WorldWideScience

Sample records for anthelmintic usage perspectives

  1. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage: perspectives and potential consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Martin K

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites, parasitologists now recommend traditional treatment approaches to be abandoned and replaced by more sustainable strategies. It is of crucial importance to facilitate veterinary involvement to ensure that treatment decisions are based on parasitic knowledge. Despite recommendations given for the past two decades, strategies based on the selective therapy principle have not yet been implemented on a larger scale in equi...

  2. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2009-01-01

    that Danish veterinarians are now deeply involved with parasite management in equine establishments. However, little is known about the impact on levels of anthelmintic resistance and the risk of parasitic disease under these circumstances. In addition, the legislation makes huge demands on diagnosis...

  3. Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L

    2003-05-15

    Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional farmers had not any form of worm control practice. Worm infection was ranked the second most important constraint of productivity in cattle in the three production systems. Most farms (57.6% traditional, 35.8% small-scale dairy, 66.7% large-scale dairy) used anthelmintics with a combination of levamisole and oxyclozanide. Benzimidazoles were used only in traditional (25.4%) and small-scale dairy (32.1%) farms while nitroxynil (Trodax) was mostly used in large-scale dairy farms (33.3%). Generally, 40% of farmers treated three or four times a year and the frequency in some farms was surprisingly high for resource poor small-scale farmers. The frequency of anthelmintic treatment was mostly the same regardless of the management system. Treatments in most farms depended on availability of money and drugs and not the epidemiology of parasites. A significant proportion (46.3%, P=0.007) of farmers especially in rural areas failed to follow their pre-planned treatment schedules due to lack of money (86%) and unavailability of drugs (6.6%). Many farmers (58.9%) had used the same type of anthelmintic for four or more consecutive years and 85.3% of them would continue with the same anthelmintic. Farmers in all management systems mostly purchased anthelmintics from private veterinary drug shops and about 43% traditional and 33.3% small-scale dairy farmers mostly in rural areas obtained anthelmintics from village extension officers. Despite the fact that all farmers were aware of worm

  4. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Hatem A

    2013-01-01

    Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The development of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of grazing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointestinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been observed that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode populations is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the susceptible genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists towards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new class are likely to be gained by

  5. Usager

    OpenAIRE

    Warin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Définition de la notion "Usager". Acteur de la définition des besoins sociaux, de l'intérêt collectif et de l'offre de services urbains. Acteur de la légitimation des choix publics budgétaires et fiscaux. Acteur de la cohésion sociale.

  6. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A Shalaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The develop­ment of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of graz­ing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointes­tinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been ob­served that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode popula­tions is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the suscepti­ble genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists to­wards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new

  7. Mobile Phone Banking Usage Behaviour: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the use of mobile phones in financial transactions is witnessing phenomenal growth at the international level, its growth has been relatively slow in Australia. Drawing on the theory of reasoned action and technology adoption framework, this paper reports the results concerning a survey of mobile phone users for banking transactions in Australia. The paper specifically identified the factors affecting usage behaviour when mobile phone banking services were engaged. The findings broaden and deepen our understanding of the usage of mobile-based banking in the information age. This paper contributes to the knowledge of this subject by including identification and testing of constructs of predictors regarding mobile phone banking, which are additional to those employed in the extant theories indicated above. The findings of this paper have important policy implications for banks in terms of understanding the underlying factors that drive customers’ mobile banking for financial transactions. Accordingly, design strategies have been developed to promote mobile phone banking – a cost effective channel for delivering financial services.

  8. Examining perspectives on telecare: factors influencing adoption, implementation, and usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available David Barrett,1 Jonathan Thorpe,2 Nick Goodwin3 1Faculty of Health and Social Care, 2Knowledge Exchange, University of Hull, Hull, 3International Foundation for Integrated Care, Oxford, UK Abstract: Telecare, or the use of remote care technologies to support safe and independent living, offers great potential to mitigate the challenges faced in a time of changing demographics. By supporting people to live for longer in their own home, telecare can enhance quality of life, reduce reliance on institutional care settings, and reduce costs. Despite these potential opportunities, the adoption of telecare has not been as fast or widespread as it might have been. This article discusses some of the factors acting as drivers or barriers, which have influenced adoption and impacted on implementation. The implications of the availability of such a wide range of telecare applications is explored; this diversity of choice allows for services to be tailored to the specific needs of users, but also causes a tangled web of terminology that can lead to confusion and lack of clarity. In terms of the evidence base, although evaluations of telecare services often demonstrate a high level of cost benefit and user satisfaction, primary research findings are not as positive. This paper focuses particularly on the Whole System Demonstrator, a large-scale, randomized controlled trial that raised questions about the value and cost-effectiveness of telecare. The paper also discusses the ethical, governance, and resource issues associated with telecare implementation and the organizational complexities inherent in such exciting but challenging changes to services. The policy perspective is also summarized, highlighting how much of the adoption of telecare to date has been influenced by top-down initiatives. Telecare will continue to evolve as our understanding and the technology continue to develop. This paper provides information and advice for commissioners, providers

  9. Stigmatised Identity and Service Usage in Disadvantaged Communities: Residents’, community workers’ and service providers’ perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Clifford; McNamara, Niamh; Muldoon, Orla

    2014-01-01

    The impact of community stigmatisation upon service usage has been largely overlooked from a social identity perspective. Specifically, the social identity-mediated mechanisms by which stigmatisation hinders service use remain unspecified. The present study examines how service providers, community workers and residents recount their experience of the stigmatisation of local community identity and how this shapes residents’ uptake of welfare, education and community support services. Twenty ind...

  10. EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF INTERNET USAGE AMONG POST GRADUATE STUDENTS IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Enok Joel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has become a God sent blessing to many students to do research work and find general information about a subject instantly without much effort or expense. The internet has become the largest and the most useful encyclopedia of information. It is a unique gateway to a vast wealth of knowledge, and it can be used for a variety of things one can dream of. It has been observed through a number of studies, that beyond the usage of internet as a source of getting news, the internet is also used for general purposes. Today, the internet is regarded as the central resource for knowledge and information. Thus, the internet is a vital tool that will propel University and College education to greater heights as the world moves further into the knowledge-based society. The objectives of the study were (i to develop and standardize the educational perspective of internet usage questionnaire and (ii To study the significant mean score differences among the post graduate students on Educational perspective of Internet Usage.

  11. Preservice Teachers’ Facebook Usage and Their Perspectives about Facebook as a Professional Development Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem KÖŞKEROĞLU BÜYÜKİMDAT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an explanatory mixed method design was employed to evaluate preservice information technology teachers‟ Facebook usage and their perspectives about Facebook as a professional development tool. In quantitative phase, data were collected through a Facebook usage survey on a total number of 338 undergraduate Computer Education and Instructional Technology (CEIT students from three representative state universities in Turkey. Survey results indicated that preservice teachers favored and utilized Facebook. To find out more in-depth data, the results of quantitative data analysis were used to develop a structured interview to be done with four preservice teachers who were selected purposefully. The data collected from the interviews were subjected to content analysis where coding was conducted to create meaningful organization of the data. According the results of this explanatory study especially communication, sharing and socializing capacity of Facebook were found important in terms of using Facebook as a professional development tool.

  12. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  13. Specialization Impact on Internet Resource Usage: Omani Undergraduate Learner’s Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    B. Sriram

    2014-01-01

    The current educational processes need various tools and technological supports in order to attain the required level of knowledge. The learning processes have been simplified with the help of different resources including internet resources. The usage of internet resources usage depends on the learner’s requirements in the field of study. This research had identified the significant impacts of the specialization of the learners on the internet resource usage. Also, the paper identified some ...

  14. Tannin rich peanut skins lack anthelmintic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) resistance to synthetic anthelmintics in small ruminants has led to the evaluation of feed sources containing naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites that lessen parasite activity. Plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) can have beneficial anthelmintic pro...

  15. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  16. The Analysis of the Usage And Perspectives of Renewable Energy Sources in Lithuania

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    Dominykas Vasarevičius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current situation with the renewable energy sources in Lithuania. An overview of legislation promoting the production and usage of renewable energy in Lithuania is presented. Renewable energy production methods suitable for Lithuanian conditions, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is shown that there is no any promotion from the state for usage of solar energy in private households. The potential of solar energy usage is determined. In order to show the effectiveness of solar thermal energy utilization under similar climatic conditions presented the example of promotion policy model and its results in Poland.Article in Lithuanian

  17. A survey in Louisiana of intestinal helminths of ponies with little exposure to anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, B J; Klei, T R; Lichtenfels, J R; Chapman, M R

    1986-12-01

    Ponies reared with minimal or no exposure to anthelmintics were surveyed for intestinal helminths in order to estimate prevalence and intensity of parasite populations unaltered by frequent exposure to anthelmintics. Thirty-seven mixed breed ponies of varying ages were examined. Thirty-four species of nematodes and 2 species of cestodes were found. Twenty-four of the nematode species (including 1 new species) were in the subfamily Cyathostominae (small strongyles). Eighty-seven percent of the total burden of adult small strongyles in the large intestine was composed of 10 species. By comparing the results of the present survey with those of recent surveys of horses from herds which had been subjected to treatments with anthelmintics, the effect of prolonged usage of anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of individual species possibly can be estimated. The general ranking of the 10 most common cyathostome species was similar to those described in recent surveys of horses, suggesting that anthelmintic pressure does not affect the prevalence of most cyathostome species. The lack of anthelmintic treatment appeared not to affect prevalence rates for Anoplocephala perfoliata and Anoplocephala magna when compared to other studies. Conversely, prevalence rates for Strongylus spp., Triodontophorus spp., Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Oxyuris equi, and Parascaris equorum were higher than those reported for these species in recent studies of horses. PMID:3819969

  18. The Influence of User’s Trait on Public e-Service Usage: A Self-Service Technology Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-hao Chang

    2011-01-01

    This article intends to explore the critical traits of citizens in terms of public e-service usage based on the perspective of self-service technologies (SSTs) as well as the perception towards the e-service quality. A well-designed survey was conducted in Tokyo, a leading e-city, to understand the profile of the user. The result shows that user’s traits in terms of “perceived risk” and “need for interaction with public servant” have significant impact on the perception of e-service quality. ...

  19. Influence of Perspective of Action Observation Training on Residual Limb Control in Naïve Prosthesis Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Delisa T; Cusack, William F; Lawson, Regan; Hardy, Ashley; Kistenberg, Robert; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2016-01-01

    Prior work in amputees and partial limb immobilization have shown improved neural and behavioral outcomes in using their residual limb with prosthesis when undergoing observation-based training with a prosthesis-using actor compared to an intact limb. It was posited that these improvements are due to an alignment of user with the actor. It may be affected by visual angles that allow emphasis of critical joint actions which may promote behavioral changes. The purpose of this study was to examine how viewing perspective of observation-based training effects prosthesis adaptation in naïve device users. Twenty nonamputated prosthesis users learned how to use an upper extremity prosthetic device while viewing a training video from either a sagittal or coronal perspective. These views were chosen as they place visual emphasis on different aspects of task performance to the device. The authors found that perspective of actions has a significant role in adaptation of the residual limb while using upper limb prostheses. Perspectives that demonstrate elbow adaptations to prosthesis usage may enhance the functional motor outcomes of action observation therapy. This work has potential implications on how prosthetic device operation is conveyed to persons adapting to prostheses through action observation based therapy. PMID:27253208

  20. Specialization Impact on Internet Resource Usage: Omani Undergraduate Learner’s Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sriram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current educational processes need various tools and technological supports in order to attain the required level of knowledge. The learning processes have been simplified with the help of different resources including internet resources. The usage of internet resources usage depends on the learner’s requirements in the field of study. This research had identified the significant impacts of the specialization of the learners on the internet resource usage. Also, the paper identified some specializations that have major influences in using such internet resources in learning processes. The study had been conducted in Omani undergraduate student’s environment with respect to selected specializations. The specialization impacts on the frequency of using internet resources, places of searching and purpose of using internet resources in the learning processes were analyzed using conditional probabilities and impacts had been identified with the help of decision tree diagram. The results showed that the students studying Information Technology specialization had greater impact in using internet resources in their learning processes compared to others at undergraduate levels.

  1. EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF INTERNET USAGE AMONG POST GRADUATE STUDENTS IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    T. Enok Joel; T. Arockia Sagayaraj

    2014-01-01

    The internet has become a God sent blessing to many students to do research work and find general information about a subject instantly without much effort or expense. The internet has become the largest and the most useful encyclopedia of information. It is a unique gateway to a vast wealth of knowledge, and it can be used for a variety of things one can dream of. It has been observed through a number of studies, that beyond the usage of internet as a source of getting news, t...

  2. RECENT POTENTIAL USAGE OF SURFACTANT FROM MICROBIAL ORIGIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ARENA: A PERSPECTIVE

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    Rath Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use and potential commercial application of biosurfactant has increased during the past decade which can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting and foaming agents, functional food ingredients and as detergents in petroleum, petrochemicals, environmental management, agrochemicals, foods and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and in the mining and metallurgical industries. Their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities make them relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases and as therapeutic agents. In addition to this their role as antiadhesive agents against several disease causing pathogens makes their utility as suitable antiadhesive coating agents for medical insertional materials which helps in the reduction in a large number of hospital infections without the use of synthetic drugs and chemicals. This review looks at the various pharmaceutical, biomedical and therapeutic perspectives on biosurfactant applications.

  3. Perspectives of different type biological life support systems (BLSS) usage in space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsev, S. I.; Gitelson, J. I.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Mezhevikin, V. V.; Okhonin, V. A.

    1996-10-01

    In the paper an attempt is made to combine three important criteria of LSS comparison: minimum mass, maximum safety and maximum quality of life. Well-known types of BLSS were considered: with higher plant, higher plants and mushrooms, microalgae, and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. These BLSSs were compared in terms of "integrated" mass for the case of a vegetarian diet and a "normal" one (with animal proteins and fats). It was shown that the BLSS with higher plants and incineration of wastes becomes the best when the exploitation period is more than 1 yr. The dependence of higher plants' LSS structure on operation time was found. Comparison of BLSSs in terms of integral reliability (this criterion includes mass and quality of life criteria) for a lunar base scenario showed that BLSSs with higher plants are advantageous in reliability and comfort. This comparison was made for achieved level of technology of closing and for perspective one.

  4. SCOPE OF HERBAL ANTHELMINTICS: AN AYURVEDIC PERSPECTIVE

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    Singh Karam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by helminthes are quite common and comprise a very large group of infestations and infections in human beings. The Krimi Roga (worm infestation is one of the most common diseases found in paediatric practice. Helminthiasis is prevalent globally (1/3 of world’s population harbours them, but is more common in developing countries with poorer personal and environmental hygiene. In Vedic and Ayurvedic literatures, the word krimi is vague term used to denote tiny living being. Acharyas described krimis in various Samhitas in detail and they also believed that krimi also act as an etiological factor in various disease e.g. krimija shiorroga, hridaroga etc. Because of the fewer side effects, the importance of herbal drugs in remedy has tremendously increased in the recent years. A wide variety of plants possess narrow or broad spectrum anthelminthic activities which are naturally available.

  5. Structure-activity relationship of anthelmintic cyclooctadepsipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Makoto; Okada, Yumiko; Takahashi, Masaaki; Sakanaka, Osamu; Matsumoto, Maki; Atsumi, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between cyclooctadepsipeptides and their anthelmintic efficacy was examined by converting the natural products, PF1022A, PF1022E and PF1022H. Some analogues substituted at the para position of the phenyllactate moiety showed higher or equivalent activity against the parasitic nematode, Ascaridia galli in chicken when compared with the parent compounds. It is suggested that lipophilicity and the polar surface area, in addition to structural requirements of the derivatives, influenced the anthelmintic efficacy in vivo. PMID:21737929

  6. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat

    2012-01-01

    Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various conce...

  7. Usage Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Bollen, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Scholarly usage data provides unique opportunities to address the known shortcomings of citation analysis. However, the collection, processing and analysis of usage data remains an area of active research. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art in usage-based informetric, i.e. the use of usage data to study the scholarly process.

  8. Usage Bibliometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Scholarly usage data provides unique opportunities to address the known shortcomings of citation analysis. However, the collection, processing and analysis of usage data remains an area of active research. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art in usage-based informetric, i.e. the use of usage data to study the scholarly process.

  9. Another(’s perspective on subjectivity in causal connectives: a usage-based analysis of volitional causal relations

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    Ninke Stukker

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans une hypothèse de catégorisation linguistique, les connecteurs de cause sont pris comme des outils de catégorisation. En effet, des études sur corpus suggèrent que les connecteurs sont fortement spécialisés dans une seule catégorie de causalité spécifique, mais aussi que leur usage n'est pas limité aux catégories de causalité auxquelles ils sont prototypiquement associés. Si nous supposons que le sens des connecteurs causaux peut être adéquatement décrit en référence à des catégories conceptuelles bien définies, comment pouvons-nous expliquer qu’il y ait une variation dans leur usage réel? Nous mettons l'accent sur les relations de cohérence causale volitionnelle, qui constituent le contexte d'usage prototypique du connecteur néerlandais daarom ‘c'est pourquoi’. Un autre moyen d’expression des relations causales volitionnelles est le recours au connecteur dus ‘alors/donc’ qui est prototypiquement utilisé dans les relations de causalité épistémique. Notre hypothèse est que les relations de causalité volitionnelle exprimées par daarom vs dus diffèrent systématiquement en termes de subjectivité. Nous proposons un modèle d'analyse qui contient de multiples opérationnalisation de la notion de subjectivité et une distinction entre différents niveaux de complexité (sous-clause, clause, et discours. Nous constatons que les relations causales volitionnelles en dus contiennent plus souvent des éléments subjectifs que les relations causales volitionnelles en daarom. Nous interprétons cette distribution au sein d'un cadre théorique fondé sur l'usage (usage-based framework, et nous proposons d'analyser les cas volitionnels de dus comme des instanciations non-prototypiques du sens de dus,qui est donc intrinsèquement subjectif et prototypiquement épistémique.Under a linguistic categorization hypothesis causal connectives are taken as categorization devices. Indeed, corpus studies suggest that

  10. AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS

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    Raj Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.

  11. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20mg/ml of water and methanol extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was taken as a reference standard drug.The anthelmintic activity was observed by gradually increasing the dose of extract. Methanolic extract of Plumbago zeylenica showed higher activity as compared to water extract.

  12. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF NATIVE PLANTS AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nyla; Anwar, Sadaf; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zia, Muhammad Abid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of two medicinally important plants against Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn. (vern. Anar), leaves and roots of Berberis lycium Royle (vern. Sumbal) were tested for their anthelmintic efficacy. Methanolic extracts of the test plants from various plant parts were tested for anthelmintic efficacy against the Haemonchus contortous using albendazole as a reference standard. The results revealed that both the plant extracts exhibited potent anthelmintic activity at concentrations higher than 50 mg/mL when tested against their respective standard drug. In case of Berberis lycium Royle when the results were compared, methanolic roots extracts showed more potent activity as compared to leaves extracts at the same concentration. It was observed that the in vitro anthelmintic potential of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peel and Berberis lyceium Royale root can be used to treat helminth infections after in vivo trails. PMID:26665413

  13. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Chaitanya Sravanthi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The methanolic extract of the crude drug at concentrations of 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml were tested which involve determination of paralysis time and death time. Albendazole was used as standard and it was found that the concentrated methanolic extract (with no traces of solvent of the Hibiscus cannabinus leaves which is used as food in many parts of the world, showed a better anthelminthic activity in comparison with the standard.

  14. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia) with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the...

  15. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACALYPHA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Pal Vishesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract from the Acalypha indica leaves of investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5% of extract were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic activity of ethanol extract of Acalypha indica leaf therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  16. L’usage des lois visant à lutter contre les discriminations raciales en Belgique : une perspective de genre The use of racial antidiscrimination laws in Belgium:a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Carles-Berkowitz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de l’article est d’évaluer l’effectivité des lois visant à lutter contre les discriminations raciales à partir du point de vue du sujet et dans une perspective de genre. L’hypothèse principale est que les femmes et les hommes utilisent le droit de manière différente lorsqu’ils sont confrontés à une discrimination raciale, parce qu’ils développent différentes représentations du droit et ont des expériences différenciées de la discrimination.  L’usage ou le non-usage du droit dépend également de l’identité personnelle et sociale que la personne entend se construire. Pour le démontrer, nous nous appuierons sur des méthodes quantitatives (analyse de la jurisprudence et de dossiers de plainte et qualitatives (entretiens avec des juristes et des plaignants. Les différences par genre seront analysées à trois niveaux : celui de l’expérience différenciée de la discrimination raciale, celui de l’utilisation des ressources, celui enfin, des motivations du recours au droit.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF Clerodendron Inerme

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    Mondal Subhasish

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 30 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme has been reported for the first time.

  18. Anthelmintics – From Discovery to Resistance

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    Adrian J. Wolstenholme

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific meeting entitled ‘Anthelmintics: From Discovery to Resistance’ was held in San Francisco in February 2014. The themes of the meeting were drug discovery, modes of action and resistance. Both human and veterinary parasites were covered in the oral and poster presentations. The attendees were from both academic and industrial backgrounds. In the present article we introduce a number of the papers that emerged from the meeting. Several of the papers covered current drug discovery efforts underway worldwide, with some specific examples focusing on ion channels, protein kinases and cysteine proteases. These efforts included the repurposing of known drugs as well as the discovery of novel actives. Two papers described recently-developed whole-organism screening techniques. Finally, we introduce several papers looking at mechanisms and management of drug resistance in human and veterinary parasites.

  19. Stability during cooking of anthelmintic veterinary drug residues in beef

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Kevin Mark; Whelan, Michelle; Danaher, Martin; Kennedy, David Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anthelmintic drugs are widely used for treatment of parasitic worms in livestock but little is known about the stability of their residues in food under conventional cooking conditions. As part of the European Commission-funded research project ProSafeBeef, cattle were medicated with commercially available anthelmintic preparations, comprising 11 active ingredients (corresponding to 21 marker residues). Incurred meat and liver were cooked by roasting (40 min at 190?C) or...

  20. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    HAQUE RABIUL; MONDAL SUBHASISH; GHOSH PARAG

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml) of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic...

  1. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, Andrew; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Enemark, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has potential as a natural anthelmintic in livestock, however evidence of efficacy against cattle nematodes is lacking. Here, we investigated anthelmintic effects of chicory in stabled calves.METHODS: Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live weight and allocated randomly to 2 groups: chicory (CHI, n=9) and control (CON, n=6). CHI and CON calves were fed with forage chicory silage (cv. Spadona) and hay ad libitum, resp., for 8 weeks. After...

  2. Controlling internal parasites without anthelmintics (a review) OF0132

    OpenAIRE

    KEATINGE, Ray

    1996-01-01

    1.0 Executive summary 1. Internal parasites are a major source of economic loss in grazing ruminants. To a greater or lesser degree, most farms in the UK rely on anthelmintics for control. In most situations these products continue to be highly effective, but anthelmintic resistance is increasing to the limited range of products available, raising serious concerns over the future of worm control. 2. Internal parasites are also of concern on organic farms, where the prophylactic us...

  3. Diagnosis and control of anthelmintic-resistant Parascaris equorum

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    Reinemeyer Craig R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2002, macrocyclic lactone resistance has been reported in populations of Parascaris equorum from several countries. It is apparent that macrocyclic lactone resistance developed in response to exclusive and/or excessively frequent use of ivermectin or moxidectin in foals during the first year of life. The development of anthelmintic resistance was virtually inevitable, given certain biological features of Parascaris and unique pharmacologic characteristics of the macrocyclic lactones. Practitioners can utilize the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris, and the same technique can be applied regularly to confirm the continued efficacy of those drugs currently in use. In the face of macrocyclic lactone resistance, piperazine or anthelmintics of the benzimidazole or pyrimidine classes can be used to control ascarid infections, but Parascaris populations that are concurrently resistant to macrocyclic lactones and pyrimidine drugs have been reported recently from Texas and Kentucky. Compared to traditional practices, future recommendations for ascarid control should feature: 1 use of only those anthelmintics known to be effective against indigenous populations, 2 initiation of anthelmintic treatment no earlier than 60 days of age, and 3 repetition of treatments at the longest intervals which prevent serious environmental contamination with Parascaris eggs. In the interest of decreasing selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, horse owners and veterinarians must become more tolerant of the passage of modest numbers of ascarid eggs by some foals. Anthelmintic resistance is only one of several potential responses to genetic selection. Although still only theoretical, changes in the immunogenicity of ascarid isolates or reduction of their prepatent or egg reappearance periods could pose far greater challenges to effective control than resistance to a single class of anthelmintics.

  4. Effectiveness testing of some vegetal extracts comparing with clasical anthelmintics

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie M.S.,; Darabus Gh.,; Oprescu I,; Morariu S.,; Narcisa Mederle,; Alina lie,; Imre K,; Florica Morariu

    2007-01-01

    We have tested the efficacy of some vegetal extracts (Parazitol –Medica Laboratories, a natural product with an anthelmintic effect and a Cucurbita sp. oil extract) compared to the classic anthelmintics (Rombendazol – Romvac and Dehelman – KRKA Slovenia) at domestic poultry, whose parasitical status had been previously established through animal killing and necropsies. Parazitol and the pumpkin oil have had a lower efficacy than the levamisole and albendazole upon the species Ascaridia galli....

  5. Anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles derived from a phytopathogenic fungus, Nigrospora oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Kar

    Full Text Available Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ∼6 to ∼18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, which are in cubic phase. The FTIR spectroscopic studies before and after the formation of nanoparticles show the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The latter were tested as vermifugal agents against a model cestode Raillietina sp., an intestinal parasite of domestic fowl. Further, ultrastructural and biochemical parameters were used to corroborate the efficacy study.

  6. An inconvenient truth: global worming and anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important. PMID:22154968

  7. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  8. First report of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Angus JD; Charles, Jennifer A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic nematodes can cause substantial clinical and subclinical problems in alpacas and anthelmintics are regularly used to control parasitic nematodes in alpacas. Although anthelmintic resistance has been reported in ruminants worldwide, very little is known about anthelmintic resistance in alpacas. The present study was carried out to confirm a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia. Methods Post mortem examination of an alpac...

  9. A report on anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora leaves

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    Jinu John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora L. leaves were evaluated for anthelmintic property using the Indian adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma as a model. Among the earthworms the ethyl acetate fraction was potent. The results were compared with a standard drug, albendazole. The phytochemical analysis of both extracts showed the presence of phenolics like flavonoids and tannins as well as anthraquinones, which may be the active principle. The present study confirms the ethno-medicinal report of the plant as an anthelmintic drug.

  10. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  11. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa U; Amrutia Jay N; Katharotiya Reena; Moses Semuel Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation) as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform ex...

  12. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu...

  13. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.

    2012-01-01

    A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America.

  14. Anthelmintic drugs and nematicides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect many species of animals throughout the phyla, including humans. Moreover, nematodes that parasitise plants are a global problem for agriculture. As such, these nematodes place a major burden on human health, on livestock production, on the welfare of companion animals and on crop production. In the 21st century there are two major challenges posed by the wide-spread prevalence of parasitic nematodes. First, many anthelmintic drugs are losing their effectiveness because nematode strains with resistance are emerging. Second, serious concerns regarding the environmental impact of the nematicides used for crop protection have prompted legislation to remove them from use, leaving agriculture at increased risk from nematode pests. There is clearly a need for a concerted effort to address these challenges. Over the last few decades the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided the opportunity to use molecular genetic techniques for mode of action studies for anthelmintics and nematicides. These approaches continue to be of considerable value. Less fruitful so far, but nonetheless potentially very useful, has been the direct use of C. elegans for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery programmes. Here we provide an introduction to the use of C. elegans as a 'model' parasitic nematode, briefly review the study of nematode control using C. elegans and highlight approaches that have been of particular value with a view to facilitating wider-use of C. elegans as a platform for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery and development. PMID:25517625

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in non-strongylid parasites of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2012-04-19

    Since 2002, selected populations of Parascaris equorum in several countries have been reported to survive treatment with macrocyclic lactone (M/L) anthelmintics. Clinical treatment failures are characterized by negligible fecal egg count reduction, but M/L resistance has been confirmed in ascarids by controlled efficacy testing. Resistance was selected by current parasite control practices for foals, which often include exclusive and excessively frequent use of M/L dewormers, thereby minimizing refugia within the host and in the environment. Chemical control of M/L-resistant isolates can be accomplished with pyrimidine and/or benzimidazole anthelmintics, but a few M/L-resistant populations have recently exhibited resistance to pyrantel pamoate as well. Some specimens of Oxyuris equi regularly survive treatment with macrocyclic lactones, but it is uncertain whether this constitutes resistance or merely confirms the incomplete oxyuricidal efficacy of virtually all broad spectrum equine anthelmintics. Variations in other biological parameters of Oxyuris and Parascaris, specifically atypical infection of older hosts and shorter prepatent periods, have been reported anecdotally. These changes may represent genetic modifications that have evolved in parallel with resistance as a result of anthelmintic selection pressure. PMID:22078748

  16. Metabolic pathways of benzimidazole anthelmintics in harebell (Campanula rotundifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlíková, Lucie; Jirásko, Robert; Skálová, Lenka; Pavlík, František; Szotáková, Barbora; Holčapek, Michal; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2016-08-01

    Benzimidazoles anthelmintics, which enter into environment primarily through excretion in the feces or urine of treated animals, can affect various organisms and disrupt ecosystem balance. The present study was designed to test the phytotoxicity and biotransformation of the three benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ), fenbendazole (FBZ) and flubendazole (FLU) in the harebell (Campanula rotundifolia). This meadow plant commonly grows in pastures and comes into contact with anthelmintics through the excrements of treated animals. Suspensions of harebell cells in culture medium were used as an in vitro model system. ABZ, FLU and FBZ were not found to be toxic for harebell cells, which were able to metabolize ABZ, FLU and FBZ via the formation of a wide scale of metabolites. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) led to the identification of 24, 18 and 29 metabolites of ABZ, FLU and FBZ, respectively. Several novel metabolites were identified for the first time. Based on the obtained results, the schemes of the metabolic pathways of these anthelmintics were proposed. Most of these metabolites can be considered deactivation products, but a substantial portion of them may readily be decomposed to biologically active substances which could negatively affect ecosystems. PMID:27208642

  17. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  18. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Signe A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137 with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6% and other Nematodirus species (15.0%. Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92% tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg. AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  19. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C

    2014-07-30

    The first documented case of macrocyclic lactone resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of cattle was seen in the US approximately 10 years ago. Since that time the increase incidence of anthelmintic resistance has continued at an alarming rate. Currently parasites of the genera Cooperia and/or Haemonchus resistant to generic or brand-name macrocyclic lactones have be demonstrated in more than half of all operations examined. Both of these parasite genera are capable of causing economic losses by decreasing food intake and subsequently animal productivity. Currently, there are no easy and quick means to detect anthelmintic resistant GI nematodes. Definitive identification requires killing of cattle. The most commonly used field detection method is the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This method can be adapted for use as a screening agent for Veterinarians and producers to identify less than desired clearance of the parasites after anthelmintic treatment. Further studies can then define the reasons for persistence of the egg counts. The appearance of anthelmintic resistance is largely due to the development of very effective nematode control programs that have significantly improved the productivity of the US cattle industry, but at the same time has placed a high level of selective pressure on the parasite genome. The challenges ahead include the development of programs that control the anthelmintic resistant nematodes but at the same time result in more sustainable parasite control. The goal is to maintain high levels of productivity but to exert less selective pressures on the parasites. One of the most effective means to slow the development of drug resistance is through the simultaneous use of multiple classes of anthelmintics, each of which has a different mode of action. Reduction of the selective pressure on the parasites can be attained through a more targeted approach to drug treatments where the producer's needs are met by selective

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  1. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, Andrew; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    BACKGROUND: Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has potential as a natural anthelmintic in livestock, however evidence of efficacy against cattle nematodes is lacking. Here, we investigated anthelmintic effects of chicory in stabled calves. METHODS: Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live...... weight and allocated randomly to 2 groups: chicory (CHI, n=9) and control (CON, n=6). CHI and CON calves were fed with forage chicory silage (cv. Spadona) and hay ad libitum, resp., for 8 weeks. After 2 weeks, calves were infected with 10,000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 65,000 Cooperia oncophora larvae....... Fecal egg counts (FEC) and live weights were assessed weekly. Six weeks after infection, calves were slaughtered for worm recovery. In parallel, total sesquiterpene lactone (SL)-extracts from forage chicory (Spadona and cv. Puna II) were prepared and incubated with first-stage larvae (L1) of O...

  2. Effectiveness testing of some vegetal extracts comparing with clasical anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie M.S.,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We have tested the efficacy of some vegetal extracts (Parazitol –Medica Laboratories, a natural product with an anthelmintic effect and a Cucurbita sp. oil extract compared to the classic anthelmintics (Rombendazol – Romvac and Dehelman – KRKA Slovenia at domestic poultry, whose parasitical status had been previously established through animal killing and necropsies. Parazitol and the pumpkin oil have had a lower efficacy than the levamisole and albendazole upon the species Ascaridia galli. Heterakis gallinarum was not affected by the pumpkin oil. Parazitol have a moderate efficacy (36%, while levamisole and albendazole were very efficient (100%. The treatments with albendazole upon the cestods belonging to the genus Raillietina have had a 100% efficacy. In cestods, Parazitol had a better efficacy (57% than the pumpkin oil (14%.

  3. Anthelmintic cyclcooctadepsipeptides: complex in structure and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, Jürgen; Harder, Achim; Jeschke, Peter; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent; Welz, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2012-09-01

    The broad-spectrum anthelmintic cyclooctadepsipeptide PF1022A is a fungal metabolite from Rosellinia sp. PF1022, which is a Mycelia sterilia found on the leaves of Camellia japonica. A broad range of structurally related cyclooctadepsipeptides has been characterized and tested for anthelmintic activities. These metabolites have been used as starting points to generate semisynthetic derivatives with varying nematocidal capacity. Predominant among these compounds is emodepside, which exhibits a broad nematocidal potential against gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites. Here we review the chemical biology and mode of action of cyclooctadepsides with particular attention to PF1022A and emodepside. We illustrate how they target nematode neuromuscular function, opening up new avenues for antiparasitic treatments with potential capability for important selective toxicity. PMID:22858281

  4. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

  5. Parasite diversity and anthelmintic resistance in two herds of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K E; Garza, V; Snowden, K; Dobson, R J; Powell, D; Craig, T M

    1999-08-31

    Diversity of parasite populations was compared between two herds of horses, one a regularly treated herd the other a feral herd which has bad no anthelmintic treatment for at least 25 years. Eggs obtained from fecal samples of both herds were tested for anthelmintic resistance by use of an in-vitro larval hatch/development assay (LDA), DrenchRite. A fecal egg reduction test was also performed with the domesticated herd using fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin. Cyathostomes were the predominant group of worms present in both herds. Trichostrongylus axei was seen in both herds, but Strongylus equinus, Strongylus vulgaris, Gyalocephalus capitatus, Poteriostomum spp. and Strongyloides westeri were only found in the feral horses. Larvae of Strongylus edentatus were found in a single domesticated horse. Fecal egg reduction tests with the domesticated herd showed a 32% egg count reduction for fenbendazole, a 93% reduction with pyrantel, and a 99% reduction with ivermectin. From the LDA, anthelmintic resistance was evaluated by determining the resistance ratio of the domesticated herd compared with the feral herd. For benzimidazoles in the domesticated herd, 45% of the cyathostome population was 9.4 times more tolerant than the feral herd's parasite population. The parasite population in the domesticated herd was 1.5 times more tolerant to Levamisole, and 1.7 times more tolerant to the benzimidazole/levamisole combination than the parasite population within the feral herd. 9% of the parasite population in the domesticated herd was 90 times more tolerant to avermectins than the feral herd's parasite population, even though a subpopulation of worms in the feral herd were tolerant to low concentrations of avermectins despite never being previously exposed to this class of anthelmintic. PMID:10485366

  6. Anthelmintic drugs and nematocides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Holden-Dye, L.; Walker, R

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect many species of animals throughout the phyla, including humans. Moreover, nematodes that parasitise plants are a global problem for agriculture. As such, these nematodes place a major burden on human health, on livestock production, on the welfare of companion animals and on crop production. In the 21st century there are two major challenges posed by the wide-spread prevalence of parasitic nematodes. First, many anthelmintic drugs are losing their effectiveness beca...

  7. Anthelmintics Are Substrates and Activators of Nematode P Glycoprotein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kerboeuf, Dominique; Guégnard, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    P glycoproteins (Pgp), members of the ABC transporter superfamily, play a major role in chemoresistance. In nematodes, Pgp are responsible for resistance to anthelmintics, suggesting that they are Pgp substrates, as they are in mammalian cells. However, their binding to nematode Pgp and the functional consequences of this interaction have not been investigated. Our study showed that levamisole and most of the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are Pgp substrates in nematodes. Ivermectin, although a v...

  8. INVESTIGATION OF IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF Clerodendron Inerme

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal Subhasish; Ghosh Parag; Das Debasish; Haque Rabiul

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml) of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmin...

  9. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform extract was more potent compared to other extracts.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of steroidal saponins from Paris polyphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G-X; Han, J; Zhao, L-W; Jiang, D-X; Liu, Y-T; Liu, X-L

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of crude extracts and pure compounds from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla. The methanol extract showed a promising anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (EC(50) value=18.06 mg l(-¹). Based on these finding, the methanol extract was fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation affording two known steroidal saponins showing potent activity, dioscin and polyphyllin D. Both dioscin and polyphyllin D exhibited significant activity against D. intermedius with EC(50) values of 0.44 and 0.70 mg l(-¹), respectively, which were more effective than the positive control, mebendazole (EC(50) value=1.25 mg l(-¹)). The acute toxicities (LC(50)) of dioscin and polyphyllin D for goldfish were 1.37 and 1.08 mg l(-¹), respectively. These results indicated that P. polyphylla extract and the isolated compounds are potential natural agents for the control of Dactylogyrus infestation. This is the first report on in vivo anthelmintic investigation for P. polyphylla. PMID:20576414

  11. Anthelmintic residues in goat and sheep dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedziniak Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.

  12. Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Bari, Pranit; P M Chawan

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses about web usage mining involves the automatic discovery of user access patterns from one or more Web servers. This article provides a survey and analysis of current Web usage mining systems and technologies. The paper also confers about the procedure in which the web usage mining of the data sets is carried out. Finally the paper concludes with the areas in which web usage mining is implemented

  13. Student Empowerment Through Internet Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    in a University in Southern India to empower the female students through Internet usage. The study was done to find out the problems the woman students faced in gaining access and using Internet and how they can be empowered through Internet usage. Future workshop was conducted to find out the problems...... and reflecting. The paper will explore the various cultural issues and explicate how the social context plays a major role in the use of Internet even if there is sufficient access. These issues will be addressed from an empowerment perspective. The paper ends by recommending the methods to be adopted for more......Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been widely recognized as a tool for human development (UNDP 2001). The rate at which ICT are growing is changing the way knowledge is developed, acquired and delivered. (Tongia, et al. 2005) Internet is one of the Information & Communication...

  14. Anthelmintic effect of condensed tannins in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminthiasis infections are considerate one of the main limiting factors in sheep production worldwide. The development of parasite resistance to anthelmintics has caused significant losses of small ruminant production. In the search for new alternatives for effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, phytotherapy is a promising field of research in an attempt to reduce the usage of chemical treatments, aimed at ecological production. Many plants play a crucial role in maintaining animal and human life. During human evolution many interactions with other organisms were established and they have affected each other in many ways. Plants have developed biochemical mechanisms to defend themselves from biological antagonists that act as their natural enemies. This principle has led scientists to search for bio-active compounds produced by plants against pathogens. Since these discovers their metabolites are evaluated against diseases of importance not only in public health, but also in animal production. This article presents a review of studies with tanniniferous plants scientifically tested worldwide for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in ruminants.

  15. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAWSONIA INERMIS LEAF EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Sarojini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To know the anthelmintic activity of leaves of Lawsonia inermis, we used maceration method of extraction using solvents like ethanol and methanol. Each extract was tested for anthelminthic activity by following standard method .The ethanolic and methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity in dose dependant manner. We found that the ethanolic as well as methanolic extracts were more potent than the positive control as far as their anthelmintic activity was concerned. To correlate phytochemical screening with anthelmintic activity, phytochemical evaluation of the extract was also performed. From our result it may be mentioned that the ethanolic extract was potent as anthelmintic agent due to the presence of glycosides, terpenoids and flavonoids. On the other hand, the methanolic extract was effective probably due to the involvement of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids and flavonoids.

  16. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs. The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively, but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  17. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascaris...... suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Methanol extracts were prepared and purified from two different cultivars of chicory (Spadona and Puna II). Marked differences were observed between the anthelmintic activity of extracts from the two cultivars. Spadona extracts had potent activity against A. suum...... anthelmintic activity of forage chicory towards swine nematodes. Our results indicate a significant anthelmintic effect, which may possibly be related to SL composition....

  18. The Current State Of Secondary Resource Usage In Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Makovetska

    2011-01-01

    The state and the perspectives of the development of secondary resource usage in Ukraine have been analyzed in the article. The level of the main types recyclable materials as paper and cardboard, glass, plastics, waste tires are considered. Priority directions of development of the secondary resources usage have been defined.

  19. Evaluation of tests for anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, J F; Power, M L; Sangster, N C; Hodgson, J L; Hodgson, D R

    2002-07-01

    Resistance, especially to the anthelmintic benzimidazoles (BZ), has been reported in horse cyathostomes world-wide. Diagnosis of resistance has traditionally been made by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) trials, however, this technique has limitations. Some of the shortcomings may be resolved by refining the test or by using an in vitro test. FECR tests and the larval development assay (LDA) were performed on adult horses held on 15 different horse properties across a wide geographical area of NSW, Australia. FECR were measured before and 10-14 after days treatment with oxibendazole (OBZ), morantel (MOR) or ivermectin (IVM) at recommended dose rates. Eight properties were rejected following low pre-treatment egg counts, leaving seven in the study. On these, the majority of larvae recovered from faecal cultures were cyathostomes. Using a definition of resistance as a FECR of horse egg counts pre- and post-treatment was developed and results from the same properties compared with the results of the LDA. For example, for the BZ, correlation coefficients of values of lethal concentration to kill 50% of population (LC50) on LDA and FECR percentages were -0.536 before and -0.704 after OBZ treatment. We conclude that the LDA has the potential to be a single visit test for detection of anthelmintic resistance in horse cyathostomes but requires further investigation and standardisation. PMID:12079739

  20. Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Benkovská, Petra

    2007-01-01

    General characteristic of web mining including methodology and procedures incorporated into this term. Relation to other areas (data mining, artificial intelligence, statistics, databases, internet technologies, management etc.) Web usage mining - data sources, data pre-processing, characterization of analytical methods and tools, interpretation of outputs (results), and possible areas of usage including examples. Suggestion of solution method, realization and a concrete example's outputs int...

  1. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  2. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  3. Asymptotic Resource Usage Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Albert E.; Alonso D.; Arenas P.; Genaim S.; Puebla G.

    2009-01-01

    When describing the resource usage of a program, it is usual to talk in asymptotic terms, such as the well-known “big O” notation, whereby we focus on the behaviour of the program for large input data and make a rough approximation by considering as equivalent programs whose resource usage grows at the same rate. Motivated by the existence of non-asymptotic resource usage analyzers, in this paper, we develop a novel transformation from a non-asymptotic cost function (which can be produced by ...

  4. Characterization of the inflammatory response to anthelmintic treatment in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomin parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Betancourt, Alejandra; Lyons, Eugene T.;

    2013-01-01

    Cyathostomins can cause a severe inflammation of equine large intestine characterized by substantial ventral edema and pronounced protein loss. Anthelmintic treatment of horses can result in a localized inflammatory response in the colonic mucosa of clinically normal horses. The aim of this study was...... to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response of ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins to single dose representatives of three anthelmintic drug classes, namely, oxibendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and moxidectin. Thirty ponies aged between 1 and 18 years of age were allocated to one of three...... anthelmintic treatments groups. Anthelmintic efficacy was evaluated using the fecal egg count reduction test performed weekly between 2 and 8 weeks post-treatment. Inflammatory responses were evaluated on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 14 after treatment using hematology, measurement of the acute phase inflammatory markers...

  5. Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of osthol analogs against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Lu; Hao, Bing; Liu, Shao-Peng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2012-08-01

    In an attempt to develop novel anthelmintic agents, our previously isolated osthol was used as lead structures for further optimization. In our research, a series of coumarin analogs, prepared from 7-hydroxy coumarin or 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, have been evaluated for their anthelmintic activities. In all of the compounds, 6 and 7 were first synthesized, and their structures were identified based on NMR and MS values. Among the candidates, 8-allyl-7-allyloxycoumarin showed better anthelmintic activity than other compounds against Dactylogyrus infestation with EC(50) value of 1.81 mg/L. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of 16 osthol analogs with anthelmintic activity expressed as pEC(50) and toxicity to goldfish expressed pLC(50), such results can offer useful theoretical references for future experimental works. PMID:22749191

  6. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  7. Experiences on the ground: usage statistics as a practical tool in the library

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This one-day training seminar will give a practical hands-on introduction to accessing, collating, utilising, presenting and marketing e-resource usage statistics. Experts from different sectors will provide their perspectives on the role and importance of usage statistics. Future developments in the provision and exploitation of usage statistics will also be covered.

  8. Sainfoin - new data on anthelmintic effects and production in sheep and goats

    OpenAIRE

    Heckendorn, F.; Werne, S.; V. Maurer; Perler, E.; Amsler, Z.; Probst, J.; Zaugg, C.; Krenmeyr, I

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are one of the most important problems affecting health and therefore performance and welfare in small ruminant husbandry. The control of these parasites in the past strongly relied on the repeated use of anthelmintic drugs. This has led to nematode populations which are resistant to most of the currently available anthelmintics. Furthermore customer’s demands for organic and residue free animal products are increasing. The aforementioned problems have given a...

  9. Sainfoin – New Data on Anthelmintic Effects and Production in Sheep and Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Werne, S.; V. Maurer; Perler, E.; Amsler, Z.; Probst, J.; Zaugg, C.; Krenmayr, I.; Schwery, M.; Volken, H.; Heckendorn, F.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are one of the most important problems affecting health and therefore performance and welfare in small ruminant husbandry. The control of these parasites in the past strongly relied on the repeated use of anthelmintic drugs. This has led to nematode populations which are resistant to most of the currently available anthelmintics. Furthermore customer’s demands for organic and residue free animal products are increasing. The aforementioned problems have given a...

  10. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Niaz; Aleem, Umer; Ali Shah, Syed Wadood; Shah, Ismail; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ghayour; Ali, Waqar; Ghias, Mehreen

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on sh...

  11. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

    OpenAIRE

    Das, S S; Monalisha Dey; Ghosh, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death t...

  12. Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity

    OpenAIRE

    M L Vijaya Kumar; Thippeswamy, B.; I L Kuppust; Naveenkumar, K. J.; C K Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: ...

  13. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    OpenAIRE

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal componen...

  14. Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, Anas; Qarallah, Bassam; Al-Ramamneh, Diya; Daş, Gürbüz

    2012-08-13

    The use of phytogenic bioactive compounds to control poultry helminthes is increasing in different production systems. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of citrus peels against Ascaridia galli was investigated. Ethanolic extracts of three citrus peels species were suspended in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an experimental composition (EC). EC was mainly composed of Limonene (96%), followed by β-Pinene (1.5%), α-Pinene (0.5%), and Sabinene (0.3%). For in vitro investigation, adult A. galli worms (n=225) were collected from naturally infected chickens and distributed to 3 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed to Fenbendazole (0.5mg/ml), EC (50mg/ml), and 0.5% DMSO, respectively. For in vivo investigation, 200 Lohmann Selected Leghorns chicks were infected at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. At 6 weeks of age, 150 A. galli infected birds were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with 300, 600, and 1200 mg EC kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Group 4 was treated with Fenbendazole (50 mg kg(-1)). Group 5 was left as control. Birds were euthanized 2-weeks post-treatment, and all worms were collected from their intestines. EC possessed significant (P0.05) difference was quantified between number of motile worms exposed either to EC or Fenbendazole 7h post-exposure. A significant (Pgalli burden (Efficacy=97%) followed by 1200 mg EC kg(-1) (68%), 600 mg EC kg(-1) (66%), and 300 mg EC kg(-1) (5%). It is concluded that citrus peels extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. PMID:22463876

  15. Chapitre I. Les usagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Anne-Marie; Burgos, Martine; Poissenot, Claude; Privat, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Selon l’enquête « L’expérience et l’image des bibliothèques municipales », 25,7 % de Français fréquentent une bibliothèque municipale. Ce premier chapitre veut dresser un portrait synthétique de cette population d’usagers. Dans le chapitre III, nous reviendrons plus en détail sur deux sous-populations qui la composent, celles des usagers inscrits (18,3 %) et des usagers non-inscrits (7,4 %). 1. Profils Qui sont les usagers des bibliothèques municipales ? En quoi leurs profils (leur âge, leur ...

  16. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Ramos; Luiza Pires Portella; Fernando de Souza Rodrigues; Caroline Zamperete Reginato; Luciana Pötter; Alfredo Skrebsky Cezar; Luís Antônio Sangioni; Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul...

  17. 基于游客视角的旅游社会媒体使用收益分析%A Tourists’ Perspective on the Usage Benefits of Tourism Social Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方佳明; 祖亚玲; 朱文龙

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of social media, more and more tourists come to adopt a range of social media to plan their tourism projects and acquire travel experience. Despite the tourism enterprises’ growing enthusiasm about travelling social media, yet little is presently known about the relevant usage benefits determining the usage for the specific purpose of travel planning and travel experience sharing. This study devised 19 usage benefits indicators from the perspective of tourists. We collected data using surveys and employed the analytic hierarchy process method (AHP) to sort the importance of these indicators. The results show that the benefit of real time communication is a dominant benefit. Specifically, information preservation, information disclosure to enhance the transparency and personal reputation promotion are the three important benefits by using tourism social media.%随着社会媒体的蓬勃发展,越来越多的旅游者开始使用各类社会化媒体规划旅游项目,获取和分享各类旅游经验与攻略。但现有研究尚未对游客使用社会化媒体主要关注的收益进行过分析,导致现有的旅游社会媒体客户端开发过程中对客户的需求了解不足,社会媒体产品存在功能千篇一律且无法满足消费者使用需求的现象。有鉴于此,研究从游客视角出发设计出19个收益指标。通过问卷调查的方法收集了游客层面的数据,并使用层次分析法(AHP)对这些指标的重要性进行了排序。研究结果发现相对于关系维护收益和群组聚集收益,即时沟通收益是消费者在使用旅游社会媒体过程中更为重要的感知收益;信息保存、信息公开透明化和知名度提升是游客使用旅游社会化媒体获取的三项重要收益。研究结果有助于有针对性地设计开发符合消费者需要的社会化媒体产品,改善社会媒体平台下游客参与率不高的现状。

  18. Credit Card Usage and Knowledge in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sangsutisearee, Wanna

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the characteristics of credit card holders and the extent of credit card usage, the level of credit card knowledge, and the consumer's choice perspectives. The characteristics of credit card holders studied were (a) gender, (b) age, (c) marital status, (d) education, (e) income, and (f) occupation. Data for this study were collected in Bangkok, Thailand by telephone interviews during July- August 1993. The sample consisted of 1...

  19. Anthelmintic effects of Oroxylum indicum stem bark extract on juvenile and adult stages of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, traditional usage of herbal medicines is a common practice to treat various parasitic infections. In India, bark decoction of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz. (Bignoniaceae) is used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections. This study investigated the anthelmintic efficacy of methanolic bark extract of O. indicum on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Utilizing a mini-questionnaire, first, we collected information about the pattern of anthelmintic use of this plant. Later, in vitro efficacy of extract was tested at 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml on both the artificially excysted juveniles and adult H. diminuta worms. Herein, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also utilized to determine the possible effects of extract on tegumental surfaces of juvenile and adult cestode. In vivo, extract was tested at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in H. diminuta albino rat model, against juvenile and adult cestode. Praziquantel (PZQ) served as reference drug in anthelmintic assays. The acute toxicity of extract was determined as per the OECD guidelines. The field questionnaire data revealed that 78 % of people in the area use O. indicum stem bark against intestinal helminths, and of these, 75 % of people also believed it highly efficacious anthelmintic remedy. In vitro testing of extract revealed significant effects on juvenile worms, and 30 mg/ml of extract caused mortality of juveniles at the initial period (0.25 ± 0.00 h). Conversely, PZQ (1 mg/ml) showed paralysis and mortality of juvenile cestodes in 0.44 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.06 h, respectively. As determined by SEM, in vitro exposure to extract showed substantial effects on both juveniles and adult worms in the form of wrinkled scolex, distorted tegument and eroded microtriches. In vivo study revealed better efficacy of extract against juveniles than adult stages of parasite. Treatment of rats with 1000 mg/kg of extract caused 79.3 % reduction in

  20. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  1. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum Thapsus Mullein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Methods V. thapsus extracts were tested against roundworms (Ascaridia galli and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis. Each species of worm was placed into a negative control group, an albendazole treatment group, or a V. thapsus treatment group, and the time taken for paralysis and death was determined. In addition, relaxation activity tests were performed on sections of rabbit's jejunum. Plant extracts were tested on KCl-induced contractions and the relaxation activities were quantified against atropine. V. thapsus calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of the plant extracts. Results We detected flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fixed oils in V. thapsus. For both species of worm, paralysis occurred fastest at the highest concentration of extract. The relative index values for paralysis in A. galli were 4.58, 3.41 and 2.08, at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml of plant extract, respectively. The relative index for death in A. galli suggested that V. thapsus extract is wormicidal at high concentration. Similarly, the relative indexes for paralysis and death in R. spiralis suggested that the extract is a more potent wormicidal agent than albendazole. The mean EC50 relaxation activity values for spontaneous and KCl induced contractions were 7.5 ± 1.4 mg/ml (6.57-8.01, n = 6 and 7.9 ± 0.41 mg/ml (7.44-8.46, n = 6, respectively. The relaxation activity of the extract was 11.42 ± 2, 17.0 ± 3, 28.5 ± 4, and 128.0 ± 7% of the maximum observed for atropine at corresponding concentrations. The calcium chloride curves showed that V. thapsus extracts (3 mg/ml, had a mean EC50 (log molar [calcium] value of -1.9 ± 0

  2. In vitro anthelmintic activity of three medicinal plants against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eguale Tadesse

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of anthelmintic resistance and the high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs led to the evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in-vitro experiments were conducted to determine the possible anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lawsonia inermis and seeds of Jatropha curcas, on eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus. Both extracts of C. ambrosioides and J. curcas inhibited the hatching of eggs at a concentration less than or equal to 2mg/ml, while the effect of L. inermis was not dose-dependent and did not inhibit the hatching of eggs of H. contortus, significantly, at all tested concentrations. Based on their ED 50 , the two most potent extracts using egg hatch assay were the hydroalcoholic extract of C. ambrosioides (0.09mg/ml and the aqueous extract of J. curcas (0.1mg/ml in a decreasing order of potency. With regard to the effect of extracts on the survival of adult parasites, extracts from C. ambrosioides have shown a moderate effect, while J. curcas and L. inermis have shown no statistically significant effect on the survival of adult parasites at the concentrations tested, and the few mortality cases recorded were not dose-dependent ( P < 0.05. The overall findings of the present study have shown that C. ambrosioides and J. curcas contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out.

  3. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  4. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against Hymenolepis microstoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections in vivo. Hymenolepis microstoma is a natural parasite of house mice, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of novel drugs for anthelmintic activity against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of H. microstoma infections in mice with the supernatant of papaya latex (PLS), containing active cysteine proteinases, is only minimally efficacious. The statistically significant effects seen on worm burden and biomass showed little evidence of dose dependency, were temporary and the role of cysteine proteinases as the active principles in PLS was not confirmed by specific inhibition with E-64. Worm fecundity was not affected by treatment at the doses used. We conclude also that this in vivo host-parasite system is not sensitive enough to be used reliably for the detection of cestocidal activity of compounds being screened as potential, novel anthelmintics. PMID:25226116

  5. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  6. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  7. Phyto chemical Screening, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anthelmintic Activity of Morinda citrifolia stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D. Gopala Krishna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni stem were subjected to preliminary screening for Antimicrobial and Aanthelmintic activity. The alcoholic extract exhibited significant Anti bacterial, Antifungal activity, comparable to the standard drug Tetracycline. The Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract were evaluated for Anthelmintic activity on adult Indian Earthworms, ‘Pheretima posithuma’. The Alcoholic extract produced more significant Anthelmintic activity than Petroleum ether extract and the activities are comparable with the reference drug Piperazine citrate

  8. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodriguez, J J; Torrado, J; Bolás, F

    2001-06-01

    The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC) compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC) was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms) and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae). Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO) enantiomer (-) were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC. PMID:11484352

  9. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  10. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rodriguez J.J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae. Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO enantiomer (– were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC.

  11. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Lagenaria Siceraria Leaves in Indian Adult Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Two concentrations (50 and 100 mg/ml of various extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Albendazole (20 mg/ml was used as reference standard and carboxy methyl cellulose (0.5% as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in the plant extracts but methanolic extract exhibited more activity as compared to others. The anthelmintic activity of Lagenaria sicerarialeaves extract has therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Johnson, Shylo R; Stallard, Melissa D; McGrew, Ashley K; Page, L Kristen; Crider, Nikki; Ballweber, Lora R; Swihart, Robert K; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic helminth with the potential to cause severe or fatal infection. Raccoons thrive in human-dominated landscapes, and the fecal-oral transmission pathway and lack of effective treatment make B. procyonis a serious threat to public health. The distribution of medicinal baits has emerged as a socially acceptable and cost-effective method for managing disease in free-ranging wildlife. We assessed the suitability of a mass-producible anthelmintic bait for B. procyonis mitigation by evaluating the willingness of free-ranging raccoons to consume anthelmintic baits and determining whether bait consumption successfully cleared B. procyonis infections from raccoons. Anthelmintic baits were modified from standard fishmeal polymer baits, the food attractant commonly used in oral rabies vaccine baits, with the introduction of 220 mg of pyrantel pamoate into the fishmeal mixture. We captured 16 naturally infected raccoons, presented one anthelmintic bait, and monitored B. procyonis infection over 90 d by screening feces for eggs. Treatment cleared B. procyonis infections for nine of 12 raccoons that consumed >10 g of the 15 g bait. We used remote cameras to monitor in situ patterns of bait consumption for anthelmintic baits relative to standard baits. Both anthelmintic and standard baits were rapidly consumed, with no differences in the rate of consumption between bait types. However, after bait contact, raccoons demonstrated a greater willingness to consume standard baits while ignoring anthelmintic baits more frequently (P = 0.06). Initial trials of anthelmintic baits show promise, although refinement in both dose and palatability is needed. At mass production scales, the addition of pyrantel pamoate to fishmeal polymer baits would be inexpensive, potentially making anthelmintic baits a viable management option when coupled with an oral rabies vaccine or used independently

  13. Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, B; Peltola, S-M

    2015-11-01

    There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged < 3 years from four stables in Estonia. Faecal samples were collected, and horses were selected for treatment if the nematode egg count per gram faeces exceeded 200. Horses (n= 32) that shed strongyle-type eggs were treated with pyrantel, whereas Parascaris equorum-positive animals received ivermectin. Up to 78% of horses required anthelmintic treatment and the efficiency of the anthelmintics was evaluated using a faecal egg count reduction test. Resistance of P. equorum was observed in 50% of horses treated with ivermectin and of strongyles in 27% of horses treated with pyrantel. Ivermectin treatment resulted in a mean reduction of 100% for strongyle eggs and an 89% reduction in P. equorum, and pyrantel-treated horses exhibited an 88% reduction in strongyle eggs. These results are considered to be the first indication of resistance to pyrantel, but further studies of ivermectin resistance are required. According to questionnaires completed by the owners of horses, resistance might be explained by a lack of evidence-based strategies, a strong preference for using ivermectin and possibly a subjective evaluation of the body weight of horses. PMID:25007041

  14. New Method for Analysis of Multiple Anthelmintic Residues in Animal Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the first time, 39 of the major anthelmintics can be detected in one rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method, including the flukicides, which have been generally overlooked in surveillance programs. Utilizing the QuEChERS approach, residues were extracted from liver and milk using acetonitrile, sod...

  15. 21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life cycle of the pinworm. (d) A commentary on the ways in which... approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0910-0232) ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug...

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  17. Anthelmintic potential of chicory forage is influenced by sesquiterpene lactone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Chicory leaves contain lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the amounts of these three SLs vary among cultivars. The objective of this study was...

  18. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit on Ascaridia galli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Danilo R Barros; Fernandes, Rozeverter Moreno; Fernandes, Maria Zenaide de Lima C M; Ferreira, Marcos Daniel de S; Rolim, Fernanda R L; da Silva Filho, Manoel L

    2009-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit (noni) was evaluated in chicken naturally infected by Ascaridia galli. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adult parasites. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were used in the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL(-1) and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), respectively. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of 10 mL.kg(-1) of the aqueous (50.1 mg.mL(-1)) and ethanolic (24.6 mg.mL(-1)) extracts during three consecutive days. Later the chickens were euthanized and necropsy was performed in order to count the remaining helminths. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the concentrations of 13.48 and 26.96 mg.mL(-1), the aqueous extract demonstrated mortality of 46.67 and 50%, respectively, there was a significative difference from the negative control (P 0.05). It follows that the anthelmintic activity of noni fruit test showed satisfactory results in vitro, there is a need for studies in higher concentrations in the in vivo test. PMID:20040206

  19. Acute toxicity of praziquantel (an anthelmintic) to grass carp and golden shiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praziquantel is an anthelmintic that can be applied to the water to kill tapeworm and trematode parasites in fish. Effective praziquantel treatment rates have been determined but there is little information on the toxicity of this chemical to fish hosts of the parasites. Acute praziquantel toxicit...

  20. Evaluation of Anthelmintic activity of Uncaria gambier Roxb. against Pheretima posthuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Patil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of leaves & shoots extract of Uncaria gambier Roxb. The alcoholic extract of Uncaria gambier Roxb. & its ethyl acetate fraction at different concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100 mg/ml were tested on Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma by in vitro standard procedure. Time of paralysis and time of death of the worms were considered as the parameters to assess the anthelmintic action. Albendazole and 2% w/v gum acacia in distilled water were used as standard and control respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction of alcoholic extract exhibited potent anthelmintic activity compared to alcoholic extract as evidenced by significant decrease in time of paralysis & death. The observed activity could be due to the presence to phenolic compounds, particularly flavonoids in the test extract. These in vitro studies indicated that the Uncaria gambier Roxb. is a significant source of natural anthelmintic, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various parasitic disorders.

  1. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Sreejith; N Kannappan; A Santhiagu; Ajith P Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results: Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P Conclusions:The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  2. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  3. Efficacy of two cyclooctadepsipeptides, PF1022A and emodepside, against anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Harder, A; Sangster, N C; Coles, G C

    2005-03-01

    Resistance against the major currently available anthelmintics has reached a critical level in many small ruminant herds world-wide, and is increasingly becoming a problem in horses and cattle. Therefore, new products with different modes of action are urgently needed. Recently, such a new class of compounds, the anthelmintically active cyclooctadepsipeptides, was described. Here, the effects of cyclooctadepsipeptides on benzimidazole-, levamisole- and ivermectin-resistant populations of Haemonchus contortus in sheep as well as an ivermectin-resistant Cooperia oncophora population in cattle were studied. Experimentally infected sheep and cattle were used. Animals were treated orally, subcutaneously, or intravenously with cyclooctadepsipeptides. The anthelmintic effects were assessed by means of fecal egg count reductions and/or worm count reductions. Both, PF1022A and emodepside were found to be fully effective against these parasite populations. These findings confirm that this new class of compounds acts by a different mode of action compared to the above-mentioned anthelmintics. PMID:15796017

  4. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Peña-Espinoza, Miguel A; Boas, Ulrik; Simonsen, Henrik T; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-05-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Methanol extracts were prepared and purified from two different cultivars of chicory (Spadona and Puna II). Marked differences were observed between the anthelmintic activity of extracts from the two cultivars. Spadona extracts had potent activity against A. suum third (L3) and fourth (L4) - stage larvae, as well as O. dentatum L4 and adults, whereas Puna II extracts had less activity against A. suum and no activity towards O. dentatum L4. Transmission-electron microscopy of A. suum L4 exposed to Spadona extracts revealed only subtle changes, perhaps indicative of a specific anthelmintic effect rather than generalized toxicity. Ultra-high liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the purified extracts were rich in sesquiterpene lactones (SL), and that the SL profile differed significantly between cultivars. This is the first report of anthelmintic activity of forage chicory towards swine nematodes. Our results indicate a significant anthelmintic effect, which may possibly be related to SL composition. PMID:26935644

  5. Quelles analyses de l’usage des moteurs de recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Ihadjadene, Madjid; Chaudiron, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Les évaluations des moteurs de recherche sur l’internet sont généralement effectuées selon trois approches : sous l’angle de leurs performances globales, en s’inscrivant dans le paradigme des tests de Cranfield ou encore selon la perspective de l’analyse du comportement de l’usager durant la session d’interrogation. Cette contribution se focalisera sur la démarche de consultation des usagers, l’identification des difficultés qu’ils rencontrent, l’exploration des modes d’appropriation des outi...

  6. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna. PMID:25189803

  7. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Oliver; Enemark, Heidi L.; Mueller-Harvey, I.;

    2013-01-01

    Some plant secondary metabolites as tannins have direct anthelminthic properties and may play a role in the control of nematodes in livestock. However, their great diversity in structural characteristics and different levels of content in plants are responsible for a highly variable response in...... anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between tannin structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (m......DP), prodelphinidin/procyanidin (PC/PD) ratio and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. Tannins diluted in two concentrations in water, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), positive (ivermectin) and negative (water) controls were examined by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) with first stage larvae (L1) of...

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BARK OF HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of ethanolic and aqueous extract of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia using Eisenia foetida. Various concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extract were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Piperazine Citrate (10 mg/ml was included as standard. The results indicated that the ethanolic and aqueous extract significantly demonstrated paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at higher concentration as compared to standard references. In conclusion, the use of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity.

  9. In Vitro Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Activity Of Gymnema sylvestre Leaves Against Pheretima posthuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Srinath Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre has been used as a traditional medicinal plant to prevent diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity of hot and cold hydroalcoholic extracts of Gymnema sylvestre leaves against Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (25-500 mg/ml of hot and cold hydroalcoholic extracts of Gymnema sylvestre were evaluated in the bioassay involving determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Albendazole was used as standard anthelmintic drug and distilled water was used as control. The results of present study indicated that the hydroalcoholic extracts significantly exhibited the paralysis in worms and also caused death of worms in dose dependent manner, among which hot maceration extract showing more significant results when compared with the cold maceration extract. Further studies have to be done to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity.

  10. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTHELMINTIC SCREENING OF LEAVES, BARK, ROOTS OF PLANT TABERNAEMONTANA CORONARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ushasri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tabernaemontana coronaria is a potential non cultivated medicinal plant widely distributed in waste lands and open forests in India. The alcoholic, ethereal and chloroform extracts were obtained from the plant Tabernaemontana coronaria by soxhlet extraction or continuous hot percolation method and the extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity, against locally available earth worms (Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (10, 30, 60 mg/ml were prepared from each extract and were used for the study over earth worms. The study involves the determination of time of paralysis and time for death of the earth worms tested. The results obtained from the study revealed that all the extracts of Tabernaemontana coronaria possess significant anthelmintic effect at highest concentration (60 mg/ml. A solution of Albendazole was prepared in same concentration as that of extract and was used as standard. A 5% tween-80 suspension prepared using normal saline solution was used as control or blank.

  11. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    OpenAIRE

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing p...

  12. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Amy B.; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, spe...

  13. Phyto chemical Screening, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anthelmintic Activity of Morinda citrifolia stem

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D. Gopala Krishna; C. H. Kethani Devi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) stem were subjected to preliminary screening for Antimicrobial and Aanthelmintic activity. The alcoholic extract exhibited significant Anti bacterial, Antifungal activity, comparable to the standard drug Tetracycline. The Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract were evaluated for Anthelmintic activity on adult Indian Earthworms, ‘Pheretima posithuma’. The Alcoholic extract produced more significant A...

  14. Organization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyketide anthelmintic macrolide avermectin in Streptomyces avermitilis

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Haruo; Nonomiya, Tomoko; Usami, Masayo; Ohta, Toshio; Ōmura, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the gene cluster from Streptomyces avermitilis that governs the biosynthesis of the polyketide anthelmintic avermectin revealed that it contains four large ORFs encoding giant multifunctional polypeptides of the avermectin polyketide synthase (AVES 1, AVES 2, AVES 3, and AVES 4). These clustered polyketide synthase genes responsible for avermectin biosynthesis together encode 12 homologous sets of enzyme activities (modules), each catalyzing a specific round of polyketide chain el...

  15. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum Thapsus Mullein

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Niaz; Ali Shah Syed; Shah Ismail; Ahmed Ghayour; Ghias Mehreen; Khan Imran; Ali Waqar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Methods V. thapsus extracts were tested against roundworms (Ascaridia galli) and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis). Each species of worm was placed into a negative control group, an albendazole treatment group, or a V. thapsus treatment group, and ...

  16. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTHELMINTIC SCREENING OF LEAVES, BARK, ROOTS OF PLANT TABERNAEMONTANA CORONARIA

    OpenAIRE

    S.Ushasri; Ch.Gireesh kumar; M.Sarath Chandra Sekhar; Ramesh, N.; Satyanarayana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tabernaemontana coronaria is a potential non cultivated medicinal plant widely distributed in waste lands and open forests in India. The alcoholic, ethereal and chloroform extracts were obtained from the plant Tabernaemontana coronaria by soxhlet extraction or continuous hot percolation method and the extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity, against locally available earth worms (Pheretima posthuma). Three concentrations (10, 30, 60 mg/ml) were prepared from each extract and w...

  17. PREVALENCE AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HORSES

    OpenAIRE

    A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan) was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%), Oxyuris equi (12%), Parascaris equorum (8%) and mixed infection (5%). Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal paras...

  18. IN VITRO STUDY OF THE ANTHELMINTIC ACTION OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM L. GROWN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Ghafagaai

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of Trigonella foenum graecum stem and leaves was tested for lethal activity against Hymenolepis nana, Syphacia obvelata, and Moniezia expansa. The plant extract demonstrated good anthelmintic activity in vitro which is directly related to the concentration of the extract used. The extract also prevents the formation of Ascaris larvae from the eggs of Ascaris lumbrico- ides (human. Department of Pharmacology and Department of Pathobiology, School of Medicine, Universety of Isfahan, Isfahan IRAN.

  19. Prevalence, characterisation and management of anthelmintic resistance in gastro-intestinal nematodes of Scottish sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Bartley, David Jon

    2008-01-01

    The studies within this thesis have made a valuable contribution to our understanding of anthelmintic resistance in Scotland and in particular to the prevalence of benzimidazole (BZ) and ivermectin (IVM) resistance, the expression of multiple resistance and its management. Parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) is a major welfare issue not only for Scottish, UK and European farmers but also for livestock producers throughout the world. Parasites such as Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus ...

  20. Surveillance of Invitro Antioxidant and Anthelmintic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Syzygium Cumini Bark (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellickal Subramanyan Jayamohan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbal medicines have been used for treating various diseases from ancient times. Even in the era of advanced modern medicine, natural sources of antioxidants and pharmaceutical compounds are of great importance, many of such rich sources are still unearthed.Materials and methods: Methanolic extract of Jamun (Syzygium cumini tree bark was screened for in vitro- antioxidant activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening results showed S. cumini was positive for flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. Antioxidant studies includes DPPH scavenging activity, reducing capacity assessment, reducing effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and nitrous oxide scavenging activity against ascorbic acid (ASA standard.Results: The phenolic content was 480 mg % of gallic acid equivalents, tannin 1.9 mg % of gallic acid equivalents, tannin was 250 mg % of catechine equivalents on ferric chloride estimation and flavon content 66.17 µg/ ml was considerable. Anthelmintic property of methanolic and aqueous extract of S. cumini bark showed promising activity against control.Discussion: S. cumini could be a promising agent in antioxidant and anthelmintic research and could lead in development of new drug molecule. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the antioxidant and anthelmintic activity of S. cumini bark. 

  1. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Gerda; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Pauw, Elizabeth; Leboho, Tlabo; Wellington, Kevin W; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-01

    The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA). The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3%) at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%). The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cellular assay. PMID:27543148

  2. A STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Shamsul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the biological investigations of Clerodendrum viscosum – a plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The leaf of Clerodendrum viscosum was extracted with methanol and water. The crude extract of methanol of Clerodendrum viscosum was screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the result of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methanol extract possess cytotoxic principles (with LC50 3.696 µg/ml comparison with positive control vincristine sulphate (with LC50 0.773 µg /ml. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts from the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/ml of each extracts were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 50 mg/ml. Albendazole in 20mg/ml concentration extract was used as standard reference and saline solution as control. All the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner.

  3. In vitro anthelmintic effects of cysteine proteinases from plants against intestinal helminths of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann E; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2007-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are amongst the most prevalent worldwide, especially in tropical climates. Control of these infections is primarily through treatment with anthelmintic drugs, but the rapid development of resistance to all the currently available classes of anthelmintic means that alternative treatments are urgently required. Cysteine proteinases from plants such as papaya, pineapple and fig are known to be substantially effective against three rodent GI nematodes, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Trichuris muris and Protospirura muricola, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, based on in vitro motility assays and scanning electron microscopy, we extend these earlier reports, demonstrating the potency of this anthelmintic effect of plant cysteine proteinases against two GI helminths from different taxonomic groups - the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and the rodent cestode, Rodentolepis microstoma. In the case of hookworms, a mechanism of action targeting the surface layers of the cuticle indistinguishable from that reported earlier appears to be involved, and in the case of cestodes, the surface of the tegumental layers was also the principal location of damage. Hence, plant cysteine proteinases have a broad spectrum of activity against intestinal helminths (both nematodes and cestodes), a quality that reinforces their suitability for development as a much-needed novel treatment against GI helminths of humans and livestock. PMID:18005461

  4. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  5. Network effects in service usage

    CERN Document Server

    Szabó, G

    2006-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that social and communication networks play a key role during the spread of new ideas, products, or services, network effects are expected to have diminished influence in the stationary state, when all users are aware of the innovation, and its usage pattern is determined mainly by its utility to the user. Here we study four mobile phone-based services available to over six million subscribers, allowing us to simultaneously monitor the communication network between individuals and the time-resolved service usage patterns. We find that usage highly correlates with the structure of the communication network, and demonstrate the coexistence on the same social network of two distinct usage classes, network effects being responsible for the quantifiable differences between them. To test the predictive power of our theory, we demonstrate that traditional marketing techniques are ineffective in permanently boosting service adoption, and propose a hub-based incentive mechanism that has t...

  6. A perspective on genomic-guided anthelmintic discovery and repurposing using Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sarah; Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-06-01

    High-throughput molecular and computer technologies have become instrumental for systems biological explorations of parasites. Investigating the genomes and transcriptomes of different developmental stages of parasitic nematodes can provide insights into gene expression, regulation and function in the parasite, which is a significant step toward understanding their biology as well as host interactions and disease. This article covers aspects of a talk given at the MEEGID XII conference in Thailand in 2014. Here, we refer to recent studies of the genomes and transcriptomes of socioeconomically important parasitic nematodes of animals; provide an account of the barber's pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) and emerging drug resistance problems in this and related worms; we also propose a genomic-guided drug discovery and repurposing approach, involving the prediction of the druggable genome, prioritization of drug targets, screening of compound libraries against H. contortus and, briefly, a hit-to-lead optimization approach. We conclude by indicating prospects that molecular tool kits for nematodes provide to the scientific community for future comparative genomic, genetic, proteomic, metabolomic, evolutionary, biological, ecological and epidemiological investigations, and as a basis for biotechnological outcomes and translation. PMID:26144657

  7. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Spiegler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  8. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Niaz; Shah Syed; Shah Ismail; Ahmed Ghayour; Ghias Mehreen; Khan Imran

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Method...

  9. Analyse des besoins des usagers

    OpenAIRE

    KHOUDOUR,L; LANGLAIS,A; Charpentier, C.; MOTTE,C; PIAN,C

    2002-01-01

    Il s'agit d'étendre la surveillance vidéo de l'enceinte du métro vers l'intérieur des rames. Les images captées constituent des prises de vue des événements qui se déroulent à l'intérieur des véhicules afin notamment d'améliorer la sécurité des usagers transportes. Il est possible de mémoriser les images des quelques instants précédant un incident usager, d'analyser ces images en temps différé et de mieux appréhender en temps réel le comportement des usagers face à des événements ou des consi...

  10. Cyclooctadepsipeptides--an anthelmintically active class of compounds exhibiting a novel mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Achim; Schmitt-Wrede, Hans-Peter; Krücken, Jürgen; Marinovski, Predrag; Wunderlich, Frank; Willson, James; Amliwala, Kiran; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert

    2003-09-01

    There are three major classes of anthelmintics for veterinary use: the benzimidazoles/prebenzimidazoles, the tetrahydropyrimidines/imidazothiazoles, and the macrocyclic lactones. In nematodes, there are five targets for the existing anthelmintics: the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor which is the target of tetrahydropyrimidines/imidazothiazoles and indirectly that of the acetylcholineesterase inhibitors; the GABA receptor which is the target of piperazine, the glutamate-gated chloride channel as the target of the macrocyclic lactones, and beta-tubulin as the target of prebenzimidazoles/benzimidazoles. All these anthelmintics are now in serious danger because of the worldwide spread of resistant nematodes in sheep, cattle, horses and pigs. The class of cyclooctadepsipeptides has entered the scene of anthelmintic research in the early 1990s. PF1022A, the first anthelmintically active member, is a natural compound from the fungus Mycelia sterilia that belongs to the microflora of the leaves of the Camellia japonica. PF1022A contains 4 N-Methyl-L-leucines, 2 D-lactic acids and 2-D-phenyllactic acids arranged as a cyclic octadepsipeptide with an alternating L-D-L-configuration. Emodepside is a semisynthetic derivative of PF1022A with a morpholine ring at each of the two D-phenyllactic acids in para position. The anthelmintic activity is directed against gastrointestinal nematodes in chicken, mice, rats, meriones, dogs, cats, sheep, cattle and horses. Moreover, emodepside is active against Trichinella spiralis larvae in muscles, microfilariae and preadult filariae and Dictyocaulus viviparus. PF1022A and emodepside are fully effective against benzimidazole-, levamisole or ivermectin-resistant nematodes in sheep and cattle. In Ascaris suum both cyclooctadepsipeptides lead to paralysis indicating a neuropharmacological action of these compounds. Using a PF1022A-ligand immunoscreening of a cDNA library from Haemonchus contortus a cDNA clone of 3569 base pairs could be

  11. Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants extract against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, goat farming, either as a full-time or part-time activity, is in increasingly being recognized as an economically beneficial livestock enterprise in tropical and sub tropical countries. Despite this popularity of goat industry, several constraints have limited the full potential of this farming activity in these countries. Among the multitude of impediments, which limit the development of the goat industry, gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major constraint in Sri Lanka like in other parts of the tropics. Recent studies in Sri Lanka have shown, gastrointestinal nematode infections decrease the productivity, particularly weight gain in meat goats in the dry zone. The work done in dry zone of Sri Lanka has indicated that an overwhelming majority (99%) of goats were affected by a moderate to high gastrointestinal nematode infection. Successful control gastrointestinal nematodiasis infection is important for the sustainable productivity of the goat industry. The control of gastrointestinal nematodiasis is usually performed using synthetic anthelmintics. The appearance of nematode resistance to these anthelmintics and several other factors highlight the need to developing alternatives. This stimulated the research of alternatives, such as medicinal plants to control gastrointestinal nematodiasis. According to circumstances and depending on their efficacy, naturally produced plant anthelmintics offer an alternative that can overcome some of these problems and is both sustainable and environmentally acceptable. Fifteen plant extracts were screened using an in vitro larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Out of the fifteen crude extracts Azadiractha indica (neem) seed (NS), Areca catechu(areca-nut) unripe fruit kernel(AUFK), Adhatoda vasica (pavatta-adathoda) leaves (PL), caused a significant(P 0.05). ANUFK and PL extracts at the dose rates used was effective in controlling the GI nematodiasis in goats. ANUFK and PL could be used in control

  12. Efficacy of selected anthelmintic drugs against cyathostomins in horses in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Juliane K; Hinney, Barbara; Denwood, Matthew J; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2015-12-01

    Cyathostomins are currently the most common internal parasites of horses. With the intensive use of anthelmintic drugs over the past decades, resistance of cyathostomins to anthelmintics is becoming a growing problem in many countries. The aim of this study was to assess the current situation on horse farms in the German federal state of Brandenburg. A pre-selected population of horses from 24 premises that had shown a prevalence of cyathostomins higher than the average in a previous study was examined for anthelmintic efficacy. Faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) were performed for ivermectin (IVM) and pyrantel (PYR). For IVM, the egg reappearance period (ERP) was also examined, as a shortened ERP can be indicative of developing resistance. The efficacy of IVM on cyathostomins was high: 99.1 % of 224 horses had a zero egg count 14 days after treatment. No shortening of the ERP was detected. For the data of the FECRT for PYR, three different methods of calculation were employed: (a) the method as recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), (b) a bootstrapping method and (c) a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Two methods of interpretation for these data were used: Resistance was declared (a) when FECR was <90 % and the lower 95 % confidence interval (LCL) <80 % and (b) when additionally the upper 95 % confidence level (UCL) was <95 %. When applying the first interpretation, resistance against PYR was found on four yards, while, when considering the UCL, all three methods for calculation only detected resistance on one single yard. Twelve species of cyathostomins were detected in larval cultures derived from strongyle egg positive faecal samples collected 14 days after treatment with PYR by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB). In order to generate comparable data, it is suggested to establish international standards for the calculation of FECRT data. PMID:26337266

  13. Gastrointestinal nematode infection and performance of weaned stocker calves in response to anthelmintic control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Miller, J E; Monlezun, C J; LaMay, D; Navarre, C; Ensley, D

    2013-10-18

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite control recommendations are in a state of flux because of the increase in anthelmintic resistant cattle parasites, such as Cooperia spp. In addition, Cooperia spp. infection is typically high in warm-season grass pastures and can affect growth performance of grazing stocker calves in the Gulf Coast Region. This study evaluated the effects of moxidectin pour-on, oxfendazole oral suspension, or a combination of the two given at separate times on infection and performance of weaned beef calves grazing summer forages. Steers (n=42) and heifers (n=31) were stratified by sex, d-11 fecal egg count (FEC), and d-1 shrunk body weight (BW) to one of 10 pastures with four anthelmintic treatments and one control. Treatments included: (1) oxfendazole given on d 0 and moxidectin on d 73 (O+M), (2) moxidectin given on d 0 and oxfendazole on d 73 (M+O), (3) moxidectin given on d 0 (M), (4) oxfendazole given on d 0 (O) and (5) no anthelmintic given (CON). Calves grazed for d-110 beginning May 27th. Response variables were FEC (collected on d-11, 14, 31, 45, 59, 73, 87 and 108), coprocultures (evaluated for d 87 and 108), final shrunk BW, shrunk BW gain, average daily gain (ADG), and full BW gain (collected on d 31, 59, 73, 87, and 108). Calves treated with either oxfendazole (O+M and O) or moxidectin (M+O and M) on d 0 had significantly lower (Pparasite control and improve animal gains for stocker calves grazing warm-season grass pastures. PMID:23953143

  14. Anthelmintic Activity of a Herbal Formulation Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arfan Zaman*§, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of a herbal formulation (HF based on aqueous extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. In vitro, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to different concentrations of HF following the standard procedures of egg hatch test (EHT; 50 to 0.024414 mg ml-1 and adult motility assay (AMA; 200-0.1953125mg ml-1, respectively. The reference drugs used in the study were oxfendazole (0.0056704 to 0.0000027 mg ml-1 and levamisole (1.50 mg ml-1 for EHT and AMA, respectively. In vivo, pre and post-treatment (4 mg, 2 mg and 500 µg kg-1 body weight fecal egg counts were determined following standard fecal egg count reduction test in sheep naturally parasitized with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. In EHT, LC50 values of HF and oxfendazole (reference drug were 275.1 and 0.016 µg ml-1, respectively. In AMA, 100% mortality of H. contortus was observed 6 hr post-exposure to 3.125-200 mg ml-1 concentrations of HF and 2 hr post-exposure to levamisole. In vivo, maximum (96.2% fecal egg count (EPG reduction was recorded in sheep treated with HF @ 4 mg kg-1 body weight; whereas, 89.3% reduction in EPG was recorded in sheep treated with levamisole @ 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. A graded dose response was noted in all the tests used in the present study to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of HF. Therefore, HF seems to be promising as an anthelmintic for animals. Large scale trials on efficacy and safety, however, are recommended before the HF is considered for commercialization in crude form.

  15. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems. PMID:24077919

  16. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardena GSA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would

  17. Advanced systems for the rapid detection of anthelmintic drugs in food

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Jemma Louise

    2011-01-01

    Several surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assays were developed and validated for the detection of anthelmintic veterinary drugs in liver tissue and milk using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction procedure. The first screening assay was developed to detect 11 benzimidazole carbamates in milk and liver. In bovine milk the assay showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.7 μg kg-1 and a detection capability (CCβ) of 5 μg kg-1. Analyte recovery was in th...

  18. Comparative Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Tiwari; Bimlesh Kumar; Manoj Kumar; Mandeep Kaur; Pardeep Sharma; Jiban Debnath

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem of Tinospora cordifolia using Eisenia foetida at four different concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts exhibited very significant activities as compared to the standard drug piperazine c...

  19. In vitro study on anthelmintic activity of Aristolochia indica and A. tagala roots

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Marina G.; Bheemappa, Eswarappa; Pai, Vasantakumar K.; Byahatti, Vivek V.; Tule, Chandramouli

    2011-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to screen the anthelmintic potential of aqueous root extracts of Aristolochia indica Linn. and A. tagala Cham. against adult Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma and round worms Ascaridia galli. Different concentrations of the extracts ranging from 2-8 mg/mL were screened. Piperazine citrate was used as reference standard. Extract of A. tagala was found to be more potent and effective at the dose level of 2 mg/mL compared to the extract of A. indica. Extra...

  20. Modeling Educational Usage of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the…

  1. Effect of combinations of marketed human anthelmintic drugs against Trichuris muris in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiser Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are responsible for a huge public health burden, however treatment options are limited. The discovery and development of novel efficacious drugs or drug combinations for the treatment of STH infections therefore has a high research priority. Methods We studied drug combination effects using the main standard anthelmintics, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin in the Trichuris muris model. Drug combinations were first tested in vitro and additive and synergistic combinations investigated further in vivo in female mice using ratios based on the ED50 of the respective drugs. Results In vitro all 10 combinations of the standard anthelmintics tested against T. muris revealed synergistic behavior. We identified three drug combinations in vivo as strongly synergistic, namely mebendazole-ivermectin (Combination index (CI=0.16, mebendazole-levamisole (CI=0.17 and albendazole-mebendazole (CI=0.23. For albendazole-ivermectin, moderate synergism was observed (CI=0.81 and for albendazole-levamisole a nearly additive effect was documented (CI=0.93 in vivo. Five combinations (albendazole-pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate-ivermectin were antagonistic in vivo. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies.

  2. Comparative Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem of Tinospora cordifolia using Eisenia foetida at four different concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts exhibited very significant activities as compared to the standard drug piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml. The time of paralysis and death was recorded as 9 ± 0.57 and 15.83 ± 0.60 in case of aqueous extract, on the other hand it was recorded as 4.16 ± 0.30 and 10.83 ± 0.60 in case of ethanolic extracts. In conclusion, the use of stem of Tinospora cordifolia as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT EXTRACT USING INDIAN EARTHWORM (PHERITIMA POSTHUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple is a favorite for the lovers of fruit in its fresh forms as well as in preserves like jams, jellies and squashes. Two varieties of Pineapples (Queen and Kew are available in Tripura during mid-May to mid-September. The plant is well known for its different folk medicines like the root and fruit are either eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory, digestive and anthelmintic. It was observed that the people of Tripura especially the Tribes are use the juice of matured root or fruit in worm. Research shows that, mainly bromelain is responsible for all its therapeutic activity.The agriculture of Tripura, each year, gets a special boost from pineapple production between the middle of May and middle of September, both inclusive. Pineapple’s leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber and are employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses. This allows the crop to contribute a significant proportion in the economy of the state.The present study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of fruit extract (Aqueous of Pineapple using Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma.All the extracts were found not only to paralysis (vermifuge but also to kill the earthworms (vermicidal. But the concentration of 40mg/ml fruit extract showed the maximum effect in respect of 20 and 10 mg/ml.

  4. The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-03-01

    We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. However, in vivo trials indicated far less efficacy of stem bromelain and fruit bromelain than that expected from the in vitro experiments (24.5% and 22.4% reduction in worm burdens, respectively) against H. bakeri. Scanning electron microscopy revealed signs of cuticular damage on worms incubated in fruit bromelain, stem bromelain and actinidain, but this was far less extensive than on those incubated in papaya latex supernatant. We conclude that, on the basis of presently available data, CPs derived from pineapples and kiwi fruits are not suitable for development as novel anthelmintics for intestinal nematode infections. PMID:24176056

  5. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2016-05-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a natural parasite of the common brown rat Rattus norvegicus, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of the anthelmintic activity of novel drugs against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of rats infected with H. diminuta with a supernatant extract of papaya latex, containing a mixture of four cysteine proteinases, was moderately efficacious, resulting in a significant, but relatively small, reduction in worm burden and biomass. However, faecal egg output was not affected by treatment. In our experiments these effects were only partially dose-dependent, although specific inhibition by E-64 confirmed the role of cysteine proteinases as the active principles in papaya latex affecting worm growth but not statistically reducing worm burden. Data collected for a further 7 days after treatment indicated that the effects of papaya latex supernatant on worm loss and on worm growth were not enhanced. Our findings provide a starting point for further refinement in formulation and delivery, or assessment of alternative natural plant-derived cysteine proteinases in efforts to develop these naturally occurring enzymes into broad-spectrum anthelmintics, with efficacy against cestodes as well as nematodes. PMID:25761568

  6. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  7. Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

    2013-01-01

    Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake. PMID:23691580

  8. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia Amygdalina (Asteraceae and Alstonia Boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketor, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris. The worms were directly exposed to 50, 100, and 200 mg/ml of aque-ous and ethanolic bark extracts of Alstonia boonei and leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and piperazine citrate in a petri dish and in an organ bath. The control group was exposed to distilled water. The time of paralysis and death were determined within a period of 6 h in the petri dish method whiles spontaneous movements of the worms before and after drug administration were recorded on a slow moving kymograph drum in the organ bath method. All doses of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.001 reduced the time of paralysis and time of death compared to the vehicle treated group. The time of paralysis and time of death in the tissue bath method corresponded to that obtained by direct exposure. The extracts exhibited anthelmintic ac-tivity and thus could be an inexpensive and readily available source of anthelmintic treatment.

  9. Web Usage Analysis: New Science Indicators and Co-usage

    CERN Document Server

    Polanco, Xavier; Besagni, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    A new type of statistical analysis of the science and technical information (STI) in the Web context is produced. We propose a set of indicators about Web users, visualized bibliographic records, and e-commercial transactions. In addition, we introduce two Web usage factors. Finally, we give an overview of the co-usage analysis. For these tasks, we introduce a computer based system, called Miri@d, which produces descriptive statistical information about the Web users' searching behaviour, and what is effectively used from a free access digital bibliographical database. The system is conceived as a server of statistical data which are carried out beforehand, and as an interactive server for online statistical work. The results will be made available to analysts, who can use this descriptive statistical information as raw data for their indicator design tasks, and as input for multivariate data analysis, clustering analysis, and mapping. Managers also can exploit the results in order to improve management and d...

  10. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  11. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J.; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R.; Gilleard, John S.; Beech, Robin N.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:25516826

  12. Monoaminergic signaling as a target for anthelmintic drug discovery: receptor conservation among the free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuniecki, Richard; Law, Wen Jing; Jex, Aaron; Geldhof, Peter; Gray, John; Bamber, Bruce; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-05-01

    This review is designed to summarize the information on monoamine-dependent paralysis as a target for anthelmintic development, examine the conservation of monoamine receptors in the genomes of both free-living and parasitic nematodes, and highlight the utility of the Caenorhabditis elegans model system for dissecting the monoaminergic modulation of locomotory decision-making. PMID:22343182

  13. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of total phenolic content, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial activities of Solanum violaceum Ortega. (Family:Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Sarwar Raju

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Since S. violaceum have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activities, more studies such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and other pharmacological activities should be carried out to justify its traditional use, as the plant is available and used broadly in the rural areas for folkloric remedies. 

  14. Measuring ICT usage quality for information society building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Danylchenko, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the World Summit on Information Society made a call for measuring the state of Information Society (IS) building between countries. The purpose of the measuring was to assess and compare IS practices around the globe as well as share best practices. A number of measurement tools have sinc...... levels of ICT usage for the purpose of better policy-making, while establishing an information society, is accentuated....... these indicators on the actual levels of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) usage off the country’s stakeholders. This paper analyses the most currently used indices for measuring the state of Information Society building from the perspective of their constituent indicators. Based on the analysis......, an alternative framework for IS measurement, addressing the important aspects of ICT usage quality, is developed based on data from EU member states. By applying the framework on measuring of ICT usage quality at Romania, Cyprus and Estonia, the usefulness is tested positive, and the need to evaluate the actual...

  15. Mining Unexpected Web Usage Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haoyuan; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the applications ofWeb usage mining are more and more concentrated on finding valuable user behaviors from Web navigation record data, where the sequential pattern model has been well adapted. However with the growth of the explored user behaviors, the decision makers will be more and more interested in unexpected behaviors, but not only in those already confirmed. In this paper, we present our approach USER, that finds unexpected sequences and implication rules from sequential data...

  16. Correlation of polyphenolic content with radical-scavenging capacity and anthelmintic effects of Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae) against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-05-15

    Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06mg QE/g and 7.42mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71mg QE/g and 0.29mg CE/g DW, respectively) (ptannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0.01, respectively) or ABTS radicals (r=0.893, 0.765 and 0.722, p<0.01, respectively) and with inhibition of egg hatching (r=0.874, 0.883 and 0.862, p<0.01, respectively). Highest inhibition of motility (100%) of worms was observed 8h post-exposure in aqueous and methanolic extract at 8mg/mL. To our knowledge, these results depict for the first time that R. ulmifolius possesses in vitro anthelmintic properties. PMID:27084470

  17. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  18. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different

  19. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were

  20. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  1. Expletive Deleted: A Study of Language Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykodym, Nick; Boyd, John A.

    The research findings of profane language usage need to be extended so that more may be learned about human communication. In order to establish profane language usage norms, eighty-six university students were asked to estimate their profane language usage in each of three categories (excretory, religious, and sexual) in reference to three…

  2. The Anthelmintic Activity of Selected Indigenous Medicinal Plants Used by The anyankole of Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olila Deogracious

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been growing interest in the traditional cures of livestock diseases. This is because industrially produced drugs are too expensive for some sectors of the farming community especially in the developing world. Medicinal plants are often cheaper and more easily available than the commercially produced drugs. The self-help study in form of traditional medicines (especially from medicinal plants, offer a way out by making use of resources available within the communities themselves. Despite the steady increase in demand for herbal medicines over the past decade worldwide, a great majority of herbal products are not pharmacologically assessed for their quality, safety and efficacy, nor are they licensed as medicine. In this study some of the medicinal plants used by the Banyankole (an ethnic group with a long history of cattle-keeping and the use of medicinal plants have been tested in vitro using the Ascaris model. Seven plants were studied (Vernonia amygdalina, Cassia didymobotrya, Rhoicissus tridentata, Phytolacca dodecandra, Euphorbia hirta, Aspilla africana and Cymbopogon nardus. Aspillia africana and Cymbopogon nardus did not show anthelmintic activity in this test system. The other five showed anthelmintic activity (Vernonia amygdalina, Cassia didymobotrya, Rhoicissus tridentata, Phytolacca dodecandra and Euphorbia hirta. Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Rhoicissus tridentata and Cassia didymobotrya showed higher activity than Euphorbia hirta and Phytolacca dodecandra (Vernonia amygdalina (ED50 of 3.533 mg mL 1, Rhoicissus tridentata (ED50 of 4.355 mg mL 1 and Cassia didymobotrya (ED50 of 4.880 mg mL 1; Euphorbia hirta (ED50 of 5.866 mg mL 1 and Phytolacca dodecandra (ED50 of 7.151 mg mL 1. Further studies on the five plants are needed. Phytochemical analysis to determine the active principles that are responsible for anthelmintic activity are urgently called for. This would help in identifying the spectrum of activity of

  3. In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominatly Haemonchus contortus egg population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones. Chicory leaves contain significant amounts of lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the proportions of these three sesquiterpene lactones vary among fora...

  4. Major constituents and anthelmintic activity of volatile oils from leaves and flowers of Cymbopogon martini Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, S A; Girme, A S; Bhalke, R D

    2007-11-01

    The major volatile constituents of leaves and flowers of Cymbopogon martini from the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation were identified by GC/MS. Five constituents were identified from the volatile oil of leaves and flowers, which constituted about 82.49 and 75.63% of the total amount, respectively. A monoterpene, piperitone (6.00%), was identified in the flowers of C. martini; in addition, flowers were found to contain more olefinic terpenes, namely geraniol (69.63%), compared with leaves (53.41%). Leaves contain bicyclic monoterpene, nerol (24.76%) and alpha-pinene (4.32%). Anthelmintic activity of these oils was evaluated on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and results showed that the volatile oil of C. martini flower required less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms. PMID:17987504

  5. PREVALENCE AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%, Oxyuris equi (12%, Parascaris equorum (8% and mixed infection (5%. Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal parasites. Each group had five animals, comprising four treatment horses and a control horse. Abamectin was evaluated against these gastrointestinal parasites with a single shot at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight administered through subcutaneous route which resulted in 98% reduction in faecal egg count after day 14 post-treatment. Non-treated horses remained positive for gastrointestinal parasites. No adverse reactions were observed during the experimental period. It was concluded that Abamectin is highly effective against gastrointestinal parasites in horses.

  6. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of various tannin structures against Cooperia oncophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2013-01-01

    The use of tannin-rich plants against gastro-intestinal nematodes is an alternative currently investigated to avoid the exclusive use of anthelmintic (AH) synthetic drugs and prevent the spread of resistance among these nematode populations. Studies of AH effects on cattle nematodes using tannin......-rich legumes such as Onobrychis viciifolia have been carried out in vitro but the contribution of all structural parameters from their condensed tannins has not been yet completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between structure and AH activity in vitro. A series of...... activity using the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) and the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay on Cooperia oncophora. Preliminaries results with the LFIA showed that high AH activity was due to tannins with increasing prodelphinidin/procyanidin and cis/trans ratios. The variation in mDP between...

  7. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria. PMID:23076819

  8. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    contribute to cause this high variability and these must be taken into account to accurately identify a reduction in anthelmintic efficacy. To address this problem, we developed a hierarchical statistical model for analysis of FECRT data from multiple farms. The model includes animal effect and farm clusters...... (48.4 %) testing positive. The efficacy of pyrantel was unaffected by the presence of S. vulgaris on the farm. The cutoff LCL values used for classifying farms as pyrantel resistant were: >92%: no resistance, 88-92%: suspect resistance, and <88%: resistance. Using model-adjusted LCLs, we classified 7...... as random effects. Resistance classifications are based on model adjusted lower confidence limit (LCL) values of predicted mean efficacies on each farm. The model was used to evaluate the efficacy of pyrantel embonate paste from 64 Danish horse farms. On these farms 614 out of 1644 horses had egg...

  9. Algorithms for appliance usage prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Ngoc Cuong

    2014-01-01

    Demand-Side Management (DSM) is one of the key elements of future Smart Electricity Grids. DSM involves mechanisms to reduce or shift the consumption of electricity in an attempt to minimise peaks. By so doing it is possible to avoid using expensive peaking plants that are also highly carbon emitting. A key challenge in DSM, however, is the need to predict energy usage from specific home appliances accurately so that consumers can be notified to shift or reduce the use of high energy-consumin...

  10. Des usages du constructivisme (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury-Vilatte, Béatrice; Walter, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Dans cette deuxième série d’articles consacrés au constructivisme, Bernard Delforce, Isabelle Gavillet et Nicolas Pélissier prolongent la discussion menée par Roger Bautier, Denis Benoit et Roselyne Koren sur les usages de la notion par des chercheurs travaillant dans le domaine du journalisme, quitte à s’interroger sur les effets d’une telle centration. Si l’approche historique et le recours aux sciences de l’information et de la communication (SIC) et aux sciences du langage nourrissaient l...

  11. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  12. Anthelmintic effect of Mentha spp. essential oils on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Marina A; Albanese, Adriana A; Gende, Liesel B; Eguaras, Martín J; Denegri, Guillermo M; Elissondo, María Celina

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of Mentha piperita and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Echinococcus granulosus and to compare the effectiveness of both oils according to the exposure time and concentration. Although both treatments had a protoscolicidal effect, M. pulegium had a considerably stronger effect than M. piperita. Essential oil of M. pulegium produced dose- and time-dependent effects. Maximal protoscolicidal effect was observed after 12 days of incubation and reached 0% after 18 days. This lack of viability was proved during the determination of infectivity into mice. Essential oil of M. piperita produced only a time-dependent effect. At 24 days p.i., the viability of protoscoleces decreased to approximately 50%. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) demonstrated the drug-induced ultrastructural damage. On the other hand, a loss of turgidity was detected in all M. pulegium-treated cysts respective of the drug concentration. There was a correlation between the intensity of damage and the concentration of the essential oil assayed. Studies by SEM revealed that the germinal layer of treated cysts lost the feature multicellular structure. M. pulegium essential oil showed piperitone oxide as main compound in their composition, and we suggest that this component could be responsible of the markedly anthelmintic effect detected. Our data suggest that essential oils of Mentha spp. can be a promising source of potential protoscolicidal agents. The isolation of active anthelmintic constituents is in progress and may lead to the discovery of compounds with improved therapeutic value. PMID:21845411

  13. In vitro and in vivo screening of anthelmintic activity of ginger and curcumin on Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazh, Eman K A; El-Bahy, Nasr M

    2013-11-01

    Intestinal helmintic infection, continue to be a cause of major concern in several parts of the world, particularly in the developing nations. The use of plant extracts to control poultry helminths is increasing in different rearing systems. The anthelmintic activity of ginger and curcumin was studied on the nematode Ascaridia galli. In vitro and in vivo studies were allocated. Live parasites for in vitro studies were collected from the intestine of naturally infected chickens. Some living worms were incubated at 37 °C in media containing ginger at three concentration levels (25, 50, and 100 mg/ml), and others were incubated in media containing curcumin at the same concentration levels. Another living worm group was incubated in media containing albendazole at a dose of 7.5 mg/ml. The extracts' efficacy was exhibited in a concentration-time-dependent manner mainly at 100 mg/ml and after 48 h. The in vivo study takes place on experimentally infected chickens. Group of infected chickens was treated with ginger extract at dose of 100 mg, another group was treated with curcumin extract at dose of 100 mg, and a third group was treated with albendazole at dose of 7.5 mg. In vivo study of ginger and curcumin recorded lower mortality rates than the in vitro study. It is concluded that ginger and curcumin extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. Ginger in all concentrations used exhibited a higher death rate observed than curcumin. Their wormicidal effect is concentration-time dependent. PMID:24046262

  14. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3906906

  15. Protection and Delivery of Anthelmintic Protein Cry5B to Nematodes Using Mesoporous Silicon Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie; Aroian, Raffi V; Sailor, Michael J

    2015-06-23

    The ability of nano- and microparticles of partially oxidized mesoporous silicon (pSi) to sequester, protect, and deliver the anthelmintic pore-forming protein Cry5B to nematodes is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Thermally oxidized pSi particles are stable under gastric conditions and show relatively low toxicity to nematodes. Fluorescence images of rhodamine-labeled pSi particles within the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum show that ingestion is dependent on particle size: particles of a 0.4 ± 0.2 μm size are noticeably ingested by both species within 2 h of introduction in vitro, whereas 5 ± 2 μm particles are excluded from C. elegans but enter the pharynx region of A. ceylanicum after 24 h. The anthelmintic protein Cry5B, a pore-forming crystal (Cry) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is incorporated into the pSi particles by aqueous infiltration. Feeding of Cry5B-loaded pSi particles to C. elegans leads to significant intoxication of the nematode. Protein-loaded particles of size 0.4 μm display the highest level of in vitro toxicity toward C. elegans on a drug-mass basis. The porous nanostructure protects Cry5B from hydrolytic and enzymatic (pepsin) degradation in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for time periods up to 2 h. In vivo experiments with hookworm-infected hamsters show no significant reduction in worm burden with the Cry5B-loaded particles, which is attributed to slow release of the protein from the particles and/or short residence time of the particles in the duodenum of the animal. PMID:25950754

  16. Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-07-01

    The source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. The egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Annona squamosa L., Datura metel L., and Solanum torvum Swartz were tested against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with five replicates. All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 48 and exposure for egg hatching and LDA, respectively; however, 100% egg hatching and larvicidal inhibition were found in the methanol extracts of A. paniculata, A. squamosa, D. metel, and S. torvum at 25 mg/ml and the effect was similar to positive control of Albendazole (0.075 mg/ml) and Ivermectin (0.025mg/ml) against H. contortus, respectively. The EHA result showed the ED(50) of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and D. metel, which were 2.90 and 3.08 mg/ml, and in larval development assay, the ED(50) was 4.26 and 3.86 mg/ml, respectively. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies. PMID:21161270

  17. Open Educational Resources (OER) Usage and Barriers: A Study from Zhejiang University, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ermei; Li, Yan; Li, Jessica; Huang, Wen-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) as an innovation to share educational resources has been influential in past decade and expected to bring changes to higher education worldwide. There is, however, very limited literature on OER usage, especially from the perspective of college students in developing countries, who are often projected as the…

  18. Poor efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics in sport horse nematodes in Morocco in relation to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouiten H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport and leisure horses in Morocco are treated with several anthelmintics, organophosphates (dichlorvos, benzimidazoles (mostly thiabendazole or tetrahydropyrimidines (mostly pyrantel pamoate against nematodes. We studied three horse stables in Rabat, one in Meknes and one in Bouznika. Two of the Rabat and Bouznika stables had introduced a large number of horses from countries (Argentina or Europe where resistance to benzimidazoles is frequent, whereas the Meknes stud farm remained without foreign introduction. The number of treatments was not very frequent (twice a year in adult horses but the same anthelmintics were used repeatedly. No resistance to dichlorvos was detected whereas benzimidazole and pyrantel pamoate resistances were detected for the first time in African horses, outside South Africa.

  19. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  20. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman; Todd, Jim; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that helminth infections increase the risk of malaria infection and are associated with increased number of malaria attacks and anaemia. Thus interventions to control helminth infections may have an impact on incidence of clinical malaria and anaemia. The...... current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... study of 1546 children. Enrolled children were randomized to receive either repeated treatment with praziquantel and albendazole four times a year (intervention group, 394 children) or single dose treatment with praziquantel and albendazole once a year (control group, 371 children). Follow up...

  1. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Andrew R.; Aina Ramsay; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M; Helena Mejer; Peter Nejsum; Irene Mueller-Harvey; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated tha...

  2. Factors affecting the anthelmintic efficacy of cysteine proteinases against GI nematodes and their formulation for use in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Luoga, Wenceslaus

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are important helminth pathogens responsible for severe losses to livestock industries and human health throughout the world. Control of these infections relies primarily on chemotherapy; however there is rapid development of resistance to all available classes of anthelmintic drugs, and therefore new alternative treatments are urgently required. Plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya latex, pineapple fruit and stem extracts have been demonstrated to b...

  3. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardena GSA; Siriwardana C; Paranavitane S; Ismail M; Fernando S.

    2008-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural), were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 year...

  4. Anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis L. methanolic leaf extract on Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum and its acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    John N. Kateregga; Maria Nabayunga; Patrick Vudriko; James G. Ndukui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cassia occidentalis is traditionally used to treat helminth infestations in poultry. We investigated the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of this plant against Heterakis gallinarum and Ascaridia galli worms and its acute toxicity. Methods: Leaves of the plant were air dried, ground into powder and extracted with 70% methanol, filtered and dried at 50℃ into a dark green semi-solid mass. The worms were isolated from fresh intestines of local chi...

  5. Comparative efficacy of anthelmintics and their effects on hematobiochemical changes in fasciolosis of goats of South Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Shrimali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola spp. of the family Fasciolidae (trematodes characterized by bottle jaw, anemia, progressive debility, and potbelly condition. There are many aspects of fasciolosis remaining unknown thus hemato-biochemical alterations in closantel, triclabendazole + ivermectin, and oxyclozanide + levamisole treated goats were studied. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 naturally fasciolosis infected goats having egg per gram more than 100 were randomly divided into four groups. Goats of Group I-III were treated with three different anthelmintics, whereas, goats of Group-IV were kept as control or untreated. Whole blood, serum, and fecal samples were collected on 0, 7th, and 30th day of treatment. Results: During the study, values of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, pack cell volume, and total protein were significantly elevated to their normal levels in anthelmintics treated groups. Whereas, values of total leukocyte count, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT were significantly reduced to their normal level in anthelmintics treated groups. The efficacy of closantel (T1, triclabendazole + ivermectin (T2, and oxyclozanide + levamisole (T3 was 99.63%, 100%, and 94.74% and 100%, 100%, and 97.38% on 7th and 30th day of treatment, respectively. Conclusions: Fasciolosis in goats can be diagnosed on the basis of fecal sample examination, but alterations in important biomarkers such as AST, GGT, and LDH are also helpful for early diagnosis. The use of newer anthelmintic either alone or in combination showed a higher therapeutic response in fasciolosis of goats.

  6. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pu Wang; Timothy Hunter; Bayen, Alexandre M; Katja Schechtner; González, Marta C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, wh...

  7. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  8. Semantic Session Analysis for Web Usage Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; SONG Hantao; XU Xiaomei

    2007-01-01

    A semantic session analysis method partitioning Web usage logs is presented. Semantic Web usage log preparation model enhances usage logs with semantic. The Markov chain model based on ontology semantic measurement is used to identifying which active session a request should belong to. The competitive method is applied to determine the end of the sessions.Compared with other algorithms, more successful sessions are additionally detected by semantic outlier analysis.

  9. Usage rate segmentation: enriching the US wine market profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Kelley,1 Jeffrey Hyde,2 Johan Bruwer3 1Department of Plant Science, 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; 3School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: The purpose of this research is to enrich our knowledge of the US wine market and provide insights into how usage rate segmentation can be enhanced by select innovative perspectives of current offerings. Data were collected through a 15-minute online survey of 910 US wine drinkers randomly selected from a panel of consumers. It was found that the “super core” segment not only drank wine more frequently, but also were more likely to drink other types of alcohol presented (beer, distilled spirits, and ready-to-drink cocktails, and at a greater frequency, “at least once a week” and “about once a week”, than “marginal” drinkers. Differences between usage rate segments existed between sex and age generations. Female millennial “super core” consumers would increase wine consumption if the number of calories were reduced to fewer than 80 per 5 oz serving. Practical implications for a winery or wine retailer might include the potential to add these beverages to their product offering or bundling these beverages to create packages (allowing for mass customization, which is used often in retail and appropriately marketing these offerings to their customers. Changes that may invoke a positive response are wine made from “sustainably farmed” or “naturally farmed” grapes, and certified carbon-free wine. From an originality viewpoint, this study is the first to investigate how usage rate segmentation can be enriched by means of variable cross-extension and examination. Keywords: consumer behavior, market segmentation, usage rate, consumption frequency, USA

  10. Promotional policy and perspectives of usage renewable energy in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katinas, Vladislovas; Markevicius, Antanas [Renewable Energy Laboratory, Lithuanian Energy Institute, 3 Breslaujos, LT 44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2006-05-15

    The article outlines renewable energy (RE) sources according to the energy efficiency policy in Lithuania as well as practical experience of implementation of RE projects within the framework of the government policy to promote RES use due to the requirement of the European Union. The main goal of the country is to reduce the import of fossil fuel, to improve environment conditions and to reduce the climate change impact. Analysis of implemented RE projects and forecasts for the future projects are also presented. Most of the efforts in Lithuania were aimed at drafting the biomass (wood chips, wood waste, straw, biogas) and small hydro projects and their subsequent implementation. At present the total capacity of wood-chip-fuelled boilers reached above 251MW. No serious obstacles can be seen for the extension of wood fuel use. At present, new demonstrational projects have been started covering geothermal energy, solar energy, biogas, biofuels for transport and other. In this time, the RE sources comprise 7.69% of national energy balance. Taking into account feasible resources of RE (it is more than 19.85TWh/year) and the ongoing implementation of projects it is clear that the share of RE sources will constitute 12-13% of national energy balance in 2010 year. The main factor limiting further growth is high investment costs. The electricity production from local and RE sources in Lithuania is mainly based on hydro energy. At this time the wind energy is not used for this purpose. The electricity production from local and renewable energy sources is about 3.22% of the total consumption. (author)

  11. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  12. Influence of Ascaridia galli infections and anthelmintic treatments on the behaviour and social ranks of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauly, M; Duss, C; Erhardt, G

    2007-05-31

    In the present study, the effects of an experimental Ascaridia galli infection and anthelmintic treatment on the behaviour and social status of laying hens of two different lines were studied. Sixty white (Lohmann LSL; LSL) and 60 brown (Lohmann Brown; LB) hens were reared under helminth-free conditions. The hens of each line were divided into four groups. The birds in two of the groups were artificially infected with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs at an age of 27 weeks. The other two groups were kept as uninfected controls. One infection and control group was dewormed at 38 weeks of age and slaughtered 4 weeks later, contemporary with the other animals. Individual faecal Ascaridia egg counts (FEC) were performed 11 weeks post-infection (p.i.). Body weights, laying performance and egg weights were recorded regularly. Blood was taken to measure testosterone levels. The worm burdens established in the intestines were counted in the infected not treated group after slaughtering. In addition, 15 behavioural parameters were recorded by focal animal observation (n=10 per group) of one infection (plus anthelmintic treatment) and one control group, according to the time-sampling method throughout the experiment. All agonistic interactions within the groups were recorded simultaneously on an ongoing basis, thereby allowing the calculation of an individual social rank index. The following results were obtained: Mean FEC and worm burden were higher (p 0.05) from the controls. Infections with A. galli resulted in significant behavioural changes in both lines as the infected birds showed a higher food intake and lower locomotion activity during the prepatent and patent periods. After anthelmintic treatment, food intake decreased and locomotion increased. Behavioural changes were more pervasive in the infected LSL hens, as these hens also showed changes in ground pecking and nesting activity not only during the prepatent and patent periods, but also after anthelmintic treatment

  13. Process of Web Usage Mining to find Interesting Patterns from Web Usage Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ketul Patel; Dr. A.R. Patel

    2012-01-01

    The traffic on World Wide Web is increasing rapidly and huge amount of data is generated due to users’ numerous interactions with web sites. Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining techniques to discover the useful and interesting patterns from web usage data. It supports to know frequently accessed pages, predict user navigation, improve web site structure etc. In order to apply Web Usage Mining, various steps are performed. This paper discusses the process of Web Usage Mining con...

  14. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  15. Training the Medical Student in Computer Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Jr., John T.; Tritz, Gerald J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is detailed for introducing computer usage into any course in a medical curriculum and concomitantly stimulating student utilization of such technology. It is felt medicine will rely more heavily upon computer uses in the future, and that familiarity with computer technology provides confidence and competence in physician usage. (MP)

  16. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  17. Neurotic Anxiety, Pronoun Usage, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)

  18. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. PMID:23357510

  19. Quelles analyses de l'usage des moteurs de recherche ? Questions méthodologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Ihadjadene, Madjid; Chaudiron, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Les évaluations des moteurs de recherche sur l'internet sont généralement effectuées selon trois approches : sous l'angle de leurs performances globales, en s'inscrivant dans le paradigme des tests de Cranfield, ou encore selon la perspective de l'analyse du comportement de l'usager durant la session d'interrogation. Dans cet article, on se focalisera sur la démarche de consultation des usagers, l'identification des difficultés qu'ils rencontrent, l'exploration des modes d'appropriation des o...

  20. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  1. UV/Visible Spectroscopic Quantification of Veterinary Anthelmintic Drug Oxfendazole in Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendraprasad, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2016-07-01

    Oxfendazole (OFA) is a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic medication used to treat veterinary diseases. Two new, simple, rapid, precise and accurate, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the assay of OFA in its pure form and in its boluses. The first method (method A) is based on the measurement of green colored manganate obtained due to oxidation of OFA by permanganate in an alkaline medium at 610 nm. In the second method (Method B), the chromophoric activity of OFA is measured at 290 nm in the acetic acid-water (1:1) solvent system. OFA has been quantified over the linear ranges of 1.25-12.5 and 1.25-10 μg/mL in method A and method B, respectively, with apparent molar absorptivity values of 2.54 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 L·mol-1·cm-1. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and Sandell sensitivity values are 0.15 u 0.18 μg/mL, 0.46 and 0.56 μg/mL, and 0.0124 and 0.0148 μg/cm2. The developed methods were successfully applied to determine OFA in the bolus. No interference from adjuvants was observed.

  2. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Mendoza-Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50 on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes.

  3. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  4. Enhancement of bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole by solid dispersion and cyclodextrin complexation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvan, R; Mohanta, G P; Madhusudan, S; Manna, P K; Manavalan, R

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) employing solid dispersion and cyclodextrin complexation techniques. Solid dispersion (dispersion) was prepared using ABZ and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer (1:1 weight ratio). Ternary inclusion complex (ternary complex) was prepared using ABZ, hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and L-tartaric acid (1:1:1 molar ratio). In rabbits with high gastric acidity (gastric pH approximately 1), ternary complex and solid dispersion showed a bioavailability enhancement of 3.2 and 2.4 fold respectively, compared to a commercial suspension (p 5) caused a 62% reduction in AUC (area under the plasma level curve) for the commercial suspension, whereas the reduction in case of PVP dispersion and ternary complex was only 43% and 37% respectively. The rapid absorption of the drug from solid dispersion and ternary complex was reflected in improved anthelmintic efficacy against the systemic phases of Trichinella spiralis. The ternary complex was significantly more efficient than solid dispersion and exhibited the highest larvicidal activity (90%) at a dose of 50 mg x kg(-1) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the ternary complex might be high even if there is a great variation in the gastric pH. PMID:17867556

  5. The anthelmintic drug niclosamide induces apoptosis, impairs metastasis and reduces immunosuppressive cells in breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinghong Ye

    Full Text Available Breast carcinoma is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Discovery of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is still needed. Here, we reported our finding with niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelmintic drug. The potency of niclosamide on breast cancer was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we found that niclosamide showed a dramatic growth inhibition against breast cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of 4T1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Western blot analysis demonstrated the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with activation of Cleaved caspases-3, down-regulation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Survivin. Moreover, niclosamide blocked breast cancer cells migration and invasion, and the reduction of phosphorylated STAT3(Tyr705, phosphorylated FAK(Tyr925 and phosphorylated Src(Tyr416 were also observed. Furthermore, in our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg/d niclosamide suppressed 4T1 tumor growth without detectable toxicity. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a decrease in Ki67-positive cells, VEGF-positive cells and microvessel density (MVD and an increase in Cleaved caspase-3-positive cells upon niclosamide. Notably, niclosamide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs in tumor tissues and blocked formation of pulmonary metastases. Taken together, these results demonstrated that niclosamide may be a promising candidate for breast cancer.

  6. Anthelmintic effects of a cationic toxin from a South American rattlesnake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, C; Moreira, J T; Pinto, S; Monte, G G; Nering, M B; Oliveira, E B; Gazarini, M L; Mori, M A; Hayashi, M A F

    2016-06-15

    Despite the unquestionable importance of the highly cationic feature of several small polypeptides with high content of positively charged amino acids for their biological activities, positively charged peptides do not necessarily have the capacity to cross the cell membranes. Interestingly, we found that crotamine, a positively charged amphiphilic peptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, has a unique cell-penetrating property with affinity for acidic vesicles, besides a well-characterized antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. In spite of a remarkable in vitro antifungal activity of crotamine against Candida spp., no significant effect of this peptide could be observed in the course of Candida albicans and Candida krusei infection on Caenorhabditis elegans asssed in vivo. These experiments, in which the nematode C. elegans was used as a living host, suggested, however, the potential anthelmintic activity of crotamine because of its uptake by the worms and accumulation in their acidic compartments. As described in the present work, this lysosomotropic property is consistent with a previously proposed mechanism of toxicity of crotamine on mammalian tumoral cell lines. This study also allowed us to propose the cationic peptides with lysosomotropic property, as crotamine, as a potential new class of anthelmentics with ability to overcome the challenging problems of drug resistance. PMID:26713409

  7. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  8. Free radical scavenging, antidiarrheal and anthelmintic activity of Pistia stratiotes L. extracts and its phytochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Karim, Mohammed Faisal; Imam, Hasan; Sarker, Md Moklesur-Rahman; Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Nahid; Paul, Nirmala; Haque, Tahmina

    2015-05-01

    In this phyto-pharmacological screening of Pistia stratiotes L leaf and root extracts each separately in two different solvents demonstrated its potential medicinal value. Apparent antioxidant value is demonstrated by DPPH, Nitric oxide scavenging and Ferric ion reducing method. Additionally, total flavonoid and phenolic compounds were measured. The leaf methanolic extract scavenged both nitric oxide (NO) and DPPH radical with a dose dependent manner. But the pet ether fraction of root was found to have highest efficacy in Fe(3±) reducing power assay. Flavonoid was found to contain highest in the pet ether fraction of root (411.35mg/g) in terms of quercetin equivalent, similarly highest amount (34.96mg/g) of total phenolic compounds (assayed as gallic acid equivalents) were found to contain in the same fraction. The methanolic fractions appeared less cytotoxic compared to pet ether extracts. The plant extracts caused a dose dependent decrease in faecal droppings in both castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhea, where as leaf extracts in each solvent appeared most effective. Also, the plant extracts showed anthelmintic activity in earthworm by inducing paralysis and death in a dose dependent manner. At highest doses (50 mg/ml) all fractions were almost effective as the positive control piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml). Thus, besides this cytotoxic effect it's traditional claim for therapeutic use can never be overlooked. PMID:26004725

  9. Challenges for future energy usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last 2000 years the world's population and the worldwide total energy consumption have been continuously increasing, at a rate even greater than exponential. By now a situation has been reached in which energy resources are running short, which for a long time have been treated as though they were almost inexhaustible. The ongoing growth of the world's population and a growing hunger for energy in underdeveloped and emerging countries imply that the yearly overall energy consumption will continue to grow, by about 1.6 percent every year so that it would have doubled by 2050. This massive energy consumption has led to and is progressively leading to severe changes in our environment and is threatening a climatic state that, for the last 10 000 years, has been unusually benign. The coincidence of the shortage of conventional energy resources with the hazards of an impending climate change is a dangerous threat to the well-being of all, but it is also a challenging opportunity for improvements in our energy usage. On a global scale, conventional methods such as the burning of coal, gas and oil or the use of nuclear fission will still dominate for some time. In their case, the challenge consists in making them more efficient and environmentally benign, and using them only where and when it is unavoidable. Alternative energies must be expanded and economically improved. Among these, promising techniques such as solar thermal and geothermal energy production should be promoted from a shadow existence and further advanced. New technologies, for instance nuclear fusion or transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste, are also quite promising. Finally, a careful analysis of the national and global energy flow systems and intelligent energy management, with emphasis on efficiency, overall effectiveness and sustainability, will acquire increasing importance. Thereby, economic viability, political and legal issues as well as moral aspects such as fairness to disadvantaged

  10. Anthelmintic efficacies of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel on horses experimentally infected with three Strongylus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Stephane; Maynard, Laurence; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Kok, Dawid; Eun, Hyone-Myong

    2009-09-01

    In this blinded randomized and controlled study, the anthelmintic efficacy of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel was evaluated in horses experimentally infected with three species of Strongylus larvae. Eighteen previously dewormed horses were inoculated on study day 0 with third-stage larvae of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus edentatus. The horses were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 6): test-drug (tablet formula), positive-control (reference gel), and negative-control (placebo tablet). On day 56, the horses were treated once with the respective drugs. On day 95, the horses were sacrificed, and necropsy examinations were performed to assess the status of the parasite burden (L4 and immature L5) and pathological lesions on selected organs and tissues. By the criteria of worm counts, the test-drug and positive-control showed, respectively, 100% and 97.3% anthelmintic efficacies on S. vulgaris, 100% and 81.4% on S. equinus, and equally 100% on S. edentatus. However, the efficacies on S. equinus and S. edentatus should be taken only as face values considering their respective low worm counts in the placebo group. The S. vulgaris-induced arterial lesions were also reduced in the test-drug and positive-control groups with efficacies of 73.9% and 62.9%, respectively. No adverse reactions were observed with either of the drugs. Our data demonstrate that the Equimax tablet formula was as safe and efficacious as the gel formula anthelmintic on large strongyles in horses. PMID:19488785

  11. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action. PMID:25311442

  12. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  13. Understanding road usage patterns in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own--surprisingly few--driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

  14. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  15. Usage of Vegetal Wastes for Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Karpunin; V. V. Kuzmich; T. F. Balabanova

    2014-01-01

    An analysis on usage of vegetal wastes for energy production is presented in the paper.The paper reveals that logging debris and linen chaffs are considered as a prospective raw material for energy production in theRepublicofBelarus.

  16. A comparative study on the efficacy of four anthelmintics on some important reindeer parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Nordkvist

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Four anthelmintic preparations were tested against some of the most important parasites of reindeer, i.e. warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi, nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe, brainworm (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Their efficacy against intestinal nematodes was also registered. Test drugs were Fenthion (Bayer, Fenbendazole (Hoechst, Mebendazole (Janssen, and Ivermectin (Merk Sharp & Dohme. Against O. tarandi and C. trompe Ivermectin was 100% effective and Fenthion 86 and 100% respectively. The efficacy of Fen- and Mebendazole against these parasites was not significant. Against E. rangiferi the benzimidazole compounds were highly effective, with Mebendazole a bit ahead. Ivermectin had a moderate effect and Fenthion had no effect on this parasite. Against D. viviparus Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and Ivermectin were of equal, moderate-high effectiveness. No drug had a complete effect on the «arrested» larvae of D. viviparus. Fenthion had no effect at all. Fenbendazole and Ivermectin were both 100% effective against intestinal nematodes. Mebendazole was less effective and Fenthion had no effects. Ivermectin is considered to be the overall most effective anthelmintic in this test.En jamforande studie av effekten av fyra anthelmintika mot några betydelsesfulla parasiter hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Fyra antiparasitmedel har prôvats mot några av renens viktigaste parasiter, nàmligen hudkorm (Oedemagena tarandi, svalgkorm (Cephenemyia trompe, hjårnmask (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi och lungmask (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Vidare har medlens effekt på mag- tarmnematoder (Trichostongylider också noterats. De prôvade medicinerna var Fenthion (Bayer, Mebendazole (Leo/Janssen, Fenbendazole (Hoechst och Ivermectin (Merck Sharp & Dohme. Mot hud- och svalgkorm var Ivermectin 100% effektivt medan for Fenthion effekten var 86 resp 100%. Effekten av Fen- och Mebendazole mot de båda parasiterna var inte

  17. Variability in faecal egg counts – a statistical model to achieve reliable determination of anthelmintic resistance in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge for the control of parasites in livestock. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. A hierarchical...... arithmetic calculations classified nine farms (14.1 %) as resistant and 11 farms (17.2 %) as suspect resistant. Using 10000 Monte Carlo simulated data sets, our methodology provides a reliable classification of farms into different resistance categories with a false discovery rate of 1.02 %. The methodology...

  18. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of novel fluorinated 7-ethyl-10-phenothiazines, their sulphones and ribofuranosides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveen Gautam; Abhilasha Yadav; Nishidha Khandelwal; D C Gautam

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel fluorinated 10-phenothiazines were synthesized via Smiles rearrangement. 10-phenothiazines on refluxing with 30% hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid gave 10-phenothiazines-5, 5-dioxides (sulphones). These synthesized 10-phenothiazines were then used as base to prepare ribofuranosides by treating them with sugar (-D-ribofuranosyl- 1-acetate-2, 3, 5-tribenzoate). The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity and anthelmintic activity. The structural assignments of compounds were made on the basis of spectroscopic data and elemental analysis.

  20. Policies Composition Based on Data Usage Context

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-Mendoza, Valeria; Serrano-Alvarado, Patricia; Desmontils, Emmanuel; Garcia-Macias, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In federated query processing, different datasets can be queried simultaneously. Each dataset has different privacy policies attached, but,which privacy policy will govern the usage of the query result? In this work we propose a mechanism, based on semantic web technologies, tocompose privacy policies. The originality of our approach is that our composition rules are based on the data usage context and deduced implicitterms.

  1. Web Usage Mining: Pattern Discovery and Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Jagli, Mrs. Dhanamma; Oswal, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    Web usage mining: automatic discovery of patterns in clickstreams and associated data collected or generated as a result of user interactions with one or more Web sites. This paper describes web usage mining for our college log files to analyze the behavioral patterns and profiles of users interacting with a Web site. The discovered patterns are represented as clusters that are frequently accessed by groups of visitors with common interests. In this paper, the visitors and hits were forecaste...

  2. Efficient Web Usage Mining With Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    K. Poongothai; M. Parimala; S. Sathiyabama

    2011-01-01

    Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for effective Web site management, creating adaptive Web sites, business and support services, personalization, network traffic flow analysis etc., Web site under study is part of a nonprofit organization that does not sell any products. It was crucial to understand who the users were, what they looked at, and how th...

  3. Mobile Internet usage measurements : case Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kivi, Antero

    2006-01-01

    Mobile Internet is the outcome of two intense and global trends of the recent years: mobile/wireless and the Internet. Despite the potential the hundreds of millions of new mobile devices sold globally each year present, little information on mobile data service usage apart from mobile operator portals is currently available. In this research, mobile Internet usage was measured in fall 2005 using three fundamentally different methods to answer the question What are the characteristics of ...

  4. Understanding the Mobile Telephony Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrea, Oana Stefana

    2006-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the interlaced re-building of communication, movement, and information due to the integration of the wireless telephony in the daily life. The core of the theoretical part of the dissertation consists in the construction of a dispositif model that explains wireless telephony constitution, usage, and impact. The model outlines technology, subjects, usage, perception, representation, and socio-cultural frames. The reciprocal interactions between the mobile telephony appara...

  5. Business Intelligence from Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Ajith

    2004-01-01

    The rapid e-commerce growth has made both business community and customers face a new situation. Due to intense competition on one hand and the customer's option to choose from several alternatives business community has realized the necessity of intelligent marketing strategies and relationship management. Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for effec...

  6. Efficacy, safety and palatability of a new broad-spectrum anthelmintic formulation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K; Rohdich, N; Zschiesche, E; Kok, D J; Allan, M J

    2010-10-23

    The efficacy, safety and palatability of a new flavoured chewable anthelmintic tablet were investigated in dogs. The efficacy, based on worm counts, of a single recommended therapeutic dose (RTD) of 5 mg pyrantel + 20 mg oxantel + 5 mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight was assessed in experimental infections (EI) and natural infections (NI) with Trichuris vulpis, Echinococcus granulosus and Toxocara canis. For T vulpis, the efficacy of the treatment was 99.3 per cent in EI (comparing groups of six treated and six control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (nine treated and nine control dogs). For E granulosus, the efficacy was more than 99.9 per cent in EI (11 treated and 11 control dogs). For T canis, the efficacy was 94.3 per cent in EI (10 treated and 10 control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (12 treated and 13 control dogs). In a field study, Ancylostoma caninum (11 dogs) and T canis (11 dogs) faecal egg counts were reduced by more than 99 per cent, and in eight dogs with Dipylidium caninum proglotides in the faeces the efficacy was 100 per cent. The tablets were readily consumed by 56 of 64 (87.5 per cent) privately owned dogs. Safety was assessed in groups of six dogs treated either once with twice the RTD, once with six times the RTD, with twice the RTD on three consecutive days, or untreated. There were no significant differences in blood parameters between the groups, and no abnormal clinical findings. Two dogs treated with six times the RTD vomited, but no vomiting was observed when administration was repeated two days later. PMID:21257464

  7. Analysis of putative inhibitors of anthelmintic resistance mechanisms in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGusbi, Salha; Krücken, Jürgen; Ramünke, Sabrina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Effects of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide and the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil on the efficacy of ivermectin and thiabendazole were studied in vitro in susceptible and resistant isolates of the cattle parasitic nematodes Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. The effects of combined use of drug and piperonyl butoxide/verapamil, respectively, were investigated in the Egg Hatch Assay, the Larval Development Assay and the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay. The effects of piperonyl butoxide and verapamil as inhibitors of thiabendazole and ivermectin responses were particularly marked for larval development, where both inhibitors were able to completely eliminate all differences between susceptible and resistant isolates. Even the lowest concentrations of anthelmintics used in combination with inhibitors caused complete inhibition of development. Differences and/or similarities among responses in different isolates were only obtained in the two other assays: in the Egg Hatch Assay piperonyl butoxide caused a shift in concentration-response curves obtained with thiabendazole to the left for all isolates tested, changing relative differences between isolates. In contrast, an effect of verapamil in the Egg Hatch Assay was only apparent for benzimidazole-resistant isolates. In the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay only ivermectin was tested and piperonyl butoxide shifted the concentration-response curves for all isolates to the left, again eliminating differences in EC50 values between susceptible and resistant isolates. This was not the case using verapamil as an inhibitor, where curves for both susceptible and benzimidazole-resistant isolates shifted to the left in Ostertagia isolates. In Cooperia the picture was more complex with ivermectin-resistant isolates showing a larger shift than the susceptible isolate. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene were investigated. Significantly increased frequencies of

  8. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Law

    2015-04-01

    the identification of ligands for a host of potential anthelmintic targets.

  9. Feature Usage Explorer: Usage Monitoring and Visualization Tool in HTML5 Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunas Marciuska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Feature Usage Explorer is a JavaScript library, which automatically detects features in HTML5 based applications and monitors their usage. The collected information can be visualized in a Feature Usage Diagram, which is automatically generated from an input json file. Currently, the users of Feature Usage Explorer have to design their own tool in order to generate the json file from collected usage information. This option remains viable when using the library in order not to constraint the user’s choice of preferred data storage. Feature Usage Explorer can be reused in any HTML5 based applications where an understanding of how users interact with the system is required (i.e. user experience and usability studies, human computer interaction field, or requirement prioritization area.

  10. Gridded usage inventories of chlordane in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang WANG; Lijuan ZHAO; Xuekun FANG; Jianhua XU; Yifan LI; Yehong SHI; Jianxin HU

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chlordane (1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-3a,4,7, 7a-tetra-hydro-4,7-methanoindane) is one of organochlor- ine pesticides (OCPs) which has been listed as one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to be reduced and finally eliminated in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, because of its great persistence, toxicity, bio-accumulation and long-range transport potential. It is critical to create a national chlordane usage inventories for China to compile chlordane emission inventories, which is helpful for carrying out risk assessments and other researches related to chlordane in China. The annual data of chlordane usage was calculated and modified in accordance with the reported annual production of chlordane which was caculated on the basis of the termite distribution, the data of chlordane usage rate and the annual new construction area (NCA). With the help of Geographic Information System, the usage data of this NCA were allocated to a grid system then, with a 1/4° longitude by 1/6°latitude resolution and a size for each grid cell of approximately 25 km by 25 km. Between 1988 and 2008, the total usage of chlordane in China was 2745 t, accounting for approximately 80% of the production in the same period. Zhejiang Province was the largest consumer of chlordane in China, whose usage adds up to 980 t, greatly exceeding other provinces/regions, followed by Jiangsu Province (534 t) and Sichuan Province (428 t). The region with the least usage of chlordane was Beijing. Provinces of Guizhou, Henan and Hebei did not use any chlordane, even though termites had occurred in these provinces. Gridded usage inventories showed that the intensive use of chlordane was concentrated in the southeast part of China, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta in particular. The satisfaction of the inventories was supported by the consistence between the estimated data of annual usage and the reported annual production of

  11. A STUDY OF THE TREND OF SMARTPHONE AND ITS USAGE BEHAVIOR IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azam Osman; Abdullah Zawawi Talib; Zainal Abidin Sanusi; Tan Shiang-Yen; Abdullah Sani Alwi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to better understand the current dynamics of the Malaysian market for smartphone and the usage behaviors of consumers. This paper presents the result of a survey on the trend of smartphone from the perspective of end consumers. The data was collected from 1814 respondents across major cities in Malaysia. This study has looked into the familiarity of users towards smartphones, choices of smartphone brand and service providers, and most importantly the d...

  12. Effects of nucleotide usage on the synonymous codon usage patterns of biofilm-associated genes in Haemophilus parasuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L Y; Ma, L N; Liu, Y S

    2016-01-01

    To provide a new perspective on the evolutionary characteristics shaping the genetic diversity of Haemophilus parasuis biofilms, the relative synonymous codon usage values, codon usage bias values, effective number of codons (ENC) values, codon adaptation index (CAI) values, and the base components were calculated. Our objective was to implement a comparative analysis to evaluate the dynamic evolution of biofilm-associated genes in H. parasuis. The analysis of genetic diversity provides evidence that some biofilm-associated genes have similar genetic features. However, other genes show some variations in genetic direction. Furthermore, preferential selection of the synonymous codons and amino acids is apparent in biofilm-associated genes. Additionally, the ENC and CAI data from this study all strongly suggested that biofilm-associated genes may depend on deoptimization to adapt to environmental changes, and the mutation effect of biofilm-associated genes in H. parasuis plays an important role in shaping the genetic features. Our results reveal that the mutations of biofilm-associated genes form a set of sophisticated strategies for combating the environmental changes arising from the host cell in the evolution of H. parasuis. PMID:27323145

  13. Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDsIt will be our tradition to start every issue with a topic which demands attention of peopleespecially pharma professionals and of course the researchers. NSAIDs are proved to be verybeneficial as analgesic, antipyretic and anti inflammatory agents. Their usage is becoming moreand more as they are available as OTC drugs. Its worth to remember that they too possessesnumber of side effects, including GI side effects, Nephropathy, liver failure and prolongedbleeding after an injury or surgery. It is now reported NSAIDs causes dementia and showsnegative effect on protein synthesis. Their cardiovascular risk was in the head lines for severalmonths. One more fact is that no NSAID should be taken for more than 10 days, unless a doctorhas prescribed otherwise. Unnecessary and indiscriminate usage of NSAIDS increasingalarmingly (Green, 2001 and should be taken care of. They often take along with prescriptiondrugs and there are several incidences of drug interactions. For example concomitant usage ofanticoagulants or oral glucocorticoids should be avoided. (Ibuprofen, Clinical Pharmacologywww.clinicalpharmacology.com. So, indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs should be regulated.

  14. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos;

    2014-01-01

    . Oesophagostomum dentatum is an economically important parasite of pigs, as well as serving as a useful laboratory model of helminth parasites due to the ability to culture it in vitro for long periods through several life-cycle stages. Here, we investigated the anthelmintic effects of CT on multiple life cycle...

  15. Efficacy of an orange oil emulsion as an anthelmintic against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and in sheep (Ovis aries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite responsible for major losses to small ruminant producers worldwide. The recent increase in populations of anthelmintic resistant parasites has produced a demand for alternative control methods. An orange oil emulsion that has shown activity...

  16. New Method for the Analysis of Flukicide and Other Anthelmintic Residues in Bovine Milk and Liver using LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous quantification and identification of 38 residues of the most widely used anthelmintic veterinary drugs (including benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones, and flukicides) in milk and liver has been d...

  17. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, D.R.; Bauer, C.; Boray, J.C.;

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), sho...

  18. Heavy metals analysis, phytochemical, phytotoxic and anthelmintic investigations of crude methanolic extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad; Kamal, Zul; Hussain, Sajid; Shah, Syed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background Polygonum hydropiper L decoctions are traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammation, dyspepsia, diarrhea, menorrhagia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis and CNS disorders. Present study was undertaken to investigate P. hydropiper L. for heavy metals content, phytoconstituents, Phytotoxic and anthelmintic activities to explore its toxicological and pharmacological potentials and rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Methods Plant crude powder, methanolic ext...

  19. EBSCO's Usage Consolidation Attempts to Streamline Gathering, Storage, and Reporting of Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries…

  20. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The distribution functions of the codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data, for 40 eukaryotic biological species and 5 chloroplasts, do not follow a Zipf law, but are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondriae the analysis is not conclusive. A quantum-mechanics-inspired model is proposed to describe the observed behaviour. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total GC content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly depending on the exonic GC content, is computed.

  1. Efficient Web Usage Mining With Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Poongothai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for effective Web site management, creating adaptive Web sites, business and support services, personalization, network traffic flow analysis etc., Web site under study is part of a nonprofit organization that does not sell any products. It was crucial to understand who the users were, what they looked at, and how their interests changed with time. To achieve this, one of the promising approaches is web usage mining, which mines web logs for user models and recommendations. Web usage mining algorithms have been widely utilized for modeling user web navigation behavior. In this study we advance a model for mining of user's navigation pattern. The proposal of our work proceeds in the direction of building a robust web usage knowledge discovery system, which extracts the web user profiles at the web server, application server and core application level. The proposal optimizes the usage mining framework with fuzzy C means clustering algorithm (to discover web data clusters and compare with Expected Maximization cluster system to analyze the Web site visitor trends. The evolutionary clustering algorithm is proposed to optimally segregate similar user interests. The clustered data is then used to analyze the trends using inference system. By linking the Web logs with cookies and forms, it is further possible to analyze the visitor behavior and profiles which could help an e-commerce site to address several business questions. Experimentation conducted with CFuzzy means and Expected Maximization clusters in Syskill Webert data set from UCI, shows that EM shows 5% to 8% better performance than CFuzzy means in terms of cluster number.

  2. CloudMonitor: Profiling Power Usage

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, James William; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incentivizing software developers to create energy-efficient applications.

  3. Semantic analysis in web usage mining

    OpenAIRE

    Norguet, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    With the emergence of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, the Web site has become a key communication channel in organizations. To satisfy the objectives of the Web site and of its target audience, adapting the Web site content to the users' expectations has become a major concern. In this context, Web usage mining, a relatively new research area, and Web analytics, a part of Web usage mining that has most emerged in the corporate world, offer many Web communication analysis techniques. T...

  4. Community-Based Internet Usage Policy Development

    OpenAIRE

    Alhawsah, Mashael

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is a tool for learning and obtaining a vast amount of information, but it is a tool which also has associated problems. The number of risks associated with the internet has been increasing both in number and in danger. As a result, protection measures must be developed to minimize the risks. One of the most important groups of such measures are Internet Usage Policies. An Internet Usage Policy addresses the problem by providing a set of guideline to be followed which minimize the...

  5. Improved usage of the LOFT process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes work recently done to upgrade usage of the plant process computer at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The use of computers to aid reactor operators in understanding plant status and diagnosing plant difficulties is currently being widely studied by the nuclear industry. In this regard, an effort was initiated to improve LOFT process computer usage, since the existing plant process computer has been an available, but only lightly used resource, for aiding LOFT reactor operators. This is a continuing effort and has, to date, produced improvements in data collection, data display for operators, and methods of computer operation

  6. Mechanistic and single-dose in vivo therapeutic studies of Cry5B anthelmintic action against hookworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are one of the most important parasitic infections of humans worldwide, considered by some second only to malaria in associated disease burden. Single-dose mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminths, including hookworms, relies primarily on albendazole, which has variable efficacy. New and better hookworm therapies are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B has potential as a novel anthelmintic and has been extensively studied in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we ask whether single-dose Cry5B can provide therapy against a hookworm infection and whether C. elegans mechanism-of-action studies are relevant to hookworms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test whether the C. elegans invertebrate-specific glycolipid receptor for Cry5B is relevant in hookworms, we fed Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm adults Cry5B with and without galactose, an inhibitor of Cry5B-C. elegans glycolipid interactions. As with C. elegans, galactose inhibits Cry5B toxicity in A. ceylanicum. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which controls one of the most important Cry5B signal transduction responses in C. elegans, is functionally operational in hookworms. A. ceylanicum hookworms treated with Cry5B up-regulate p38 MAPK and knock down of p38 MAPK activity in hookworms results in hypersensitivity of A. ceylanicum adults to Cry5B attack. Single-dose Cry5B is able to reduce by >90% A. ceylanicum hookworm burdens from infected hamsters, in the process eliminating hookworm egg shedding in feces and protecting infected hamsters from blood loss. Anthelmintic activity is increased about 3-fold, eliminating >97% of the parasites with a single 3 mg dose (∼30 mg/kg, by incorporating a simple formulation to help prevent digestion in the acidic stomach of the host mammal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies advance the development of Cry5B protein as a potent, safe single

  7. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  8. Spatial Dynamics of Electricity Usage in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, Ejaz; Goswami, Arti Grover; Kerr, William R.

    2014-01-01

    India's manufacturing sector has undergone many spatial adjustments since 1989, including, for example, the organized sector's migration to rural locations, the powerful rise of informal manufacturing within cities, and the development of intermediate cities for manufacturing. This paper investigates the impact of these spatial adjustments for electricity usage in India s manufacturing sec...

  9. MESUR: metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting ...

  10. Predicate Adjective Usage in Standard Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Morton

    1959-01-01

    This paper describes predicate adjective usage in modern standard Russian using a corpus of written Russian derived from "Pravda" (neutral literary style) and "Krokodil" (conversational material). The short, long nominative, and instrumental forms are examined in relation to the type of adjective, copulative verb, sentence subject, and other…

  11. Sporforming probiotics and their usage in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The data of literature about spore-forming probiotics, as well as their usage in the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in children were sumerised. Analysis of the data allows us to recommend the preparation «Biosporin-Biopharma» for preventive measures and treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases at all levels of children health care, including infants.

  12. Codon usage trend in mitochondrial CYB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2016-07-15

    Here we reported the pattern of codon usage and the factors which influenced the codon usage pattern in mitochondrial cytochrome B (MT-CYB) gene among pisces, aves and mammals. The F1 axis of correspondence analysis showed highly significant positive correlation with nucleobases A3, C and C3 and significant negative correlation with T and T3 while F2 of correspondence analysis showed significant positive correlation with C and C3 and significant negative correlation with A and A3. From the neutrality plot, it was evident that the GC12 was influenced by mutation pressure and natural selection with a ratio of 0.10/0.90=0.11 in pisces, 0.024/0.976=0.0245 in aves and in mammals 0.215/0.785=0.273, which indicated that the role of natural selection was more than mutation pressure on structuring the bases at the first and second codon positions. Natural selection played the major role; but compositional constraint and mutation pressure also played a significant role in codon usage pattern. Analysis of codon usage pattern has contributed to the better understanding of the mechanism of distribution of codons and the evolution of MT-CYB gene. PMID:27063508

  13. Twitter Usage of Universities in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Ozgu

    2013-01-01

    Universities are among the users of the most popular social media networks. Usage of social media by especially students and many other people and institutions, which constitutes the target audience for universities, encourages the universities to effectively use this environment. Twitter is among these social media networks which facilitate the…

  14. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  15. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  16. Usage Patterns of Open Genomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data…

  17. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyathilakan, N; Murali, K; Anandaraj, A; Abdul Basith, S

    2012-04-01

    The present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as Allium sativum, Lawsonia inermis, and Opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, Oxyclozanide on Fasciola gigantica adults. The efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of F. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. Based on the in vitro trials conducted using above plant extracts at 1 percent, 2.5 percent and 5 percent concentration, the extracts of O. ficus indica showed flukicidal effect at 2.5 and 5% concentration. However A. sativum and L. inermis were effective at 5% concentration only. The study indicated the potential for developing herbal-based anthelmintics to control F. gigantica in livestock. PMID:23543611

  18. Anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis L. methanolic leaf extract on Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum and its acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kateregga

    2014-02-01

    Results There was a concentration-dependent relationship with worm mortality. The mean worm mortality for A. galli was significantly higher for the extract than for piperazine at 16 and 20mg/ml (p<0.05 and 24 mg/ml concentrations (p<0.01. Activity against H. gallinarum was not significantly different from that of ivermectin. The EC50 of the extract was 11.78mg/ml for A. galli and 17.78mg/ml for H. gallinarum. The extract is safe according to OECD acute toxicity guidelines since no mortality and toxicity signs were observed in mice even at 25,000mg/kg. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the anthelmintic activity of C. occidentalis and this could explain its use in traditional medicine as a remedy against helminth infections over the generations in many parts of Uganda. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 114-119

  19. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  20. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.;

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...... of these farms. In addition resistance was indicated by LDA on two more farms that were not tested by FECRT. Further testing is needed to confirm if these findings are truly indicative of resistance. Generally, correlations between the tests were poor and it was not possible to use the outcome of one...

  1. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina;

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity...... to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely...... condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis....

  2. Enhanced bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole in redispersible microparticles with low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre-Iglesias PM

    2014-09-01

    –∞ values. Likewise, after oral administration of the RDM-1:2.5 and RDM-1:5 the AUC0–∞ were 2.67- and 2.97-fold higher, respectively, compared to those of pure MBZ. Therapeutic activity, assessed on the Trichinella spiralis life cycle, showed that RDM-1:5 was the most effective in reducing the number of parasites (4.56-fold as compared to pure MBZ, on the encysted stage.Conclusion: The MBZ: L-HPC RDM might be an effective way of improving oral bioavailability and therapeutic activity using low doses of MBZ (5 mg/kg, which implies a low degree of toxicity for humans. Keywords: benzimidazole carbamates, redispersible microparticles, in vitro dissolution, pharmacokinetics, anthelmintic activity, Trichinella spiralis

  3. Antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activity of Argyreia elliptica extracts: Activity enhancement by the addition of metal salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Prashanth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Argyreia elliptica extracts were prepared with solvents at different polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and evaluate their antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant properties first time. An antioxidant activity was analyzed using different in vitro tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging methods. Quantitative determination of phenols was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. In addition, the extracts were screened for their biological activity in absence and in presence of metal salts [Fe(III and Zn(II] ions. Results indicate that, the tested bacterial strains were most sensitive to the chloroform (CE and methanol extract (ME. Ethyl acetate (EA, CE and ME extracts showed potent radical scavenging activity. CE and ME extracts showed the highest total phenolic content and its enhanced anthelmintic and antioxidant activities were found in Fe(III combination. The extracts-Zn(II ion combination showed enhanced antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains compare to the extracts alone.Industrial relevance. Herbal medicines have gained increasing attention worldwide for the treatment of various diseases because of their effectiveness and small side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. In general, the essential trace elements have been found to possess a very important role in biological system and also therapeutic activity depends on some trace elements. The present research reports the phytochemical screening of Argyrea elliptica leaves extracts. The antibacterial, anthilmentic and in vitro antioxidant activity activity of extracts and its metal salt combination was studied. The results scientifically establish the efficacy of the plant extracts and its metal salt combination as antibacterial, anthilmentic and antioxidant agents.Keywords. Argyreia elliptica; Antioxidant; Antibacterial activity; Total phenolic content.

  4. Anthelmintic resistance in Northern Ireland. II: Variations in nematode control practices between lowland and upland sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C; Barley, J P; Edgar, H W J; Ellison, S E; Hanna, R E B; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2013-02-18

    A questionnaire to obtain information on nematode control practices and sheep management was sent to over 1000 farmers in Northern Ireland. Replies were received from 305 flock owners, and data from 252 of them were analysed. Farms were divided into lowland and upland areas. Sizes of pasture and stocking rates on lowland and upland farms were 59.5 hectares, 6.99 sheep/hectare and 62.9 hectares and 10.01 sheep/hectare, respectively. Mean drenching rates for lambs and adults were 2.33 and 2.44, respectively, in lowland flocks and 2.73 and 2.71, respectively, in upland flocks. Between 2008 and 2011, the most frequently identified compounds in use were benzimidazoles and moxidectin in lowland flocks, and benzimidazoles and avermectins in upland flocks. Over the same period the most frequently identified commercial formulations were Tramazole(®), Panacur(®) and Allverm(®) (white drench), Levacide(®) (yellow drench), Oramec(®) (clear drench; avermectin), Cydectin(®) (clear drench; moxidectin) and Monepantel(®) (orange drench). Most respondents (56.35%) treated their lambs at weaning and the most common time to treat ewes was identified to be pre-mating (67.86% of respondents). The results of the questionnaire survey revealed that lowland annual drench frequency was 2.33 and 2.44 in lambs and ewes, respectively, although drench frequencies were higher in upland flocks: 2.73 and 2.71 for lambs and ewes, respectively. Annual drench rotation was practiced by 43.96% of flock owners, but whether this was true rotation or pseudo-rotation (i.e., substitution of one anthelmintic product by another product belonging to the same chemical group of anthelmintics) could not be explicitly determined. PMID:23228496

  5. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted selective anthelmintic treatment by resource-poor smallholder goat farmers in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine G; Ofithile, Mphoeng; Tavolaro, F Marina; van Wyk, Jan A; Evans, Kate; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-11-30

    Due to the threat of anthelmintic resistance, livestock farmers worldwide are encouraged to selectively apply treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Targeted selective treatment (TST) of individual animals would be especially useful for smallholder farmers in low-income economies, where cost-effective and sustainable intervention strategies will improve livestock productivity and food security. Supporting research has focused mainly on refining technical indicators for treatment, and much less on factors influencing uptake and effectiveness. We used a mixed method approach, whereby qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined, to develop, implement and validate a TST system for GINs in small ruminants, most commonly goats, among smallholder farmers in the Makgadikgadi Pans region of Botswana, and to seek better understanding of system performance within a cultural context. After the first six months of the study, 42 out of 47 enrolled farmers were followed up; 52% had monitored their animals using the taught inspection criteria and 26% applied TST during this phase. Uptake level showed little correlation with farmer characteristics, such as literacy and size of farm. Herd health significantly improved in those herds where anthelmintic treatment was applied: anaemia, as assessed using the five-point FAMACHA(©) scale, was 0.44-0.69 points better (95% confidence interval) and body condition score was 0.18-0.36 points better (95% C.I., five-point scale) in treated compared with untreated herds. Only targeting individuals in greatest need led to similar health improvements compared to treating the entire herd, leading to dose savings ranging from 36% to 97%. This study demonstrates that TST against nematodes can be implemented effectively by resource-poor farmers using a community-led approach. The use of mixed methods provides a promising system to integrate technical and social aspects of TST programmes for maximum uptake and effect. PMID

  6. A randomized triple blind trial to assess the effect of an anthelmintic programme for working equids in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christley Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastro-intestinal parasitism has been identified as a significant cause of disease in working equids in many countries. This randomized triple-blind trial was designed to assess the impact of an anthelmintic treatment programme (using oral ivermectin and fenbendazole comparing treated and placebo control populations of working donkeys, mules and horses in field conditions in Morocco. In particular, we assessed animal body weight and condition score, together with a questionnaire-based owner evaluation of number of subjective animal health parameters. Faecal worm egg count was also measured. Results 239 animals completed the full study, 130 in the treatment group and 109 in the control group. Although the average animal weight increased during the study, this change was not significantly different between the two groups. Animals in the treatment group had a significantly lower strongyle worm egg count and increased in body condition score compared to animals in the control group at each examination during the study period. Owners of animals in the treatment group reported improvement in health and work ability and a beneficial effect on pruritus during the early period of the study. These differences in owner perception between treatment groups had disappeared in the latter stages of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a routine anthelmintic treatment programme of three treatments annually can have a significant effect on faecal worm egg count. There may be beneficial consequences for the animal health and productivity. Further research on other populations of working equids in different environments would facilitate the objective planning of effective parasite control strategies for specific situations and provide better understanding of the likely clinical benefits of such programmes.

  7. Evaluation of clinical safety and anthelmintic efficacy of aurixazole administed orally at 24 mg/kg in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Claudio Alessandro M; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Buzzulini, Carolina; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Teixeira, Weslen F; Silva, Helenara Machado; Santana, Luis Fernando; Soares, Vando Edésio; Henrique, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-06-01

    The current study evaluated, in vivo, the clinical safety and the anthelmintic efficacy of 24% aurixazole (24 mg/kg), administered orally, in bovines. Two experiments were conducted: the first one evaluating the clinical safety of 24% aurixazole (24 mg/kg) in cattle, and a second one evaluating the anthelmintic efficacy of aurixazole (24 mg/kg) against gastrointestinal nematodes on naturally infected cattle. Based on the results of clinical safety, no alterations on clinical and haematological signs and on the biochemical values obtained in animals treated orally with aurixazole 24 mg/kg were observed. Regarding the results of reduction or efficacy, obtained by eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) counts, the formulation of aurixazole reached values superior to 99% (arithmetic means) in all post-treatment dates. In two occasions, this formulation reached maximum efficacy (100%). Comparing these results with the reduction percentages obtained by EPG counts, it is possible to verify that the values obtained by all three formulations were compatible with the efficacy results. Aurixazole reached maximum efficacy (100%) against Haemonchus placei, Cooperia spatulata and Oesophagostomum radiatum. Against Cooperia punctata, this formulation reached an efficacy index of 99.99%. Regarding aurixazole, no specific trials were conducted on the field in order to evaluate the behaviour of this molecule against helminths that are resistant to other molecules, specially isolated levamisole and disophenolat. Due to this fact, future studies will be necessary to assess the effectiveness of aurixazole against strains of nematodes that are resistant to levamisole and disophenolat, but the results of clinical safety and efficacy described in this study allow us to conclude that the aurixazole molecule, concomitantly with other measures and orally administered formulations, can be another important tool in the control of nematodes parasitizing bovines. PMID:24656344

  8. Anthelmintic activity ofSecuridaca longepedunculata (Family:Polygalaceae) root extract in mice, in vitro andin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adiele RC; Fakae BB; Isuzu IU

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the pharmacological bases of oral administration ofSecuridaca longepedunculata(S. longepedunculata) root extract as an anthelmintic in folkloric medicine. Methods:Albino mice were infected with infective third(L3) larval stage ofHeligmosomoides polygyrus(H. polygyrus) by esophageal intubation.Following establishment of the adult worms in the intestine, the mice were treated with0-2000 mg/kg body weight(bw) of methanolic root extract ofS. longepedunculata and100 mg/kg bw of pyrantel embonate, the reference drugin vivo. Bioactivity and larvicidal effects of the extract were tested by exposing brine shrimps(Artemia salina) to0.00-1.00 mg/mL and theL3 stage ofHeligmosomoidescontortus(H. contortus) and H. polygyrus to0.00-2.50 mg/mL of the extractin vitro.Results:The percentage yield of the extract was7.13% w/w dry matter.The brine shrimps toxicity bioassay resulted in anLC50 of 74.18μg/mL.The extract had a significant, dose-dependent larvicidal effect on theL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus with the terminal effect of75% and70% at the highest exposure concentrations, respectively.The extract however, did not affect the number of worm eggs per gram(epg) of fecal materials(P<0.05) and total worm burden(twb) of adultH. polygyrus in infected mice.Treatment with pyrantel embonate significant reduced both the fecal egg count and twb to0 compared to the untreated control(P<0.05).Conclusions:These results indicate that S. longepedunculata root extract contains potent bioactive compounds and has larvicidal effect onL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus, substantiating its use as anthelmintic in alternative medicine.

  9. Evaluation of In vitro Anthelmintic Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Cytotoxic Activity of Crinum latifolium L. (Family: Amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Crinum latifolium is a widely used plant in Asian folk and traditional medicine.In the present study, we have tried to find out the anthelmintic activity, total phenolic contents and cytotoxicity of the methanolic extract of the target plant. Methods: Anthelmintic activity was assessed applying five different concentrations of the plant extract and recording the time of paralysis and death. Total phenolic contents were determined using Folin-Ciocaltu method, using Gallic acid as standard; while brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT method was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the plant extract, where vincristine sulphate and DMSO was used as positive and negative control respectively. Result: The lowest time for paralysis and death of worms, for test sample at highest concentration (50mg/ml, were found 24±0.45 and 46.4±0.60 min respectively, which gradually increased with the decrease of concentration. On the other hand, albendazole, which was used as standard, caused paralysis and death of worms at 56.2±0.20 min and 77.4±0.24 min respectively; whereas no mortality of the worms was observed, when distilled water was used as control. The crude methanolic extract exhibited lower amount of total phenolic content (17.50±2.64 mg/ml. In case of cytotoxicity measurement, the crude methanolic extract showed positive result (with LC50 15.652 µg/ml compared to standard Vincristine sulphate (0.839 µg/ml; which indicated that the leaves of Crinum latifolium possess mild cytotoxic principles. Conclusion: Therefore, further studies are suggested to evaluate the possible mechanism of action and the active compounds responsible for the biological activities of the plant extract.

  10. Historical review of medicinal plants' usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398

  11. Summary usage statistics of the Helioviewer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jack; Stys, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    The Helioviewer Project enables visual exploration of the Sun and the inner heliosphere for everyone, everywhere via intuitive interfaces and novel technology. Images from the SDO, STEREO, SOHO, PROBA2 and Yohkoh missions are currently available. Users of the Helioviewer Project have made over one million movies and over two million screenshots since detailed (and anonymous) logging of Helioviewer Project usage was implemented in February 2011. These usage logs are analyzed to give a detailed breakdown on user interaction with solar and heliospheric data via Helioviewer Project clients and services. We present summary statistics on how our users are using our clients and services, which data they are interested in, and how they choose to interact with different data sources.

  12. Characterizing food usage by demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, F J; Krebs-Smith, S M; Wyse, B W; Light, L

    1982-12-01

    On the basis of an analysis of three-day food records, food comsumption by major segments of the U.S. population was examined for 65 food groups and subgroups. This study indicates that demographic factors, particularly age, race, and region, can affect both the percentage of persons using certain foods and the mean frequency of their use. Both the similarities and the differences on these parameters are of interest when food usage is examined by demographic variables. PMID:7142608

  13. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  14. Social Media News: Motivation, Purpose and Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Beheshti-Kashi; Baharak Makki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an online survey which was conducted to analyse the use of social web inthe context of daily news. Users’ motivation and habit in the news consumption were focused. Moreover,users’ news behaviour was distinguished in three purposes such news consumption, news production andnews dissemination to find out if the usage has a passive or active character. In a second step it wasquestioned which social software is used for which purpose. In conclusion users apprec...

  15. Usage of socioware in synchronous marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrichová, Vladimíra

    2011-01-01

    My bachelor‘s thesis deals with social networks and marketing on social networks. The thesis analyzes the biggest and most interesting social networks on the internet – Facebook, Twitter and networks LinkedId and Foursquare. In detail, the thesis describes two networks – Facebook and Twitter. These thesis analyzed history of Facebook, main differences between real a and fictitious profiles. In the next step, thesis deals with most used marketing methods to promote products and brands by usage...

  16. Cell phone usage and erectile function

    OpenAIRE

    Al–Ali, Badereddin Mohamad; Patzak, Johanna; Fischereder, Katja; Pummer, Karl; Shamloul, Rany

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this pilot study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on erectile function (EF) in men. Material and Methods We recruited 20 consecutive men complaining of erectile dysfunction (ED) for at least six months (Group A), and another group of 10 healthy men with no complaints of ED (Group B). Anamnesis, basic laboratory investigations, and clinical examinations were performed. All men completed the German version of the Sexual Health...

  17. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, P.; Vile, R; L.A. Osborne; Romano, M.; R. Truzoli

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their ...

  18. Test automation for Markov Chain Usage Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bettinotti, Adriana M.; Garavaglia, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Statistical testing with Markov Chain Usage Models is an effective method to be used by programmers and testers during web sites development, to guarantee the software reliability. The JUMBL software works on this models; it supports model construction with the TML language and analysis, tests generation and execution and analysis of tests results. This paper is targeted at test automation for web sites development with JUMBL and JWebUnit.

  19. Usage of FLASH tool in advertising animations

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The animations change the static pictures into the movable ones. By special recording and then fast playing a lot of pictures one by one, which differ only by details, it looks like moving. This way of playing makes the best of imperfection of human eye, which considers fast changing like a smooth moving. By progress from original, hand drawn pictures, there is less work difficulty, and author´s personality reflects in usage of computer graphic effects, like bitmap and vector graphic...

  20. CONSUMER PANACEA OVER INTERNET USAGE IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal AFSAR; Jawaria Andleeb QURESH; Asim REHMAN; Rehmat Ullah BANGASH

    2011-01-01

    The present age is the era of information technology and everywhere microwaves are scattered. Everybody wants to explore itself with this information technology and happenings taking place of Internet for the purpose of education, awareness, entertainment and especially interaction with strangers. In Pakistan, the awareness of internet usage is increasing and people are gaining knowledge about online buying and selling. Although the Internet may well empower consumers, there is a paucity of s...

  1. Porflow Capabilities, Usage, History, and Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support closure of the Savannah River Site High Level Waste tanks, the PORFLOW computer program is being applied to predict long term movement of residual contaminants from the tanks. The PORFLOW program has greater capabilities than simpler programs that have been used previously, and PORFLOW results have been accepted by state and federal regulators throughout the United States. This document briefly discusses the PORFLOW capabilities and presents lists of reports showing PORFLOW's usage history and testing

  2. Explaining the Usage Intentions of Exergames

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Tuomas; Makkonen, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Different kinds of digital gaming concepts that combine exercise and games, commonly referred to as exergames, have become increasingly common in recent years. These games, which can be used because of both hedonic and utilitarian reasons, have also become a subject of growing interest among academic researchers. However, the factors that explain their usage remain vaguely understood. This study aims to find out what kinds of factors explain the intentions to use exergames as p...

  3. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  4. Energy usage optimization in HEMAV RPAS platform

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Abilla, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the results of the energy usage optimization in HEMAV test-bed. It has been developed as part of an internship in HEMAV, a young European company based in Molins de Rei, Barcelona dedicated to make safe civil services with RPAS technology. The main objectives of this study are increase the flight time of the hexacopter by studying the behaviour of different propellers and increasing or decreasing the number of batteries. And, finally, study the influence of performing d...

  5. Usage of Operating System Linux in Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor’s essay is focused on usage of operating system Linux in enterprise SBD Cheb. In theoretical part is described Linux and his history. There are also described functions of server, because Linux is used in SBD Cheb on the servers. In practical part there are some researches, that say why is Linux on the servers so favourite. Linux is compared to Microsoft Windows and after describing of the servers in the enterprise is created a SWOT analysis.

  6. Usage of the cyclotron facility local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local area network of controllers at the Karlsruhe cyclotyron is shown. Experience after two years of usage is described. The system is applied controlling, data acquisition, management, databases usage

  7. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A Medicinal Plant Used for the Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Gruz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; du Plooy, Christian P; Abdelgadir, Hafiz A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower (English) is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. aspera collected from two different geographical locations (Ciaat, Eritrea and Ukulinga, South Africa) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic activities and the plant characterized for functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), a filamentus yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans) and a free-living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). The water and acetone extracts of the samples collected from Ciaat exhibited good antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity (MIC plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga. PMID:26635604

  8. A Structural Equation Model for ICT Usage in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usluel, Yasemin Kocak; Askar, Petek; Bas, Turgay

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage, which is the indicator of diffusion. A model composed of the variables which can explain ICT usage in Turkish higher education is established and tested within the study. The two dimensions of ICT usage are considered: instructional and managerial. The data collected…

  9. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) choisy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Tharachand; C Immanuel Selvaraj; Z. Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn.) Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL) of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Signi...

  10. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Acacia gaumeri, Havardia albicans and Quebracho tannin extracts on a mexican strain of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae

    OpenAIRE

    G. Hernández Orduño; J.F.J. Torres Acosta; C. A. Sandoval Castro; A.J. Aguilar Caballero; R.R. Reyes Ramirez; H Hoste; J.A. Calderón Quintana

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro anthelmintic (AH) effect of Acacia gaumeri (AG), Havardia albicans (HA) and Quebracho tannin extracts on a Mexican strain of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae was evaluated. Water/acetone extracts of two tropical plants (AG and HA) and a commercial tannin preparation (Schinopsis sp, Quebracho) were screened to evaluate the in vitro AH effect using the larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. The Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae originated from a donor sheep (FES-Cuautitlán, UNAM). The...

  11. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn. desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tharachand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn. Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05 were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05 activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.

  12. Influence of the cyclooctadepsipeptides PF1022A and PF1022E as natural products on the design of semi-synthetic anthelmintics such as emodepside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, R; Iinuma, K; Harder, A; Schindler, M; Murakami, T

    2005-10-01

    The 24-membered cyclooctadepsipeptide (CODP) PF1022A, the active metabolite of the fungus imperfectus Mycelia sterilia (Rosellinia sp.) isolated from the plant Camellia japonica in Japan, is described as a powerful broad-spectrum anthelmintic natural product with low toxicity in animals. Further CODPs such as PF1022B, C, D and E have been isolated from the same culture and their structures have been established. Both PF1022A and PF1022E serve as valuable starting materials for the synthesis of semi-synthetic CODP derivatives with improved intrinsic anthelmintic potency and broad-spectrum activity. It was found that in most cases the di-substituted PF1022A derivatives showed a greater (or equal) activity by oral application against the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus compared to the corresponding mono-substituted PF1022A analogues as exemplified by emodepside. In order to get additional information on the bioactive conformation, emodepside was transformed into its mono- and tetra-thionated derivatives by isosteric replacement. In the light of the increased efficacy of these derivatives against H. contortus or Trichostrongylus colubriformis, it has been suggested that the asymmetric conformation clearly influences the anthelmintic activity of CODPs. Although useful synthetic pathways are available today for the preparation of the semi-synthetic CODP emodepside, the fermentative production of its bis-para-nitro and bis-para-amino precursors could be the process used for its industrial-scale production in the future. PMID:16228266

  13. F200Y polymorphism of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in Haemonchus contortus and sheep flock management practices related to anthelmintic resistance in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Alexandre Moura; Sampaio Junior, Francisco Dantas; Pacheco, Adlilton; da Cunha, Amanda Batista; Cruz, Juliana Dos Santos; Scofield, Alessandra; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the F200Y polymorphism in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene of Haemonchus contortus from various sheep flocks in eastern Amazon, and to identify management practices that may favor the emergence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs in the same area. In total, 305 specimens of H. contortus were collected from sheep at 12 farms located in the state of Pará. An allele-specific PCR was performed to detect the F200Y polymorphism, and questionnaires were used to obtain information about the farms and flocks. All genotypes were detected as follows: 31% of the parasites were RR, 37% of the parasites were SR, and 32% were SS. The completed questionnaires revealed that all farms employed semi-intensive farming systems, performed suppressive anthelmintic treatment, and based their choice of drug on cost and availability rather than on any knowledge regarding drugs that remained effective on their property. It can thus be concluded that the SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene is present in the H. contortus populations from eastern Amazon, and that a series of management practices that favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance are employed on these farms. PMID:27514894

  14. A single amino acid substitution in isozyme GST mu in Triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica (Sligo strain) can substantially influence the manifestation of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H

    2015-12-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics. PMID:26542261

  15. Empirically testing some factors affecting HMS usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo; Guimaraes, Valerie C K; Guimaraes, Tor

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - Without use the expected benefits from healthcare management systems (HMS) cannot be derived. Thus, while use alone may not guarantee success, one can safely assume that the more use the better. HMS has been instrumental in facilitating care providers' work. However, many hospitals have encountered usage problems and some user-related factors have been recognized in the literature as potentially important to make HMS more successful. The purpose of this paper is to test the importance of the factors proposed in the literature as important determinants of HMS usage measured by the number of hours used and the frequency of use. Design/methodology/approach - Several user-related variables such as user participation, user expertise, and user training previously studied separately by different authors are brought together into an integrated model to be tested empirically. Data from 213 nurses using their hospital HMS have been used to test proposed relationships between the independent variables and HMS usage results. Findings - The results confirm the importance of these factors and provide the basis for managerial recommendations. Hospital managers can use the resources validated by this study to improve their own operations and improve the likelihood of success implementing HMS. Future research projects may identify other possible factors important for HMS implementation success to improve the model proposed here. Originality/value - HMS is a very widely used and an important system for hospitals, but has been neglected in research. This is one of the first rigorous studies of HMS, and the results provide new practical insights for hospital administrators. PMID:27298061

  16. Survey on antibiotic usage in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, K G

    2000-09-01

    Ninety-two clinical microbiologists, infectious disease clinicians and clinicians with an interest in the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) participated in an interactive session concerning the management of acute uncomplicated lower UTI. The antibacterials considered most appropriate as first-line agents were trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, pivmecillinam, nitrofurantoin and fluoroquinolones. The current level of usage of fluoroquinolones for lower UTIs was, however, considered inappropriate by most delegates from a 'societal perspective', in terms of spread of resistance and potential impact on the environment. PMID:11051624

  17. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  18. KauNet : Design and Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Johan; Hurtig, Per; Brunström, Anna

    2008-01-01

    KauNet is an emulation system that allows deterministic placement of packet losses and bit-errors as well as more precise control over bandwidth and delay changes. KauNet is an extension to the well-known Dummynet emulator in FreeBSD and  allows the use of pattern and scenario files to increase control and repeatability. This report provides a comprehensive description of the usage of KauNet, as well as a technical description of the design and implementation of KauNet.

  19. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  20. An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.

  1. Race, Internet usage, and E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Hiroshi; Zavodny , Madeline

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine racial and ethnic differences in computer ownership and Internet usage using data from a survey conducted by the Nomura Research Institute in 2000. They focus on on-line shopping because few studies have examined racial and ethnic differences in e-commerce. The results indicate that blacks and Hispanics are less likely to own or use a computer than are non-Hispanic whites but are not less likely to shop on-line. Indeed, blacks appear to shop on-line more frequently and to ...

  2. Podcasting in Higher Education: Students’ Usage Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Fietze

    2010-01-01

    At German universities, podcasting is still a relatively new method of teaching and learning, on which only few studies are available so far. The present report aims to describe students’ usage behaviour and their assess- ment of podcasting. The findings are based on a survey of students at the University of Flensburg, who took part in lectures recorded and made avail- able as podcasts during the 2007 summer term and 2007/08 winter term. A total of 148 students took part at the two survey ses...

  3. Optimization of the Energy Usage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Burckhart, H J; Caspers, F; Doré, V; Gatignon, L; Martel, C; Nonis, M; Tommasini, D

    2013-01-01

    Some of the efforts of CERN to optimize its energy usage are presented. Work is proceeding in several areas: campus and infrastructure, accelerators and beam lines, as well as R&D for future accelerators. The existing building stock is being renovated and new buildings apply an integrated energy concept. The energy efficiency of the accelerators and beam lines can be further enhanced by powering more equipment dynamically only during the time it is really needed. For designing new accelerators novel approaches are being investigated to re-use energy which in today’s installations gets dumped thermally.

  4. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  5. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-08-30

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused by a decreased susceptibility of immature worms for MLs. Alternatively, immature worms may develop faster into egg producing adults as a result of repeated ML treatments. The species composition of the larval cultures obtained shortly after ML and pyrantel (PYR) treatment can confirm the hypothesis of decreased ML susceptibility, as this is often class-specific, whereas faster development would also occur after treatment with anthelmintics with a different mode of action. From 3 farms with a known history of shortened ERP, 8 horses per farm were selected and divided into 2 groups. The MOX-PYR-MOX group was treated twice with MOX (day 0 and 126) and once with PYR (day 84) and the IVM-PYR-IVM group was treated twice with IVM (day 0 and 98) and once with PYR (day 56). Cultured infective larvae (L3s) were counted and differentiated with the reverse line blot on pooled samples. Per cyathostomin species, the number of larvae per gram was calculated. The efficacy of all ML treatments was 100% and a shortened ERP was found on all 3 farms. The species composition of the larval cultures after ML treatment did not differ significantly from that after PYR treatment in the IVM-PYR-IVM group, but it did differ in the MOX-PYR-MOX group. The larval cultures obtained after MOX treatment consisted mostly of Cylicocyclus nassatus, while after PYR treatment Cylicostephanus longibursatus was the most abundant species. In the cultures from 42days after MOX treatment 6 cyathostomin species from 3 genera were found on the farm with the lowest activity (farm 1), while on the farm with the highest activity (farm 3) only 3 species from one genus were found in the same number of examined L3s. The

  6. Pooling sheep faecal samples for the assessment of anthelmintic drug efficacy using McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC in gastrointestinal strongyle and Nematodirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Fiona; Rinaldi, Laura; McBean, Dave; Pepe, Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Melville, Lynsey; Devin, Leigh; Mitchell, Gillian; Ianniello, Davide; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Levecke, Bruno

    2016-07-30

    In small ruminants, faecal egg counts (FECs) and reduction in FECs (FECR) are the most common methods for the assessment of intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infections and anthelmintic drug efficacy, respectively. The main limitation of these methods is the time and cost to conduct FECs on a representative number of individual animals. A cost-saving alternative would be to examine pooled faecal samples, however little is known regarding whether pooling can give representative results. In the present study, we compared the FECR results obtained by both an individual and a pooled examination strategy across different pool sizes and analytical sensitivity of the FEC techniques. A survey was conducted on 5 sheep farms in Scotland, where anthelmintic resistance is known to be widespread. Lambs were treated with fenbendazole (4 groups), levamisole (3 groups), ivermectin (3 groups) or moxidectin (1 group). For each group, individual faecal samples were collected from 20 animals, at baseline (D0) and 14 days after (D14) anthelmintic administration. Faecal samples were analyzed as pools of 3-5, 6-10, and 14-20 individual samples. Both individual and pooled samples were screened for GI strongyle and Nematodirus eggs using two FEC techniques with three different levels of analytical sensitivity, including Mini-FLOTAC (analytical sensitivity of 10 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)) and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 or 50 EPG).For both Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 EPG), there was a perfect agreement in classifying the efficacy of the anthelmintic as 'normal', 'doubtful' or 'reduced' regardless of pool size. When using the McMaster method (analytical sensitivity of 50 EPG) anthelmintic efficacy was often falsely classified as 'normal' or assessment was not possible due to zero FECs at D0, and this became more pronounced when the pool size increased. In conclusion, pooling ovine faecal samples holds promise as a cost-saving and efficient

  7. Use of a multiple choice questionnaire to assess UK prescribing channels' knowledge of helminthology and best practice surrounding anthelmintic use in livestock and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Stephanie; Bartley, David J; Hotchkiss, Emily; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-06-01

    Grazing livestock and equines are at risk of infection from a variety of helminths, for which the primary method of control has long been the use of anthelmintics. Anthelmintic resistance is now widespread in a number of helminth species across the globe so it is imperative that best practice control principles be adopted to delay the further spread of resistance. It is the responsibility of all who prescribe anthelmintics (in the UK, this being veterinarians, suitably qualified persons (SQPs) and pharmacists) to provide adequate information on best practice approaches to parasite control at the point of purchase. Poor uptake of best practice guidelines at farm level has been documented; this could be due to a lack of, or inappropriate, advice at the point of anthelmintics purchase. Therefore, the aim here was to evaluate levels of basic knowledge of helminthology, best practice guidelines and dispensing legislation among veterinarians and SQPs in the UK, through a Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) test, that was distributed online via targeted emails and social media sites. For each respondent, the percentage correct was determined (for the MCQ test overall and for subsections) and the results analysed initially using parametric and non-parametric statistics to compare differences between prescribing channels. The results showed that channels generally performed well; veterinarians achieved a mean total percentage correct of 79.7% (range 34.0-100%) and SQPs, a mean total percentage correct of 75.8% (range 38.5-100%) (p=0.051). The analysis indicated that veterinarians performed better in terms of knowledge of basic helminthology (p=0.001), whilst the SQP group performed better on legislation type questions (p=0.032). There was no significant difference in knowledge levels of best practice between the two channels. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that veterinarians and those answering equine questions only performed significantly better than those

  8. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A.; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health – General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  9. Better Living Through Metadata: Examining Archive Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.; Winkelman, S.; Rots, A.

    2013-10-01

    The primary purpose of an observatory's archive is to provide access to the data through various interfaces. User interactions with the archive are recorded in server logs, which can be used to answer basic questions like: Who has downloaded dataset X? When did she do this? Which tools did she use? The answers to questions like these fill in patterns of data access (e.g., how many times dataset X has been downloaded in the past three years). Analysis of server logs provides metrics of archive usage and provides feedback on interface use which can be used to guide future interface development. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is fortunate in that a database to track data access and downloads has been continuously recording such transactions for years; however, it is overdue for an update. We will detail changes we hope to effect and the differences the changes may make to our usage metadata picture. We plan to gather more information about the geographic location of users without compromising privacy; create improved archive statistics; and track and assess the impact of web “crawlers” and other scripted access methods on the archive. With the improvements to our download tracking we hope to gain a better understanding of the dissemination of Chandra's data; how effectively it is being done; and perhaps discover ideas for new services.

  10. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  11. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Reed

    Full Text Available Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test, depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire, sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28. This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  12. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  13. Composition and Rhetoric Usage of Parallelism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖林; 朱蕾

    2012-01-01

      Parallelism gets a rhetorical effect by means of syntactic approach. The use of parallelism makes the effect of balanced beauty between words and words, sentences and sentences, paragraphs and paragraphs. From the per-spective of semantic, all parts and components of parallelism are closely related, parallelism plays an important role in creating the rhetorical effect and strengthening the tone.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  15. An anthelmintic drug, pyrvinium pamoate, thwarts fibrosis and ameliorates myocardial contractile dysfunction in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoaki Murakoshi

    Full Text Available Metabolic adaptation to limited supplies of oxygen and nutrients plays a pivotal role in health and disease. Heart attack results from insufficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, where cardiomyocytes die and cardiac fibroblasts proliferate--the latter causing scar formation, which impedes regeneration and impairs contractility of the heart. We postulated that cardiac fibroblasts survive metabolic stress by adapting their intracellular metabolism to low oxygen and nutrients, and impeding this metabolic adaptation would thwart their survival and facilitate the repair of scarred heart. Herein, we show that an anthelmintic drug, Pyrvinium pamoate, which has been previously shown to compromise cancer cell survival under glucose starvation condition, also disables cardiac fibroblast survival specifically under glucose deficient condition. Furthermore, Pyrvinium pamoate reduces scar formation and improves cardiac contractility in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. As Pyrvinium pamoate is an FDA-approved drug, our results suggest a therapeutic use of this or other related drugs to repair scarred heart and possibly other organs.

  16. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-04-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT determine the anti-parasitic effects against the main cattle nematodes. We used in vitro tests targeting L1 larvae (feeding inhibition assay) and adults (motility assay) of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. In the larval feeding inhibition assay, O. ostertagi L1 were significantly more susceptible to all CT fractions than C. oncophora L1. The mean degree of polymerization of CT (i.e. average size) was the most important structural parameter: large CT reduced larval feeding more than small CT. The flavan-3-ols of prodelphinidin (PD)-type tannins had a stronger negative influence on parasite activity than the stereochemistry, i.e. cis- vs trans-configurations, or the presence of a gallate group. In contrast, for C. oncophora high reductions in the motility of larvae and adult worms were strongly related with a higher percentage of PDs within the CT fractions while there was no effect of size. Overall, the size and the percentage of PDs within CT seemed to be the most important parameters that influence anti-parasitic activity. PMID:26888630

  17. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  18. In vitro anthelmintic activity of five tropical legumes on the exsheathment and motility of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Capetillo-Leal, Concepción M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of five tropical legume plants [Arachis pintoi CIAT 22160 (A.p. 22160), Gliricidia sepium, Cratylia argentea (C.a. Yacapani), C. argentea CIAT 22386 (C.a. 22386), C. argentea Veranera (C.a. Veranera)] against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae and the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect. Lyophilized leaf extracts of each plant were evaluated using the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect was evaluated in both assays using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to remove tannins from the solutions. At the highest concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), A. pintoi 22160, C.a. Yacapani, C.a. Veranera and C.a. 22386 completely inhibited the exsheathment process of H. contortus (P<0.01). At the same concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), the inhibition of larval migration for C.a. 22386, C.a. Veranera and G. sepium was 66.0%, 35.9% and 39.2% (relative to the PBS control), respectively. In both bioassays (LEIA and LMIA), the AH effect shown by each plant was blocked after the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), corroborating the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds. PMID:22652531

  19. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Lehmhus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives.

  20. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmhus, Dirk; Wuest, Thorsten; Wellsandt, Stefan; Bosse, Stefan; Kaihara, Toshiya; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Busse, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a) sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b) product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives. PMID:26703606

  1. A STUDY OF THE TREND OF SMARTPHONE AND ITS USAGE BEHAVIOR IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azam Osman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory study is to better understand the current dynamics of the Malaysian market for smartphone and the usage behaviors of consumers. This paper presents the result of a survey on the trend of smartphone from the perspective of end consumers. The data was collected from 1814 respondents across major cities in Malaysia. This study has looked into the familiarity of users towards smartphones, choices of smartphone brand and service providers, and most importantly the determinants that influence their purchasing decision. Additionally, the consumers‟ preferences on smartphone specifications such as design, computing power, operating platform, and price were investigated. Furthermore, consumers‟ usage behaviors such as using smartphone for email, web browsing, gaming, and document reading were examined. The statistics presented provides fundamental information regarding the trends in the smartphone market and usage behaviors in Malaysia. Such information are useful for academics for the development of future works in the field, whereas for smartphone manufacturers, application developers and other stakeholders, they are able to plan their direction in the Malaysian smartphone market.

  2. Du bon usage des ressources renouvelables

    OpenAIRE

    Gillon, Yves; Chaboud, Christian; Boutrais, Jean; Mullon, Christian; Weber, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Depuis une dizaine d'années, l'idée que la sauvegarde de notre planète passe par le développement économique et le partage équitable des bénéfices s'est largement répandue. Dans le cas des ressources naturelles renouvelables, quel est donc ce "bon usage" qui permettrait de concilier préservation des écosystèmes et bien-être des populations locales ? Les études de cas en milieu tropical rassemblées dans cet ouvrage soulignent la diversité et la complexité des systèmes mis en place pour gérer c...

  3. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity. PMID:27142427

  4. Recommendations for PDF usage in LHC predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Accardi, A; Blümlein, J; Garzelli, M V; Lipka, K; Melnitchouk, W; Moch, S; Placakyte, R; Owens, J F; Reya, E; Sato, N; Vogt, A; Zenaiev, O

    2016-01-01

    We review the present status of the determination of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the light of the precision requirements for the LHC in Run 2 and other future hadron colliders. We provide brief reviews of all currently available PDF sets and use them to compute cross sections for a number of benchmark processes, including Higgs boson production in gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC. We show that the differences in the predictions obtained with the various PDFs are due to particular theory assumptions made in the fits of those PDFs. We discuss PDF uncertainties in the kinematic region covered by the LHC and on averaging procedures for PDFs, such as advocated by the PDF4LHC15 sets, and provide recommendations for the usage of PDF sets for theory predictions at the LHC.

  5. Recommendations for PDF usage in LHC predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accardi, A. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Alekhin, S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, J. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2016-03-15

    We review the present status of the determination of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the light of the precision requirements for the LHC in Run 2 and other future hadron colliders. We provide brief reviews of all currently available PDF sets and use them to compute cross sections for a number of benchmark processes, including Higgs boson production in gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC.We show that the differences in the predictions obtained with the various PDFs are due to particular theory assumptions made in the fits of those PDFs. We discuss PDF uncertainties in the kinematic region covered by the LHC and on averaging procedures for PDFs, such as advocated by the PDF4LHC15 sets, and provide recommendations for the usage of PDF sets for theory predictions at the LHC.

  6. Social Media News: Motivation, Purpose and Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Beheshti-Kashi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an online survey which was conducted to analyse the use of social web inthe context of daily news. Users’ motivation and habit in the news consumption were focused. Moreover,users’ news behaviour was distinguished in three purposes such news consumption, news production andnews dissemination to find out if the usage has a passive or active character. In a second step it wasquestioned which social software is used for which purpose. In conclusion users appreciate social softwarefor features such as interactivity and information that traditional media does not provide. Among the socialweb platforms users prefer social networking sites as well as videoshare platforms. Social networking sitesalso rank first in the news production and dissemination.

  7. Le Feu et ses Usages Militaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finó, J. F.

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available LE feu a toujours été une arme puissante. L'homme préhistorique, les Assyriens, les Grecs, les Byzantins, les Arabes, les bombes incendiaires de notre aviation, autant d'exemples de son usage militaire dans des pays et des temps fort divers. De plus, une de ses variantes, le feu grégeois pulvérulent, a été à l'origine de la poudre à canon. Il a donc paru intéressant de rassembler quelques données à ce sujet et de rappeler briévement la production des feux de guerre, leur lancement et la défense contre ses effets. Accessoirement, de dire quelques mots sur une autre branche de la chimie de guerre: les gaz asphyxiants.

  8. Preference of hospital usage in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health is important and money is not matter, if people are concerned for the treatment of various ailments. A collective acceptance with regard to hospital usage is that most of the people prefer to use private hospitals even if the cost of private hospital tends to be high. Public hospitals are not preferred due to poorer quality of their services, even though these services are provided at low cost. At the time of independence, nearly 15% of the people used private sector. In a recent study by World Bank, it has been found that about 80% of the people use the private hospitals in India. In order to understand the preference of hospitals of ailing persons, we make use of the National Sample Survey Organization′s 60 th round data on morbidity and health-care conducted in 2004. Using this data, we first described the demographic, social and economic characteristics of person who use the hospitals. We have also used primary data collecting during May-September 2010 in Bundelkhand region, Uttar Pradesh. There were 360 farmers have interviewed from three villages from each Banda and Hamirpur districts. We have tried to understand the preference of hospital usage among the migrant and non-migrant households. We have found that migrant households preferred private hospital for any type of treatment whereas non-migrant households still have faith on herbal and magician for the treatment. Migrant household preferred institutional delivery and spent money on healthy food such as fruits and vegetables. Migrant households were more health conscious and more exposed about the health awareness programs such as polio, immunization and health check-up of the children. Interesting to note that migrants households have first aid box and some general medicine such paracetamol, B-complex table and syrup. Some of them have thermometer and they are able to measure the body temperature and apply medicine to control fever if any time appeared among the member of

  9. Social media usage: an investigation of B2B salespeople

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta J. Schultz; Charles H. Schwepker, Jr; David J. Good

    2012-01-01

    A great deal has been written recently in the practitioner press about the strategic importance and usage of social media. However, as practitioners only release limited information about the internal advantages such a tool provides, research in this emerging field remains extremely limited about its usage in the sales area. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically assess a model of social media usage among business-to-business (B2B) salespeople. A survey of 27...

  10. Characterizing Smartphone Usage: Diversity and End User Context

    OpenAIRE

    Soikkeli, Tapio; Karikoski, Juuso; Hämmäinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Julkaisun kokoteksti on luettavissa vain Aalto-tunnuksilla. Please note that access to the fulltext is limited to Aalto staff and students. Mobile end user context has gained increasing attention in the mobile services industry. This article utilizes handset-based data, collected from 140 users, to examine smartphone usage in different place-related end user contexts. Smartphone usage is examined first on a high level by using smartphone usage session as a unit of analysis. Then the usa...

  11. The Descriptive Study of Knowledge Discovery from Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Yogish H K; Dr.G.T. Raju; Manjunath T. N,

    2011-01-01

    The World Wide Web serves as huge, widely distributed, global information service centre for news, advertisements, consumer information, financial management, education, government, e-commerce and many other information services. The web also contains a rich and dynamic collection of hyperlink information and web page access and usage information, providing rich sources of data for data mining. The Web usage mining is the area of data mining which deals with the discovery and analysis of usag...

  12. Choice Modeling for Usage Context-Based Design

    OpenAIRE

    He, Lin; Chen, Wei; Hoyle, Christopher; Yannou, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    International audience Usage Context-Based Design (UCBD) is an area of growing interest within the design community. Usage context is the set of scenarios in which a product (or service) is to be used, including the environments in which the product is used, the types of tasks the product performs, and the conditions under which the product is purchased and operates. It is proposed in this work that in choice modeling for usage context-based design, usage context should be a part of the pr...

  13. 高校教学团队建设的博弈分析——基于政府与高校的经费投入和使用的博弈%Game Playing Analysis of the Fund's Input and Usage of the University Teaching Team: Perspective of the Game Playing between the Government and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华; 魏建华

    2012-01-01

    game playing theory is a very important theory in contemporary mathematics. It is used in the social sciences, which is honored as "the unified field theory of the social sciences". Game playing analysis method is also widely used as a research method in economics, political science, law, and psychology. The purpose of this paper is to use game playing analysis method to solve the problem of the fund's input and usage of university teaching team. It points out that it needs to establish the binding agreement to safeguard the stability of the game playing situation between the government and universities, aiming to achieve unity of overall rationality and individual rationality of the university teaching construction.%本文运用博弈分析方法,通过分析政府与高校之间的博弈局势,解决高校教学团队的有限经费投入与使用的问题,并指出需要建立具有约束力的制度性约束协议,以保障政府和高校之间均衡博弈局势的稳定,进而达到高校教学团队建设的整体理性和个体理性的统一。

  14. Study of plasma protein binding activity of isometamidium and its impact on anthelmintic activity using trypanosoma induced calf model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprita Sinha

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of present study was to determine Plasma Protein Binding (PPB activity and its effect on clinical efficacy of isometamidium after intramuscular administration in calves. The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is an important factor in controlling the availability and distribution of drugs. In general, PPB reduces the free fraction of drug available for therapeutic activity, since only the non-protein bound drug is pharmacologically active. Materials and Methods: Six calves were used for PPB study and eighteen for clinical efficacy. Isometamidium was administered @ 0.5mg/kg intramuscularly as a single dose for PPB study. Equilibrium dialysis technique was used to determine the PPB activity. For clinical efficacy, infection with Trypanosoma was induced in calves of two groups, untreated control and experimental group. Infection was confirmed after 28 days by mice inoculation test. Isometamidium @ 0.5mg/kg was administered to experimental group. Haematoobiochemical and mice inoculation tests were performed after 7 days of drug administration (Day 35. Result: The percentage of PPB activity of isometamidium was 86.71 ± 0.59 to 93.03 ± 0.63% against the concentration 9.76± 0.84 to 4.39 ± 0.20 g ml-1. Higher percentage of PPB activity (>86% suggests greater duration of safety by this drug. It was found that anthelmintic activity of isometamidium was substantially affected by higher PPB. Conclusion: It was concluded that isometamidium has greater plasma protein binding capacity which did not hamper clinical efficacy of drug. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 444-448

  15. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs. PMID:25468031

  16. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadou, S; Kyriazakis, I; Jackson, F; Coop, R L

    2001-08-20

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to determine possible direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. A larval development/viability assay was used to investigate the effect of a condensed tannin extract (Quebracho) towards larvae of Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus. The development to infective larvae and their viability was assessed in all three species and LD 50 values were calculated. The presence of Quebracho extract in the cultures decreased the viability of L3 in all species; the LD 50 were not significantly different for the different species. Forty-eight sheep were allocated to one of eight groups and were infected with a single dose of either 4000 L3 H. contortus (groups 1 and 2) or 5000 L3 T. colubriformis and 5000 L3 Nematodirus battus simultaneously (groups 3-6) or 10,000 L3 of T. circumcincta (groups 7 and 8). From day 28 until day 31 of the experiment, sheep infected with the intestinal species were drenched with Quebracho extract at 4, 8 or 16% w/w of food intake, or remained as undrenched controls; sheep infected with the abomasal species were either drenched with Quebracho extract at 8% w/w of food intake or remained as undrenched controls. All sheep were slaughtered 4 days after the end of the drenching period. Sheep infected with the intestinal species and drenched with 16% w/w Quebracho had lower FEC compared to sheep drenched with 8% w/w (PQuebracho or which remained undrenched (PQuebracho extract (PQuebracho extract at 8% of food intake for 3 days did not affect FEC or worm burdens in sheep infected with the abomasal species compared to controls. PMID:11502368

  17. Structure of the trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from Brugia malayi reveals key design principles for anthelmintic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah D Farelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.

  18. Les non-usages des TIC

    OpenAIRE

    Abid-Zarrouk, Sandoss Ben; Alava, Séraphin; Andrieu, Bernard; Audran, Jacques; Avanzini, Guy; Azzimani, Toufik; Béziat, Jacques; Bouamri, Abderrahmane; Boujelbène, Younes; Bréant, Françoise; Chauvel, Séverine; Daguet, Hervé; Daniel, Marie-France; Dessus, Philippe; Dupré, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Les ENT (Environnements Numériques de Travail), les plates formes d'EAD (Enseignement A Distance) et les logiciels éducatifs sont généralement étudiés dans la perspective de rendre compte des transformations des situations d'enseignement-apprentissage dans lequelles ils sont utilisés. Les recherches occultent ainsi, de façon non intentionnelle, tout ce qui reste dans l'ombre de l'introduction désormais massive des TIC (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication), et qui explique pro...

  19. Benchmarking Usage Statistics in Collection Management Decisions for Serials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Usage statistics are an important metric for making decisions on serials. Although the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries have been collecting usage statistics, the statistics had not frequently been used to make decisions and had not been included in collection development policy. After undergoing a collection assessment, the…

  20. Faculty Usage of Library Tools in a Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Chris; Lonn, Steven

    2014-01-01

    To better understand faculty attitudes and practices regarding usage of library-specific tools and roles in a university learning management system, log data for a period of three semesters was analyzed. Academic departments with highest rates of usage were identified, and faculty users and nonusers within those departments were surveyed regarding…

  1. Dual Accelerometer Usage Strategy for Onboard Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; D'Souza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a dual accelerometer usage strategy for onboard space navigation. In the proposed algorithm the accelerometer is used to propagate the state when its value exceeds a threshold and it is used to estimate its errors otherwise. Numerical examples and comparison to other accelerometer usage schemes are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  2. An Exploratory Study of Internet Addiction, Usage and Communication Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Chou, Jung; Tyan, Nay-Ching Nancy

    This study examined the correlation between Internet addiction, usage, and communication pleasure. Research questions were: (1) What is computer network addiction? (2) How can one measure the degree of computer network addiction? (3) What is the correlation between the degree of users' network addiction and their network usage? (4) What is the…

  3. Effects of Different Metaphor Usage on Hypertext Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdivan, Ece; Ozdener, Nesrin

    2011-01-01

    There are many studies that offer different opinions on the effects of hypertext usage as an educational tool. Given the differences of opinion, it is useful to research the effects of metaphor usage in hypertext education and the use of hypertext as an educational tool. In this study, the effects of metaphors' uses in constructing the…

  4. Journal Usage at Department and Research Group Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Journal usage in the Department of Polymer Science at the University of Akron from 2006 to 2011 was determined by counting citations within faculty-supervised dissertations and faculty publications. Ranked title lists were created and correlations between journal usage in faculty publications and faculty-supervised dissertations were measured…

  5. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... actions occurring within EFH or outside of EFH and may include site-specific or habitat-wide...

  6. World Wide Web Usage Mining Systems and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chen Hu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is used to discover interesting user navigation patterns and can be applied to many real-world problems, such as improving Web sites/pages, making additional topic or product recommendations, user/customer behavior studies, etc. This article provides a survey and analysis of current Web usage mining systems and technologies. A Web usage mining system performs five major tasks: i data gathering, ii data preparation, iii navigation pattern discovery, iv pattern analysis and visualization, and v pattern applications. Each task is explained in detail and its related technologies are introduced. A list of major research systems and projects concerning Web usage mining is also presented, and a summary of Web usage mining is given in the last section.

  7. The Descriptive Study of Knowledge Discovery from Web Usage Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogish H K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web serves as huge, widely distributed, global information service centre for news, advertisements, consumer information, financial management, education, government, e-commerce and many other information services. The web also contains a rich and dynamic collection of hyperlink information and web page access and usage information, providing rich sources of data for data mining. The Web usage mining is the area of data mining which deals with the discovery and analysis of usage patterns from web logs, in order to improve web based applications. Web usage mining consists of three phases, preprocessing, pattern discovery, and pattern analysis. After the completion of these three phases the user can find the required usage patterns and use this information for the specific needs.

  8. Contract Report for Usage Inspection of KN-12 Transport Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K

    2007-03-15

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse.

  9. Usage of network services among sole holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Botos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the information society information means new production factor for the agri-food economy. The existence of appropriate information at the appropriate time determine significantly the efficiency of farming. Nowadays we can get information the most quickly by internet, so broadband developments in rural regions have become more and more important. Since the importance of e-administration is growing, broadband internet access is also important for agri-enterprises, because it allows fast access for law regulations and orders and they can find information about procurement and sales opportunities. In the article firstly we give a brief outline about the importance of internet access and the characteristics of broadband infrastructure in rural areas. After that we show how farmers use internet services and for what purposes, based on results of our questionnaire. Based on our examination, our network infrastructure and the usage of e-services are lagging behind other more developed European countries. In underdeveloped regions information society technologies can help to small agricultural enterprises to be viable and competitive.

  10. Use of Twitter usage by club fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Özsoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites which are Web 2.0 applications have become widespread and there are of usage has increased. The study aims to investigate the purpose of using the social networking site, Twitter by club fans. The sample of the study is composed of fans from Spor Toto (Turkish football pool Football Super League Clubs Galatasaray and Trabzonspor with registered official Twitter accounts. A 20-item data collection tool was developed in line with the literature and expert views and was published in an internet site for a whole month in August. The views of the 452 fans that filled in the form were analyzed. Results show that the new social networking site Twitter has been mostly followed by males between 18-24 ages that are fans of sports clubs. Fans have stated that they mostly follow Twitter in order to learn about the views of footballers and sports managers. Its interactive features and provision of direct and reliable information by Twitter have been stated as the reasons of high preferences for Twitter compared with the other medias.

  11. ICT USAGE BY DISTANCE LEARNERS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar AWADHIYA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among learners, their ICT usage patterns and their readiness to use ICT for educational purpose. In view of this, a study was conducted with the objective to find out the access level of ICT among distance learners. The analysis indicates that maximum learners have desktop/laptops and most of them are accessing internet very frequently from their home. The analysis also indicates that maximum respondents are browsing social networking sites followed by educational and e-mail service providing websites. Findings suggest that there is a need to generate ICT based tutorials complemented with social networking tools and mobile applications. Study also shows that learners are equipped with mobile phones and they are browsing internet through it and also availing support services offered by the university. Hence possibility of integrating mobile phone services may be used for providing learner support services and content delivery.

  12. CONSUMER PANACEA OVER INTERNET USAGE IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal AFSAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present age is the era of information technology and everywheremicrowaves are scattered. Everybody wants to explore itself with thisinformation technology and happenings taking place of Internet for thepurpose of education, awareness, entertainment and especially interactionwith strangers. In Pakistan, the awareness of internet usage is increasingand people are gaining knowledge about online buying and selling. Althoughthe Internet may well empower consumers, there is a paucity of systematicconceptual, analytical, or empirical research indicating that the Internet will infact lead to more and better information, which in turn will lead to betterconsumer decision making. The Internet is not, in and of itself, a monolithicentity subject to broad generalizations. It is a complex phenomenon, unlikeanything else in history and not completely understood. This research findsthat consumers who have more positive beliefs about Internet apparelshopping have more positive attitude toward Internet apparel shopping thando consumers who have less positive beliefs about Internet apparel shoppingand consumers who have more social support for Internet apparel shoppingperceive more social acceptance of Internet apparel shopping than doconsumers who have less social support for Internet apparel shopping.

  13. Analysis of codon usage and nucleotide composition bias in polioviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Yuan-xing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis, is a human enterovirus and a member of the family of Picornaviridae and among the most rapidly evolving viruses known. Analysis of codon usage can reveal much about the molecular evolution of the viruses. However, little information about synonymous codon usage pattern of polioviruses genome has been acquired to date. Methods The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU values, effective number of codon (ENC values, nucleotide contents and dinucleotides were investigated and a comparative analysis of codon usage pattern for open reading frames (ORFs among 48 polioviruses isolates including 31 of genotype 1, 13 of genotype 2 and 4 of genotype 3. Results The result shows that the overall extent of codon usage bias in poliovirus samples is low (mean ENC = 53.754 > 40. The general correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage bias in those polioviruses. Depending on the RSCU data, it was found that there was a significant variation in bias of codon usage among three genotypes. Geographic factor also has some effect on the codon usage pattern (exists in the genotype-1 of polioviruses. No significant effect in gene length or vaccine derived polioviruses (DVPVs, wild viruses and live attenuated virus was observed on the variations of synonymous codon usage in the virus genes. The relative abundance of dinucleotide (CpG in the ORFs of polioviruses are far below expected values especially in DVPVs and attenuated virus of polioviruses genotype 1. Conclusion The information from this study may not only have theoretical value in understanding poliovirus evolution, especially for DVPVs genotype 1, but also have potential value for the development of poliovirus vaccines.

  14. Conference helps assess online usage International Symposium: Academic Online Resources: Assessment and Usage. Lille (France), 26-27 November 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim; Boukacem-Zeghmouri, Chérifa

    2010-01-01

    Lille hosted the first international conference on digital usage assessment in France. 160 LIS professionals and scientists from five continents met for two days on the scientific campus of the Lille University and discussed usage-related approaches to academic digital libraries. 

  15. Integrating Internet into Engineering Education: A Case Study of Students' Usage and Attitudes in Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O. Anafi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of students towards the integration of the internet as a study tool and communication channel in teaching and learning in engineering has been investigated. A study was carried out in the Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, aimed at investigating the effect of certain variables such as gender, course of study, computer experience, and the percentage of internet usage on teaching and learning processes. A well-structured questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected five hundred (500 male and female students across the seven (7 departments of the faculty and about 85% were filled and returned. The study also examines the university management's perspectives and strategies to incorporate internet usage in teaching and learning processes especially in engineering. Amazingly, responses received showed that experience in the use of the computer in surfing the internet for problem based activities mainly affects the level of internet usage across the faculty. This factor makes some students to misplace their priority in internet usage emphasizing on e-mail correspondence and social networking rather than sourcing for information and solving problems as it is done by a few students. Furthermore, findings support that internet cannot entirely substitute for traditional teaching and learning processes like text reading but can serve as a reasonable alternative when the latter is unavailable

  16. Application Examples for Handle System Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, F.; Weigel, T.; Thiemann, H.; Höck, H.; Stockhause, M.; Lautenschlager, M.

    2012-12-01

    Besides the well-known DOI (Digital Object Identifiers) as a special form of Handles that resolve to scientific publications there are various other applications in use. Others perhaps are just not yet. We present some examples for the existing ones and some ideas for the future. The national German project C3-Grid provides a framework to implement a first solution for provenance tracing and explore unforeseen implications. Though project-specific, the high-level architecture is generic and represents well a common notion of data derivation. Users select one or many input datasets and a workflow software module (an agent in this context) to execute on the data. The output data is deposited in a repository to be delivered to the user. All data is accompanied by an XML metadata document. All input and output data, metadata and the workflow module receive Handles and are linked together to establish a directed acyclic graph of derived data objects and involved agents. Data that has been modified by a workflow module is linked to its predecessor data and the workflow module involved. Version control systems such as svn or git provide Internet access to software repositories using URLs. To refer to a specific state of the source code of for instance a C3 workflow module, it is sufficient to reference the URL to the svn revision or git hash. In consequence, individual revisions and the repository as a whole receive PIDs. Moreover, the revision specific PIDs are linked to their respective predecessors and become part of the provenance graph. Another example for usage of PIDs in a current major project is given in EUDAT (European Data Infrastructure) which will link scientific data of several research communities together. In many fields it is necessary to provide data objects at multiple locations for a variety of applications. To ensure consistency, not only the master of a data object but also its copies shall be provided with a PID. To verify transaction safety and to

  17. Climatic influences on development and survival of free-living stages of equine strongyles: implications for worm control strategies and managing anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martin K; Kaplan, Ray M; Thamsborg, Stig M; Monrad, Jesper; Olsen, Susanne N

    2007-07-01

    Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs by horse strongyles constitutes a growing threat to equine health because it is unknown when new drug classes can be expected on the market. Consequently, parasite control strategies should attempt to maintain drug efficacy for as long as possible. The proportion of a parasite population that is not exposed to anthelmintic treatment is described as being "in refugia" and although many factors affect the rate at which resistance develops, levels of refugia are considered the most important as these parasites are not selected by treatment and so provide a pool of sensitive genes in the population. Accordingly, treatment should be avoided when pasture refugia are small because such treatments will place significant selection pressure for resistance on worm populations. Given this new paradigm for parasite control, it has become important to identify seasons and circumstances wherein refugia are diminished. Free-living stages of equine strongyles are highly dependent on climatic influences, and this review summarises studies of strongyle development and survival under laboratory and field conditions in Northern (cool) temperate, Southern (warm) temperate and subtropical/tropical climates. In Northern temperate climates, refugia are smallest during the winter. In contrast, refugia are lowest during the summer in warm temperate and subtropical/tropical climates. Although adverse seasonal changes clearly have significant effects on the ability of free living stages of strongyle nematode parasites to survive and develop, available data suggest that climatic influences cannot effectively "clean" pastures from one grazing season to the next. PMID:16815051

  18. Study on the interaction between three benzimidazole anthelmintics and eosin Y by high performance liquid chromatography associating with resonance light scattering and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ziyu; Peng, Jingdong; Zang, Xu; Lei, Gang; He, Yan; Liu, Di

    2016-07-01

    A novel, highly selective, and sensitive resonance light scattering (RLS) detection approach coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was researched and developed for the synchronous analysis of three kinds of benzimidazole anthelmintics, including mebendazole (MBZ), albendazole (ABZ), and fenbendazole (FBZ) for the first time. In the pH range of 3.5-3.7 Britton-Robinson buffer medium, three kinds of anthelmintics, which were separated by HPLC, reacted with eosin Y (EY) to form 1:1 ion-association complexes, resulting in significantly enhanced RLS signals and the maximum peak located at 335 nm. The enhanced RLS intensity was in proportion to the MBZ, ABZ, and FBZ concentration in the range 0.2-25, 0.2-23, and 0.15-20 μg/mL, respectively. The limit of detection was in the range of 0.064-0.16 μg/mL. In addition, human urine was determined to validate the proposed method by spiked samples and real urine samples. Satisfactory results were obtained by HPLC-RLS method. Graphical Abstract The diagram mechanism of generating resonance between emitted light and scattered light. PMID:27209593

  19. Albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, in the treatment of intestinal nematode and cestode infection: a multicenter study in 480 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagota, S C

    1986-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of and patient tolerance to albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, were studied in a multicenter trial involving 480 patients ranging in age from 2 to 60 years. The patients had single or mixed infections caused by pinworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, threadworms, or tapeworms. The stools were examined by the direct method, and ova were counted by means of the Kato-Katz technique. A Graham-Scotch test was also done in patients infected with Enterobius vermicularis. Most patients received a single 400-mg dose of albendazole; adults were given two tablets, and children were given a 2% suspension. All patients with Hymenolepis nana and about half of those with Taenia infections were treated for three successive days. Patients were carefully evaluated before and after treatment to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug. After a single dose of albendazole, the cure rate was 95.3% in ascariasis, 92.2% in ancylostomiasis, 90.5% in trichuriasis, 64.9% in taeniasis, and 100% in enterobiasis. Among patients receiving 400 mg of albendazole for three days, the cure rate was 63.4% in hymenolepiasis and 86.1% in taeniasis. The drug was well tolerated, and no significant side effects were reported. PMID:3516398

  20. The usage of blood components in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukauskienė, Dalia; Veikutienė, Audronė; Adukauskaitė, Agnė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Rimaitis, Kęstutis

    2010-01-01

    Major obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Even though blood transfusion may be a life-saving procedure, an inappropriate usage of blood products in obstetric emergencies especially in cases of massive bleeding is associated with increased morbidity and risk of death. Thorough knowledge of the etiology, pathophysiology, and optimal therapeutic options of major obstetric hemorrhage may help to avoid lethal outcomes. There are evidence-based data about some risks related with transfusion of blood components: acute or delayed hemolytic, febrile, allergic reactions, transfusion-related acute lung injury, negative immunomodulative effect, transmission of infectious diseases, dissemination of cancer. This is why the indications for allogeneic blood transfusion are restricted, and new safer methods are being discovered to decrease the requirement for it. Red cell alloimmunization may develop in pregnancy; therefore, all pregnant women should pass screening for irregular antibodies. Antierythrocytic irregular antibodies may occur due to previous pregnancies or allogeneic red blood cell transfusions, and it is important for blood cross-matching in the future. Under certain circumstances, such as complicated maternal history, severe coagulation abnormalities, severe anemia, the preparation of cross-matched blood is necessary. There is evidence of very significant variation in the use of blood products (red cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma, or cryoprecipitate) among clinicians in various medical institutions, and sometimes indications for transfusion are not correctly motivated. The transfusion of each single blood product must be performed only in case of evaluation of expected effect. The need for blood products and for their combination is necessary to estimate for each patient individually in case of obstetric emergencies either. Indications for transfusion of blood components in obstetrics are presented in

  1. Semantically Enriched Web Usage Mining for Predicting User Future Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Shirgave

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Explosive and quick growth of the World Wide Web has resulted in intricate Web sites, demanding enhanced user skills and sophisticated tools to help the Web user to find the desired information. Finding desired information on the Web has become a critical ingredient of everyday personal, educational, and business life. Thus, there is a demand for more sophisticated tools to help the user to navigate a Web site and find the desired information. The users must be provided with information and services specific to their needs, rather than an undifferentiated mass of information. For discovering interesting and frequent navigation patterns from Web server logs many Web usage mining techniques have been applied. The recommendation accuracy of solely usage based techniques can be improved by integrating Web site content and site structure in the personalization process.Herein, we propose Semantically enriched Web Usage Mining method (SWUM, which combines the fields of Web Usage Mining and Semantic Web. In the proposed method, the undirected graph derived from usage data is enriched with rich semantic information extracted from the Web pages and the Web site structure. The experimental results show that the SWUM generates accurate recommendations with integration of usage, semantic data and Web site structure. The results shows that proposed method is able to achieve 10-20% better accuracy than the solely usage based model, and 5-8% better than an ontology based model.

  2. Synonymous codon usage pattern in glycoprotein gene of rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morla, Sudhir; Makhija, Aditi; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-06-10

    Rabies virus (RABV) is the causative agent of a fatal nervous system ailment. The disease is zoonotic and prevalent in many developing countries. The glycoprotein (G) of RABV is the major antigenic determinant of the virus and plays a pivotal role in its neurovirulence. Various aspects of 'G' protein biology have been explored, but the factors affecting the nucleotide choice and synonymous codon usage have never been reported. In the present study, we have analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage and effective number of codons (Nc) using 132 'G' protein genes of RABV. Corresponding analysis was used to calculate major trends in codon usage. The correlation between base composition and codon usage as well as the plot between Nc and GC3 suggest that mutational pressure is the major factor that influences the codon usage in the G gene of RABV. In addition, factors like aromaticity, aliphatic index and hydropathy have shown slight correlation suggesting that natural selection also contributes to the codon usage variations of the 'G' gene. In conclusion, codon usage bias in 'G' gene of RABV is mainly by mutational pressure and natural selection. PMID:26945626

  3. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  4. COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF WEB USAGE MINING USING PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Nanhay Singh; Achin Jain; Ram Shringar Raw

    2013-01-01

    Web usage mining is the application of data mining techniques to better serve the needs of web-based applications on the web site. In this paper, we analyze the web usage mining by applying the pattern recognition techniques on web log data. Pattern recognition is defined as the act of taking in raw data and making an action based on the ‘category’ of the pattern. Web usage mining is divided into three partsPreprocessing, Pattern discovery and Pattern analysis. Further, this paper...

  5. Modelling of word usage frequency dynamics using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the method for modelling of word usage frequency time series is proposed. An artificial feedforward neural network was used to predict word usage frequencies. The neural network was trained using the maximum likelihood criterion. The Google Books Ngram corpus was used for the analysis. This database provides a large amount of data on frequency of specific word forms for 7 languages. Statistical modelling of word usage frequency time series allows finding optimal fitting and filtering algorithm for subsequent lexicographic analysis and verification of frequency trend models

  6. Antihelmínticos como factor de riesgo en la obstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides en niños Anthelmintics as a risk factor of the intestinal obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Vásquez Tsuji

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a retrospective study the authors analyzed the clinical records of 199 children ages one month to 16 years hospitalized, with the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis, in the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria of Mexico from 1984 to 1999. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of anthelmintics drugs as a risk factor of intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides. Two groups were made for the study: Group A (n=66 of children who presented intestinal obstruction, Group B (n=133 children with no complications. A comparative analysis of clinical data of both groups was made by means of chi square with Yates correction and a stratified analysis by means of chi square. Possible confusing elements were overcrowding, age and the use of antiparasitic drugs. The calculus of risk factors for intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides was done by means of contingency tables of 2 x 2 and odds ratio with an IC of 95%. The significant risk factors were included in a model of logistics regression with an impact variable consting in the presence or absence of intestinal obstruction in order to establish a multivariate model of predictive risk a level of significance of p < 0.05. Twenty seven patients (40.90% in group A (n=66 were given anthelmintics medications prior to the intestinal obstruction: mebendazol, 14 (51-85%; two, albedazol (7.40%; eigth, a non-specifed anthelmintic (29-62%. In addition, an anthelmintic medication without a specified time of ingestion: two with mebendazol and one with piperazine (11.3%. In the case of mebendazol, the drug most frequently associated with intestinal obstruction, seven patients received it on the same day of the obstruction; five patients received it between one and seven days prior to the obstruction; two received it seven days prior to the complication. In the control group, only 7% had taken the anthelmintic one to seven days before the diagnosis of uncomplicated intestinal ascariasis diagnosis was made. With

  7. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  8. Pursuing Information: A Conversation Analytic Perspective on Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Alfred R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) communication strategies over the past three decades has concerned itself broadly with defining their usage in terms of planning and compensation, as well as with the use of taxonomies for coding different types of strategies. Taking a Conversation Analytic (CA) perspective, this article examines the fine-grained…

  9. Computer simulation of forest fire and its possible usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper authors deal with computer modelling of forest fires. Their possible usage is discussed. Results of modelling are compared with real forest fire in the National Park Slovensky Raj (Slovak Paradise) in 2000 year

  10. The organizational support of an enterprise development methods usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Pogorelov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The principles of making the organizational support of the enterprise development method (methods usage are proposed. The content and structure of the enterprise development program are considered.

  11. A semantically enriched web usage based recommendation model

    CERN Document Server

    Ramesh, C; Govardhan, A

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of internet technologies, Web has become a huge repository of information and keeps growing exponentially under no editorial control. However the human capability to read, access and understand Web content remains constant. This motivated researchers to provide Web personalized online services such as Web recommendations to alleviate the information overload problem and provide tailored Web experiences to the Web users. Recent studies show that Web usage mining has emerged as a popular approach in providing Web personalization. However conventional Web usage based recommender systems are limited in their ability to use the domain knowledge of the Web application. The focus is only on Web usage data. As a consequence the quality of the discovered patterns is low. In this paper, we propose a novel framework integrating semantic information in the Web usage mining process. Sequential Pattern Mining technique is applied over the semantic space to discover the frequent sequential patterns. Th...

  12. Evaluating The Markov Assumption For Web Usage Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, S.; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thorhauge, J.

    2003-01-01

    Web usage mining concerns the discovery of common browsing patterns, i.e., pages requested in sequence, from web logs. To cope with the enormous amounts of data, several aggregated structures based on statistical models of web surfing have appeared, e.g., the Hypertext Probabilistic Grammar (HPG...... knowledge there has been no systematic study of the validity of the Markov assumption wrt.\\ web usage mining and the resulting quality of the mined browsing patterns. In this paper we systematically investigate the quality of browsing patterns mined from structures based on the Markov assumption. Formal......, that long rules are generally more distorted than shorter rules and that the model yield knowledge of a higher quality when applied to more random usage patterns. Thus we conclude that Markov-based structures for web usage mining are best suited for tasks demanding less accuracy such as pre...

  13. Usage reporting on recorded lectures using educational data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Gorissen, Pierre; Van Bruggen, Jan; Jochems, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Gorissen, P., Van Bruggen, J., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2012). Usage reporting on recorded lectures using educational data mining. International Journal of Learning Technology, 7, 23-40. doi:10.1504/IJLT.2012.046864

  14. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C R

    1998-10-01

    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines. PMID:9848966

  15. Discovery of Web Usage Profiles Using Various Clustering Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Zahid; Ahmed, Waseem; Azeem, M. F.; Babu, A. Vinaya

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth of World Wide Web (WWW) has necessitated the development of Web personalization systems in order to understand the user preferences to dynamically serve customized content to individual users. To reveal information about user preferences from Web usage data, Web Usage Mining (WUM) techniques are extensively being applied to the Web log data. Clustering techniques are widely used in WUM to capture similar interests and trends among users accessing a Web site. Clustering ai...

  16. Performance consequences of management accounting system information usage in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Al-Mawali

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge in the area of management accounting systems (MAS) within the context of Jordanian manufacturing companies. However, the current study empirically investigated the relationship between MAS information usage and companies' performance. Data were collected from manufacturing companies listed in Amman Stock Exchange. The results of this study provide ample confirmation on the role of the usage of MAS information in enhance the m...

  17. Debit card and cash usage: a cross-country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Amromin; Sujit Chakravorti

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, debit card transactions grew rapidly in most advanced countries. While check usage declined and has almost disappeared in some countries, the stock of currency in circulation has not declined as fast. We use panel estimation techniques to analyze the change in transactional demand for cash resulting from greater usage of debit cards in 13 countries from 1988 to 2003. We are able to disentangle cash’s store of value function from its payment function by separating cash ...

  18. Do newspaper articles on card fraud affect debit card usage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kosse, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of newspaper publications about debit card skimming fraud on debit card usage in the Netherlands using daily information from January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2008. Time-series analyses are employed to assess the daily fluctuations in aggregate debit card usage. The results show that newspaper articles that somehow make mention of the phenomenon of skimming fraud significantly affect the number of debit card payments. The direction of the effect depends on ...

  19. Diversity and End User Context in Smartphone Usage Sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Soikkeli, Tapio; Karikoski, Juuso; Hämmäinen, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Julkaisun kokoteksti on luettavissa vain Aalto-tunnuksilla. Please note that access to the fulltext is limited to Aalto staff and students. Mobile end user context has gained increasingattention in the mobile services industry. Context information isseen as an important component in developing new, morepersonalized, mobile services and applications. This paper studiesthe effect of end user context on smartphone usage sessions.Smartphone usage sessions are used to depict user behavior an...

  20. Prevalence of Internet and Social Media Usage in Orthopedic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Curry; Xinning Li; Joseph Nguyen; Elizabeth Matzkin

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies in other specialties have shown that social networking and Internet usage has become an increasingly important means of patient communication and referral. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Internet or social media usage in new patients referred to a major academic orthopedics center and to identify new avenues to optimize patient recruitment and communication. New patients were surveyed (n=752) between December 2012 to January 2013 in a major academic o...

  1. E-COMMERCE USAGE IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR OF ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    Ngonidzashe Zanamwe; Mazvita Bere; Claude Zungura; Simbisanai Ashleigh Nyamakura; Beatrice Muchangani

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the use of e-commerce in the pharmaceutical sector of Zimbabwe. More specifically, it looked at e-commerce technologies being used in the sector, uses of e-commerce technologies, usage level of e-commerce technologies, benefits and barriers of e-commerce usage. The study followed an exploratory research design wherein a questionnaire was used as the main research tool. Data was gathered from 33 pharmaceutical companies and analysed using SPSS. It...

  2. Recommendations for web service composition by mining usage logs

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek, R; Mirje, Prasad; Sushmitha, N

    2016-01-01

    Web service composition has been one of the most researched topics of the past decade. Novel methods of web service composition are being proposed in the literature include Semantics-based composition, WSDLbased composition. Although these methods provide promising results for composition, search and discovery of web service based on QoS parameter of network and semantics or ontology associated with WSDL, they do not address composition based on usage of web service. Web Service usage logs ca...

  3. Relationship between Media Usage and Skills Development of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Zorofi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the relationship between media usage and social skills development of students. It also suggests that students' abilities can be illustrated as a result of their using internet and other. This research has been done by using survey method based on SSRS questionnaire. The sample size includes 324 students in North West of Iran, who were chosen by random method. The results shown there are strongly correlations between three aspects of social skills and media usage. Media us...

  4. Relationship between Impulsivity, Social Media Usage and Loneliness

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Savci; Ferda Aysan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between impulsivity, social media usage, and loneliness and to test the structural hypothetical model developed based on the literature. The study was conducted on 307 (164 female, 143 male) university students. Data collection instruments of the study were the Barratt Impulsivity Scale Short Form (BIS-11-SF), Social Media Usage Scale (SMUS), and UCLA Loneliness Scale Short Form (ULS-8). The measurement models of the latent variables w...

  5. Photo-onycholysis due to doxycycline usage: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer Faruk Elmas; Okan Kızılyel; Mahmut Sami Metin; Handan Bilen; Şevki Özdemir; Mustafa Atasoy

    2014-01-01

    Doxycycline is a wide spectrum antibiotic of tetracycline group that is used in dermatology and other clinical practices for many indications. Beside systemic side effects, such as esophagytis and hepatotoxicity, doxycycline usage may cause many dermatological side effects, especially phototoxic reactions. Onycholysis that is described as separation of the nail plate from the nail bed may be caused by many etiological factors and it is rarely a result of doxycycline usage. We report a 12-year...

  6. Fuzzy Clustering: An Approachfor Mining Usage Profilesfrom Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ms.Archana N. Boob; Prof. D. M. Dakhane

    2012-01-01

    Web usage mining is an application of data mining technology to mining the data of the web server log file. It can discover the browsing patterns of user and some kind of correlations between the web pages. Web usage mining provides the support for the web site design, providing personalization server and other business making decision, etc. Web mining applies the data mining, the artificial intelligence and the chart technology and so on to the web data and traces users' visiting characteris...

  7. EXPLORING WEB USAGE MINING WITH SCOPE OF AGENT TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    AARTI SINGH,; RAVI DUTT MISHRA

    2012-01-01

    Web Mining is currently being used to extract the knowledge about user’s requirements while visiting the internet. This paper elaborates the contribution of web usage mining in the Web Mining field. Web usage mining is contributing towards the development of user friendly web and optimized search results. However some problems like large volume of the data to be mined, need for development of adaptive websites and issues related to privacy of users are still prevailing in this area. This work...

  8. Optimizing smartphone micro-usage with smartwatch notifications

    OpenAIRE

    Bolle, Laurens; De Croon, Robin; Duval, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of a smartwatch application on smartphone micro-usage, brief bursts of interaction Ferreira et al. , among students is investigated. Our study indicates that social applications, such as WhatsApp, SMS or e-mail are used most by students. These applications tend to generate numerous notifications, which often result in brief bursts of smartphone use, which is called micro-usage. We propose three novel ways of handling notifications on a smartwatch, in order to redu...

  9. BEHAVIORAL ASPECT OF ACCOUNTING TEACHERS’ INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Emine; Gökhan ÖZER

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine behavioral process of accounting teachers’ information technology (IT) acceptance. To this end, we collected data from accounting teachers working in trade high schools. Research model and hypotheses were developed in the light of Theory of Reasoned Action. Accordingly, relationships among attitudes, subjective norms, intentions towards information technology usage and IT usage behaviors were investigated. Explanatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling...

  10. Japanese Mobile Phone Usage in Sweden - Technological and Social Prerequisites

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Susanne; Hillerdal, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Japan is an advanced country when it comes to mobile phone technology. This thesis firstly investigates the mobile phone usage in Japan. Secondly it describes the prerequisites for implementation of some distinguished Japanese mobile phone functions in Sweden. This is done from a social as well as a technological aspect. The Japanese mobile phone usage is investigated on three levels; governmental, industrial and consumer. The governmental level is characterised by an ICT policy which strives...

  11. Problematic internet usage in US college students: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Myaing Mon T; Jelenchick Lauren; Moreno Megan M; Christakis Dimitri A; Zhou Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet addiction among US college students remains a concern, but robust estimates of its prevalence are lacking. Methods We conducted a pilot survey of 307 college students at two US universities. Participants completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) as well as the Patient Health Questionnaire. Both are validated measures of problematic Internet usage and depression, respectively. We assessed the association between problematic Internet usage and moderate to severe d...

  12. Problematic internet usage in US college students: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan M; Jelenchick, Lauren; Myaing, Mon T; Zhou, Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Background Internet addiction among US college students remains a concern, but robust estimates of its prevalence are lacking. Methods We conducted a pilot survey of 307 college students at two US universities. Participants completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) as well as the Patient Health Questionnaire. Both are validated measures of problematic Internet usage and depression, respectively. We assessed the association between problematic Internet usage and moderate to severe depression...

  13. Scalable Recommendation from Web Usage Mining using Method of Moments

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Sayantan

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of mass-available Internet, twenty-first century observed a steady growth in web based commercial services and technology companies. Most of them are based on web applications that receive huge amount of user traffics, and generate massive amount of web usage data containing user-item interactions. We attempt to build a recommendation algorithm based on such web usage data. It is essential that recommendation algorithms for such applications are highly scalable in nature. Exis...

  14. Rational Drug Usage in Elderly and Nurse's Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZER, Uzm. Hemş. Emine; ÖZDEMİR, Öğr.Gör.Dr. Leyla

    2009-01-01

    Drug usage increases with the age and becomes an important problem. Side effects and intoxications of drug, multiple drug usage, drug-drug interactions, changes in drug pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetics are common due to cognitive problems such as forgetting and misunderstanding. As drug use related problems cause increase in mortality and morbidity rates, rationale drug use is very important in elderly. By preventing inappropriate drug use, rationale drug use decreases drug-related costs ...

  15. Enriching e-learning metadata through digital library usage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ferran Ferrer, Núria; Casadesús Brugués, Jaume; Krakowska, Monika; Minguillón Alfonso, Julià

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper we propose an evaluation framework for analyzing learning objects usage, with the aim of extracting useful information for improving the quality of the metadata used to describe the learning objects, but also for personalization purposes, including user models and adaptive itineraries. Methodology: We present experimental results from the log usage analysis during one academic semester of two different subjects, 350 students. The experiment looks into raw server l...

  16. Performance consequences of management accounting system information usage in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Al-Mawali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge in the area of management accounting systems (MAS within the context of Jordanian manufacturing companies. However, the current study empirically investigated the relationship between MAS information usage and companies' performance. Data were collected from manufacturing companies listed in Amman Stock Exchange. The results of this study provide ample confirmation on the role of the usage of MAS information in enhance the manufacturing companies performance in Jordan

  17. Media Usage and Civic Life: The Role of Values

    OpenAIRE

    Rengin Bahar Firat

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has observed that media usage influences civic outcomes, including trust and political behavior. However, this research has rarely examined the social psychological mechanisms underlying the relationship between media and civic life. The current study focuses on values as potential explanations for how media usage impacts civic engagement. Using data from Round 5 of the European Social Survey (2010) and employing two-level structural equation modeling, this paper examines wh...

  18. CpG Usage in RNA Viruses: Data and Hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Virk, Nasar; Chen, Wei; Ji, Shuqin; Ji, Shuxian; Sun, Yuqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun

    2013-01-01

    CpG repression in RNA viruses has been known for decades, but a reasonable explanation has not yet been proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this study, we calculated the CpG odds ratio of all RNA viruses that have available genome sequences and analyzed the correlation with their genome polarity, base composition, synonymous codon usage, phylogenetic relationship, and host. The results indicated that the viral base composition, synonymous codon usage and host selection were the dominant f...

  19. Network usage profiling for applications on the Android smart phone

    OpenAIRE

    Egnell, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Android, a platform for smartphones and mobile devices, is becoming more and more present in the market. Nevertheless, the battery runtime of smartphones is short and strongly influenced by the network usage. Some proposals exist to reduce the energy consumption associated to the network usage and increase the smartphone runtime. But for adjusting them for a real improvement it is required to study the network utilisation triggered by the smartphone applications. With this analysis the applic...

  20. Teachers' and parents' views on the Internet and social media usage by pupils with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Martin; Sorbring, Emma; Löfgren-Mårtenson, Lotta

    2015-03-01

    This article reports experiences from a Swedish study, discussing teachers' and parents' views on how young people with intellectual disabilities use the Internet and social media. Five semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with teachers (n = 8) in special programmes in upper secondary schools for pupils with intellectual disabilities and parents (n = 5) of pupils in the same form of schooling, and they were analysed with thematic analysis. Teachers more strongly emphasize a pupil's use of the Internet for interactive purposes. Parents had expectations that the Internet could be a tool for gaining more awareness of one's own disability and a way to meet other peer group pupils. Teachers' and parents' perspectives on the Internet and social media usage are important since it is imperative to show how support can be provided for young people with intellectual disabilities. PMID:25524596

  1. Exploration of English Idioms about Fruit and the Frequent Usage in Different Language Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Jiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available English idioms are commonly found in the oral and written English, which are quite vivid, concise and carried with a large amount of information. It makes up the major part of English language. In English idioms, fruit ones are a unique expression, which are widely accepted and applied in the daily life of English-speaking countries and carried with heavy cultural connotations. This study made an exploration of the historical origins of English idioms about fruit based on Greek mythology and Bible of Christianity. Besides, it made a detailed analysis of their frequent usage from the perspective of daily life. With the deeper understanding of culture of English-speaking countries, there will be gradually enhanced skills of interpersonal communication between different cultures.

  2. A machine learning approach for detecting cell phone usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Beilei; Loce, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    Cell phone usage while driving is common, but widely considered dangerous due to distraction to the driver. Because of the high number of accidents related to cell phone usage while driving, several states have enacted regulations that prohibit driver cell phone usage while driving. However, to enforce the regulation, current practice requires dispatching law enforcement officers at road side to visually examine incoming cars or having human operators manually examine image/video records to identify violators. Both of these practices are expensive, difficult, and ultimately ineffective. Therefore, there is a need for a semi-automatic or automatic solution to detect driver cell phone usage. In this paper, we propose a machine-learning-based method for detecting driver cell phone usage using a camera system directed at the vehicle's front windshield. The developed method consists of two stages: first, the frontal windshield region localization using the deformable part model (DPM), next, we utilize Fisher vectors (FV) representation to classify the driver's side of the windshield into cell phone usage violation and non-violation classes. The proposed method achieved about 95% accuracy with a data set of more than 100 images with drivers in a variety of challenging poses with or without cell phones.

  3. The relationship between codon usage bias and cold resistant genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is based on synonymous codon usage which has been well-known as a feature that affects typical expression level of protein in an organism. Different organisms prefer different codons for same amino acid and this is called Codon Usage Bias (CUB). The codon usage directly affects the level or even direction of changes in protein expression in responses to environmental stimuli. Cold stress is a major abiotic factor that limits the agricultural productivity of plants. In the recent study CUB has been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana cold resistant and housekeeping genes and their homologs in rice (Oryza sativa) to understand the cold stress and housekeeping genes relation with CUB. Six cold resistant and three housekeeping genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and their homologs in rice, were subjected to CUB analysis. The three cold resistant genes (DREB1B, RCI and MYB15) showed more than 50% (52%, 61% and 66% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. On the other hand three cold resistant genes (MPK3, ICE1 and ZAT12) showed less than 50% (38%, 38% and 47% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. The three housekeeping genes (Actin, Tubulin and Ubiquitin) showed 76% similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. This study will help to manage the plant gene expression through codon optimization under the cold stress. (author)

  4. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith was prepared. • The monolith was used as the extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The SCSE–AMIIDB can extract benzimidazole anthelmintics (BAs) effectively. • A combination of SCSE–AMIIDB–LD–HPLC/DAD was developed. • The combination was applied to monitor trace BAs in water, milk and honey samples. - Abstract: In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE–AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE–AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE–AMIIDB–HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for target compounds were 0.020–0.072 μg L−1, 0.035–0.10 μg L−1 and 0.026–0.076 μg L−1 in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII–SCSE–HPLC/DAD method was

  5. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yulei [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhang, Jie [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Huang, Xiaojia, E-mail: hxj@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yuan, Dongxing [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • A new polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith was prepared. • The monolith was used as the extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The SCSE–AMIIDB can extract benzimidazole anthelmintics (BAs) effectively. • A combination of SCSE–AMIIDB–LD–HPLC/DAD was developed. • The combination was applied to monitor trace BAs in water, milk and honey samples. - Abstract: In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE–AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE–AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE–AMIIDB–HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for target compounds were 0.020–0.072 μg L{sup −1}, 0.035–0.10 μg L{sup −1} and 0.026–0.076 μg L{sup −1} in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII

  6. Determining the Degree of Anthelmintic Resistance against Macrocyclic Lactones in Small Strongylus, Based on the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA in Horses from Grasslands in the Department of Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Alonso Prada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the grasslands of the Department of Casanare, seeking to determine the degree of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance against macrocyclic lactones in small populations of Strongylus in this region of the country. Samples were taken from four municipalities in the department: Aguazul, Paz de Ariporo, Maní and El Yopal, between June, 2006 and April, 2007, where ten fresh fecal samples were collected in each municipality, directly from the field and in a completely random way. The samples were processed using the MacMaster coprological technique, thus determining the highest count of fecal epg by municipality. L3 larvae were extracted from each of the six samples with the highest count of fecal epg through the coprological and Baermann-Wetzel tests with which the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA test was run, detecting Small Strongylus highly susceptible to the action of macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin.

  7. Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

  8. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  9. Smartphone usage among ROTU and its relationship towards study performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan, Muhammad Fazrul Ilahi Mohd; Roslan, Mohamad Amri; Rahman, Rosshairy Abd

    2015-12-01

    Reserve Officer Training Unit (ROTU) is a cooperation program between the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Higher Education for undergraduate students in public university. ROTU is known for its tight training schedule which might lead to limited learning time. The usage of smartphone with various applications might assist them in their learning activities. Therefore, this study aims to discover the rate of smartphone usage among ROTU and then analyze the relationship of smartphone usage towards their study performance. The result shows that most of the ROTU students use smartphone for five to eight hours a day. No significant correlation between relationship of smartphone and study performance of ROTU students with very small positive relationship was recorded. The result reflects that the frequent use of smartphone applications among ROTU students could not significantly help them in the study. However, further study need to be carried out since this paper does not specifically focus on each type of application. Therefore, for future research, usage rate for each application is also needed to be discovered so that the usage impact for ROTU study performance on each application can be seen clearly.

  10. Synonymous Codon Usage Analysis of Thirty Two Mycobacteriophage Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synonymous codon usage of protein coding genes of thirty two completely sequenced mycobacteriophage genomes was studied using multivariate statistical analysis. One of the major factors influencing codon usage is identified to be compositional bias. Codons ending with either C or G are preferred in highly expressed genes among which C ending codons are highly preferred over G ending codons. A strong negative correlation between effective number of codons (Nc and GC3s content was also observed, showing that the codon usage was effected by gene nucleotide composition. Translational selection is also identified to play a role in shaping the codon usage operative at the level of translational accuracy. High level of heterogeneity is seen among and between the genomes. Length of genes is also identified to influence the codon usage in 11 out of 32 phage genomes. Mycobacteriophage Cooper is identified to be the highly biased genome with better translation efficiency comparing well with the host specific tRNA genes.

  11. MESUR: USAGE-BASED METRICS OF SCHOLARLY IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The evaluation of scholarly communication items is now largely a matter of expert opinion or metrics derived from citation data. Both approaches can fail to take into account the myriad of factors that shape scholarly impact. Usage data has emerged as a promising complement to existing methods o fassessment but the formal groundwork to reliably and validly apply usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact is lacking. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded MESUR project constitutes a systematic effort to define, validate and cross-validate a range of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact by creating a semantic model of the scholarly communication process. The constructed model will serve as the basis of a creating a large-scale semantic network that seamlessly relates citation, bibliographic and usage data from a variety of sources. A subsequent program that uses the established semantic network as a reference data set will determine the characteristics and semantics of a variety of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact. This paper outlines the architecture and methodology adopted by the MESUR project and its future direction.

  12. P-value based visualization of codon usage data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fricke Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two important and not yet solved problems in bacterial genome research are the identification of horizontally transferred genes and the prediction of gene expression levels. Both problems can be addressed by multivariate analysis of codon usage data. In particular dimensionality reduction methods for visualization of multivariate data have shown to be effective tools for codon usage analysis. We here propose a multidimensional scaling approach using a novel similarity measure for codon usage tables. Our probabilistic similarity measure is based on P-values derived from the well-known chi-square test for comparison of two distributions. Experimental results on four microbial genomes indicate that the new method is well-suited for the analysis of horizontal gene transfer and translational selection. As compared with the widely-used correspondence analysis, our method did not suffer from outlier sensitivity and showed a better clustering of putative alien genes in most cases.

  13. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  14. Retour sur la logique de l’usage

    OpenAIRE

    Perriault, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Publié il y a vingt-cinq ans, l’ouvrage « La logique de l’usage » a connu un succès important dans les recherches portant sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication. Néanmoins, ce succès s’est souvent traduit par une assimilation à la sociologie des usages, dont l’ouvrage se distingue pourtant fortement. L’entretien, reposant sur le travail de retour sur les textes majeurs des SIC s’étant intéressés à la technique entrepris dans le séminaire Usages des Dispositifs Sociotechn...

  15. Usage of industrial robots in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan is now at the top level in the world in robot technology.Its application to nuclear power field is one of the most expected. However, their usage spreads over various types of nuclear power plants, their manufacture and operation, and other areas such as fuel reprocessing plants and reactor plant decommissioning. The robots as used for the operation of BWR nuclear power plants, already developed and under development, are described: features in the nuclear-power usage of robots, the robots used currently for automatic fuel exchange, the replacement of control rod drives and in-service inspection; the robots under development for travelling inspection device and the inspection of main steam-relief safety valves, future development of robots. By robot usage, necessary personnel, work period and radiation exposure can be greatly reduced, and safety and reliability are also raised. (Mori, K.)

  16. Binary Particle Swarm Optimization based Biclustering of Web usage Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bagyamani, R Rathipriya K Thangavel J

    2011-01-01

    Web mining is the nontrivial process to discover valid, novel, potentially useful knowledge from web data using the data mining techniques or methods. It may give information that is useful for improving the services offered by web portals and information access and retrieval tools. With the rapid development of biclustering, more researchers have applied the biclustering technique to different fields in recent years. When biclustering approach is applied to the web usage data it automatically captures the hidden browsing patterns from it in the form of biclusters. In this work, swarm intelligent technique is combined with biclustering approach to propose an algorithm called Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) based Biclustering for Web Usage Data. The main objective of this algorithm is to retrieve the global optimal bicluster from the web usage data. These biclusters contain relationships between web users and web pages which are useful for the E-Commerce applications like web advertising and marketin...

  17. Infobutton usage in Patient Portal MyHealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Hulse, Nathan C.; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Infobuttons have proven to be an important element in modern electronic health records (EHR), providing educational materials to both providers and patients. However, the usage of infobuttons in personalized health records (PHR) is only lightly documented in the literature. Patient-facing infobuttons pose a new challenge because patients have different questions and educational levels than professional users in EHRs. In this paper, we present usage data for patient-facing infobuttons that have recently been integrated in Intermountain Healthcare’s patient portal MyHealth. We summarize use patterns by usage classified in modules, electronic resources (eResource), and infobutton sessions. Based on the analysis, we propose further enhancements to the current implementation of infobuttons in MyHealth. PMID:26306251

  18. Study on online community user motif using web usage mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphy, Meera; Sharma, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    The Web usage mining is the application of data mining, which is used to extract useful information from the online community. The World Wide Web contains at least 4.73 billion pages according to Indexed Web and it contains at least 228.52 million pages according Dutch Indexed web on 6th august 2015, Thursday. It’s difficult to get needed data from these billions of web pages in World Wide Web. Here is the importance of web usage mining. Personalizing the search engine helps the web user to identify the most used data in an easy way. It reduces the time consumption; automatic site search and automatic restore the useful sites. This study represents the old techniques to latest techniques used in pattern discovery and analysis in web usage mining from 1996 to 2015. Analyzing user motif helps in the improvement of business, e-commerce, personalisation and improvement of websites.

  19. On the evolution of word usage of classical Chinese poetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchy of classical Chinese poetry has been broadly acknowledged by a number of studies in Chinese literature. However, quantitative investigations about the evolution of classical Chinese poetry are limited. The primary goal of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of the evolutionary linkages, with emphasis on word usage, among different period genres for classical Chinese poetry. Specifically, various statistical analyses were performed to find and compare the patterns of word usage in the poems of nine period genres, including shi jing, chu ci, Han shi , Jin shi, Tang shi, Song shi, Yuan shi, Ming shi, and Qing shi. The result of analysis indicates that each of nine period genres has unique patterns of word usage, with some Chinese characters being preferably used by the poems of a particular period genre. The analysis on the general pattern of word preference implies a decreasing trend in the use of ancient Chinese characters along the timeline of dynastic types of classical Chinese poetr...

  20. Incremental Web Usage Mining Based on Active Ant Colony Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jie; LIN Ying; CHEN Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    To alleviate the scalability problem caused by the increasing Web using and changing users' interests, this paper presents a novel Web Usage Mining algorithm-Incremental Web Usage Mining algorithm based on Active Ant Colony Clustering. Firstly, an active movement strategy about direction selection and speed, different with the positive strategy employed by other Ant Colony Clustering algorithms, is proposed to construct an Active Ant Colony Clustering algorithm, which avoid the idle and "flying over the plane" moving phenomenon, effectively improve the quality and speed of clustering on large dataset. Then a mechanism of decomposing clusters based on above methods is introduced to form new clusters when users' interests change. Empirical studies on a real Web dataset show the active ant colony clustering algorithm has better performance than the previous algorithms, and the incremental approach based on the proposed mechanism can efficiently implement incremental Web usage mining.

  1. Psychosocial correlates of condom usage in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2, Cynthia G Francis1, Maxwell S Williams3, Neva South-Bourne1, Samuel McDaniel31Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, 2375 Jerome Avenue, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Kingston, JamaicaAbstract: This study examines the psychosocial factors accounting for condom usage during the last sexual episode for males, females, and the general population aged 15–49 years, and the psychosocial factors accounting for frequency of condom usage in Jamaica. Logistic regression models were estimated using data collected in 2004 by the Jamaica Ministry of Health. Sixty-nine percent of the sample indicated that they had used a condom in the past, but only 31% reported that they had always used a condom in the previous 12 months, compared with 16.5% who reported “most times”, 21.4% who reported “sometimes”, and 31% who reported “never”. Five variables emerged as statistically significant factors for the last time males used a condom (χ2 = 128.76, P < 0.001, four variables for females (χ2 = 75.45, P < 0.001, and five variables for the general population (χ2 = 200.84, P < 0.001. The three most significant factors which correlated with frequency of condom usage in the previous 12 months with a current partner, in descending order, were condom usage during the first act of sexual intercourse with a current sexual partner, self-efficacy, and marital status. These findings are discussed within the general context of understanding condom usage, frequency of condom usage among Jamaicans, and how these can aid public health intervention programs.Keywords: condom use, sexual behavior, psychosocial factors, public health

  2. Gender-specific selection on codon usage in plant genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krochko Joan E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is little data available regarding the role of gender-specific gene expression on synonymous codon usage (translational selection in most organisms, and particularly plants. Using gender-specific EST libraries (with > 4000 ESTs from Zea mays and Triticum aestivum, we assessed whether gender-specific gene expression per se and gender-specific gene expression level are associated with selection on codon usage. Results We found clear evidence of a greater bias in codon usage for genes expressed in female than in male organs and gametes, based on the variation in GC content at third codon positions and the frequency of species-preferred codons. This finding holds true for both highly and for lowly expressed genes. In addition, we found that highly expressed genes have greater codon bias than lowly expressed genes for both female- and male-specific genes. Moreover, in both species, genes with female-specific expression show a greater usage of species-specific preferred codons for each of the 18 amino acids having synonymous codons. A supplemental analysis of Brassica napus suggests that bias in codon usage could also be higher in genes expressed in male gametophytic tissues than in heterogeneous (flower tissues. Conclusion This study reports gender-specific bias in codon usage in plants. The findings reported here, based on the analysis of 1 497 876 codons, are not caused either by differences in the biological functions of the genes or by differences in protein lengths, nor are they likely attributable to mutational bias. The data are best explained by gender-specific translational selection. Plausible explanations for these findings and the relevance to these and other organisms are discussed.

  3. USAGES – THE LEGAL REGIME IN NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIAN CIONGARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the broad sense, the concept of law is represented by totality of acts that are elaborated by competent state authorities and their purpose is legislating. There are juridical situations are outside the scope of regulation of legal norms and they are stipulated by the New Civil Code, namely the usages: which are defined, in the broad sense, as rules of conduct for a long time, born of social practice. If the law sanctioned any usage, by a rule of reference, giving them, as such obligatory legal power, they are sources of law and the legislator has provided, as is source of civil law, only usages which are in conformity to public order and morality. This problem there was no in the case of legal rules because, they themselves are created with the purpose of to generate the public order and morality. In the situations not covered by law, the usages have a greater force than that of the legal dispositions regarding similar situations, so the broad interpretation of the rules of civil law is made, in the cases which are not covered by the law, only if such an interpretation is not contrary to the usages. An analysis and understanding of the juridical status of usages representing: the customs and the local habits which is accepted by the members of that community as well as the professional uses, as rules of development of professional activities, may result in to perceive the legal force of their but also to reduce, on as much as possible, some potentials confusions of interpretation and application of the law.

  4. The mobile devices and its mobile learning usage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Jacob; Issac, B.

    2014-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices for mobile learning is becoming increasingly popular. There is a new brand of students in the universities now-a-days who are easily connected to technology and innovative mobile devices. We attempt to do an analysis on a survey done with university students on mobile device usage for mobile learning purposes. This is to find the learning trends within the student community so that some of these popular practices could be encouraged to enhance learning among the st...

  5. Genomic composition factors affect codon usage in porcine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, A K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the codon usage bias in the porcine genome and decipher its determinants. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of codon bias, the coding sequence (CDS) from the swine reference sequence (ssc10.2) was extracted using Biomart. An in house built Perl...... script was used to derive various genomic traits and codon indices. Analysis was done using R statistical package, and correlations and multivariate regressions were performed. We report the existence of codon usage bias that might suggest existence of weak translational selection. The codon bias is...... genomic sequences thus maximizing the effectiveness of genetic manipulations in synthetic biology...

  6. Dynamic usage of transcription start sites within core promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Frith, Martin C; Katayama, Shintaro;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammalian promoters do not initiate transcription at single, well defined base pairs, but rather at multiple, alternative start sites spread across a region. We previously characterized the static structures of transcription start site usage within promoters at the base pair level......, based on large-scale sequencing of transcript 5' ends. RESULTS: In the present study we begin to explore the internal dynamics of mammalian promoters, and demonstrate that start site selection within many mouse core promoters varies among tissues. We also show that this dynamic usage of start sites is...

  7. A Survey on Preprocessing Methods for Web Usage Data

    OpenAIRE

    V.Chitraa; Dr. Antony Selvdoss Davamani

    2010-01-01

    World Wide Web is a huge repository of web pages and links. It provides abundance of information for the Internet users. The growth of web is tremendous as approximately one million pages are added daily. Users' accesses are recorded in web logs. Because of the tremendous usage of web, the web log files are growing at a faster rate and the size is becoming huge. Web data mining is the application of data mining techniques in web data. Web Usage Mining applies mining techniques in log data to ...

  8. E-MAIL USAGE BEHAVIOR AT WORK: THE PORTUGUESE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Filipe Cerqueira Quaresma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available E-mail is one of the most used information and communication technologies by organizations. This technology has an enormous potential to transform the way organizations and their processes work. E-mail can speed-up processes and transaction, facilitate information exchange, improve quality, increase employees speed and productivity, and strengthen the relationship with stakeholders. The present paper analysis e-mail usage behavior at work, through empirical data collected in Portugal. The majority of users reveal adequate e-mail usage behavior, in spite of some situations that might prove to be problematic to organizations.

  9. Impact of Imbalance Usage of Social Networking Sites on Families

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Anika; Ahmed, Ishrat; Hashem, Tanzima; Mahmud, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    With the proliferation of social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook and Google+, investigating the impact of SNSs on our lives has become an important research area in recent years. Though SNS usage plays a key role in connecting people with friends and families from distant places, SNSs also bring concern for families. We focus on imbalance SNS usage, i.e., an individual remains busy in using SNSs when her family member is expecting to spend time with her. More specifically, we investi...

  10. Développement professionnel. Variations et usages sur Internet.

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Daniel; Ortiz, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    La question de départ interroge les variations et usages observables sur l'Internet du concept de « développement professionnel » dans des productions sociales diverses : chartres d'entreprise, offres de service, programmes de formation, articles de presse, textes réglementaires, communications scientifiques… L'objectif opérationnel est de caractériser les univers de référence sémantique des usages et d'analyser leurs correspondances pour mettre à jour l'acception du concept de développement ...

  11. Relationship between Media Usage and Skills Development of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zorofi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the relationship between media usage and social skills development of students. It also suggests that students' abilities can be illustrated as a result of their using internet and other. This research has been done by using survey method based on SSRS questionnaire. The sample size includes 324 students in North West of Iran, who were chosen by random method. The results shown there are strongly correlations between three aspects of social skills and media usage. Media use helps the growth of Assertiveness, Overconfident and Withdrawal skills among students

  12. Constructional change, paradigmatic structure and the orientation of usage processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, Lars

    2014-01-01

    strategy different from a description in terms of prototypicality, but compatible with it. The identification of changes in the paradigmatic organisation of constructions is a precondition for identifying and interpreting the changes we observe in usage. In a concluding example, the reanalyses of the verbs...... bebrejde ‘reproach’ and gifte sig ‘marry’ are compared, and two kinds of usage processes (actualisation processes) are identified: (1) actualisation processes that are a consequence of structural change in the sense of reanalysis, and (2) processes of redistribution which, in the present case, move verb...

  13. Context-Aware Usage-Based Grid Authorization Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yongquan; HONG Fan; FU Cai

    2006-01-01

    Due to inherent heterogeneity, multi-domain characteristic and highly dynamic nature, authorization is a critical concern in grid computing. This paper proposes a general authorization and access control architecture, grid usage control (GUCON), for grid computing. It's based on the next generation access control mechanism usage control (UCON) model. The GUCON Framework dynamic grants and adapts permission to the subject based on a set of contextual information collected from the system environments; while retaining the authorization by evaluating access requests based on subject attributes, object attributes and requests. In general, GUCON model provides very flexible approaches to adapt the dynamically security request. GUCON model is being implemented in our experiment prototype.

  14. Performance and competence in usage-based construction grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    section of the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The present study takes into account empirically observed internal and external patterns of usage in the description of this linguistic phenomenon, providing a usage-based constructional overview of the competence pertaining to this construction. The...... purpose of the present study is thus two-fold, aiming to provide a communicatively plausible account of this particular phenomenon and to show that, indeed, no satisfactory description of the construction which ignores performance-based data would be possible, as the construction itself is very much...

  15. Employers' perceptions of Black South African English usage / Henrietta Ntombi Tlaka

    OpenAIRE

    Tlaka, Henrietta Ntombi

    2001-01-01

    The common usage of Black South African English (BSAE) forms the main focus of this study. Its usage by members of the black population has caused a major debate on language standards and usage, and acceptance of BSAE as a variety of English. The purpose of this study was to establish employers' perceptions of BSAE usage by employees (and prospective employees). The employers' preferences, views on re-standardisation of English and the usage of English in South Africa were established. ...

  16. Antihelmínticos como factor de riesgo en la obstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides en niños Anthelmintics as a risk factor of the intestinal obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in children

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Vásquez Tsuji; Pedro Gutiérrez Castrellón; Marco Antonio Yamazaki Nakashimada; Juan Carlos Arredondo Suárez; Teresita Campos Rivera; Ignacio Martínez Barbosa

    2000-01-01

    In a retrospective study the authors analyzed the clinical records of 199 children ages one month to 16 years hospitalized, with the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis, in the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria of Mexico from 1984 to 1999. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of anthelmintics drugs as a risk factor of intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides. Two groups were made for the study: Group A (n=66) of children who presented intestinal obstruction, Group B (n=133) children...

  17. Gastrointestinal nematodes (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in cattle (Bos taurus), moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway. The effect of anthelmintic treatment in relation to a possible cross-infection.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered to be a problem in domestic cattle, and various studies have tried to present reasons for and solutions to this problem. A study was conducted in Southern Norway in order to examine whether anthelmintic treatment in cattle is adequate and to investigate if wild cervids like moose and roe deer should be considered as a reservoir for nematode parasites in cattle. The results showed that egg output from cattle was low, which together with ...

  18. Design patterns for recording and analysing usage of learning systems: State of art of tracking and analysing usage

    OpenAIRE

    David, Jean-Pierre; Adam, Jean-Michel; Diagne, Fatoumata; Lejeune, Anne; Luengo, Vanda; Pernin, Jean-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a state of art according to three aspects: use analysis in a wide point of view, tracking and analysing usages and what's on Design Pattern. The objective of this state of art is to synthetise actual works about tracking and analysing usages in order to isolate possibilities of patterns, that's the aim of DPULSE Jeirp. The work on the state of art has been organised as a collaborative task of the DPLUS members. A lot of papers and projects on this topic have been studie...

  19. Usage of patriotic motives in promotion of products in markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhkova Viktoriia Viktorivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the patriotic motives essence in the appeals of manufacturers has been analyzed; the classification of means, which can be used in the appeals with patriotic implication, has been proposed; the directions of justification of expediency of patriotic motives usage for manufacturers have been defined.

  20. Codon usage determines translation rate in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Kurland, C G; Pedersen, Steen

    1989-01-01

    We wish to determine whether differences in translation rate are correlated with differences in codon usage or with differences in mRNA secondary structure. We therefore inserted a small DNA fragment in the lacZ gene either directly or flanked by a few frame-shifting bases, leaving the reading fr...

  1. Performance and competence in usage-based construction grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    While formalist approaches in the Chomskian tradition to language distinguish sharply between performance and competence in their modeling of language competence, performance and competence are considered to be in a mutually influential relation in usage-based models of language. Language compete...... defined by external properties such as specific genre and register affiliations and a quite specific communicative function....

  2. Persona Usage in Software Development: Advantages and Obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Jane; Stage, Jan; Nielsen, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    either not using the technique or for poor application of it. The study showed that 55% of the respondents had never heard about Personas. Among those who had heard about the Personas technique, the following obstacles towards usage of the technique were identified: Lack of knowledge of the technique...

  3. Accelerated Peer-Review Journal Usage Technique for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    The internet has given undergraduate students ever-increasing access to academic journals via search engines and online databases. However, students typically do not have the ability to use these journals effectively. This often poses a dilemma for instructors. The accelerated peer-review journal usage (APJU) technique provides a way for…

  4. Safety belt usage in Finland and in other Nordic countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtonen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Legislation has played a significant role in increasing safety belt usage in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. Publicity and enforcement have, however, been required to support the legislation. The development of safety belt regulations has been nearly similar in all these countries, both i

  5. 1991 National campaign to increase safety belt usage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA

    1992-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is the national campaign of the USA to be conducted in 1991 and 1992, in order to reach the goal of 70 percent safety belt usage by 1992. Among other things, it is shown that visible enforcement of existing laws offers the greatest potential for achieving this goal. F

  6. Efficient Web Usage Miner Using Decisive Induction Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sathiyabama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Web usage mining is the technique of extracting useful information from server logs (user’s history and finding out what users are looking for on the Internet. This type of web mining allows for the collection of Web access data for Web pages. Scope: The web usage data provides the paths leading to accessed Web pages with prefrences and higher priorities. This information is often gathered automatically into access logs through the Web server. Approach: In this study we propose Induction based decision rule model for generating inferences and implicit hidden behavioral aspects in the web usage mining which investigates at the web server and client logs. The decision based rule induction mining combines a fast decision rule induction algorithm and a method for converting a decision tree to a simplified rule set. Results: The experimentation is conducted by weka tool and the performance of proposed Induction based decision rule algorithm is evaluated in terms of mined decisive rules, Execution time, root mean square error and mean absolute error. Proposed induction rule mining needs 400 ms of execution time for decisive rule generation, whereas previous work expectation maximization algorithm needs 600ms. Conclusion: Web usage mining is evaluated with decisive rules of user page navigation and preferences. Decisive rule provide the web site developers and owners to known the site presentation likeness and demands of the web users.

  7. Ontology Based Navigation Pattern Mining For Efficient Web Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothi Venkateswaran C.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Users of the web have their own areas of interest. Given the tremendous growth of the web, it is very difficult to redirect the users to their page of interest. Web usage mining techniques can be applied to study the users navigational behaviours based on their previous visit data. These user navigational patterns can be extracted and used for web personalization or web site reorganization recommendations. Web usage mining techniques do not use the semantic knowledge of the web site for such navigational pattern discovery. But, if ontology is applied along with web usage techniques, it can improve the quality of the detected patterns. This research work aims to design a framework that integrates semantic knowledge with web usage mining process that generates the refined website ontology that recommends personalization of web. As the web pages are seen as ontology individuals, the user navigational behaviours over a certain period are considered as the user expected ontology refinement. The user profiles and the web site ontology are compared and the variation between the two is proposed as the new refined web site ontology. The web site ontology has been semi-automatically built and evolves through the adaptation procedure. The result of implementation of this recommendation system indicates that integrating semantic information and page access patterns yield more accurate recommendations.

  8. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  9. Time factors associated with CT scan usage in trauma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.P. Fung Kon Jin; A.R. van Geene; K.F. Linnau; G.J. Jurkovich; K.J. Ponsen; J.C. Goslings

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: While computed tomography (CT) scan usage in acute trauma patients is currently part of the standard complete diagnostic workup, little is known regarding the time factors involved when CT scanning is added to the standard workup. An analysis of the current time factors and intervals i

  10. Multimedia Usage among Islamic Education Lecturers at Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Mohd Isa; Rinaldi; Razak, Khadijah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the level of multimedia usage among Islamic education lecturers at higher education institutions in West Sumatera, Indonesia. The participants were chosen from three types of higher institutions by using stratified random sampling. The data was collected from 250 students using questionnaires. The findings showed that…

  11. E-COMMERCE USAGE IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR OF ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngonidzashe Zanamwe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explored the use of e-commerce in the pharmaceutical sector of Zimbabwe. More specifically, it looked at e-commerce technologies being used in the sector, uses of e-commerce technologies, usage level of e-commerce technologies, benefits and barriers of e-commerce usage. The study followed an exploratory research design wherein a questionnaire was used as the main research tool. Data was gathered from 33 pharmaceutical companies and analysed using SPSS. It was found out that slightly more than 50 percent of pharm aceutical companies had websites. Also, most popular uses of e-commerce tech nologies were e-mailing, gener ation of direct sales, provision of customer service and support, price comparison, purchasing and ordering and internal communications. In addition, the World Wide Web and instant messaging emerged as the most widely used technologies in the sector. The benefits of e- commerce usage identified include provision of high quality information needed for business operations, increasing interdepartm ental and inter-organisational coordination which leads to increased productivity. Las tly, the cost of e-commerce technology equipment, absence of a company’s website, complexity of e-commerce technologies and privacy related issues came out as the strongest e-commerce usage barriers in the sector.

  12. Educating Students about the Risks of Excessive Videogame Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Deirdre; Welsh, Sarah; Chambliss, Catherine

    The relationship between videogame usage, active exercise, television viewing, and measures of blood pressure is explored. Videogame participation, especially playing sports or action games, simulates involvement in aggressive situations. This may activate the fight or flight response in players. This response has been associated with blood…

  13. Pre Service Teachers' Usage of Dynamic Mathematics Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Mehmet; Bulut, Neslihan

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study is about mathematics education and dynamic mathematics software. Dynamic mathematics software provides new opportunities for using both computer algebra system and dynamic geometry software. GeoGebra selected as dynamic mathematics software in this research. In this study, it is investigated that what is the usage of pre service…

  14. Tobacco usage interacts with postdisaster psychopathology on circadian salivary cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Olff; M.L. Meewisse; R.J. Kleber; P.G. van der Velden; A.N. Drogendijk; J.G.C. van Amsterdam; A. Opperhuizen; B.P.R. Gersons

    2006-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been associated with increased rates of tobacco usage as well as with dysregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. At the same time tobacco also affects the HPA axis. This paper examines the relationshi

  15. Tobacco usage interacts with postdisaster psychopathology on circadian salivary cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, M.; Meewisse, M.L.; Kleber, R.J.; Velden, P.G. van der; Drogendijk, A.N.; Amsterdam, J.G.C. van; Opperhuizen, A.; Gersons, B.P.R.

    2006-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been associated with increased rates of tobacco usage as well as with dysregulations of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. At the same time tobacco also affects the HPA axis. This paper examines the relationshi

  16. Management Accounting Information Usage in the Product Oriented Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pýchová, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with management accouning importancy, its principles and methods, especially in terms of usage of information extracted from the management accounting system for product oriented management, particularly for purposes of costing. The problem is at first viewed from the theoretical point and then the knowledge is applied on a real problem that occured in a company.

  17. Prototyping service discovery and usage in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are envisioned to provide different types of services in an open and dynamic environment. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a service discovery and usage solution for heterogeneous WSNs. The users have the possibility to di

  18. LISINOPRIL USAGE IN CARDIOLOGIC PRACTICE: DATA OF EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Kutishenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data of multicenter clinical trials on assessment of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril efficacy in therapy of patients with arterial hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction complicated with left ventricle dysfunction and diabetes (GISSI-3, ATLAS, ALLHAT, EUCLID are presented in the review. The results of these trials establish more active usage of lisinopril in clinical practice.

  19. Issues of ICT Usage among Malaysian Secondary School English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Arumugam; Mohamed, Abdul Halim

    2013-01-01

    This study explored on perception, usage and obstacles of using ICT in teaching English Language among secondary school English teachers. The advancement of technology has given a space for teachers to boost teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools. It is believed that integration of ICT could enhance quality of teaching and…

  20. Investigating Students' Usage and Acceptance of Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieche, Susan; Krey, Birte; Bastiaens, Theo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate students' usage and acceptance of electronic books. Factors correlating with students' attitude towards e-books were examined using the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw 1989). A questionnaire was administered online for students at University of Hagen. Results indicate…

  1. Electronic Book Usage: A Survey at the University of Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Clark, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the University of Denver's Penrose Library conducted a survey of its users to determine their degree of awareness of electronic books, how and why they use them, and their level of satisfaction with the format. It is clear from vendor-supplied usage statistics that electronic books are used, but it is not clear how or why…

  2. MULTILINGUAL TECHNOLOGY. SYSTEM ASPECTS OF ITS ORGANIZATION AND USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Karaseva, M.

    2009-01-01

    System aspects of multilingual adaptive-training technology organization and usage to train multilingual vocabulary are considered. Information vocabulary support of the technology is presented. Its realization is directed at the architectural layer of rules primary, corresponded to the functions of adaptive-training model and multilingual term basis.

  3. On Maximizing Journal Article Access, Usage and Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2005-01-01

    To maximise journal article access, usage and impact, their authors need to make them openly accessible by self-archiving them in their own institutional repository. Self-archive articles have 50%-250% more citations. Institutions need to require self-archiving as a matter of policy.

  4. Consumer-Centered Extension Education Website Increases Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franics, Sarah L.; Martin, Peggy; Taylor, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Concern about young families' ability to cope with rising food prices resulted in creating Spend Smart. Eat Smart (SSES), a website focused on budget-friendly nutrition information for limited resource audiences (LRA). SSES was redesigned using LRAs needs and preferences to increase use by LRAs. SSES usage increased after it was revised to…

  5. Social Media Usage: Examination of Influencers and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stoney L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with investigating topics surrounding the phenomenon of social media usage. Essay One draws from the technology acceptance literature by utilizing concepts from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), and the model of hedonic technology acceptance. The…

  6. Radiologists' Usage of Social Media : Results of the RANSOM Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranschaert, Erik R.; Van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; McGinty, Geraldine B.; Parizel, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    The growing use of social media is transforming the way health care professionals (HCPs) are communicating. In this changing environment, it could be useful to outline the usage of social media by radiologists in all its facets and on an international level. The main objective of the RANSOM survey w

  7. Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Chlamydia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui L(ü); Wei-Ming ZHAO; Yan ZHENG; Hong WANG; Mei QI; Xiu-Ping YU

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause ocular and sexually transmitted diseases, and are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of codon usage may improve our understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of Chlamydia and allow reengineering of target genes to improve their expression for gene therapy. Here, we analyzed the codon usage of C. muridarum, C.trachomatis (here indicating biovar trachoma and LGV), C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the codon usage database and the CUSP (Create a codon usage table) program of EMBOSS (The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite). The results show that the four genomes have similar codon usage patterns,with a strong bias towards the codons with A and T at the third codon position. Compared with Homo sapiens, the four chlamydial species show discordant seven or eight preferred codons. The ENC (effective number of codons used in a gene)-plot reveals that the genetic heterogeneity in Chlamydia is constrained by the G+C content, while translational selection and gene length exert relatively weaker influences. Moreover,mutational pressure appears to be the major determinant of the codon usage variation among the chlamydial genes. In addition, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of E. coli, yeast,adenovirus and Homo sapiens. There are 23 codons showing distinct usage differences between C. trachomatis and E. coli, 24 between C. trachomatis and adenovirus, 21 between C. trachomatis and Homo sapiens, but only six codons between C. trachomatis and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of chlamydial genes. Finally, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of six eukaryotes, eight prokaryotes and 23 viruses. There is a strong positive correlation between the differences in coding GC content and the variations in codon bias (r=0.905, P<0.001). We conclude that the variation of codon bias

  8. INFOTAINMENT PERSPECTIVE OF INTERNET USAGE AMONG POST GRADUATE STUDENTS IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    T. Enok Joel; T. Arockia Sagayaraj

    2016-01-01

    Everyone needs information about everything in day-to-day life. People, right from the organizational level to the personal level, from the highly educated and experienced person to school children, require information for taking the right decision for everything in life. Modern society incessantly produces and uses information. Information touches all human activity and is communicated in a multitude of ways, which includes speech, pictures, video, text, etc. Today, it is passed from one ind...

  9. Aramid-silicon laminated materials with special properties – new perspective of its usage

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Pusz; A. J. Nowak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Development of the manufacturing technology of aramid-silicon laminated material.Design/methodology/approach: Aramid-silicon laminated material was made by method of manual formation of laminates, that is impregnation of reinforcement with matrix, to hardening silicone process using hardening methods connect with hot. Created material was being observed by using MEF4A light-microscope of Leica company at 25-500x magnification.Findings: The results show that the preliminary manufactur...

  10. RECENT POTENTIAL USAGE OF SURFACTANT FROM MICROBIAL ORIGIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ARENA: A PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Rath Kalyani; Mishra Bishwambhar; Vuppu Suneetha

    2011-01-01

    The use and potential commercial application of biosurfactant has increased during the past decade which can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting and foaming agents, functional food ingredients and as detergents in petroleum, petrochemicals, environmental management, agrochemicals, foods and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and in the mining and metallurgical industries. Their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities make them relevant molecules for applications i...

  11. Perspectives for Titanium-Derived Fillers Usage on Denture Base Composite Construction: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal W. Elshereksi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA is an extensively used material in dentistry because of its aesthetics, processability, and reparability. However, PMMA is still far from being ideal in fulfilling the mechanical requirements of prosthesis. PMMA-based denture base polymers exhibit low fracture resistance and radiopacity behavior. Efforts to improve the mechanical and radiopacity properties of denture base materials through inclusion of silica-based fillers are ongoing. Although silane-treated siliceous fillers are commonly used, they are not sufficiently strong. They also exhibit cracks, which either cut through the glass fillers or propagate around the filler particles. This defect occurs when the dental composites are placed in aqueous oral environment because of the hydrolytic degradation of silica-based fillers and silane-coupling agents. The clinical problem of using silanes in adhesion promotion is bond degradation over time in oral environment. In addition, silanes do not bond effectively to nonsilica-based dental restorative materials. This review presents titanium-derived fillers as alternatives to siliceous fillers. Titanate-coupling agents are found to be effective couplers in treating Ti-based fillers because of their chemical compatibility and relatively high stability in aqueous environment.

  12. Tenth Annual UCLA Survey of Business School Computer USage: A Global Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Frand, Jason L.; Britt, Julia A.; Ng, Alvin

    1993-01-01

    Business schools today are allocating a greater and greater portion of their overall budget to support information technology. When UCLA’s Anderson School first began its survey ten years ago, microcomputers were a rare commodity on college campuses. This year, the 180 schools responding reported an average of 239 microcomputers per school. This explosive growth represents a technological evolution of major proportion and creates an opportunity to change the nature of business education. ...

  13. Current Usage of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Practitioner's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Luke; Cochrane, Suzanne; Zhu, Xiaoshu

    2016-09-01

    Introduction This qualitative study seeks to explore the role within the context of Australian breast cancer oncology treatments that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners play in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods Semistructured interviews were used on 2 groups: the first group was TCM practitioners who were recognized experts in breast cancer, and the second group consisted of TCM practitioners who treated breast cancer as part of their practice but were not recognized experts. Data analysis was achieved through grounded theory with open coding. Results The main themes reported on here are the following: the role of TCM in the biomedical management of breast cancer, TCM strategies for the management of breast cancer, and the perceived holistic approach of the TCM practitioner and the importance of a TCM diagnosis in the role of breast cancer care. Discussion The role of TCM in biomedical breast cancer management is a supportive one; however, this role is difficult as there is a lack of understanding of TCM by biomedical practitioners. The viewpoints of practitioners differed on key strategies of TCM: diagnosis, and treatment protocols. Patients sought the holistic approach of TCM practitioners as they felt it addressed all aspects of their health and not just the symptoms relating to breast cancer. Conclusion The lack of an integrated medicine approach in relation to TCM makes it difficult to demonstrate the value of the contribution TCM can make to biomedicine in the field of breast care oncology. Effectiveness studies are needed that can accurately represent TCM in this field. PMID:26420777

  14. Tablet Usage From Teachers’ Perspectives In the Learning-Teaching Process

    OpenAIRE

    BARIŞ, Mehmet Fatih; BALKAŞ, Serdar Resul

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in education continue by depending on the developing conditions and technology. As in several countries, various projects are being implemented in Turkey, as well, in order to increase the quality of education. Foremost among these is the Project of Increasing Opportunities and Technology Improvement Movement (PIOTIM) (FATIH in Turkish). In this study, it was aimed that the views of the teachers (f=57) working in the high schools in Tekirdag where tablet PCs were delivered in 2014...

  15. INFOTAINMENT PERSPECTIVE OF INTERNET USAGE AMONG POST GRADUATE STUDENTS IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Enok Joel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Everyone needs information about everything in day-to-day life. People, right from the organizational level to the personal level, from the highly educated and experienced person to school children, require information for taking the right decision for everything in life. Modern society incessantly produces and uses information. Information touches all human activity and is communicated in a multitude of ways, which includes speech, pictures, video, text, etc. Today, it is passed from one individual to infinite users through a number of media and formats which enables rapid and widespread dissemination of information. New technologies bring us an unparalleled flood of information (Preeti Mahajan, 2006.

  16. Elucidating Usage of e-Government Learning: A Perspective of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Stacy Huey-Pyng; Huang, Jen-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Learning is critical to both economic prosperity and social cohesion. E-government learning, which refers to the government's use of web-based technologies to facilitate learning about subjects that are useful to citizens, is relatively new, relevant, and potentially cost-effective. This work proposes and verifies that the technology acceptance…

  17. Intercultural Usage of Mori Folium: Comparison Review from a Korean Medical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungjin Joh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. A review on studies related to the use of Mori folium, the leaves of Morus alba, was conducted with the goal of identifying new clinical applications in Korean medicine. Methods. Global literature search was conducted using three electronic databases up to January 2015 with the term Morus alba and its Korean terms. KM literatures including textbooks and standard pharmacopoeia were separately hand-searched and reviewed to provide comparison. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria, and clinical uses were standardized with ICD-10 categories. Results. 159 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 18 articles including 12 ethnopharmacologic and 6 clinical studies were finally included in this analysis. Ethnopharmacologic studies from 8 countries provided 17 clinical uses. We found that five out of six clinical trials were related to diabetes and suggested a moderate short-term to mild long-term effect. And 43 Korean texts also provided 156 clinical uses in 35 categories including ocular and respiratory disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. Though majority of the clinical uses were also found in Korean medicine literature, treatment of infertility, jaundice, cognitive disorder, and hyperpigmentation was found to be effective and diabetes with Morus alba was recognized to have clinical importance.

  18. Intercultural Usage of Mori Folium: Comparison Review from a Korean Medical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Byungjin Joh; Eun Sang Jeon; Su Hye Lim; Yu Lee Park; Wansu Park; Han Chae

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. A review on studies related to the use of Mori folium, the leaves of Morus alba, was conducted with the goal of identifying new clinical applications in Korean medicine. Methods. Global literature search was conducted using three electronic databases up to January 2015 with the term Morus alba and its Korean terms. KM literatures including textbooks and standard pharmacopoeia were separately hand-searched and reviewed to provide comparison. Data were extracted according to predete...

  19. Analysis of the relationship between genomic GC Content and patterns of base usage, codon usage and amino acid usage in prokaryotes: similar GC content adopts similar compositional frequencies regardless of the phylogenetic lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qi Zhou

    Full Text Available The GC contents of 2670 prokaryotic genomes that belong to diverse phylogenetic lineages were analyzed in this paper. These genomes had GC contents that ranged from 13.5% to 74.9%. We analyzed the distance of base frequencies at the three codon positions, codon frequencies, and amino acid compositions across genomes with respect to the differences in the GC content of these prokaryotic species. We found that although the phylogenetic lineages were remote among some species, a similar genomic GC content forced them to adopt similar base usage patterns at the three codon positions, codon usage patterns, and amino acid usage patterns. Our work demonstrates that in prokaryotic genomes: a base usage, codon usage, and amino acid usage change with GC content with a linear correlation; b the distance of each usage has a linear correlation with the GC content difference; and c GC content is more essential than phylogenetic lineage in determining base usage, codon usage, and amino acid usage. This work is exceptional in that we adopted intuitively graphic methods for all analyses, and we used these analyses to examine as many as 2670 prokaryotes. We hope that this work is helpful for understanding common features in the organization of microbial genomes.

  20. Problematic internet usage in US college students: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myaing Mon T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet addiction among US college students remains a concern, but robust estimates of its prevalence are lacking. Methods We conducted a pilot survey of 307 college students at two US universities. Participants completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT as well as the Patient Health Questionnaire. Both are validated measures of problematic Internet usage and depression, respectively. We assessed the association between problematic Internet usage and moderate to severe depression using a modified Poisson regression approach. In addition, we examined the associations between individual items in the IAT and depression. Results A total of 224 eligible respondents completed the survey (73% response rate. Overall, 4% of students scored in the occasionally problematic or addicted range on the IAT, and 12% had moderate to severe depression. Endorsement of individual problematic usage items ranged from 1% to 70%. In the regression analysis, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with several individual items. Relative risk could not be estimated for three of the twenty items because of small cell sizes. Of the remaining 17 items, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with 13 of them, and three others had P values less than 0.10. There was also a significant association between problematic Internet usage overall and moderate to severe depression (relative risk 24.07, 95% confidence interval 3.95 to 146.69; P = 0.001. Conclusion The prevalence of problematic Internet usage among US college students is a cause for concern, and potentially requires intervention and treatment amongst the most vulnerable groups. The prevalence reported in this study is lower than that which has been reported in other studies, however the at-risk population is very high and preventative measures are also recommended.