethasone, ritonavir, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, ivermectin, praziquantel, diethylcarbamazine, azithromycin, and levamisole. Cimetidine increased the elimination half-life of albendazole and maximum concentration (Cmax) of mebendazole; dexamethasone increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of albendazole; levamisole decreased the Cmax of albendazole; anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine) decreased the AUC of albendazole; praziquantel increased the AUC of albendazole; and ritonavir decreased the AUC of both albendazole and mebendazole. No major interactions were found with ivermectin, azithromycin, or diethylcarbamazine. Future research is required to clarify the clinical relevance of the interactions observed.

  16. Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; de Melo, Nathalya I; Aguiar, Daniela P; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Groppo, Milton; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), known as fennel, is a widespread aromatic herbaceous plant, and its essential oil is used as additive in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industries. The in vitro antischistosomal activity and cytotoxic effects against V79 cells of the essential oil of F. vulgare cultivated in southeastern Brazil (FV-EO) was investigated. The FV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (E)-Anethole (69.8%) and limonene (22.5%) were identified as the major constituents. Its anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and it was found to be active against adult S. mansoni worms, although it was less effective than the positive control praziquantel (PZQ) in terms of separation of the coupled pairs, mortality, and decreased motor activity. However, FV-EO elicited an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of S. mansoni eggs. On their own, (E)-anethole and the limonene enantiomers were much less effective than FV-EO and PZQ. An XTT-cytotoxicity-based assay evidenced no FV-EO cytotoxicity against V79 cells. In summary, FV-EO displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity.

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy against tissue-arrested larvae of Ancylostoma caninum in murine hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, P

    1998-12-01

    Third-stage larvae of the major human and canine Ancylostoma hookworm species have the capacity to undergo developmental arrest in the somatic tissues of an infected host. Arrested larvae reactivate at opportune periods such as pregnancy, which results in the transmammary transmission of infection to the nursing neonates. Using murine paratenic hosts to focus specifically on tissue-arrested stages of Ancylostoma caninum, the present study found that neither recommended nor elevated doses of commonly used anthelmintics were effective in eliminating latent infections at the accepted standard of greater than 90% reduction in parasite burden. Of the drugs tested, i.e., pyrantel, fenbendazole, ivermectin, and milbemycin, ivermectin was the most effective and engendered an 80% reduction in the burden of tissue-arrested A. caninum larvae but only if administered repeatedly or at elevated doses. Studies in 2 inbred mouse strains, BALB/c (H-2b) and C57BL/6 (H-2d), that typically display divergent immune responses to various infections showed no significant differences in the efficacies of the drugs tested. The results of this study indicate that there is still a need for effective strategies of eradicating latent infections with tissue-arrested hookworm larvae.

  18. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  19. WIPO Re:Search: Accelerating anthelmintic development through cross-sector partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Ramamoorthi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, malaria, and tuberculosis have a devastating effect on an estimated 1.6 billion people worldwide. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO Re:Search consortium accelerates the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics for these diseases by connecting the assets and resources of pharmaceutical companies, such as compound libraries and expertise, to academic or nonprofit researchers with novel product discovery or development ideas. As the WIPO Re:Search Partnership Hub Administrator, BIO Ventures for Global Health (BVGH fields requests from researchers, identifies Member organizations able to fulfill these requests, and helps forge mutually beneficial collaborations. Since its inception in October 2011, WIPO Re:Search membership has expanded to more than 90 institutions, including leading pharmaceutical companies, universities, nonprofit research institutions, and product development partnerships from around the world. To date, WIPO Re:Search has facilitated over 70 research agreements between Consortium Members, including 11 collaborations focused on anthelmintic drug discovery.

  20. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  1. Anthelmintic drug albendazole arrests human gastric cancer cells at the mitotic phase and induces apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Xiangyang; Pei, Dongsheng; Gao, Chao

    2017-01-01

    As microtubules have a vital function in the cell cycle, oncologists have developed microtubule inhibitors capable of preventing uncontrolled cell division, as in the case of cancer. The anthelmintic drug albendazole (ABZ) has been demonstrated to inhibit hepatocellular, ovarian and prostate cancer cells via microtubule targeting. However, its activity against human gastric cancer (GC) cells has remained to be determined. In the present study, ABZ was used to treat GC cells (MKN-45, SGC-7901 and MKN-28). A a CCK-8 cell proliferation assay was performed to assess the effects of ABZ on cell viability and cell cycle changes were assessed using flow cytometry. SGC-7901 cells were selected for further study, and flow cytometry was employed to determine the apoptotic rate, immunofluorescence analysis was employed to show changes of the microtubule structure as well as the subcellular localization and expression levels of cyclin B1, and western blot analysis was used to identify the dynamics of microtubule assembly. The expression levels of relevant proteins, including cyclin B1 and Cdc2, the two subunits of mitosis-promoting factor as well as apoptosis-asociated proteins were also assessed by western blot analysis. The results showed that ABZ exerted its anti-cancer activity in GC cell lines by disrupting microtubule formation and function to cause mitotic arrest, which is also associated with the accumulation of cyclin B1, and consequently induces apoptosis.

  2. Free radical scavenging, antidiarrheal and anthelmintic activity of Pistia stratiotes L. extracts and its phytochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Karim, Mohammed Faisal; Imam, Hasan; Sarker, Md Moklesur-Rahman; Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Nahid; Paul, Nirmala; Haque, Tahmina

    2015-05-01

    In this phyto-pharmacological screening of Pistia stratiotes L leaf and root extracts each separately in two different solvents demonstrated its potential medicinal value. Apparent antioxidant value is demonstrated by DPPH, Nitric oxide scavenging and Ferric ion reducing method. Additionally, total flavonoid and phenolic compounds were measured. The leaf methanolic extract scavenged both nitric oxide (NO) and DPPH radical with a dose dependent manner. But the pet ether fraction of root was found to have highest efficacy in Fe(3±) reducing power assay. Flavonoid was found to contain highest in the pet ether fraction of root (411.35mg/g) in terms of quercetin equivalent, similarly highest amount (34.96mg/g) of total phenolic compounds (assayed as gallic acid equivalents) were found to contain in the same fraction. The methanolic fractions appeared less cytotoxic compared to pet ether extracts. The plant extracts caused a dose dependent decrease in faecal droppings in both castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhea, where as leaf extracts in each solvent appeared most effective. Also, the plant extracts showed anthelmintic activity in earthworm by inducing paralysis and death in a dose dependent manner. At highest doses (50 mg/ml) all fractions were almost effective as the positive control piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml). Thus, besides this cytotoxic effect it's traditional claim for therapeutic use can never be overlooked.

  3. Cassia alata L: potential role as anthelmintic agent against Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Suman; Roy, Saptarshi; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy of Cassia alata against cestode Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated in our study. Worms were maintained between rat model and beetle. Air-dried leaves of C. alata were subjected to ethanol extraction. Different concentrations (10-80 mg/ml) of the extract were prepared in phosphate buffer saline and tested on the parasite in vitro. Parasites treated with C. alata showed a decrease in motility with an increase in concentrations and complete immobilization took lesser time compared to control. The paralyzed parasites were further processed for electron microscopic studies. Ultrastructural micrographs revealed swelling of the tegument and blebbing on the tegumental surface throughout the body accompanied with destruction of microtriches and changes such as shrinkage in the scolex region. Depletion of parenchyma cells and destruction in the connective tissues along with sparsely cytoplasmic cytons were also observed, and these observations are similar with worms treated with a known drug praziquantel. These results may suggest that the plant leaves could be considered for controlling helminth infection and can represent a step forward in the search for alternative anthelmintic drug.

  4. UV/Visible Spectroscopic Quantification of Veterinary Anthelmintic Drug Oxfendazole in Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendraprasad, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2016-07-01

    Oxfendazole (OFA) is a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic medication used to treat veterinary diseases. Two new, simple, rapid, precise and accurate, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the assay of OFA in its pure form and in its boluses. The first method (method A) is based on the measurement of green colored manganate obtained due to oxidation of OFA by permanganate in an alkaline medium at 610 nm. In the second method (Method B), the chromophoric activity of OFA is measured at 290 nm in the acetic acid-water (1:1) solvent system. OFA has been quantified over the linear ranges of 1.25-12.5 and 1.25-10 μg/mL in method A and method B, respectively, with apparent molar absorptivity values of 2.54 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 L·mol-1·cm-1. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and Sandell sensitivity values are 0.15 u 0.18 μg/mL, 0.46 and 0.56 μg/mL, and 0.0124 and 0.0148 μg/cm2. The developed methods were successfully applied to determine OFA in the bolus. No interference from adjuvants was observed.

  5. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  6. Genome landscapes and bacteriophage codon usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius B Lucks

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Across all kingdoms of biological life, protein-coding genes exhibit unequal usage of synonymous codons. Although alternative theories abound, translational selection has been accepted as an important mechanism that shapes the patterns of codon usage in prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes. Here we analyze patterns of codon usage across 74 diverse bacteriophages that infect E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and L. lactis as their primary host. We use the concept of a "genome landscape," which helps reveal non-trivial, long-range patterns in codon usage across a genome. We develop a series of randomization tests that allow us to interrogate the significance of one aspect of codon usage, such as GC content, while controlling for another aspect, such as adaptation to host-preferred codons. We find that 33 phage genomes exhibit highly non-random patterns in their GC3-content, use of host-preferred codons, or both. We show that the head and tail proteins of these phages exhibit significant bias towards host-preferred codons, relative to the non-structural phage proteins. Our results support the hypothesis of translational selection on viral genes for host-preferred codons, over a broad range of bacteriophages.

  7. Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDsIt will be our tradition to start every issue with a topic which demands attention of peopleespecially pharma professionals and of course the researchers. NSAIDs are proved to be verybeneficial as analgesic, antipyretic and anti inflammatory agents. Their usage is becoming moreand more as they are available as OTC drugs. Its worth to remember that they too possessesnumber of side effects, including GI side effects, Nephropathy, liver failure and prolongedbleeding after an injury or surgery. It is now reported NSAIDs causes dementia and showsnegative effect on protein synthesis. Their cardiovascular risk was in the head lines for severalmonths. One more fact is that no NSAID should be taken for more than 10 days, unless a doctorhas prescribed otherwise. Unnecessary and indiscriminate usage of NSAIDS increasingalarmingly (Green, 2001 and should be taken care of. They often take along with prescriptiondrugs and there are several incidences of drug interactions. For example concomitant usage ofanticoagulants or oral glucocorticoids should be avoided. (Ibuprofen, Clinical Pharmacologywww.clinicalpharmacology.com. So, indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs should be regulated.

  8. EBSCO's Usage Consolidation Attempts to Streamline Gathering, Storage, and Reporting of Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries…

  9. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The distribution functions of the codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data, for 40 eukaryotic biological species and 5 chloroplasts, do not follow a Zipf law, but are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondriae the analysis is not conclusive. A quantum-mechanics-inspired model is proposed to describe the observed behaviour. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total GC content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly depending on the exonic GC content, is computed.

  10. Impact of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of sheep, and the role of advanced molecular tools for exploring epidemiology and drug resistance - an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Florian; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-05-27

    Parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of small ruminants and other livestock have major economic impacts worldwide. Despite the impact of the diseases caused by these nematodes and the discovery of new therapeutic agents (anthelmintics), there has been relatively limited progress in the development of practical molecular tools to study the epidemiology of these nematodes. Specific diagnosis underpins parasite control, and the detection and monitoring of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites, presently a major concern around the world. The purpose of the present article is to provide a concise account of the biology and knowledge of the epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes (order Strongylida), from an Australian perspective, and to emphasize the importance of utilizing advanced molecular tools for the specific diagnosis of nematode infections for refined investigations of parasite epidemiology and drug resistance detection in combination with conventional methods. It also gives a perspective on the possibility of harnessing genetic, genomic and bioinformatic technologies to better understand parasites and control parasitic diseases.

  11. CloudMonitor: Profiling Power Usage

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, James William; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incentivizing software developers to create energy-efficient applications.

  12. Media usage as health segmentation variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Shelly; Chen, Qimei; Duffy, Margaret; Fleming, Kenneth

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to contrast a traditional audience segmentation model that uses demographics and health evaluations against a model that uses these same variables plus media usage variables. The goal was to determine whether media usage variables - typically not used in health segmentation studies - add predictive power in determining health behaviors and attitudes. The results of the analysis showed an increase in the ability to predict health behaviors such as aspirin use, vitamin use, diet, and exercise, and suggest that there is predictive value for including media variables as part of the segmentation process. Implications for public health education and campaign planning are discussed.

  13. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, D R; Bauer, C; Boray, J C; Conder, G A; Daugschies, A; Johansen, M-V; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Roepstorff, A

    2006-10-10

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), should encourage the adoption of uniform registration requirements globally. Testing of efficacy should be carried out according to the principles of "Good Clinical Practice" (VICH GL9, 2000). Data obtained according to these guidelines should be internationally acceptable for the registration of anthelmintics for swine. Further, the use of the guidelines should expedite development, government review, and approval of anthelmintics for swine, as well as contribute towards reducing costs and the number of experimental animals used for drug testing.

  14. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action.

  15. Fire usage and ancient hominin detoxification genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Jac M.M.J.G.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C.; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general heal

  16. MESUR: metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting ...

  17. Sporforming probiotics and their usage in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The data of literature about spore-forming probiotics, as well as their usage in the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in children were sumerised. Analysis of the data allows us to recommend the preparation «Biosporin-Biopharma» for preventive measures and treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases at all levels of children health care, including infants.

  18. An Analysis of Electronic-Mail Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that established a measure and model for use in predicting and explaining electronic mail systems as an example of computer-mediated communication technologies usage and choice. The results indicated that all of the eight hypotheses showed significant correlation between criterion and predictor variates, supported by different…

  19. Design models for anticipating future usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooden, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    In usage centred design designers need to consider a variety of users operating the intended product in a variety of ways in a variety of contexts. By tuning their design to potential ways of operation designers can prevent usability problems from occurring. In the project it was explored how design

  20. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  1. Collaborative Portfolio's Effect on Library Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Library resources are expensive and it is the library media specialist's responsibility to ensure that use of the library's resources is maximized to support the School Strategic Plan (SSP). This library usage study examined data on the scheduling of high school classes for research-based assignments, related to content area curriculum standards,…

  2. Current Usage of Relative Pronouns in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozete, Oscar

    1981-01-01

    Examines variations in current usage that pose problems in teaching Spanish relative pronouns. Discusses their treatment in first-year college textbooks, in the professional literature and in newspapers and magazines prose. Attempts to provide a description of the use of these pronouns applicable to classroom presentation. (MES)

  3. Twitter Usage of Universities in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Ozgu

    2013-01-01

    Universities are among the users of the most popular social media networks. Usage of social media by especially students and many other people and institutions, which constitutes the target audience for universities, encourages the universities to effectively use this environment. Twitter is among these social media networks which facilitate the…

  4. Usage Patterns of Open Genomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data…

  5. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  6. The scope of usage-based theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbotson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the "cognitive commitment" of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure vs. cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works.

  7. Mobile Device Usage in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcker, Jan; Honal, Andrea; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on mobile device usage of students in higher education. While more and more students embrace mobile devices in their daily life, institutions attempt to profit from those devices for educational purposes. It is therefore crucial for institutional development to identify students' needs and how mobile devices may facilitate these…

  8. A comparative study on the efficacy of four anthelmintics on some important reindeer parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Nordkvist

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Four anthelmintic preparations were tested against some of the most important parasites of reindeer, i.e. warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi, nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe, brainworm (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Their efficacy against intestinal nematodes was also registered. Test drugs were Fenthion (Bayer, Fenbendazole (Hoechst, Mebendazole (Janssen, and Ivermectin (Merk Sharp & Dohme. Against O. tarandi and C. trompe Ivermectin was 100% effective and Fenthion 86 and 100% respectively. The efficacy of Fen- and Mebendazole against these parasites was not significant. Against E. rangiferi the benzimidazole compounds were highly effective, with Mebendazole a bit ahead. Ivermectin had a moderate effect and Fenthion had no effect on this parasite. Against D. viviparus Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and Ivermectin were of equal, moderate-high effectiveness. No drug had a complete effect on the «arrested» larvae of D. viviparus. Fenthion had no effect at all. Fenbendazole and Ivermectin were both 100% effective against intestinal nematodes. Mebendazole was less effective and Fenthion had no effects. Ivermectin is considered to be the overall most effective anthelmintic in this test.En jamforande studie av effekten av fyra anthelmintika mot några betydelsesfulla parasiter hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Fyra antiparasitmedel har prôvats mot några av renens viktigaste parasiter, nàmligen hudkorm (Oedemagena tarandi, svalgkorm (Cephenemyia trompe, hjårnmask (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi och lungmask (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Vidare har medlens effekt på mag- tarmnematoder (Trichostongylider också noterats. De prôvade medicinerna var Fenthion (Bayer, Mebendazole (Leo/Janssen, Fenbendazole (Hoechst och Ivermectin (Merck Sharp & Dohme. Mot hud- och svalgkorm var Ivermectin 100% effektivt medan for Fenthion effekten var 86 resp 100%. Effekten av Fen- och Mebendazole mot de båda parasiterna var inte

  9. In vitro screening of plant lectins and tropical plant extracts for anthelmintic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-de Álvarez, L; Jackson, F; Greer, A; Bartley, Y; Bartley, D J; Grant, G; Huntley, J F

    2012-05-25

    Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2), phytohemagglutinin L4 (PHA-L4), phytohemagglutinin E3L (PHA-E3L), kidney bean albumin (KBA), Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin (RPA), Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MAA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) to disrupt the feeding of the first stage larvae (L(1)) of the sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated using a larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT). Only PHA-E3L, WGA and Con A had a potent effect on disrupting larval feeding of all of the three species of GIN investigated. The lectin concentration required to inhibit feeding in 50% of L(1) (IC50) was 7.3±1.2, 8.3±1.4 and 4.3±1.7 μg/ml for PHA-E3L; 59.1±32.4, 58.7±11.9 and 8.1±7.0 μg/ml for Con A and 78.9±11.2, 69.4±8.1 and 28.0±14.1 μg/ml for WGA for T. circumcincta, H. contortus and T. colubriformis larvae, respectively (P=0.006). The addition of the lectin inhibitors fetuin, glucose/mannose or N-acetylglucosamine for PHA-E3L, Con A and WGA, respectively, caused an increase in the proportion of larvae that had fed at all concentrations for PHA-E3L only. In experiment 2, the effect of extracts from the tropical plants Azadiractha indica, Trichanthera gigantea, Morus alba, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on the feeding behaviour of H. contortus L(1,) was examined. A. indica, T. gigantea and M. alba failed to inhibit 50% of larvae from feeding at concentrations up to 10mg plant extract per ml. In contrast, both G. sepium and L. leucocephala demonstrated

  10. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT...... determine the anti-parasitic effects against the main cattle nematodes. We used in vitro tests targeting L1 larvae (feeding inhibition assay) and adults (motility assay) of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. In the larval feeding inhibition assay, O. ostertagi L1 were significantly more...

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of novel fluorinated 7-ethyl-10-phenothiazines, their sulphones and ribofuranosides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveen Gautam; Abhilasha Yadav; Nishidha Khandelwal; D C Gautam

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel fluorinated 10-phenothiazines were synthesized via Smiles rearrangement. 10-phenothiazines on refluxing with 30% hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid gave 10-phenothiazines-5, 5-dioxides (sulphones). These synthesized 10-phenothiazines were then used as base to prepare ribofuranosides by treating them with sugar (-D-ribofuranosyl- 1-acetate-2, 3, 5-tribenzoate). The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity and anthelmintic activity. The structural assignments of compounds were made on the basis of spectroscopic data and elemental analysis.

  12. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  13. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.;

    2016-01-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT...... susceptible to all CT fractions than C. oncophora L1. The mean degree of polymerization of CT (i.e. average size) was the most important structural parameter: large CT reduced larval feeding more than small CT. The flavan-3-ols of prodelphinidin (PD)-type tannins had a stronger negative influence on parasite...

  14. Analysis of putative inhibitors of anthelmintic resistance mechanisms in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGusbi, Salha; Krücken, Jürgen; Ramünke, Sabrina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Effects of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide and the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil on the efficacy of ivermectin and thiabendazole were studied in vitro in susceptible and resistant isolates of the cattle parasitic nematodes Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. The effects of combined use of drug and piperonyl butoxide/verapamil, respectively, were investigated in the Egg Hatch Assay, the Larval Development Assay and the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay. The effects of piperonyl butoxide and verapamil as inhibitors of thiabendazole and ivermectin responses were particularly marked for larval development, where both inhibitors were able to completely eliminate all differences between susceptible and resistant isolates. Even the lowest concentrations of anthelmintics used in combination with inhibitors caused complete inhibition of development. Differences and/or similarities among responses in different isolates were only obtained in the two other assays: in the Egg Hatch Assay piperonyl butoxide caused a shift in concentration-response curves obtained with thiabendazole to the left for all isolates tested, changing relative differences between isolates. In contrast, an effect of verapamil in the Egg Hatch Assay was only apparent for benzimidazole-resistant isolates. In the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay only ivermectin was tested and piperonyl butoxide shifted the concentration-response curves for all isolates to the left, again eliminating differences in EC50 values between susceptible and resistant isolates. This was not the case using verapamil as an inhibitor, where curves for both susceptible and benzimidazole-resistant isolates shifted to the left in Ostertagia isolates. In Cooperia the picture was more complex with ivermectin-resistant isolates showing a larger shift than the susceptible isolate. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene were investigated. Significantly increased frequencies of

  15. Melaleuca alternifolia anthelmintic activity in gerbils experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, Thirssa H; Baldissera, Matheus D; Gressler, Lucas T; de Sá, Mariângela Facco; Bortoluzzi, Bruna N; Schafer, Andressa S; Ebling, Rafael C; Raffin, Renata P; Santos, Roberto C V; Stefani, Lenita M; Vaucher, Rodrigo; Leal, Marta L R; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2016-11-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites are one of the biggest health problems faced in sheep, mainly due to their pathogenicity and resistance to drugs used to control these parasites. Thus, the following study aimed to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally infected. Three treatments were tested: M. alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), a solid lipid nanocarrier made with essential oil of Melaleuca (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol). In vivo studies were performed by determining the mean worm burden of H. contortus in gerbils TTO (0.75 mL/kg); nanoTTO (0.5 mL/kg) and terp-4-ol (0.5 mL l/kg) were able to reduce 46.36%; 48.64%, and 43.18% worm burden, respectively. H. contortus increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, as demonstrated by liver injury. It was found that the TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol were not toxic to liver and kidneys since hepatic and renal functions were not affected. Moreover, terp-4-ol was able to prevent increased levels of seric AST and ALT in infected animals, indicating a hepatoprotective effect. Thus, our results indicate that TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol are safe and efficient against H. contortus infection in gerbils, and possibly the terp-4-ol may be considered the compound present in the Melaleuca alternifolia responsible for parasitic action against H. contortus.

  16. Characterization of Haemonchus contortus P-glycoprotein-16 and its interaction with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Che, H; Beech, R N; Prichard, R K

    2015-11-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in veterinary nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus, has become a limitation to maintaining high standards of animal health. Resistance in this parasite, to all drug families including the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) is a serious issue worldwide. Mechanisms of resistance to the MLs appear to be complex and to include the elimination of these compounds by ABC transporter-like proteins present in nematodes. In order to investigate the potential involvement of ABC transporters in ML resistance in H. contortus, we have characterized the functionality of the ABC transporter H. contortus P-glycoprotein-16 (Hco-PGP-16) expressed in mammalian cells. This has included a study of its interaction with different MLs, including the avermectins, abamectin (ABA) and ivermectin (IVM), and the milbemycin, moxidectin (MOX). Hco-PGP-16 transport activity was studied using the fluorophore Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123). Transfected cells expressing Hco-PGP-16 accumulated less than 50% of Rho 123 than control cells, suggesting an active transport of this tracer dye by Hco-PGP-16. The influence of the MLs on the Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16 was then investigated. A marked inhibition of Rho123 transport by ABA and IVM was observed. In contrast, MOX showed less effect on inhibition of Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16, and the inhibition was not saturable. The difference in the interaction of the avermectins and MOX with Hco-PGP-16 may help explain the slower rate of development of resistance to MOX compared with the avermectins in H. contortus.

  17. [Anthelmintic Effects Of Single Doses Of Fenbendazole And Oxantel-Pyrantel Pamoate To The Intestinal Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Han Jong; Lee, Joon Sang; Joo, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Yung Shik

    1981-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic effects of fenbendazole against intestinal nematode; Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura, and to compare the efficacy in fenbendazole, oxantel-pyrantel pamoate and placebo by means of double blind method. Out of 114 subjects harbouring Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura, 36 cases were treated with single dose of fenbendazole, 38 cases with oxantel-pyrantel pamoate, and the remaining 40 cases had received the placebo. The results were as follows: 1. In the group treated with fenbendazole (30~50 mg/kg), the cure rates were 83.9 per cent in 31 subjects with Ascaris lumbricoides and 83.3 per cent in 18 subjects with hookworm, and only 28.6 per cent in 28 subjects with T. trichiura respectively. 2. In the group treated with a single dose of oxantel-pyrantel pamoate (10 mg/mg), the cure rates were 96.7 per cent in 30 subjects with A. lumbricoides, 95.2 per cent in 21 subjects with hookworm, and 54.6 per cent in 33 subjects with T. trichiura. Egg reduction rate was 85.7 per cent in T. trichiura cases. 3. On the other hand, the egg negative conversion rates in placebo group were 9.7, 8.3 and 33.3 per cent in Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infections respectively. 4. The above results showed that fenbendazole was highly effective against Ascaris and hookworm. However, incomparisom with oxantel-pyrantel pamoate, fenbendazole was less effective in regards of A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura infections.

  18. A field study on the effect of some anthelmintics on cyathostomins of horses in sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, E Osterman; Kuzmina, T; Uggla, A; Waller, P J; Höglund, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate different aspects on the efficacy of three anthelmintics on cyathostomin nematodes of Swedish horses. A faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was performed on 26 farms. Horses were treated orally with recommended doses of ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate or fenbendazole. Faecal samples were collected on the day of deworming and 7, 14 and 21 days later. No resistance was shown against ivermectin; the FECR was constantly >99%. The effect of pyrantel was assessed as equivocal in 6 farms 14 days after treatment; the mean FECR was 99%. As many as 72% of the fenbendazole-treated groups met the criteria for resistance; the mean FECR was 86%, ranging from 56% to 100%. A re-investigation of two farms where pyrantel resistance had been suspected clearly revealed unsatisfactory efficacy of pyrantel on one of these farms; the FECR varied from 72% to 89%. Twenty-six of the horses previously dosed with pyrantel or fenbendazole, and which still excreted >/=150 eggs per gram of faeces 14 days after treatment, were dewormed with ivermectin and fenbendazole or pyrantel in order to eliminate the remaining cyathostomins. A total of 13 cyathostomin species were identified from horses that initially received fenbendazole and seven species were identified from pyrantel-treated individuals. The egg reappearance period (ERP) following treatment with ivermectin and pyrantel was investigated on two farms. The shortest ERP after ivermectin treatment was 8 weeks and after pyrantel was 5 weeks. We conclude that no substantial reversion to benzimidazole susceptibility had taken place, although these drugs have scarcely been used (<5%) in horses for the last 10 years. Pyrantel-resistant populations of cyathostomins are present on Swedish horse farms, but the overall efficacy of pyrantel is still acceptable.

  19. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Law

    2015-04-01

    the identification of ligands for a host of potential anthelmintic targets.

  20. Anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Garcinia mangostana extract in hamster opisthorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Sriraj, Pranee; Songsri, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Boonyarat, Chantana; Rattanasuwan, Panaratana; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip

    2015-07-01

    Administration of praziquantel for treatment of liver fluke infection may affect the host, with mild and severe effects after treatment caused by host immune response. Therefore, we focused on the antioxidant property, inflammatory and anthelmintic effects of the traditional folk medicine, G. mangostana pericarp extract, in hamster opisthorchiasis. Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups: normal (control) (N); administered G. mangostana alone (GM); infected with Opisthorchis viverrini alone (OV); and infected with O. viverrini and administered G. mangostana extract for 1.5 months (OVGM). Hamster livers were collected 45 days after infection to determine histopathological changes, i.e. aggregation of inflammatory cells. The morphology of adult O. viverrini (body size and sizes of reproductive organs) was analyzed, as well as worm burden, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces. Toxicity was tested by kidney function (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine); the results demonstrated that G. mangostana had no renal toxic effect. ABTS radical-scavenging assay indicated that the extract had antioxidant property. Reduction in aggregation of inflammatory cells surrounding the hepatic bile duct, especially at the hilar region, was found in the OVGM group. Worm burden was similar in both infected groups (treated or untreated with G. mangostana), but the average size of adults in the OV group was larger than in the OVGM group; moreover, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces were also comparatively higher. The present study suggests that G. mangostana extract possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and can interfere with parasite development by affecting adult size and egg production. This may be useful for controlling the spread of OV infection and other parasites in endemic areas.

  1. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric multiresidue method for anthelmintics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ruyck, Hendrik; Daeseleire, Els; De Ridder, Herman; Van Renterghem, Roland

    2002-11-08

    A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric multiresidue method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of the tetrahydroimidazole, levamisole and the benzimidazoles thiabendazole, oxfendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole, fenbendazole, febantel and triclabendazole in milk has been developed and validated. The anthelmintic residues were extracted with ethyl acetate. The liquid chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with gradient elution. The analytes were detected by tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry after positive electrospray ionisation by multiple reaction monitoring. The confirmatory method is very sensitive and each component can be detected at a residue level lower than 1 microgram/l. The method is validated according to the revised European Union requirements and all parameters were found conform the criteria. The evaluated parameters were linearity, specificity, stability, recovery, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility) and analytical limits (detection limit, decision limit and detection capability). This analytical method is applied in the Belgian monitoring programme for classical anthelmintic veterinary drugs in raw farm cow's milk.

  2. Effects of anthelmintic treatment and feed supplementation on grazing Tuli weaner steers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magaya

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Tuli cattle and the effect of dietary protein supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on productivity in young growing cattle. Forty steers with an average age of 18 months were divided into 4 groups; 1 fenbendazole (slow release bolus and cottonseed meal (FCSM group, 2 fenbendazole (FBZ group, 3 cottonseed meal (CSM group and 4 control (no cottonseed meal and no fenbendazole (control group. Performance parameters measured included wormeggs per gram of faeces (EPG, packed cell volume (PCV, albumin and live-weight gain. Results showed that faecal worm egg counts were lower and PCV was higher in the FCSM and FBZ groups than in the CSM and control groups (P < 0.01. Weight gains were higher in the CSMand FCSM groups than in the FBZ and control groups (P < 0.05. The cost benefits of anthelmintic treatment and dietary supplementation were apparent in this study. The improved growth performance of the FCSM, FBZ and CSM groups reflected a financial gain over the controls on termination of the study. The dominant genera of gastrointestinal nematodes on faecal culture, pasture larval counts and necropsy were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The incidences of Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum were low.

  3. Anthelmintic activity of Saba senegalensis (A.DC.) Pichon (Apocynaceae) extract against adult worms and eggs of Haemonchus contortus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Bonewend e Belemlilga; Aristide Traor e; Sylvin Ou edraogo; Adama Kabor e; Hamidou Hamadou Tamboura; Innocent Pierre Guissou

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anthelmintic property of Saba senegalensis (A.DC) Pichon (Apocynaceae) (S. senegalensis) on Haemonchus contortus that is traditionally used in Burkina Faso for its gastrointestinal parasites treatment. Methods: The lyophilized aqueous decoction of leaves of S. senegalensis at concen-trations of 0.10, 1.00, 3.00, 10.00 and 15.00 mg/mL was used on eggs and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus collected from gastrointestinal tract of small ruminant. Results: The LC50 on adult worms was 6.79 mg/mL and 3.25 mg/mL for the leaves of S. senegalensis and the levamisole (reference drug), respectively. Inhibition of hatching assay showed a concentration-dependent manner with an inhibition of 93.63% at the concentration of 15.00 mg/mL of S. senegalensis. Conclusions: These results indicate that the aqueous extract of S. senegalensis possesses an anthelmintic property and may justify its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites.

  4. Age, but not anthelmintic treatment, is associated with urinary neopterin levels in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadine; Heistermann, Michael; Strube, Christina; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Studying host parasite interactions and their implications for evolution and ecology recently received increasing attention, particularly with regard to host physiology and immunity. Here we assess variation of urinary neopterin (uNEO), a marker of cellular immune activation and iummunosenescence, in response to age and anthelmintic treatment in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Urinary NEO levels were measured via enzyme-immunoassay from 179 urine samples of 43 individuals between 5–29 years of age. Efficiency of treatment was assessed by Mc Master flotation on repeated faecal samples, including 18 untreated individuals as control group. We used linear mixed models with age and parasite status as main effects, controlling for sex and physical condition, assessed through urinary C-Peptide-levels, with social group and ID as random factors. Urinary NEO levels significantly increased with age, suggesting that changes in aging Barbary macaque immune responses are consistent with immunosenescence described in human and nonhuman primates and can be detected via uNEO measurements. Anthelmintic treatment, however, had no influence on uNEO levels, potentially due to quick reinfections or attenuated immune responses in repeated infections. We conclude that uNEO is a potential non-invasive marker for immune function and particularly immunosenescence in wildlife. PMID:28155915

  5. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  6. Monitoring Object Library Usage and Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R. K.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Ames Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation program Aeronautics Consolidated Supercomputing Facility (NAS/ACSF) supercomputing center services over 1600 users, and has numerous analysts with root access. Several tools have been developed to monitor object library usage and changes. Some of the tools do "noninvasive" monitoring and other tools implement run-time logging even for object-only libraries. The run-time logging identifies who, when, and what is being used. The benefits are that real usage can be measured, unused libraries can be discontinued, training and optimization efforts can be focused at those numerical methods that are actually used. An overview of the tools will be given and the results will be discussed.

  7. ACCEPTANCE AND USAGE OF EXTENSIBLE BUSINESS REPORTING LANGUAGE: AN EMPIRICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissavet Stergiaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL is a language based on XML that provides an effective solution for the preparation, presentation and exchange of International Financial Reporting Standards. Many researchers examined the adoption, acceptance or usage of XBRL but none have clarified a direct link between the acceptance of technology and how it affects XBRL users. So, a significant issue to answer is: What is the level of acceptance of XBRL in the European region? Particularly, a new acceptance model was developed based on Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2 in order to test XBRL usage and its impact with five major constructs. The sample consists of 100 listed companies from European Union countries such as United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy, France, Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Luxemburg and Poland. The results reveal that a great number of companies in the European Union are satisfied with the output and the perspectives of XBRL acceptance and usage. The above argument is supported by the positive correlation found in this research among independent constructs and the dependent factors of XBRL acceptance and usage. Europe appears to be a strong supporter of XBRL technology, so non adopters of XBRL can use the results of this study and decide whether XBRL is a useful tool for them or not.

  8. Recommendations for PDF usage in LHC predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Placakyte, Ringaile

    2016-01-01

    A short review of the currently available modern parton distribution functions (PDFs)and the theory predictions obtained using those PDFs for several benchmark processes at LHC, including Higgs boson production, is presented in this write-up. It includes the discussion on theory assumptions made in the determination procedure of PDFs and an impact on the differences in the obtained predictions, followed by the alternative to PDF4LHC recommendations for the usage of PDF sets for theory predictions at the LHC.

  9. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  10. Correlation matrix for quartet codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sorba, Paul

    2005-01-01

    It has been argued that the sum of usage probabilities for codons, belonging to quartets, that have as third nucleotide C or A, is independent of the biological species for vertebrates. The comparison between the theoretical correlation matrix derived from these sum rules and the experimentally computed matrix for 26 species shows a satisfactory agreement. The Shannon entropy, weakly depending on the biological species, gives further support. Suppression of codons containing the dinucleotides CG or AU is put in evidence.

  11. Usage of Wifi Technology for PLC Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jaromír ŠKUTA

    2009-01-01

    This contribution describes usage of WIFI technology for programming and parameterization of application in PLC. INSYS WLAN unit from the Microelectronics INSYS Corporation is the base of application. Software access point with using USB WIFI component WL167 is running in industrial PC. Particular PC clients are connecting into network infrastructure PLC by the help of this access point and INSYS WLAN unit. This connection allows configuring and uploading program into this PLC.

  12. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  13. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos

    2014-01-01

    . Oesophagostomum dentatum is an economically important parasite of pigs, as well as serving as a useful laboratory model of helminth parasites due to the ability to culture it in vitro for long periods through several life-cycle stages. Here, we investigated the anthelmintic effects of CT on multiple life cycle...

  14. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  15. Analysis of anthelmintics in surface water by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnčić, Mirta; Gros, Meritxell; Babić, Sandra; Kaštelan-Macan, Marija; Barcelo, Damia; Petrović, Mira

    2014-03-01

    A method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS) has been developed to investigate occurrence of 10 anthelmintic drugs from different structural groups (moxidectin, flubendazole, fenbendazole, levamisol, mebendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole, triclabendazole, febantel and praziquantel) in surface water. Analytes were pre-concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) using hydrophilic-lipophilic polymeric based sorbent. Quantification of investigated analytes was done using deuterated compounds as internal standards in order to minimize matrix effect. Analyte recoveries from spiked samples at two concentration levels were above 75% for most of the analytes. The main advantages of developed method are fast separation using UHPLC and therefore short analysis time, combined with good sensitivity which is demonstrated by low ngL(-1) detection limits. The developed method was applied for analysis of anthelmintics in the Llobregat River (NE Spain) and its main tributaries (rivers Anoia and Cardener). Eight out of ten anthelmintics were detected in all analyzed samples with the concentrations in low ngL(-1) level. The method fills the gap on analytical methodologies for determination of anthelmintic drugs in the environment.

  16. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, D.R.; Bauer, C.; Boray, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), sho...

  17. Development and application of a delayed-release anthelmintic intra-ruminal bolus system for experimental manipulation of nematode worm burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anja M; Wilson, Kenneth; Irvine, R Justin

    2012-07-01

    In order to quantify the impact of parasites on host population dynamics, experimental manipulations that perturb the parasite-host relationship are needed but, logistically, this is difficult for wild hosts. Here, we describe the use of a delayed-release anthelmintic delivery system that can be administered when the hosts can be captured and its activity delayed until a more appropriate period in the host-parasite cycle. Our model system is Svalbard reindeer infected with a nematode parasite, Marshallagia marshalli, which appears to accumulate during the Arctic winter. To determine the extent to which this occurs and the effect on host fitness, reindeer need to be treated with anthelmintics in late autumn but they can only be caught and handled in April. To solve this problem, we devised an intra-ruminal capsule that releases the anthelmintic from up to 6 months after being administered. The capsule was trialed in cannulated sheep and red deer to determine optimum capsule orifice size and release rates. Capsules were estimated to release placebo for 100-153 days followed by abamectin for 22-34 days. To test the efficacy of treatment in reindeer, capsules were administered in April and retrieved in October. All capsules had fully released the anthelmintic and treated reindeer had significantly lower worm burdens than controls. Thus, success of this system allows repeated treatment over several years to test the effect of winter parasitism on host fitness.

  18. Selective effect of the anthelmintic bephenium on Haemonchus contortus levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Claude L.; Robertson, Alan P.; Cabaret, Jacques; Martin, Richard J.; Neveu, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in the neurotransmission of both vertebrates and invertebrates. A number of anthelmintic compounds like levamisole and pyrantel target the AChRs of nematodes producing spastic paralysis of the worms. The muscle AChRs of nematode parasites fall into three pharmacological classes that are preferentially activated by the cholinergic agonists levamisole (L-type), nicotine (N-type) and bephenium (B-type), respectively. Despite a number of studies of the B-type AChR in parasitic species, this receptor remains to be characterized at the molecular level. Recently, we have reconstituted and functionally characterized two distinct L-AChR subtypes of the gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system by providing the cRNAs encoding the receptor subunits and three ancillary proteins (Boulin et al. in Br J Pharmacol 164(5):1421–1432, 2011). In the present study, the effect of the bephenium drug on Hco-L-AChR1 and Hco-L-AChR2 subtypes was examined using the two microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. We demonstrate that bephenium selectively activates the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype made of Hco-UNC-29.1, Hco-UNC-38, Hco-UNC-63, Hco-ACR-8 subunits that is more sensitive to levamisole than acetylcholine. Removing the Hco-ACR-8 subunit produced the Hco-L-AChR2 subtype that is more sensitive to pyrantel than acetylcholine and partially activated by levamisole, but which was bephenium-insensitive indicating that the bephenium-binding site involves Hco-ACR-8. Attempts were made to modify the subunit stoichiometry of the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype by injecting five fold more cRNA of individual subunits. Increased Hco-unc-29.1 cRNA produced no functional receptor. Increasing Hco-unc-63, Hco-unc-38 or Hco-acr-8 cRNAs did not affect the pharmacological characteristics of Hco-L-AChR1 but reduced the currents elicited by acetylcholine and the other agonists. Here

  19. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  20. A Structural Equation Model for ICT Usage in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usluel, Yasemin Kocak; Askar, Petek; Bas, Turgay

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage, which is the indicator of diffusion. A model composed of the variables which can explain ICT usage in Turkish higher education is established and tested within the study. The two dimensions of ICT usage are considered: instructional and managerial. The data collected…

  1. Adjectives and usage-patterns in the [X enough to VERB]-construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    Recent constructionist research into adjectival gradability suggests that scalar adjectival constructions may feaure implied relations of causality (e.g. Bergen & Binsted 2004, Fortuin 2013) The [X enough to VERB]-construction appears to be one such construction: (1)A couple of them were just...... puppies, but old enough to know it was good-bye. (COCA 2012 FIC AntiocRev) (2)But every time I try to get close enough to touch one, the mother shows her yellow teeth and growls. (COCA 2012 FIC Bk:IntoFreeNovel) (3)With its 18-inch barrel and collapsible stock, it is quite maneuverabe and is light enough...... this function sufficiency). In this paper, we will explore the construction in the perspective of usage-based construction grammar with a view to gaining insight into its functionality and mapping some of its usage-patterns. Making use of data from the 2012-section of Davies' (2012) COCA, a number of corpus...

  2. Influence of sustained deworming pressure on the anthelmintic resistance status in strongyles of sheep under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarathi, M K; Sreekumar, C; Venkataramanan, R; Raman, M

    2016-10-01

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) status in Madras Red sheep from selected field flocks of a government funded scheme, covered by regular, sustained anthelmintic treatment for more than 10 years was determined. Parameters such as fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), larval paralysis assay (LPA), and allele-specific-PCR (AS-PCR) were used to test the efficacy of fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin at recommended doses, in two seasons. Sheep belonging to non-beneficiary farmers were used as controls. Mean FECRT values of beneficiary group during winter and summer seasons were 77.77 and 76.04, 93.65 and 92.12, and 95.37 and 98.06 %, respectively, for fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin. In the non-beneficiary groups, the corresponding values were 74.82 and 81.09 %, 96.05 and 97.40 %, and 97.26 and 98.23 %, respectively. The results revealed resistance to fenbendazole, suspect resistance to tetramisole and susceptibility to ivermectin in beneficiary flock. In non-beneficiary flock, while resistance was noticed against fenbendazole, both tetramisole and ivermectin were effective. FECR values were found to be significantly different between beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups against tetramisole. The results of LPA confirmed this finding, as 50 % of the Haemonchus contortus larvae were paralyzed at the concentration of 0.0156 μg/ml in the beneficiary group, while those of non-beneficiary groups required lower concentrations of 0.0078 μg/ml. AS-PCR revealed the predominance of heterozygous susceptible population of H. contortus in the beneficiary group. In this study, resistance to fenbendazole was confirmed in both the beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups and this could be attributed to frequent use of benzimidazoles as seen from the deworming records. Emergence of tetramisole resistance was detected in the beneficiary group, where the drug was used continuously for 4 years. Ivermectin was found to be effective in all the flocks. It is

  3. The identification of cattle nematode parasites resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics in a commercial cattle population in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C; Smith, Larry L; Lichtenfels, J Ralph; Pilitt, Patricia A

    2009-12-23

    Resistance to modern anthelmintics by ruminant nematode parasites is an increasing problem throughout the world. To date the problem has largely been reported in parasites of small ruminants, but there are increasing reports of such resistance in nematodes recovered from cattle. Until now there have been no published reports of drug resistant parasites from cattle in North America. In 2002 a producer in the upper Midwest who backgrounds young cattle acquired from the southeastern US experienced lower than expected weight gain as well as apparent parasitic gastroenteritis in his cattle during the fall. Fecal sample results supported the suspicion that decreased productivity and diarrhea were the result of GI nematode parasitism. The operation used intensive grazing management and practiced strategically timed deworming for >17 year. In 2003, all animals were dewormed the first week of May with Ivomec Plus, then with Dectomax Injectable on 4 June and 17 July. On 31 July, 10 randomly taken fecal samples showed EPG values from 0 to 55. To assess whether the apparent decreased drug efficacy was the result of drug resistance in the nematode population, on 18 August approximately 150 heads, previously strategic timed dewormed, of 9-11 month old cattle from one pasture were selected for study. The calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: untreated (U), ivermectin injectable (I), moxidectin pour-on (M), doramectin injectable (D), eprinomectin pour-on (E), albendazole oral (A). Cattle were weighed prior to treatment and the drug was dosed according to label directions. Seven days later, 3 calves from each group were slaughtered for worm recovery. Fecal samples taken from the remaining animals at 14 days after treatment showed that the reduction of mean fecal EPG value for each group was: U-46%, I-52%, M-72%, D-61%, E-8%, and A-68%. Worm recovery from the slaughter calves showed that all groups harbored significant numbers of Haemonchus placei and H

  4. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis C. Weeks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’ that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1 conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2 rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a ‘flutter’; and (3 hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG ‘events.’ EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A

  5. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil PARTICIPANTS: The study was made among 123 patients interned in the Hospital Espírita de Marília from October 1996 to December 1998, divided into 3 groups: 26 (21% using only marijuana, 83 (67.5% using marijuana and crack, and 14 (11.4% consuming marijuana and alcohol. PROCEDURES AND MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Patients were examined clinically with special emphasis on types of drugs used, drug intake route, age when consumption began, length and pattern of usage, presence of tattooing, jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Serum determinations of total proteins, albumin, globulin, total and fractions of bilirubin, aspartate (AST and alanine (ALT aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma-glutamyltransferase and prothrombin activity were performed. RESULTS: Among users of only marijuana, hepatomegaly was observed in 57.7% and splenomegaly in 73.1%, and slightly elevated AST (42.3%, ALT (34.6% and AP (53.8%. The three groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly. The group using both marijuana and alcohol showed the highest prevalence of alterations and highest levels of aminotransferases. Mean AP levels were above normal in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic marijuana usage, on its own or in association with other drugs, was associated with hepatic morphologic and enzymatic alterations. This indicates that cannabinoids are possible hepatotoxic substances.

  6. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  7. An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.

  8. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  9. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  10. In vitro studies on the effects of some anthelmintics on Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Digenea, Paramphistomidae): a structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumari, L; Munuswamy, N

    1999-01-01

    The effects of the anthelmintics praziquantel (PZQ), levamisole (LEV), mebendazole (MBZ), fenbendazole (FBZ) and albendazole (ABZ), on the morphology and the histology of a digenetic trematode, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, were studied. Scanning electron micrographs of the drug-treated worms revealed that PZQ was the most effective drug inducing surface damages to a great extent. The parasite exposed to PZQ for 6 h, showed smaller blebs on the oral sucker region as well as on the sensory papillae. These blebs enlarged in size after 24 h and ruptured after 30 h of exposure. The worms treated with LEV showed a few smaller blebs on the ventrolateral margin. In MBZ- and FBZ-treated worms the blebs appeared between the oral and genital sucker after 6 h of incubation. The changes were not apparent in the ABZ-treated worms.

  11. Enhanced bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole in redispersible microparticles with low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre-Iglesias PM

    2014-09-01

    –∞ values. Likewise, after oral administration of the RDM-1:2.5 and RDM-1:5 the AUC0–∞ were 2.67- and 2.97-fold higher, respectively, compared to those of pure MBZ. Therapeutic activity, assessed on the Trichinella spiralis life cycle, showed that RDM-1:5 was the most effective in reducing the number of parasites (4.56-fold as compared to pure MBZ, on the encysted stage.Conclusion: The MBZ: L-HPC RDM might be an effective way of improving oral bioavailability and therapeutic activity using low doses of MBZ (5 mg/kg, which implies a low degree of toxicity for humans. Keywords: benzimidazole carbamates, redispersible microparticles, in vitro dissolution, pharmacokinetics, anthelmintic activity, Trichinella spiralis

  12. Comparison of calculation methods used for the determination of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in a temperate continental climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, L C; van Leeuwen, J; Menzies, P I; Jones-Bitton, A; Sears, W; Jansen, J T; Peregrine, A S

    2015-04-01

    This study compared results obtained with five different fecal egg count reduction (FECR) calculation methods for defining resistance to ivermectin, fenbendazole, and levamisole in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in a temperate continental climate: FECR1 and FECR2 used pre-and posttreatment fecal egg count (FEC) means from both treated and control animals, but FECR1 used arithmetic means, whereas FECR2 used geometric means; FECR3 used arithmetic means for pre- and posttreatment FECs from treated animals only; FECR4 was calculated using only arithmetic means for posttreatment FECs from treated and control animals; and FECR5 was calculated using mean FEC estimates from a general linear mixed model. The classification of farm anthelmintic resistance (AR) status varied, depending on which FECR calculation method was used and whether a bias correction term (BCT, i.e., half the minimum detection limit) was added to the zeroes or not. Overall, agreement between all methods was higher when a BCT was used, particularly when levels of resistance were low. FECR4 showed the highest agreement with all the other FECR methods. We therefore recommend that small ruminant clinicians use the FECR4 formula with a BCT for AR determination, as this would reduce the cost of the FECRT, while still minimizing bias and allowing for comparisons between different farms. For researchers, we recommend the use of FECR1 or FECR2, as the inclusion of both pre- and posttreatment FECs and use of randomly allocated animals in treatment and control groups makes these methods mathematically more likely to estimate the true anthelmintic efficacy.

  13. Antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activity of Argyreia elliptica extracts: Activity enhancement by the addition of metal salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Prashanth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Argyreia elliptica extracts were prepared with solvents at different polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and evaluate their antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant properties first time. An antioxidant activity was analyzed using different in vitro tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging methods. Quantitative determination of phenols was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. In addition, the extracts were screened for their biological activity in absence and in presence of metal salts [Fe(III and Zn(II] ions. Results indicate that, the tested bacterial strains were most sensitive to the chloroform (CE and methanol extract (ME. Ethyl acetate (EA, CE and ME extracts showed potent radical scavenging activity. CE and ME extracts showed the highest total phenolic content and its enhanced anthelmintic and antioxidant activities were found in Fe(III combination. The extracts-Zn(II ion combination showed enhanced antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains compare to the extracts alone.Industrial relevance. Herbal medicines have gained increasing attention worldwide for the treatment of various diseases because of their effectiveness and small side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. In general, the essential trace elements have been found to possess a very important role in biological system and also therapeutic activity depends on some trace elements. The present research reports the phytochemical screening of Argyrea elliptica leaves extracts. The antibacterial, anthilmentic and in vitro antioxidant activity activity of extracts and its metal salt combination was studied. The results scientifically establish the efficacy of the plant extracts and its metal salt combination as antibacterial, anthilmentic and antioxidant agents.Keywords. Argyreia elliptica; Antioxidant; Antibacterial activity; Total phenolic content.

  14. Anthelmintic efficacy of five tropical native Australian plants against Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in experimentally infected goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F C; Gordon, I J; Knox, M R; Summer, P M; Skerrat, L F; Benvenutti, M A; Saumell, C A

    2012-06-08

    The study of the anthelmintic properties of plants rich in plant secondary metabolites can provide ecologically sound methods for the treatment of parasites on grazing animals. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic effect of five tropical native Australian plant species rich in plant secondary metabolites on adult Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in experimentally infected goats. Thirty young, nematode-free goats were infected with 2500 H. contortus and 5000 T. colubriformis infective larvae thrice weekly for a week (day 1-7 of the experiment). On day 27 after first infection, the goats were allocated into six groups of five animals per group. From day 28 to day 35, fresh leaves from Acacia salicina, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus corymbia, Casuarina cunninghamiana and Eucalyptus drepanophylla were included in the goats diet. Five groups were offered leaves from one of these plant species and one group, the untreated control, received only the basal diet formulated with 20% Medicago sativa and 80% Avena sativa. Following plant material administration, the goats were monitored daily until day 40 and then slaughtered on day 41. Total faecal worm egg output, total production of larvae recovered from faecal cultures, total post-mortem worm burdens and the per capita fecundity of female worms were estimated. The toxicity of the plant species for the goats was measured by histopathological analyses of liver and kidney samples. Results showed that goats feeding on the plant material rich in plant secondary metabolites had significantly lower egg output compared to the control goats (P0.05), the per capita fecundity was significantly reduced by E. corymbia, A. nilotica and A. salicina (P<0.05). No signs of toxicity were detected in the liver or kidney samples. It is concluded that goats can benefit from the short-term ingestion of plant secondary metabolites, which reduce the total faecal egg output and thus decrease the

  15. Anthelmintic activity ofSecuridaca longepedunculata (Family:Polygalaceae) root extract in mice, in vitro andin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adiele RC; Fakae BB; Isuzu IU

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the pharmacological bases of oral administration ofSecuridaca longepedunculata(S. longepedunculata) root extract as an anthelmintic in folkloric medicine. Methods:Albino mice were infected with infective third(L3) larval stage ofHeligmosomoides polygyrus(H. polygyrus) by esophageal intubation.Following establishment of the adult worms in the intestine, the mice were treated with0-2000 mg/kg body weight(bw) of methanolic root extract ofS. longepedunculata and100 mg/kg bw of pyrantel embonate, the reference drugin vivo. Bioactivity and larvicidal effects of the extract were tested by exposing brine shrimps(Artemia salina) to0.00-1.00 mg/mL and theL3 stage ofHeligmosomoidescontortus(H. contortus) and H. polygyrus to0.00-2.50 mg/mL of the extractin vitro.Results:The percentage yield of the extract was7.13% w/w dry matter.The brine shrimps toxicity bioassay resulted in anLC50 of 74.18μg/mL.The extract had a significant, dose-dependent larvicidal effect on theL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus with the terminal effect of75% and70% at the highest exposure concentrations, respectively.The extract however, did not affect the number of worm eggs per gram(epg) of fecal materials(P<0.05) and total worm burden(twb) of adultH. polygyrus in infected mice.Treatment with pyrantel embonate significant reduced both the fecal egg count and twb to0 compared to the untreated control(P<0.05).Conclusions:These results indicate that S. longepedunculata root extract contains potent bioactive compounds and has larvicidal effect onL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus, substantiating its use as anthelmintic in alternative medicine.

  16. Anthelmintic effects of Prosopis laevigata n-hexanic extract against Haemonchus contortus in artificially infected gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Gabino, A F; Mendoza-de Gives, P; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; López-Arellano, M E; Liébano-Hernández, E; Hernández-Velázquez, V M; Valladares-Cisneros, G

    2010-03-01

    The anthelmintic effect of Prosopis laevigata (mezquite) n-hexanic extract was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus endoparasitic stages in artificially infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Prosopis laevigata leaves were collected from the Sierra de Huautla, Ecological Reserve of the Biosphere, in Morelos State, Mexico; dehydrated under shade and macerated with n-hexane for 3 days, followed by distillation for 8 h. This procedure was repeated three times and the final extract was kept at 4 degrees C. The in vivo effect of the plant extract was evaluated in gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus. Plant extract concentration was 40 mg/ml. Three groups of gerbils were as follows: group 1 (n = 7), P. laevigata extract at 100 microl intraperitoneally (IP); group 2 (n = 6), control--Tween 20 in water at a single dose of 100 microl IP; group 3 (n = 8) also served as a control, receiving water only, to determine the mortality due to causes other than the plant extract. An additional group of seven gerbils (group 4) was administered fenbendazole, as a positive control. Five days later the animals were euthanized and stomach and mucosa removed to quantify the nematodes. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test to compare the mean of nematodes obtained in groups 1, 2 and 3. The parasite population in the plant extract treated group 1 was reduced by 42.5% (P < 0.05) with respect to the control group 2; and when control group 3 was used for comparison the parasitic reduction was estimated as 53.11%. This study shows the in vivo anthelmintic effect of P. laevigata n-hexane extract for the first time, using gerbils as an in vivo model, with potential use in sheep.

  17. A randomized triple blind trial to assess the effect of an anthelmintic programme for working equids in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christley Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastro-intestinal parasitism has been identified as a significant cause of disease in working equids in many countries. This randomized triple-blind trial was designed to assess the impact of an anthelmintic treatment programme (using oral ivermectin and fenbendazole comparing treated and placebo control populations of working donkeys, mules and horses in field conditions in Morocco. In particular, we assessed animal body weight and condition score, together with a questionnaire-based owner evaluation of number of subjective animal health parameters. Faecal worm egg count was also measured. Results 239 animals completed the full study, 130 in the treatment group and 109 in the control group. Although the average animal weight increased during the study, this change was not significantly different between the two groups. Animals in the treatment group had a significantly lower strongyle worm egg count and increased in body condition score compared to animals in the control group at each examination during the study period. Owners of animals in the treatment group reported improvement in health and work ability and a beneficial effect on pruritus during the early period of the study. These differences in owner perception between treatment groups had disappeared in the latter stages of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a routine anthelmintic treatment programme of three treatments annually can have a significant effect on faecal worm egg count. There may be beneficial consequences for the animal health and productivity. Further research on other populations of working equids in different environments would facilitate the objective planning of effective parasite control strategies for specific situations and provide better understanding of the likely clinical benefits of such programmes.

  18. Better Living Through Metadata: Examining Archive Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.; Winkelman, S.; Rots, A.

    2013-10-01

    The primary purpose of an observatory's archive is to provide access to the data through various interfaces. User interactions with the archive are recorded in server logs, which can be used to answer basic questions like: Who has downloaded dataset X? When did she do this? Which tools did she use? The answers to questions like these fill in patterns of data access (e.g., how many times dataset X has been downloaded in the past three years). Analysis of server logs provides metrics of archive usage and provides feedback on interface use which can be used to guide future interface development. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is fortunate in that a database to track data access and downloads has been continuously recording such transactions for years; however, it is overdue for an update. We will detail changes we hope to effect and the differences the changes may make to our usage metadata picture. We plan to gather more information about the geographic location of users without compromising privacy; create improved archive statistics; and track and assess the impact of web “crawlers” and other scripted access methods on the archive. With the improvements to our download tracking we hope to gain a better understanding of the dissemination of Chandra's data; how effectively it is being done; and perhaps discover ideas for new services.

  19. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  20. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Reed

    Full Text Available Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test, depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire, sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28. This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  1. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  2. Deriving Framework Usages Based on Behavioral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenmyo, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Saeki, Motoshi

    One of the critical issue in framework-based software development is a huge introduction cost caused by technical gap between developers and users of frameworks. This paper proposes a technique for deriving framework usages to implement a given requirements specification. By using the derived usages, the users can use the frameworks without understanding the framework in detail. Requirements specifications which describe definite behavioral requirements cannot be related to frameworks in as-is since the frameworks do not have definite control structure so that the users can customize them to suit given requirements specifications. To cope with this issue, a new technique based on satisfiability problems (SAT) is employed to derive the control structures of the framework model. In the proposed technique, requirements specifications and frameworks are modeled based on Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs) with branch conditions represented by predicates. Truth assignments of the branch conditions in the framework models are not given initially for representing the customizable control structure. The derivation of truth assignments of the branch conditions is regarded as the SAT by assuming relations between termination states of the requirements specification model and ones of the framework model. This derivation technique is incorporated into a technique we have proposed previously for relating actions of requirements specifications to ones of frameworks. Furthermore, this paper discuss a case study of typical use cases in e-commerce systems.

  3. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  4. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  5. Composition and Rhetoric Usage of Parallelism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖林; 朱蕾

    2012-01-01

      Parallelism gets a rhetorical effect by means of syntactic approach. The use of parallelism makes the effect of balanced beauty between words and words, sentences and sentences, paragraphs and paragraphs. From the per-spective of semantic, all parts and components of parallelism are closely related, parallelism plays an important role in creating the rhetorical effect and strengthening the tone.

  6. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity.

  7. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  8. Recommendations for PDF usage in LHC predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accardi, A. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Alekhin, S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, J. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2016-03-15

    We review the present status of the determination of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the light of the precision requirements for the LHC in Run 2 and other future hadron colliders. We provide brief reviews of all currently available PDF sets and use them to compute cross sections for a number of benchmark processes, including Higgs boson production in gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC.We show that the differences in the predictions obtained with the various PDFs are due to particular theory assumptions made in the fits of those PDFs. We discuss PDF uncertainties in the kinematic region covered by the LHC and on averaging procedures for PDFs, such as advocated by the PDF4LHC15 sets, and provide recommendations for the usage of PDF sets for theory predictions at the LHC.

  9. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmhus, Dirk; Wuest, Thorsten; Wellsandt, Stefan; Bosse, Stefan; Kaihara, Toshiya; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Busse, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a) sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b) product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives. PMID:26703606

  10. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Lehmhus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives.

  11. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmhus, Dirk; Wuest, Thorsten; Wellsandt, Stefan; Bosse, Stefan; Kaihara, Toshiya; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Busse, Matthias

    2015-12-19

    Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a) sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b) product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives.

  12. Bio-important antipyrine derived Schiff bases and their transition metal complexes: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, antimicrobial, anthelmintic and DNA cleavage investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, M.; Kulkarni, Ajaykumar D.; Bagihalli, Gangadhar B.; Malladi, Shridhar; Patil, Sangamesh A.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic (IR, NMR, UV-vis, ESR, ESI-mass), magnetic and TGA studies suggests octahedral geometry for all the CoII, NiII and CuII complexes of the Schiff bases, derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and 8-formyl-7-Hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin/5-formyl-6-hydroxycoumarin, coordinated through ONO donor sites. Antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi), antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Cladosporium) and DNA cleavage properties of the metal complexes are investigated. The results suggested that some of the synthesized compounds are potential antimicrobials. The synthesized compounds tested for their anthelmintic activities and it was found that CoII and NiII complexes exhibited good anthelmintic properties.

  13. Synthesis and In Vitro Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic and Insecticidal Activities Study of 4(4'-Bromophenyl-6-substituted-aryl-1-acetyl pyrimidine-2-thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bamnela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 4(4'-bromophenyl-6-substituted aryl-1-acetyl pyrimidine-2-thiol derivatives were synthesized by heating chalcones with thiourea, in the presence of ethanolic potassium hydroxide, followed by treatment with acetyl chloride. The structure of the compounds was characterized by IR and H1 NMR spectral study and elemental analysis. The compounds were screened for their antimicrobial, anthelmintic and insecticidal activities. All the compounds exhibited significant to moderate biological activities.

  14. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) choisy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Tharachand; C Immanuel Selvaraj; Abraham, Z

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn.) Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL) of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Signi...

  15. F200Y polymorphism of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in Haemonchus contortus and sheep flock management practices related to anthelmintic resistance in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Alexandre Moura; Sampaio Junior, Francisco Dantas; Pacheco, Adlilton; da Cunha, Amanda Batista; Cruz, Juliana Dos Santos; Scofield, Alessandra; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the F200Y polymorphism in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene of Haemonchus contortus from various sheep flocks in eastern Amazon, and to identify management practices that may favor the emergence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs in the same area. In total, 305 specimens of H. contortus were collected from sheep at 12 farms located in the state of Pará. An allele-specific PCR was performed to detect the F200Y polymorphism, and questionnaires were used to obtain information about the farms and flocks. All genotypes were detected as follows: 31% of the parasites were RR, 37% of the parasites were SR, and 32% were SS. The completed questionnaires revealed that all farms employed semi-intensive farming systems, performed suppressive anthelmintic treatment, and based their choice of drug on cost and availability rather than on any knowledge regarding drugs that remained effective on their property. It can thus be concluded that the SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene is present in the H. contortus populations from eastern Amazon, and that a series of management practices that favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance are employed on these farms.

  16. A single amino acid substitution in isozyme GST mu in Triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica (Sligo strain) can substantially influence the manifestation of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H

    2015-12-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics.

  17. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn. desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tharachand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn. Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05 were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05 activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.

  18. 高校教学团队建设的博弈分析——基于政府与高校的经费投入和使用的博弈%Game Playing Analysis of the Fund's Input and Usage of the University Teaching Team: Perspective of the Game Playing between the Government and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华; 魏建华

    2012-01-01

    game playing theory is a very important theory in contemporary mathematics. It is used in the social sciences, which is honored as "the unified field theory of the social sciences". Game playing analysis method is also widely used as a research method in economics, political science, law, and psychology. The purpose of this paper is to use game playing analysis method to solve the problem of the fund's input and usage of university teaching team. It points out that it needs to establish the binding agreement to safeguard the stability of the game playing situation between the government and universities, aiming to achieve unity of overall rationality and individual rationality of the university teaching construction.%本文运用博弈分析方法,通过分析政府与高校之间的博弈局势,解决高校教学团队的有限经费投入与使用的问题,并指出需要建立具有约束力的制度性约束协议,以保障政府和高校之间均衡博弈局势的稳定,进而达到高校教学团队建设的整体理性和个体理性的统一。

  19. Web-based pathology practice examination usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Klatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: General and subject specific practice examinations for students in health sciences studying pathology were placed onto a free public internet web site entitled web path and were accessed four clicks from the home web site menu. Subjects and Methods: Multiple choice questions were coded into. html files with JavaScript functions for web browser viewing in a timed format. A Perl programming language script with common gateway interface for web page forms scored examinations and placed results into a log file on an internet computer server. The four general review examinations of 30 questions each could be completed in up to 30 min. The 17 subject specific examinations of 10 questions each with accompanying images could be completed in up to 15 min each. The results of scores and user educational field of study from log files were compiled from June 2006 to January 2014. Results: The four general review examinations had 31,639 accesses with completion of all questions, for a completion rate of 54% and average score of 75%. A score of 100% was achieved by 7% of users, ≥90% by 21%, and ≥50% score by 95% of users. In top to bottom web page menu order, review examination usage was 44%, 24%, 17%, and 15% of all accessions. The 17 subject specific examinations had 103,028 completions, with completion rate 73% and average score 74%. Scoring at 100% was 20% overall, ≥90% by 37%, and ≥50% score by 90% of users. The first three menu items on the web page accounted for 12.6%, 10.0%, and 8.2% of all completions, and the bottom three accounted for no more than 2.2% each. Conclusions: Completion rates were higher for shorter 10 questions subject examinations. Users identifying themselves as MD/DO scored higher than other users, averaging 75%. Usage was higher for examinations at the top of the web page menu. Scores achieved suggest that a cohort of serious users fully completing the examinations had sufficient preparation to use them to support

  20. 7 CFR 97.700 - Public interest in wide usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public interest in wide usage. 97.700 Section 97.700... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Public Use Declaration § 97.700 Public interest in wide usage. (a) If the... to be taken in the public interest. (b) Upon the expiration of the period for the presentation...

  1. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  2. Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sek

    2008-01-01

    By searching the keywords of "older adult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers, (b)…

  3. Faculty Usage of Library Tools in a Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Chris; Lonn, Steven

    2014-01-01

    To better understand faculty attitudes and practices regarding usage of library-specific tools and roles in a university learning management system, log data for a period of three semesters was analyzed. Academic departments with highest rates of usage were identified, and faculty users and nonusers within those departments were surveyed regarding…

  4. What Is the next Trend in Usage Statistics in Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    In answering the question "What is the next trend in usage statistics in libraries?" an eclectic group of respondents has presented an assortment of possibilities, suggestions, complaints and, of course, questions of their own. Undoubtedly, usage statistics collection, interpretation, and application are areas of growth and increasing complexity…

  5. Journal Usage at Department and Research Group Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Journal usage in the Department of Polymer Science at the University of Akron from 2006 to 2011 was determined by counting citations within faculty-supervised dissertations and faculty publications. Ranked title lists were created and correlations between journal usage in faculty publications and faculty-supervised dissertations were measured…

  6. Dual Accelerometer Usage Strategy for Onboard Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; D'Souza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a dual accelerometer usage strategy for onboard space navigation. In the proposed algorithm the accelerometer is used to propagate the state when its value exceeds a threshold and it is used to estimate its errors otherwise. Numerical examples and comparison to other accelerometer usage schemes are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  7. SOME ASPECTS OF THE LISINOPRIL USAGE IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Jaiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence basis and advantages of the lisinopril usage in a clinical practice as antihypertensive drug are presented. Special attention is paid to organoprotective lisinopril effects and lisinopril implementation at special clinical conditions (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comorbidity, elderly patients, and concomitant liver diseases. Pharmacoeconomic aspects of lisinopril usage in arterial hypertension are also considered.

  8. Effects of Different Metaphor Usage on Hypertext Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdivan, Ece; Ozdener, Nesrin

    2011-01-01

    There are many studies that offer different opinions on the effects of hypertext usage as an educational tool. Given the differences of opinion, it is useful to research the effects of metaphor usage in hypertext education and the use of hypertext as an educational tool. In this study, the effects of metaphors' uses in constructing the…

  9. Modeling Preservice Teachers' TPACK Competencies Based on ICT Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakul, I. Kabakci; Coklar, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build a model that predicts the relationships between the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) competencies and information and communication technology (ICT) usages. Research data were collected from 3105 Turkish preservice teachers. The TPACK-Deep Scale, ICT usage phase survey and the ICT usage…

  10. A Factor Analytic Study of the Internet Usage Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Internet Addiction, Usage and Communication Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Chou, Jung; Tyan, Nay-Ching Nancy

    This study examined the correlation between Internet addiction, usage, and communication pleasure. Research questions were: (1) What is computer network addiction? (2) How can one measure the degree of computer network addiction? (3) What is the correlation between the degree of users' network addiction and their network usage? (4) What is the…

  12. Performance and competence in usage-based construction grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    of a section of the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The present study takes into account empirically observed internal and external patterns of usage in the description of this linguistic phenomenon, providing a usage-based constructional overview of the competence pertaining to this construction...... defined by external properties such as specific genre and register affiliations and a quite specific communicative function....

  13. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Extracts—In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Grzybek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo L. hot water extract (HWE, cold water extract (CWE or ethanol extract (ETE on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri. Methods: Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE. The in vitro activity evaluation showed an impact of C. pepo extracts on C. elegans and different developmental stages of H. bakeri. The following in vivo experiments on mice infected with H. bakeri confirmed inhibitory properties of the most active pumpkin extract selected by the in vitro study. All of the extracts were found to contain cucurbitine, aminoacids, fatty acids, and-for the first time-berberine and palmatine were identified. All C. pepo seed extracts exhibited a nematidicidal potential in vitro, affecting the survival of L1 and L2 H. bakeri larvae. The ETE was the strongest and demonstrated a positive effect on H. bakeri eggs hatching and marked inhibitory properties against worm motility, compared to a PBS control. No significant effects of pumpkin seed extracts on C. elegans integrity or motility were found. The EtOH extract in the in vivo studies showed anthelmintic properties against both H. bakeri fecal egg counts and adult worm burdens. The highest egg counts reduction was observed for the 8 g/kg dose (IC50 against H. bakeri = 2.43; 95% Cl = 2.01–2.94. A decrease in faecal egg counts (FEC was accompanied by a significant reduction in worm burden of the treated mice compared to the control group. Conclusions: Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I. nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative

  14. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Vercruysse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB against these three STH using a standardized protocol. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC. Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2% followed by hookworms (87.8% and T. trichiura (46.6%. There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country, by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment. The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5% and hookworms (94.8% but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%, and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country, but not by sex or age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that a FECR (based on arithmetic means of >95% for A. lumbricoides and >90% for hookworms should be the expected minimum in all future surveys, and that therapeutic efficacy below this level following a single dose of ALB should be viewed with concern in light of potential drug resistance. A standard threshold for efficacy against T. trichiura has yet to be established, as a single-dose of ALB is unlikely to be satisfactory for

  15. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-08-30

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused by a decreased susceptibility of immature worms for MLs. Alternatively, immature worms may develop faster into egg producing adults as a result of repeated ML treatments. The species composition of the larval cultures obtained shortly after ML and pyrantel (PYR) treatment can confirm the hypothesis of decreased ML susceptibility, as this is often class-specific, whereas faster development would also occur after treatment with anthelmintics with a different mode of action. From 3 farms with a known history of shortened ERP, 8 horses per farm were selected and divided into 2 groups. The MOX-PYR-MOX group was treated twice with MOX (day 0 and 126) and once with PYR (day 84) and the IVM-PYR-IVM group was treated twice with IVM (day 0 and 98) and once with PYR (day 56). Cultured infective larvae (L3s) were counted and differentiated with the reverse line blot on pooled samples. Per cyathostomin species, the number of larvae per gram was calculated. The efficacy of all ML treatments was 100% and a shortened ERP was found on all 3 farms. The species composition of the larval cultures after ML treatment did not differ significantly from that after PYR treatment in the IVM-PYR-IVM group, but it did differ in the MOX-PYR-MOX group. The larval cultures obtained after MOX treatment consisted mostly of Cylicocyclus nassatus, while after PYR treatment Cylicostephanus longibursatus was the most abundant species. In the cultures from 42days after MOX treatment 6 cyathostomin species from 3 genera were found on the farm with the lowest activity (farm 1), while on the farm with the highest activity (farm 3) only 3 species from one genus were found in the same number of examined L3s. The

  16. Use of a multiple choice questionnaire to assess UK prescribing channels' knowledge of helminthology and best practice surrounding anthelmintic use in livestock and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Stephanie; Bartley, David J; Hotchkiss, Emily; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-06-01

    Grazing livestock and equines are at risk of infection from a variety of helminths, for which the primary method of control has long been the use of anthelmintics. Anthelmintic resistance is now widespread in a number of helminth species across the globe so it is imperative that best practice control principles be adopted to delay the further spread of resistance. It is the responsibility of all who prescribe anthelmintics (in the UK, this being veterinarians, suitably qualified persons (SQPs) and pharmacists) to provide adequate information on best practice approaches to parasite control at the point of purchase. Poor uptake of best practice guidelines at farm level has been documented; this could be due to a lack of, or inappropriate, advice at the point of anthelmintics purchase. Therefore, the aim here was to evaluate levels of basic knowledge of helminthology, best practice guidelines and dispensing legislation among veterinarians and SQPs in the UK, through a Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) test, that was distributed online via targeted emails and social media sites. For each respondent, the percentage correct was determined (for the MCQ test overall and for subsections) and the results analysed initially using parametric and non-parametric statistics to compare differences between prescribing channels. The results showed that channels generally performed well; veterinarians achieved a mean total percentage correct of 79.7% (range 34.0-100%) and SQPs, a mean total percentage correct of 75.8% (range 38.5-100%) (p=0.051). The analysis indicated that veterinarians performed better in terms of knowledge of basic helminthology (p=0.001), whilst the SQP group performed better on legislation type questions (p=0.032). There was no significant difference in knowledge levels of best practice between the two channels. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that veterinarians and those answering equine questions only performed significantly better than those

  17. Pooling sheep faecal samples for the assessment of anthelmintic drug efficacy using McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC in gastrointestinal strongyle and Nematodirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Fiona; Rinaldi, Laura; McBean, Dave; Pepe, Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Melville, Lynsey; Devin, Leigh; Mitchell, Gillian; Ianniello, Davide; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Levecke, Bruno

    2016-07-30

    In small ruminants, faecal egg counts (FECs) and reduction in FECs (FECR) are the most common methods for the assessment of intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infections and anthelmintic drug efficacy, respectively. The main limitation of these methods is the time and cost to conduct FECs on a representative number of individual animals. A cost-saving alternative would be to examine pooled faecal samples, however little is known regarding whether pooling can give representative results. In the present study, we compared the FECR results obtained by both an individual and a pooled examination strategy across different pool sizes and analytical sensitivity of the FEC techniques. A survey was conducted on 5 sheep farms in Scotland, where anthelmintic resistance is known to be widespread. Lambs were treated with fenbendazole (4 groups), levamisole (3 groups), ivermectin (3 groups) or moxidectin (1 group). For each group, individual faecal samples were collected from 20 animals, at baseline (D0) and 14 days after (D14) anthelmintic administration. Faecal samples were analyzed as pools of 3-5, 6-10, and 14-20 individual samples. Both individual and pooled samples were screened for GI strongyle and Nematodirus eggs using two FEC techniques with three different levels of analytical sensitivity, including Mini-FLOTAC (analytical sensitivity of 10 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)) and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 or 50 EPG).For both Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 EPG), there was a perfect agreement in classifying the efficacy of the anthelmintic as 'normal', 'doubtful' or 'reduced' regardless of pool size. When using the McMaster method (analytical sensitivity of 50 EPG) anthelmintic efficacy was often falsely classified as 'normal' or assessment was not possible due to zero FECs at D0, and this became more pronounced when the pool size increased. In conclusion, pooling ovine faecal samples holds promise as a cost-saving and efficient

  18. The Descriptive Study of Knowledge Discovery from Web Usage Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogish H K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web serves as huge, widely distributed, global information service centre for news, advertisements, consumer information, financial management, education, government, e-commerce and many other information services. The web also contains a rich and dynamic collection of hyperlink information and web page access and usage information, providing rich sources of data for data mining. The Web usage mining is the area of data mining which deals with the discovery and analysis of usage patterns from web logs, in order to improve web based applications. Web usage mining consists of three phases, preprocessing, pattern discovery, and pattern analysis. After the completion of these three phases the user can find the required usage patterns and use this information for the specific needs.

  19. Contract Report for Usage Inspection of KN-12 Transport Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K

    2007-03-15

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse.

  20. Nighttime seatbelt usage data collection: When and how long?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Vasudevan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Higher proportion of non-seatbelt usage rates in crashes occurring during nighttime shows that daytime seatbelt usage alone may not indicate the overall usage patterns. These findings have prompted various agencies to estimate seatbelt usage rates during nighttime. These agencies developed their own methodology for data collection and data analyses. In spite of all these recent developments, collecting representative sample at nighttime remains an issue which requires a lot of effort. This paper is an attempt to develop a methodology to collect nighttime seatbelt usage data more efficiently and accurately based on a mathematical sampling theory. Based on this methodology, two sets of data collection per site are recommended. Duration of data collection varies depending on vehicle miles traveled at the site of interest. The authors hope that this methodology could be used in other transportation related data collection efforts, where identifying critical time and time duration for collecting representative data samples are important.

  1. Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, S.C.; Stenzel, R.A.; Weekes, M.C.; Yu, J.

    1979-10-01

    The production of ethanol from potatoes, sugar beet, and wheat using geothermal resources at the Raft River area of idaho is being evaluated. The south central section of Idaho produces approximately 18 million bushels of wheat, 1.3 million tons of sugar beet and 24 million cwt potatoes annually. Based on these production figures, a 20 million gallon/yr ethanol facility has been selected as the largest scale plant that can be supported with the current agricultural resources. The plant will operate on all three feedstocks nominally processing potatoes for five months, sugar beet for four months and wheat for three months of the year. The process facility will use conventional alcohol technology utilizing geothermal fluid at a maximum of 280 F as an energy source. The process flow diagrams for all three feedstocks are currently being prepared. There will be basically three feedstock preparation sections, although the liquefaction and saccharification steps for potatoes and wheat will involve common equipment. The fermentation, distillation and by-product handling sections will be common to all three feedstocks. Three geothermal energy extraction systems were considered to accommodate the energy requirements of the ethanol facility (flashed steam, pressurized fluid and secondary heat transfer). Pressured geothermal fluid with direct heat transfer has been selected as the usage mode to minimize scale deposition. Tentatively, the geothermal supply wells will be laid out in square grids with 1/4 mile spacing. The number of wells required will be determined after the process heat load is calculated.

  2. Association and Sequence Mining in Web Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Elena DINUCA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Web servers worldwide generate a vast amount of information on web users’ browsing activities. Several researchers have studied these so-called clickstream or web access log data to better understand and characterize web users. Clickstream data can be enriched with information about the content of visited pages and the origin (e.g., geographic, organizational of the requests. The goal of this project is to analyse user behaviour by mining enriched web access log data. With the continued growth and proliferation of e-commerce, Web services, and Web-based information systems, the volumes of click stream and user data collected by Web-based organizations in their daily operations has reached astronomical proportions. This information can be exploited in various ways, such as enhancing the effectiveness of websites or developing directed web marketing campaigns. The discovered patterns are usually represented as collections of pages, objects, or re-sources that are frequently accessed by groups of users with common needs or interests. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview how to use frequent pattern techniques for discovering different types of patterns in a Web log database. In this paper we will focus on finding association as a data mining technique to extract potentially useful knowledge from web usage data. I implemented in Java, using NetBeans IDE, a program for identification of pages’ association from sessions. For exemplification, we used the log files from a commercial web site.

  3. Usage of network services among sole holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Botos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the information society information means new production factor for the agri-food economy. The existence of appropriate information at the appropriate time determine significantly the efficiency of farming. Nowadays we can get information the most quickly by internet, so broadband developments in rural regions have become more and more important. Since the importance of e-administration is growing, broadband internet access is also important for agri-enterprises, because it allows fast access for law regulations and orders and they can find information about procurement and sales opportunities. In the article firstly we give a brief outline about the importance of internet access and the characteristics of broadband infrastructure in rural areas. After that we show how farmers use internet services and for what purposes, based on results of our questionnaire. Based on our examination, our network infrastructure and the usage of e-services are lagging behind other more developed European countries. In underdeveloped regions information society technologies can help to small agricultural enterprises to be viable and competitive.

  4. ICT USAGE BY DISTANCE LEARNERS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar AWADHIYA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among learners, their ICT usage patterns and their readiness to use ICT for educational purpose. In view of this, a study was conducted with the objective to find out the access level of ICT among distance learners. The analysis indicates that maximum learners have desktop/laptops and most of them are accessing internet very frequently from their home. The analysis also indicates that maximum respondents are browsing social networking sites followed by educational and e-mail service providing websites. Findings suggest that there is a need to generate ICT based tutorials complemented with social networking tools and mobile applications. Study also shows that learners are equipped with mobile phones and they are browsing internet through it and also availing support services offered by the university. Hence possibility of integrating mobile phone services may be used for providing learner support services and content delivery.

  5. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  6. Copular Usage under Cross Linguistic Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜卓文

    2009-01-01

    According to Lado(1957:2) in the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis, a student who comes into contact with a foreign language will find some features of it quite easy and others extremely difficult. Those elements that are similar to his native language will be simple for him and those elements that are different will be difficult. Corder(1981: 101)added that where the mother tongue is formally similar to the target language, a learner will pass more rapidly along the developmental continuum(or some parts of it)than where it differs. Eric Kellerman(1986) also believed that learners have intuitions about which language features they can transfer from their first language to the target language and which are less likely to be transferable. And Lee(1968)even held that the interference coming from the learner's native language to be the sole cause of difficulty and error in foreign language learning. Given that the Chinese character shi functions the same as an English copula, I would like to apply two theories to illustrate the syntactic features associated with copular usages in this dissertation.

  7. Oxidation of frying oils during intermittent usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Tateishi, Sayuri; Mori, Terutoshi; Hammond, Earl G

    2012-01-01

    We reported previously that in oils used for frying by commercial establishments, a high correlation was observed among their Gardner colors, polar compound contents (PC), carbonyl values (CV) and acid values (AV). However, this was not true for frying oils used in hospitals. In the present study, oils that had been used for deep-frying in hospital kitchens were collected and assayed for PC, CV, AV, and Gardner color value to determine the reason for the differences from oil used in commercial establishments. Hospitals were selected so that variation in the number of inpatients, frying oil fatty acid composition, and frying frequency was obtained. As previously observed, we did not find good correlations between the color of the frying oil and the PC, CV or AV, respectively. The extent of oxidation in batches of oil repeatedly used for deep-frying was in the following order: soybean oil > blended oil > canola oil. After use in deep-frying, where the oxygen content goes effectively to zero, allowing the oil to stand at room temperature resulted in the quick and steady absorption of oxygen until it returned to its initial content. In addition to the effect of thermal treatment of oil, standing time between usages is a significantt cause of oxidation.

  8. [Journal usage at the Andrija Stampar library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Marina; Kuri, Zdenka; Bozikov, Jadranka

    2002-09-01

    Development of journal collection in the Andrija Stampar library is presented. Research of loaned and photocopied journals was performed in order to evaluate circulation of journals in 2001. There were 1057 titles of journals in the Library, 77 were secondary journals and they were excluded from the study. 346 different titles were used 5204 times, out of which 236 were current titles. There were 11 titles used more than 100 times. Journal of Clinical Microbiology was the highest ranking journal. The greatest number of users were from the School of Public Health Andrija Stampar. Most important users of the Library were hospitals, universities, institutions, institutes of public health from Zagreb and all parts of Croatia. More recent journals were used more frequently than the old ones. Decrease of journal usage in the Library has been noticed in recent years. The reason for that are the possibilities of using full text electronic journals either through free access, or through combined subscriptions. The access to electronic journals is possible through more and more affordable subscriptions from the big publishers.

  9. Internet Usage among Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karayagiz Muslu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in children’s world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made people’s lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in children’s and young people’s physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450

  10. Simplifying tool usage in teleoperative tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Thomas; Paul, Richard P.

    1993-03-01

    Modern robotic research has presented the opportunity for enhanced teleoperative systems. Teleprogramming has been developed for teleoperation in time-delayed environments, but can also lead to increased productivity in non-delayed teleoperation. Powered tools are used to increase the abilities of the remote manipulator. However, tools add to the complexity of the system, both in terms of control and sensing. Teleprogramming can be used to simplify the operators interaction with the manipulator/tool system. Further, the adaptive sensing algorithm of the remote site system (using an instrumented compliant wrist for feedback) simplifies the sensory requirements of the system. Current remote-site implementation of a teleprogramming tool-usage strategy that simplifies tool use is described in this document. The use of powered tools in teleoperation tasks is illustrated by two examples, one using an air-powered impact wrench, and the other using an electric winch. Both of these tools are implemented at our remote site workcell, consisting of a Puma 560 robot working on the task of removing the top of a large box.

  11. Analysis of codon usage and nucleotide composition bias in polioviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Yuan-xing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis, is a human enterovirus and a member of the family of Picornaviridae and among the most rapidly evolving viruses known. Analysis of codon usage can reveal much about the molecular evolution of the viruses. However, little information about synonymous codon usage pattern of polioviruses genome has been acquired to date. Methods The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU values, effective number of codon (ENC values, nucleotide contents and dinucleotides were investigated and a comparative analysis of codon usage pattern for open reading frames (ORFs among 48 polioviruses isolates including 31 of genotype 1, 13 of genotype 2 and 4 of genotype 3. Results The result shows that the overall extent of codon usage bias in poliovirus samples is low (mean ENC = 53.754 > 40. The general correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage bias in those polioviruses. Depending on the RSCU data, it was found that there was a significant variation in bias of codon usage among three genotypes. Geographic factor also has some effect on the codon usage pattern (exists in the genotype-1 of polioviruses. No significant effect in gene length or vaccine derived polioviruses (DVPVs, wild viruses and live attenuated virus was observed on the variations of synonymous codon usage in the virus genes. The relative abundance of dinucleotide (CpG in the ORFs of polioviruses are far below expected values especially in DVPVs and attenuated virus of polioviruses genotype 1. Conclusion The information from this study may not only have theoretical value in understanding poliovirus evolution, especially for DVPVs genotype 1, but also have potential value for the development of poliovirus vaccines.

  12. TOMOCOMD-CARDD, a novel approach for computer-aided 'rational' drug design: I. Theoretical and experimental assessment of a promising method for computational screening and in silico design of new anthelmintic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Olazabal, Ervelio; Serrano, Hector S; Morales, Alcidez; Castañedo, Nilo; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Huesca-Guillen, Alma; Jorge, Elisa; del Valle, Arletys; Torrens, Francisco; Castro, Eduardo A

    2004-10-01

    In this work, the TOMOCOMD-CARDD approach has been applied to estimate the anthelmintic activity. Total and local (both atom and atom-type) quadratic indices and linear discriminant analysis were used to obtain a quantitative model that discriminates between anthelmintic and non-anthelmintic drug-like compounds. The obtained model correctly classified 90.37% of compounds in the training set. External validation processes to assess the robustness and predictive power of the obtained model were carried out. The QSAR model correctly classified 88.18% of compounds in this external prediction set. A second model was performed to outline some conclusions about the possible modes of action of anthelmintic drugs. This model permits the correct classification of 94.52% of compounds in the training set, and 80.00% of good global classification in the external prediction set. After that, the developed model was used in virtual in silico screening and several compounds from the Merck Index, Negwer's handbook and Goodman and Gilman were identified by models as anthelmintic. Finally, the experimental assay of one organic chemical (G-1) by an in vivo test coincides fairly well (100%) with model predictions. These results suggest that the proposed method will be a good tool for studying the biological properties of drug candidates during the early state of the drug-development process.

  13. A xenodiagnostic method using Musca domestica for the diagnosis of gastric habronemosis and examining the anthelmintic efficacy of moxidectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf K; Sivakumar, Saritha

    2013-10-18

    Equine habronematidosis has a global distribution and is caused by three spirurid species, Habronema muscae, Habronema microstoma and Draschia megastoma. A case of cutaneous habronematidosis in a stallion in a stable in Dubai, UAE gave occasion to investigate the parasite situation on the farm. Patent H. muscae infections were diagnosed in 18 out of 49 horses in a stable in Dubai, UAE with a xenodiagnostic test using houseflies as indicator host. All horses in the stable were treated with a single dose of moxidectin administered orally as 2% gel in a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg body weight and the efficacy of this targeted treatment was studied. Habronema infection was terminated in all horses. A fly survey conducted at the farm prior and after treatment revealed two muscid species: Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans. Only M. domestica caught at the farm showed a natural infection with Habronema larvae prior and shortly after anthelmintic treatment. Later, examination of flies caught at the farm in monthly intervals up to the end of observation (8 months after treatment) gave negative results. The absence of infection in the intermediate host was an indication of the eradication of stomach worms. The described xenodiagnostic test is a useful tool to diagnose H. muscae infections and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of nematocides in equines.

  14. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Václav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation.

  15. An anthelmintic drug, pyrvinium pamoate, thwarts fibrosis and ameliorates myocardial contractile dysfunction in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoaki Murakoshi

    Full Text Available Metabolic adaptation to limited supplies of oxygen and nutrients plays a pivotal role in health and disease. Heart attack results from insufficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, where cardiomyocytes die and cardiac fibroblasts proliferate--the latter causing scar formation, which impedes regeneration and impairs contractility of the heart. We postulated that cardiac fibroblasts survive metabolic stress by adapting their intracellular metabolism to low oxygen and nutrients, and impeding this metabolic adaptation would thwart their survival and facilitate the repair of scarred heart. Herein, we show that an anthelmintic drug, Pyrvinium pamoate, which has been previously shown to compromise cancer cell survival under glucose starvation condition, also disables cardiac fibroblast survival specifically under glucose deficient condition. Furthermore, Pyrvinium pamoate reduces scar formation and improves cardiac contractility in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. As Pyrvinium pamoate is an FDA-approved drug, our results suggest a therapeutic use of this or other related drugs to repair scarred heart and possibly other organs.

  16. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the anthelmintic fenbendazole and its metabolites in biological matrices by direct exposure probe mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S A; Hsieh, L C; McDowell, T R; Short, C R

    1987-04-01

    Methodology for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the anthelmintic fenbendazole and its metabolites in goat feces using electron impact (EI)/direct exposure probe (DEP)/mass spectrometric (MS) and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) techniques is presented. Analyses were conducted on extracts from spiked feces and feces from animals treated per os with 5 mg fenbendazole/kg, with samples being collected at zero time and at twelve hour intervals for 144 h. The results of the EI/DEP/MS quantitation of these samples are compared to those for the same samples analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mass spectral data for fenbendazole and its metabolites are presented and the advantages of the use of EI/DEP/MS and/or DEP/MS/MS over HPLC are discussed. This methodology may be used as a confirmatory method for the HPLC analysis of fenbendazole and its metabolites or may be used as a method in its own right for the rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of these compounds.

  18. Cyclotide structure-activity relationships: qualitative and quantitative approaches linking cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity to the clustering of physicochemical forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkyu Park

    Full Text Available Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides. The qualitative and quantitative models describe the potency of cyclotides using four simple physicochemical terms relevant to membrane contact. Specifically, surface areas of the cyclotides representing lipophilic and hydrogen bond donating properties were quantified and their distribution across the molecular surface was determined. The resulting quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR models suggest that the activity of the cyclotides is proportional to their lipophilic and positively charged surface areas, provided that the distribution of these surfaces is asymmetric. In addition, we qualitatively analyzed the physicochemical differences between the various cyclotide subfamilies and their effects on the cyclotides' orientation on the membrane and membrane activity.

  19. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-09-30

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

  20. Automated, high-throughput, motility analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic nematodes: Applications in the search for new anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Buckingham

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The scale of the damage worldwide to human health, animal health and agricultural crops resulting from parasitic nematodes, together with the paucity of treatments and the threat of developing resistance to the limited set of widely-deployed chemical tools, underlines the urgent need to develop novel drugs and chemicals to control nematode parasites. Robust chemical screens which can be automated are a key part of that discovery process. Hitherto, the successful automation of nematode behaviours has been a bottleneck in the chemical discovery process. As the measurement of nematode motility can provide a direct scalar readout of the activity of the neuromuscular system and an indirect measure of the health of the animal, this omission is acute. Motility offers a useful assay for high-throughput, phenotypic drug/chemical screening and several recent developments have helped realise, at least in part, the potential of nematode-based drug screening. Here we review the challenges encountered in automating nematode motility and some important developments in the application of machine vision, statistical imaging and tracking approaches which enable the automated characterisation of nematode movement. Such developments facilitate automated screening for new drugs and chemicals aimed at controlling human and animal nematode parasites (anthelmintics and plant nematode parasites (nematicides.

  1. Integrating Internet into Engineering Education: A Case Study of Students' Usage and Attitudes in Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O. Anafi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of students towards the integration of the internet as a study tool and communication channel in teaching and learning in engineering has been investigated. A study was carried out in the Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, aimed at investigating the effect of certain variables such as gender, course of study, computer experience, and the percentage of internet usage on teaching and learning processes. A well-structured questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected five hundred (500 male and female students across the seven (7 departments of the faculty and about 85% were filled and returned. The study also examines the university management's perspectives and strategies to incorporate internet usage in teaching and learning processes especially in engineering. Amazingly, responses received showed that experience in the use of the computer in surfing the internet for problem based activities mainly affects the level of internet usage across the faculty. This factor makes some students to misplace their priority in internet usage emphasizing on e-mail correspondence and social networking rather than sourcing for information and solving problems as it is done by a few students. Furthermore, findings support that internet cannot entirely substitute for traditional teaching and learning processes like text reading but can serve as a reasonable alternative when the latter is unavailable

  2. Semantically Enriched Web Usage Mining for Predicting User Future Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Shirgave

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Explosive and quick growth of the World Wide Web has resulted in intricate Web sites, demanding enhanced user skills and sophisticated tools to help the Web user to find the desired information. Finding desired information on the Web has become a critical ingredient of everyday personal, educational, and business life. Thus, there is a demand for more sophisticated tools to help the user to navigate a Web site and find the desired information. The users must be provided with information and services specific to their needs, rather than an undifferentiated mass of information. For discovering interesting and frequent navigation patterns from Web server logs many Web usage mining techniques have been applied. The recommendation accuracy of solely usage based techniques can be improved by integrating Web site content and site structure in the personalization process.Herein, we propose Semantically enriched Web Usage Mining method (SWUM, which combines the fields of Web Usage Mining and Semantic Web. In the proposed method, the undirected graph derived from usage data is enriched with rich semantic information extracted from the Web pages and the Web site structure. The experimental results show that the SWUM generates accurate recommendations with integration of usage, semantic data and Web site structure. The results shows that proposed method is able to achieve 10-20% better accuracy than the solely usage based model, and 5-8% better than an ontology based model.

  3. Discovering magic of mobile technology in business: strategic marketing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bolat, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology penetrated all aspects of social and business existence. Studies around mobile technology mostly address the use and adoption process of mobile marketing or mobile commerce from a consumer perspective rather than from a business perspective. Another concern of majority of studies on the use of mobile technology is a focus on technical nature of mobile devices despite the fact that true magic of technology resides in its mobilisation and usage – the deployment of mobile techn...

  4. Relationship between Impulsivity, Social Media Usage and Loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Savci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between impulsivity, social media usage, and loneliness and to test the structural hypothetical model developed based on the literature. The study was conducted on 307 (164 female, 143 male university students. Data collection instruments of the study were the Barratt Impulsivity Scale Short Form (BIS-11-SF, Social Media Usage Scale (SMUS, and UCLA Loneliness Scale Short Form (ULS-8. The measurement models of the latent variables were tested initially and it was observed that the scales of the latent variables were efficient enough to be included in the structural equation model. In addition, the suggested hypothetical model was tested. According to the analysis, it was observed that impulsivity directly, positively and significantly predicts social media usage, that social media usage directly, positively and significantly predicts loneliness, and that impulsivity indirectly, positively and significantly predicts loneliness.

  5. A semantically enriched web usage based recommendation model

    CERN Document Server

    Ramesh, C; Govardhan, A

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of internet technologies, Web has become a huge repository of information and keeps growing exponentially under no editorial control. However the human capability to read, access and understand Web content remains constant. This motivated researchers to provide Web personalized online services such as Web recommendations to alleviate the information overload problem and provide tailored Web experiences to the Web users. Recent studies show that Web usage mining has emerged as a popular approach in providing Web personalization. However conventional Web usage based recommender systems are limited in their ability to use the domain knowledge of the Web application. The focus is only on Web usage data. As a consequence the quality of the discovered patterns is low. In this paper, we propose a novel framework integrating semantic information in the Web usage mining process. Sequential Pattern Mining technique is applied over the semantic space to discover the frequent sequential patterns. Th...

  6. RECOMMENDATION FOR WEB SERVICE COMPOSITION BY MINING USAGE LOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Web service composition has been one of the most researched topics of the past decade. Novel methods of web service composition are being proposed in the literature include Semantics-based composition, WSDLbased composition. Although these methods provide promising results for composition, search and discovery of web service based on QoS parameter of network and semantics or ontology associated with WSDL, they do not address composition based on usage of web service. Web Service usage logs capture time series data of web service invocation by business objects, which innately captures patterns or workflows associated with business operations. Web service composition based on such patterns and workflows can greatly streamline the business operations. In this research work, we try to explore and implement methods of mining web service usage logs. Main objectives include Identifying usage association of services. Linking one service invocation with other, Evaluation of the causal relationship between associations of services.

  7. Usage reporting on recorded lectures using educational data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Pierre; Van Bruggen, Jan; Jochems, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Gorissen, P., Van Bruggen, J., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2012). Usage reporting on recorded lectures using educational data mining. International Journal of Learning Technology, 7, 23-40. doi:10.1504/IJLT.2012.046864

  8. Alternative Promoter Usage in Healthy and Inflamed Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilje, Berit

    and cell-lines covering the entire human body. This provides a unique dataset to study gene expression, with promoter level precision. Here we use this large collection of data to study alternative transcription start site usage throughout the human body. We find that many alternative transcription start...... the full-length version. Our results suggest alternative transcription start site usage currently is underappreciated, since these start sites often show high expression compared to canonical start sites. We further show that the usage of alternative transcription start sites can both be tissue specific......, as well as specific to certain differentiation states. By analysing CAGE data from two different inflammatory responses we also find that alternative transcription start site usage is an intrinsic part of the inflammatory response. CAGE was used to map transcription start sites in Caco-2 cells stimulated...

  9. Investigations of oligonucleotide usage variance within and between prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, J.; Skjerve, E.; Ussery, David

    2008-01-01

    Oligonucleotide usage in archaeal and bacterial genomes can be linked to a number of properties, including codon usage (trinucleotides), DNA base-stacking energy (dinucleotides), and DNA structural conformation (di-to tetranucleotides). We wanted to assess the statistical information potential...... was that prokaryotic chromosomes can be described by hexanucleotide frequencies, suggesting that prokaryotic DNA is predominantly short range correlated, i. e., information in prokaryotic genomes is encoded in short oligonucleotides. Oligonucleotide usage varied more within AT-rich and host-associated genomes than...... in GC-rich and free-living genomes, and this variation was mainly located in non-coding regions. Bias (selectional pressure) in tetranucleotide usage correlated with GC content, and coding regions were more biased than non-coding regions. Non-coding regions were also found to be approximately 5.5% more...

  10. Qinghai Aluminum Manufacturers Adopted Multistep Electricity Price In Electricity Usage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>In early April,the Provincial Development and Reform Commission,and the Provincial Economic Commission issued notice to clarify the multistep electricity price standard in 2014for electricity usage by aluminum manufacturers in the province.

  11. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  12. COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF WEB USAGE MINING USING PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES

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    Nanhay Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is the application of data mining techniques to better serve the needs of web-based applications on the web site. In this paper, we analyze the web usage mining by applying the pattern recognition techniques on web log data. Pattern recognition is defined as the act of taking in raw data and making an action based on the ‘category’ of the pattern. Web usage mining is divided into three partsPreprocessing, Pattern discovery and Pattern analysis. Further, this paper intended with experimental work in which web log data is used. We have taken the web log data from the “NASA” web server which is analyzed with “Web Log Explorer”. Web Log Explorer is a web usage mining tool which plays the vital role to carry out this work.

  13. The organizational support of an enterprise development methods usage

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    Yu.S. Pogorelov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The principles of making the organizational support of the enterprise development method (methods usage are proposed. The content and structure of the enterprise development program are considered.

  14. BEHAVIORAL ASPECT OF ACCOUNTING TEACHERS’ INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Emine; Özer, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine behavioral process of accounting teachers’ information technology (IT) acceptance. To this end, we collected data from accounting teachers working in trade high schools. Research model and hypotheses were developed in the light of Theory of Reasoned Action. Accordingly, relationships among attitudes, subjective norms, intentions towards information technology usage and IT usage behaviors were investigated. Explanatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling...

  15. Performance consequences of management accounting system information usage in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Al-Mawali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge in the area of management accounting systems (MAS within the context of Jordanian manufacturing companies. However, the current study empirically investigated the relationship between MAS information usage and companies' performance. Data were collected from manufacturing companies listed in Amman Stock Exchange. The results of this study provide ample confirmation on the role of the usage of MAS information in enhance the manufacturing companies performance in Jordan

  16. Toxaphene in the United States: 1. Usage gridding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.

    2001-08-01

    Toxaphene, as a general-purpose insecticide, was widely used in the United States. The use of toxaphene in the United States can be divided into four different periods between 1947 and 1986, with total usage of about 490 kt, and total production around 720 kt. Inventories of gridded usage of toxaphene in the United States with 1/6° by 1/4° latitude/longitude resolution have been created by using different gridded cropland and cattle as surrogate data. The intensive use of toxaphene on croplands was concentrated in the southeastern part of the United States with the highest usage of 2 kt per grid cell. The results show that the state of Alabama was the largest user of toxaphene, reaching as much as 87 kt, followed by Mississippi at 60 kt. The total usage in the top 10 states is 410 kt, 84% of the national usage in the United States. The use in the first six states, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Arkansas, Texas, and South Carolina, is 350 kt, 71% of the national usage in the United States.

  17. Seatbelt usage: is there an association with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, B; King, D M; Jacobson, S H

    2014-09-01

    Wearing a seatbelt can prevent motor vehicle crash deaths. While primary seatbelt laws are designed to encourage vehicle passengers to wear seatbelts by allowing law enforcement officers to issue tickets when passengers do not wear seatbelts, discomfort may discourage obese individuals from wearing a seatbelt. The objective of this study is to assess the association between state-level obesity and seatbelt usage rates in the US, and to examine the possible role played by seatbelt laws in these associations. The strength of the association between obesity rates, seatbelt usage, and primary seatbelt laws at the state level is investigated using data from 2006 to 2011. Linear regression analysis is employed. This model estimates that increasing the obesity rate by 1% in a state where a primary seatbelt law (by which law enforcement officers can issue a ticket when seatbelts are not worn) is in effect is associated with a 0.06% decrease in seatbelt usage. However the same percentage of increase in the obesity rate in a state where no primary seatbelt law is in effect is associated with a 0.55% decrease in seatbelt usage. The magnitude of the statistical association between state obesity rates and state-level seatbelt usage is related to the existence of a primary seatbelt law, such that obesity has less impact on seatbelt usage in states where primary seatbelt laws are in effect.

  18. Towards a Usage Control Policy Specification with Petri Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, Basel; Zhang, Xinwen; Hafner, Michael

    Access control aims at restricting access to resources instantly. However, in collaborative computing environments with shared resources and distributed right management systems more advanced controlling mechanisms are required. For example, the control of the usage of a resource may need to be continuous, obligations is required, and concurrency is an important aspect when different users use a shared resource. To overcome these shortcomings of traditional access control, usage control has been proposed and investigated recently. In this paper we introduce a new usage control policy specification. Beyond existing approaches, the novelty of our policy is threefold: first, the ability to integrate the functional and security aspects of the system, thus lending support to control system behavior continuously. Second, post obligation is supported in a way that a violation of any rule during the current usage session, or after it ends, can affect the decisions of future usages. Finally, concurrency rules are embodied in the policy model, thus concurrent usages by different users to shared resources are controlled.

  19. ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE TO BENZIMIDAZOLE IN GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS OF SEMI-ARID BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST RESISTÊNCIA AOS ANTI-HELMÍNTICOS BENZIMIDAZÓIS EM NEMATÓIDES GASTRINTESTINAIS DE PEQUENOS RUMINANTES DO SEMIÁRIDO NORDESTINO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso Melo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics is reported as an old and persistent problem in many parts of the world. Resistance development depends on the presence of resistance promoters and there are operational, genetic and bioecological factors. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of benzimidazole resistance and to study some variables associated with resistance development in small ruminant farms in the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid area. The work was accomplished in 25 sheep and goat farms in Limoeiro do Norte, Palhano, Jaguaruana, Itaiçaba, Aracati, Alto Santo, Morada Nova and Jaguaribe municipalities, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The procedure used to detect anthelmintic resistant nematodes was the fecal egg count reduction test. In addition, a questionnaire about management practices, infrastructure, anthelmintic usage, flocks sanitary state and veterinary assistance was applied. Data were analyzed using RESO statistical program. The questionnaires were analyzed using Spearman correlation and the simple GLM. In sheep farms, the prevalence of benzimidazole resistance was 88% and in goat farms, it was 87.5%. In sheep and goats farms, Haemonchus spp was the most prevalent genus, followed by Trichostrongylus spp and Oesophagostomum spp. Among variables studied, treatment in the dry season was statistically significant (P = 0.03, pasture rotation was not significant (P = 0.17 but has a predictable value in resistance development.

    KEY WORDS: Associated factors, benzimidazole, Ceará, resistance development.
    A resistência a anti-helmínticos benzimidazóis é relatada como um antigo e persistente problema em diversas partes do mundo. O desenvolvimento da resistência depende da presença de promotores, os quais podem ser fatores operacionais, genéticos e bioecológicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a prevalência da resistência a anti-helmínticos benzimidazóis e estudar algumas

  20. Elucidation of Leucaena leucocephala anthelmintic-like phytochemicals and the ultrastructural damage generated to eggs of Cooperia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; González-Cortazar, Manases; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo Gallegos, Epigmenio

    2015-11-30

    Leucaena leucocephala is a tropical forage legume suggested as an alternative method to control gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants. This study: (1) performed a bio-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of L. leucocephala using the egg hatch assay (EHA) to identify the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemicals present in fresh leaves, and (2) assessed the ultrastructural damage to eggs of Cooperia spp. after incubation with the final fraction. Phytochemicals were isolated using silica gel columns and identified using high performance liquid chromatography and standards for comparison. The final fraction was evaluated using EHA at 0.06, 0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.1 mg ml(-1). The lethal concentration to inhibit 50% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (LC50) was calculated using a Probit analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural changes present in Cooperia spp. eggs. Bio-guided isolation procedures led to the recognition of an active fraction (LlC1F3) mainly composed of quercetin (82.21%) and caffeic acid (13.42%) which inhibited 90.49 ± 2.8% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (P<0.05), and an LC50 of 0.06 ± 0.14 mg ml(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed eggs exposed to the active fraction had an irregular external layer with small projections and ruptures of lateral eggshell walls. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed changes to Cooperia spp. eggs in electro-density, including the thickness of the eggshell layers and fractures after incubation with the final fraction (LlC1F3). Changes in bioactivity after purification suggest synergistic interactions between quercetin and caffeic acid.

  1. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs.

  2. Structure of the trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from Brugia malayi reveals key design principles for anthelmintic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farelli, Jeremiah D; Galvin, Brendan D; Li, Zhiru; Liu, Chunliang; Aono, Miyuki; Garland, Megan; Hallett, Olivia E; Causey, Thomas B; Ali-Reynolds, Alana; Saltzberg, Daniel J; Carlow, Clotilde K S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Allen, Karen N

    2014-07-01

    Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP) from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s) of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.

  3. Structure of the trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from Brugia malayi reveals key design principles for anthelmintic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah D Farelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.

  4. Exploration of English Idioms about Fruit and the Frequent Usage in Different Language Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Jiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available English idioms are commonly found in the oral and written English, which are quite vivid, concise and carried with a large amount of information. It makes up the major part of English language. In English idioms, fruit ones are a unique expression, which are widely accepted and applied in the daily life of English-speaking countries and carried with heavy cultural connotations. This study made an exploration of the historical origins of English idioms about fruit based on Greek mythology and Bible of Christianity. Besides, it made a detailed analysis of their frequent usage from the perspective of daily life. With the deeper understanding of culture of English-speaking countries, there will be gradually enhanced skills of interpersonal communication between different cultures.

  5. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  6. In vitro assessment of the anthelmintic activity of Hedysarum carnosum Desf. at different phenological stages and from six locations in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, A; Manolaraki, F; Ben Salem, H; Hoste, H; Kraiem, K

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are compromising productivity of grazing sheep and goats. Therefore, scientists have been looking for cost-effective alternative options. Forage legumes (Fabacea Family) contain tannins that could improve livestock performance and their health as well. The present study aimed to (i) determine the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of 19 acetonic extracts of Hedysarum carnosum Desf on Haemonchus contortus by a larval exsheathment assay (LEA); (ii) test the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins using a deactivating reagent, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); (iii) study the effect of location and the phenological stage on the percentage of exsheathment. The LEA was used at different concentrations (150, 300, 600, 1200 µg mL-1 of acetonic extract/mL of purified buffer solution (PBS)). The larval exsheathment is concentration, location, phenological stage dependent. All extracts, caused a delay of the percentage of exsheathment over 50% so the AH activity of H. carnosum was confirmed. After addition of PVPP, the % exsheathment was similar to the 150 µg mL-1 concentration. The biplot showed that Loc1(S), Loc4(B), Loc 5(PF), Loc 6(BM) and Loc 6(PF) were isolated from other plant extract sample. Our in vitro study showed that H. carnosum seems to be a promising alternative to AH drugs.

  7. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Oily Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aqueous Extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Zapata Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most common parasites found in ruminants in the world. These parasites cause parasitic gastroenteritis and have a negative effect on productivity. Nematode control has been based on the use of anthelmintic chemicals—against which nematodes have developed a certain degree of resistance—which have been rated as residual substances in goat products that may cause adverse effects on the final consumer. As a result, the study of plant components has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control nematodosis in goats. The anthelmintic potential of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and oily extracts of Azadirachta indica on gastrointestinal nematodes affecting the goat chain was evaluated in vitro in this study. Nematicidal activity tests were performed on stool samples from goats with a high parasite load (trichostrongyles, by performing dose/ response curves. Percent inhibition in egg hatch for the aqueous extract of N. tabacum and the oily extract of A. indica was 99% and 80%, respectively. Extracts showed an effect on larva 3 (infective stage, with a mean lethal time of 8 ± 1 minutes for extracts of N. Tabacum, and of 8 ± 1 minutes for extract of A. indica. The in vitro results of the nematicidal activity show that N. tabacum and A. indica extracts can be a promising alternative for controlling nematodes in ruminants.

  8. The effects of anthelmintic treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes on the performance of breeding ewes and lambs on pasture in semi-arid Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ang'a, C J; Maingi, N; Kanyari, P W N; Munyua, W K

    2009-08-01

    The effects of anthelmintics treatments in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in breeding ewes in a semi-arid area of Kenya were determined. The study carried out during two breeding seasons, between June 2000 and December 2001 where albendazole was administered to groups of ewes, 2 weeks before mating, 3 weeks to lambing and mid lactation indicated significantly lower nematode egg counts in treated than untreated groups of ewes. In the first breeding season, reduced rainfall resulted in pasture scarcity and weight loss in both groups of ewes through out the gestation period, but losses were higher for the untreated group. In the second season, both groups of ewes showed a steady increase in weight gain during the gestation period and post-partum, but weight gains were higher in the treated group. In lambs, weight gains at 6 weeks were higher for treated ewes than control groups, in both breeding seasons. The results of this trial indicate that anthelmintic treatments in breeding ewes in the study area are beneficial in reducing gastrointestinal nematode infections and improving performance of the ewes and their lambs. In addition to the treatments, breeding ewes should be given feed supplementation particularly during periods of pasture scarcity.

  9. Complex Codon Usage Pattern and Compositional Features of Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav RoyChoudhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses infect a wide range of organisms including humans. Among them, HIV-1, which causes AIDS, has now become a major threat for world health. Some of these viruses are also potential gene transfer vectors. In this study, the patterns of synonymous codon usage in retroviruses have been studied through multivariate statistical methods on ORFs sequences from the available 56 retroviruses. The principal determinant for evolution of the codon usage pattern in retroviruses seemed to be the compositional constraints, while selection for translation of the viral genes plays a secondary role. This was further supported by multivariate analysis on relative synonymous codon usage. Thus, it seems that mutational bias might have dominated role over translational selection in shaping the codon usage of retroviruses. Codon adaptation index was used to identify translationally optimal codons among genes from retroviruses. The comparative analysis of the preferred and optimal codons among different retroviral groups revealed that four codons GAA, AAA, AGA, and GGA were significantly more frequent in most of the retroviral genes inspite of some differences. Cluster analysis also revealed that phylogenetically related groups of retroviruses have probably evolved their codon usage in a concerted manner under the influence of their nucleotide composition.

  10. A SEMANTICALLY ENRICHED WEB USAGE BASED RECOMMENDATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Ramesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of internet technologies, Web has become a huge repository of information andkeeps growing exponentially under no editorial control. However the human capability to read, accessand understand Web content remains constant. This motivated researchers to provide Web personalizedonline services such as Web recommendations to alleviate the information overload problem and providetailored Web experiences to the Web users. Recent studies show that Web usage mining has emerged as apopular approach in providing Web personalization. However conventional Web usage basedrecommender systems are limited in their ability to use the domain knowledge of the Web application.The focus is only on Web usage data. As a consequence the quality of the discovered patterns is low. Inthis paper, we propose a novel framework integrating semantic information in the Web usage miningprocess. Sequential Pattern Mining technique is applied over the semantic space to discover the frequentsequential patterns. The frequent navigational patterns are extracted in the form of Ontology instancesinstead of Web page views and the resultant semantic patterns are used for generating Web pagerecommendations to the user. Experimental results shown are promising and proved that incorporatingsemantic information into Web usage mining process can provide us with more interesting patterns whichconsequently make the recommendation system more functional, smarter and comprehensive

  11. TECHNOLOGY USAGE AMONG CONSTRUCTION STUDENTS THE MODERATING ROLE OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramayah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the extent of personal computer (PC usage among a group of undergraduates at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It also looks at the moderating role of gender in the above said relationship. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 244 students responded to the survey. Results showed that perceived ease of use (β = 0.309, p < 0.01 was positively related to PC usage. A surprising finding of this study was that perceived usefulness was not a significant predictor of PC usage whereas perceived ease of use was. This can be explained in the context of mandated use where the usefulness is no longer an issue and ease of use becomes the primary concern. Gender was not a moderator in the above said relationship but was a significant independent predictor of usage. Males exhibited higher usage of the PC compared to the female students.

  12. MESUR: USAGE-BASED METRICS OF SCHOLARLY IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The evaluation of scholarly communication items is now largely a matter of expert opinion or metrics derived from citation data. Both approaches can fail to take into account the myriad of factors that shape scholarly impact. Usage data has emerged as a promising complement to existing methods o fassessment but the formal groundwork to reliably and validly apply usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact is lacking. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded MESUR project constitutes a systematic effort to define, validate and cross-validate a range of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact by creating a semantic model of the scholarly communication process. The constructed model will serve as the basis of a creating a large-scale semantic network that seamlessly relates citation, bibliographic and usage data from a variety of sources. A subsequent program that uses the established semantic network as a reference data set will determine the characteristics and semantics of a variety of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact. This paper outlines the architecture and methodology adopted by the MESUR project and its future direction.

  13. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  14. Binary Particle Swarm Optimization based Biclustering of Web usage Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bagyamani, R Rathipriya K Thangavel J

    2011-01-01

    Web mining is the nontrivial process to discover valid, novel, potentially useful knowledge from web data using the data mining techniques or methods. It may give information that is useful for improving the services offered by web portals and information access and retrieval tools. With the rapid development of biclustering, more researchers have applied the biclustering technique to different fields in recent years. When biclustering approach is applied to the web usage data it automatically captures the hidden browsing patterns from it in the form of biclusters. In this work, swarm intelligent technique is combined with biclustering approach to propose an algorithm called Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) based Biclustering for Web Usage Data. The main objective of this algorithm is to retrieve the global optimal bicluster from the web usage data. These biclusters contain relationships between web users and web pages which are useful for the E-Commerce applications like web advertising and marketin...

  15. On the evolution of word usage of classical Chinese poetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchy of classical Chinese poetry has been broadly acknowledged by a number of studies in Chinese literature. However, quantitative investigations about the evolution of classical Chinese poetry are limited. The primary goal of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of the evolutionary linkages, with emphasis on word usage, among different period genres for classical Chinese poetry. Specifically, various statistical analyses were performed to find and compare the patterns of word usage in the poems of nine period genres, including shi jing, chu ci, Han shi , Jin shi, Tang shi, Song shi, Yuan shi, Ming shi, and Qing shi. The result of analysis indicates that each of nine period genres has unique patterns of word usage, with some Chinese characters being preferably used by the poems of a particular period genre. The analysis on the general pattern of word preference implies a decreasing trend in the use of ancient Chinese characters along the timeline of dynastic types of classical Chinese poetr...

  16. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  17. Persona Usage in Software Development: Advantages and Obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Jane; Stage, Jan; Nielsen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The Personas technique has been promoted as a strong tool for providing software developers with a better understanding of the prospective users of their software. This paper reports from a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about Personas and their usage in software development companies....... The questionnaire survey was conducted in a limited geographical area to establish the extent of Personas usage within all companies in the chosen region and determine whether software development companies used Personas during the development process. Several issues were identified as reasons for either not using...... the technique or for poor application of it. The study showed that 55% of the respondents had never heard about Personas. Among those who had heard about the Personas technique, the following obstacles towards usage of the technique were identified: Lack of knowledge of the technique, lack of resources (time...

  18. Study on online community user motif using web usage mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphy, Meera; Sharma, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    The Web usage mining is the application of data mining, which is used to extract useful information from the online community. The World Wide Web contains at least 4.73 billion pages according to Indexed Web and it contains at least 228.52 million pages according Dutch Indexed web on 6th august 2015, Thursday. It’s difficult to get needed data from these billions of web pages in World Wide Web. Here is the importance of web usage mining. Personalizing the search engine helps the web user to identify the most used data in an easy way. It reduces the time consumption; automatic site search and automatic restore the useful sites. This study represents the old techniques to latest techniques used in pattern discovery and analysis in web usage mining from 1996 to 2015. Analyzing user motif helps in the improvement of business, e-commerce, personalisation and improvement of websites.

  19. P-value based visualization of codon usage data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fricke Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two important and not yet solved problems in bacterial genome research are the identification of horizontally transferred genes and the prediction of gene expression levels. Both problems can be addressed by multivariate analysis of codon usage data. In particular dimensionality reduction methods for visualization of multivariate data have shown to be effective tools for codon usage analysis. We here propose a multidimensional scaling approach using a novel similarity measure for codon usage tables. Our probabilistic similarity measure is based on P-values derived from the well-known chi-square test for comparison of two distributions. Experimental results on four microbial genomes indicate that the new method is well-suited for the analysis of horizontal gene transfer and translational selection. As compared with the widely-used correspondence analysis, our method did not suffer from outlier sensitivity and showed a better clustering of putative alien genes in most cases.

  20. Incremental Web Usage Mining Based on Active Ant Colony Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jie; LIN Ying; CHEN Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    To alleviate the scalability problem caused by the increasing Web using and changing users' interests, this paper presents a novel Web Usage Mining algorithm-Incremental Web Usage Mining algorithm based on Active Ant Colony Clustering. Firstly, an active movement strategy about direction selection and speed, different with the positive strategy employed by other Ant Colony Clustering algorithms, is proposed to construct an Active Ant Colony Clustering algorithm, which avoid the idle and "flying over the plane" moving phenomenon, effectively improve the quality and speed of clustering on large dataset. Then a mechanism of decomposing clusters based on above methods is introduced to form new clusters when users' interests change. Empirical studies on a real Web dataset show the active ant colony clustering algorithm has better performance than the previous algorithms, and the incremental approach based on the proposed mechanism can efficiently implement incremental Web usage mining.

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy of an oral formulation of Aurixazol against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally and experimentally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Claudio Alessandro M; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Buzzulini, Carolina; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; de Lima, Roberto Cesar Araújo; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Santana, Luis Fernando; de Mendonça, Rafael Paranhos; Soares, Vando Edésio; Henrique, Carlos Henrique; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-12-06

    As a result of the need to develop new active principles for the control of endoparasites in ruminants, the present in vivo study evaluated a formulation containing 24% Aurixazol (48 mg/kg), a parasiticide molecule based on disophenolate of levamisole. Two experiments were conducted: one evaluating the anthelmintic efficacy of 24% Aurixazol (48 mg/kg) against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected sheep, compared to an association of ivermectin (0.2mg/kg)+albendazole (5.0mg/kg)+levamisole (7.5mg/kg) (IAL), and a second one which evaluated the persistent efficacy of the same formulation against immature stages (L4) and adults of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected animals. In experiment I, against H. contortus, the formulation of Aurixazol and the IAL association reached efficacies (arithmetic means) of 99.32% and 96.11%, respectively. For Trichostrongylus colubriformis, the efficacy values were 88.92% and 98.08% for Aurixazol and the IAL association, respectively. Both formulations were totally effective against Oesophagostomum columbianum (100%). The results of the statistical analysis demonstrated that the mean parasitic burden of treated animals was significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the average number of helminths diagnosed in animals from the control group for H. contortus, T. colubriformis and O. columbianum. Comparing only the treated groups, it was possible to verify that the average number of H. contortus recovered from animals treated with Aurixazol was different (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to the mean amount recovered from sheep treated with the IAL association. When evaluating the prevention of H. contortus infection in experiment II, Aurixazol did not present preventive efficacy. Up until 21 days after treatment the groups treated with Aurixazol contained less adults and L4 of H. contortus (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to the non-medicated control group. However, future studies will be necessary to assess the

  2. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to the most commonly used anthelmintics in sheep, cattle and horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Geurden, T; Bartram, D J; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Bohórquez, A; Florez, E; Meana, A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminants and horses in Spain. The efficacy of commonly used macrocyclic lactones (MLs) - ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) - was measured in sheep, cattle and horses. In addition, albendazole (ABZ) and levamisole (LEV) were evaluated in sheep and oxibendazole (OXI) and pyrantel (PYR) in horses. Efficacy was evaluated based on the difference between the arithmetic mean pre- and post-treatment faecal egg count (in cattle and horses), or compared to an untreated control group (in sheep). AR was present when the percentage reduction in egg count was <95% and the lower 95% confidence interval (CI) was <90%; if only one of these two criteria was met, the finding was recorded as suspected AR (SAR). In horses, AR-PYR and OXI was considered when the percentage reduction in egg count was ≤ 90% and the lower 95% CI was ≤ 80%. For each animal species, at least 10 study sites were selected. AR to at least one of the drugs was detected in all 10 sheep flocks; the main parasite identified after treatment was Teladorsagia circumcincta. Moreover, in 5 flocks multidrug resistance was identified, on 4 farms to drugs from different families, on one farm to both MOX and IVM and on another farm to all drugs tested. In cattle, the efficacy of both MOX and IVM was 100% on 4 and 3 farms, respectively, and therefore 60% of these farms were considered to have AR or SAR to both MLs. The most frequent parasite identified after treatment was Trichostrongylus spp., although Ostertagia ostertagi was also identified after treatment on one farm. In contrast to ruminants, the 4 drugs evaluated in horses were highly efficacious against strongyles, with efficacies for the MLs and OXI between 95 and 100% and between 94 and 100% for PYR, although 3 herds were SAR against PYR. In conclusion, AR to at least one of the commonly used drugs was identified on all sheep flocks investigated in the northwest of

  3. Gender-specific selection on codon usage in plant genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krochko Joan E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is little data available regarding the role of gender-specific gene expression on synonymous codon usage (translational selection in most organisms, and particularly plants. Using gender-specific EST libraries (with > 4000 ESTs from Zea mays and Triticum aestivum, we assessed whether gender-specific gene expression per se and gender-specific gene expression level are associated with selection on codon usage. Results We found clear evidence of a greater bias in codon usage for genes expressed in female than in male organs and gametes, based on the variation in GC content at third codon positions and the frequency of species-preferred codons. This finding holds true for both highly and for lowly expressed genes. In addition, we found that highly expressed genes have greater codon bias than lowly expressed genes for both female- and male-specific genes. Moreover, in both species, genes with female-specific expression show a greater usage of species-specific preferred codons for each of the 18 amino acids having synonymous codons. A supplemental analysis of Brassica napus suggests that bias in codon usage could also be higher in genes expressed in male gametophytic tissues than in heterogeneous (flower tissues. Conclusion This study reports gender-specific bias in codon usage in plants. The findings reported here, based on the analysis of 1 497 876 codons, are not caused either by differences in the biological functions of the genes or by differences in protein lengths, nor are they likely attributable to mutational bias. The data are best explained by gender-specific translational selection. Plausible explanations for these findings and the relevance to these and other organisms are discussed.

  4. USAGES – THE LEGAL REGIME IN NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIAN CIONGARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the broad sense, the concept of law is represented by totality of acts that are elaborated by competent state authorities and their purpose is legislating. There are juridical situations are outside the scope of regulation of legal norms and they are stipulated by the New Civil Code, namely the usages: which are defined, in the broad sense, as rules of conduct for a long time, born of social practice. If the law sanctioned any usage, by a rule of reference, giving them, as such obligatory legal power, they are sources of law and the legislator has provided, as is source of civil law, only usages which are in conformity to public order and morality. This problem there was no in the case of legal rules because, they themselves are created with the purpose of to generate the public order and morality. In the situations not covered by law, the usages have a greater force than that of the legal dispositions regarding similar situations, so the broad interpretation of the rules of civil law is made, in the cases which are not covered by the law, only if such an interpretation is not contrary to the usages. An analysis and understanding of the juridical status of usages representing: the customs and the local habits which is accepted by the members of that community as well as the professional uses, as rules of development of professional activities, may result in to perceive the legal force of their but also to reduce, on as much as possible, some potentials confusions of interpretation and application of the law.

  5. Optimal tyre usage for a Formula One car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremlett, A. J.; Limebeer, D. J. N.

    2016-10-01

    Variations in track temperature, surface conditions and layout have led tyre manufacturers to produce a range of rubber compounds for race events. Each compound has unique friction and durability characteristics. Efficient tyre management over a full race distance is a crucial component of a competitive race strategy. A minimum lap time optimal control calculation and a thermodynamic tyre wear model are used to establish optimal tyre warming and tyre usage strategies. Lap time sensitivities demonstrate that relatively small changes in control strategy can lead to significant reductions in the associated wear metrics. The illustrated methodology shows how vehicle setup parameters can be optimised for minimum tyre usage.

  6. Dynamic usage of transcription start sites within core promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Frith, Martin C; Katayama, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammalian promoters do not initiate transcription at single, well defined base pairs, but rather at multiple, alternative start sites spread across a region. We previously characterized the static structures of transcription start site usage within promoters at the base pair level......, based on large-scale sequencing of transcript 5' ends. RESULTS: In the present study we begin to explore the internal dynamics of mammalian promoters, and demonstrate that start site selection within many mouse core promoters varies among tissues. We also show that this dynamic usage of start sites...

  7. Context-Aware Usage-Based Grid Authorization Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yongquan; HONG Fan; FU Cai

    2006-01-01

    Due to inherent heterogeneity, multi-domain characteristic and highly dynamic nature, authorization is a critical concern in grid computing. This paper proposes a general authorization and access control architecture, grid usage control (GUCON), for grid computing. It's based on the next generation access control mechanism usage control (UCON) model. The GUCON Framework dynamic grants and adapts permission to the subject based on a set of contextual information collected from the system environments; while retaining the authorization by evaluating access requests based on subject attributes, object attributes and requests. In general, GUCON model provides very flexible approaches to adapt the dynamically security request. GUCON model is being implemented in our experiment prototype.

  8. Cyanoacrylic tissue glues: Biochemical properties and their usage in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Tissue adhesives are being used in medical and cosmetic industries and first aid for a long time. But their everyday usage has not been widespread. Only case report information is available about their usage. Despite good and meaningful results after they were used, there is lack of standard information that gives idea of about in which cases they could be helpful. Nowadays, cyanoacrylates are used in the surgery more frequently. In this review, we wanted to oversee the biochemical properties and the urological utilisation areas of cyanoacrylates. PMID:28270946

  9. Usage of the Word“Uncorrect”in“Politically Uncorrect”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧

    2013-01-01

      It is not surprising that non-native speakers of English frequently make morphological errors when they are speaking or writing in English. But it is interesting to find out that some native English speakers sometimes use words in an ungrammatical or inappropriate way. This article analyses the usage of the word“uncorrect”and tries to show the background of this term by searching online and consulting to the dictionaries and also to analyze the word formation and usage of this term.

  10. The Terms in the Special Language: Norms, Usage, and Tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Stankevičienė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues of terminology remains term variance (or synonymy. In order to find out the trends of terms usage in the language for specific purposes, the comprehensive analysis of dictionaries, coursebooks, students’ survey was carried out. It allowed to determine prevalent types in the terminology of economics and chemistry, to analyze the prevalence of Lithuanian and international terms synonymy, term usage tendencies in students’ language and academic texts. Summarizing the investigation results it can be stated that in the special language of economics and chemistry, term variants were both presented in dictionaries and used by teachers.

  11. The mobile devices and its mobile learning usage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, S. M.; Issac, B.

    2014-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices for mobile learning is becoming increasingly popular. There is a new brand of students in the universities now-a-days who are easily connected to technology and innovative mobile devices. We attempt to do an analysis on a survey done with university students on mobile device usage for mobile learning purposes. This is to find the learning trends within the student community so that some of these popular practices could be encouraged to enhance learning among the st...

  12. Performance and competence in usage-based construction grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    of a section of the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The present study takes into account empirically observed internal and external patterns of usage in the description of this linguistic phenomenon, providing a usage-based constructional overview of the competence pertaining to this construction....... The purpose of the present study is thus two-fold, aiming to provide a communicatively plausible account of this particular phenomenon and to show that, indeed, no satisfactory description of the construction which ignores performance-based data would be possible, as the construction itself is very much...

  13. Atom, atom-type and total molecular linear indices as a promising approach for bioorganic and medicinal chemistry: theoretical and experimental assessment of a novel method for virtual screening and rational design of new lead anthelmintic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Olazabal, Ervelio; Serrano, Hector S; Morales, Alcidez; Castañedo, Nilo; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Huesca-Guillen, Alma; Sánchez, Alicia M; Torrens, Francisco; Castro, Eduardo A

    2005-02-15

    Helminth infections are a medical problem in the world nowadays. In this paper a novel atom-level chemical descriptor has been applied to estimate the anthelmintic activity. Total and local linear indices and linear discriminant analysis were used to obtain a quantitative model that discriminates between anthelmintic and non-anthelmintic drug-like compounds. The discriminant model has an accuracy of 90.11% in the training set, with a high Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC=0.80). To assess the robustness and predictive power of the obtained model, internal (leave-n-out) and external validation process was performed. The QSAR model correctly classified 88.55% of compounds in this external prediction set, yielding a MCC of 0.77. Another LDA model was carried out to outline some conclusions about the possible modes of action of anthelmintic drugs. It has an accuracy of 93.50% in the training set, and 80.00% in the external prediction set. After that, the developed model was used in the virtual--in silico--screening and several compounds from the Merck Index, Negwer's Handbook and Goodman and Gilman were identified by the model as anthelmintic. Finally, the experimental assay of an organic chemical (a furylethylene derivative) by an in vivo test permits us to carry out an assessment of the model. An accuracy of 100% with the theoretical predictions was observed. These results suggest that the proposed method will be a good tool for studying the biological properties of drug candidates during the early state of the drug-development process.

  14. A usage-centered evaluation methodology for unmanned ground vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Looije, R.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a usage-centered evaluation method to assess the capabilities of a particular Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for establishing the operational goals. The method includes a test battery consisting of basic tasks (e.g., slalom, funnel driving, object detection). Tests can be of diffe

  15. Social Media Usage: Examination of Influencers and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stoney L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with investigating topics surrounding the phenomenon of social media usage. Essay One draws from the technology acceptance literature by utilizing concepts from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), and the model of hedonic technology acceptance. The…

  16. 1991 National campaign to increase safety belt usage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA

    1992-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is the national campaign of the USA to be conducted in 1991 and 1992, in order to reach the goal of 70 percent safety belt usage by 1992. Among other things, it is shown that visible enforcement of existing laws offers the greatest potential for achieving this goal. F

  17. Safety belt usage in Finland and in other Nordic countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtonen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Legislation has played a significant role in increasing safety belt usage in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. Publicity and enforcement have, however, been required to support the legislation. The development of safety belt regulations has been nearly similar in all these countries, both i

  18. Investigating Students' Usage and Acceptance of Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieche, Susan; Krey, Birte; Bastiaens, Theo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate students' usage and acceptance of electronic books. Factors correlating with students' attitude towards e-books were examined using the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw 1989). A questionnaire was administered online for students at University of Hagen. Results indicate that…

  19. LISINOPRIL USAGE IN CARDIOLOGIC PRACTICE: DATA OF EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Kutishenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data of multicenter clinical trials on assessment of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril efficacy in therapy of patients with arterial hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction complicated with left ventricle dysfunction and diabetes (GISSI-3, ATLAS, ALLHAT, EUCLID are presented in the review. The results of these trials establish more active usage of lisinopril in clinical practice.

  20. Accelerated Peer-Review Journal Usage Technique for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    The internet has given undergraduate students ever-increasing access to academic journals via search engines and online databases. However, students typically do not have the ability to use these journals effectively. This often poses a dilemma for instructors. The accelerated peer-review journal usage (APJU) technique provides a way for…

  1. Investigating Students' Usage and Acceptance of Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieche, Susan; Krey, Birte; Bastiaens, Theo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate students' usage and acceptance of electronic books. Factors correlating with students' attitude towards e-books were examined using the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw 1989). A questionnaire was administered online for students at University of Hagen. Results indicate…

  2. Multimedia Usage among Islamic Education Lecturers at Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Mohd Isa; Rinaldi; Razak, Khadijah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the level of multimedia usage among Islamic education lecturers at higher education institutions in West Sumatera, Indonesia. The participants were chosen from three types of higher institutions by using stratified random sampling. The data was collected from 250 students using questionnaires. The findings showed that…

  3. A Survey on Preprocessing Methods for Web Usage Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Chitraa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web is a huge repository of web pages and links. It provides abundance of information for the Internet users. The growth of web is tremendous as approximately one million pages are added daily. Users’ accesses are recorded in web logs. Because of the tremendous usage of web, the web log files are growing at a faster rate and the size is becoming huge. Web data mining is the application of data mining techniques in web data. Web Usage Mining applies mining techniques in log data to extract the behavior of users which is used in various applications like personalized services, adaptive web sites, customer profiling, prefetching, creating attractive web sites etc., Web usage mining consists of three phases preprocessing, pattern discovery and pattern analysis. Web log data is usually noisy and ambiguous and preprocessing is an important process before mining. For discovering patterns sessions are to be constructed efficiently. This paper reviews existing work done in the preprocessing stage. A brief overview of various data mining techniques for discovering patterns, and pattern analysis are discussed. Finally a glimpse of various applications of web usage mining is also presented.

  4. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  5. A Behavioural Model of E-Banking Usage in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Capece

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available E‐banking is defined as the automated delivery of new and traditional banking products and services directly to customers through electronic, interactive communication channels. “Pure online” banks are characterized by the absence of physical windows and front‐office personnel. Traditional banks are still integrating traditional distribution channels with online ones; the scenario is therefore still evolving over time. Despite the intrinsic potentialities, Italy is far from being a leader in the usage of innovative online instruments in the banking system and will struggle with new innovation waves. In this paper, we measure the potential effective ebanking usage. Furthermore, we investigate the behaviour of users and adopters, identifying the major causes influencing satisfaction and usage and the impact of these different causes on the intensity of utilization. The analysis is based on a panel of 495 real users, thus allowing the profiling of the Italian adopter to discover the causes of usage and outline strategies for the growth of e‐banking services in Italy.

  6. The Relationship between Social Cohesion and Computer-Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Emre; Adalier, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between social cohesion and computer-internet usage among university students. The research was conducted among university students in North Cyprus. The sample for the research consists of 38.8% (n=80) female, 61.2 % (n=126) male, 206 university students by using the criterion sampling method.…

  7. Codon usage determines translation rate in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Kurland, C G; Pedersen, Steen

    1989-01-01

    We wish to determine whether differences in translation rate are correlated with differences in codon usage or with differences in mRNA secondary structure. We therefore inserted a small DNA fragment in the lacZ gene either directly or flanked by a few frame-shifting bases, leaving the reading...

  8. Usage-Based Collection Evaluation with a Curricular Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic evaluation of a library's collection can be a useful tool for collection development. After reviewing three evaluation methods and their usefulness for our small academic library, I undertook a usage-based evaluation, focusing on narrow segments of our collection that served specific undergraduate courses. For each section, I collected…

  9. Electronic Book Usage: A Survey at the University of Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Clark, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the University of Denver's Penrose Library conducted a survey of its users to determine their degree of awareness of electronic books, how and why they use them, and their level of satisfaction with the format. It is clear from vendor-supplied usage statistics that electronic books are used, but it is not clear how or why…

  10. USAGE OF MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGIES IN TRAINING OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL STUDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana S. Ryzhenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the sensibility of multimedia means of education usage in different types of classes (lectures, practical, seminars and laboratory work. Recommendations as for the giving lectures on the basis of multimedia means of education are given. The article also presents the analysis of the students’ level comprehension of the material presented in a multimedia format.

  11. E-COMMERCE USAGE IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR OF ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngonidzashe Zanamwe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explored the use of e-commerce in the pharmaceutical sector of Zimbabwe. More specifically, it looked at e-commerce technologies being used in the sector, uses of e-commerce technologies, usage level of e-commerce technologies, benefits and barriers of e-commerce usage. The study followed an exploratory research design wherein a questionnaire was used as the main research tool. Data was gathered from 33 pharmaceutical companies and analysed using SPSS. It was found out that slightly more than 50 percent of pharm aceutical companies had websites. Also, most popular uses of e-commerce tech nologies were e-mailing, gener ation of direct sales, provision of customer service and support, price comparison, purchasing and ordering and internal communications. In addition, the World Wide Web and instant messaging emerged as the most widely used technologies in the sector. The benefits of e- commerce usage identified include provision of high quality information needed for business operations, increasing interdepartm ental and inter-organisational coordination which leads to increased productivity. Las tly, the cost of e-commerce technology equipment, absence of a company’s website, complexity of e-commerce technologies and privacy related issues came out as the strongest e-commerce usage barriers in the sector.

  12. Issues of ICT Usage among Malaysian Secondary School English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Arumugam; Mohamed, Abdul Halim

    2013-01-01

    This study explored on perception, usage and obstacles of using ICT in teaching English Language among secondary school English teachers. The advancement of technology has given a space for teachers to boost teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools. It is believed that integration of ICT could enhance quality of teaching and…

  13. Prototyping service discovery and usage in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are envisioned to provide different types of services in an open and dynamic environment. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a service discovery and usage solution for heterogeneous WSNs. The users have the possibility to di

  14. Observations on plant usage in Xhosa and Zulu medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hutchings

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The holistic concept of Xhosa and Zulu traditional medicine and some differences from Western orthodox practice are briefly outlined. The transmission of herbal knowledge within various social groups is outlined. The background, training and some procedures followed by five of the informants are discussed. Plant characteristics that may be seen, felt, smelled or tasted are considered as possible determinants of usage. The form of plant parts accounts for some usage in the more magically orientated medicines whereas colour, texture or the production of froth may signal the presence of medicinally active components such as tannin, mucilage and saponin. The role of plants producing a milky latex is discussed. Vesicant or irritant properties are utilized in septic or inflammatory conditions. Aromatic plants are used for respiratory or digestive disorders and pungent-smelling plants are used in the treatment of catarrh and some stress-related disorders. Bitter or sour- tasting plants may be used as an aid to digestion or serve a deterrent function. Parallel usage of some related plants in African and European herbal practice indicates that appropriate usage may be widely determined by easily discerned plant characteristics. Two herbal medicinal recipes recorded by the author and a list of medicinal plants collected in Transkei are presented.

  15. Patterns of Emoticon Usage in ESL Students' Discussion Forum Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study looks at patterns of emoticon usage in adult, ESL student writing. Data are drawn from 13 students and their participation in online discussion forums designed to supplement a traditional ESL writing course. The study conceptualizes computer mediated communication as a hybridized and emergent form which utilizes features…

  16. Usage of patriotic motives in promotion of products in markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhkova Viktoriia Viktorivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the patriotic motives essence in the appeals of manufacturers has been analyzed; the classification of means, which can be used in the appeals with patriotic implication, has been proposed; the directions of justification of expediency of patriotic motives usage for manufacturers have been defined.

  17. OER Usage by Instructional Designers and Training Managers in Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Eli; Cohen, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of Open Educational Resources (OERs), different models regarding the usage of these resources in education have appeared in the literature. Wiley's 4-Rs model is considered to be one of the leading models. Research based on Wiley's model shows that using materials without making changes is the most common use. Compared to the…

  18. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yulei [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhang, Jie [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Huang, Xiaojia, E-mail: hxj@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yuan, Dongxing [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • A new polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith was prepared. • The monolith was used as the extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The SCSE–AMIIDB can extract benzimidazole anthelmintics (BAs) effectively. • A combination of SCSE–AMIIDB–LD–HPLC/DAD was developed. • The combination was applied to monitor trace BAs in water, milk and honey samples. - Abstract: In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE–AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE–AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE–AMIIDB–HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for target compounds were 0.020–0.072 μg L{sup −1}, 0.035–0.10 μg L{sup −1} and 0.026–0.076 μg L{sup −1} in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII

  19. Field efficacy of four anthelmintics and confirmation of drug-resistant nematodes by controlled efficacy test and pyrosequencing on a sheep and goat farm in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Demeler, Janina; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-12-15

    We describe a case of anthelmintic resistance on one of the largest organic small ruminant farms in Denmark. The flock was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from other Danish farms and had history of clinical parasitism, high mortality of young stock and anthelmintic treatment failure. In October 2011, 40 lambs and 40 kids were selected for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM), moxidectin (MOX) and levamisole (LEV). Lambs were treated with the recommended sheep dose of each product while kids received the sheep dose of IVM, 1.5× sheep dose of MOX and 2× sheep dose of FBZ and LEV. Untreated lambs and kids were also included and three methods for calculating faecal egg count (FEC) reduction were compared. In a subsequent investigation, a controlled efficacy test (CET) with FBZ and IVM was performed in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from adult goats on the farm. Recovered specimens of H. contortus were subjected to pyrosequencing for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to benzimidazole (BZ) resistance. During the FECRT, FECs in untreated lambs dropped significantly by 47%. No FEC reduction was detected in untreated kids. After FBZ treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids ranged from 15 to 54% and 49-56%, respectively, according to the different calculation methods. Post IVM treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids varied between 71-90% and 81-83%, correspondingly. LEV and MOX reduced FECs by 98-100% in both species. In the CET, FBZ reduced H. contortus worm counts by 52-56% and no reduction in T. colubriformis counts were detected after treatment. IVM eliminated 100% of H. contortus and reduced T. colubriformis counts by 84-92%, according to different calculation methods. Pyrosequencing of isolated H. contortus revealed increased frequencies of the BZ resistance-related SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene

  20. Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Chlamydia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui L(ü); Wei-Ming ZHAO; Yan ZHENG; Hong WANG; Mei QI; Xiu-Ping YU

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause ocular and sexually transmitted diseases, and are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of codon usage may improve our understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of Chlamydia and allow reengineering of target genes to improve their expression for gene therapy. Here, we analyzed the codon usage of C. muridarum, C.trachomatis (here indicating biovar trachoma and LGV), C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the codon usage database and the CUSP (Create a codon usage table) program of EMBOSS (The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite). The results show that the four genomes have similar codon usage patterns,with a strong bias towards the codons with A and T at the third codon position. Compared with Homo sapiens, the four chlamydial species show discordant seven or eight preferred codons. The ENC (effective number of codons used in a gene)-plot reveals that the genetic heterogeneity in Chlamydia is constrained by the G+C content, while translational selection and gene length exert relatively weaker influences. Moreover,mutational pressure appears to be the major determinant of the codon usage variation among the chlamydial genes. In addition, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of E. coli, yeast,adenovirus and Homo sapiens. There are 23 codons showing distinct usage differences between C. trachomatis and E. coli, 24 between C. trachomatis and adenovirus, 21 between C. trachomatis and Homo sapiens, but only six codons between C. trachomatis and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of chlamydial genes. Finally, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of six eukaryotes, eight prokaryotes and 23 viruses. There is a strong positive correlation between the differences in coding GC content and the variations in codon bias (r=0.905, P<0.001). We conclude that the variation of codon bias